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1

Identifying common dynamic features in stock returns  

E-print Network

Identifying common dynamic features in stock returns Jorge Caiado and Nuno Crato CEMAPRE, Instituto This paper proposes volatility and spectral based methods for cluster analysis of stock returns. Using and the periodogram of the squared returns, we compute a distance matrix for the stock returns. Clusters are formed

Crato, Nuno

2

Key to Identifying Common Household Ants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short lucid key to 8 common household ant species with control strategies. The information presented is accurate and the key easy to use; ancillary pages are also useful. The key may present difficulties if other ant species are encountered or in other parts of the U.S.

0002-11-30

3

Endoplasmic reticulum retention is a common defect associated with tyrosinase-negative albinism  

E-print Network

the melanosome. Loss-of-function mutations in ty- rosinase are the cause of oculocutaneous albinism- doreductase, EC 1.14.18.1) are the cause of classic type I oculocutaneous albinism, an autosomal recessiveEndoplasmic reticulum retention is a common defect associated with tyrosinase-negative albinism

Hebert, Daniel N.

4

Common Somatic Alterations Identified in Maffucci Syndrome by Molecular Karyotyping  

PubMed Central

Maffucci syndrome (MS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by multiple central cartilaginous tumors (enchondromas) in association with cutaneous spindle cell hemangiomas. These patients have a high incidence of malignant transformation. No familial case is known and the etiopathogenic cause remains unknown. In enchondromatosis (Ollier disease, OD), which is comprised of enchondromas only, 4 mutations in the PTHR1 gene have been identified in 4 patients; 3 were somatic and 1 was germline. No PTHR1 mutations have been detected in MS, whereas somatic IDH1 and, more rarely, IDH2 mutations have been observed in 77% of patients with MS and 81% of patients with OD. These genetic alterations are shared with other tumors, including glioma, leukemia and carcinoma. To search for underlying somatic genomic causes, we screened MS tissues using Affymetrix SNP-chips. We looked for CNVs, LOH and uniparental isodisomy (UPID) by performing pairwise analyses between allelic intensities in tumoral DNA versus the corresponding blood-extracted DNA. While common chromosomal anomalies were absent in constitutional DNA, several shared CNVs were identified in MS-associated tumors. The most frequently encountered somatic alterations were localized in 2p22.3, 2q24.3 and 14q11.2, implicating these chromosomal rearrangements in the formation of enchondromas and spindle cell hemangiomas in MS. In one chondrosarcoma specimen, large amplifications and/or deletions were observed in chromosomes 3, 6, 9, 10, 12, 13, and 19. Some of these genetic changes have been reported in other chondrosarcomas suggesting an etiopathogenic role. No LOH/UPID was observed in any Maffucci tissue. Our findings identify frequent somatic chromosomal rearrangements on 2p22.3, 2q24.3 and 14q11.2, which may unmask mutations leading to the lesions pathognomonic of MS.

Amyere, Mustapha; Dompmartin, Anne; Wouters, Vinciane; Enjolras, Odile; Kaitila, Ilkka; Docquier, Pierre-Louis; Godfraind, Catherine; Mulliken, John Butler; Boon, Laurence Myriam; Vikkula, Miikka

2014-01-01

5

IDENTIFYING RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES AMONG NON-WHITE PARTICIPANTS FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding potential stakeholders perspectives prior to recruitment may improve the effectiveness of a recruitment campaign as well as sustain participant retention. In early 2003, eighteen focus groups were conducted across the United States to address these issues, but non-...

6

Automatically Identifying Special and Common Unit Tests for Object-Oriented Programs  

E-print Network

Automatically Identifying Special and Common Unit Tests for Object-Oriented Programs Tao Xie@cs.washington.edu Abstract Developers often create common tests and special tests, which exercise common behaviors and special behaviors of the class under test, respectively. Although manually created tests are valuable

Xie, Tao

7

Mass General study identifies growth factor essential to the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor  

Cancer.gov

A multi-institutional team led by Massachusetts General Hospital researchers has identified a molecular pathway that appears to be essential for the growth and spread of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children.

8

Metabolic and cardiovascular traits: an abundance of recently identified common genetic variants  

E-print Network

alleles and genes. INTRODUCTION Metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are common, complex traitsMetabolic and cardiovascular traits: an abundance of recently identified common genetic variants have been strongly associated with meta- bolic and cardiovascular traits. Several of these loci have

Abecasis, Goncalo

9

Sequencing of SCN5A identifies rare and common variants associated with cardiac conduction  

PubMed Central

Background The cardiac sodium channel SCN5A regulates atrioventricular and ventricular conduction. Genetic variants in this gene are associated with PR and QRS intervals. We sought to further characterize the contribution of rare and common coding variation in SCN5A to cardiac conduction. Methods and Results In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Targeted Sequencing Study (CHARGE), we performed targeted exonic sequencing of SCN5A (n=3699, European-ancestry individuals) and identified 4 common (minor allele frequency >1%) and 157 rare variants. Common and rare SCN5A coding variants were examined for association with PR and QRS intervals through meta-analysis of European ancestry participants from CHARGE, NHLBI’s Exome Sequencing Project (ESP, n=607) and the UK10K (n=1275) and by examining ESP African-ancestry participants (N=972). Rare coding SCN5A variants in aggregate were associated with PR interval in European and African-ancestry participants (P=1.3×10?3). Three common variants were associated with PR and/or QRS interval duration among European-ancestry participants and one among African-ancestry participants. These included two well-known missense variants; rs1805124 (H558R) was associated with PR and QRS shortening in European-ancestry participants (P=6.25×10?4 and P=5.2×10?3 respectively) and rs7626962 (S1102Y) was associated with PR shortening in those of African ancestry (P=2.82×10?3). Among European-ancestry participants, two novel synonymous variants, rs1805126 and rs6599230, were associated with cardiac conduction. Our top signal, rs1805126 was associated with PR and QRS lengthening (P=3.35×10?7 and P=2.69×10?4 respectively), and rs6599230 was associated with PR shortening (P=2.67×10?5). Conclusions By sequencing SCN5A, we identified novel common and rare coding variants associated with cardiac conduction. PMID:24951663

Magnani, Jared W.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Prins, Bram P.; Arking, Dan E.; Lin, Honghuang; Yin, Xiaoyan; Liu, Ching-Ti; Morrison, Alanna C.; Zhang, Feng; Spector, Tim D.; Alonso, Alvaro; Bis, Joshua C.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Lumley, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Lubitz, Steven A.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Pulit, Sara L.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Santibanez, Jireh; Taylor, Herman A.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Lange, Leslie A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Jackson, Rebecca; Rich, Stephen S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Jamshidi, Yalda; Sotoodehnia, Nona

2014-01-01

10

Genome-wide association study identifies a common variant associated with risk of endometrial cancer  

PubMed Central

Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract in developed countries. To identify genetic variants associated with endometrial cancer risk, we undertook a genome-wide association study involving 1,265 endometrial cancer cases from Australia and the UK and 5,190 controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Genotype frequencies in cases and controls were compared for 519,655 SNPs. Forty-seven SNPs that showed evidence of association with endometrial cancer in stage 1 were genotyped in 3,957 additional cases and 6,886 controls. We identified an endometrial cancer susceptibility locus close to HNF1B on chromosome 17q (SNP rs4430796: P=7.1×10?10), that is also associated with risk of prostate cancer and is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes. PMID:21499250

Spurdle, Amanda B.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Ahmed, Shahana; Ferguson, Kaltin; Healey, Catherine S.; O’Mara, Tracy; Walker, Logan C.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Fahey, Paul; Montgomery, Grant; Webb, Penelope M.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Hein, Alexander; Lambrechts, Diether; Coenegrachts, Lieve; Vergote, Ignace; Amant, Frederic; Salvesen, Helga B.; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Helland, Harald; Scott, Rodney; Ashton, Katie; Proietto, Tony; Otton, Geoffrey; Tomlinson, Ian; Gorman, Maggie; Howarth, Kimberley; Hodgson, Shirley; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Yang, Hannah; Chanock, Stephen; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Jingmei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei; Long, Jirong; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shah, Mitul; Morrison, Jonathan; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Pharoah, Paul P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.

2013-01-01

11

Identifying the common elements of treatment engagement interventions in children's mental health services.  

PubMed

Difficulty engaging families in mental health treatment is seen as an underlying reason for the disparity between child mental health need and service use. Interpretation of the literature on how best to engage families is complicated by a diversity of operational definitions of engagement outcomes and related interventions. Thus, we sought to review studies of engagement interventions using a structured methodology allowing for an aggregate summary of the most common practices associated with effective engagement interventions. We identified 344 articles through a combination of database search methods and recommendations from engagement research experts; 38 articles describing 40 studies met our inclusion criteria. Following coding methods described by Chorpita and Daleiden (J Consul Clin Psychol 77(3):566-579, 2009, doi: 10.1037/a0014565 ), we identified 22 engagement practice elements from 89 study groups that examined or implemented family engagement strategies. Most frequently identified engagement practice elements included assessment, accessibility promotion, psychoeducation about services, homework assignment, and appointment reminders. Assessment and accessibility promotion were two practice elements present in at least 50 % of treatment groups that outperformed a control group in a randomized controlled trial. With the exception of appointment reminders, these frequently identified engagement practice elements had a high likelihood of being associated with winning treatments when they were used. This approach offers a novel way of summarizing the engagement literature and provides the foundation for enhancing clinical decision-making around treatment engagement. PMID:24379129

Lindsey, Michael A; Brandt, Nicole E; Becker, Kimberly D; Lee, Bethany R; Barth, Richard P; Daleiden, Eric L; Chorpita, Bruce F

2014-09-01

12

Common-path optical frequency domain imaging system designed for identifying and grading pearls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a common-path optical frequency domain imaging (CP-OFDI) system for non-invasive evaluation of various pearls. By adopting a high speed ready-to-ship scanning light source and a common-path lensed fiber probe, with the help of a rotation stage, real-time display of whole circumference of a pearl could be achieved. The common-path lensed fiber probe was fabricated by simply forming a focusing lens directly on the tip of an optical fiber, thus the fiber lens acted as a reference reflector as well as a focusing lens. The focal length of the lensed fiber probe was over 600 ?m in free space and the average imaging depth reached up to 3 mm, which was deep enough to examine the internal structure of the pearl. The sensitivity of the system was experimentally obtained as 100dB. With an implemented system, the presence of nucleus and the nacreous laminated pattern were confirmed and analyzed. Experimental results show that the CP-OFDI system has great potential for identifying and grading pearls non-invasively but precisely.

Ju, Myeong Jin; Ryu, Seon Young; Na, Jihoon; Choi, Hae Young; Kim, Hae Yeon; Lee, Byeong Ha

2010-02-01

13

Common Fusion Transcripts Identified in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines by High-Throughput RNA Sequencing12  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer disease in the Western world, and about 40% of the patients die from this disease. The cancer cells are commonly genetically unstable, but only a few low-frequency recurrent fusion genes have so far been reported for this disease. In this study, we present a thorough search for novel fusion transcripts in CRC using high-throughput RNA sequencing. From altogether 220 million paired-end sequence reads from seven CRC cell lines, we identified 3391 candidate fused transcripts. By stringent requirements, we nominated 11 candidate fusion transcripts for further experimental validation, of which 10 were positive by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Six were intrachromosomal fusion transcripts, and interestingly, three of these, AKAP13-PDE8A, COMMD10-AP3S1, and CTB-35F21.1-PSD2, were present in, respectively, 18, 18, and 20 of 21 analyzed cell lines and in, respectively, 18, 61, and 48 (17%-58%) of 106 primary cancer tissues. These three fusion transcripts were also detected in 2 to 4 of 14 normal colonic mucosa samples (14%–28%). Whole-genome sequencing identified a specific genomic breakpoint in COMMD10-AP3S1 and further indicates that both the COMMD10-AP3S1 and AKAP13-PDE8A fusion transcripts are due to genomic duplications in specific cell lines. In conclusion, we have identified AKAP13-PDE8A, COMMD10-AP3S1, and CTB-35F21.1-PSD2 as novel intrachromosomal fusion transcripts and the most highly recurring chimeric transcripts described for CRC to date. The functional and clinical relevance of these chimeric RNA molecules remains to be elucidated. PMID:24151535

Nome, Torfinn; Thomassen, Gard OS; Bruun, Jarle; Ahlquist, Terje; Bakken, Anne C; Hoff, Andreas M; Rognum, Torleiv; Nesbakken, Arild; Lorenz, Susanne; Sun, Jinchang; Barros-Silva, João Diogo; Lind, Guro E; Myklebost, Ola; Teixeira, Manuel R; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Skotheim, Rolf I

2013-01-01

14

Identifying common components across biological network graphs using a bipartite data model  

PubMed Central

The GeneWeaver bipartite data model provides an efficient means to evaluate shared molecular components from sets derived across diverse species, disease states and biological processes. In order to adapt this model for examining related molecular components and biological networks, such as pathway or gene network data, we have developed a means to leverage the bipartite data structure to extract and analyze shared edges. Using the Pathway Commons database we demonstrate the ability to rapidly identify shared connected components among a diverse set of pathways. In addition, we illustrate how results from maximal bipartite discovery can be decomposed into hierarchical relationships, allowing shared pathway components to be mapped through various parent-child relationships to help visualization and discovery of emergent kernel driven relationships. Interrogating common relationships among biological networks and conventional GeneWeaver gene lists will increase functional specificity and reliability of the shared biological components. This approach enables self-organization of biological processes through shared biological networks. PMID:25374613

2014-01-01

15

Identifying Patients Most Likely to Have a Common Bile Duct Stone After a Positive Intraoperative Cholangiogram  

PubMed Central

The false-positive rates of a positive intraoperative cholangiogram (IOC) are as high as 60%. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for stone removal is required after a positive IOC. It is unclear which clinical factors identify patients most likely to have a stone after a positive IOC. This study was conducted to identify factors predictive of common bile duct (CBD) stone(s) on ERCP after a positive IOC. A retrospective review of our endoscopic database identified all ERCP and/or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) procedures performed for a positive IOC between August 2003 and August 2009. Collected data included patient demographics; indication for cholecystectomy; IOC findings; blood tests before and after cholecystectomy, including liver function tests, complete blood count, and amylase and lipase measurements; and ERCP and/or EUS results. Patients who had a negative EUS for CBD stones and no subsequent ERCP were contacted by phone to see if they eventually required an ERCP. Univariate and multi-variable analyses were performed. A total of 114 patients were included in the study. IOC findings included a single stone, multiple stones, nonpassage of contrast into the duodenum, dilated CBD, and poor visualization of the bile duct. Eighty-four percent of patients had ERCP only, 9% had EUS only, and 7% had EUS followed by ERCP. Sixty-five patients (57%) had CBD stones on ERCP or EUS. Older age, multiple stones, dilated CBD on IOC, and elevated postcholecystectomy bilirubin levels were the clinical variables with statistically significant differences on univariate analysis. On multivariable analysis, older age and elevated postcholecystectomy total bilirubin levels correlated with the presence of CBD stones on ERCP. Fifty-seven percent of patients referred for endoscopic evaluation after a positive IOC had CBD stones on ERCP. Patients with CBD stones after a positive IOC were more likely to be older with elevated post-cholecystectomy total serum bilirubin levels. PMID:24976807

Conway, Jason; Mishra, Girish; Baillie, John; Gilliam, John; Fernandez, Adolfo; Evans, John

2014-01-01

16

Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Shared Risk Loci Common to Two Malignancies in Golden Retrievers.  

PubMed

Dogs, with their breed-determined limited genetic background, are great models of human disease including cancer. Canine B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma are both malignancies of the hematologic system that are clinically and histologically similar to human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and angiosarcoma, respectively. Golden retrievers in the US show significantly elevated lifetime risk for both B-cell lymphoma (6%) and hemangiosarcoma (20%). We conducted genome-wide association studies for hemangiosarcoma and B-cell lymphoma, identifying two shared predisposing loci. The two associated loci are located on chromosome 5, and together contribute ~20% of the risk of developing these cancers. Genome-wide p-values for the top SNP of each locus are 4.6×10-7 and 2.7×10-6, respectively. Whole genome resequencing of nine cases and controls followed by genotyping and detailed analysis identified three shared and one B-cell lymphoma specific risk haplotypes within the two loci, but no coding changes were associated with the risk haplotypes. Gene expression analysis of B-cell lymphoma tumors revealed that carrying the risk haplotypes at the first locus is associated with down-regulation of several nearby genes including the proximal gene TRPC6, a transient receptor Ca2+-channel involved in T-cell activation, among other functions. The shared risk haplotype in the second locus overlaps the vesicle transport and release gene STX8. Carrying the shared risk haplotype is associated with gene expression changes of 100 genes enriched for pathways involved in immune cell activation. Thus, the predisposing germ-line mutations in B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma appear to be regulatory, and affect pathways involved in T-cell mediated immune response in the tumor. This suggests that the interaction between the immune system and malignant cells plays a common role in the tumorigenesis of these relatively different cancers. PMID:25642983

Tonomura, Noriko; Elvers, Ingegerd; Thomas, Rachael; Megquier, Kate; Turner-Maier, Jason; Howald, Cedric; Sarver, Aaron L; Swofford, Ross; Frantz, Aric M; Ito, Daisuke; Mauceli, Evan; Arendt, Maja; Noh, Hyun Ji; Koltookian, Michele; Biagi, Tara; Fryc, Sarah; Williams, Christina; Avery, Anne C; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Barber, Lisa; Burgess, Kristine; Lander, Eric S; Karlsson, Elinor K; Azuma, Chieko; Modiano, Jaime F; Breen, Matthew; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

2015-02-01

17

Root Cause Analysis Reports Help Identify Common Factors In Delayed Diagnosis And Treatment Of Outpatients  

PubMed Central

Delays in diagnosis and treatment are widely considered to be threats to outpatient safety. However, few studies have identified and described what factors contribute to delays that might result in patient harm in the outpatient setting. We analyzed 111 root cause analysis reports that investigated such delays and were submitted to the Veterans Affairs National Center for Patient Safety in the period 2005–12. The most common contributing factors noted in the reports included coordination problems resulting from inadequate follow-up planning, delayed scheduling for unspecified reasons, inadequate tracking of test results, and the absence of a system to track patients in need of short-term follow-up. Other contributing factors were team-level decision making problems resulting from miscommunication of urgency between providers and providers' lack of awareness of or knowledge about a patient's situation; and communication failures among providers, patients, and other health care team members. Our findings suggest that to support care goals in the Affordable Care Act and the National Quality Strategy, even relatively sophisticated electronic health record systems will require enhancements. At the same time, policy initiatives should support programs to implement, and perhaps reward the use of, more rigorous interprofessional teamwork principles to improve outpatient communication and coordination. PMID:23918480

Giardina, Traber Davis; King, Beth J.; Ignaczak, Aartee; Paull, Douglas E.; Hoeksema, Laura; Mills, Peter D.; Neily, Julia; Hemphill, Robin R.; Singh, Hardeep

2013-01-01

18

Dense genotyping identifies and localizes multiple common and rare variant association signals in celiac disease  

PubMed Central

We densely genotyped, using 1000 Genomes Project pilot CEU and additional re-sequencing study variants, 183 reported immune-mediated disease non-HLA risk loci in 12,041 celiac disease cases and 12,228 controls. We identified 13 new celiac disease risk loci at genome wide significance, bringing the total number of known loci (including HLA) to 40. Multiple independent association signals are found at over a third of these loci, attributable to a combination of common, low frequency, and rare genetic variants. In comparison with previously available data such as HapMap3, our dense genotyping in a large sample size provided increased resolution of the pattern of linkage disequilibrium, and suggested localization of many signals to finer scale regions. In particular, 29 of 54 fine-mapped signals appeared localized to specific single genes - and in some instances to gene regulatory elements. We define a complex genetic architecture of risk regions, and refine risk signals, providing a next step towards elucidating causal disease mechanisms. PMID:22057235

Trynka, Gosia; Hunt, Karen A; Bockett, Nicholas A; Romanos, Jihane; Mistry, Vanisha; Szperl, Agata; Bakker, Sjoerd F; Bardella, Maria Teresa; Bhaw-Rosun, Leena; Castillejo, Gemma; de la Concha, Emilio G.; de Almeida, Rodrigo Coutinho; Dias, Kerith-Rae M; van Diemen, Cleo C.; Dubois, Patrick CA; Duerr, Richard H.; Edkins, Sarah; Franke, Lude; Fransen, Karin; Gutierrez, Javier; Heap, Graham AR; Hrdlickova, Barbara; Hunt, Sarah; Izurieta, Leticia Plaza; Izzo, Valentina; Joosten, Leo AB; Langford, Cordelia; Mazzilli, Maria Cristina; Mein, Charles A; Midah, Vandana; Mitrovic, Mitja; Mora, Barbara; Morelli, Marinita; Nutland, Sarah; Núñez, Concepción; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Pearce, Kerra; Platteel, Mathieu; Polanco, Isabel; Potter, Simon; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis; Rich, Stephen S.; Rybak, Anna; Santiago, José Luis; Senapati, Sabyasachi; Sood, Ajit; Szajewska, Hania; Troncone, Riccardo; Varadé, Jezabel; Wallace, Chris; Wolters, Victorien M; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Thelma, B.K.; Cukrowska, Bozena; Urcelay, Elena; Bilbao, Jose Ramon; Mearin, M Luisa; Barisani, Donatella; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Plagnol, Vincent; Deloukas, Panos; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Heel, David A

2011-01-01

19

Molecular profiling of experimental endometriosis identified gene expression patterns in common with human disease  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To validate a rat model of endometriosis using cDNA microarrays by identifying common gene expression patterns beween experimental and natural disease. DESIGN Autotransplantation rat model. SETTING Medical school department. ANIMALS Female Sprague-Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS Endometriosis was surgically-induced by suturing uterine horn implants next to the small intestine’s mesentery. Control rats received sutures with no implants. After 60 days, endometriotic implants and uterine horn were obtained. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Gene expression levels determined by cDNA microarrays and QRT-PCR. METHODS Cy5-labeled cDNA was synthesized from total RNA obtained from endometriotic implants. Cy3-labeled cDNA was synthesized using uterine RNA from a control rat. Gene expression levels were analyzed after hybridizing experimental and control labeled cDNA to PIQOR™ Toxicology Rat Microarrays (Miltenyi Biotec) containing 1,252 known genes. Cy5/Cy3 ratios were determined and genes with >2-fold higher or <0.5-fold lower expression levels were selected. Microarray results were validated by QRT-PCR. RESULTS We observed differential expression of genes previously shown to be upregulated in patients, including growth factors, inflammatory cytokines/receptors, tumor invasion/metastasis factors, adhesion molecules, and anti-apoptotic factors. CONCLUSIONS This study presents evidence in support of using this rat model to study the natural history of endometriosis and test novel therapeutics for this incurable disease. PMID:17478174

Flores, Idhaliz; Rivera, Elizabeth; Ruiz, Lynnette A.; Santiago, Olga I.; Vernon, Michael W.; Appleyard, Caroline B.

2007-01-01

20

Identifying strategies to maximise recruitment and retention of practices and patients in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of an intervention to optimise secondary prevention for coronary heart disease in primary care. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Identifying strategies to maximise recruitment and retention of practices and patients in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of an intervention to optimise secondary prevention for coronary heart disease in primary care.

21

School Grounds Guide: A Pictured Guide for Identifying Common Organisms Found In and Around the School Ground.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for quick, easy identification of some of the most commonly encountered organisms found in and around the school ground, this illustrated guide identifies by a picture and a short biological description the common animals and plants found in and around school lawns, house lawns, parks, fence rows, flower gardens, vacant lots, and…

Bain, Rodney

22

Altered Transmission of HOX and Apoptotic SNPs Identify a Potential Common Pathway for Clubfoot  

PubMed Central

Clubfoot is a common birth defect that affects 135,000 newborns each year worldwide. It is characterized by equinus deformity of one or both feet and hypoplastic calf muscles. Despite numerous study approaches, the cause(s) remains poorly understood although a multifactorial etiology is generally accepted. We considered the HOXA and HOXD gene clusters and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) as candidate genes because of their important roles in limb and muscle morphogenesis. Twenty SNPs from the HOXA and HOXD gene clusters and 12 SNPs in IGFBP3 were genotyped in a sample composed of nonHispanic white and Hispanic multiplex and simplex families (discovery samples) and a second sample of nonHispanic white simplex trios (validation sample). Four SNPs (rs6668, rs2428431, rs3801776 and rs3779456) in the HOXA cluster demonstrated altered transmission in the discovery sample, but only rs3801776, located in the HOXA basal promoter region, showed altered transmission in both the discovery and validation samples (p=0.004 and p=0.028). Interestingly, HOXA9 is expressed in muscle during development. A SNP in IGFBP3, rs13223993, also showed altered transmission (p=0.003) in the discovery sample. Gene-gene interactions were identified between variants in HOXA, HOXD and IGFBP3 and with previously associated SNPs in mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic genes. The most significant interactions were found between CASP3 SNPS and variants in HOXA, HOXD and IGFBP3. These results suggest a biologic model for clubfoot in which perturbation of HOX and apoptotic genes together affect muscle and limb development, which may cause the downstream failure of limb rotation into a plantar grade position. PMID:19938081

Ester, Audrey R.; Weymouth, Katelyn S.; Burt, Amber; Wise, Carol; Scott, Allison; Gurnett, Christina A; Dobbs, Matthew B.; Blanton, Susan H.; Hecht, Jacqueline T.

2009-01-01

23

Identifying and Reconstructing Common Cold Misconceptions among Developing K-12 Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Common cold misconceptions may contribute to ill-informed decisions and recommendations made by K-12 educators who often encounter infected students. Understanding the structure of educators' misconceptions can be used to improve health instruction in teacher professional preparation programs. Purpose: The purposes of this project were…

Johnson, Marcus Lee; Bungum, Timothy

2013-01-01

24

Identifying the Common and Separate Domains of Business-Management-Organizational Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates which textbooks, conceptual books, and articles most influenced educators in the area of business-managerial-organizational communication (BMOC). Suggests that there is no common body of knowledge uniting BMOC, that they are three separate fields, and that, although they overlap at present, they seem to be moving in three different…

White-Mills, Kim; Rogers, Donald P.

1996-01-01

25

The Genome Sequence of the Emerging Common Midwife Toad Virus Identifies an Evolutionary Intermediate within Ranaviruses  

PubMed Central

Worldwide amphibian population declines have been ascribed to global warming, increasing pollution levels, and other factors directly related to human activities. These factors may additionally be favoring the emergence of novel pathogens. In this report, we have determined the complete genome sequence of the emerging common midwife toad ranavirus (CMTV), which has caused fatal disease in several amphibian species across Europe. Phylogenetic and gene content analyses of the first complete genomic sequence from a ranavirus isolated in Europe show that CMTV is an amphibian-like ranavirus (ALRV). However, the CMTV genome structure is novel and represents an intermediate evolutionary stage between the two previously described ALRV groups. We find that CMTV clusters with several other ranaviruses isolated from different hosts and locations which might also be included in this novel ranavirus group. This work sheds light on the phylogenetic relationships within this complex group of emerging, disease-causing viruses. PMID:22301140

Mavian, Carla; López-Bueno, Alberto; Balseiro, Ana; Casais, Rosa; Alcamí, Antonio

2012-01-01

26

Of linkers and autochaperones: an unambiguous nomenclature to identify common and uncommon themes for autotransporter secretion.  

PubMed

Autotransporter (AT) proteins provide a diverse array of important virulence functions to Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, and have also been adapted for protein surface display applications. The 'autotransporter' moniker refers to early models that depicted these proteins facilitating their own translocation across the bacterial outer membrane. Although translocation is less autonomous than originally proposed, AT protein segments upstream of the C-terminal transmembrane ?-barrel have nevertheless consistently been found to contribute to efficient translocation and/or folding of the N-terminal virulence region (the 'passenger'). However, defining the precise secretion functions of these AT regions has been complicated by the use of multiple overlapping and ambiguous terms to define AT sequence, structural, and functional features, including 'autochaperone', 'linker' and 'junction'. Moreover, the precise definitions and boundaries of these features vary among ATs and even among research groups, leading to an overall murky picture of the contributions of specific features to translocation. Here we propose a unified, unambiguous nomenclature for AT structural, functional and conserved sequence features, based on explicit criteria. Applied to 16 well-studied AT proteins, this nomenclature reveals new commonalities for translocation but also highlights that the autochaperone function is less closely associated with a conserved sequence element than previously believed. PMID:25345653

Drobnak, Igor; Braselmann, Esther; Chaney, Julie L; Leyton, Denisse L; Bernstein, Harris D; Lithgow, Trevor; Luirink, Joen; Nataro, James P; Clark, Patricia L

2015-01-01

27

Rapid Multiplex PCR Assay To Identify Respiratory Viral Pathogens: Moving Forward Diagnosing The Common Cold  

PubMed Central

Upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) can be a serious burden to the healthcare system. The majority of URIs are viral in etiology, but definitive diagnosis can prove difficult due to frequently overlapping clinical presentations of viral and bacterial infections, and the variable sensitivity, and lengthy turn-around time of viral culture. We tested new automated nested multiplex PCR technology, the FilmArray® system, in the TAMC department of clinical investigations, to determine the feasibility of replacing the standard viral culture with a rapid turn-around system. We conducted a feasibility study using a single-blinded comparison study, comparing PCR results with archived viral culture results from a convenience sample of cryopreserved archived nasopharyngeal swabs from acutely ill ED patients who presented with complaints of URI symptoms. A total of 61 archived samples were processed. Viral culture had previously identified 31 positive specimens from these samples. The automated nested multiplex PCR detected 38 positive samples. In total, PCR was 94.5% concordant with the previously positive viral culture results. However, PCR was only 63.4% concordant with the negative viral culture results, owing to PCR detection of 11 additional viral pathogens not recovered on viral culture. The average time to process a sample was 75 minutes. We determined that an automated nested multiplex PCR is a feasible alternative to viral culture in an acute clinical setting. We were able to detect at least 94.5% as many viral pathogens as viral culture is able to identify, with a faster turn-around time. PMID:24052914

Gordon, Sarah M; Elegino-Steffens, Diane U; Agee, Willie; Barnhill, Jason; Hsue, Gunther

2013-01-01

28

Risk assessment derived from migrants identified in several adhesives commonly used in food contact materials.  

PubMed

Adhesives are used to manufacture multilayer materials, where their components pass through the layers and migrate to the food. Nine different adhesives (acrylic, vinyl and hotmelt) and their migration in 21 laminates for future use as market samples have been evaluated and risk assessment has been carried out. A total of 75 volatiles and non volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Most of the compounds migrated below their specific migration limit (SML), lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and values recommended by Cramer. Six compounds classified as high toxicity class III according to Cramer classification, migrated over their SML and exposure values recommended by Cramer, when they were applied in the full area of the packaging. Nevertheless, these adhesives fulfill the threshold in the real application as they are applied in a small area of the packaging. PMID:25445514

Canellas, E; Vera, P; Nerín, C

2015-01-01

29

A Pan-Cancer Modular Regulatory Network Analysis to Identify Common and Cancer-Specific Network Components  

PubMed Central

Many human diseases including cancer are the result of perturbations to transcriptional regulatory networks that control context-specific expression of genes. A comparative approach across multiple cancer types is a powerful approach to illuminate the common and specific network features of this family of diseases. Recent efforts from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) have generated large collections of functional genomic data sets for multiple types of cancers. An emerging challenge is to devise computational approaches that systematically compare these genomic data sets across different cancer types that identify common and cancer-specific network components. We present a module- and network-based characterization of transcriptional patterns in six different cancers being studied in TCGA: breast, colon, rectal, kidney, ovarian, and endometrial. Our approach uses a recently developed regulatory network reconstruction algorithm, modular regulatory network learning with per gene information (MERLIN), within a stability selection framework to predict regulators for individual genes and gene modules. Our module-based analysis identifies a common theme of immune system processes in each cancer study, with modules statistically enriched for immune response processes as well as targets of key immune response regulators from the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) families. Comparison of the inferred regulatory networks from each cancer type identified a core regulatory network that included genes involved in chromatin remodeling, cell cycle, and immune response. Regulatory network hubs included genes with known roles in specific cancer types as well as genes with potentially novel roles in different cancer types. Overall, our integrated module and network analysis recapitulated known themes in cancer biology and additionally revealed novel regulatory hubs that suggest a complex interplay of immune response, cell cycle, and chromatin remodeling across multiple cancers. PMID:25374456

Knaack, Sara A; Siahpirani, Alireza Fotuhi; Roy, Sushmita

2014-01-01

30

RETRACTED ARTICLE: What Are They Thinking? The Development and Use of an Instrument That Identifies Common Science Misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the rationale for, and development of, an online instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. Science Beliefs is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. It utilizes a true or false, along with a written-explanation, format. The true or false responses provide a cursory view of the extent to which specific beliefs are prevalent, while the accompanying explanations reveal underlying reasons for those beliefs. The stages of instrument development, reliability and validity information, along with the original sources of the items are discussed. The developed instrument has the potential to help science educators understand some specific barriers to deepening understanding across a range of science topics.

Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles R.; Larrabee, Timothy

2007-04-01

31

Comparative genomic analyses identify common molecular pathways modulated upon exposure to low doses of arsenic and cadmium  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to the toxic metals arsenic and cadmium is associated with detrimental health effects including cancers of various organs. While arsenic and cadmium are well known to cause adverse health effects at high doses, the molecular impact resulting from exposure to environmentally relevant doses of these metals remains largely unexplored. Results In this study, we examined the effects of in vitro exposure to either arsenic or cadmium in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells using genomics and systems level pathway mapping approaches. A total of 167 genes with differential expression were identified following exposure to either metal with surprisingly no overlap between the two. Real-time PCR was used to confirm target gene expression changes. The gene sets were overlaid onto protein-protein interaction maps to identify metal-induced transcriptional networks. Interestingly, both metal-induced networks were significantly enriched for proteins involved in common biological processes such as tumorigenesis, inflammation, and cell signaling. These findings were further supported by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusions This study is the first to compare the transcriptional responses induced by low dose exposure to cadmium and arsenic in human lymphoblastoid cells. These results highlight that even at low levels of exposure both metals can dramatically influence the expression of important cellular pathways. PMID:21457566

2011-01-01

32

A common rejection module (CRM) for acute rejection across multiple organs identifies novel therapeutics for organ transplantation  

PubMed Central

Using meta-analysis of eight independent transplant datasets (236 graft biopsy samples) from four organs, we identified a common rejection module (CRM) consisting of 11 genes that were significantly overexpressed in acute rejection (AR) across all transplanted organs. The CRM genes could diagnose AR with high specificity and sensitivity in three additional independent cohorts (794 samples). In another two independent cohorts (151 renal transplant biopsies), the CRM genes correlated with the extent of graft injury and predicted future injury to a graft using protocol biopsies. Inferred drug mechanisms from the literature suggested that two FDA-approved drugs (atorvastatin and dasatinib), approved for nontransplant indications, could regulate specific CRM genes and reduce the number of graft-infiltrating cells during AR. We treated mice with HLA-mismatched mouse cardiac transplant with atorvastatin and dasatinib and showed reduction of the CRM genes, significant reduction of graft-infiltrating cells, and extended graft survival. We further validated the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on graft survival by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a single-center cohort of 2,515 renal transplant patients followed for up to 22 yr. In conclusion, we identified a CRM in transplantation that provides new opportunities for diagnosis, drug repositioning, and rational drug design. PMID:24127489

Khatri, Purvesh; Roedder, Silke; Kimura, Naoyuki; De Vusser, Katrien; Morgan, Alexander A.; Gong, Yongquan; Fischbein, Michael P.; Robbins, Robert C.; Naesens, Maarten

2013-01-01

33

Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common variants in CTNNA2 associated with excitement-seeking  

PubMed Central

The tendency to seek stimulating activities and intense sensations define excitement-seeking, a personality trait akin to some aspects of sensation-seeking. This trait is a central feature of extraversion and is a component of the multifaceted impulsivity construct. Those who score high on measures of excitement-seeking are more likely to smoke, use other drugs, gamble, drive recklessly, have unsafe/unprotected sex and engage in other risky behaviors of clinical and social relevance. To identify common genetic variants associated with the Excitement-Seeking scale of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, we performed genome-wide association studies in six samples of European ancestry (N=7860), and combined the results in a meta-analysis. We identified a genome-wide significant association between the Excitement-Seeking scale and rs7600563 (P=2 × 10?8). This single-nucleotide polymorphism maps within the catenin cadherin-associated protein, alpha 2 (CTNNA2) gene, which encodes for a brain-expressed ?-catenin critical for synaptic contact. The effect of rs7600563 was in the same direction in all six samples, but did not replicate in additional samples (N=5105). The results provide insight into the genetics of excitement-seeking and risk-taking, and are relevant to hyperactivity, substance use, antisocial and bipolar disorders. PMID:22833195

Terracciano, A; Esko, T; Sutin, A R; de Moor, M H M; Meirelles, O; Zhu, G; Tanaka, T; Giegling, I; Nutile, T; Realo, A; Allik, J; Hansell, N K; Wright, M J; Montgomery, G W; Willemsen, G; Hottenga, J-J; Friedl, M; Ruggiero, D; Sorice, R; Sanna, S; Cannas, A; Räikkönen, K; Widen, E; Palotie, A; Eriksson, J G; Cucca, F; Krueger, R F; Lahti, J; Luciano, M; Smoller, J W; van Duijn, C M; Abecasis, G R; Boomsma, D I; Ciullo, M; Costa, P T; Ferrucci, L; Martin, N G; Metspalu, A; Rujescu, D; Schlessinger, D; Uda, M

2011-01-01

34

Genome-wide association study identifies three common variants associated with serologic response to vitamin E supplementation in men.  

PubMed

Vitamin E inhibits lipid peroxidation in cell membranes, prevents oxidative damage to DNA by scavenging free radicals, and reduces carcinogen production. No study to our knowledge, however, has examined the association between genetic variants and response to long-term vitamin E supplementation. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of common variants associated with circulating ?-tocopherol concentrations following 3 y of controlled supplementation. The study population included 2112 middle-aged, male smokers in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort who received a trial supplementation of ?-tocopherol (50 mg/d) and had fasting serum ?-tocopherol concentrations measured after 3 y. Serum concentrations were log-transformed for statistical analysis and general linear models adjusted for age, BMI, serum total cholesterol, and cancer case status. Associations with serum response to ?-tocopherol supplementation achieved genome-wide significance for 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP): rs964184 on 11q23.3 (P = 2.6 × 10(-12)) and rs2108622 on 19pter-p13.11 (P = 2.2 × 10(-7)), and approached genome-wide significance for one SNP, rs7834588 on 8q12.3 (P = 6.2 × 10(-7)). Combined, these SNP explain 3.4% of the residual variance in serum ?-tocopherol concentrations during controlled vitamin E supplementation. A GWAS has identified 3 genetic variants at different loci that appear associated with serum concentrations after vitamin E supplementation in men. Identifying genetic variants that influence serum nutrient biochemical status (e.g., ?-tocopherol) under supplementation conditions improves our understanding of the biological determinants of these nutritional exposures and their associations with cancer etiology. PMID:22437554

Major, Jacqueline M; Yu, Kai; Chung, Charles C; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Yeager, Meredith; Wheeler, William; Snyder, Kirk; Wright, Margaret E; Virtamo, Jarmo; Chanock, Stephen; Albanes, Demetrius

2012-05-01

35

GeneBrowser 2: an application to explore and identify common biological traits in a set of genes  

PubMed Central

Background The development of high-throughput laboratory techniques created a demand for computer-assisted result analysis tools. Many of these techniques return lists of genes whose interpretation requires finding relevant biological roles for the problem at hand. The required information is typically available in public databases, and usually, this information must be manually retrieved to complement the analysis. This process is a very time-consuming task that should be automated as much as possible. Results GeneBrowser is a web-based tool that, for a given list of genes, combines data from several public databases with visualisation and analysis methods to help identify the most relevant and common biological characteristics. The functionalities provided include the following: a central point with the most relevant biological information for each inserted gene; a list of the most related papers in PubMed and gene expression studies in ArrayExpress; and an extended approach to functional analysis applied to Gene Ontology, homologies, gene chromosomal localisation and pathways. Conclusions GeneBrowser provides a unique entry point to several visualisation and analysis methods, providing fast and easy analysis of a set of genes. GeneBrowser fills the gap between Web portals that analyse one gene at a time and functional analysis tools that are limited in scope and usually desktop-based. PMID:20663121

2010-01-01

36

Detection of feeding behaviour in common carp Cyprinus carpio by using an acceleration data logger to identify mandibular movement.  

PubMed

Miniaturized acceleration data loggers were attached to the lower mandible of common carp Cyprinus carpio to remotely identify feeding behaviour. Whether the acceleration signal could distinguish the quantity and quality of food was also investigated. The frequency and amplitude of the lower mandible stroke, calculated from surging acceleration determined by continuous wavelet transformation, significantly increased during the feeding period compared to that during the non-feeding period. These characteristic movement patterns were maintained for mean ±s.e. 187·3 ± 38·2 s when the fish were fed a single item of food and for mean ±s.e. 419·3 ± 28·6 s when they consumed multiple items. The dominant cycle and amplitude calculated according to feeding event duration, however, did not differ significantly between the two types of diets the fish consumed. Surging acceleration could detect mean ±s.e. 89·8 ± 13·5% of feeding events, although the false detection rate was mean ±s.e. 25·9 ± 10·9%. The results indicate that the mandible acceleration measurement method could be utilized to detect and record the feeding events in fishes that use a suction feeding mode similar to C. carpio. PMID:22551186

Makiguchi, Y; Sugie, Y; Kojima, T; Naito, Y

2012-05-01

37

AN ORIENTATION COURSE AND COMMUNITY COLLEGE RETENTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orientation and retention programs are common in institutions of higher education. The potential association between orientation programs and student retention, particularly within the community college sector, has long been neglected. This study presents an institutional view of a potential associative relationship between an orientation course and student retention measures. A chi-square analysis revealed a significant association among orientation program, student

Dustin C. Derby; Thomas Smith

2004-01-01

38

Short non-coding RNAs as bacteria species identifiers detected by surface plasmon resonance enhanced common path interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small non-coding RNA sequences have recently been discovered as unique identifiers of certain bacterial species, raising the possibility that they can be used as highly specific Biowarfare Agent detection markers in automated field deployable integrated detection systems. Because they are present in high abundance they could allow genomic based bacterial species identification without the need for pre-assay amplification. Further, a direct detection method would obviate the need for chemical labeling, enabling a rapid, efficient, high sensitivity mechanism for bacterial detection. Surface Plasmon Resonance enhanced Common Path Interferometry (SPR-CPI) is a potentially market disruptive, high sensitivity dual technology that allows real-time direct multiplex measurement of biomolecule interactions, including small molecules, nucleic acids, proteins, and microbes. SPR-CPI measures differences in phase shift of reflected S and P polarized light under Total Internal Reflection (TIR) conditions at a surface, caused by changes in refractive index induced by biomolecular interactions within the evanescent field at the TIR interface. The measurement is performed on a microarray of discrete 2-dimensional areas functionalized with biomolecule capture reagents, allowing simultaneous measurement of up to 100 separate analytes. The optical beam encompasses the entire microarray, allowing a solid state detector system with no scanning requirement. Output consists of simultaneous voltage measurements proportional to the phase differences resulting from the refractive index changes from each microarray feature, and is automatically processed and displayed graphically or delivered to a decision making algorithm, enabling a fully automatic detection system capable of rapid detection and quantification of small nucleic acids at extremely sensitive levels. Proof-of-concept experiments on model systems and cell culture samples have demonstrated utility of the system, and efforts are in progress for full development and deployment of the device. The technology has broad applicability as a universal detection platform for BWA detection, medical diagnostics, and drug discovery research, and represents a new class of instrumentation as a rapid, high sensitivity, label-free methodology.

Greef, Charles; Petropavlovskikh, Viatcheslav; Nilsen, Oyvind; Khattatov, Boris; Plam, Mikhail; Gardner, Patrick; Hall, John

2008-04-01

39

Toward a Record Retention Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An academic library working group was charged in 2005 to create a records retention schedule and policy applicable to records containing personally identifiable information of library patrons. This group conducted a survey and extensive research, culminating in an adopted library records retention schedule and policy implemented in 2006.

Vaughan, Jason

2007-01-01

40

Principals Retention. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many districts are struggling with the problem of administrator retention. Hoffman (2004) identifies some of the reasons for this: (1) Increased accountability expectations; (2) Diminished or static levels of resources to support reform efforts; (3) Greater administrator vulnerability to sanctions; (4) The complex demands of government and the…

Muir, Mike

2005-01-01

41

EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

Wagner, Howard A.

2010-01-01

42

Large-scale meta-analysis of cancer microarray data identifies common transcriptional profiles of neoplastic transformation and progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have used DNA microarrays to identify the gene expression signatures of human cancer, yet the critical features of these often unmanageably large signatures remain elusive. To address this, we developed a statistical method, comparative metaprofiling, which identifies and assesses the intersection of multiple gene expression signatures from a diverse collection of microarray data sets. We collected and analyzed

Daniel R. Rhodes; K. Shanker; Nandan Deshpande; Radhika Varambally; Debashis Ghosh; Terrence Barrette; Akhilesh Pandey; Arul M. Chinnaiyan

2004-01-01

43

A DNA methylation microarray-based study identifies ERG as a gene commonly methylated in prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation of promoter regions is a common event in prostate cancer, one of the most common cancers in men worldwide. Because prior reports demonstrating that DNA methylation is important in prostate cancer studied a limited number of genes, we systematically quantified the DNA methylation status of 1,505 CpG dinucleotides for 807 genes in 78 paraffin-embedded prostate cancer samples and three normal prostate samples. The ERG gene, commonly repressed in prostate cells in the absence of an oncogenic fusion to the TMPRSS2 gene, was one of the most commonly methylated genes, occurring in 74% of prostate cancer specimens. In an independent group of patient samples, we confirmed that ERG DNA methylation was common, occurring in 57% of specimens, and cancer-specific. The ERG promoter is marked by repressive chromatin marks mediated by polycomb proteins in both normal prostate cells and prostate cancer cells, which may explain ERG's predisposition to DNA methylation and the fact that tumors with ERG DNA methylation were more methylated, in general. These results demonstrate that bead arrays offer a high-throughput method to discover novel genes with promoter DNA methylation such as ERG, whose measurement may improve our ability to more accurately detect prostate cancer. PMID:21946329

Schwartzman, Jacob; Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange; Gibbs, Angela; Gao, Lina; Corless, Christopher L; Jin, Jennifer; Zarour, Luai; Higano, Celestia; True, Lawrence D; Vessella, Robert L; Wilmot, Beth; Bottomly, Daniel; McWeeney, Shannon K; Bova, G. Steven; Partin, Alan W; Mori, Motomi

2011-01-01

44

Association scan of 14,500 nsSNPs in four common diseases identifies variants involved in autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

We have genotyped 14,436 nsSNPs and 897 MHC tagSNPs in 1000 independent cases of Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD), Multiple Sclerosis and Breast Cancer. Comparing each of these diseases against a common control set of 1500 unselected healthy British individuals, we report initial association and independent replication of two new loci for AS, ARTS1 and IL23R, and confirmation of the previously reported AITD association with TSHR and FCRL3. These findings, enabled in part by expanding the control reference group with individuals from the other disease groups to increase statistical power, highlight important new possibilities for autoimmune regulation and suggest that IL23R may be a common susceptibility factor for the major ‘seronegative’ diseases. PMID:17952073

2009-01-01

45

Preparation and In Vivo Evaluation of Radioiodinated closo-Decaborate(2-) Derivatives to Identify Structural Components That Provide Low Retention in Tissues  

PubMed Central

Introduction In vivo deastatination of 211At-labeled biomolecules can severely limit their use in endoradiotherapy. Our studies have shown that the use of closo-decaborate(2-) moiety for 211At-labeling of biomolecules provides high in vivo stability towards deastatination. However, data from those studies have also been suggestive that some astatinated closo-decaborate(2-) catabolites may be retained in tissues. In this study, we investigated the in vivo distributions of several structurally simple closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives to gain information on the effects of functional groups if catabolites are released into the blood system from the carrier biomolecule. Methods Thirteen closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives were synthesized and radioiodinated for evaluation. Tissue concentrations of the radioiodinated compounds were obtained in groups of 5 mice at 1 and 4 h post injection (pi). Dual label (125I and 131I) experiments permitted evaluation of 2 compounds in each set of mice. Results All of the target compounds were readily synthesized. Radioiodination reactions were conducted with chloramine-T and Na[125/131I]I in water to give high yields (75-96%) of the desired compounds. Biodistribution data at 1 and 4 h pi (representing catabolites released into the blood system) showed small differences in tissue concentrations for some compounds, but large differences for others. The results indicate that formal (overall) charge on the compounds could not be used as a predictor of tissue localization or retention. However, derivatives containing carboxylate groups generally had lower tissue concentrations. Acid cleavable hydrazone functionalities appeared to be the best candidates for further study. Conclusions Further studies incorporating hydrazone functionalities into pendant groups for biomolecule radiohalogenation are warranted. PMID:20152716

Wilbur, D. Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K.; Perry, Matthew A.

2009-01-01

46

The Effects of Small Sample Size on Identifying Polytomous DIF Using the Liu-Agresti Estimator of the Cumulative Common Odds Ratio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an evaluation of the behavior of the Liu-Agresti estimator of the cumulative common odds ratio when identifying differential item functioning (DIF) with polytomously scored test items using small samples. The Liu-Agresti estimator has been proposed by Penfield and Algina as a promising approach for the study of polytomous DIF but no…

Carvajal, Jorge; Skorupski, William P.

2010-01-01

47

Law, Societies, and Justice is an interdisciplinary program committed to exploring the forms of social control, institutionalized disputing, rights claiming, and justice commonly identified with  

E-print Network

Law, Societies, and Justice is an interdisciplinary program committed to exploring the forms of social control, institutionalized disputing, rights claiming, and justice commonly identified with law majors 85 Law, Societies, and Justice minors 77 Human Rights minors 1 Disability Studies major 15

Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

48

Identifying the unique and common characteristics among the dsm-iv antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic personality disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinical chart-review study of the Cluster B personality disorders (PDs) was conducted to evaluate the specificity of DSM-IV criteria for the Antisocial Personality Disorder (ANPD), Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD); and Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD). Eighty-six outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for a PD were identified through a retrospective chart-review procedure. Records of these 86 patients were independently rated on all

Daniel J Holdwick; Mark J Hilsenroth; Frank D Castlebury; Mark A Blais

1998-01-01

49

Transcriptome Analysis of the Dihydrotestosterone-Exposed Fetal Rat Gubernaculum Identifies Common Androgen and Insulin-Like 3 Targets1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Androgens and insulin-like 3 (INSL3) are required for development of the fetal gubernaculum and testicular descent. Previous studies suggested that the INSL3-exposed fetal gubernacular transcriptome is enriched for genes involved in neural pathways. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of fetal gubernaculum explants exposed to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and compared this response to that with INSL3. We exposed fetal (Embryonic Day 17) rat gubernacula to DHT for 24 h (10 and 30 nM) or 6 h (1 and 10 nM) in organ culture and analyzed gene expression relative to that of vehicle-treated controls using Affymetrix arrays. Results were annotated using functional, pathway, and promoter analyses and independently validated for selected transcripts using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Transcripts were differentially expressed after 24 h but not 6 h. Most highly overrepresented functional categories included those related to gene expression, skeletal and muscular development and function, and Wnt signaling. Promoter response elements enriched in the DHT-specific transcriptome included consensus sequences for c-ETS1, ELK1, CREB, CRE-BP1/c-June, NRF2, and USF. We observed that 55% of DHT probe sets were also differentially expressed after INSL3 exposure and that the direction of change was the same in 96%. The qRT-PCR results confirmed that DHT increased expression of the INSL3-responsive genes Crlf1 and Chrdl2 but reduced expression of Wnt4. We also validated reduced Tgfb2 and Cxcl12 and increased Slit3 expression following DHT exposure. These data suggest a robust overlap in the DHT- and INSL3-regulated transcriptome that may be mediated in part by CREB signaling and a common Wnt pathway response for both hormones in the fetal gubernaculum. PMID:24174575

Barthold, Julia S.; Wang, Yanping; Robbins, Alan; Pike, Jack; McDowell, Erin; Johnson, Kamin J.; McCahan, Suzanne M.

2013-01-01

50

Spoon River College Student Retention Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a student retention project conducted at Spoon River College (SRC), specific populations served by SRC were identified; strategies to increase retention of particular student populations were developed; students in need of assistance were identified; and a transfer graduate follow-up study and two cohort tracking studies involving all…

Gardner, Janet L.

51

Modelling the fate of six common pharmaceuticals in a small stream: quantification of attenuation and retention in different stream-specific environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of pharmaceutical residues in streaming waters is common in urbanized areas. Although the occurrence and source of these micropollutants is known, their behavior in these aquatic ecosystems is still only partly understood. Specifically, quantitative information of biogeochemical processes in stream-specific environments where predominant reactions occur is often missing. In an attempt to address this knowledge gap, we performed simultaneous tracer tests in Säva Brook, Sweden, with bezafibrate, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, metoprolol and naproxen, as well as with the more inert solutes uranine and Rhodamine WT. The breakthrough curves at five successive sampling stations along a 16 km long stream reach were evaluated using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model framework containing surface water transport together with a representation of transient storage in slow/immobile zones of the stream. The multi-tracer experiment opens for decoupling of hydrological and biogeochemical contribution to the fate, and by linking impact and sensitivity analyses to relative significance of model parameters the most important processes for each contaminant were elucidated. Specifically for Säva Brook, the proposed methodology revealed that the pharmaceutical-contaminated stream water remained in the storage zones for times corresponding to 5-25% of the flow time of the stream. Furthermore, the results indicate a great variability in terms of predominant biogeochemical processes between the different contaminants. Rapid reactions occurring in the transient storage zone attenuated both ibuprofen and clofibric acid, and we conclude that a major degradation pathway for these contaminants was biodegradation in the hyporheic zone. In contrast, bezafibrate, metoprolol, and naproxen were mainly affected by sorption both in the storage zone and the main channel, while diclofenac displayed negligible effects of biogeochemical reactions.

Riml, Joakim; Wörman, Anders; Kunkel, Uwe; Radke, Michael

2013-04-01

52

Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein Targeting of Phospholamban: A Common Role for an N-Terminal Di-Arginine Motif in ER Retention?  

PubMed Central

Background Phospholamban (PLN) is an effective inhibitor of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, which transports Ca2+ into the SR lumen, leading to muscle relaxation. A mutation of PLN in which one of the di-arginine residues at positions 13 and 14 was deleted led to a severe, early onset dilated cardiomyopathy. Here we were interested in determining the cellular mechanisms involved in this disease-causing mutation. Methodology/Principal Finding Mutations deleting codons for either or both Arg13 or Arg14 resulted in the mislocalization of PLN from the ER. Our data show that PLN is recycled via the retrograde Golgi to ER membrane traffic pathway involving COP-I vesicles, since co-immunoprecipitation assays determined that COP I interactions are dependent on an intact di-arginine motif as PLN R?14 did not co-precipitate with COP I containing vesicles. Bioinformatic analysis determined that the di-arginine motif is present in the first 25 residues in a large number of all ER/SR Gene Ontology (GO) annotated proteins. Mutations in the di-arginine motif of the Sigma 1-type opioid receptor, the ?-subunit of the signal recognition particle receptor, and Sterol-O-acyltransferase, three proteins identified in our bioinformatic screen also caused mislocalization of these known ER-resident proteins. Conclusion We conclude that PLN is enriched in the ER due to COP I-mediated transport that is dependent on its intact di-arginine motif and that the N-terminal di-arginine motif may act as a general ER retrieval sequence. PMID:20634894

Sharma, Parveen; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Grace, Kevin; Ursprung, Claudia; Kislinger, Thomas; Gramolini, Anthony O.

2010-01-01

53

Fission-product retention in HTGR fuels  

SciTech Connect

Retention data for gaseous and metallic fission products are presented for both Triso-coated and Biso-coated HTGR fuel particles. Performance trends are established that relate fission product retention to operating parameters, such as temperature, burnup, and neutron exposure. It is concluded that Biso-coated particles are not adequately retentive of fission gas or metallic cesium, and Triso-coated particles which retain cesium still lose silver. Design implications related to these performance trends are identified and discussed.

Homan, F.J.; Kania, M.J.; Tiegs, T.N.

1982-01-01

54

A Repurposing Approach Identifies Off-Patent Drugs with Fungicidal Cryptococcal Activity, a Common Structural Chemotype, and Pharmacological Properties Relevant to the Treatment of Cryptococcosis  

PubMed Central

New, more accessible therapies for cryptococcosis represent an unmet clinical need of global importance. We took a repurposing approach to identify previously developed drugs with fungicidal activity toward Cryptococcus neoformans, using a high-throughput screening assay designed to detect drugs that directly kill fungi. From a set of 1,120 off-patent medications and bioactive molecules, we identified 31 drugs/molecules with fungicidal activity, including 15 drugs for which direct antifungal activity had not previously been reported. A significant portion of the drugs are orally bioavailable and cross the blood-brain barrier, features key to the development of a widely applicable anticryptococcal agent. Structural analysis of this set revealed a common chemotype consisting of a hydrophobic moiety linked to a basic amine, features that are common to drugs that cross the blood-brain barrier and access the phagolysosome, two important niches of C. neoformans. Consistent with their fungicidal activity, the set contains eight drugs that are either additive or synergistic in combination with fluconazole. Importantly, we identified two drugs, amiodarone and thioridazine, with activity against intraphagocytic C. neoformans. Finally, the set of drugs is also enriched for molecules that inhibit calmodulin, and we have confirmed that seven drugs directly bind C. neoformans calmodulin, providing a molecular target that may contribute to the mechanism of antifungal activity. Taken together, these studies provide a foundation for the optimization of the antifungal properties of a set of pharmacologically attractive scaffolds for the development of novel anticryptococcal therapies. PMID:23243064

Butts, Arielle; DiDone, Louis; Koselny, Kristy; Baxter, Bonnie K.; Chabrier-Rosello, Yeissa; Wellington, Melanie

2013-01-01

55

Efficacy of the core DNA barcodes in identifying processed and poorly conserved plant materials commonly used in South African traditional medicine  

PubMed Central

Abstract Medicinal plants cover a broad range of taxa, which may be phylogenetically less related but morphologically very similar. Such morphological similarity between species may lead to misidentification and inappropriate use. Also the substitution of a medicinal plant by a cheaper alternative (e.g. other non-medicinal plant species), either due to misidentification, or deliberately to cheat consumers, is an issue of growing concern. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to identify commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. Using the core plant barcodes, matK and rbcLa, obtained from processed and poorly conserved materials sold at the muthi traditional medicine market, we tested efficacy of the barcodes in species discrimination. Based on genetic divergence, PCR amplification efficiency and BLAST algorithm, we revealed varied discriminatory potentials for the DNA barcodes. In general, the barcodes exhibited high discriminatory power, indicating their effectiveness in verifying the identity of the most common plant species traded in South African medicinal markets. BLAST algorithm successfully matched 61% of the queries against a reference database, suggesting that most of the information supplied by sellers at traditional medicinal markets in South Africa is correct. Our findings reinforce the utility of DNA barcoding technique in limiting false identification that can harm public health. PMID:24453559

Mankga, Ledile T.; Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Moteetee, Annah M.; Daru, Barnabas H.; van der Bank, Michelle

2013-01-01

56

PDGFRA amplification is common in pediatric and adult high-grade astrocytomas and identifies a poor prognostic group in IDH1 mutant glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

High-grade astrocytomas (HGAs), corresponding to WHO grades III (AA) and IV (GBM), are biologically aggressive and their molecular classification is increasingly relevant to clinical management. PDGFRA amplification is common in HGAs, although its prognostic significance remains unclear. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the most sensitive technique for detecting PDGFRA copy number gains, we determined PDGFRA amplification status in 123 pediatric and 263 adult HGAs. A range of PDGFRA FISH patterns were identified and cases were scored as non-amplified (normal and polysomy) or amplified (low-level and high-level). PDGFRA amplification was frequent in pediatric (29.3%) and adult (20.9%) tumors. Amplification was not prognostic in pediatric HGAs. In adult tumors diagnosed initially as GBM, the presence of combined PDGFRA amplification and IDH1R132H mutation was a significant independent prognostic factor (p=0.01). In HGAs, PDGFRA amplification is common and can manifest as high-level and focal or low-level amplifications. Our data indicate that the latter is more prevalent than previously reported with copy number averaging techniques. To our knowledge, this is the largest survey of PDGFRA status in adult and pediatric HGAs and suggests PDGFRA amplification increases with grade and is associated with a less favorable prognosis in IDH1 mutant de novo GBMs. PMID:23438035

Phillips, Joanna J.; Aranda, Derick; Ellison, David W.; Judkins, Alexander R.; Croul, Sidney E.; Brat, Daniel J.; Ligon, Keith L.; Horbinski, Craig; Venneti, Sriram; Zadeh, Gelareh; Santi, Mariarita; Zhou, Shengmei; Appin, Christina L.; Sioletic, Stefano; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Martinez-Lage, Maria; Robinson, Aaron E.; Yong, William H.; Cloughesy, Timothy; Lai, Albert; Phillips, Heidi S.; Marshall, Roxanne; Mueller, Sabine; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Perry, Arie

2013-01-01

57

Neckband retention for lesser snow geese in the western Arctic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Neckbands are commonly used in waterfowl studies (especially geese) to identify individuals for determination of movement and behavior and to estimate population parameters. Substantial neckband loss can adversely affect these research objectives and produce biased survival estimates. We used capture, recovery, and observation histories for lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) banded in the western Arctic, 1993-1996, to estimate neckband retention. We found that neckband retention differed between snow goose breeding colonies at Wrangel Island, Russia, and Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Male snow geese had higher neckband loss than females, a pattern similar to that found for Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and lesser snow geese in Alaska. We found that the rate of neckband loss increased with time, suggesting that neckbands are lost as the plastic deteriorates. Survival estimates for geese based on resighting neckbands will be biased unless estimates are corrected for neckband loss. We recommend that neckband loss be estimated using survival estimators that incorporate recaptures, recoveries, and observations of marked birds. Research and management studies using neckbands should be designed to improve neckband retention and to include the assessment of neckband retention.

Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Smith, A.E.; Baranyuk, W.; Cooch, E.G.

2001-01-01

58

Advances--and a Retreat--in Student Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of a 50% drop-out rate of first-year to second-year students at Mountain Empire Community College, retention was identified as a priority. Students and faculty were surveyed to determine causes of student withdrawals, a summer retreat was held, and a retention task force was created to develop a comprehensive retention plan for the fall of…

Sandel, Robert H.; Sydow, Debbie

1997-01-01

59

5 CFR 293.404 - Retention schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Service accepts a Presidential appointment pursuant to 5 U.S.C...employed under that Presidential appointment. When the appointment ends, and the individual...necessary beyond the retention schedules identified in...

2011-01-01

60

5 CFR 293.404 - Retention schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Service accepts a Presidential appointment pursuant to 5 U.S.C...employed under that Presidential appointment. When the appointment ends, and the individual...necessary beyond the retention schedules identified in...

2010-01-01

61

Antibody screening identifies 78 putative host proteins involved in Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection or propagation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed Central

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a serious and notifiable disease afflicting common and koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L., termed koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). Significant progress has been achieved in the last 15 years, since the initial reports surfaced from Germany, USA and Israel of the CyHV-3 virus, in terms of pathology and detection. However, relatively few studies have been carried out in understanding viral replication and propagation. Antibody-based affinity has been used for detection of CyHV-3 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR-based techniques, and immunohistological assays have been used to describe a CyHV-3 membrane protein, termed ORF81. In this study, monoclonal antibodies linked to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated spin columns were used to purify CyHV-3 and host proteins from tissue samples originating in either CyHV-3 symptomatic or asymptomatic fish. The samples were next analysed either by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and subsequently by electrospray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) or by ESI-MS analysis directly after purification. A total of 78 host proteins and five CyHV-3 proteins were identified in the two analyses. These data can be used to develop novel control methods for CyHV-3, based on pathways or proteins identified in this study. PMID:23347276

Gotesman, M; Soliman, H; El-Matbouli, M

2014-01-01

62

Comparison of low molecular weight glutenin subunits identified by SDS-PAGE, 2-DE, MALDI-TOF-MS and PCR in common wheat  

PubMed Central

Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) play a crucial role in determining end-use quality of common wheat by influencing the viscoelastic properties of dough. Four different methods - sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, IEF × SDS-PAGE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were used to characterize the LMW-GS composition in 103 cultivars from 12 countries. Results At the Glu-A3 locus, all seven alleles could be reliably identified by 2-DE and PCR. However, the alleles Glu-A3e and Glu-A3d could not be routinely distinguished from Glu-A3f and Glu-A3g, respectively, based on SDS-PAGE, and the allele Glu-A3a could not be differentiated from Glu-A3c by MALDI-TOF-MS. At the Glu-B3 locus, alleles Glu-B3a, Glu-B3b, Glu-B3c, Glu-B3g, Glu-B3h and Glu-B3j could be clearly identified by all four methods, whereas Glu-B3ab, Glu-B3ac, Glu-B3ad could only be identified by the 2-DE method. At the Glu-D3 locus, allelic identification was problematic for the electrophoresis based methods and PCR. MALDI-TOF-MS has the potential to reliably identify the Glu-D3 alleles. Conclusions PCR is the simplest, most accurate, lowest cost, and therefore recommended method for identification of Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 alleles in breeding programs. A combination of methods was required to identify certain alleles, and would be especially useful when characterizing new alleles. A standard set of 30 cultivars for use in future studies was chosen to represent all LMW-GS allelic variants in the collection. Among them, Chinese Spring, Opata 85, Seri 82 and Pavon 76 were recommended as a core set for use in SDS-PAGE gels. Glu-D3c and Glu-D3e are the same allele. Two new alleles, namely, Glu-D3m in cultivar Darius, and Glu-D3n in Fengmai 27, were identified by 2-DE. Utilization of the suggested standard cultivar set, seed of which is available from the CIMMYT and INRA Clermont-Ferrand germplasm collections, should also promote information sharing in the identification of individual LMW-GS and thus provide useful information for quality improvement in common wheat. PMID:20573275

2010-01-01

63

Screening for phenotype selective activity in multidrug resistant cells identifies a novel tubulin active agent insensitive to common forms of cancer drug resistance  

PubMed Central

Background Drug resistance is a common cause of treatment failure in cancer patients and encompasses a multitude of different mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to identify drugs effective on multidrug resistant cells. Methods The RPMI 8226 myeloma cell line and its multidrug resistant subline 8226/Dox40 was screened for cytotoxicity in response to 3,000 chemically diverse compounds using a fluorometric cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). Follow-up profiling was subsequently performed using various cellular and biochemical assays. Results One compound, designated VLX40, demonstrated a higher activity against 8226/Dox40 cells compared to its parental counterpart. VLX40 induced delayed cell death with apoptotic features. Mechanistic exploration was performed using gene expression analysis of drug exposed tumor cells to generate a drug-specific signature. Strong connections to tubulin inhibitors and microtubule cytoskeleton were retrieved. The mechanistic hypothesis of VLX40 acting as a tubulin inhibitor was confirmed by direct measurements of interaction with tubulin polymerization using a biochemical assay and supported by demonstration of G2/M cell cycle arrest. When tested against a broad panel of primary cultures of patient tumor cells (PCPTC) representing different forms of leukemia and solid tumors, VLX40 displayed high activity against both myeloid and lymphoid leukemias in contrast to the reference compound vincristine to which myeloid blast cells are often insensitive. Significant in vivo activity was confirmed in myeloid U-937 cells implanted subcutaneously in mice using the hollow fiber model. Conclusions The results indicate that VLX40 may be a useful prototype for development of novel tubulin active agents that are insensitive to common mechanisms of cancer drug resistance. PMID:23919498

2013-01-01

64

Student Retention in the VCCS, Academic Years 1985-86 through 1987-88.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted in the Virginia Community College System (VCCS) to identify changes in student retention rates since a marketing and retention initiative was undertaken in 1985. The study also sought to determine factors that may have affected retention and colleges that showed exceptionally high, low, or improved retention rates. The…

Puyear, Donald E.

65

Demographic Clusters Identified within the Northern Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncates) Unusual Mortality Event: January 2010 - June 2013  

PubMed Central

A multi-year unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates) was declared in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) with an initial start date of February 2010 and remains ongoing as of August 2014. To examine potential changing characteristics of the UME over time, we compared the number and demographics of dolphin strandings from January 2010 through June 2013 across the entire GoM as well as against baseline (1990-2009) GoM stranding patterns. Years 2010 and 2011 had the highest annual number of stranded dolphins since Louisiana’s record began, and 2011 was one of the years with the highest strandings for both Mississippi and Alabama. Statewide, annual numbers of stranded dolphins were not elevated for GoM coasts of Florida or Texas during the UME period. Demographic, spatial, and temporal clusters identified within this UME included increased strandings in northern coastal Louisiana and Mississippi (March-May 2010); Barataria Bay, Louisiana (August 2010-December 2011); Mississippi and Alabama (2011, including a high prevalence and number of stranded perinates); and multiple GoM states during early 2013. While the causes of the GoM UME have not been determined, the location and magnitude of dolphin strandings during and the year following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including the Barataria Bay cluster from August 2010 to December 2011, overlap in time and space with locations that received heavy and prolonged oiling. There are, however, multiple known causes of previous GoM dolphin UMEs, including brevetoxicosis and dolphin morbillivirus. Additionally, increased dolphin strandings occurred in northern Louisiana and Mississippi before the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Identification of spatial, temporal, and demographic clusters within the UME suggest that this mortality event may involve different contributing factors varying by location, time, and bottlenose dolphin populations that will be better discerned by incorporating diagnostic information, including histopathology. PMID:25671657

Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Garrison, Lance; Litz, Jenny; Fougeres, Erin; Mase, Blair; Rappucci, Gina; Stratton, Elizabeth; Carmichael, Ruth; Odell, Daniel; Shannon, Delphine; Shippee, Steve; Smith, Suzanne; Staggs, Lydia; Tumlin, Mandy; Whitehead, Heidi; Rowles, Teri

2015-01-01

66

Demographic Clusters Identified within the Northern Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncates) Unusual Mortality Event: January 2010 - June 2013.  

PubMed

A multi-year unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates) was declared in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) with an initial start date of February 2010 and remains ongoing as of August 2014. To examine potential changing characteristics of the UME over time, we compared the number and demographics of dolphin strandings from January 2010 through June 2013 across the entire GoM as well as against baseline (1990-2009) GoM stranding patterns. Years 2010 and 2011 had the highest annual number of stranded dolphins since Louisiana's record began, and 2011 was one of the years with the highest strandings for both Mississippi and Alabama. Statewide, annual numbers of stranded dolphins were not elevated for GoM coasts of Florida or Texas during the UME period. Demographic, spatial, and temporal clusters identified within this UME included increased strandings in northern coastal Louisiana and Mississippi (March-May 2010); Barataria Bay, Louisiana (August 2010-December 2011); Mississippi and Alabama (2011, including a high prevalence and number of stranded perinates); and multiple GoM states during early 2013. While the causes of the GoM UME have not been determined, the location and magnitude of dolphin strandings during and the year following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including the Barataria Bay cluster from August 2010 to December 2011, overlap in time and space with locations that received heavy and prolonged oiling. There are, however, multiple known causes of previous GoM dolphin UMEs, including brevetoxicosis and dolphin morbillivirus. Additionally, increased dolphin strandings occurred in northern Louisiana and Mississippi before the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Identification of spatial, temporal, and demographic clusters within the UME suggest that this mortality event may involve different contributing factors varying by location, time, and bottlenose dolphin populations that will be better discerned by incorporating diagnostic information, including histopathology. PMID:25671657

Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Garrison, Lance; Litz, Jenny; Fougeres, Erin; Mase, Blair; Rappucci, Gina; Stratton, Elizabeth; Carmichael, Ruth; Odell, Daniel; Shannon, Delphine; Shippee, Steve; Smith, Suzanne; Staggs, Lydia; Tumlin, Mandy; Whitehead, Heidi; Rowles, Teri

2015-01-01

67

Variations in susceptibility to common insecticides and resistance mechanisms among morphologically identified sibling species of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus in Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Background Anopheles subpictus s.l., an important malaria vector in Sri Lanka, is a complex of four morphologically identified sibling species A-D. Species A-D reportedly differ in bio-ecological traits that are important for vector control. We investigated possible variations that had not been reported previously, in the susceptibility to common insecticides and resistance mechanisms among the An. subpictus sibling species. Methods Adult An. subpictus were collected from localities in four administrative districts in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Single female isoprogeny lines were established and sibling species status determined according to reported egg morphology. World Health Organization's standard protocols were used for insecticide bioassays and biochemical assays to determine insecticide susceptibility and resistance mechanisms. Susceptibility of mosquitoes was tested against DDT (5%), malathion (4%), deltamethrin (0.05%) and ?-cyhalothrin (0.05%). Biochemical basis for resistance was determined through assaying for esterase, glutathione-S-transferase and monooxygenase activities and the insensitivity of acetycholinesterase (AChE) to propoxur inhibition. Results All sibling species were highly resistant to DDT. However there were significant differences among the sibling species in their susceptibility to the other tested insecticides. Few species A could be collected for testing, and where testing was possible, species A tended to behave more similarly to species C and D than to B. Species B was more susceptible to all the tested insecticides than the other sibling species. This difference may be attributed to the predominance of species B in coastal areas where selection pressure due to indoor residual spraying of insecticides (IRS) was lower. However there were significant differences between the more inland species C and D mainly towards pyrethroids. Higher GST activities in species C and D might have contributed to their greater DDT resistance than species B. Malathion resistance in both species C and D may be caused by elevated GST activity and an altered insensitive target site in AChE. In addition, a carboxylesterase based malathion resistance mechanisms was also detected in species C and D. Elevated esterase levels in species C and D might have contributed to the low levels of pyrethroid resistance. However an absence of elevated activity of monooxygenases in species B, C and D indicates that monooxygenases are unlikely to be the cause of this partial resistance to pyrethroids. Conclusions The differences in insecticide susceptibility and insecticide resistance mechanism shown by An. subpictus sibling species are important considerations for developing the malaria control and eradication program in Sri Lanka. Similar studies on species complexes of other anopheline vectors of malaria are necessary for effective malaria control worldwide. The differential susceptibility findings are also consistent with most, if not all, morphologically identified An. subpictus species B in Sri Lanka belonging to the An. sundaicus complex. There is a need therefore to develop molecular techniques that can be used to differentiate morphologically similar anopheline species in field conditions for more effective vector control. PMID:22325737

2012-01-01

68

Student Responses to Merit Scholarship Retention Rules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common justification for state-sponsored merit scholarships like Georgia's HOPE program is to promote academic achievement. However, grade-based retention rules encourage other behavioral responses. Using longitudinal records of enrolled undergraduates at the University of Georgia between 1989 and 1997, we estimate the effects of HOPE on…

Cornwell, Christopher M.; Lee, Kyung Hee; Mustard, David B.

2005-01-01

69

Recruitment and Retention with a Spin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strategic planning and innovation at Bismarck State College (BSC) found common ground in the college's goal to recruit and retain employees in an environment of low unemployment and strong competition for skilled employees. BSC's strategic plan for 2007-09 included the objective "to increase retention of employees." One of the strategies connected…

Lindgren, Rita; Hixson, Carla Braun

2010-01-01

70

Drug Retention Times  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

Center for Human Reliability Studies

2007-05-01

71

Drug Retention Times  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

Center for Human Reliability Studies

2007-05-01

72

A trans-ethnic genetic study of rheumatoid arthritis identified FCGR2A as a candidate common risk factor in Japanese and European populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common systemic autoimmune disease and its onset and prognosis are controlled by genetic, immunological,\\u000a and environmental factors. The HLA locus, particularly HLA-DRB1, is its strongest genetic risk determinant across ethnicities. Several other genes, including PTPN22 and PADI4, show modest association with RA. However, they cover only a part of its genetic components and their relative

Roubila Meziani; Ryo Yamada; Meiko Takahashi; Kenei Ohigashi; Akio Morinobu; Chikashi Terao; Hitomi Hiratani; Koichiro Ohmura; Masao Yamaguchi; Takashi Nomura; Alexandre Vasilescu; Miki Kokubo; Victor Renault; Katsura Hirosawa; Chanavee Ratanajaraya; Simon Heath; Tsuneyo Mimori; Shimon Sakaguchi; Mark Lathrop; Inga Melchers; Shunichi Kumagai; Fumihiko Matsuda

73

Fuel retention in tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tritium retention constitutes an outstanding problem for ITER operation and future fusion reactors, particularly for the choice of the first wall materials. In present day tokamaks, fuel retention is evaluated by two complementary methods. The in situ gas balance allows evaluation of how much fuel is retained during a discharge and, typically, up to one day of experiments. Post-mortem analysis is used to determine where the fuel is retained, integrated over an experimental campaign. In all the carbon clad devices, using the two methods, the retention is demonstrated to be very closely related to the carbon net erosion. This results from plasma-wall interaction with ion and charge-exchange fluxes, ELMs and is proportional to the pulse duration. The fuel retention by implantation saturates at high wall temperatures and limits the D/C ratio in the deposited layers but, as far as a carbon source exists, the dominant retention process remains the co-deposition of carbon with deuterium. In full metallic device, in the absence of wall conditioning with boron, co-deposition is strongly reduced and fuel retention below 1% can be achieved. Extrapolation to ITER shows that removing the carbon from the plasma-facing components would increase the number of discharges to 2500 before reaching the maximum tritium limit of 700 g.

Loarer, T.

2009-06-01

74

Scientists Identify Markers on Human Breast Cancer Cells Linked to Development of an Aggressive, But Less Common Form of Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Scientists have identified a group of surface markers on cells linked to an aggressive type of breast cancer called estrogen receptor-negative cancer. The research, conducted by scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, appeared online May 18, 2010, and in print June 1, 2010, in Cancer Research.

75

Targeted NGS gene panel identifies mutations in RSPH1 causing primary ciliary dyskinesia and a common mechanism for ciliary central pair agenesis due to radial spoke defects.  

PubMed

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited chronic respiratory obstructive disease with randomized body laterality and infertility, resulting from cilia and sperm dysmotility. PCD is characterized by clinical variability and extensive genetic heterogeneity, associated with different cilia ultrastructural defects and mutations identified in >20 genes. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies therefore present a promising approach for genetic diagnosis which is not yet in routine use. We developed a targeted panel-based NGS pipeline to identify mutations by sequencing of selected candidate genes in 70 genetically undefined PCD patients. This detected loss-of-function RSPH1 mutations in four individuals with isolated central pair (CP) agenesis and normal body laterality, from two unrelated families. Ultrastructural analysis in RSPH1-mutated cilia revealed transposition of peripheral outer microtubules into the 'empty' CP space, accompanied by a distinctive intermittent loss of the central pair microtubules. We find that mutations in RSPH1, RSPH4A and RSPH9, which all encode homologs of components of the 'head' structure of ciliary radial spoke complexes identified in Chlamydomonas, cause clinical phenotypes that appear to be indistinguishable except at the gene level. By high-resolution immunofluorescence we identified a loss of RSPH4A and RSPH9 along with RSPH1 from RSPH1-mutated cilia, suggesting RSPH1 mutations may result in loss of the entire spoke head structure. CP loss is seen in up to 28% of PCD cases, in whom laterality determination specified by CP-less embryonic node cilia remains undisturbed. We propose this defect could arise from instability or agenesis of the ciliary central microtubules due to loss of their normal radial spoke head tethering. PMID:24518672

Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Shoemark, Amelia; Schmidts, Miriam; Patel, Mitali; Jimenez, Gina; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Biju; Dixon, Mellisa; Hirst, Robert A; Rutman, Andrew; Burgoyne, Thomas; Williams, Christopher; Scully, Juliet; Bolard, Florence; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Beales, Philip L; Hogg, Claire; Yang, Pinfen; Chung, Eddie M K; Emes, Richard D; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Mitchison, Hannah M

2014-07-01

76

Targeted NGS gene panel identifies mutations in RSPH1 causing primary ciliary dyskinesia and a common mechanism for ciliary central pair agenesis due to radial spoke defects  

PubMed Central

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited chronic respiratory obstructive disease with randomized body laterality and infertility, resulting from cilia and sperm dysmotility. PCD is characterized by clinical variability and extensive genetic heterogeneity, associated with different cilia ultrastructural defects and mutations identified in >20 genes. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies therefore present a promising approach for genetic diagnosis which is not yet in routine use. We developed a targeted panel-based NGS pipeline to identify mutations by sequencing of selected candidate genes in 70 genetically undefined PCD patients. This detected loss-of-function RSPH1 mutations in four individuals with isolated central pair (CP) agenesis and normal body laterality, from two unrelated families. Ultrastructural analysis in RSPH1-mutated cilia revealed transposition of peripheral outer microtubules into the ‘empty’ CP space, accompanied by a distinctive intermittent loss of the central pair microtubules. We find that mutations in RSPH1, RSPH4A and RSPH9, which all encode homologs of components of the ‘head’ structure of ciliary radial spoke complexes identified in Chlamydomonas, cause clinical phenotypes that appear to be indistinguishable except at the gene level. By high-resolution immunofluorescence we identified a loss of RSPH4A and RSPH9 along with RSPH1 from RSPH1-mutated cilia, suggesting RSPH1 mutations may result in loss of the entire spoke head structure. CP loss is seen in up to 28% of PCD cases, in whom laterality determination specified by CP-less embryonic node cilia remains undisturbed. We propose this defect could arise from instability or agenesis of the ciliary central microtubules due to loss of their normal radial spoke head tethering. PMID:24518672

Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Shoemark, Amelia; Schmidts, Miriam; Patel, Mitali; Jimenez, Gina; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Biju; Dixon, Mellisa; Hirst, Robert A.; Rutman, Andrew; Burgoyne, Thomas; Williams, Christopher; Scully, Juliet; Bolard, Florence; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Beales, Philip L.; Hogg, Claire; Yang, Pinfen; Chung, Eddie M.K.; Emes, Richard D.; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Mitchison, Hannah M.

2014-01-01

77

Predicting Rural College Retention among First-Year Undergraduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project identified statistically significant predictors of first-year retention among 1991-92 freshmen who were enrolled in a rural midwestern comprehensive college. Results of a step-wise discriminant analysis indicated that college grade point average (GPA) was the best overall predictor of retention of first-year students (n=376). Results…

Roweton, William E.

78

Flying Blind: National Graduation Goals and Adult Student Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this article is to shed light on a variety of metrics institutions and some accreditors currently use to track the retention of working adults. Further, it identifies a number of important principles that all stakeholders should consider when creating a standard measure of adult student retention. Finally, it describes a few errors to…

Tilghman, Chris

2012-01-01

79

Work Retention and Nonspecific Low Back Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

and Introduction Abstract Study Design: A cohort study of patients with nonspecific low back pain (LBP) participated in a 4-week multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. Objective: To identify factors that predict work retention 24 months after treatment in patients with nonspecific LBP. Summary of Background Data: There is evidence that select physical, psychologic, and psychosocial factors are related to positive outcome for

Marco A. Campello; Sherri R. Weiser; Margareta Nordin; Rudi Hiebert

2006-01-01

80

Targeted Next Generation Sequencing Identifies Novel Mutations in RP1 as a Relatively Common Cause of Autosomal Recessive Rod-Cone Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

We report ophthalmic and genetic findings in families with autosomal recessive rod-cone dystrophy (arRCD) and RP1 mutations. Detailed ophthalmic examination was performed in 242 sporadic and arRCD subjects. Genomic DNA was investigated using our customized next generation sequencing panel targeting up to 123 genes implicated in inherited retinal disorders. Stringent filtering coupled with Sanger sequencing and followed by cosegregation analysis was performed to confirm biallelism and the implication of the most likely disease causing variants. Sequencing identified 9 RP1 mutations in 7 index cases. Eight of the mutations were novel, and all cosegregated with severe arRCD phenotype, found associated with additional macular changes. Among the identified mutations, 4 belong to a region, previously associated with arRCD, and 5 others in a region previously associated with adRCD. Our prevalence studies showed that RP1 mutations account for up to 2.5% of arRCD. These results point out for the necessity of sequencing RP1 when genetically investigating sporadic and arRCD. It further highlights the interest of unbiased sequencing technique, which allows investigating the implication of the same gene in different modes of inheritance. Finally, it reports that different regions of RP1 can also lead to arRCD. PMID:25692139

El Shamieh, Said; Boulanger-Scemama, Elise; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Antonio, Aline; Démontant, Vanessa; Condroyer, Christel; Letexier, Mélanie; Saraiva, Jean-Paul; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Sahel, José-Alain; Audo, Isabelle; Zeitz, Christina

2015-01-01

81

Seed Implant Retention Score Predicts the Risk of Prolonged Urinary Retention After Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To risk-stratify patients for urinary retention after prostate brachytherapy according to a novel seed implant retention score (SIRS). Patients and Methods: A total of 835 patients underwent transperineal prostate seed implant from March 1993 to January 2007; 197 patients had {sup 125}I and 638 patients had {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy. Four hundred ninety-four patients had supplemental external-beam radiation. The final downsized prostate volume was used for the 424 patients who had neoadjuvant hormone therapy. Retention was defined as reinsertion of a Foley catheter after the implant. Results: Retention developed in 7.4% of patients, with an average duration of 6.7 weeks. On univariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation (10% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.02), neoadjuvant hormone therapy (9.4% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02), baseline alpha-blocker use (12.5% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.008), and increased prostate volume (13.4% vs. 6.9% vs. 2.9%, >45 cm{sup 3}, 25-45 cm{sup 3}, <25 cm{sup 3}; p = 0.0008) were significantly correlated with increased rates of retention. On multivariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation, neoadjuvant hormone therapy, baseline alpha-blocker use, and increased prostate volume were correlated with retention. A novel SIRS was modeled as the combined score of these factors, ranging from 0 to 5. There was a significant correlation between the SIRS and retention (p < 0.0001). The rates of retention were 0, 4%, 5.6%, 9%, 20.9%, and 36.4% for SIRS of 0 to 5, respectively. Conclusions: The SIRS may identify patients who are at high risk for prolonged retention after prostate brachytherapy. A prospective validation study of the SIRS is planned.

Lee, Hoon K., E-mail: Dr.Hoon@gmail.co [Regional Radiation Oncology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY (United States); Adams, Marc T. [Regional Radiation Oncology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY (United States); Shi, Qiuhu [Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, New York Medical School, Valhalla, NY (United States); Basillote, Jay; LaMonica, Joanne; Miranda, Luis; Motta, Joseph [Department of Urology, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY (United States)

2010-04-15

82

A family inheriting different subtypes of acute myelogenous leukemia identifies a gene common to the differentation of multiple hematopoetic lineages and acting early in leukemogenesis  

SciTech Connect

The initial steps promoting carcinogenesis in the hematologic malignancies remain poorly understood. We report on a family with an incompletely penetrant, autosomal dominant syndrome of acute myelogenous leukemia, affecting at least eight adults from three generations. The affected individuals have developed leukemias differing in morphologic subtype, tumor cytogenetics, and abruptness of presentation. Within this family are found subtypes affecting the granulocytic, monocytic, and megakaryocytic lineages. At least one individual has a normal tumor karyotype while another has complex rearrangements including monsomy 7, trisomy 8 and translocation 1;7. Some have presented with acute onset and others with a protracted myelodysplasia syndrome. One person at fifty percent risk of inheriting this gene developed disseminated atypical mycobacterium infection in the absence of leukemia, but also without apparent causes for acquired deficiencies in cellular immunity. Features common to affected family members, including the individual with mycobacterium infection, are the early presence in bone marrow of red cell and platelet maturation defects. A search for mutations in diseased marrows fails to detect abnormalities of p53 exons 5, 6, 7 and 8 or N-ras codons 12, 13 and 61. We conclude that there is a gene in this family that probably acts early in hematopoetic differentiation and confers susceptibility to a wide range of leukemia subtypes spanning the maturation of the myeloid series.

Horwitz, M.S.; Radich, J. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Sabath, D.E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)

1994-09-01

83

Proteomics of colorectal cancer: overview of discovery studies and identification of commonly identified cancer-associated proteins and candidate CRC serum markers.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cause of cancer-related mortality in the developed world. Improved methods for early detection and disease management are urgently needed. Many efforts in the past 5 years have been devoted to protein biomarker discovery for early detection of CRC. Here, we discuss identity-based studies employing tandem mass spectrometry that analyzed clinical material as well as model systems. Through meta-analysis we provide a list of CRC-associated tissue proteins discovered in multiple studies, with the greater majority being 2D gel-based discoveries coupled to MS/MS. So far only a limited number of CRC-associated proteins have been validated in serum for non-invasive testing for CRC. This list includes several intracellular and nuclear proteins that a priori would not have been considered candidate biomarkers based on their predicted subcellular localization. Finally, we highlight promising new directions that combine targeted analyses of subcellular proteomes, like the cell surface, secretome, exosome, and nuclear matrix, with nanoLC-MS/MS-based proteomics. We anticipate that in the near future, these novel mass spectrometry-based in-depth approaches will uncover many novel, specific CRC marker candidates in clinical tissues and that their targeted validation with multi-reaction monitoring MS will speed up development of non-invasive tests in feces and serum/plasma. PMID:20601272

Jimenez, Connie R; Knol, Jaco C; Meijer, Gerrit A; Fijneman, Remond J A

2010-09-10

84

Screening to Identify Commonly Used Chinese Herbs That Affect ERBB2 and ESR1 Gene Expression Using the Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Aim. Our aim the was to screen the commonly used Chinese herbs in order to detect changes in ERBB2 and ESR1 gene expression using MCF-7 cells. Methods. Using the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, cell cytotoxicity and proliferation were evaluated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays, respectively. A luciferase reporter assay was established by transient transfecting MCF-7 cells with plasmids containing either the ERBB2 or the ESR1 promoter region linked to the luciferase gene. Chinese herbal extracts were used to treat the cells at 24?h after transfection, followed by measurement of their luciferase activity. The screening results were verified by Western blotting to measure HER2 and ER? protein expression. Results. At concentrations that induced little cytotoxicity, thirteen single herbal extracts and five compound recipes were found to increase either ERBB2 or ESR1 luciferase activity. By Western blotting, Si-Wu-Tang, Kuan-Shin-Yin, and Suan-Tsao-Ren-Tang were found to increase either HER2 or ER? protein expression. In addition, Ligusticum chuanxiong was shown to have a great effect on ERBB2 gene expression and synergistically with estrogen to stimulate MCF-7 cell growth. Conclusion. Our results provide important information that should affect clinical treatment strategies among breast cancer patients who are receiving hormonal or targeted therapies. PMID:24987437

Chang, Chun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Chong; Wen, Che-Sheng; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Wei-Shone; Shyr, Yi-Ming

2014-01-01

85

Mutation Detection of PKD1 Identifies a Novel Mutation Common to Three Families with Aneurysms and/or Very-Early-Onset Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary It is known that several of the most severe complications of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease, such as intracranial aneurysms, cluster in families. There have been no studies reported to date, however, that have attempted to correlate severely affected pedigrees with a particular genotype. Until recently, in fact, mutation detection for most of the PKD1 gene was virtually impossible because of the presence of several highly homologous loci also located on chromosome 16. In this report we describe a cluster of 4 bp in exon 15 that are unique to PKD1. Forward and reverse PKD1-specific primers were designed in this location to amplify regions of the gene from exons 11–21 by use of long-range PCR. The two templates described were used to analyze 35 pedigrees selected for study because they included individuals with either intracranial aneurysms and/or very-early-onset disease. We identified eight novel truncating mutations, two missense mutations not found in a panel of controls, and several informative polymorphisms. Many of the polymorphisms were also present in the homologous loci, supporting the idea that they may serve as a reservoir for genetic variability in the PKD1 gene. Surprisingly, we found that three independently ascertained pedigrees had an identical 2-bp deletion in exon 15. This raises the possibility that particular genotypes may be associated with more-severe disease. PMID:10577909

Watnick, Terry; Phakdeekitcharoen, Bunyong; Johnson, Ann; Gandolph, Michael; Wang, Mei; Briefel, Gary; Klinger, Katherine W.; Kimberling, William; Gabow, Patricia; Germino, Gregory G.

1999-01-01

86

Molecular and genetic analyses of four nonfunctional S haplotype variants derived from a common ancestral S haplotype identified in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).  

PubMed

Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) has an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system; however, individuals can be either self-incompatible (SI) or self-compatible (SC). Unlike the situation in the Solanaceae, where self-compatibility accompanying polyploidization is often due to the compatibility of heteroallelic pollen, the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the compatibility of pollen containing two nonfunctional S haplotypes. Sour cherry individuals with the S(4)S(6)S(36a)S(36b) genotype are predicted to be SC, as only pollen containing both nonfunctional S(36a) and S(36b) haplotypes would be SC. However, we previously found that individuals of this genotype were SI. Here we describe four nonfunctional S(36) variants. Our molecular analyses identified a mutation that would confer loss of stylar S function for one of the variants, and two alterations that might cause loss of pollen S function for all four variants. Genetic crosses showed that individuals possessing two nonfunctional S(36) haplotypes and two functional S haplotypes have reduced self-fertilization due to a very low frequency of transmission of the one pollen type that would be SC. Our finding that the underlying mechanism limiting successful transmission of genetically compatible gametes does not involve GSI is consistent with our previous genetic model for Prunus in which heteroallelic pollen is incompatible. This provides a unique case in which breakdown of SI does not occur despite the potential to generate SC pollen genotypes. PMID:19917768

Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Hauck, Nathanael R; Tao, Ryutaro; Jiang, Ning; Iezzoni, Amy F

2010-02-01

87

Tritium retention in TFTR  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the materials physics related to D-T operation in TFTR. Research activities are described pertaining to basic studies of hydrogenic retention in graphite, hydrogen recycling phenomena, first-wall and limiter conditioning, surface analysis of TFTR first-wall components, and estimates of the tritium inventory.

Dylla, H.F.; Wilson, K.L. (eds.)

1988-04-01

88

Secrets of Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recruiting students is one thing, but keeping them in a chorus, orchestra, or band is another. Although a music director has no control over some variables, there is much that can be done to help students to stay. Several experts share their advice on retention. One expert said a teacher's own attitude and classroom strategies may be two of the…

Poliniak, Susan

2012-01-01

89

Data Show Retention Disparities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New nationwide data collected by the U.S. Department of Education's civil rights office reveal stark racial and ethnic disparities in student retentions, with black and Hispanic students far more likely than white students to repeat a grade, especially in elementary and middle school. The contrast is especially strong for African-Americans. In the…

Adams, Caralee J.; Robelen, Erik W.; Shah, Nirvi

2012-01-01

90

High IL-17E and Low IL-17C Dermal Expression Identifies a Fibrosis-Specific Motif Common to Morphea and Systemic Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background High interleukin (IL)-17A levels are characteristically found in the skin of systemic sclerosis (SSc) individuals. Our aim was to investigate whether the dermal expression of IL-17A and related IL-17 family members (i.e. IL-17C, IL-17E and IL-17F) could distinguish fibrotic from healthy skin and could show similarities in SSc and morphea, two disorders with presumed distinct pathogenesis, but characterized by skin fibrosis. Methods Biopsies were obtained from the involved skin of 14 SSc, 5 morphea and 8 healthy donors (HD) undergoing plastic surgery. Immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence techniques were coupled to a semi-automated imaging quantification approach to determine the presence of the IL-17 family members in the skin. The in vitro effects induced by the IL-17 family members on fibroblasts from normal and SSc individuals were assessed by ELISA and RIA. Results Positive cells for each of the IL-17 isoforms investigated were present in the dermis of all the individuals tested, though with variable frequencies. SSc individuals had increased frequency of IL-17A+ (p?=?0.0237) and decreased frequency of IL-17F+ (p?=?0.0127) and IL-17C+ cells (p?=?0.0008) when compared to HD. Similarly, morphea individuals had less frequent IL-17C+ cells (p?=?0.0186) in their skin but showed similar number of IL-17A+ and IL-17F+ cells when compared to HD. Finally, IL-17E+ cells were more numerous in morphea (p?=?0.0109) and tended to be more frequent in SSc than in HD. Fibroblast production of IL-6, MMP-1 and MCP-1 was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of IL-17E and IL-17F, but not in the presence of IL-17C. None of the cytokine tested had significant effect on type I collagen production. Of interest, in SSc the frequency of both IL-17A and IL-17F positive cells increased with disease duration. Conclusions The frequency of IL-17A and IL-17F distinguish SSc to morphea individuals while dermal expression of IL-17C (low) and IL-17E (high) identifies a fibrosis-specific motif. The specific IL-17C/IL-17E cytokine combination may thus play a role in the development of fibrosis. PMID:25136988

Lonati, Paola Adele; Brembilla, Nicolò Costantino; Montanari, Elisa; Fontao, Lionel; Gabrielli, Armando; Vettori, Serena; Valentini, Gabriele; Laffitte, Emmanuel; Kaya, Gurkan; Meroni, Pier-Luigi; Chizzolini, Carlo

2014-01-01

91

Generic Recruitment and Retention Plan  

Cancer.gov

February 23, 2010 Version 3 Division of Cancer Prevention Recruitment Retention and Adherence Plan TemplateInstructions NCI DCP requires a study-specific recruitment, retention and adherence (RRA) plan for each cancer chemoprevention study. Each participating

92

Modelling of UPLC behaviour of acylcarnitines by quantitative structure-retention relationships.  

PubMed

In the present work, the retention time (RT) of acylcarnitines, collected by ultra-performance liquid-chromatography after formation of butyl esters, is modelled by quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) method. The investigated set consists of free carnitine and 46 different acylcarnitines, including the isomers commonly monitored in screening metabolic disorders. To describe the structure of (butylated) acylcarnitines, a large number of computational molecular descriptors generated by software Dragon are subjected to variable selection methods aimed at identifying a small informative subset. The QSRR model is established using two different approaches: the multi linear regression (MLR) combined with a genetic algorithm (GA) variable selection and the partial least square (PLS) regression after iterative stepwise elimination (ISE) of useless descriptors. Predictive performance of both models is evaluated using an external set consisting of 10 representative acylcarnitines, and, successively, by repeated random data partitions between the calibration and prediction sets. Finally, a principal component analysis (PCA) is performed on the model variables to facilitate the interpretation of the established QSRRs. A PLS model based on seven latent variables extracted from 20 molecular descriptors selected by ISE permits to calculate/predict the retention time of acylcarnitine with accuracy better than 5%, whereas a 6-dimensional model identified by GA-MLR provides a slightly worse performance. PMID:24780923

D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Maggi, Maria Anna; Ruggieri, Fabrizio

2014-08-01

93

Auditing a Database under Retention Restrictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Auditing,the changes,to a database,is critical for identifying malicious behavior, maintaining data quality, and improving,system,performance.,But an accurate,audit log is a historical record of the past that can also pose a serious threat to privacy. Policies which,limit data retention conflict with the goal of accurate auditing, and data owners have to carefully balance the need for policy compliance,with the goal of accurate

Wentian Lu; Gerome Miklau

2009-01-01

94

Selenide retention by mackinawite.  

PubMed

The isotope (79)Se may be of great concern with regard to the safe disposal of nuclear wastes in deep geological repositories due to its long half-life and potential mobility in the geosphere. The Se mobility is controlled by the oxidation state: the oxidized species (Se(IV)) and (Se(VI)) are highly mobile, whereas the reduced species (Se(0) and Se(-II)) form low soluble solids. The mobility of this trace pollutant can be greatly reduced by interacting with the various barriers of the repository. Numerous studies report on the oxidized species retention by mineral phases, but only very scarce studies report on the selenide (Se(-II)) retention. In the present study, the selenide retention by coprecipitation with and by adsorption on mackinawite (FeS) was investigated. XRD and SEM analyses of the samples reveal no significant influence of Se on the mackinawite precipitate morphology and structure. Samples from coprecipitation and from adsorption are characterized at the molecular scale by a multi-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigation. In the coprecipitation experiment, all elements (S, Fe, and Se) are in a low ionic oxidation state and the EXAFS data strongly point to selenium located in a mackinawite-like sulfide environment. By contacting selenide ions with FeS in suspension, part of Se is located in an environment similar to that found in the coprecipitation experiment. The explanation is a dynamical dissolution-recrystallization mechanism of the highly reactive mackinawite. This is the first experimental study to report on selenide incorporation in iron monosulfide by a multi-edge XAS approach. PMID:22900520

Finck, N; Dardenne, K; Bosbach, D; Geckeis, H

2012-09-18

95

Response of Vegetation and Avian Communities to Retention Harvests in a Mixed-pine Forest in Northern Alabama .  

E-print Network

??Retention harvests are commonly used silvicultural methods that mimic natural disturbance and create a mosaic of mature and early-successional habitats which may simultaneously provide habitat… (more)

Sterling, Rachelle

2013-01-01

96

Patient retention at dental school clinics: a marketing perspective.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the drivers of patient retention at dental school clinics from a services marketing perspective. An analysis of patient characteristics at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Dentistry, screened between August 2010 and July 2011 (N=3604), was performed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations, and a binary logistic regression. The main findings were that 42 percent of patients in the study were retained and that no response to communication efforts (36 percent) and financial problems (28 percent) constituted the most common reasons for non-retention. Older age, having insurance, and living within a sixty-mile radius were significant drivers of retention (p<0.05). Patients who had completed disease control treatments had a significantly higher retention rate (62 percent) than those who did not (42 percent). Finally, some groups of dental students had higher retention rates than others (p<0.05), indicating that service providers were a driver of retention. The resulting insights benefit dental schools in recruiting patients with the greatest likelihood of returning for care, providing dental students with skills to better service them, and consequently increasing retention. This will lead to providing a continuum of care and student education and to ensuring the sustainability and quality of the school's educational programs. PMID:25362692

Makarem, Suzanne C; Coe, Julie M

2014-11-01

97

Retention Data for Antibiotics Commonly Used for Bovine Infections1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to observe the maximum time that various antibiotics used in different ways as treatment of bovine infections persisted in milk after final treatment. Both Delvotest-P and Bacillus stearotbermopbilus (Difco) disc assay procedures were utilized for detec- tion of antibiotic preparations used for treatment of mastiffs. None persisted in milk longer than specified on their respective labels.

J. R. Bishop; A. B. Bodine; G. D. O’Dell; J. J. Janzen

1984-01-01

98

Retention data for antibiotics commonly used for bovine infections.  

PubMed

This study was designed to observe the maximum time that various antibiotics used in different ways as treatment of bovine infections persisted in milk after final treatment. Both Delvotest-P and Bacillus stearothermophilus (Difco) disc assay procedures were utilized for detection of antibiotic preparations used for treatment of mastitis. None persisted in milk longer than specified on their respective labels. Because antibiotic residues were detected in milk consequent to treatment for intrauterine infections, guidelines for withholding times following intrauterine treatment should be established. PMID:6715637

Bishop, J R; Bodine, A B; O'Dell, G D; Janzen, J J

1984-02-01

99

SULFUR RETENTION IN COAL ASH  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an analytical study to assess the potential for sulfur retention in various types of coal-fired boilers. Results of a field test of 10 industrial coal-fired boilers were used to evaluate the impact on sulfur retention of the operating variables (load a...

100

Geography Undergraduate Program Essentials: Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following an integrative model that shows the complex connections of recruitment, retention, and placement, this second paper in a three-part series explores the exigent endeavor of retaining students who undertake geography as their undergraduate major. Survey data of graduating students are requisite in constructing successful retention plans.…

Estaville, Lawrence E.; Brown, Brock J.; Caldwell, Sally

2006-01-01

101

Flavor Retention During Drying1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of spray dryer operating conditions (drying temperatures, extract solids content, nozzle orifice size, and in- feed spray pressure) and of variations in the proportions of individual skin~- milk components in the extract to be dried, upon flavor retention during drying, was investigated. The influence of those variables upon flavor retention was evalu- ated by adding either acetoin, acetone,

Gary A. Reineccius; S. T. Coulter

1969-01-01

102

A New Common Integration Site, Int7, for the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus in Mouse Mammary Tumors Identifies a Gene Whose Product Has Furin-Like and Thrombospondin-Like Sequences  

PubMed Central

A novel common integration site for the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) was identified (designated Int7) in five independently arising mouse mammary tumors. The insertion sites all cluster within a 1-kb region that is 2 to 3 kb 5? of the transcription initiation site of a gene, 2610028F08RIK, whose gene product contains furin-like and thrombospondin-like sequences. Expression of Int7 is normally very low or silent during various stages of mammary gland development, but MMTV integration at this site results in the activation of high steady-state levels of expression of the gene. These five tumors were also found to have two or three additional viral insertions, which in each case occurred flanking a member of either the Wnt and/or FGF gene family. Reverse transcriptase PCR results demonstrated that each of the viral insertions led to elevated expression of the presumed target flanking genes. PMID:16014973

Lowther, William; Wiley, Korah; Smith, Gilbert H.; Callahan, Robert

2005-01-01

103

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

104

5 CFR 351.404 - Retention register.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Retention register. 351.404 Section 351.404 ...Competition § 351.404 Retention register. (a) When a competing employee...agency shall establish a separate retention register for that competitive level. The...

2010-01-01

105

Defining and analyzing retention-in-care among pregnant and breastfeeding HIV-infected women: unpacking the data to interpret and improve PMTCT outcomes.  

PubMed

The prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) "cascade" describes the programmatic steps for pregnant and breastfeeding women that influence HIV transmission rates. To this end, HIV-infected pregnant women and mothers need access to health services and adhere to antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis or lifetime treatment. Within the cascade, the concept of "retention-in-care" is commonly used as a proxy for adherence to ARV interventions and, even, viral suppression. Yet surprisingly, there is no standard definition of retention-in-care either for the purposes of HIV surveillance or implementation research. Implicit to the concept of retention-in-care is the sense of continuity and receipt of care at relevant time points. In the context of PMTCT, the main challenge for surveillance and implementation research is to estimate effective coverage of ARV interventions over a prolonged period of time. These data are used to inform program management and also to estimate postnatal MTCT rates. Attendance of HIV-infected mothers at clinic at 12-month postpartum is often equated with full retention in PMTCT programs over this period. Yet, measurement approaches that fail to register missed visits, or inconsistent attendance or other missing data in the interval period, fail to capture patterns of attendance and care received by mothers and children and risk introducing systematic errors and bias. More importantly, providing only an aggregated rate of attendance as a proxy for retention-in-care fails to identify specific gaps in health services where interventions to improve retention along the PMTCT cascade are most needed. In this article, we discuss how data on retention-in-care can be understood and analyzed, and what are the implications and opportunities for programs and implementation research. PMID:25310122

Rollins, Nigel C; Becquet, Renaud; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Phiri, Sam; Hayashi, Chika; Baller, April; Shaffer, Nathan

2014-11-01

106

Enhancing Minority Student Retention and Academic Performance: What We Can Learn from Program Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this important resource, Dr. Fleming (a noted expert in the field of minority retention) draws on educational evaluations she has developed in the course of her distinguished career. This book analyzes the common factors and the role institutional characteristics play in minority student retention to show what really works in increasing…

Fleming, Jacqueline

2012-01-01

107

Geographic Characteristics and First-Year Retention: An Examination of the Linkages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enrollment practitioners commonly discuss the effect of geographic factors on retention at rural or small-city institutions. This study examined the correlations between geographic characteristics of first-year college students' home location and their retention to the second year at a university located in a small city. The dimension of…

Luo, Mingchu; Williams, James E.

2013-01-01

108

Mnemonic benefits of retrieval practice at short retention intervals.  

PubMed

The testing effect refers to the retention benefit conferred by prior retrieval of information from memory. Although the testing effect is a robust phenomenon, a common assumption is that reliable memory benefits only emerge after long retention intervals of days or weeks. The present study focused on potential test-induced retention benefits for brief retention intervals on the order of minutes and tens of seconds. Participants in four experiments studied lists of words. Some of the items were subjected to an initial cued recall test, and others were re-presented for additional study. Free recall tests were administered in each experiment following retention intervals ranging from 30 s to 8 min. When initial retrieval practice was successful (Experiments 1 through 3), or feedback compensated for unsuccessful retrieval (Experiment 4), significant testing effects emerged at all retention intervals. Results are discussed in the context of a bifurcated item-distribution model and highlight the importance of initial test performance and the type of analysis employed when examining testing effect data. PMID:24579674

Rowland, Christopher A; DeLosh, Edward L

2015-04-01

109

Retention Capacity of Random Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a “water retention” model for liquids captured on a random surface with open boundaries and investigate the model for both continuous and discrete surface heights 0,1,…,n-1 on a square lattice with a square boundary. The model is found to have several intriguing features, including a nonmonotonic dependence of the retention on the number of levels: for many n, the retention is counterintuitively greater than that of an (n+1)-level system. The behavior is explained using percolation theory, by mapping it to a 2-level system with variable probability. Results in one dimension are also found.

Knecht, Craig L.; Trump, Walter; Ben-Avraham, Daniel; Ziff, Robert M.

2012-01-01

110

Data Retention and Anonymity Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

111

Maternal stress predicts postpartum weight retention.  

PubMed

Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

Whitaker, Kara; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

2014-11-01

112

Phosphorus and calcium retention in serially harvested cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Data from 3 serial harvest trials were utilized to calculate phosphorus and calcium retention in cattle. Trial 1 evaluated three rates of gain during a growing period followed by a common finishing diet utilizing British crossbred steers. Four steers were harvested from each treatment following th...

113

Using standardized fMRI protocols to identify patterns of prefrontal circuit dysregulation that are common and specific to cognitive and emotional tasks in major depressive disorder: first wave results from the iSPOT-D study.  

PubMed

Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated dysregulation of prefrontal circuits in major depressive disorder (MDD), and these circuits are a viable target for predicting treatment outcomes. However, because of the heterogeneity of tasks and samples used in studies to date, it is unclear whether the central dysfunction is one of prefrontal hyperreactivity or hyporeactivity. We used a standardized battery of tasks and protocols for functional magnetic resonance imaging, to identify the common vs the specific prefrontal circuits engaged by these tasks in the same 30 outpatients with MDD compared with 30 matched, healthy control participants, recruited as part of the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D). Reflecting cognitive neuroscience theory and established evidence, the battery included cognitive tasks designed to assess functions of selective attention, sustained attention-working memory and response inhibition, and emotion tasks to assess explicit conscious and implicit nonconscious viewing of facial emotion. MDD participants were distinguished by a distinctive biosignature of: hypoactivation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during working memory updating and during conscious negative emotion processing; hyperactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during working memory and response inhibition cognitive tasks and hypoactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal during conscious processing of positive emotion. These results show that the use of standardized tasks in the same participants provides a way to tease out prefrontal circuitry dysfunction related to cognitive and emotional functions, and not to methodological or sample variations. These findings provide the frame of reference for identifying prefrontal biomarker predictors of treatment outcomes in MDD. PMID:23303059

Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Etkin, Amit; Koslow, Stephen H; Williams, Leanne M

2013-04-01

114

Record Retention Policy Page 1 of 3 10.7 Record Retention Policy  

E-print Network

Record Retention Policy Page 1 of 3 10.7 Record Retention Policy Policy Number & Name: 10.7 Record Retention #12;Record Retention Policy Page 2 of 3 Period for a Record does not change when a properly Retention Policy Approval Authority: Administrative Council Responsible Executive: Vice President

Yang, Eui-Hyeok

115

Analysis of common bean expressed sequence tags identifies sulfur metabolic pathways active in seed and sulfur-rich proteins highly expressed in the absence of phaseolin and major lectins  

PubMed Central

Background A deficiency in phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin is associated with a near doubling of sulfur amino acid content in genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), particularly cysteine, elevated by 70%, and methionine, elevated by 10%. This mostly takes place at the expense of an abundant non-protein amino acid, S-methyl-cysteine. The deficiency in phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin is mainly compensated by increased levels of the 11S globulin legumin and residual lectins. Legumin, albumin-2, defensin and albumin-1 were previously identified as contributing to the increased sulfur amino acid content in the mutant line, on the basis of similarity to proteins from other legumes. Results Profiling of free amino acid in developing seeds of the BAT93 reference genotype revealed a biphasic accumulation of gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine, the main soluble form of S-methyl-cysteine, with a lag phase occurring during storage protein accumulation. A collection of 30,147 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was generated from four developmental stages, corresponding to distinct phases of gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine accumulation, and covering the transitions to reserve accumulation and dessication. Analysis of gene ontology categories indicated the occurrence of multiple sulfur metabolic pathways, including all enzymatic activities responsible for sulfate assimilation, de novo cysteine and methionine biosynthesis. Integration of genomic and proteomic data enabled the identification and isolation of cDNAs coding for legumin, albumin-2, defensin D1 and albumin-1A and -B induced in the absence of phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin. Their deduced amino acid sequences have a higher content of cysteine than methionine, providing an explanation for the preferential increase of cysteine in the mutant line. Conclusion The EST collection provides a foundation to further investigate sulfur metabolism and the differential accumulation of sulfur amino acids in seed of common bean. Identification of sulfur-rich proteins whose levels are elevated in seed lacking phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin and sulfur metabolic genes may assist the improvement of protein quality. PMID:21615926

2011-01-01

116

EVALUATION OF SOIL WATER RETENTION MODELS BASED ON BASIC SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Algorithms to model soil water retention are needed to study the response of vegetation and hydrologic systems to climate change. he objective of this study was to evaluate some soil water retention models to identify minimum input data requirements. ix models that function with ...

117

Factors Affecting Student Retention in Online Courses: Overcoming This Critical Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine what a panel of 15 experts would identify as critical factors affecting student retention in online courses that will serve as implications for educational leaders to guide their student retention strategies, online organizational structures, institutional policies, and online instructional activities. A…

Gaytan, Jorge

2013-01-01

118

The Impact of Principal Leadership on Working Conditions and Teacher Retention in North Carolina Middle Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that administrative leadership is the most important factor in determining the climate of a school, and there are specific leadership attributes such as improving working conditions that promote retention. This study seeks to identify leadership behaviors that positively affect quality teacher retention among two particular…

Tomon, Catherine

2009-01-01

119

Developing a neonatal workforce: role evolution and retention of advanced neonatal nurse practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Over the past decade more than 120 advanced neonatal nurse practitioners (ANNPs) have graduated from the Southampton based ANNP programme.Objectives: To determine the scope of practice and evolving role of ANNPs and to identify factors that may affect future recruitment and retention.Method: An open ended structured questionnaire on clinical role, working arrangements, retention and attrition, continuing education, and professional

S L Smith; M A Hall

2003-01-01

120

Can retention forestry help conserve biodiversity? A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Industrial forestry typically leads to a simplified forest structure and altered species composition. Retention of trees at harvest was introduced about 25 years ago to mitigate negative impacts on biodiversity, mainly from clearcutting, and is now widely practiced in boreal and temperate regions. Despite numerous studies on response of flora and fauna to retention, no comprehensive review has summarized its effects on biodiversity in comparison to clearcuts as well as un-harvested forests. Using a systematic review protocol, we completed a meta-analysis of 78 studies including 944 comparisons of biodiversity between retention cuts and either clearcuts or un-harvested forests, with the main objective of assessing whether retention forestry helps, at least in the short term, to moderate the negative effects of clearcutting on flora and fauna. Retention cuts supported higher richness and a greater abundance of forest species than clearcuts as well as higher richness and abundance of open-habitat species than un-harvested forests. For all species taken together (i.e. forest species, open-habitat species, generalist species and unclassified species), richness was higher in retention cuts than in clearcuts. Retention cuts had negative impacts on some species compared to un-harvested forest, indicating that certain forest-interior species may not survive in retention cuts. Similarly, retention cuts were less suitable for some open-habitat species compared with clearcuts. Positive effects of retention cuts on richness of forest species increased with proportion of retained trees and time since harvest, but there were not enough data to analyse possible threshold effects, that is, levels at which effects on biodiversity diminish. Spatial arrangement of the trees (aggregated vs. dispersed) had no effect on either forest species or open-habitat species, although limited data may have hindered our capacity to identify responses. Results for different comparisons were largely consistent among taxonomic groups for forest and open-habitat species, respectively. Synthesis and applications. Our meta-analysis provides support for wider use of retention forestry since it moderates negative harvesting impacts on biodiversity. Hence, it is a promising approach for integrating biodiversity conservation and production forestry, although identifying optimal solutions between these two goals may need further attention. Nevertheless, retention forestry will not substitute for conservation actions targeting certain highly specialized species associated with forest-interior or open-habitat conditions. Our meta-analysis provides support for wider use of retention forestry since it moderates negative harvesting impacts on biodiversity. Hence, it is a promising approach for integrating biodiversity conservation and production forestry, although identifying optimal solutions between these two goals may need further attention. Nevertheless, retention forestry will not substitute for conservation actions targeting certain highly specialized species associated with forest-interior or open-habitat conditions.

Fedrowitz, Katja; Koricheva, Julia; Baker, Susan C; Lindenmayer, David B; Palik, Brian; Rosenvald, Raul; Beese, William; Franklin, Jerry F; Kouki, Jari; Macdonald, Ellen; Messier, Christian; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Gustafsson, Lena

2014-01-01

121

Student Selection and Retention in Nursing Schools. Health Manpower References.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to provide all eligible nursing school applicants with equal access to careers in professional nursing and to assure an adequate supply of professional nurses, a study was conducted to identify factors that contribute to the successful recruitment, selection, and retention of students by nursing schools. A questionnaire was sent to all…

National League for Nursing, New York, NY.

122

Supporting Child Welfare Supervisors to Improve Worker Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent child welfare research has identified supervisors as key to retaining qualified and committed workers. This paper describes implementation of a federally funded child welfare training initiative designed to improve worker retention largely through developing, implementing, and evaluating a statewide supervisor training program in a…

Landsman, Miriam

2007-01-01

123

Using Blended Learning to Increase Learner Support and Improve Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving retention and identifying "at risk" learners are high profile issues in higher education, and a proposed solution is to provide good learner support. Blending of online learning with classroom sessions offers the potential to use a virtual learning environment to deliver learning activities, and to support learners using a distance…

Hughes, Gwyneth

2007-01-01

124

Log Sanitization: Auditing a Database Under Retention Restrictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auditing the changes to a database is critical for identifying malicious behavior, maintaining data quality, and improving system performance. But an accurate audit log is a historical record of the past that can also pose a serious threat to privacy. Policies which limit data retention conict with the goal of accurate auditing, and data owners have to carefully balance the

Wentian Lu; Gerome Miklau

125

Social Promotion or Retention? Factors That Influence Committee Decision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the research presented here is to identify which factors school level practitioners consider in deciding whether to retain or promote a student and to ascertain their knowledge of and training in retention research. This research illuminates the process of determining which students are promoted and which are retained, and the…

Groom, Ileetha Brooks

2010-01-01

126

Common cold  

MedlinePLUS

The common cold usually causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, cough, ... It is called the “common cold” for good reason. There are over one billion colds in the United States each year. You and your children will ...

127

Common Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

128

Etiology and management of urinary retention in women  

PubMed Central

Urinary retention (UR) can be defined as inability to achieve complete bladder emptying by voluntary micturition, and categorized as acute UR, chronic UR or incomplete bladder emptying. UR is common in elderly men but symptomatic UR is unusual in women. The epidemiology of female UR is not well documented. There are numerous causes now recognized in women, broadly categorized as infective, pharmacological, neurological, anatomical, myopathic and functional; labeling symptoms as having a “psychogenic basis” should be avoided. Detrusor failure is often an underlying factor that complicates interpretation. Initial management includes bladder drainage (intermittent or indwelling catheterization) if the woman is symptomatic or at risk of complications, and correcting likely causes. Investigations should be focused on identifying the underlying etiology and any reversible factor. A detailed history, general and pelvic examination are needed; urine dipstick analysis, routine microscopy and culture, and pelvic and renal ultrasound are suitable baseline investigations. Urodynamic tests are required in specific situations. Urethral dilatation has a limited role, but it should be considered if there is urethral stenosis. Definitive management requires correction of cause where possible and symptom management where no correctable cause is detected. Follow-up is needed for monitoring response to treatment, detection of complications and symptom control. Fowler’s syndrome is a specific group diagnosed on urethral sphincter electromyogram, representing a very challenging clinical scenario. PMID:20877602

Mevcha, Amit; Drake, Marcus J.

2010-01-01

129

Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

Brookman, David M.

1989-01-01

130

Teacher Retention: An Appreciative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nationally, the problem of teacher retention compounds the unstable nature of the educational situation, especially in urban, high-needs schools. Much of the instability of urban schools is due to teacher movement, the migration of teachers from school to another school within or between school districts, particularly from high-needs schools.…

Pesavento-Conway, Jennifer Jean

2010-01-01

131

Academic Advising for Retention Purposes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective academic advising system can assist in the retention of two-year college students; however, the institution and its faculty must be committed to providing such a system. Establishing a successful advising system would require the following: (1) a clear distinction must be made between academic advising and course scheduling; (2)…

Kazazes, Barbara A.

132

Course Retention Analysis. Focus Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted at Mount San Antonio College (MSAC), California, to analyze patterns in credit course retention between fall 1986 and spring 1989. The study investigated the development of course prerequisites based on faculty perceptions of the skills necessary for success and minimal skill levels associated with success; student assessment…

Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.

133

Retention-Oriented Curricular Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a retention-oriented approach to the educational value stream within the STEM undergraduate area. Faced with several strategic challenges and opportunities, a Flex Advantage Plan was developed to enhance the undergraduate engineering technology programs and better utilize the curricular flexibilities inherent in the current…

Milanovic, Ivana; Eppes, Tom A.; Girouard, Janice; Townsend, Lee

2010-01-01

134

Clinical trials: the challenge of recruitment and retention of participants. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This methodological paper examines participant-related and research-related factors that affect recruitment and retention of patients in clinical trials. Recommendations include using pilot studies to identify problems prior to launching a trial and developing multiple recruitment strategies.

135

12 CFR 1026.25 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Record retention. 1026.25 Section 1026.25 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 1026.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A...

2013-01-01

136

12 CFR 1026.25 - Record retention.  

... false Record retention. 1026.25 Section 1026.25 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 1026.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A...

2014-01-01

137

Nontraditional Localization and Retention Signals Localize Human Cytomegalovirus pUL34 to the Nucleus  

PubMed Central

The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL34 proteins localize to the nucleus. We identified a 204-amino-acid region, amino acids 40 to 244, as required for nuclear retention. A highly conserved 12-amino-acid section, amino acids 198 to 210, was required for nuclear localization. Although the nuclear localization and retention signals of pUL34 overlap the domain required for DNA-binding activity, the two regions are separable by point mutations. Our results presented here identify the first example of an HCMV protein with separable nuclear localization and retention signals. PMID:23966412

2013-01-01

138

Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Profile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 35 years of retention theory and literature have acknowledged the importance of institutional and student profiles in accounting for cross-sectional differences in retention and completion rates between types of colleges and universities. The first "P" within a 4 Ps framework of student retention--"profile"--recognizes that an institution's…

Kalsbeek, David H.; Zucker, Brian

2013-01-01

139

Records retention in relational database systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent introduction of several pieces of legislation man- dating minimum and maximum retention periods for cor- porate records has prompted the Enterprise Content Man- agement (ECM) community to develop various records re- tention solutions. Records retention is a significant subfield of records management, and legal records retention require- ments apply over corporate records regardless of their shape or form.

Ahmed A. Ataullah; Ashraf Aboulnaga; Frank Wm. Tompa

2008-01-01

140

New Freshman and Transfer Retention Study  

E-print Network

New Freshman and Transfer Retention Study Fall 2011 Institutional Research #12;1 Introduction, and persistence rates of new freshmen and transfer students entering Colorado State University (CSU). Combining the two previously separate studies (New Freshman Retention and Transfer Retention) was in response

141

Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides comprehensive information, selected by medical doctors, about the common cold. "The goal is to provide a framework for critical thinking which will allow informed decisions about medical care for the common cold." The section entitled Understanding Colds gives a detailed overview of how the cold virus invades the human body and how cold symptoms are caused. Information about preventing colds, and some of the complications that can occur are also included. The Special Features section includes one of the most interesting parts of the site -- Myths of the Common Cold. This site should be interesting to almost anyone, but perhaps more so for those of us who have recently had a cold.

142

Breaking Silence, Building Solutions: The Role of Social Justice Group Work in the Retention of Faculty of Color  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of their many diversity initiatives, predominantly White colleges and universities have a poor track record in the recruitment and retention of faculty of color. This article unpacks the White privilege inherent in barriers to retention by focusing on three standards commonly used to make promotion and tenure decisions: teaching, service, and scholarship. A story of two Native American

Maxine Jacobson

2012-01-01

143

Common Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

144

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... en español] National Library of Medicine, Medline Plus Common Cold Skip Content Marketing Share this: JavaScript is disabled in your browser. To view this content, please enable JavaScript and refresh the page. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. ...

145

Common Chuckwalla  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

146

Bioassay data and a retention-excretion model for systemic plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The estimation of systemic burdens from urinalyses has been the most common and useful method of quantifying occupational exposures to plutonium. Problems arise in using this technique, however, because of inadequate modeling of human retention, translocation, and excretion of this element. Present methods for estimating the systemic burden from urinalyses were derived to a large extent from patterns observed in the first few months after exposure, but there is now evidence that these same patterns do not persist over long periods. In this report we collect and discuss data needed for the interpretation of bioassay results for Pu. These data are used to develop a model that describes the movement, retention, and excretion of systemic Pu in the human body in terms of explicitly identified anatomical compartments. This model may be used in conjunction with existing models and/or case-specific information concerning the translocation of Pu from the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract or from wounds to the bloodstream. Attention is restricted to the behavior of Pu after it has gained access to the bloodstream. There remain significant uncertainties concerning some aspects of the movement of Pu, particularly its translocation from the liver. An attempt has been made to construct the model in such a way as to elucidate those areas needing further attention. 98 references, 18 figures, 16 tables.

Leggett, R.W.

1984-05-01

147

Remind me again what disease we are studying? A population genetics, genetic analysis, and real data perspective on why progress on identifying genetic influences on common epilepsies has been so slow.  

PubMed

In this chapter, we will use the concepts and perspective of population genetics and genetic analysis to discuss the trends that are currently popular in the epilepsy genetics literature. We will also show that some of the recent approaches to understanding epilepsy genetics are unlikely to lead to insight into the causes of the most common epilepsies. Much effort has been directed toward very rare influences on epilepsy expression and away from approaches that could shed light on the most heritable epilepsies. The latest genetic technology, e.g., exome sequencing and copy number variants (CNV) analysis, has been applied without proper consideration of the important principles of population genetics, inheritance, or phenotype definition that are critical in common disease studies. We will show that ignoring these issues has led to unlikely suppositions about etiology and about which genes should be pursued. We also suggest that, taken together, the existing evidence supports a neurodevelopmental origin for common epilepsies. We recommend a return to thorough phenotype definition and family studies and a more careful and thoughtful application of the new technology. PMID:25194491

Greenberg, David A; Stewart, William L

2014-01-01

148

COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS  

E-print Network

Children with sexual behavior problems (SBPs) are children 12 years and under who demonstrate developmentally inappropriate or aggressive sexual behavior. This definition includes self-focused sexual behavior, such as excessive masturbation, and aggressive sexual behavior towards others that may include coercion or force. Recognizing these children and understanding the causes, impact, and treatment of the sexual behavior problems is a relatively new area of research and clinical practice. Some early assumptions about children with SBPs have not been supported by current research. This Fact Sheet will examine common misconceptions of children with SBPs along with the most recent findings.

unknown authors

149

Foundations of retention in partition chromatography.  

PubMed

The connection between the observable output in column chromatography (retention time, retention volume, retention factor, separation factor, etc.) and system properties (hold-up volume, pressure, temperature, isotherm behavior, etc.) is discussed from a practical and mechanistic perspective for gas-liquid chromatography, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and capillary electrochromatography. The unifying feature of these techniques is that retention can be described by a partition model, although not always exclusively. When over simplistic system models are used to explain variation in retention parameters they frequently mask the true reasons for poor repeatability and difficulties in transfer between system. Methods employing relative retention afford higher precision but may contain residual uncorrected errors. For those systems with several separate mechanisms contributing to retention the effective retention parameters can no longer be interpreted by simple partition models. The broadly based and practically focused material in this article affords an illustration of the often complicated relationship between system properties and retention, and the dangers that lurk in simplified retention models if the validity of their underlining approximations is not appropriate for the system under study. PMID:19013576

Poole, Colin F; Poole, Salwa K

2009-03-01

150

Developing a Hybrid Model to Predict Student First Year Retention in STEM Disciplines Using Machine Learning Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to develop a hybrid framework to model first year student retention for underrepresented minority (URM) students comprising African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans. Identifying inputs that best contribute to student retention provides significant information for institutions to learn about…

Alkhasawneh, Ruba; Hargraves, Rosalyn Hobson

2014-01-01

151

Retention at Departments of Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thriving physics department is the end result of many actions, taken over time, that results in the development of a sense of community between the faculty and the students. As part of this sense of community, gifted students must receive special attention and innovative ideas must be incorporated to successfully accommodate the needs of these students. We have found that the best retention strategy for gifted undergraduates is the total involvement of them in undergraduate research projects and also the development of leadership in extracurricular activities within the department. A careful employment strategy is needed to secure a faculty committed to the goals of the community.

Muller, Rafael; Rosa, Luis

2013-03-01

152

Gastro retention using polymer cocoons.  

PubMed

Abstract A gastro-retentive capsule has been prepared which is retained in the stomach for a period of 24h, providing a vehicle for the controlled delivery to the upper intestines. These "gastro cocoons" can resist passage through the sphincter of the stomach, and can retain a high drug payload (30%). They are made from oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and can swell to twice their initial volume. They are strong and also can resist 550 N of compressive force. They are based on filled pharmaceutical capsules which are visible to X-rays. Using ambroxol hydrochloride as a model drug linear, zero-order, release curves were obtained. PMID:25078789

Arnold, Julien; Hunkeler, David

2015-02-01

153

Identifying Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this environmental science activity (page 3 of the PDF), leaners will identify and explain the causes of erosion. They will observe the effects of erosion on the surrounding area and further explore examples of erosion online. An extension activity allows learners to make a hands-on model of soil erosion. Though this was created as a pre-visit activity for a workshop about water flow and erosion, it makes a great stand-alone activity as well!

Cosi

2009-01-01

154

Wildfire impacts on soil-water retention in the Colorado Front Range, United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work examined the plot-scale differences in soil-water retention caused by wildfire in the area of the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in the Colorado Front Range, United States. We measured soil-water retention curves on intact cores and repacked samples, soil particle-size distributions, and organic matter content. Estimates were also made of plant-available water based on the soil-water retention curves. Parameters for use in soil-hydraulic property models were estimated; these parameters can be used in unsaturated flow modeling for comparing burned and unburned watersheds. The primary driver for measured differences in soil-water retention in burned and unburned soils was organic matter content and not soil-particle size distribution. The tendency for unburned south-facing soils to have greater organic matter content than unburned north-facing soils in this field area may explain why unburned south-facing soils had greater soil-water retention than unburned north-facing soils. Our results suggest that high-severity wildfire can "homogenize" soil-water retention across the landscape by erasing soil-water retention differences resulting from organic matter content, which for this site may be affected by slope aspect. This homogenization could have important implications for ecohydrology and plant succession/recovery in burned areas, which could be a factor in dictating the window of vulnerability of the landscape to flash floods and erosion that are a common consequence of wildfire.

Ebel, Brian A.

2012-12-01

155

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2012-09-24

156

Black Student Retention in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection focuses on problems in the recruitment, enrollment and retention of Blacks in higher education in America. The following chapters are provided: "The Black Student Retention Problem in Higher Education: Some Introductory Perspectives" (Marvel Lang); "Early Acceptance and Institutional Linkages in a Model Program of Recruitment,…

Lang, Marvel, Ed.; Ford, Clinita A., Ed.

157

Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or…

Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.

2010-01-01

158

Enrollment and Retention: A Private College Consortium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A consortium program of eight private colleges in Southern California that focuses on student retention efforts is described. Each college has a retention task force consisting of faculty, administrators, student affairs staff, and students. A steering committee with one representative from each college, generally the dean of students, coordinates…

Green, Kenneth C.

159

Novel Word Retention in Sequential Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after…

Kan, Pui Fong

2014-01-01

160

African Retentions in Blues and Jazz.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perseverance of African musical characteristics among American Blacks is an historic reality. African retentions have been recorded in Black music of the antebellum period. Various African scales and rhythms permeate Black American music today as evidenced in the retentions found in blues and jazz. (RLV)

Meadows, Eddie S.

1979-01-01

161

How “Good” is Your Institution's Retention Rate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to assess institutional performance by means of retention rates, student performance on standardized tests, and other raw outcome measures are seriously flawed because such measures fail to take into account the powerful effect of student inputs. In this study, national longitudinal retention data on 52,898 students attending 365 baccalaureate-granting colleges and universities are used to generate formulas for estimating

Alexander W. Astin

1997-01-01

162

Healthcare Learning Community and Student Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching, learning, and retention processes have evolved historically to include multifaceted techniques beyond the traditional lecture. This article presents related results of a study using a healthcare learning community in a southwest Georgia university. The value of novel techniques and tools in promoting student learning and retention

Johnson, Sherryl W.

2014-01-01

163

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-09-30

164

Managing patients with acute urinary retention.  

PubMed

Acute urinary retention (AUR) is more than ten times more common in men than women. In men it tends to occur in the elderly; the risk of AUR is higher in men > 70 years. The causes in men can be divided into precipitated or occurring spontaneously. These can be further divided according to the mechanism i.e. obstructive, neurological and myogenic. Spontaneous AUR, caused by progression of BPH leading to a mechanical obstruction of the bladder outlet, is the most common cause of AUR. The typical presentation of AUR is a patient complaining of a sudden inability to urinate associated with progressive abdominal distension which is usually painful. The pain increases in intensity with increasing distension of the bladder. An abdominal examination should reveal a distended bladder which can be confirmed by a dull percussion note. A digital rectal examination is vital to gain information on prostatic enlargement (benign or malignant), faecal load in rectum, anal tone and presence of other masses. Urinalysis and culture should be carried out on a sample obtained after catheterisation to rule out infection. Renal function should be assessed to see if there has been damage to the upper tracts. It is better not to perform a PSA test in this situation as it will invariably be raised due to distension of the bladder and catheter insertion. If catheter insertion fails then a urological consultation is required for insertion of a suprapubic catheter. Admission is essential if the patient is: unwell with urosepsis; has abnormal renal function needing investigation and fluid monitoring; has acute neurological problems; or cannot take care of the catheter. Trial without catheter needs to be planned and the ideal time to do this is within 2-3 days so that the patient can pass urine naturally. PMID:21789984

Kuppusamy, Shanggar; Gillatt, David

2011-04-01

165

New Directions in Education Research: Using Data Mining Techniques to Explore Predictors of Grade Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to use classification trees and logistic regression to identify subgroups of students more likely to be retained. The National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) was used to identify the sociodemographic, family background and school related factors associated with grade retention. The sample size for…

Kelley-Winstead, Deanna

2010-01-01

166

12 CFR Appendix A to Part 749 - Record Retention Guidelines  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Record Retention Guidelines A Appendix A to Part 749 Banks and Banking ...UNIONS RECORDS PRESERVATION PROGRAM AND APPENDICES-RECORD RETENTION GUIDELINES; CATASTROPHIC...PREPAREDNESS GUIDELINES Pt. 749, App. A Appendix A to Part 749—Record Retention...

2010-01-01

167

OSTA commonality analysis, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built using DRS on the Vax. It also shows commonality of parameter requirements by discipline and by application.

Stolarik, E. G.

1981-01-01

168

A Computer-Based Undergraduate Exercise Using Internet-Accessible Simulation Software for the Study of Retention Behavior and Optimization of Separation Conditions in Ion Chromatography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to scan retention data over a wide range of eluent composition opens up the possibility of a computerized selection of the optimal separation conditions. The major characteristics of retention behavior, peak-shape effects and pH effects evident in ion chromatography (IC) using common stationary phases and eluents are illustrated.

Haddad, Paul R.; Shaw, Matthew J.; Madden, John E.; Dicinoski, Greg W.

2004-01-01

169

Modelling global nutrient retention by river damming: Phosphorus and silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phosphorus to silicon (P:Si) nutrient ratio is a key variable affecting ecosystem health in many aquatic environments. River damming represents a major anthropogenic perturbation of natural material flows along the aquatic continuum, with the potential to profoundly modify absolute and relative nutrient availabilities in surface waters. In this study, a multi-tiered approach for estimating global nutrient retention in man-made reservoirs is presented. We illustrate its application to the global riverine flux of reactive Si, using a database of dissolved reactive Si (DSi) budgets for 24 natural lakes and 22 artificial reservoirs. The database includes information on bedrock geology, surface water pH, water residence time, reservoir age and function, climate, and trophic status. Statistical analyses (ANOVA, t-test, PCA, linear plus non-linear regressions) are used to identify the best predictors of DSi retention and delineate how reservoir properties modulate nutrient dynamics. Results indicate that (1) reservoirs retain significantly less DSi than natural lakes, and (2) the water residence time, reservoir age and function (e.g., hydroelectrical production, irrigation, flood control) are the main system variables controlling DSi retention by dams. Next, a biogeochemical Si model is used to reproduce the previously derived statistical trends for DSi retention. Calibration of the model yields a relationship that enables one to predict annual in-reservoir siliceous productivity as a function of the external reactive Si supply. The model further accounts for the transition from reservoirs where reactive Si retention is primarily due to burial of allochtonous Si to those where in-reservoir DSi uptake by diatoms dominates. Finally, the statistical and mechanistic relationships are extrapolated to estimate that 25-28 Tg SiO2 yr-1 are retained worldwide by dams, or 7% of the annual reactive Si load to watersheds. We are currently applying the same multi-tiered approach to the global P cycle. Our goal is to predict not only the effect of dams on reactive P retention, but also to determine how they are changing the P:Si ratios in river systems. Our preliminary results indicate that reservoirs are more effective in retaining nutrient P than Si.

Maavara, Taylor; Dürr, Hans; Van Cappellen, Philippe

2014-05-01

170

Evaluation of the retention of endodontic implants.  

PubMed

The study investigated the retentive strength of endodontic implants measured by forced removal (pull-out or push-out tests) as a function of implant design and cement type. Smooth-tapered, threaded, and an innovative porous-surfaced implant were evaluated. Specimens were cemented in single-rooted human teeth with five different cements: zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, glass ionomer, silicophosphate, or AH-26. The results indicated superior retention for the threaded and porous-surfaced implants, and stronger retention with glass-ionomer and AH-26 cements. PMID:3162990

Maniatopoulos, C; Pilliar, R M; Smith, D C

1988-04-01

171

ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

2011-09-07

172

Extensive Management Promotes Plant and Microbial Nitrogen Retention in Temperate Grassland  

PubMed Central

Leaching losses of nitrogen (N) from soil and atmospheric N deposition have led to widespread changes in plant community and microbial community composition, but our knowledge of the factors that determine ecosystem N retention is limited. A common feature of extensively managed, species-rich grasslands is that they have fungal-dominated microbial communities, which might reduce soil N losses and increase ecosystem N retention, which is pivotal for pollution mitigation and sustainable food production. However, the mechanisms that underpin improved N retention in extensively managed, species-rich grasslands are unclear. We combined a landscape-scale field study and glasshouse experiment to test how grassland management affects plant and soil N retention. Specifically, we hypothesised that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands of high conservation value would have lower N loss and greater N retention than intensively managed, species-poor grasslands, and that this would be due to a greater immobilisation of N by a more fungal-dominated microbial community. In the field study, we found that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands had lower N leaching losses. Soil inorganic N availability decreased with increasing abundance of fungi relative to bacteria, although the best predictor of soil N leaching was the C/N ratio of aboveground plant biomass. In the associated glasshouse experiment we found that retention of added 15N was greater in extensively than in intensively managed grasslands, which was attributed to a combination of greater root uptake and microbial immobilisation of 15N in the former, and that microbial immobilisation increased with increasing biomass and abundance of fungi. These findings show that grassland management affects mechanisms of N retention in soil through changes in root and microbial uptake of N. Moreover, they support the notion that microbial communities might be the key to improved N retention through tightening linkages between plants and microbes and reducing N availability. PMID:23227252

de Vries, Franciska T.; Bloem, Jaap; Quirk, Helen; Stevens, Carly J.; Bol, Roland; Bardgett, Richard D.

2012-01-01

173

Identifying Effective School Principals  

E-print Network

focus on three dimensions: student performance, teacher retention, and financial management. Data is derived from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to develop a total of seven specific indicators to measure success in these three areas for Texas.... Teacher retention may also affect student performance and impose costs on a school. Because beginning teacher turnover is systematically higher than the turnover of more experienced teachers, we recommend evaluating principals on beginning...

Fernandez, Kandyce; Flores, Santa; Huang, Emily; Igwe, Carolyn; McDonald, Leslie; Stroud, Ryan; Willis, Rebecca; Dugat, Amber

2007-01-01

174

Tritium retention and removal on TFTR  

SciTech Connect

Tritium retention and removal are critical issues for the success of ITER or any DT fusion reactor. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, is the first fusion facility to afford the opportunity to study the tritium retention and removal over an extended period. In TFTR, tritium accumulates on all surfaces with line of sight to the plasma by codeposition of tritium with carbon. Measurements of both deuterium and tritium retention fractions have yielded retention between 0.2 and 0.6 of the injected fuel in the torus. Tritium has been successfully removed from TFTR by glow discharge cleaning and by air purges. The in-vessel inventory was reduced by a factor of 2, facilitating machine maintenance. In TFTR, the amount of dust recovered from the TFTR vacuum vessel has varied from several grams to a few kilograms.

Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Doyle, B.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

1997-10-01

175

7 CFR 4280.136 - Minimum retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.136 Minimum retention....

2010-01-01

176

12 CFR 226.25 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 226.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 226.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor...

2011-01-01

177

12 CFR 226.25 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 226.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 226.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor...

2010-01-01

178

12 CFR 226.25 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 226.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor...

2013-01-01

179

21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer of an infant formula shall make and retain such records respecting the...

2010-04-01

180

19 CFR 10.308 - Records retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement § 10.308 Records retention. ...or who knowlingly causes to be exported, any merchandise to Canada shall make, keep, and render for examination and...

2013-04-01

181

19 CFR 10.308 - Records retention.  

...CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement § 10.308 Records retention. ...or who knowlingly causes to be exported, any merchandise to Canada shall make, keep, and render for examination and...

2014-04-01

182

19 CFR 10.308 - Records retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement § 10.308 Records retention. ...or who knowlingly causes to be exported, any merchandise to Canada shall make, keep, and render for examination and...

2011-04-01

183

Research of data retention in EEPROM cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates date retention ability of EEPROM cells for a given voltage or temperature by theory and experiment. The expression of EEPROM date retention is derived. In the temperature acceleration experiment, the logarithm of device inactivation time have linear ratio with temperature according to Arrhenius formula and the device life retention was acquired in the various temperature. According to Arrhenius equation, lifetime curve is deduced. In the electric acceleration experiment, because of the charge leaking on the floating-gate, the threshold voltage would decrease gradually. In the log-log plot, the decrease efficiency of threshold voltage have linear ratio with time. Under the assumption that the charge loss mechanism is Fowler-Nordheim tunneling through the thin oxide, date retention time of EEPROM cells is derived and the experience formula is derived by experiment.

Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Ni; Hu, Cang-lu; Jiao, Gang-cheng; Miao, Zhuang; Fu, Ling-yun; Liu, Feng

2013-08-01

184

10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.810 Record...

2012-01-01

185

10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.810 Record...

2014-01-01

186

10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.810 Record...

2013-01-01

187

10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.810 Record...

2011-01-01

188

10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.810 Record...

2010-01-01

189

Identifying gene clusters by discovering common intervals in indeterminate strings  

PubMed Central

Background Comparative analyses of chromosomal gene orders are successfully used to predict gene clusters in bacterial and fungal genomes. Present models for detecting sets of co-localized genes in chromosomal sequences require prior knowledge of gene family assignments of genes in the dataset of interest. These families are often computationally predicted on the basis of sequence similarity or higher order features of gene products. Errors introduced in this process amplify in subsequent gene order analyses and thus may deteriorate gene cluster prediction. Results In this work, we present a new dynamic model and efficient computational approaches for gene cluster prediction suitable in scenarios ranging from traditional gene family-based gene cluster prediction, via multiple conflicting gene family annotations, to gene family-free analysis, in which gene clusters are predicted solely on the basis of a pairwise similarity measure of the genes of different genomes. We evaluate our gene family-free model against a gene family-based model on a dataset of 93 bacterial genomes. Conclusions Our model is able to detect gene clusters that would be also detected with well-established gene family-based approaches. Moreover, we show that it is able to detect conserved regions which are missed by gene family-based methods due to wrong or deficient gene family assignments.

2014-01-01

190

Molecular Mechanisms Controlling GLUT4 Intracellular Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT In basal adipocytes GLUT4 is sequestered intracellularly by an insulin-reversible retention mechanism. Here we analyze the roles of three GLUT4 trafficking motifs (FQQI, TELEY and LL), providing molecular links between insulin signaling, cellular trafficking machinery and the motifs in the specialized trafficking of GLUT4. Our resultssupport a GLUT4 retention model that involves two linked intracellular cycles: one between endosomes

Vincent Blot; Timothy E. McGraw

2008-01-01

191

Vermicompost for Tinted Organic Cationic Dyes Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of vermicompost was expanded as natural adsorbent for cationic dyes retention. The adsorption profiles in batch and\\u000a flow modes for crystal violet and methylene blue on vermicompost material were evaluated. In batch mode, a retention index\\u000a higher than 97% was obtained for both compounds, while in flow condition, 40 g of dried adsorbent material were enough to\\u000a remove 100 mg

Madson de Godoi Pereira; Mauro Korn; Bruno Barros Santos; Marcia Guia Ramos

2009-01-01

192

Retention mechanism assessment and method development for the analysis of iohexol and its related compounds in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) has emerged in recent years as a valuable alternative to reversed-phase liquid chromatography in the analysis of polar compounds. Research in HILIC is divided into two directions: the assessment of the retention mechanism and retention behavior, and the development of HILIC methods. In this work, four polar neutral analytes (iohexol and its related compounds A, B, and C) were analyzed on two silica and two diol columns in HILIC mode with the aim to investigate thoroughly the retention mechanisms and retention behavior of polar neutral compounds on these four columns. The adsorption and partition contribution to the overall HILIC retention mechanism was investigated by fitting the retention data to linear (adsorption and partition) and nonlinear (mixed-retention and quadratic) theoretical models. On the other hand, the establishment of empirical second-order polynomial retention models on the basis of D-optimal design made possible the estimation of the simultaneous influence of several mobile-phase-related factors. Furthermore, these models were also used as the basis for the application of indirect modeling of the selectivity factor and a grid point search approach in order to achieve the optimal separation of analytes. After the optimization goals had been set, the grids were searched and the optimal conditions were identified. Finally, the optimized method was subjected to validation. PMID:24752695

Jovanovi?, Marko; Raki?, Tijana; Jan?i?-Stojanovi?, Biljana; Ivanovi?, Darko; Medenica, Mirjana

2014-07-01

193

Argon retention in mantle and crustal pyroxenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyroxenes are among the most abundant minerals in Earth's mantle and in fragments of other planetary bodies sampled by meteorites. Because they host potassium (K), the solubility and diffusivity of Ar in pyroxenes are important for understanding radiogenic 40Ar (40Ar*) retention in planetary interiors. To this end, we conducted laser heating diffusion experiments using synthetically produced 37Ar in gem-quality and common ortho- and clinopyroxenes. Gem-quality pyroxenes yielded reproducible, linear Arrhenius relationships with activation energies (Ea) of ~370-380 kJ/mol and closure temperatures (Tc) of 600-800 °C, for a 10 °C/Ma cooling rate and ~0.1-1 mm diffusion dimensions [1]. Common pyroxenes yielded similar Ea and Tc, although the kinetic parameters derived from Arrhenius arrays were generally less precise. These Ea are an order of magnitude higher than previously reported values inferred from Rutherford backscattering measurements of induced inward concentration profiles [2]. Near the liquidus temperature, the apparent diffusivity of Ar increases by orders of magnitude over a narrow temperature range (~50 °C), a phenomenon that we attribute to premelting [1]. The observed Ar diffusion kinetics indicate that equilibration through <1 mm pyroxene grains occurs in minutes to hours at andesitic to basaltic melt generation temperatures (~1000-1300 °C). Thus pyroxenes are unlikely to retain Ar during partial melting of the mantle, provided that the mineral-melt partition coefficient is <1. Our results imply that the inferred high solubility of Ar in pyroxenes [2] is an artifact of a grain-surface phenomenon that also resulted in a low inferred Ea for Ar diffusion (and slow diffusivity at partial melting temperatures). Our measured diffusivities preclude steady-state accumulation of 40Ar* in pyroxenes at asthenospheric and deeper mantle temperatures, so long as Ar behaves incompatibly and assuming a surface boundary condition of zero concentration (i.e., assuming a relatively low intergranular Ar pressure). Lithospheric pyroxenes residing below their Tc are expected to retain Ar and therefore may be significant reservoirs for 40Ar*, particularly if they host K-rich inclusions. It remains to be investigated whether Tc's at typical lithospheric pressures are greater than those observed in vacuo due to pressure-dependent reductions in diffusivity (i.e., a positive activation volume for Ar diffusion).

Cassata, W. S.; Renne, P. R.; Shuster, D. L.

2011-12-01

194

Running heading: Water retention properties of the clay in clayey soils Water retention properties of the clay in soils developed  

E-print Network

1 Running heading: Water retention properties of the clay in clayey soils Water retention. E-mail: ary.bruand@orleans.inra.fr Summary We have investigated the water retention properties retention properties have been studied from -10 hPa to -15 000 hPa water potential using small clods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

Common Polymorphisms in Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

A wide variety of diseases have a significant genetic component, including major causes of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Many of these diseases are also angiogenesis dependent. In humans, common polymorphisms, although more subtle in effect than rare mutations that cause Mendelian disease, are expected to have greater overall effects on human disease. Thus, common polymorphisms in angiogenesis-regulating genes may affect the response to an angiogenic stimulus and thereby affect susceptibility to or progression of such diseases. Candidate gene studies have identified several associations between angiogenesis gene polymorphisms and disease. Similarly, emerging pharmacogenomic evidence indicates that several angiogenesis-regulating polymorphisms may predict response to therapy. In contrast, genome-wide association studies have identified only a few risk alleles in obvious angiogenesis genes. As in other traits, regulatory polymorphisms appear to dominate the landscape of angiogenic responsiveness. Rodent assays, including the mouse corneal micropocket assay, tumor models, and a macular degeneration model have allowed the identification and comparison of loci that directly affect the trait. Complementarity between human and animal approaches will allow increased understanding of the genetic basis for angiogenesis-dependent disease. PMID:23125197

Rogers, Michael S.; D’Amato, Robert J.

2012-01-01

196

Psychological predictors of retention in a low-threshold methadone maintenance treatment for opioid addicts: a 1-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

This study investigated the role of psychological variables and judicial problems in treatment retention for a low-threshold methadone program in Montreal, Canada. Logistic regression analyses were computed to examine associations between psychological variables (psychological distress, self-esteem, stages of change), criminal justice involvement, and treatment retention for 106 highly-disorganized opioid users. Higher methadone dosage was associated with increased odds of treatment retention, whereas criminal charges and lower self-esteem decreased these odds. Psychological variables could be identified early in treatment and targeted to increase potential treatment retention. Financial support for this study was provided by the Fonds de Recherche en Santé du Québec. PMID:25245107

Perreault, Michel; Julien, Dominic; White, Noe Djawn; Rabouin, Daniel; Lauzon, Pierre; Milton, Diana

2015-01-01

197

Short-Term Effects of Grade Retention on the Growth Rate of Woodcock-Johnson III Broad Math and Reading Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the effects of grade retention in first grade on the growth of the Woodcock-Johnson broad mathematics and reading scores over three years using linear growth curve modeling on an academically at-risk sample. A large sample (n=784) of first grade children who were at risk for retention was initially identified based on low literacy…

Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

2008-01-01

198

Recruitment and Retention of Minorities in Teacher Education: Performance Assessment. Proceedings of the National Conference (7th, Lexington, Kentucky, January 17 - 19, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference proceedings monograph presents 20 papers describing initiatives that deal with the recruitment and retention of minorities in education. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Recruitment and Retention of Minority Scholarship and Grant Recipients: Identifying Successful Models" (Teresa Unseld); (2) "An Early…

Middleton, E., Ed.; And Others

199

Retention through Intervention: A Strategic Plan for Retention of High-Risk Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to increase the retention rates of high-risk students in allied health programs, the Medical Campus of Miami-Dade Community College has developed a strategic plan for retention that employs a systems approach to the integration of academic support services, emotional and social supports, and personalized communication. The assumptions…

Mese, Janice H.; Spano, Carleen M.

200

Rosacea: A Common, Yet Commonly Overlooked, Condition  

E-print Network

Rosacea is a common, but often overlooked, skin condition of uncertain etiology that can lead to significant facial disfigurement, ocular complications, and severe emotional distress. The progression of rosacea is variable; however, typical stages include: (1) facial flushing, (2) erythema and/or edema and ocular symptoms, (3) papules and pustules, and (4) rhinophyma. A history of exacerbation by sun exposure, stress, cold weather, hot beverages, alcohol consumption, or certain foods helps determine the diagnosis; the first line of treatment is avoidance of these triggering or exacerbating factors. Most patients respond well to long-term topical antibiotic treatment. Oral or topical retinoid therapy may also be effective. Laser treatment is an option for progressive telangiectasis or rhinophyma. Family physicians should be able to identify and effectively treat the majority of patients with rosacea. Consultation with subspecialists may be required for the management of rhinophyma, ocular complications, or severe disease. (Am Fam Physician 2002;66:435-40,442. Copyright © 2002 American Academy of Family Physicians.) O A patient information handout on

B. Wayne Blount; Allen L. Pelletier

201

Study for now, but judge for later: delayed judgments of learning promote long-term retention.  

PubMed

Delayed judgments of learning (JOL) are assumed to be based on covert retrieval attempts. A common finding is that testing memory during learning improves later retention (i.e., the testing effect), and even more so than an equivalent amount of study, but only after a longer retention interval. To test the assertion that also delayed JOLs improve memory, the participants either studied Swahili-Swedish word pairs four times, or they both studied (two times) and performed delayed JOLs (two times) alternately. Final cued recall test were given after either five minutes or one week. Results showed a reliable learning-group by retention-interval interaction, with less forgetting in the group that alternated between studying and making JOLs. The results are discussed in relation to the self-fulfilling prophecy account of Spellman and Bjork (1992), and in terms of study advice, the results further underscore the importance of delaying JOLs when studying and evaluating one's ongoing learning. PMID:22897518

Sundqvist, Max Larsson; Todorov, Ivo; Kubik, Veit; Jönsson, Fredrik U

2012-12-01

202

Identification of recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals in Ontario, Canada: results from expert panels  

PubMed Central

Background Demand for rehabilitation services is expected to increase due to factors such as an aging population, workforce pressures, rise in chronic and complex multi-system disorders, advances in technology, and changes in interprofessional health service delivery models. However, health human resource (HHR) strategies for Canadian rehabilitation professionals are lagging behind other professional groups such as physicians and nurses. The objectives of this study were: 1) to identify recruitment and retention strategies of rehabilitation professionals including occupational therapists, physical therapists and speech language pathologists from the literature; and 2) to investigate both the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies using expert panels amongst HHR and education experts. Methods A review of the literature was conducted to identify recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals. Two expert panels, one on Recruitment and Retention and the other on Education were convened to determine the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies. A modified-delphi process was used to gain consensus and to rate the identified strategies along these two dimensions. Results A total of 34 strategies were identified by the Recruitment and Retention and Education expert panels as being important and feasible for the development of a HHR plan for recruitment and retention of rehabilitation professionals. Seven were categorized under the Quality of Worklife and Work Environment theme, another seven in Financial Incentives and Marketing, two in Workload and Skill Mix, thirteen in Professional Development and five in Education and Training. Conclusion Based on the results from the expert panels, the three major areas of focus for HHR planning in the rehabilitation sector should include strategies addressing Quality of Worklife and Work Environment, Financial Incentives and Marketing and Professional Development. PMID:19068134

Tran, Diem; Hall, Linda McGillis; Davis, Aileen; Landry, Michel D; Burnett, Dawn; Berg, Katherine; Jaglal, Susan

2008-01-01

203

An Assessment of Barriers and Strategies for Recruitment and Retention of a Diverse Graduate Student Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this exploratory qualitative investigation was to: a) describe the barriers of recruitment and retention of diverse graduate student population at one of the predominantly white universities (PWUs) in the Midwestern US as perceived by the program coordinators and directors and b) identify successful strategies for improving the…

Quarterman, Jerome

2008-01-01

204

Taking Another Look at Educating African American Engineers: The Importance of Undergraduate Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we identify the engineering schools that either gradu- ate large classes of African Americans or that retain relatively high percentages of African American students in engineering; point out that modest improvements in student retention would signifi- cantly affect the total number of bachelors degrees earned annually by African Americans in engineering; examine the measures im- plemented by

MONTY REICHERT; MARTHA ABSHER

205

Predictors of Retention in the ‘Voluntary’ and ‘Quasi-Compulsory’ Treatment of Substance Dependence in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Policies and practices related to the quasi-compulsory treatment (QCT) of substance-dependent offenders are currently implemented in many countries, despite the absence of reliable knowledge about significant predictors of treatment retention. This study aimed to identify such predictors in QCT and voluntary treatment. Methods: Participants were treated in one of 65 institutions in 5 European countries. They were interviewed at

Michael Schaub; Alex Stevens; Severin Haug; Daniele Berto; Neil Hunt; Viktoria Kerschl; Tim McSweeney; Kerrie Oeuvray; Irene Puppo; Alberto Santa Maria; Barbara Trinkl; Wolfgang Werdenich; Ambros Uchtenhagen

2011-01-01

206

Like a Snowball Gathering Speed: Development of ASERL's Print Journal Retention Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Association of Southeastern Research Libraries has instituted a distributed print archive program to share the costs and effort of long-term retention of print journals. Beginning with a review of the history of the project, the authors address the voluntary nature of participation in the program, methodologies for identifying journals to be retained, as well as methodologies for tagging retained

Diane Bruxvoort; John E. Burger; Lynn Sorensen Sutton

2012-01-01

207

Within High Schools--Influences on Retention among the Indigenous People of Northeast India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative case study of three high schools was conducted to identify and profile school practices employed in educating a traditionally low-achieving subpopulation in northeast India. By the considerably higher than average retention and graduation rates among their students who come from indigenous tribal communities, these schools stand out…

Pudussery, Paul

2009-01-01

208

Factors Related to the Recruitment, Training, and Retention of Family Child Care Providers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identified factors related to the recruitment, training, and retention of family child care (FCC) providers in two rural communities who participated in an FCC training program. Findings point to the relative success of efforts to recruit and train high quality family child care providers and the relative difficulty of retaining these providers…

Mueller, Charles W.; Orimoto, Lisa

1995-01-01

209

The Relationship between High School Math Courses, High School GPA, and Retention of Honors Scholarships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined the high school transcripts of honors scholarship recipients to identify a better criterion for awarding scholarships than high school grade point average (GPA) alone. Specifically, this study compared the honors scholarship retention rate when the scholarship was awarded based on completed advanced high school math classes…

Megert, Diann Ackerman

2005-01-01

210

A Critical Review of the Literature on Student Services and Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a review of literature on topics and theoretical frameworks relevant to the interrelated concerns of student services and freshman retention. The first section identifies information related to the stages, processes, and perspectives from which student service personnel interact with students. A second section focuses on…

Hutto, Claude P.

211

Retention and Access Issues Affecting Black Women Attending Predominantly White Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the self-reported experiences of Black, female, undergraduate students at a small, predominantly White, Midwestern college in the United States in order to identify factors affecting retention. Specific attention was paid to how participants perceived the effects of personal and institutional factors in relation to their…

De War, Joshua J.

2009-01-01

212

‘Hanging on a Little Thin Line’: Barriers to Progression and Retention in Social Work Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the reasons why students leave higher education without completing their studies has become an increasingly important issue in higher education in the United Kingdom. This paper reports on a series of interviews held with social work students, social work educators, and higher education staff with responsibilities for recruitment and retention in four English higher education institutions (HEIs). The interviews

Jo Moriarty; Jill Manthorpe; Bharat Chauhan; Gwynne Jones; Helen Wenman; Shereen Hussein

2009-01-01

213

Tritium recycling and retention in JET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JET's 1997 Deuterium Tritium Experiment (DTE1) allows a detailed study of hydrogenic isotope recycling and retention in a pumped divertor configuration relevant to ITER. There appear to be two distinct forms of retained tritium. (1) A dynamic inventory which controls the fueling behaviour of a single discharge, and in particular determines the isotopic composition. This is shown to be consistent with neutral particle implantation over the whole vessel surface area. (2) A continually growing inventory, which plays a small role in the particle balance of a single discharge, but ultimately dominates the hydrogenic inventory for an experimental campaign comprising thousands of pulses. This will be the dominant retention mechanism in long-pulse devices like ITER. The JET retention scaled-up to ITER proportions suggests that ITER may reach its tritium inventory limit in less than 100 pulses.

Andrew, P.; Brennan, D.; Coad, J. P.; Ehrenberg, J.; Gadeberg, M.; Gibson, A.; Groth, M.; How, J.; Jarvis, O. N.; Jensen, H.; Lässer, R.; Marcus, F.; Monk, R.; Morgan, P.; Orchard, J.; Peacock, A.; Pearce, R.; Pick, M.; Rossi, A.; Schunke, B.; Stamp, M.; von Hellermann, M.; Hillis, D. L.; Hogan, J.

214

Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing anthropogenic sources of N that are not retained in the watershed and maintaining high rates of N retention will be of utmost concern for coastal managers.

Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

2009-12-01

215

Laparoscopic Treatment of Ovarian Retention Pathology  

PubMed

We define ovarian retention pathology as the complications (cystic, degenerative, adhesions, endometriosis, pain, etc.) attributed to ovaries deliberately retained at the time of hysterectomy. We established a protocol for laparoscopy in these women. During 14 laparoscopic procedures for ovarian retention pathology, only one intraoperative complication occurred, a small bowel injury requiring minilaparotomy. One woman required repeat surgery for ovarian remnant syndrome. Published experience with laparotomy suggests that significant injuries to or resections of bowel, bladder, or ureters can occur, but the limited experience with laparoscopic surgery has not shown significant complications. PMID:9074105

Dionisi; Dionisi; Dionisi

1996-08-01

216

Modeling of Tritium Retention in TFTR  

SciTech Connect

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium retention experience is reviewed and the data related to models of plasma surface interactions. Over 3.5 years of TFTR deuterium-tritium operations, approximately 51% of the tritium injected into TFTR was retained in the torus. Most of this was subsequently recovered by glow discharges and air ventilation. Co-deposition rates for representative conditions in tritium operation were modeled with the BBQ code. The calculations indicate that known erosion mechanisms and subsequent co-deposition are sufficient to account for the order of magnitude of retention.

Blanchard, W.; Brooks, J.N.; Budny, R.V.; Hogan, J.T.; Hosea, J.; Skinner, C.H.; et al.

1998-08-19

217

Renal and Vascular Mechanisms of Thiazolidinedione-Induced Fluid Retention  

PubMed Central

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtype ? (PPAR?) activators that are clinically used as an insulin sensitizer for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Additionally, TZDs exhibit novel anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties, indicating therapeutic potential for a wide variety of diseases associated with diabetes and other conditions. The clinical applications of TZDs are limited by the common major side effect of fluid retention. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism of TZD-induced fluid retention is essential for the development of novel therapies with improved safety profiles. An important breakthrough in the field is the finding that the renal collecting duct is a major site for increased fluid reabsorption in response to rosiglitazone or pioglitazone. New evidence also indicates that increased vascular permeability in adipose tissues may contribute to edema formation and body weight gain. Future research should therefore be directed at achieving a better understanding of the detailed mechanisms of TZD-induced increases in renal sodium transport and in vascular permeability. PMID:18784848

Yang, Tianxin; Soodvilai, Sunhapas

2008-01-01

218

Short-Term Effects of Grade Retention on the Growth Rate of Woodcock-Johnson III Broad Math and Reading Scores  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effects of grade retention in first grade on the growth of the Woodcock-Johnson broad mathematics and reading scores over three years using linear growth curve modeling on an academically at-risk sample. A large sample (n = 784) of first grade children who were at risk for retention were initially identified based on low literacy scores. Scores representing propensity for retention were constructed based on 72 variables collected in comprehensive baseline testing in first grade. We closely matched 97 pairs of retained and promoted children based on their propensity scores using optimal matching procedures. This procedure adjusted for baseline differences between the retained and promoted children. We found that grade retention decreased the growth rate of mathematical skills but had no significant effect on reading skills. In addition, several potential moderators of the effect of retention on growth of mathematical and reading skills were identified including limited English language proficiency and children's conduct problems. PMID:19083352

Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

2008-01-01

219

A systematic review of health service interventions to improve linkage with or retention in HIV care.  

PubMed

The importance of early linkage to and continuing retention in HIV care is increasingly recognised, particularly in light of the implications poor linkage and retention rates have for the effectiveness of HIV treatment as prevention strategies. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of healthcare interventions in improving patient linkage to or retention in HIV care. We systematically searched PubMed (MEDLINE and PubMed-only citations) and EMBASE databases for articles reporting the original results of randomised controlled trials, and used a standard data collection form to extract information on study characteristics and outcome data. Five articles met the inclusion criteria, of which two articles focused on linkage to care and three on retention in care. The methodological quality, both of internal and external validity, of most of the trials was suboptimal. Wide variation in the interventions and outcome measures meant synthesis of the results using meta-analysis was not appropriate. This review shows evidence that interventions based on supporting patient self-management improves linkage to, and possibly retention in, care. Interventions aimed at delivery service design may also be effective, although evidence in this review was limited. It is vital that interventions are developed to improve patient engagement in HIV care. The dearth of research identified by this review highlights the need for well-designed trials of interventions in this area in the future. PMID:24354712

Brennan, Aline; Browne, John P; Horgan, Mary

2014-01-01

220

COMPARTMENTAL MODEL OF NITRATE RETENTION IN STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A compartmental modeling approach is presented to route nitrate retention along a cascade of stream reach sections. A process transfer function is used for transient storage equations with first order reaction terms to represent nitrate uptake in the free stream, and denitrifica...

221

Online Student Retention: Can It Be Done?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retention has been indicated as one of the greatest weaknesses in online instruction. While a preponderance of literature about online instruction is available, concrete ideas about how to retain students are lacking. A DHHS grant for over one million dollars made it possible for the Wright State University College of Nursing and Health (Dayton,…

O'Brien, Barbara S.; Renner, Alice L.

222

Attrition and Retention among Special Education Paraprofessionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to obtain information about issues of turnover and retention among former and current special education paraprofessionals in one school district. Survey data and findings indicated ways to retain staff and reduce turnover. Information from this study was shared within the district and will be considered in creating…

Hall, Kimberly D.

2009-01-01

223

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study  

E-print Network

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study Study ID Nos. 546B, 563 Prepared RECYCLING PROGRAMS Study ID Nos. 546B and 563 Prepared for Southern California Edison Rosemead, California Prepared by KEMA Inc. Madison, Wisconsin July 22, 2004 Copyright © 2004 by KEMA Inc. All rights reserved

224

Retention of Electronic Fundamentals: Differences Among Topics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criterion-referenced tests were used to measure the learning and retention of a sample of material taught by means of programed instruction in the Avionics Fundamentals Course, Class A. It was found that the students knew about 30 percent of the material before reading the programs, that mastery rose to a very high level on the immediate posttest,…

Johnson, Kirk A.

225

Customer satisfaction and retention in transition economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Customer Satisfaction Index studies have become standard practice in many industries and individual companies for improving performance through increased customer loyalty. However, customer decision-making and satisfaction in transitional economies have so far been studied less extensively in systematic ways. This paper reports on major empirical research focusing on customer perceived quality, satisfaction, retention and loyalty measurements taken in North-West Russia.

L. Murgulets; J. Eklöf; I. Dukeov; I. Selivanova

2001-01-01

226

Effects of Emotional Intelligence on Teacher Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed methods, explanatory design study focused on determining if the emotional intelligence of principals affects the retention of new teachers. In phase one, a non-random cluster sample of 138 public school principals in the state of Louisiana was surveyed using a quantitative instrument. A Factor Analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and…

Gerald, Grant Ronald

2010-01-01

227

Retention of Nontraditional Students in Postsecondary Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two recent studies proved the usefulness of predictors of academic performance and conceptual models that were developed primarily from research on traditional college students for the study of retention among nontraditional adult students in conventional postsecondary programs. Some modifications and extensions were suggested. The first study…

Weidman, John C.

228

Relationship of Personality Traits to Student Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carl Jung's theory of psychological types has been the basis for the development of personality categorization, including tests such as Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This study analyzed the extent of the relationship between MBTI and Tinto (1993) retention factors that influence Oriental medicine students' choice of staying or dropping out…

Liang, John Paul

2010-01-01

229

Hydrogen isotope retention and release from copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is considering the use of tritium neutral beams during the deuterium--tritium phase of operation in 1990. A concern is the tritium inventory that will develop in neutral beam components such as the copper calorimeter. In this paper we report on measurements and calculations of hydrogen isotope retention and

K. L. Wilson; R. A. Causey; M. I. Baskes; J. Kamperschroer

1987-01-01

230

Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

2011-01-01

231

Comprehensive Retention and Attrition Model (CRAM).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A continuing concern in a number of teaching fields is the shortage of fully qualified teachers. The decisions of fully qualified teachers to continue in their teaching assignments (retention), to transfer to another assignment (transfer), or to leave the profession for some other activity (exit attrition) are the major determinants of the degree…

Boe, Erling E.

232

Making Student Retention an Institutional Priority.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study conducted to determine the reasons behind the high rate of student attrition at Mountain Empire Community College in Virginia. Work demands and family conflicts were found to be the primary causes of drop out, conclusions that led to the formation of a task force and a student retention plan to improve persistence. (KC)

Sydow, Debbie L.; Sandel, Robert H.

1998-01-01

233

Systems Thinking Can Improve Teacher Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the challenges of teacher retention and proposes that systems thinking can be used to address those challenges. Considers five strategies for retaining teachers. Suggests that the five strategies discussed can provide comprehensive programs to reduce teacher attrition and create stable teacher teams. (SG)

Minarik, Melanie M.; Thornton, Bill; Perreault, George

2003-01-01

234

Factors Contributing to Teacher Retention in Georgia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this mixed method, survey-based inquiry was to determine how Georgia public high school faculty members perceive various pressures and experiences associated with a career in education. These perceptions were then analyzed as possible indicators of teacher attrition in order to improve retention rates. The independent demographic…

Locklear, Tina M.

2010-01-01

235

Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…

Koroscik, Judith Smith

236

49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General...

2010-10-01

237

Retention of Undergraduate Black Men Executive Summary of Preliminary Research  

E-print Network

1 Retention of Undergraduate Black Men Executive Summary of Preliminary and retention rates for undergraduate Black men to bring them to parity with all to an increase in the graduation rate of undergraduate Black men. Specifically, the task

Chen, Tsuhan

238

49 CFR 229.215 - Retention and inspection of designs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Retention and inspection of designs. (a) Retention of records—original designs. Each manufacturer or...of the original locomotive designs, including supporting...inspection and duplication within 7 days, any records referred...

2010-10-01

239

21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4930 Suture retention device. (a) Identification. A suture retention...

2010-04-01

240

21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4930 Suture retention device. (a) Identification. A suture retention...

2012-04-01

241

21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4930 Suture retention device. (a) Identification. A suture retention...

2014-04-01

242

21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4930 Suture retention device. (a) Identification. A suture retention...

2011-04-01

243

21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4930 Suture retention device. (a) Identification. A suture retention...

2013-04-01

244

49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General...

2013-10-01

245

49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General...

2011-10-01

246

49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General...

2012-10-01

247

Retention mechanisms in micellar liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) is a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RPLC) mode with mobile phases containing a surfactant (ionic or non-ionic) above its critical micellar concentration (CMC). In these conditions, the stationary phase is modified with an approximately constant amount of surfactant monomers, and the solubilising capability of the mobile phase is altered by the presence of micelles, giving rise to diverse interactions (hydrophobic, ionic and steric) with major implications in retention and selectivity. From its beginnings in 1980, the technique has evolved up to becoming a real alternative in some instances (and a complement in others) to classical RPLC with hydro-organic mixtures, owing to its peculiar features and unique advantages. This review is aimed to describe the retention mechanisms (i.e. solute interactions with both stationary and mobile phases) in an MLC system, revealed in diverse reports where the retention behaviour of solutes of different nature (ionic or neutral exhibiting a wide range of polarities) has been studied in a variety of conditions (with ionic and non-ionic surfactants, added salt and organic solvent, and varying pH). The theory is supported by several mechanistic models that describe satisfactorily the retention behaviour, and allow the measurement of the strength of solute-stationary phase and solute-micelle interactions. Suppression of silanol activity, steric effects in the packing pores, anti-binding behaviour, retention of ionisable compounds, compensating effect on polarity differences among solutes, and the contribution of the solvation parameter model to elucidate the interactions in MLC, are commented. PMID:18838142

Ruiz-Angel, M J; Carda-Broch, S; Torres-Lapasió, J R; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

2009-03-01

248

Common Waste and Materials  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Wastes Resource Conservation Common Wastes & Materials Common Waste and Materials Related Links Universal Waste Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPG) Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) ...

249

Fostering Resilience: A Necessary Skill for Teacher Retention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this qualitative 2-year study was to examine the resilience building process in four novice secondary science teachers and its link to teacher retention. To achieve the research goal, a resilience framework was established. Three factors were instrumental in creating the framework. The first focused on stressors and protective factors in the lives of novice secondary science teachers and provided direction and goals for the research. Second, a case study was developed for each of the four teachers participating in the research in order to emphasize the detailed analysis of factors linked to resilience. Finally, cross-case analysis was employed to identify similarities and differences and provide insight into issues concerning the resilience process. Results of this study suggest that the interaction between stressors and protective factors acts as a primary force in the resilience process and stimulate responses to help counteract negative effects of resulting stress. Therefore, it can be reasoned that resilience can be fostered in novice teachers as a means to encourage teacher retention.

Doney, Patricia A.

2013-06-01

250

Common sense representations of common illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 320 undergraduates provide evidence that common sense representations of common illnesses involve 5 components: (1) a label, (2) consequences, (3) a time line, (4) a cause, and (5) a cure. The content of schemas for a person's most recent illness is shown to have small but significant effects on changes in health locus of control beliefs but not

Richard R. Lau; Karen A. Hartman

1983-01-01

251

Identifying Plant Poisoning in Livestock  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plant intoxication is a common and often deadly problem that annually costs the livestock industry more than $340 million in the western United States alone. Despite the cost or frequency, definitively identifying or diagnosing poisoning by plants in livestock is challenging. The purpos...

252

Education for Sustainable Development and Retention: Unravelling a Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the question of what education for sustainable development (ESD) research might signify when linked to the concept of "retention", and how this relation (ESD and retention) might be researched. It considers two different perspectives on retention, as revealed through educational research trajectories, drawing on existing…

Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

2010-01-01

253

The Tennessee Lottery Scholarship Program: Impact on Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined if the Tennessee Education Lottery Scholarship (TELS), which began in 2004, was related to student retention at the six Tennessee Board of Regents four-year institutions. This study investigated the impact of the TELS on student retention at TBR universities and general knowledge regarding retention. Post-facto data were…

Puryear, Carol G.

2009-01-01

254

Framing Retention for Institutional Improvement: A 4 Ps Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 4 Ps framework for student retention strategy is a construct for reframing the retention discussion in a way that enables institutional improvement by challenging some conventional wisdom and prevailing perspectives that have characterized retention strategy for years. It opens new possibilities for action and improvement by suggesting that…

Kalsbeek, David H.

2013-01-01

255

California Institute of Technology Records Retention and Disposition Policy  

E-print Network

of the Records Retention and Disposition Policy is to establish and maintain a uniform records management policy activities and are subject to records management review and evaluation prior to any decisions regarding of Technology Records Retention Schedule ("Retention Schedule"). Department and division management should

256

Causes and recommendations for unanticipated ink retention following tattoo removal treatment.  

PubMed

While placement of ink into the skin is a long-standing tradition, patients are now seeking tattoo removal on a more frequent basis. Once considered acceptable removal options, tattoo ink removal via physical destruction included dermabrasion, chemical destruction, salabrasion, thermal destruction, and cryotherapy. Now these options are used extremely infrequently. These modalities provided unpredictable results and often required prolonged healing times and left patients with skin discoloration, pain, scarring, and ink retention. Even the widely adopted use of lasers, now considered the gold standard method, offers some level of unpredictability surrounding the natural progression of ink resolution. Multiple factors need to be taken into consideration when successfully removing tattoo pigment including the modalities used, number and frequency of treatments, proper device technique, and physiological barriers to tattoo removal. This paper serves to elucidate the common causes of ink retention following tattoo removal treatment with recommendations on how best to address this relatively common occurrence. PMID:23882312

Kirby, William; Chen, Cynthia L; Desai, Alpesh; Desai, Tejas

2013-07-01

257

Causes and Recommendations for Unanticipated Ink Retention Following Tattoo Removal Treatment  

PubMed Central

While placement of ink into the skin is a long-standing tradition, patients are now seeking tattoo removal on a more frequent basis. Once considered acceptable removal options, tattoo ink removal via physical destruction included dermabrasion, chemical destruction, salabrasion, thermal destruction, and cryotherapy. Now these options are used extremely infrequently. These modalities provided unpredictable results and often required prolonged healing times and left patients with skin discoloration, pain, scarring, and ink retention. Even the widely adopted use of lasers, now considered the gold standard method, offers some level of unpredictability surrounding the natural progression of ink resolution. Multiple factors need to be taken into consideration when successfully removing tattoo pigment including the modalities used, number and frequency of treatments, proper device technique, and physiological barriers to tattoo removal. This paper serves to elucidate the common causes of ink retention following tattoo removal treatment with recommendations on how best to address this relatively common occurrence. PMID:23882312

Chen, Cynthia L.; Desai, Alpesh; Desai, Tejas

2013-01-01

258

On identified predictive control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-tuning control algorithms are potential successors to manually tuned PID controllers traditionally used in process control applications. A very attractive design method for self-tuning controllers, which has been developed over recent years, is the long-range predictive control (LRPC). The success of LRPC is due to its effectiveness with plants of unknown order and dead-time which may be simultaneously nonminimum phase and unstable or have multiple lightly damped poles (as in the case of flexible structures or flexible robot arms). LRPC is a receding horizon strategy and can be, in general terms, summarized as follows. Using assumed long-range (or multi-step) cost function the optimal control law is found in terms of unknown parameters of the predictor model of the process, current input-output sequence, and future reference signal sequence. The common approach is to assume that the input-output process model is known or separately identified and then to find the parameters of the predictor model. Once these are known, the optimal control law determines control signal at the current time t which is applied at the process input and the whole procedure is repeated at the next time instant. Most of the recent research in this field is apparently centered around the LRPC formulation developed by Clarke et al., known as generalized predictive control (GPC). GPC uses ARIMAX/CARIMA model of the process in its input-output formulation. In this paper, the GPC formulation is used but the process predictor model is derived from the state space formulation of the ARIMAX model and is directly identified over the receding horizon, i.e., using current input-output sequence. The underlying technique in the design of identified predictive control (IPC) algorithm is the identification algorithm of observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters developed by Juang et al. at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully applied to identification of flexible structures.

Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

1993-01-01

259

Facilitating job retention for chronically ill employees: perspectives of line managers and human resource managers  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic diseases are a leading contributor to work disability and job loss in Europe. Recent EU policies aim to improve job retention among chronically ill employees. Disability and occupational health researchers argue that this requires a coordinated and pro-active approach at the workplace by occupational health professionals, line managers (LMs) and human resource managers (HRM). Little is known about the perspectives of LMs an HRM on what is needed to facilitate job retention among chronically ill employees. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and compare the perspectives of Dutch LMs and HRM on this issue. Methods Concept mapping methodology was used to elicit and map statements (ideas) from 10 LMs and 17 HRM about what is needed to ensure continued employment for chronically ill employees. Study participants were recruited through a higher education and an occupational health services organization. Results Participants generated 35 statements. Each group (LMs and HRM) sorted these statements into six thematic clusters. LMs and HRM identified four similar clusters: LMs and HRM must be knowledgeable about the impact of chronic disease on the employee; employees must accept responsibility for work retention; work adaptations must be implemented; and clear company policy. Thematic clusters identified only by LMs were: good manager/employee cooperation and knowledge transfer within the company. Unique clusters identified by HRM were: company culture and organizational support. Conclusions There were both similarities and differences between the views of LMs and HRM on what may facilitate job retention for chronically ill employees. LMs perceived manager/employee cooperation as the most important mechanism for enabling continued employment for these employees. HRM perceived organizational policy and culture as the most important mechanism. The findings provide information about topics that occupational health researchers and planners should address in developing job retention programs for chronically ill workers. PMID:21586139

2011-01-01

260

A record-retention program can protect group practices.  

PubMed

Group practices can benefit from having a systematic record-retention program that includes a formal record-retention policy. While state and Federal laws require the retention of some types of business records, many other records should be retained in the event of an audit or litigation. Having a record-retention program in place can help group practices respond cost-effectively and efficiently when called upon to produce documentation. The record-retention program should include a policy that stipulates not only which records should be kept but also for how long. Group practices should retain records relating to patient care, taxes, payroll, and contracts. PMID:10557981

Stewart, E E

1999-04-01

261

Retentive characteristics of dental cementation materials.  

PubMed

Glass ionomer, polycarboxylate, zinc phosphate, and two resin cements were tested in vitro to cement base and noble metal crowns to prepared extracted teeth. The cements had different retentive characteristics. Among cements, statistically significant tensile resistance to dislodgment in order of decreasing strength was: (1) C & B Metabond (resin); (2) Panavia (resin); (3) Fuji I (glass ionomer); (4) Durelon (polycarboxylate); and (5) Fleck's (zinc phosphate). Tensile resistance to dislodgment did not differ statistically among base and noble metal crowns cemented with glass ionomer, polycarboxylate, or zinc phosphate cements. Tensile resistance to dislodgment differed statistically among base and noble crowns cemented with the resin cements (C & B Metabond and Panavia); the base metal crowns had the highest rate of retention. PMID:23087930

Hunsaker, K J; Christensen, G J; Christensen, R P; Cao, D; Lewis, R G

1993-11-01

262

Staff retention and empowerment: functions of leadership.  

PubMed

Regardless of any organization's structure and technology, the most potent leverage for exceptional performance and quality assurance resides within personnel. Retention of empowered, committed staff who believe in their organization's purpose and leadership is important to an organization's success. The Clinical Laboratory Sciences (CLS) profession faces a different kind of crisis, not only one of economics, but also one of quality because of lost professional expertise. This dilemma is because of profound neglect of the organization's greatest asset--its CLS professionals. Retention of expert CLS professionals requires a dramatic change in management's belief system regarding the value of their assets. Laboratory leaders must create a culture of empowered people with the freedom to exhibit self-direction toward achieving the organization's mission and goals. Managers must consider employees valuable enough to invest in their professional growth. A laboratory's long-term sustainability and economic performance will depend on a committed workforce. PMID:12506831

Mass, Diana

2002-01-01

263

Science Teacher Retention: Mentoring and Renewal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Some forty percent of all new science teachers leave the profession within five years, and too many science teachers are wedded to their textbooks and the routines they acquired during their collegiate years." What can be done to retain new science teachers and reinvigorate more experienced science teachers? Allow Science Teacher Retention: Mentoring and Renewal to "mentor" you as you reach toward this lofty but attainable goal. For this book, Jack Rhoton and Patricia Bowers assembled some of the country's most noted science educators and asked them to offer ideas to resolve the problems of science teacher retention and renewal. Their suggestions are designed to keep the brightest and most motivated new teachers in the profession and help all science teachers to continue to learn and to treat their own profession like science itself--that is, by basing it on questions, suggesting answers, and using their interests and abilities to test the validity of these answers.

2003-01-01

264

Inquiry-Based Learning and Student Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the benefits of inquiry based hands-on education, engage students in their own learning, and increase retention of knowledge. Research supports the connection between this process and the learning in a science curriculum. Four topics to be discussed in the following chapter are hands-on learning and inquiry-based instruction, hands-on learning beyond the classroom,

Shelly Marie Lamanna

2010-01-01

265

Enhancing Nitrification at Low Temperature with Zeolite in a Mining Operations Retention Pond  

PubMed Central

Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up to 9?months of the year. The aluminosilicate mineral zeolite was tested as an additive to retention pond water to increase rates of ammonium removal at 4°C. Water samples were collected across the length of the retention pond monthly over a year. The structure of the microbial community (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya), as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, was more stable during cold months than during July–September, when there was a marked phytoplankton bloom. Of the ammonia-oxidizing community, only bacterial amoA genes were consistently detected. Zeolite (10?g) was added to retention pond water (100?mL) amended with 5?mM ammonium and incubated at 12°C to encourage development of a nitrifying biofilm. The biofilm community was composed of different amoA phylotypes from those identified in gene clone libraries of native water samples. Zeolite biofilm was added to fresh water samples collected at different times of the year, resulting in a significant increase in laboratory measurements of potential nitrification activity at 4°C. A significant positive correlation between the amount of zeolite biofilm and potential nitrification activity was observed; rates were unaffected in incubations containing 1–20?mM ammonium. Addition of zeolite to retention ponds in cold environments could effectively increase nitrification rates year-round by concentrating active nitrifying biomass. PMID:22866052

Miazga-Rodriguez, Misha; Han, Sukkyun; Yakiwchuk, Brian; Wei, Kai; English, Colleen; Bourn, Steven; Bohnert, Seth; Stein, Lisa Y.

2012-01-01

266

Testing to enhance retention in human anatomy.  

PubMed

Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the nervous system, were developed. The quizzes were optional, and no credit was awarded. They were posted online using Blackboard, which provided feedback, and they were very popular. To determine whether the quizzes had any effect on retention, they were given in a controlled setting to 21 future medical and dental students. The weekly quizzes included questions on regional anatomy and an expanded set of questions on the nervous system. Each question about the nervous system was given three times, in a slightly different form each time. The second quiz was given approximately half an hour after the first one, and the third was given one week after the second to assess retention. The quizzes were unpopular, but students showed robust improvement on the questions about the nervous system. The scores increased by almost 9% on the second quiz, with no intervention except viewing the correct answers. The scores were 29% higher on the third quiz than on the first, and there was also a positive correlation between the grades on the quizzes and the final examination. Thus, repeated testing is an effective strategy for learning and retaining information about human anatomy. PMID:21805688

Logan, Jessica M; Thompson, Andrew J; Marshak, David W

2011-01-01

267

High Efficiency Diffusion Molecular Retention Tumor Targeting  

PubMed Central

Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR) tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT) injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding) and RAD (control) probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for 111 In3+), a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or IV methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [111In] RGD and [111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by IV). The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide), which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters) for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light. PMID:23505478

Guo, Yanyan; Yuan, Hushan; Cho, Hoonsung; Kuruppu, Darshini; Jokivarsi, Kimmo; Agarwal, Aayush; Shah, Khalid; Josephson, Lee

2013-01-01

268

Deuterium retention in NSTX with lithium conditioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High (?90%) deuterium retention was observed in NSTX gas balance measurements both with- and without lithiumization of the carbon plasma-facing components. The gas retained in ohmic discharges was measured by comparing the vessel pressure rise after a discharge to that of a gas-only pulse with the pumping valves closed. For neutral beam heated discharges the gas input and gas pumped by the NB cryopanels were tracked. The discharges were followed by outgassing of deuterium that reduced the retention. The relationship between retention and surface chemistry was explored with a new plasma-material interface probe connected to an in vacuo surface science station that exposed four material samples to the plasma. XPS and TDS analysis demonstrated that binding of D atoms in graphite is fundamentally changed by lithium - in particular atoms are weakly bonded in regions near lithium atoms bound to either oxygen or the carbon matrix. This is in contrast to the strong ionic bonding that occurs between D and pure Li.

Skinner, C. H.; Allain, J. P.; Blanchard, W.; Kugel, H. W.; Maingi, R.; Roquemore, L.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Taylor, C. N.

2011-08-01

269

Improved motor sequence retention by motionless listening.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of listening to a newly learned musical piece on subsequent motor retention of the piece. Thirty-six non-musicians were trained to play an unfamiliar melody on a piano keyboard. Next, they were randomly assigned to participate in three follow-up listening sessions over 1 week. Subjects who, during their listening sessions, listened to the same initial piece showed significant improvements in motor memory and retention of the piece despite the absence of physical practice. These improvements included increased pitch accuracy, time accuracy, and dynamic intensity of key pressing. Similar improvements, though to a lesser degree, were observed in subjects who, during their listening sessions, were distracted by another task. Control subjects, who after learning the piece had listened to nonmusical sounds, showed impaired motoric retention of the piece at 1 week from the initial acquisition day. These results imply that motor sequences can be established in motor memory without direct access to motor-related information. In addition, the study revealed that the listening-induced improvements did not generalize to the learning of a new musical piece composed of the same notes as the initial piece learned, limiting the effects to musical motor sequences that are already part of the individual's motor repertoire. PMID:22434336

Lahav, Amir; Katz, Tal; Chess, Roxanne; Saltzman, Elliot

2013-05-01

270

Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

2009-01-01

271

The New Common School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Horace Mann's goal of creating a common school that brings our society's children together in mutual respect and common learning need not be frustrated by residential segregation and geographical separation of the haves and have-nots. Massachusetts' new common school vision boasts a Metro Program for minority students, 80 magnet schools, and…

Glenn, Charles L.

1987-01-01

272

The Common Style of  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraordinary impact of Thomas Paine's Common Sense has often been attributed to its style — to the simplicity and forcefulness with which Paine expressed ideas that many others before him had expressed. Comparative analysis of Common Sense and other pre-Revolutionary pamphlets suggests that Common Sense was indeed stylistically unique; no other pamphleteer came close to matching Paine's combination of

Lee Sigelman; Colin Martindale; Dean McKenzie

1996-01-01

273

Canonical Commonality Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor variable. This paper outlines…

Leister, K. Dawn

274

Competing retention pathways of uranium upon reaction with Fe(II)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeochemical retention processes, including adsorption, reductive precipitation, and incorporation into host minerals, are important in contaminant transport, remediation, and geologic deposition of uranium. Recent work has shown that U can become incorporated into iron (hydr)oxide minerals, with a key pathway arising from Fe(II)-induced transformation of ferrihydrite, (Fe(OH)3·nH2O) to goethite (?-FeO(OH)); this is a possible U retention mechanism in soils and sediments. Several key questions, however, remain unanswered regarding U incorporation into iron (hydr)oxides and this pathway’s contribution to U retention, including: (i) the competitiveness of U incorporation versus reduction to U(IV) and subsequent precipitation of UO2; (ii) the oxidation state of incorporated U; (iii) the effects of uranyl aqueous speciation on U incorporation; and, (iv) the mechanism of U incorporation. Here we use a series of batch reactions conducted at pH ?7, [U(VI)] from 1 to 170 ?M, [Fe(II)] from 0 to 3 mM, and [Ca] at 0 or 4 mM coupled with spectroscopic examination of reaction products of Fe(II)-induced ferrihydrite transformation to address these outstanding questions. Uranium retention pathways were identified and quantified using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of EXAFS spectra showed that 14-89% of total U was incorporated into goethite, upon reaction with Fe(II) and ferrihydrite. Uranium incorporation was a particularly dominant retention pathway at U concentrations ?50 ?M when either uranyl-carbonato or calcium-uranyl-carbonato complexes were dominant, accounting for 64-89% of total U. With increasing U(VI) and Fe(II) concentrations, U(VI) reduction to U(IV) became more prevalent, but U incorporation remained a functioning retention pathway. These findings highlight the potential importance of U(V) incorporation within iron oxides as a retention process of U across a wide range of biogeochemical environments and the sensitivity of uranium retention processes to operative (bio)geochemical conditions.

Massey, Michael S.; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Jones, Morris E.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Cerrato, José M.; Bargar, John R.; Fendorf, Scott

2014-10-01

275

Competing retention pathways of uranium upon reaction with Fe(II)  

SciTech Connect

Biogeochemical retention processes, including adsorption, reductive precipitation, and incorporation into host minerals, are important in contaminant transport, remediation, and geologic deposition of uranium. Recent work has shown that U can become incorporated into iron (hydr)oxide minerals, with a key pathway arising from Fe(II)-induced transformation of ferrihydrite, (Fe(OH)3•nH2O) to goethite (?-FeO(OH)); this is a possible U retention mechanism in soils and sediments. Several key questions, however, remain unanswered regarding U incorporation into iron (hydr)oxides and this pathway’s contribution to U retention, including: (i) the competitiveness of U incorporation versus reduction to U(IV) and subsequent precipitation of UO2; (ii) the oxidation state of incorporated U; (iii) the effects of uranyl aqueous speciation on U incorporation; and, (iv) the mechanism of U incorporation. Here we use a series of batch reactions conducted at pH ~7, [U(VI)] from 1 to 170 ?M, [Fe(II)] from 0 to 3 mM, and [Ca] at 0 or 4 mM) coupled with spectroscopic examination of reaction products of Fe(II)-induced ferrihydrite transformation to address these outstanding questions. Uranium retention pathways were identified and quantified using extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, x-ray powder diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of EXAFS spectra showed that 14 to 89% of total U was incorporated into goethite, upon reaction with Fe(II) and ferrihydrite. Uranium incorporation was a particularly dominant retention pathway at U concentrations ? 50 ?M when either uranyl-carbonato or calcium-uranyl-carbonato complexes were dominant, accounting for 64 to 89% of total U. With increasing U(VI) and Fe(II) concentrations, U(VI) reduction to U(IV) became more prevalent, but U incorporation remained a functioning retention pathway. These findings highlight the potential importance of U(V) incorporation within iron oxides as a retention process of U across a wide range of biogeochemical environments and the sensitivity of uranium retention processes to operative (bio)geochemical conditions.

Massey, Michael S.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Jones, Morris; Ilton, Eugene S.; Cerrato, Jose M.; Bargar, John R.; Fendorf, Scott

2014-10-01

276

Why Study Geoscience? Identifying Effective Recruitment and Retention Strategies for an Undergraduate Earth & Environmental Sciences Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

McMaster University is a `research intensive' university with 17,000+ full time undergraduate students. The School of Geography and Earth Sciences (SGES) is located within the Faculty of Science, offers B.Sc., B.A., M.Sc., M.A. and PhD degree programs and teaches more than 70 undergraduate courses on an annual basis. The Honours B.Sc program in Earth and Environmental Sciences (EES) graduates approximately 25 students per year. Students enroll in undergraduate SGES programs in their second year, after completion of an introductory first year in the Faculty of Science in which they take compulsory science courses including math, physics, chemistry, and biology. First year students, as well as those in upper years, may also elect to take one or more of three introductory courses offered by SGES (Earth & the Environment, The Living Environment, Atmosphere & Hydrosphere) to complete their science requirements. Most students entering the Faculty of Science know little about geoscience as it does not form an important part of the Ontario secondary school curriculum. Hence, recruitment into the EES program is primarily via the first year courses. In order to establish reasons why students elected to take the introductory courses offered by SGES, and their reasons for considering subsequent entry to the B.Sc program, a survey of students taking one of the courses was conducted in the fall of 2003. Results from the survey indicate that students enroll in the course, and subsequently the EES program, for a variety of reasons including: general interest in how the planet works, concern for the environment, interesting title of the course and reputation of the instructor. Student concern over lack of potential jobs is cited as the main reason for not pursuing a degree in geoscience. This survey has helped to direct the multifaceted recruitment strategies used by SGES to continue to develop its undergraduate program through delivery of high quality first year courses. Additional recruitment strategies used to recruit and retain high quality students include an active undergraduate society and departmental events that contribute towards a culture of learning and sense of belonging that is sought by students.

Vajoczki, S.; Eyles, C. H.; Stewart, J.; Dasilva, L.

2005-12-01

277

[Advances in recently identified coronaviruses].  

PubMed

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses which include viruses that cause the common cold and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in humans and other diseases in animals. There are considerable genetic diversities within coronaviruses due to their wide rang hosts and their special gene replication and transcription mechanisms. During this process, gene recombinations often occur, resulting in novel subtype or coronavirus emerge constantly. Of note are SARS-like-CoVs and novel HCoV-EMC identified in 2012. This minireview summarized major advances of recently identified coronaviruses, focusing on the genome structures and interspecies jumping mechanism of coronavirus. PMID:23547382

Geng, He-Yuan; Tan, Wen-Jie

2013-01-01

278

How Common Is the Common Core?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

2014-01-01

279

Static retention of the lumenal monotopic membrane protein torsinA in the endoplasmic reticulum  

PubMed Central

TorsinA is a membrane-associated enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen that is mutated in DYT1 dystonia. How it remains in the ER has been unclear. We report that a hydrophobic N-terminal domain (NTD) directs static retention of torsinA within the ER by excluding it from ER exit sites, as has been previously reported for short transmembrane domains (TMDs). We show that despite the NTD's physicochemical similarity to TMDs, it does not traverse the membrane, defining torsinA as a lumenal monotopic membrane protein and requiring a new paradigm to explain retention. ER retention and membrane association are perturbed by a subset of nonconservative mutations to the NTD, suggesting that a helical structure with defined orientation in the membrane is required. TorsinA preferentially enriches in ER sheets, as might be expected for a lumenal monotopic membrane protein. We propose that the principle of membrane-based protein sorting extends to monotopic membrane proteins, and identify other proteins including the monotopic lumenal enzyme cyclooxygenase 1 (prostaglandin H synthase 1) that share this mechanism of retention with torsinA. PMID:21785409

Vander Heyden, Abigail B; Naismith, Teresa V; Snapp, Erik L; Hanson, Phyllis I

2011-01-01

280

Can periprosthetic hip joint infections be successfully managed by debridement and prosthesis retention?  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the current literature about how successfully periprosthetic hip joint infections can be managed by debridement and prosthesis retention. A literature search was performed through PubMed until September 2013. Search terms were “DAIR (debridement, antibiotics, irrigation, and retention)” alone and in combination with “hip” as well as “hip infection + prosthesis retention”. A total of 11 studies reporting on 292 cases could be identified. Five different treatment modalities have been described with varying success rates (debridement-21% infection eradication rate; debridement + lavage-75% infection eradication rate; debridement, lavage, with change of modular prosthesis components-70.4% infection eradication rate; debridement, lavage, change of modular prosthesis components + vacuum-assisted closure-92.8% infection eradication rate; acetabular cup removal + spacer head onto retained stem-89.6% infection eradication rate). With regard to the postoperative antibiotic therapy, no general consensus could be drawn from the available data. Debridement, antibiotic therapy, irrigation, and prosthesis retention is an acceptable solution in the management of early and acute hematogenous periprosthetic hip joint infections. The current literature does not allow for generalization of conclusions with regard to the best treatment modality. A large, multi-center study is required for identification of the optimal treatment of these infections. PMID:25035823

Anagnostakos, Konstantinos; Schmitt, Cornelia

2014-01-01

281

Retention of resin-based pit and fissure sealants: A systematic review.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review on the retention of resin-based sealants (RBSs) according to the material used and the clinical procedure. An electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane library and SCOPUS was completed by a hand search in conference proceedings. One hundred and twenty-four studies were identified, 31 of which were included. The retention rate of auto-polymerized and light-cured RBSs did not differ significantly. Light-cured RBSs had a significantly higher retention rate than fluoride-containing light-cured RBSs at 48 months (RR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.72-0.89) and more. Concerning the clinical procedure, the scarcity of well-conducted studies made judgement difficult, except for the isolation stage. If using a rubber dam did not affect retention of auto-polymerized RBSs, it did for fluoride-containing light-cured RBSs (RR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.51-2.73). PMID:16948671

Muller-Bolla, Michèle; Lupi-Pégurier, Laurence; Tardieu, Corinne; Velly, Ana Miriam; Antomarchi, Constance

2006-10-01

282

Factor XIII activity mediates red blood cell retention in venous thrombi  

PubMed Central

Venous thrombi, fibrin- and rbc-rich clots triggered by inflammation and blood stasis, underlie devastating, and sometimes fatal, occlusive events. During intravascular fibrin deposition, rbc are thought to become passively trapped in thrombi and therefore have not been considered a modifiable thrombus component. In the present study, we determined that activity of the transglutaminase factor XIII (FXIII) is critical for rbc retention within clots and directly affects thrombus size. Compared with WT mice, mice carrying a homozygous mutation in the fibrinogen ? chain (Fib?390–396A) had a striking 50% reduction in thrombus weight due to reduced rbc content. Fibrinogen from mice harboring the Fib?390–396A mutation exhibited reduced binding to FXIII, and plasma from these mice exhibited delayed FXIII activation and fibrin crosslinking, indicating these residues mediate FXIII binding and activation. FXIII-deficient mice phenocopied mice carrying Fib?390–396A and produced smaller thrombi with fewer rbc than WT mice. Importantly, FXIII-deficient human clots also exhibited reduced rbc retention. The addition of FXIII to FXIII-deficient clots increased rbc retention, while inhibition of FXIII activity in normal blood reduced rbc retention and produced smaller clots. These findings establish the FXIII-fibrinogen axis as a central determinant in venous thrombogenesis and identify FXIII as a potential therapeutic target for limiting venous thrombosis. PMID:24983320

Aleman, Maria M.; Byrnes, James R.; Wang, Jian-Guo; Tran, Reginald; Lam, Wilbur A.; Di Paola, Jorge; Mackman, Nigel; Degen, Jay L.; Flick, Matthew J.; Wolberg, Alisa S.

2014-01-01

283

Orbit Evolution in Common Envelopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study how the inclination angle and eccentricity evolve during a common envelope phase. During a common envelope phase, a compact star is swallowed by its giant companion and spirals into a tighter orbit. A close binary results if the compact star releases enough energy to expel the envelope. We investigate possible fossil evidence of the common envelope phase on the inclination angle and the eccentricity. A convective common envelope leads to force component perpendicular to the orbital plane, and thus change the orbital inclination. This makes it harder to uniquely identify the signature of neutron star natal kicks. A common envelope is usually assumed to circularize orbits, but some eccentricity in fact arises both from the spiral-in process itself, and from random forces in the orbital plane. When the envelope is expelled, it might seem that the binary system would preserve whatever eccentricity had been established at the final stage of the inspiral. But tidal dissipation by the residual envelope can reduce the eccentricity. The final eccentricity depends on which of these effects wins or how they balance each other. We discuss applications and observational tests of these predictions.

Luan, Jing; Phinney, E. S.

2011-09-01

284

The Impact of Financial Aid on the Enrollment and Retention of Student Athletes at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III Colleges and Universities: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to review current literature on the enrollment and retention of student athletes at NCAA Division III institutions. However, the review identifies very few studies that specifically focused on Division III programs and none that looks at the influence of financial aid on the enrollment and retention of student athletes at…

Bandre, Mark A.

2011-01-01

285

116 Computer reating a common language  

E-print Network

116 Computer C reating a common language provides one of a social enter- prise's defining moments allowing a field's participants to communicate among themselves. Its importance extends beyond this func to identify the people who participate in an enterprise and, by its arcanism when related to the common

Santini, Simone

286

Commonality and Variability in Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes how to perform domain engineering by identifying the commonalities and variabilities within a family of products. Through interesting examples dealing with reuse libraries, design patterns, and programming language design, the authors suggest a systematic scope, commonalities, and variabilities approach to formal analysis. Their SCV analysis has been an integral part of the FAST (Family-oriented Abstraction, Specification, and

James Coplien; Daniel Hoffman; David M. Weiss

1998-01-01

287

Nitrogen retention in urban lawns and forests.  

PubMed

Lawns are a dominant cover type in urban ecosystems, and there is concern about their impacts on water quality. However, recent watershed-level studies suggest that these pervious areas might be net sinks, rather than sources, for nitrogen (N) in the urban environment. A 15N pulse-labeling experiment was performed on lawn and forest plots in the Baltimore (Maryland, U.S.A.) metropolitan area to test the hypothesis that lawns are a net sink for atmospheric-N deposition and to compare and contrast mechanisms of N retention in these vegetation types. A pulse of 15N-NO3-, simulating a precipitation event, was followed through mineral soils, roots, Oi-layer/thatch, aboveground biomass, microbial biomass, inorganic N, and evolved N2 gas over a one-year period. The 15N label was undetectable in gaseous samples, but enrichment of other pools was high. Gross rates of production and consumption of NO3- and NH4+ were measured to assess differences in internal N cycling under lawns and forests. Rates of N retention were similar during the first five days of the experiment, with lawns showing higher N retention than forests after 10, 70, and 365 days. Lawns had larger pools of available NO3- and NH4+; however, gross rates of mineralization and nitrification were also higher, leading to no net differences in NO3- and NH4+ turnover times between the two systems. Levels of 15N remained steady in forest mineral soils from day 70 to 365 (at 23% of applied 15N), but continued to accumulate in lawn mineral soils over this same time period, increasing from 20% to 33% of applied 15N. The dominant sink for N in lawn plots changed over time. Immobilization in mineral soils dominated immediately (one day) after tracer application (42% of recovered 15N); plant biomass dominated the short term (10 days; 51%); thatch and mineral-soil pools together dominated the medium term (70 days; 28% and 36%, respectively); and the mineral-soil pool alone dominated long-term retention (one year; 70% of recovered 15N). These findings illustrate the mechanisms whereby urban and suburban lawns under low to moderate management intensities are an important sink for atmospheric-N deposition. PMID:18839758

Raciti, S M; Groffman, P M; Fahey, T J

2008-10-01

288

Sortase-deficient lactobacilli: effect on immunomodulation and gut retention.  

PubMed

Surface proteins of probiotic microbes, including Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus gasseri, are believed to promote retention in the gut and mediate host-bacterial communications. Sortase, an enzyme that covalently couples a subset of extracellular proteins containing an LPXTG motif to the cell surface, is of particular interest in characterizing bacterial adherence and communication with the mucosal immune system. A sortase gene, srtA, was identified in L. acidophilus NCFM (LBA1244) and L. gasseri ATCC 33323 (LGAS_0825). Additionally, eight and six intact sortase-dependent proteins were predicted in L. acidophilus and L. gasseri, respectively. Due to the role of sortase in coupling these proteins to the cell wall, ?srtA deletion mutants of L. acidophilus and L. gasseri were created using the upp-based counterselective gene replacement system. Inactivation of sortase did not cause significant alteration in growth or survival in simulated gastrointestinal juices. Meanwhile, both ?srtA mutants showed decreased adhesion to porcine mucin in vitro. Murine dendritic cells exposed to the ?srtA mutant of L. acidophilus or L. gasseri induced lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-12, respectively, compared with the parent strains. In vivo co-colonization of the L. acidophilus ?srtA mutant and its parent strain in germ-free 129S6/SvEv mice resulted in a significant one-log reduction of the ?srtA mutant population. Additionally, a similar reduction of the ?srtA mutant was observed in the caecum. This study shows for the first time that sortase-dependent proteins contribute to gut retention of probiotic microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25500495

Call, Emma K; Goh, Yong Jun; Selle, Kurt; Klaenhammer, Todd R; O'Flaherty, Sarah

2015-02-01

289

Common Control System Vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

Trent Nelson

2005-12-01

290

Common sense treatment for common lipid disorders.  

PubMed

Dyslipidemia is a common, major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Screening for lipid disorders is simple, and available treatments decrease disease risk. However, secondary causes of dyslipidemia are probably underappreciated, and severe lipid elevations should be referred to a lipid specialist. Patients usually respond to lifestyle modifications and drug therapy guided by a stepwise approach supported by the results of clinical trials, but several misconceptions may interfere with treatment strategies. PMID:21568232

Johnson, Mariko; Semenkovich, Clay F

2011-01-01

291

Football and Freshmen Retention: Examining the Impact of College Football on Institutional Retention Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student retention has been one of the more researched topics in the study of American higher education over the past 20 years (Braxton, Hirschy, & McClendon, 2004; Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005). Very little of this research, however, has attempted to examine the impact of college athletics on an institution's ability to retain students. This…

Jones, Willis A.

2010-01-01

292

Mate retention in marriage: Further evidence of the reliability of the Mate Retention Inventory  

E-print Network

Todd K. Shackelford a,*, Aaron T. Goetz a , David M. Buss b a Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University, 2912 College Avenue, Davie, FL 33314, USA b Department of Psychology, The University rights reserved. Keywords: Mate retention; Marriage; Evolutionary psychology 1. Introduction Maintaining

Pillow, Jonathan

293

Transport, retention, and ecological significance of woody debris within a large ephemeral river  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spatiotemporal patterns and ecological significance of the retention of coarse particulate organic matter and large woody debris have been intensively studied in perennial rivers and streams but are virtually unknown in ephemeral systems. We examined the influence of 2 features characteristic of ephemeral systems, downstream hydrologic decay and in-channel tree growth, on the distribution, transport, and retention of woody debris following a flood having a ~2.6-y recurrence interval in the ephemeral Kuiseb River in southwestern Africa. A total of 2105 pieces of wood were painted at 8 sites along the river channel to measure retention patterns. The flood had a peak discharge of 159 m3/s at the upper end of the study area, decaying to <1 m3/s by 200 km downstream. Downstream export of wood from marking sites totaled 59.5% (n = 1253). Transport distances ranged from 1 to 124 km, and 34.8% (n = 436) of the exported wood was recovered. Marked wood retained within marking sites was significantly longer than exported wood (p < 0.001, t-test). Once in transport, there was little correlation between wood length and distance traveled (r = 0.11, correlation analysis, n = 369). Length influenced the site of retention; material retained on debris piles was significantly longer than that stranded on channel sediments (p < 0.001, t-test). In-channel growth of Faidherbia trees significantly influenced wood retention; 83.7% of marked wood not moved by the flood was associated with debris piles on Faidherbia trees. Similarly, 65% of the exported wood retained within downstream debris piles was associated with Faidherbia trees. In contrast to many perennial systems, we observed a general increase in wood retention downstream, peaking in the river's lower reaches in response to hydrologic decay. Debris piles induced sediment deposition and the formation of in-channel islands. Following flood recession, debris piles and their associated sediments provided moist, organic-rich microhabitats, which were focal points for decomposition and secondary production, mimicking patterns reported from the channels of perennial streams and rivers. The ecological significance of retentive obstacles and associated organic debris is a feature common to all fluvial ecosystems, irrespective of their hydrologic regime.

Jacobson, P.J.; Jacobson, K.M.; Angermeier, P.L.; Cherry, D.S.

1999-01-01

294

Butyric acid retention in gingival tissue induces oxidative stress in jugular blood mitochondria.  

PubMed

Butyric acid (BA) is a major extracellular metabolite produced by anaerobic periodontopathic bacteria and is commonly deposited in the gingival tissue. BA induces mitochondrial oxidative stress in vitro; however, its effects in vivo were never elucidated. Here, we determined the effects of butyric acid retention in the gingival tissues on oxidative stress induction in the jugular blood mitochondria. We established that BA injected in the rat gingival tissue has prolonged retention in gingival tissues. Blood taken at 0, 60, and 180 min after BA injection was used for further analysis. We isolated blood mitochondria, verified its purity, and measured hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), heme, superoxide (SOD), and catalase (CAT) to determine BA effects. We found that H2O2, heme, SOD, and CAT levels all increased after BA injection. This would insinuate that mitochondrial oxidative stress was induced ascribable to BA. PMID:23397230

Cueno, Marni E; Imai, Kenichi; Matsukawa, Noriko; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

2013-09-01

295

Aggressive angiomyxoma presenting as urinary retention in a male: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

We present a case of pelvic aggressive angiomyxoma presenting as urinary retention in a male. A 46-year-old male presented with urinary retention and was found on computed tomography (CT) scan of the pelvis to have a large pelvic tumor. A transrectal ultrasound guided needle biopsy of the tumor and prostate revealed a myxoid tumor; low volume, low grade prostate cancer was also detected. The patient underwent radical prostatectomy and excision of the pelvic tumor which was diagnosed as aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM). The patient was free of recurrence after 1 year of follow up. AAM is a benign myxoid tumor seen very rarely in males. Treatment consists of surgical excision with negative margins. Tumors variably express estrogen and progesterone receptors. Immunohistochemistry should be used to exclude other benign and malignant tumors. Patients should be followed with axial imaging as recurrence is common. PMID:22018154

Korrect, Garrett S; Kesler, Melissa V; Strup, Stephen E

2011-10-01

296

Congenital Mucous Retention Cyst of the Anterior Hard Palate! the First Case Report  

PubMed Central

Children may be born with birth defects, the most common being oro-facial clefts and fissural cysts. A well circumscribed pedunculated soft tissue growth that occurs congenitally is known as congenital epulis of the newborn or ‘Neuman’s Tumour’ as described in the literature. It is a rare lesion and the diagnosis has to be confirmed histologically. We present a rare case of a 7-year-old child with a congenital growth in the pre-maxillary region of the anterior hard palate clinically diagnosed as congenital epulis however, histologically confirmed as a mucous retention cyst. An elaborate clinical differential diagnosis is discussed. The anterior hard palate is devoid of salivary glands and the presence of a mucous retention cyst in the area is suggestive of ectopic salivary gland tissue and in a child manifesting at birth is probably the first case to be reported in the English literature. PMID:25478467

Priyadarshini, Smita; Pati, Abhishek Ranjan; Bhuyan, Sanat Kumar; Panigrahi, Rajat G

2014-01-01

297

The global landscape of intron retentions in lung adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The transcriptome complexity in an organism can be achieved by alternative splicing of precursor messenger RNAs. It has been revealed that alternations in mRNA splicing play an important role in a number of diseases including human cancers. Methods In this study, we exploited whole transcriptome sequencing data from five lung adenocarcinoma tissues and their matched normal tissues to interrogate intron retention, a less studied alternative splicing form which has profound structural and functional consequence by modifying open reading frame or inserting premature stop codons. Results Abundant intron retention events were found in both tumor and normal tissues, and 2,340 and 1,422 genes only contain tumor-specific retentions and normal-specific retentions, respectively. Combined with gene expression analysis, we showed that genes with tumor-specific retentions tend to be over-expressed in tumors, and the abundance of intron retention within genes is negatively related with gene expression, indicating the action of nonsense mediated decay. Further functional analysis demonstrated that genes with tumor-specific retentions include known lung cancer driver genes and are found enriched in pathways important in carcinogenesis. Conclusions We hypothesize that intron retentions and consequent nonsense mediated decay may collectively counteract the over-expression of genes promoting cancer development. Identification of genes with tumor-specific retentions may also help develop targeted therapies. PMID:24646369

2014-01-01

298

Prediction of protein retention in hydrophobic interaction chromatography .  

E-print Network

??Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) is a powerful technique for protein separation. This review examines methodologies for predicting protein retention time in HIC involving elution with… (more)

Mahn, Andrea

2005-01-01

299

Predictors of 4-Year Retention among African American and White Community-Dwelling Participants in the UAB Study of Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To identify racial/ethnic differences in retention of older adults at 3 levels of participation in a prospective observational study: telephone, in-home assessments, and home visits followed by blood draws. Design and Methods: A prospective study of 1,000 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older included a…

Allman, Richard M.; Sawyer, Patricia; Crowther, Martha; Strothers, Harry S., III; Turner, Timothy; Fouad, Mona N.

2011-01-01

300

New Strategies To Promote Stable Employment and Career Progression: An Introduction to the Employment Retention and Advancement Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project was undertaken to identify effective strategies for helping low-income parents work more steadily and advance in the labor market. The 15 ERA demonstration projects that were operating in nine states (California, Florida, Illinois, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, South Carolina; Tennessee, and…

Bloom, Dan; Anderson, Jacquelyn; Wavelet, Melissa; Gardiner, Karen N.; Fishman, Michael E.

301

Modeling structural influences on soil water retention  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new model quantities the effect of soil structure, considered as the arrangement of particles in the soil, on soil water retention. The model partitions the pore space into texture-related and structure-related components, the textural component being what can be deduced to exist if the arrangement of the particles were random, and the structural component being the remainder. An existing model, based on particle-size distributions, represents the textural component, and a new model, based on aggregate-size distributions, represents the structural component. This new model makes use of generalized properties that vary little from one medium to another, thereby eliminating any need for empirically tilted parameters. It postulates a particular character of the structural pore space that in same ways resembles texture-related pore space, but with pore shape related to the breadth of the aggregate-size distribution. To predict a soil water retention curve, this model requires the soil's porosity and particle- and aggregate-size distributions. Tested with measurements for 17 samples from two sources, it fits the data much better than does a model based on texture alone. Goodness of fit indicated by correlation coefficients ranged from 0.908 to 0.998 for the new model, compared with a range of 0.686 in 0.955 for the texture-based model.

Nimmo, J.R.

1997-01-01

302

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2013-10-15

303

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2010-09-30

304

Retention of Halogens in Waste Glass  

SciTech Connect

In spite of their potential roles as melting rate accelerators and foam breakers, halogens are generally viewed as troublesome components for glass processing. Of five halogens, F, Cl, Br, I, and At, all but At may occur in nuclear waste. A nuclear waste feed may contain up to 10 g of F, 4 g of Cl, and ?100 mg of Br and I per kg of glass. The main concern is halogen volatility, producing hazardous fumes and particulates, and the radioactive iodine 129 isotope of 1.7x10^7-year half life. Because F and Cl are soluble in oxide glasses and tend to precipitate on cooling, they can be retained in the waste glass in the form of dissolved constituents or as dispersed crystalline inclusions. This report compiles known halogen-retention data in both high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glasses. Because of its radioactivity, the main focus is on I. Available data on F and Cl were compiled for comparison. Though Br is present in nuclear wastes, it is usually ignored; no data on Br retention were found.

Hrma, Pavel R.

2010-05-01

305

Hydrogen retention and diffusion in tungsten beryllide.  

PubMed

Beryllide compounds are often used in various domains because they are more resilient to oxidation than pure beryllium and at the same time they keep some of the properties of this metal. Nevertheless, the data about their properties during atomic hydrogen exposure are very scarce: numerous experiments have been conducted in the past few years on solid hydride deposition under beryllium-seeded plasma action or on energetic hydrogen implantation into metallic beryllium; many others have been devoted to hydrogen retention and diffusion in tungsten. There have been fewer studies about hydrogen interaction with the alloys of these metals, although the beryllium-tungsten mixed compounds have been experimentally detected in laboratory experiments. This article reports on calculations carried out using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) on tungsten beryllide crystal (Be12W) taken as a model alloy. The formation and reactivity of atomic vacancies are investigated in the domain of temperature ranging from 0 to 500?K, together with atomic hydrogen retention and diffusivity in the bulk and in/out vacancies. PMID:25017090

Allouche, A; Fernandez, N; Ferro, Y

2014-08-01

306

High retention membrane bioreactors: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

Extensive research has focussed on the development of novel high retention membrane bioreactor (HR-MBR) systems for wastewater reclamation in recent years. HR-MBR integrates high rejection membrane separation with conventional biological treatment in a single step. High rejection membrane separation processes currently used in HR-MBR applications include nanofiltration, forward osmosis, and membrane distillation. In these HR-MBR systems, organic contaminants can be effectively retained, prolonging their retention time in the bioreactor and thus enhancing their biodegradation. Therefore, HR-MBR can offer a reliable and elegant solution to produce high quality effluent. However, there are several technological challenges associated with the development of HR-MBR, including salinity build-up, low permeate flux, and membrane degradation. This paper provides a critical review on these challenges and potential opportunities of HR-MBR for wastewater treatment and water reclamation, and aims to guide and inform future research on HR-MBR for fast commercialisation of this innovative technology. PMID:24996563

Luo, Wenhai; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D

2014-09-01

307

Role of glutathione in lung retention of 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime in two unique rat models of hyperoxic lung injury  

PubMed Central

Rat exposure to 60% oxygen (O2) for 7 days (hyper-60) or to >95% O2 for 2 days followed by 24 h in room air (hyper-95R) confers susceptibility or tolerance, respectively, of the otherwise lethal effects of subsequent exposure to 100% O2. The objective of this study was to determine if lung retention of the radiopharmaceutical agent technetium-labeled-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) is differentially altered in hyper-60 and hyper-95R rats. Tissue retention of HMPAO is dependent on intracellular content of the antioxidant GSH and mitochondrial function. HMPAO was injected intravenously in anesthetized rats, and planar images were acquired. We investigated the role of GSH in the lung retention of HMPAO by pretreating rats with the GSH-depleting agent diethyl maleate (DEM) prior to imaging. We also measured GSH content and activities of mitochondrial complexes I and IV in lung homogenate. The lung retention of HMPAO increased by ?50% and ?250% in hyper-60 and hyper-95R rats, respectively, compared with retention in rats exposed to room air (normoxic). DEM decreased retention in normoxic (?26%) and hyper-95R (?56%) rats compared with retention in the absence of DEM. GSH content increased by 19% and 40% in hyper-60 and hyper-95R lung homogenate compared with normoxic lung homogenate. Complex I activity decreased by ?50% in hyper-60 and hyper-95R lung homogenate compared with activity in normoxic lung homogenate. However, complex IV activity was increased by 32% in hyper-95R lung homogenate only. Furthermore, we identified correlations between the GSH content in lung homogenate and the DEM-sensitive fraction of HMPAO retention and between the complex IV/complex I activity ratio and the DEM-insensitive fraction of HMPAO retention. These results suggest that an increase in the GSH-dependent component of the lung retention of HMPAO may be a marker of tolerance to sustained exposure to hyperoxia. PMID:22628374

Roerig, David L.; Haworth, Steven T.; Clough, Anne V.

2012-01-01

308

Key Future Engineering Capabilities for Human Capital Retention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projected record retirements of Baby Boomer generation engineers have been predicted to result in significant losses of mission-critical knowledge in space, national security, and future scientific ventures vital to high-technology corporations. No comprehensive review or analysis of engineering capabilities has been performed to identify threats related to the specific loss of mission-critical knowledge posed by the increasing retirement of tenured engineers. Archival data from a single diversified Fortune 500 aerospace manufacturing engineering company's engineering career database were analyzed to ascertain whether relationships linking future engineering capabilities, engineering disciplines, and years of engineering experience could be identified to define critical knowledge transfer models. Chi square, logistic, and linear regression analyses were used to map patterns of discipline-specific, mission-critical knowledge using archival data of engineers' perceptions of engineering capabilities, key developmental experiences, and knowledge learned from their engineering careers. The results from the study were used to document key engineering future capabilities. The results were then used to develop a proposed human capital retention plan to address specific key knowledge gaps of younger engineers as veteran engineers retire. The potential for social change from this study involves informing leaders of aerospace engineering corporations on how to build better quality mentoring or succession plans to fill the void of lost knowledge from retiring engineers. This plan can secure mission-critical knowledge for younger engineers for current and future product development and increased global competitiveness in the technology market.

Sivich, Lorrie

309

Factors influencing student performance on the carpal bone test as a preliminary evaluation of anatomical knowledge retention.  

PubMed

It has been demonstrated that a positive correlation exists between clinical knowledge and retained concepts in basic sciences. Studies have demonstrated a modest attrition of anatomy knowledge over time, which may be influenced by students' perceived importance of the basic sciences and the learning styles adopted. The aims of this study were to: (1) conduct a cross-sectional evaluation of the retention of anatomical knowledge in preclinical (second-year) and clinical (fifth-year) chiropractic students at Murdoch University; and (2) examine students' perceptions of factors that may influence their anatomy knowledge retention. Second- and fifth-year chiropractic students at Murdoch University were invited to participate in the study. Ninety-one students voluntarily participated. The Carpal Bone Test, previously utilized to determine the retention of anatomical knowledge, was utilized to determine the extent to which participants retained gross anatomy knowledge. Participants also completed a questionnaire specifically designed to identify the factors that may have influenced their retention of gross anatomy knowledge. A two-sided Pearson chi-square test of association was used to ascertain statistically significant differences in carpal bone retention and students' responses between the two cohorts. Seventy percent of the fifth-year (clinical) chiropractic students correctly identified all eight carpal bones compared to only six percent of second-year chiropractic students. The majority of participants in both cohorts believed that gross anatomy knowledge is of clinical importance. The use of mnemonics and the clinical application of anatomy knowledge were identified as factors that significantly influenced participants' gross anatomy knowledge retention within this study. Anat Sci Educ. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:24838440

Meyer, Amanda J; Armson, Anthony; Losco, C Dominique; Losco, Barrett; Walker, Bruce F

2014-05-16

310

Garlic for the common cold.  

PubMed

Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions There is insufficient clinical trial evidence regarding the effects of garlic in preventing or treating the common cold. A single trial suggested that garlic may prevent occurrences of the common cold but more studies are needed to validate this finding. Claims of effectiveness appear to rely largely on poor-quality evidence. PMID:25386977

Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

2014-01-01

311

Assessing the Impact of Health Literacy on Education Retention of Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Inadequate health literacy is a pervasive problem with major implications for reduced health status and health disparities. Despite the role of focused education in both primary and secondary prevention of stroke, the effect of health literacy on stroke education retention has not been reported. We examined the relationship of health literacy to the retention of knowledge after recommended stroke education. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at an urban safety-net hospital. Study subjects were patients older than 18 admitted to the hospital stroke unit with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke who were able to provide informed consent to participate (N = 100). Health literacy levels were measured by using the short form of Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Patient education was provided to patients at an inpatient stroke unit by using standardized protocols, in compliance with Joint Commission specifications. The education outcomes for poststroke care education, knowledge retention, was assessed for each subject. The effect of health literacy on the Stroke Patient Education Retention scores was assessed by using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of the 100 participating patients, 59% had inadequate to marginal health literacy. Stroke patients who had marginal health literacy (mean score, 7.45; standard deviation [SD], 1.9) or adequate health literacy (mean score, 7.31; SD, 1.76) had statistically higher education outcome scores than those identified as having inadequate health literacy (mean score, 5.58; SD, 2.06). Results from multivariate analysis indicated that adequate health literacy was most predictive of education outcome retention. Conclusions This study demonstrated a clear relationship between health literacy and stroke education outcomes. Studies are needed to better understand the relationship of health literacy to key educational outcomes for primary or secondary prevention of stroke and to refine stroke education for literacy levels of high-risk populations. PMID:24721215

Schnepel, Loretta; Smotherman, Carmen; Livingood, William; Dodani, Sunita; Antonios, Nader; Lukens-Bull, Katryne; Balls-Berry, Joyce; Johnson, Yvonne; Miller, Terri; Hodges, Wayne; Falk, Diane; Wood, David; Silliman, Scott

2014-01-01

312

Geoecological controls on net mercury retention in northern peatlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands, which receive much or all of their element inputs (e.g. nutrients or trace metals) via the atmosphere, are considered an ideal archive for studying past changes in mercury (Hg) deposition. These archives potentially contain information not only on important anthropogenic contributions to the environment over the past few centuries, but also on the natural antecedent conditions over the past several millennia. However, the assumption that Hg accumulation rates in peat represent an absolute record of past atmospheric deposition has proved problematic. In on-going studies of Hg retention in northern peatlands (bogs and oligotrophic fens) we find that net Hg accumulation is influenced by a range of geoecological factors in addition to actual changes in atmospheric deposition. Factors that influence the interception and net retention of Hg include differences in vegetation and microtopography - both of which may enhance dry deposition, and properties and processes within the peat such as decomposition that might influence long-term retention. Wetness, too, may play an important role in net retention in the surface peat through increased evasive losses of Hg. Differences between Hg concentrations in vascular plants and mosses are well established (at our site: 5-15 ng/g for leaves/needles of cottongrass, heather, Labrador tea and pine; 15-45 ng/g for mosses Sphagnum centrale and S. rubellum), but we also measured significant differences between different mosses within the same plots (S. rubellum, 24±3 ng/g; S. centrale, 18±2 ng/g). Further differences in Hg concentrations occur for single moss species in different settings; for example, Hg concentrations in S. centrale in open Sphagnum-only plots relative to plots including a mixture of vascular plants that form a field-layer canopy are 18±2 and 32±6 ng/g, respectively. As a result, sampling sites consisting of both Sphagnum and vascular plants have long-term cumulative inventories of mercury in the peat that are >60% greater than in areas characterized only by a mixture of Sphagnum species (where the water table is also relatively highest). However, comparisons of Pb-210 inventories, an independent proxy for atmospheric deposition, indicate that this increase in interception should be ?40%. Based on data also from other sites, where Hg inventories may vary between cores by 2-4 times, we have observed that wetter sites invariably have the lowest cumulative Hg inventories and hypothesize greater evasive loss from wetter sites, which has been shown for soils. We will investigate this during fall 2010. Although we have identified a number of factors that complicate the use of peat records as absolute records of mercury deposition, these problems can be circumvented by multi-core studies that provide a more robust estimate of mean net accumulation rates in peatlands.

Bindler, R.; Rydberg, J.

2010-12-01

313

Radiomarked Common Loon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A juvenile common loon wearing a satellite transmitter antenna follows an adult. USGS scientists and partners captured and radiomarked juvenile common loons on lakes scattered across Minnesota and Wisconsin during the last two weeks of August 2014 to track their movements and wintering ground...

314

Scientist Releases Common Loon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As part of a cooperative project, scientists with the USGS and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources tagged common loons in north central Wisconsin to study the distribution and migration movements, as well as foraging patterns and depth profiles of common loons equipped with archiv...

315

Psychology and common sense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the nature of the relationship between psychology and common sense. It is postulated that common sense may be categorized in 3 ways: (a) as a set of shared fundamental assumptions, (b) as a set of maxims or shared beliefs, and (c) as a shared way of thinking. It is argued that psychology has and should have a different relationship

Garth J. Fletcher

1984-01-01

316

Prebreeding in Common Bean  

E-print Network

Prebreeding in Common Bean and Use of Genetic Diversity from Wild Germplasm JORGE A. ACOSTA to human welfare with five cultigens domesticated in pre-Columbian times: the common bean (P. vulgaris number of its species is found in Mesoamerica (Del- gado-Salinas, 1985; Freytag and Debouck, 2002). Among

Gepts, Paul

317

Restorative Commons: Creating Health  

E-print Network

#12; Cover Photo: New York City Housing Authority community garden, MarlboroRestorative Commons: Creating Health and Well-being through Urban Landscapes Edited by Lindsay;#12;Restorative Commons: Creating Health and Well-being through Urban Landscapes Edited by Lindsay Campbell

318

NSDL Math Common Core  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NSDL Math Common Core collection provides quick and easy access to high-quality math resources that have been related to one or more standard statements within the Math Common Core. These resources are selected from the larger NSDL collection and other trusted providers, and organized by grade level and domain area.

2010-08-10

319

Campus Common Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

Bakken, Gordon Morris

1976-01-01

320

Participant characteristics and study features associated with high retention rates in a longitudinal investigation of type 1 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Study has sustained an extraordinarily high level of participant involvement for over two decades. Purpose In order to identify specific characteristics of EDIC that contributed most strongly to retention, study-designed questionnaires were distributed to 1334 participants. Methods Confidential questionnaires were completed during EDIC Years 15–17. Participants were classified as Completely Adherent (completed all visits), Partly Adherent (missed >1 visit or major portion of a visit), or Inactive (did not participate for >5 years). Questionnaire items addressed specific aspects of clinic visits, evaluation procedures, staff–participant relationships, and medical/health-care support provided by EDIC. Results The most commonly cited reasons for continuing participation were Cutting Edge Tests to assess diabetes complications (79.3%), Annual Evaluations (67.7%), a desire to Help Others (65.2%), and Better Care for Diabetes (61.6%). Women chose Cutting Edge Tests as their first or second most important reason significantly more often than men, whereas men chose Better Care for Diabetes more frequently. Individuals with at least three diabetes-related complications were more likely than those with fewer complications to choose Annual Evaluations as their first or second reason for continued involvement. Limitations The small proportion of individuals who discontinued participation restricted our ability to identify factors associated with suspended involvement. In addition, our analysis is limited to a cohort with type 1 diabetes followed in an observational study after an average participation time of 6.5 years in a randomized trial. Conclusions The primary reasons identified by respondents for their long-term commitment are consistent with shorter-term studies and underscore the importance of expert medical care, supportive staff–participant relationships, and involvement with clinically and scientifically meaningful research. PMID:23027646

Kramer, John R; Bayless, Margaret L; Lorenzi, Gayle M; Ziegler, Georgia K; Larkin, Mary E; Lackaye, Mary E; Harth, Judith; Diminick, Lisa J; Anderson, Karen L; Braffett, Barbara H; Cleary, Patricia A

2013-01-01

321

Estimating soil water retention using soil component additivity model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water retention is a major soil hydraulic property that governs soil functioning in ecosystems and greatly affects soil management. Data on soil water retention are used in research and applications in hydrology, agronomy, meteorology, ecology, environmental protection, and many other soil-related fields. Soil organic matter content and composition affect both soil structure and adsorption properties; therefore water retention may be affected by changes in soil organic matter that occur because of both climate change and modifications of management practices. Thus, effects of organic matter on soil water retention should be understood and quantified. Measurement of soil water retention is relatively time-consuming, and become impractical when soil hydrologic estimates are needed for large areas. One approach to soil water retention estimation from readily available data is based on the hypothesis that soil water retention may be estimated as an additive function obtained by summing up water retention of pore subspaces associated with soil textural and/or structural components and organic matter. The additivity model and was tested with 550 soil samples from the international database UNSODA and 2667 soil samples from the European database HYPRES containing all textural soil classes after USDA soil texture classification. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) of the volumetric water content estimates for UNSODA vary from 0.021 m3m-3 for coarse sandy loam to 0.075 m3m-3 for sandy clay. Obtained RMSEs are at the lower end of the RMSE range for regression-based water retention estimates found in literature. Including retention estimates of organic matter significantly improved RMSEs. The attained accuracy warrants testing the 'additivity' model with additional soil data and improving this model to accommodate various types of soil structure. Keywords: soil water retention, soil components, additive model, soil texture, organic matter.

Zeiliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.; Semenov, V.

2009-04-01

322

The Impact of Acculturation, Motivation and the Therapeutic Alliance on Treatment Retention and Outcomes for Hispanic Drug Involved Probationers  

PubMed Central

Factors associated with retention and outcomes for Hispanic offenders mandated to treatment for substance use disorders have been overlooked in the literature resulting in an impediment to providing evidence-based, culturally relevant treatment services. This project examined the roles of motivational factors, the therapeutic relationship, and acculturation in predicting treatment retention and recidivism among Hispanic male probationers mandated to residential treatment. By following a treatment cohort over one hundred and twenty days, this research identifies factors that may be targeted to improve interventions and policies. The following conclusions are supported: among Hispanic offenders, the number of days in treatment is positively related to motivation to change and level of acculturation. PMID:23976877

Brocato, Jo

2013-01-01

323

Scoring Dawg Core Breakoff and Retention Mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This novel core break-off and retention mechanism consists of a scoring dawg controlled by a set of two tubes (a drill tube and an inner tube). The drill tube and the inner tube have longitudinal concentric holes. The solution can be implemented in an eccentric tube configuration as well where the tubes have eccentric longitudinal holes. The inner tube presents at the bottom two control surfaces for controlling the orientation of the scoring dawg. The drill tube presents a sunk-in profile on the inside of the wall for housing the scoring dawg. The inner tube rotation relative to the drill tube actively controls the orientation of the scoring dawg and hence its penetration and retrieval from the core. The scoring dawg presents a shaft, two axially spaced arms, and a tooth. The two arms slide on the control surfaces of the inner tube. The tooth, when rotated, can penetrate or be extracted from the core. During drilling, the two tubes move together maintaining the scoring dawg completely outside the core. After the desired drilling depth has been reached the inner tube is rotated relative to the drill tube such that the tooth of the scoring dawg moves toward the central axis. By rotating the drill tube, the scoring dawg can score the core and so reduce its cross sectional area. The scoring dawg can also act as a stress concentrator for breaking the core in torsion or tension. After breaking the core, the scoring dawg can act as a core retention mechanism. For scoring, it requires the core to be attached to the rock. If the core is broken, the dawg can be used as a retention mechanism. The scoring dawg requires a hard-tip insert like tungsten carbide for scoring hard rocks. The relative rotation of the two tubes can be controlled manually or by an additional actuator. In the implemented design solution the bit rotation for scoring was in the same direction as the drilling. The device was tested for limestone cores and basalt cores. The torque required for breaking the 10-mm diameter limestone cores was 5 to 5.8 lb-in. (0.56 to 0.66 N-m).

Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Backes, Paul G.

2011-01-01

324

Retention and Progression of Postgraduate Business Students: An Australian Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the findings of an exploratory case study that investigated factors affecting the retention and progression of postgraduate business students at a major Australian distance education university. The majority of prior research addressing student retention focuses on undergraduate on-campus students, while this research…

Carroll, David; Ng, Eric; Birch, Dawn

2009-01-01

325

Quality Improvement in Higher Education: implications for student retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complementarity between two critical issues in higher education are explored: adoption of a quality improvement philosophy and student retention. Key elements of quality improvement as practised in higher education are described briefly, and a conceptual framework is presented, which clarifies the hypothesised link between quality improvement and student retention. Student persistence is examined within the context of a theoretical

Shari L. Peterson; Sherry A. Schwartz

1997-01-01

326

Retention and Writing Instruction: Implications for Access and Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author offers a brief overview of retention scholarship and argues that there are several reasons composition studies professionals should pay attention to this area of research. She then considers how the problem of retention reframes and qualifies the issue of access to higher education, an issue that is central to the…

Powell, Pegeen Reichert

2009-01-01

327

Teacher Beliefs regarding Grade Retention in an Urban Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to a research-based presentation on grade retention, including the academic, socio-emotional and behavioral outcomes, would yield a change in teacher beliefs regarding retention as an intervention strategy. Teachers from a small urban school district were asked to complete a pre-survey, view a…

Gilmore-Hook, Toni

2011-01-01

328

Clinical Trials: Retention, Compliance and Mobiles | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

There are several ways to use mobile technologies to assist with subject retention and study adherence. This resource gives an overview of some of the possibilities, including visit reminders, educational support and patient tracking. The article was written by a representative of Healthcare Communications Group (www.hcg.com), a for-profit clinical trial recruitment and retention firm.

329

Recruitment and Retention of Latino Children in a Lifestyle Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe promising recruitment and retention strategies for transient Latino populations, assisting investigators who work with this population in their research design and implementation. Methods: Strategies in recruitment and retention from a year-long intervention in children and their families are described. Results: Of the 159…

Guzman, Angelica; Richardson, Irma M.; Gesell, Sabina; Barkin, Shari L.

2009-01-01

330

HPLC retention thermodynamics of grape and wine tannins.  

PubMed

The effect of grape and wine tannin structure on retention thermodynamics under reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography conditions on a polystyrene divinylbenzene column was investigated. On the basis of retention response to temperature, an alternative retention factor was developed to approximate the combined temperature response of the complex, unresolvable tannin mixture. This alternative retention factor was based upon relative tannin peak areas separated by an abrupt change in solvent gradient. Using this alternative retention factor, retention thermodynamics were calculated. Van't Hoff relationships of the natural log of the alternative retention factor against temperature followed Kirchoff's relationship. An inverse quadratic equation was fit to the data, and from this the thermodynamic parameters for tannin retention were calculated. All tannin fractions exhibited exothermic, spontaneous interaction, with enthalpy-entropy compensation observed. Normalizing for tannin size, distinct tannin compositional effects on thermodynamic parameters were observed. The results of this study indicate that HPLC can be valuable for measuring the thermodynamics of tannin interaction with a hydrophobic surface and provides a potentially valuable alternative to calorimetry. Furthermore, the information gathered may provide insight into understanding red wine astringency quality. PMID:23565723

Barak, Jennifer A; Kennedy, James A

2013-05-01

331

Performance analysis of coherency control policies through lock retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffer coherency control can be achieved through retaining a lock (shared, exclusive, etc.) on each page in the buffer, even after the requesting transaction has committed. Depending upon the lock mode held for retention and the compatibility of lock modes specified, different retention policies can be devised. In addition to tracking the validity of the buffered data granules, additional capabilities

Asit Dan; Philip S. Yu

1992-01-01

332

In-vessel tritium retention and removal in ITER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tritium retention inside the vacuum vessel has emerged as a potentially serious constraint in the operation of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In this paper we review recent tokamak and laboratory data on hydrogen, deuterium and tritium retention for materials and conditions which are of direct relevance to the design of ITER. These data, together with significant advances in

G. Federici; R. A. Anderl; P. Andrew; J. N. Brooks; R. A. Causey; J. P. Coad; D. Cowgill; R. P. Doerner; A. A. Haasz; G. Janeschitz; W. Jacob; G. R. Longhurst; R. Nygren; A. Peacock; M. A. Pick; V. Philipps; J. Roth; C. H. Skinner; W. R. Wampler

1999-01-01

333

Predictors of Early Retention in Rural Baccalaureate Nursing Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine predictors of student retention in generic baccalaureate nursing programs. The following question was addressed: How well do the independent variables of Self-Directed Learning Readiness (SDLR), nursing self-efficacy (NSE), and program admission predict retention of students enrolled in the first two…

Woods, Dokagari

2010-01-01

334

Enrollment Management: Perspectives on Student Retention (Part I)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the earliest principles and premises of enrollment management as it evolved in concept and practice was that student retention is as critical as new student recruitment in achieving an institution's preferred enrollment profile. Over recent decades, student retention has been one of the most studied aspects of college enrollment dynamics,…

Kalsbeek, David H.; Hossler, Donald

2010-01-01

335

Catholic School Principal Job Satisfaction: Keys to Retention and Recruitment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a study on principal retention in New South Wales, Australia. Factors in job retention included economic security, role enjoyment, and the opportunity to contribute. Disincentives to the principalship included lack of support from the employing authority, inadequate pay, isolation, growing responsibilities, difficult parents,…

Fraser, Jennifer; Brock, Barbara L.

2006-01-01

336

21 CFR 872.3740 - Retentive and splinting pin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...retentive and splinting pin is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75 percent or greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended to be placed permanently in a tooth to provide retention and stabilization for a restoration, such as a...

2010-04-01

337

Retention Rate for Inmates in Higher Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes research concerning the retention rate of 720 student inmates who participated in a junior college education in 1979-1982. The significantly higher retention rate (84 percent versus 62 percent for Clinton Community College and 42-54 percent nationally) of the inmate student does not substantiate theories of attrition attributed to…

Dufour, Madeleine M.

1989-01-01

338

Clomipramine-induced urinary retention in a cat.  

PubMed Central

A 10-year-old, female, spayed shorthair with presumed psychogenic alopecia was treated with clomipramine (1 mg/kg body weight/day). The cat developed urinary retention within 2 days. Clomipramine was discontinued. Clinical signs resolved over the next 7 days. The urinary retention was attributed to the anticholinergic effects of clomipramine. PMID:10200885

Pfeiffer, E; Guy, N; Cribb, A

1999-01-01

339

Retention Initiative for Unscheduled Sophomores and Unscheduled Readmits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to increase student retention, phone calls were made by a university to non-returning sophomores and students who had applied for readmission after a hiatus. The purpose was to facilitate students' registration for classes, and thus, their return to campus. The strategy proved effective as a retention device and provided useful…

Karp, Rashelle; Logue, Rose

2003-01-01

340

Knowledge Retention as a Latent Outcome Measure in Distance Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two experiments that investigated the retention of knowledge as a latent measure of learning outcome in video teletraining courses, one for air traffic controllers and one for military training. Discusses the merits of knowledge retention as a construct for examining initial evidence of learning, especially for training related to the…

Wisher, Robert A.; Curnow, Christina K.; Seidel, Robert J.

2001-01-01

341

Retention of fluid and particles in captive tapirs ( Tapirus sp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retention of ingesta in the digestive tract is a major characteristic of herbivorous animals. We measured particle and fluid mean retention times (MRT) in 13 lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) and 5 Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) from five zoological institutions on their usual zoo diet and 2 lowland and 4 Malayan tapirs additionally on roughage-only diets (total n of trials=24)

Marcus Clauss; Stefanie Lang-Deuerling; Dennis W. H. Müller; Ellen Kienzle; Patrick Steuer; Jürgen Hummel

2010-01-01

342

Informing Institutional Management: Institutional Strategies and Student Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

European universities are facing demands for better student retention, especially in countries where state funding is no longer based on the number of students, but on the number of graduates. An extensive literature on retention focuses on the characteristics of students who leave higher education without a degree. Much less is known about the…

Hovdhaugen, Elisabeth; Frolich, Nicoline; Aamodt, Per Olaf

2013-01-01

343

Laser induced desorption as tritium retention diagnostic method in ITER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement and control of long term tritium retention is one of the most critical issues for ITER and future fusion devices. Since the measurement of the hydrogenic retention by post mortem tile analysis becomes more and more difficult in future devices due to active water cooling and tile activation, Laser Induced Desorption Spectroscopy (LIDS) is under development in TEXTOR to

M. Zlobinski; V. Philipps; B. Schweer; A. Huber; S. Brezinsek; Ch. Schulz; S. Möller; U. Samm

2011-01-01

344

Retention and Graduation Rates: Insights from an Extended Longitudinal View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines a 118-year continuous record of retention and graduation rates at a public university for long-term trends not observable in shorter studies. While the first year retention rates stayed level over much of this period, second year rates increased steadily by 1.2% per decade. In contrast, graduation rates at 4 years compared to 6…

Boden, Gary T.

2012-01-01

345

Know when to Hold 'Em: Data Retention Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the need for a data retention policy is rapidly becoming clear to schools, little guidance is available for crafting one. Most schools depend on backup and recovery plans that generally focus on individual servers or devices. However, retention policies also need to focus on the type of data contained on those servers and how it will be…

Johnson, Jason

2007-01-01

346

13 CFR 120.861 - Job creation or retention.  

...Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Job creation or retention. 120.861 Section 120.861 Business... Project Economic Development Goals § 120.861 Job creation or retention. A Project must create or retain one...

2014-01-01

347

13 CFR 120.861 - Job creation or retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Job creation or retention. 120.861 Section 120.861 Business... Project Economic Development Goals § 120.861 Job creation or retention. A Project must create or retain one...

2012-01-01

348

13 CFR 120.861 - Job creation or retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Job creation or retention. 120.861 Section 120.861 Business... Project Economic Development Goals § 120.861 Job creation or retention. A Project must create or retain one...

2010-01-01

349

13 CFR 120.861 - Job creation or retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Job creation or retention. 120.861 Section 120.861 Business... Project Economic Development Goals § 120.861 Job creation or retention. A Project must create or retain one...

2011-01-01

350

13 CFR 120.861 - Job creation or retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Job creation or retention. 120.861 Section 120.861 Business... Project Economic Development Goals § 120.861 Job creation or retention. A Project must create or retain one...

2013-01-01

351

Understanding dextran retention data for hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dextran retention tests have become a standard method for characterizing ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. However, most quantitative analyses of dextran transport have been performed with flat sheet membranes using simple stirred cells in which the transmembrane pressure is nearly uniform across the membrane. The objective of this work was to develop a more fundamental understanding of the factors governing dextran retention

Meisam Bakhshayeshi; Hongyi Zhou; Cathryn Olsen; Wei Yuan; Andrew L. Zydney

2011-01-01

352

The Effect of Verbalization on Visual Art Processing and Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate students were tested to see if the use of verbal information about the structure and representational content of art work aided in retention of information about that work. Results indicated that verbalization can contribute significantly to improved retention of both meaning and structural features. (IS)

Koroscik, Judith Smith and Blinn, Lynn M.

1983-01-01

353

Optimized Delivery System Achieves Enhanced Endomyocardial Stem Cell Retention  

PubMed Central

Background Regenerative cell-based therapies are associated with limited myocardial retention of delivered stem cells. The objective of this study is to develop an endocardial delivery system for enhanced cell retention. Methods and Results Stem cell retention was simulated in silico using one and three-dimensional models of tissue distortion and compliance associated with delivery. Needle designs, predicted to be optimal, were accordingly engineered using nitinol – a nickel and titanium alloy displaying shape memory and super-elasticity. Biocompatibility was tested with human mesenchymal stem cells. Experimental validation was performed with species-matched cells directly delivered into Langendorff-perfused porcine hearts or administered percutaneously into the endocardium of infarcted pigs. Cell retention was quantified by flow cytometry and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology. Models, computing optimal distribution of distortion calibrated to favor tissue compliance, predicted that a 75°-curved needle featuring small-to-large graded side holes would ensure the highest cell retention profile. In isolated hearts, the nitinol curved needle catheter (C-Cath) design ensured 3-fold superior stem cell retention compared to a standard needle. In the setting of chronic infarction, percutaneous delivery of stem cells with C-Cath yielded a 37.7±7.1% versus 10.0±2.8% retention achieved with a traditional needle, without impact on biocompatibility or safety. Conclusions Modeling guided development of a nitinol-based curved needle delivery system with incremental side holes achieved enhanced myocardial stem cell retention. PMID:24326777

Behfar, Atta; Latere, Jean-Pierre; Bartunek, Jozef; Homsy, Christian; Daro, Dorothee; Crespo-Diaz, Ruben J.; Stalboerger, Paul G.; Steenwinckel, Valerie; Seron, Aymeric; Redfield, Margaret M.; Terzic, Andre

2014-01-01

354

Background or Experience? Using Logistic Regression to Predict College Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tinto, Astin and countless others have researched the retention and attrition of students from college for more than thirty years. However, the six year graduation rate for all first-time full-time freshmen for the 2002 cohort was 57%. This study sought to determine the retention variables that predicted continued enrollment of entering freshmen…

Synco, Tracee M.

2012-01-01

355

TOPICAL REVIEW Computational modelling of memory retention from synapse  

E-print Network

retention from synapse to behaviour 2 Introduction Memory provides the brain with one of its most be required, while a given brain region might support multiple memory systems. Synaptic plasticity and memoryTOPICAL REVIEW Computational modelling of memory retention from synapse to behaviour Mark C W van

van Rossum, Mark

356

Educational Objectives and Retention at Two Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fulfilling their mission to provide services to diverse groups, community colleges often find that their retention rates suffer as a result. Current research reviews the theoretical basis of retention, focusing on how it pertains to two-year schools in particular. Numerous variables influence persistence, and there is some support for…

Goel, Meeta

357

Volatile Species Retention During Metallic Fuel Casting  

SciTech Connect

Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Bases on these results it is very probably that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

Randall S. Fielding; Douglas L. Proter

2013-10-01

358

Volatile species retention during metallic fuel casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, and although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Based on these results it is very probable that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

Fielding, Randall S.; Porter, Douglas L.

2013-10-01

359

Quantitative structure-chromatographic retention relationships  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a wide-ranging overview of quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR). It brings together a great deal of information that previously was scattered in various parts of the literature. Although the book covers a lot of material, it provides the reader with sufficient background to read the related literature. In addition to QSRR, the book covers some topics related to quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR), where activity refers to biological activity. Overall, the book is well written and easy to understand. It would have been helpful to the reader if the chapter numbers had been included in the running heads. The book is divided by subject into 12 chapters, each with references. Works published through 1985 are included; hence, some recent literature is not covered. However, the book is heavily referenced, and each reference has the full title of the work as well as source and author information.

Kaliszan, R.

1987-01-01

360

Recruitment and Retention of LGBTIQ Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, or questioning (LGBTIQ) astronomers face many of the same workplace challenges as women and racial/ethnic minorities, from implicit bias to overt discrimination, other challenges are unique to this group. An obvious example is the absence at many institutions of health insurance and other benefits for the same-sex domestic partners of their employees. More subtle is the psychological toll paid by LGBTIQ astronomers who remain "in the closet," self-censoring every statement about their personal lives. Paradoxically, the culture of the physical sciences, in which sexuality, gender identity, and gender expression are considered irrelevant, can discourage their discussion, further isolating LGBTIQ researchers. Addressing these challenges is not just a matter of fairness; it is an essential tool in the recruitment and retention of the brightest researchers and in assuring their productivity. We will discuss these issues and what individuals and departments can to make their institutions more welcoming to their LGBTIQ colleagues.

Dixon, William Van Dyke

2012-01-01

361

A Preliminary Study Examining Nutritional Risk Factors, Body Mass Index, and Treatment Retention in Opioid-Dependent Patients.  

PubMed

Poor nutritional health among opioid-dependent individuals is well established, yet no nutritional screening tool exists for this specific population. The utility of "Determine Your Nutritional Health" developed by the Nutrition Screening Initiative is considered. The study examines the questionnaire's relevance in patients beginning opioid dependence treatment at a methadone-assisted treatment program (N?=?140) by examining nutritional risk factor prevalence, body mass index, and association between nutritional risk level and treatment retention. The majority of patients reported at least one nutritional risk factor (89 %) and 59 % were at high nutritional risk. Body mass index was not related to nutritional risk; however, a trend was identified between increasing nutritional risk and decreased retention in treatment. These preliminary findings suggest the need for incorporation of nutritional screening at intake in opioid treatment programs, consideration of the effect of dietary risk on treatment retention, and the potential utility of this screening tool. PMID:24091612

Richardson, Robin A; Wiest, Katharina

2013-10-01

362

NASA records retention schedules: Procedures governing the retention, retirement, and destruction of agency records  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook sets forth the minimum retention periods of official records of NASA. Its provisions are applicable to NASA Headquarters and all field installations. This revised edition has been correlated to the 'NASA Uniform Files Index (UFI) (NHB 1442.1B), the General Records Schedules' produced by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), and has been enlarged in scope to cover Privacy Act Systems of Records and record series previously omitted. Guidance is provided in the areas of record retirement, transfer, and retrieval from Federal Record Centers (FRC) and disposal actions. Included are provisions for making changes to these schedules by addition of new items or revision of current items. The NASA Records Retention Schedules (NRRS) were approved for NASA use by NARA, the General Services Administration, and the General Accounting Office.

1994-01-01

363

Pharmacokinetics of metformin gastric-retentive tablets in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

The single-dose pharmacokinetics of two gastric-retentive, extended-release tablet formulations of metformin hydrochloride in fed, healthy volunteers were compared with those of the currently marketed immediate-release metformin hydrochloride product. The plasma concentration-time profiles demonstrated extended-release characteristics from the gastric-retentive tablets. The mean bioavailability from each gastric-retentive tablet was approximately 115%, relative to the immediate-release (IR) product. Cmax values were lower and tmax values were greater for the gastric-retentive tablets compared with the IR product. In contrast to conventional extended-release metformin tablets reported in the literature, these gastric-retentive tablets showed extended-release plasma concentration profiles of metformin hydrochloride and increased bioavailability compared with the immediate-release tablet. PMID:11402634

Gusler, G; Gorsline, J; Levy, G; Zhang, S Z; Weston, I E; Naret, D; Berner, B

2001-06-01

364

Common Foot Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... are an area of thickened skin caused by friction and pressure. Juvenile plantar dermatosis occurs in children ... occurs in response to excessive, repeated shear or friction forces, commonly due to constant rubbing of the ...

365

Common Carrier Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

366

Common NICU Equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... dashboard . Common NICU equipment The NICU contains many machines and other types of equipment used to care for sick babies with many different problems. These machines seem less intimidating when you understand how they ...

367

Ten Common NWP Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module introduces forecasters to ten of the most commonly encountered or significant misconceptions about NWP models. This list of ten misconceptions includes issues surrounding data assimilation, model resolution, physical parameterizations, and post-processing of model forecast output.

Comet

2002-05-02

368

Metabolism - Common Metabolism Concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains how solar energy is the energy source for almost all living systems on earth. Photosynthesis, catabolic reactions, and anabolic reactions are briefly discussed. Lastly, common questions are answered about converting food to energy.

369

28 CFR 66.42 - Retention and access requirements for records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Retention and access requirements for records. 66.42 Section 66.42 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Reports, Records, Retention, and Enforcement § 66.42 Retention and access requirements for...

2010-07-01

370

45 CFR 1157.42 - Retention and access requirements for records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Retention and access requirements for records. 1157.42 Section 1157.42 Public... Post-Award Requirements Reports, Records, Retention, and Enforcement § 1157.42 Retention and access requirements for records. (a) Applicability. (1)...

2010-10-01

371

41 CFR 105-71.142 - Retention and access requirements for records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Retention and access requirements for records. 105-71.142 Section 105-71...14-Post-Award Requirements/Reports, Records, Retention, and Enforcement § 105-71... Retention and access requirements for records. (a) Applicability. (1)...

2010-07-01

372

20 CFR 437.42 - Retention and access requirements for records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Retention and access requirements for records. 437.42 Section 437.42 Employees... Post-Award Requirements Reports, Records, Retention, and Enforcement § 437.42 Retention and access requirements for records. (a) Applicability. (1)...

2010-04-01

373

34 CFR 80.42 - Retention and access requirements for records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Retention and access requirements for records. 80.42 Section 80.42 Education... Post-Award Requirements Reports, Records Retention, and Enforcement § 80.42 Retention and access requirements for records. (a) Applicability. (1)...

2010-07-01

374

45 CFR 1174.42 - Retention and access requirements for records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Retention and access requirements for records. 1174.42 Section 1174.42 Public... Post-Award Requirements Reports, Records, Retention, and Enforcement § 1174.42 Retention and access requirements for records. (a) Applicability. (1)...

2010-10-01

375

29 CFR 4000.53 - May I use electronic media to satisfy PBGC's record retention requirements?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false May I use electronic media to satisfy PBGC's record retention...COMPUTATION OF TIME, AND RECORD RETENTION Electronic Means of Record Retention § 4000.53 May I use electronic media to satisfy PBGC's record...

2010-07-01

376

75 FR 22162 - Draft NIJ Duty Holster Retention Standard for Law Enforcement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Holster Retention Standard for Law Enforcement AGENCY: National Institute of...Holster Retention Standard for Law Enforcement and Certification Program Requirements...Holster Retention Standard for Law Enforcement'' and (2) a draft...

2010-04-27

377

Detrusor hyperactivity with impaired contractile function. An unrecognized but common cause of incontinence in elderly patients.  

PubMed

Little is known about the causes of urinary incontinence in institutionalized elderly people, despite the fact that $8 billion is annually devoted to diapering those afflicted. We have identified a specific physiological abnormality--detrusor hyperactivity with impaired contractile function (DHIC)--that, although previously unrecognized, is the second most common (33%) cause of incontinence in this setting. Detrusor hyperactivity with impaired contractile function is a distinct physiological subset of detrusor hyperreflexia and presents with a seemingly paradoxical set of findings: the bladder is overactive but empties ineffectively. This imparied emptying is due to diminished detrusor contractile function and is associated with bladder trabeculation, a slow velocity of bladder contraction, little detrusor reserve power, and a significant amount of residual urine. Aside from its high prevalence, the importance of DHIC is that it may present as urinary retention, may closely mimic prostatic outlet obstruction, may explain why past therapeutic trials for detrusor hyperreflexia have failed, and may necessitate a change in the current nosology of bladder dysfunction. Furthermore, DHIC may represent a more advanced stage in the natural history of detrusor hyperreflexia, a stage characterized by deterioration of detrusor contractile efficiency. Thus, this previously unrecognized cause of incontinence in the elderly is common and raises several important issues. PMID:3586227

Resnick, N M; Yalla, S V

1987-06-12

378

Retentiveness of various luting agents used with implant-supported prosthesis: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Desired retrievability of cemented implant-supported fixed prosthesis makes the retentive strength of cementing agents an important consideration. The aim of the study was to evaluate the retentiveness of purposely designed implant cement and compare its retentiveness with dental cements that are commonly used with implant systems. Ten implant analogs were embedded in auto-polymerizing acrylic resin blocks and titanium abutments were attached to them. Fifty standardized copings were waxed directly on the abutment and casted. The cements used were: (1) resin-bonded zinc oxide eugenol cement, (2) purposely designed implant cement, (3) zinc phosphate cement, (4) zinc polycarboxylate cement, and (5) glass ionomer cement. After cementation, each sample was subjected to a pull-out test using universal testing machine and loads required to remove the crowns were recorded. The mean values and standard deviations of cement failure loads were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni test. The mean values (± SD) of loads at failure (n = 10) for various cements were as follows (N): resin-bonded zinc oxide eugenol cement 394.62 (± 9.76), Premier implant cement 333.86 (± 18.91), zinc phosphate cement 629.30 (± 20.65), zinc polycarboxylate cement 810.08 (± 11.52), and glass ionomer cement 750.17 (± 13.78). The results do not suggest that one cement type is better than another, but they do provide a ranking order of the cements regarding their ability to retain the prosthesis and facilitate easy retrievability. PMID:25506659

Garg, Pooja; Pujari, Malesh; Prithviraj, D R; Khare, Sumit

2014-12-01

379

Effect of Abutment Modification and Cement Type on Retention of Cement-Retained Implant Supported Crowns  

PubMed Central

Objective: Provisional cements are commonly used to facilitate retrievability of cement-retained fixed implant restorations; but compromised abutment preparation may affect the retention of implant-retained crowns.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of abutment design and type of luting agent on the retentive strength of cement-retained implant restorations. Materials and Method: Two prefabricated abutments were attached to their corresponding analogs and embedded in an acrylic resin block. The first abutment (control group) was left intact without any modifications. The screw access channel for the first abutment was completely filled with composite resin. In the second abutment, (test group) the axial wall was partially removed to form an abutment with 3 walls. Wax models were made by CAD/CAM. Ten cast copings were fabricated for each abutment. The prepared copings were cemented on the abutments by Temp Bond luting agent under standardized conditions (n=20). The assemblies were stored in 100% humidity for one day at 37°C prior to testing. The cast crown was removed from the abutment using an Instron machine, and the peak removal force was recorded. Coping/abutment specimens were cleaned after testing, and the testing procedure was repeated for Dycal luting agent (n=20). Data were analyzed with two- way ANOVA (?=0.05). Results: There was no significant difference in the mean transformed retention (Ln-R) between intact abutments (4.90±0.37) and the abutments with 3 walls (4.83±0.25) using Dycal luting agent. However, in TempBond group, the mean transformed retention (Ln-R) was significantly lower in the intact abutment (3.9±0.23) compared to the abutment with 3 walls (4.13±0.33, P=0.027). Conclusion: The retention of cement-retained implant restoration can be improved by the type of temporary cement used. The retention of cast crowns cemented to implant abutments with TempBond is influenced by the wall removal. PMID:25628660

Farzin, Mitra; Torabi, Kianoosh; Ahangari, Ahmad Hasan; Derafshi, Reza

2014-01-01

380

COMMONING AND COMMON INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND ECOLOGICAL  

E-print Network

1 COMMONING AND COMMON INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY Claudio and social equity are among the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals - but, unfortunately proposes Commoning and Common Information Systems as a possible tentative to facilitate the inclusion

Boyer, Edmond

381

Regularities of Anthocyanins Retention in RP HPLC for “Water–Acetonitrile–Phosphoric Acid” Mobile Phases  

PubMed Central

The influence of exchange of HCOOH (System 2) by phosphoric acid (System 1) for acidification of the “acetonitrile–water” mobile phases for reversed-phase HPLC of anthocyanins was investigated in the framework of relative retention analysis. The differences and similarities of anthocyanins separation were revealed. It has been shown that some common features of the quantitative relationships may be used for preliminary anthocyanins structure differentiation, according to the number of OH-groups in anthocyanidin backbone as well as to a number of saccharide molecules in glycoside radicals in position 3 of the anthocyanin without MS detection.

Deineka, V. I.; Deineka, L. A.; Saenko, I. I.

2015-01-01

382

Retention studies of recoiling daughter nuclides of 225Ac in polymer vesicles.  

PubMed

Alpha radionuclide therapy is steadily gaining importance and a large number of pre-clinical and clinical studies have been carried out. However, due to the recoil effects the daughter recoil atoms, most of which are alpha emitters as well, receive energies that are much higher than the energies of chemical bonds resulting in decoupling of the radionuclide from common targeting agents. Here, we demonstrate that polymer vesicles (i.e. polymersomes) can retain recoiling daughter nuclei based on an experimental study examining the retention of (221)Fr and (213)Bi when encapsulating (225)Ac. PMID:24374072

Wang, G; de Kruijff, R M; Rol, A; Thijssen, L; Mendes, E; Morgenstern, A; Bruchertseifer, F; Stuart, M C A; Wolterbeek, H T; Denkova, A G

2014-02-01

383

Laboratory study of biological retention for urban stormwater management.  

PubMed

Urban stormwater runoff contains a broad range of pollutants that are transported to natural water systems. A practice known as biological retention (bioretention) has been suggested to manage stormwater runoff from small, developed areas. Bioretention facilities consist of porous soil, a topping layer of hardwood mulch, and a variety of different plant species. A detailed study of the characteristics and performance of bioretention systems for the removal of several heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) and nutrients (phosphorus, total Kjeldahl nitrogen [TKN], ammonium, and nitrate) from a synthetic urban stormwater runoff was completed using batch and column adsorption studies along with pilot-scale laboratory systems. The roles of the soil, mulch, and plants in the removal of heavy metals and nutrients were evaluated to estimate the treatment capacity of laboratory bioretention systems. Reductions in concentrations of all metals were excellent (> 90%) with specific metal removals of 15 to 145 mg/m2 per event. Moderate reductions of TKN, ammonium, and phosphorus levels were found (60 to 80%). Little nitrate was removed, and nitrate production was noted in several cases. The importance of the mulch layer in metal removal was identified. Overall results support the use of bioretention as a stormwater best management practice and indicate the need for further research and development. PMID:11558302

Davis, A P; Shokouhian, M; Sharma, H; Minami, C

2001-01-01

384

A national study on nurses’ retention in healthcare facilities in underserved areas in Lebanon  

PubMed Central

Background Nursing shortages and maldistribution are priority issues for healthcare systems around the globe. Such imbalances are often aggravated in underserved areas, especially in developing countries. Despite the centrality of this issue, there is a dearth of studies that examine the retention of nurses in underserved areas in the Middle East Region. This study investigates the characteristic and the factors associated with the retention of nurses working in rural areas in Lebanon. Methods This study uses a non-experimental cross-sectional design to survey nurses working in underserved areas of Lebanon. Underserved areas in Lebanon were identified using WHO definition. A total of 103 health facilities (hospitals and primary healthcare centers) located in these areas were identified and all nurses working at these facilities received a copy of the survey questionnaire. The questionnaire included five sections: demographic, work-life, career plan, job satisfaction, and assessment of work environment. Analysis included univariate and bivariate (chi-square, Student’s t-test and ANOVA) tests to describe the respondents and examine the significance between nurses’ characteristics and their intent to stay. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with nurses’ intent to stay in underserved areas. Results A total of 857 nurses from 63 Primary Healthcare (PHC) centers and hospitals responded to the questionnaire (75.5% response rate). Only 35.1% of nurses indicated their intent to stay in their current job over the coming one to three years. Surveyed nurses were most satisfied with relationship with co-workers and least satisfied with extrinsic rewards. Rural nurses working in PHC centers were more satisfied than their hospital counterparts on all aspects of work and had significantly higher intention to stay (62.5% compared to 31.5% in hospitals, P < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed that nurses less likely to report intent to stay were younger, unmarried, with less years of work experience and were not working towards a higher degree. Analysis reveals a directly proportional relationship between nurses’ reported job satisfaction and their intent to stay. Conclusion This study reveals poor retention of nurses in rural and underserved areas in Lebanon, especially in the hospital sector. The status quo is disquieting as it reflects an unstable and dissatisfied nursing workforce. Developing targeted retention strategies for younger nurses and those working in hospitals as well as the offering of professional development opportunities and devising an incentive scheme targeting rural nurses is pivotal to enhance nurses’ job satisfaction and retention in rural settings. PMID:24079458

2013-01-01

385

Common Rail Injection System Development  

SciTech Connect

The collaborative research program between the Department of energy and Electro-Motive Diesels, Inc. on the development of common rail fuel injection system for locomotive diesel engines that can meet US EPA Tier 2 exhaust emissions has been completed. This final report summarizes the objectives of the program, work scope, key accomplishments and research findings. The major objectives of this project encompassed identification of appropriate injection strategies by using advanced analytical tools, development of required prototype hardware/controls, investigations of fuel spray characteristics including cavitation phenomena, and validation of hareware using a single-cylinder research locomotive diesel engine. Major milestones included: (1) a detailed modeling study using advanced mathematical models - several various injection profiles that show simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulates on a four stroke-cycle locomotive diesel engine were identified; (2) development of new common rail fuel injection hardware capable of providing these injection profiles while meeting EMD engine and injection performance specifications. This hardware was developed together with EMD's current fuel injection component supplier. (3) Analysis of fuel spray characteristics. Fuel spray numerical studies and high speed photographic imaging analyses were performed. (4) Validation of new hardware and fuel injection profiles. EMD's single-cylinder research diesel engine located at Argonne National Laboratory was used to confirm emissions and performacne predictions. These analytical ane experimental investigations resulted in optimized fuel injection profiles and engine operating conditions that yield reductions in NOx emissions from 7.8 g/bhp-hr to 5.0 g/bhp-hr at full (rated) load. Additionally, hydrocarbon and particulate emissions were reduced considerably when compared to baseline Tier I levels. The most significant finding from the injection optimization process was a 2% to 3% improvement in fuel economy over EMD's traditional Tier I engine hardware configuration. the common rail fuel injection system enabled this added benefit by virtue of an inherent capability to provide multiple injections per power stroke at high fuel rail pressures. On the basis of the findings in this study, EMD concludes that the new electronically-controlled high-pressure common rail injection system has the potential to meet locomotive Tier 2 NOx and particulates emission standards without sacrificing the fuel economy. A number of areas to further improve the injection hardware and engine operating characteristics to further exploit the benefits of common rail injection system have also been identified.

Electro-Motive,

2005-12-30

386

Comparison of retention characteristics of Essix and Hawley retainers  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to compare the retention characteristics of Essix and Hawley retainers. Methods Adolescents undergoing fixed appliance treatment at 2 centers were recruited for this study. Twenty-two patients (16 women and 6 men) wore Essix retainers (Essix group) while 20 (14 women and 6 men) wore Hawley retainers (Hawley group). The mean retention time was 1 year, and the mean follow-up recall time for both groups was 2 years. Two qualified dental examiners evaluated the blind patient data. Maxillary and mandibular dental casts and lateral cephalograms were analyzed at 4 stages: pretreatment (T1), post-treatment (T2), post-retention (T3), and follow-up (T4). Results The results revealed that Essix appliances were more efficient in retaining the anterior teeth in the mandible during a 1-year retention period. The irregularity index increased in both arches in both groups after a 2-year post-retention period. The mandibular arch lengths increased during treatment and tended to return to their original value after retention in both groups; however, these changes were statistically significant only in the Hawley group. Cephalometric variables did not show any significant differences. Conclusions The retention characteristics of both Essix and Hawley retainers are similar. PMID:23173119

Demir, Abdullah; Nalcac?, Ruhi; Topcuoglu, Tolga

2012-01-01

387

Retention force assessment in conical crowns in different material combinations.  

PubMed

The puprose of this study was to evaluate retention force of conical double crowns in two material connections: gold casting alloy/gold casting alloy and gold casting alloy/gold electroforming alloy. 12 crown pairs of both material connections with the cone angles of 2°, 4° and 6° were made. Experiment of 10.000 in-and-out cycles was performed using a new device which allows the retentive force to be measured in continuous way without necessity of moving the samples to another device. It has been found that the higher the retentive force values, the lower the cone angle. Dispersion of the retention value was similar in both groups, but when cone angle was 2° or 4°, stability of retention force with the passage of time was higher in combinations with electroformed copings. The optimum solution was the cast alloy/cast alloy connection but only with cone angle 6°. However, retentive values seem to be too low to achieve proper retention of dentures. PMID:23957556

Pietruski, Jan K; Sajewicz, Eugeniusz; Sudnik, Jacek; Pietruska, Ma?gorzata D

2013-01-01

388

A modelling study of long term green roof retention performance.  

PubMed

This paper outlines the development of a conceptual hydrological flux model for the long term continuous simulation of runoff and drought risk for green roof systems. A green roof's retention capacity depends upon its physical configuration, but it is also strongly influenced by local climatic controls, including the rainfall characteristics and the restoration of retention capacity associated with evapotranspiration during dry weather periods. The model includes a function that links evapotranspiration rates to substrate moisture content, and is validated against observed runoff data. The model's application to typical extensive green roof configurations is demonstrated with reference to four UK locations characterised by contrasting climatic regimes, using 30-year rainfall time-series inputs at hourly simulation time steps. It is shown that retention performance is dependent upon local climatic conditions. Volumetric retention ranges from 0.19 (cool, wet climate) to 0.59 (warm, dry climate). Per event retention is also considered, and it is demonstrated that retention performance decreases significantly when high return period events are considered in isolation. For example, in Sheffield the median per-event retention is 1.00 (many small events), but the median retention for events exceeding a 1 in 1 yr return period threshold is only 0.10. The simulation tool also provides useful information about the likelihood of drought periods, for which irrigation may be required. A sensitivity study suggests that green roofs with reduced moisture-holding capacity and/or low evapotranspiration rates will tend to offer reduced levels of retention, whilst high moisture-holding capacity and low evapotranspiration rates offer the strongest drought resistance. PMID:24178313

Stovin, Virginia; Poë, Simon; Berretta, Christian

2013-12-15

389

Common Cause Failure Modes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

2011-01-01

390

The Federal Commons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1999, the Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act was passed in order to force the development of federal electronic grant processing. A result of the legislation, the Federal Commons portal gives "grantees (state and local governments, universities, small businesses, etc.) full service grants processing across all functions in the grant life cycle." While providing only an entrance to various grant institutions and services, the Federal Commons helps to eliminate the maze-like trail that multi-grant projects sometimes must travel to get to grant proposal Web sites. Most physical sciences researchers will find relevant federal departments listed under the Science and Technology link.

391

Altered transport of lindane caused by the retention of natural particles in saturated porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attachment and straining of colloidal particles in porous media result in their reversible and irreversible retention. The retained particles may either increase the retention of hydrophobic pollutants by sorption onto the particles, or enhance pollutant transport when particles, loaded with the pollutants, are remobilized. The present study examines the effects of retained particles on the transport of the hydrophobic pesticide lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) in saturated porous media. The lignite particles used have median diameters of about 3 ?m, 1 ?m, 0.8 ?m, and 0.2 ?m, respectively. Laboratory column experiments were analyzed by numerical modeling in order to identify and understand the processes involved in the transport of the particles and of lindane. Four scenarios were considered in which the solution containing lindane is injected either during or after the elution of the particles. The results show that lignite particles retained in a sandy porous medium alter the transport of the invading lindane. Particle retention was high in all scenarios and increased with increasing particle size. Remobilization of particles occurred due to a change in solution chemistry, and continuous particle detachment was observed over time. Numerical modeling of particle transport suggests that both reversible attachment and irreversible straining affected the transport of the particles. Lindane was retarded in all scenarios due to the strong particle retention in conjunction with the sorption of lindane onto the sand and onto retained particles, and the limited number of mobile particles carrying lindane. Moreover, it was found that intra-particle diffusion limited adsorption/desorption of lindane onto/from both limestone fragments of the sand and lignite particles. We assume that retention of lindane is reversible even though lindane recovery was incomplete over the duration of the experiments. The analysis of the effluent concentration suggests that retained particles loaded with lindane may become a secondary source of lindane. Models describing the transport of lindane fitted the experimental data very well and indicated the specific contribution of retained particles to the retardation of lindane. Since the properties of lignite also known as brown coal are similar to those of biochar, the results of the present study could be extended to the potential effects of biochar on lindane and other contaminants in soils, which would include both their retention and their enhanced transport. However, while the transport mechanisms of lindane are similar in water-unsaturated soils and saturated porous media considered here, the behavior of particles is more complex, requiring additional studies.

Ngueleu, Stéphane K.; Grathwohl, Peter; Cirpka, Olaf A.

2014-07-01

392

Retention assessment of magnetic nanoparticles in rat arteries with micro-computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) may serve as carriers for pharmacological agents to the target in a magnetic-force guiding system. It is essential to achieve effective retention of MNPs through the external magnet placement. However, it is difficult to estimate the retention efficiency of MNPs and validate the experimental strategies. Micro-CT was used to identify the spatial distribution of MNP retention and image analysis is then extended to evaluate the MNP delivery efficiency. Male Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized to expose abdominal arteries with an NdFeB magnet of 4.9 kG placed by the left iliac artery. After a 20 min equilibrium period, arteries were ligated, removed and fixed in a paraformaldehyde solution. Experiments were performed with intravenous injection in our platform with two independent groups. MNPs were used in the first group, while chemical compounds of recombinant tissue plaminogen activator were attached to MNPs as rtPA (recombinant tissue plaminogen activator)-MNPs in the second group. Image analysis of micro-CT shows the average retention volume of MNPs and rtPA-MNPs in the left iliac arteries is 9.3 and 6.3 fold of that in the right. Large local aggregation of MNPs and rtPA-MNPs in the left iliac arteries is the consequence of external magnet placement, suggesting feasibility of magnetic targeting through the intravenous administration. We also determined that on average 0.57% and 0.064% of MNPs and rtPA-MNPs respectively were retained in the left iliac artery. It was estimated that the average rtPA concentration of 60.16 µg mL-1 may be achieved with rtPA-MNPs. With the micro-CT imaging approach, we accomplished visualization of the aggregation of retained particles; reconstructed 3D distribution of relative retention; estimated the average particle number of local retention; determined efficiency of targeted delivery. In particular, our quantitative image assessment suggests that intravenous administration of rtPA-MNPs may retain local concentration of rtPA high enough to induce thrombolysis.

Tu, Shu-Ju; Wu, Siao-Yun; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Ma, Yunn-Hwa

2014-03-01

393

Altered transport of lindane caused by the retention of natural particles in saturated porous media.  

PubMed

Attachment and straining of colloidal particles in porous media result in their reversible and irreversible retention. The retained particles may either increase the retention of hydrophobic pollutants by sorption onto the particles, or enhance pollutant transport when particles, loaded with the pollutants, are remobilized. The present study examines the effects of retained particles on the transport of the hydrophobic pesticide lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) in saturated porous media. The lignite particles used have median diameters of about 3 ?m, 1 ?m, 0.8 ?m, and 0.2 ?m, respectively. Laboratory column experiments were analyzed by numerical modeling in order to identify and understand the processes involved in the transport of the particles and of lindane. Four scenarios were considered in which the solution containing lindane is injected either during or after the elution of the particles. The results show that lignite particles retained in a sandy porous medium alter the transport of the invading lindane. Particle retention was high in all scenarios and increased with increasing particle size. Remobilization of particles occurred due to a change in solution chemistry, and continuous particle detachment was observed over time. Numerical modeling of particle transport suggests that both reversible attachment and irreversible straining affected the transport of the particles. Lindane was retarded in all scenarios due to the strong particle retention in conjunction with the sorption of lindane onto the sand and onto retained particles, and the limited number of mobile particles carrying lindane. Moreover, it was found that intra-particle diffusion limited adsorption/desorption of lindane onto/from both limestone fragments of the sand and lignite particles. We assume that retention of lindane is reversible even though lindane recovery was incomplete over the duration of the experiments. The analysis of the effluent concentration suggests that retained particles loaded with lindane may become a secondary source of lindane. Models describing the transport of lindane fitted the experimental data very well and indicated the specific contribution of retained particles to the retardation of lindane. Since the properties of lignite also known as brown coal are similar to those of biochar, the results of the present study could be extended to the potential effects of biochar on lindane and other contaminants in soils, which would include both their retention and their enhanced transport. However, while the transport mechanisms of lindane are similar in water-unsaturated soils and saturated porous media considered here, the behavior of particles is more complex, requiring additional studies. PMID:24859485

Ngueleu, Stéphane K; Grathwohl, Peter; Cirpka, Olaf A

2014-07-01

394

Testing the Hardness of Common Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity gives students practice and a chance to develop expertise in using the test for hardness in identifying common minerals. Following a discussion and an introduction to Moh's scale, the students will work in groups to test minerals whose identities are known against their standards (common substances whose hardnesses are known). Once the known minerals have been tested, the students can proceed to test unknown samples. A student worksheet and discussion questions are provided.

2005-10-06

395

Leadership: a key strategy in staff nurse retention.  

PubMed

Nursing administrators are challenged to recruit and retain staff nurses in the midst of increasing job vacancies and staff nurse turnover rates averaging 21%. The prevailing issues related to staff nurse recruitment and retention in the current healthcare environment are briefly reviewed as introductory content. The article outlines the case from nursing administration literature that effective leadership styles of nurse managers and nurse administrators enhance staff nurse retention. As nurse administrators continue to struggle with staff nurse recruitment and retention, evidenced-based strategies are discussed that address leader preparation and organizational leadership structure including advanced education, leadership training, and shared leadership models. PMID:15195785

Kleinman, Carol S

2004-01-01

396

Tool kit for the staff mentor: strategies for improving retention.  

PubMed

Retention of new graduates in nursing continues to be a significant workplace issue, particularly in light of the heightening nursing shortage. Experienced nurses are in a pivotal position to positively impact retention, and, because of this, they can be called "keystoners". Mentoring, an important role of the keystoner, requires specific skills and knowledge and can be learned. A tool kit designed to develop the mentoring skills of keystoners is described. The result of successful mentoring among keystoners can be multifaceted; workplace satisfaction and higher retention of new graduates are targeted outcomes. PMID:17004393

Butler, Martha R; Felts, Joan

2006-01-01

397

List of HIPAA Identifiers  

Cancer.gov

List of HIPAA Identifiers ER-0001-F1 VER. 1.0.0 Effective Date: 9/14/2011 Page 1 of 1 The following is a list of the HIPAA Identifiers referenced in the federal regulations: Names; All geographical subdivisions smaller than a state, including

398

Identifying and Classifying Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we identify and classify rocks? In this lesson, we are going to learn about different ways that we classify and identify rocks! There are three types of rocks. Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous As we are learning about the three types of rocks, print out this chart and use it to write down what you learn about each type of ...

Owen, Elisabeth

2010-11-03

399

Formation and retention of methane in coal  

SciTech Connect

The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

1992-05-15

400

Identification of a gene required for membrane protein retention in the early secretory pathway.  

PubMed Central

The yeast SEC12 gene product (Sec12p) is an integral membrane protein required for the protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus. Although this protein is almost exclusively localized in the ER, a significant fraction of Sec12p is modified by an enzyme that resides in the early compartment of the Golgi apparatus, suggesting that Sec12p is cycling between the ER and the early Golgi. We have taken a genetic approach to investigate the retention mechanism of Sec12p. Analysis of mutants that are defective in the retention of the Sec12-Mf alpha 1 fusion protein in the early secretory compartments has identified a gene, RER1. A recessive mutation in RER1 causes mislocalization of the authentic Sec12p as well as two different Sec12 fusion proteins to the late Golgi apparatus and even to the cell surface. However, the rer1 mutant is not defective in the retention of an ER-resident soluble protein, BiP, suggesting that soluble and membrane proteins are retained in the ER by distinct mechanisms. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8367481

Nishikawa, S; Nakano, A

1993-01-01

401

Common Carrier Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

402

Solving Common Mathematical Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

Luz, Paul L.

2005-01-01

403

The Common Denominator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An author and a poet Nikki Grimes uses her art to reach across differences such as race and culture, and show the commonality of human experience. She uses the power of her poetry to break down racial barriers, shatter cultural stereotypes, and forge community.

Grimes, Nikki

2005-01-01

404

Subtraction with Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students build a conceptual understanding of subtracting fractions with common denominators by linking visual models to procedures. The page includes a video demonstration of the tool. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access curriculum materials and allow full student use.

2011-01-01

405

Space station commonality analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

1988-01-01

406

Common Standards for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

Principal, 2010

2010-01-01

407

Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

Olson, Mark

2013-01-01

408

Discovering Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use pattern blocks to represent fractions with unlike denominators. Students discover that they need to convert all the pattern blocks to the same shape in order to add them. Therefore, they find and use common denominators for the addition of fractions.

Kloper, Adam

2012-07-22

409

Information Commons to Go  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

Bayer, Marc Dewey

2008-01-01

410

COMMON CABBAGE VARIETAL TRIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven common cabbage varieties from 6 different seed companies were evaluated for their yield and other agronomic characters in order to select the good cabbage varieties that have high and stable yield, early and uniform maturity and resistant to soft rot, black rot and mosaic virus diseases. The experiment was conducted from November 23, 1989 to February 12, 1990 in

NGUYEN VAN EM

411

Common Hair Loss Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, close attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a

KARYN SPRINGER; MATTHEW BROWN; DANIEL L. STULBERG

2003-01-01

412

Stability and retention of micronutrients in fortified rice prepared using different cooking methods.  

PubMed

Fortified rice holds great potential for bringing essential micronutrients to a large part of the world population. However, it is unknown whether differences in cooking methods or in production of rice premix affect the final amount of micronutrient consumed. This paper presents a study that quantified the losses of five different micronutrients (vitamin A, iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin B12) in fortified rice that was produced using three different techniques (hot extrusion, cold extrusion, and coating) during cooking and five different cooking methods (absorption method with or without soaking, washing before cooking, cooking in excess water, and frying rice before cooking). Fortified rice premix from six different producers (two for each technique) was mixed with normal rice in a 1:100 ratio. Each sample was prepared in triplicate, using the five different cooking methods, and retention of iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin B12, and folic acid was determined. It was found that the overall retention of iron, zinc, vitamin B12, and folic acid was between 75% and 100% and was unaffected by cooking method, while the retention of vitamin A was significantly affected by cooking method, with retention ranging from 0% (excess water) to 80% (soaking), depending on the cooking method and producer of the rice premix. No systematic differences between the different production methods were observed. We conclude that different cooking methods of rice as used in different regions of the world do not lead to a major loss of most micronutrients, with the exception of vitamin A. The factors involved in protecting vitamin A against losses during cooking need to be identified. All production techniques of rice premix yielded similar results, showing that coating is not inferior to extrusion techniques. Standard overages (50%) for vitamin B12 and folic acid are too high. PMID:25134849

Wieringa, Frank T; Laillou, Arnaud; Guyondet, Christophe; Jallier, Vincent; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Berger, Jacques

2014-09-01

413

Where Are the Commonalities Among the Therapeutic Common Factors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little convergence or empirical research on factors shared by diverse psychotherapies. We reviewed 50 publications to discern commonalities among proposed therapeutic common factors. The number of factors per publication ranged from 1 to 20, with 89 different commonalities proposed in all. Analyses revealed that 41% of proposed commonalities were change processes; by contrast, only 6% of articulated commonalities

Lisa M. Grencavage; John C. Norcross

1990-01-01

414

34 CFR 691.82 - Maintenance and retention of records.  

...CONTINUED) ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS ACCESS TO RETAIN TALENT GRANT (NATIONAL SMART GRANT) PROGRAMS Administration of Grant Payments § 691.82 Maintenance and retention of records. (a) An...

2014-07-01

415

34 CFR 691.82 - Maintenance and retention of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS ACCESS TO RETAIN TALENT GRANT (NATIONAL SMART GRANT) PROGRAMS Administration of Grant Payments § 691.82 Maintenance and retention of records. (a) An...

2013-07-01

416

34 CFR 691.82 - Maintenance and retention of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS ACCESS TO RETAIN TALENT GRANT (NATIONAL SMART GRANT) PROGRAMS Administration of Grant Payments § 691.82 Maintenance and retention of records. (a) An...

2011-07-01

417

34 CFR 691.82 - Maintenance and retention of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS ACCESS TO RETAIN TALENT GRANT (NATIONAL SMART GRANT) PROGRAMS Administration of Grant Payments § 691.82 Maintenance and retention of records. (a) An...

2012-07-01

418

Retention of ductility in high-strength steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To produce high strength alloy steel with retention of ductility, include tempering, cooling and subsequent tempering. Five parameters for optimum results are pretempering temperature, amount of strain, strain rate, temperature during strain, and retempering temperature.

Parker, E. R.; Zackay, V. F.

1969-01-01

419

Retention of Nursing Faculty: Associate Degree Administrators' Perspectives  

E-print Network

Retention of faculty is a complex and dynamic challenge for nursing education. Nursing is facing the growing dilemma of a shrinking population of current nursing faculty (AACN, 2012; Banks, 2012; Evans, 2013, & Proto & Dzurec, 2009). The lack...

Harris, Jennifer

2014-08-31

420

EFFECT OF ANAEROBIOSIS ON FILTER MEDIA POLLUTANT RETENTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents the results of experiments conducted to determine if four potential filter media (sand, activated carbon, peat moss, and compost) could retain previously-trapped pollutants even under anaerobic conditions. The results indicated that permanent retention of heav...

421

42 CFR 493.1105 - Standard: Retention requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...least 10 years after the date of reporting. (7) Slide, block, and tissue retention —(i) Slides. (A) Retain cytology slide preparations for at least 5 years from the date of examination (see § 493.1274(f) for proficiency testing...

2010-10-01

422

Protention and retention in biological systems Giuseppe Longo Mael Montevil  

E-print Network

Protention and retention in biological systems Giuseppe Longo Ma¨el Mont´evil April 5, 2012 applications of the approach, from cell biology to human cognition. Our aim is to give a precise and relevant

Longo, Giuseppe

423

Characterization of retentivity of reversed phase liquid chromatography columns.  

PubMed

There are dozens of commercially available reversed phase columns, most marketed as C-8 or C-18 materials, but with no useful way of classifying their retentivity. A useful way of ranking these columns in terms of column "strength" or retentivity is presented. The method utilizes a value for ln k'(w), the estimated retention of a solute from a mobile phase of 100% water, and the slope of the plot of ln k' vsE(T)(30), the solvent polarity. The method is validated with 26 solutes varying in ln k'(w) from about 2 to over 20, on 14 different reversed phase columns. In agreement with previous work, it is found that the phase volume ratio of the column is the most important parameter in determining retentivity. It is strongly suggested that manufacturers adopt a uniform method of calculating this value and that it be made available in advertising, rather than the uninterpretable "% carbon". PMID:18965135

Ying, P T; Dorsey, J G

1991-03-01

424

21 CFR 312.62 - Investigator recordkeeping and record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individual's hospital chart(s), and the nurses' notes. The case history for each individual shall document that informed consent was obtained prior to participation in the study. (c) Record retention. An investigator shall...

2010-04-01

425

12 CFR 707.9 - Enforcement and record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...707.9 Section 707.9 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS TRUTH IN SAVINGS § 707.9 Enforcement and record retention. (a) Administrative enforcement. Section 270 of...

2011-01-01

426

12 CFR 707.9 - Enforcement and record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...707.9 Section 707.9 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS TRUTH IN SAVINGS § 707.9 Enforcement and record retention. (a) Administrative enforcement. Section 270 of...

2010-01-01

427

12 CFR 230.9 - Enforcement and record retention.  

... Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.9 Enforcement and record retention. (a) Administrative enforcement....

2014-01-01

428

12 CFR 230.9 - Enforcement and record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 230.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.9 Enforcement and record retention. (a) Administrative enforcement....

2011-01-01

429

12 CFR 707.9 - Enforcement and record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...707.9 Section 707.9 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS TRUTH IN SAVINGS § 707.9 Enforcement and record retention. (a) Administrative enforcement. Section 270 of...

2013-01-01

430

12 CFR 230.9 - Enforcement and record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 230.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.9 Enforcement and record retention. (a) Administrative enforcement....

2010-01-01

431

20 CFR 726.319 - Retention of official record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Civil Money Penalties § 726.319 Retention of official...

2011-04-01

432

20 CFR 726.319 - Retention of official record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Civil Money Penalties § 726.319 Retention of official...

2013-04-01

433

20 CFR 726.319 - Retention of official record.  

...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Civil Money Penalties § 726.319 Retention of official...

2014-04-01

434

20 CFR 726.319 - Retention of official record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Civil Money Penalties § 726.319 Retention of official...

2012-04-01

435

Marketing and Retention Strategies for Adult Degree Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four marketing strategies are critical to the success of adult degree programs: integrating marketing, knowing your students (research), shaping programs and services for adults, and staying the course (retention).

Brown, Joann A.

2004-01-01

436

Implementation of a University-wide Retention Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eleven years ago, Bowie State University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center entered into an agreement to enhance the science, mathematics, engineering and technology /(SMET/) domains. A Model Institutions for Excellence Award provided the financial basis for a number of initiatives that have led to increased retention and graduation rates. Initiatives such as a scholarship program, tutoring center, Summer Academy, safety-net program, research focus and mentoring have had a significant impact on students entering graduate and professional school and SMET related employment. Successes documented through various assessment activities and tracking of student progress, have led to implementation of the `retention model' urilized by the SMET MIE Initiatives throughout the University. The MIE retention efforts include each of the aforementioned initiatives plus pre-college and second-year experience programs. It is anticipated that the University-wide application of the `retention model' will provide the incentives necessary to obtain similar results throughout the student body.

Davis, E. J.; Campbell, A.

2006-12-01

437

10 CFR 75.24 - Retention of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 75.24 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Material Accounting and Control for Facilities § 75.24 Retention of records. The records referred to...

2010-01-01

438

Factors affecting motivation and retention of primary health care workers in three disparate regions in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Government of Kenya alike identify a well-performing health workforce as key to attaining better health. Nevertheless, the motivation and retention of health care workers (HCWs) persist as challenges. This study investigated factors influencing motivation and retention of HCWs at primary health care facilities in three different settings in Kenya - the remote area of Turkana, the relatively accessible region of Machakos, and the disadvantaged informal urban settlement of Kibera in Nairobi. Methods A cross-sectional cluster sample design was used to select 59 health facilities that yielded interviews with 404 health care workers, grouped into 10 different types of service providers. Data were collected in November 2011 using structured questionnaires and a Focus Group Discussion guide. Findings were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate methods of the associations and determinants of health worker motivation and retention. Results The levels of education and gender factors were lowest in Turkana with female HCWs representing only 30% of the workers against a national average of 53%. A smaller proportion of HCWs in Turkana feel that they have adequate training for their jobs. Overall, 13% of the HCWs indicated that they had changed their job in the last 12 months and 20% indicated that they could leave their current job within the next two years. In terms of work environment, inadequate access to electricity, equipment, transport, housing, and the physical state of the health facility were cited as most critical, particularly in Turkana. The working environment is rated as better in private facilities. Adequate training, job security, salary, supervisor support, and manageable workload were identified as critical satisfaction factors. Family health care, salary, and terminal benefits were rated as important compensatory factors. Conclusions There are distinct motivational and retention factors that affect HCWs in the three regions. Findings and policy implications from this study point to a set of recommendations to be implemented at national and county levels. These include gender mainstreaming, development of appropriate retention schemes, competitive compensation packages, strategies for career growth, establishment of a model HRH community, and the conduct of a discrete choice experiment. PMID:24906964

2014-01-01

439

The Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When winter rolls around and we begin to spend more time indoors, the common cold becomes an unfortunate reality for many of us. But for something as common as the cold, misconceptions about it are remarkably common as well. The following collection of Web sites provides an in-depth look at the cold and the cold virus.The first site (1) comes from the Common Cold Care Center of Cardiff University in Wales, and offers a thorough and highly readable introduction to the common cold, including sections on conventional and alternative cold medications. Readers can brush up on their basic virology with the next Web site from HowStuffWorks to get a clear, general idea of how the cold virus infects the body (2). This site also explains why antibiotics have no effect on a virus, and includes numerous hypertext links to related HowStuffWorks Web pages. KidsHealth for Parents, a service of the Nemours Foundation, provides a straightforward guide to the symptoms of cold vs. flu, while also offering information on flu treatment options (3). The next Web site, from University of Guelph, contains an easy-to-understand comparison of bacteria and viruses (4). Readers can learn more about rhinoviruses, the family of viruses which account for about one-third of all colds, in the following Web site from the University of South Carolina's Microbiology and Immunology Online (5). The next Web site offers visitors a close-up look at human rhinovirus 14 with over a dozen 3-D images and movies from the University of Wisconsin-Madison Bock Laboratory (6). The following site describes the findings, as detailed in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, of a Purdue University research team that has analyzed on an atomic scale the structure of the cellular receptor that binds cold-causing viruses (7). And finally, find out about common cold clinical trials with ClinicalTrial.gov, a service of the National Institutes of Health (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

440

Identifying Strongly Connected Components  

E-print Network

Hendrickson z , Steve Plimpton z , Lawrence Rauchwerger y Abstract Discrete ordinates methods are commonly transport discretize the radiation #12;eld by angle, and ux propagation is computed for a set of discrete directions or ordinates. The computation for each angle is performed by sweeping the ux across a grid, i

Plimpton, Steve

441

Acquisition and retention performance of a rapid force production task  

E-print Network

trials under acquisition and retention conditions. Nethod The subjects (N = 30) for Experiment 1 were student volunteers from Texas ABN University. Subjects were required to learn to produce a criterion force (225 Newtons) by hitting the padded.... e. , learning) as indicated by retention both with and without augmented feedback. 10 Limitations The following limitations should be observed before drawing conclusions from this study. 1. The subjects were student volunteers. 2. The subjects...

Indermill, Catherine

2012-06-07

442

Retention measurements of nanofiltration membranes with electrolyte solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retention measurements with single salt solutions of CaCl2, NaCl and Na2SO4 revealed that the rejection mechanism of commercial polymeric nanofiltration membranes investigated in this study may be divided into two categories:1.Membranes for which Donnan exclusion seems to play an important role.2.Membranes for which retention is determined by both Donnan exclusion and size effects.In category 1 both positively and negatively charged

J. M. M. Peeters; J. P. Boom; M. H. V. Mulder; H. Strathmann

1998-01-01

443

Identifying Extreme Exposure Values  

Cancer.gov

There are various perspectives on whether to exclude potentially unlikely exposure values. If the researcher chooses to do so, several approaches exist for identifying extreme values. We examined the plausibility of the reported frequencies for each food item in the NHANES 2009-10 DSQ and chose to exclude extreme values using a method that identifies them based on the actual distribution of the sample, but also minimizes the number of values excluded.

444

Identifying Conserved Discriminative Motifs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of regulatory motifs underlying gene expression is a challenging problem, particularly in eukaryotes. An\\u000a algorithm to identify statistically significant discriminative motifs that distinguish between gene expression clusters is\\u000a presented. The predictive power of the identified motifs is assessed with a supervised Naïve Bayes classifier. An information-theoretic\\u000a feature selection criterion helps find the most informative motifs. Results on benchmark

Jyotsna Kasturi; Raj Acharya; Ross Hardison

2008-01-01

445

Common spider bites.  

PubMed

There are more than 30,000 species of spiders, most of which cannot inflict serious bites to humans because of their delicate mouthparts and impotent or prey-specific venoms. However, some spiders produce toxic venoms that can cause skin lesions, systemic illnesses, and neurotoxicity. One of the more common bites is inflicted by the widow spiders (Latrodectus species). A bite from a widow spider results in muscle spasms and rigidity starting at the bite site within 30 minutes to two hours. Another common bite is inflicted by the recluse spider (Loxosceles species). Most bites from these spiders occur early in the morning and are initially painless. These bites usually progress to ulcerating dermonecrosis at the bite site. Spider bites can be prevented by simple measures. Early species identification and specific management can prevent most serious sequelae of spider bites. PMID:17390599

Diaz, James H; Leblanc, Kim Edward

2007-03-15

446

Common Compound Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database, part of a college-level chemistry course, provides information on hundreds of compounds, elements, and substances encountered in introductory chemistry courses and in everyday life. The informaion includes chemical synonyms, molecular weights, structures, equilibrium constants, thermodynamic properties, and common uses, with properties presented in a variety of common units. Structure information includes flat structural formulas, ball and stick models, electron density/electric potential maps, and Chime "live" structures that can be rotated and queried for bond lengths, bond angles, and torsion angles. The site also includes links to the course website, a glossary, a frequently-asked-questions feature, information on sources used in constructing the database, and many other resources.

Frederick A. Senese

447

Common tester platform concept.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

Hurst, Michael James

2008-05-01

448

Common Anorectal Disorders  

PubMed Central

Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

2014-01-01

449

Common drive unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

1987-01-01

450

Common anorectal disorders.  

PubMed

Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D

2014-05-01

451

Common variable immunodeficiency.  

PubMed

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVI) is a heterogeneous immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections, and a variety of immunological abnormalities. In addition to recurrent infections, patients with this syndrome also suffer from an increased incidence of autoimmune disease and malignancy. Because the spectrum of associated diseases is broad, patients with CVI are seen by a variety of medical specialists. In this review, the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of CVI are discussed. PMID:11202479

Sneller, M C

2001-01-01

452

Common gynecologic infections.  

PubMed

Many women seek care for vulvar, vaginal, or pelvic complaints. Primary care providers should possess a solid understanding of the differential diagnosis and treatment of gynecologic infections. Many infections in the reproductive tract are sexually transmitted, whereas other common infections are attributable to an overgrowth of the normally present bacteria or yeast in the vagina. Presenting symptoms and signs are helpful in determining the source of infection, but often a battery of tests must be performed to make a definitive diagnosis. PMID:19231601

Biggs, Wendy S; Williams, Rachel M

2009-03-01

453

Fluid and particle retention in captive okapi (Okapia johnstoni).  

PubMed

Retention time of food in the digestive tract is among the key variables that describe the digestive strategy of a herbivore. Mean retention time (MRT) was measured on 4 captive specimens of the okapi, a strictly browsing ruminant. Retention time was quantified on different diets, using Co-EDTA (fluid phase) and Cr-mordanted fibres (1-2 mm) (particle phase) as pulse-fed markers. Average food intake was 55-65 g DM/(kg BW0.75*d). Fecal excretion of the markers was quantified over 10 days. Different models to calculate retention time and passage rate in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the reticulorumen (RR) were applied. Average MRT(particle)GIT was quantified to be 47+/-8 h and MRT(fluid)GIT 36+/-5 h. Concerning estimation of retention times in the reticulorumen, MRT(particle)RR was quantified to be 27+/-7 h, while MRT(fluid)RR was 17+/-4 h. The quotients MRT(particle)/MRT(fluid) were quantified to be 1.3+/-0.1 for the GIT and 1.6+/-0.2 for the RR. Compared to data established with comparable markers, the okapi has low coefficients of MRT(particle)/MRT(fluid). A less well developed retention mechanism for fibres compared to species like cattle or sheep can be explained by a comparatively high fermentation rate and low digestibility of the natural food of the okapi-browse-in comparison to grass. PMID:15936703

Hummel, Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus; Zimmermann, Waltraut; Johanson, Kristina; Nørgaard, Camilla; Pfeffer, Ernst

2005-04-01

454

Polymeric nanofibers: targeted gastro-retentive drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Conventional oral dosage forms exhibit poor/low bioavailability due to incomplete release of drug and short residence time at the absorption site. Gastro-retentive drug delivery system (GRDDS) is particularly used to improve bioavailability of the drugs, which have narrow absorption window down in the levels of gastrointestinal tract and also to treat local disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this review is to describe the utility of the nanofibers as gastro-retentive dosage form. From last few decades, formulation scientists have put extensive efforts to develop suitable gastro-retentive drug delivery system, which is appropriate for commercialization. Current approaches used for preparation of gastro-retentive drug delivery system offers limited functional features to control the floating behavior. Recently, an extensive research has been developed to improve the gastric residence time by using nanofibers, which ultimately leads to the increased bioavailability of the drug. Multiple functional features and unique properties of nanofibers improve its gastro retention. Conclusion: Nanofiber system provides stomach-specific drug release for longer duration; moreover, increased local action of the drug due to prolonged contact time with the gastric mucosa. Thus, the nanofiber system promises to be the potential approach for gastric retention drug delivery system. PMID:25268275

Malik, Rafi; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

2014-09-30

455

Hydraulic response and nitrogen retention in bioretention mesocosms with regulated outlets: part II--nitrogen retention.  

PubMed

We observed dissolved nitrogen retention in vegetated bioretention mesocosms using different media with varying hydraulic conductivities. Elevated outlets were installed to regulate hydraulic response, with one treatment left free draining. The treatments (three replicates each) were loaded weekly with 50 cm of effluent averaging 2.47 mg/L nitrogen oxides (NOx) and 4.67 mg/L total nitrogen for 1 year. The NOx and total nitrogen retention by the outlet regulated treatments was significantly greater than the unregulated treatment. The systems then were dosed 6 times with 53 cm of synthetic stormwater averaging 0.77 mg/ L NOx and 1.46 mg/L total nitrogen, applied over 90 minutes. The outlet regulated treatment retained 68% NOx and 60% total nitrogen, while the corresponding free draining treatment retained 25% NOx and 27% total nitrogen. Over the following winter, the outlet regulated treatment retained 50% NOx and 73% total nitrogen, while the corresponding free draining treatment exported 17% more NOx, while retaining 50% total nitrogen. PMID:21905407

Lucas, William C; Greenway, Margaret

2011-08-01

456

Interventions to improve or facilitate linkage to or retention in pre-ART (HIV) care and initiation of ART in low- and middle-income settings – a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Introduction Several approaches have been taken to reduce pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) losses between HIV testing and ART initiation in low- and middle-income countries, but a systematic assessment of the evidence has not yet been undertaken. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the potential for interventions to improve or facilitate linkage to or retention in pre-ART care and initiation of ART in low- and middle-income settings. Methods An electronic search was conducted on Medline, Embase, Global Health, Web of Science and conference databases to identify studies describing interventions aimed at improving linkage to or retention in pre-ART care or initiation of ART. Additional searches were conducted to identify on-going trials on this topic, and experts in the field were contacted. An assessment of the risk of bias was conducted. Interventions were categorized according to key domains in the existing literature. Results A total of 11,129 potentially relevant citations were identified, of which 24 were eligible for inclusion, with the majority (n=21) from sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, 15 on-going trials were identified. The most common interventions described under key domains included: health system interventions (i.e. integration in the setting of antenatal care); patient convenience and accessibility (i.e. point-of-care CD4 count (POC) testing with immediate results, home-based ART initiation); behaviour interventions and peer support (i.e. improved communication, patient referral and education) and incentives (i.e. food support). Several interventions showed favourable outcomes: integration of care and peer supporters increased enrolment into HIV care, medical incentives increased pre-ART retention, POC CD4 testing and food incentives increased completion of ART eligibility screening and ART initiation. Most studies focused on the general adult patient population or pregnant women. The majority of published studies were observational cohort studies, subject to an unclear risk of bias. Conclusions Findings suggest that streamlining services to minimize patient visits, providing adequate medical and peer support, and providing incentives may decrease attrition, but the quality of the current evidence base is low. Few studies have investigated combined interventions, or assessed the impact of interventions across the HIV cascade. Results from on-going trials investigating POC CD4 count testing, patient navigation, rapid ART initiation and mobile phone technology may fill the quality of evidence gap. Further high-quality studies on key population groups are required, with interventions informed by previously reported barriers to care. PMID:25095831

Govindasamy, Darshini; Meghij, Jamilah; Negussi, Eyerusalem Kebede; Baggaley, Rachel Clare; Ford, Nathan; Kranzer, Katharina

2014-01-01

457

The Effects of Customer Satisfaction, Relationship Commitment Dimensions, and Triggers on Customer Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of telecommunications services, the authors examine the effects of customer satisfaction, affective com- mitment, and calculative commitment on retention. The study further examines the potential for situational and reactional trigger conditions to moderate the satisfaction-retention relationship. The results support consistent effects of customer satisfaction, calculative commitment, and prior churn on retention. Prior churn also moderates the satisfaction-retention

Anders Gustafsson; Michael D. Johnson; Inger Roos

2005-01-01

458

Acquisition and Retention of Quantitative Communication Skills in an Undergraduate Biology Curriculum: Long-Term Retention Results  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this study was to assess some of the effects of a nontraditional, experimental learning approach designed to improve rapid acquisition and long-term retention of quantitative communication skills (QCS) such as descriptive and inferential st

Chevalier, Cary D.; Ashley, David C.; Rushin, John W.

2010-05-01

459

7 CFR 56.38 - Retention authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Identifying and Marking Products § 56.38...Administrator for the identification and control of shell eggs which are not in compliance with the...

2010-01-01

460

Fast Detection of Common Geometric Substructure in L. Paul Chew  

E-print Network

Fast Detection of Common Geometric Substructure in Proteins L. Paul Chew Dan Huttenlocher Klara Kedem § Jon Kleinberg ¶ Abstract We consider the problem of identifying common three orientation vectors of the two proteins. Our measure has several advantages over measures that are commonly

Field, David

461

Optimization of continuous hydrogen fermentation of food waste as a function of solids retention time independent of hydraulic retention time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) were used for hydrogen fermentation and fed with food waste (4.4±0.2% volatile solids (VS) containing 27g carbohydrate-COD\\/L). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of solids retention time (SRT) in the range 24–160h and hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the range 24–42h. Achieving high SRT independent of HRT with internal sludge

Sang-Hyoun Kim; Sun-Kee Han; Hang-Sik Shin

2008-01-01

462

RETENTION TIME EFFECT ON METAL REMOVAL BY PEAT COLUMNS  

SciTech Connect

The potential use of a peat bed to treat the H-12 Outfall discharge to bring it to new compliance limits was previously investigated and reported utilizing a 7 hour retention time. The influence of retention time (contact time) of water with peat moss on the removal of copper from the water was investigated under laboratory conditions using vertical flow peat moss columns. Reduction of the necessary retention time has a large influence on the design sizing of any peat bed that would be constructed to treat the H-12 discharge on a full scale basis. Retention times of 5 hours, 3 hours and 1 hour were tested to determine the copper removal by the peat columns using vertical flow. Water samples were collected after 4, 8, 12, and 16 water volumes had passed through the columns and analyzed for a suite of metals, with quantitative emphasis on copper. Laboratory results indicated that copper removal was very high at each of the 3 retention times tested, ranging from 99.6 % removal at 5 and 3 hours to 98.8% removal at 1 hour. All these values are much lower that the new compliance limit for the outfall. The results also indicated that most divalent metals were removed to their normal reporting detection limit for the analytical methods used, including zinc. Lead levels in the H-12 discharge used in this study were below PQL in all samples analyzed. While each of the retention times studied removed copper very well, there were indications that 1 hour is probably too short for an operational, long-term facility. At that retention time, there was about 6% compaction of the peat in the column due to the water velocity, and this may affect long term hydraulic conductivity of the peat bed. At that retention time, copper concentration in the effluent was higher than the other times tested, although still very low. Because of the potential compacting and somewhat reduced removal efficiency at a 1 hour retention time, it would be prudent to design to at least a 3 hour retention time for water in any peat bed system that is proposed for the H-12 Outfall. A scope to design and install a pilot level study at H-12 is currently under development. This study will be designed to examine some of the engineering issues that are of concern regarding the scaling of an actual peat bed to treat the volumes of water that are typically discharged through the H-12 Outfall. Different hydraulic paths and configurations are expected to be part of that scope.

Nelson, E

2007-02-28

463

Solving the 10 Most Common Carpet Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies the 10 most common carpet problems in school facilities and offers solutions. These include: transition areas, moisture, spot removal, recurring spots, cleaning agents, allergens, wicking, biological contamination, equipment selection, and cleaning methods. Ensuring a successful maintenance program results in satisfactory appearance,…

Hilton, Michael

1998-01-01

464

Common Exposure to STL Polyomavirus During Childhood  

PubMed Central

STL polyomavirus (STLPyV) was recently identified in human specimens. To determine seropositivity for STLPyV, we developed an ELISA and screened patient samples from 2 US cities (Denver, Colorado [500]; St. Louis, Missouri [419]). Overall seropositivity was 68%–70%. The age-stratified data suggest that STLPyV infection is widespread and commonly acquired during childhood. PMID:25148144

Lim, Efrem S.; Meinerz, Natalie M.; Primi, Blake; Wang, David

2014-01-01

465

Certification Issues for Some Common Aquaculture Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is interest in certification of aquaculture production facilities in response to concerns about negative environmental and social impacts and food safety. This study identifies issues to be considered by stakeholders in developing certification standards for channel catfish, tilapias, rainbow trout, oysters, mussels, clams, scallops, abalone, and seaweed. Common issues include land and water use, water pollution, benthic effects, effects

Claude E. Boyd; Aaron A. McNevin; Jason Clay; Howard M. Johnson

2005-01-01

466

Toxicity of Trihalomethanes to Common Carp Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal

J. S. Mattice; S. C. Tsai; M. B. Burch; J. J. Beauchamp

1981-01-01

467

Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal

J. S. Mattice; S. C. Tsai; M. B. Burch; J. J. Beauchamp

1981-01-01

468

Boston University Digital Common  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boston University has a range of scholars, from those who research the hospitality field to others who are fascinated by the world of photonics. The University's Digital Common Repository contains thousands of documents and publications that span this wide range, authored or co-authored by BU faculty, students, and staff. The different communities here are divided into sections that include College of Arts and Sciences, Centers & Institutes, and Metropolitan College. Visitors will find religious sermons, pieces of music, working economics papers, and a vast cornucopia of other materials. Also, visitors are encouraged to use the Browse feature to look for documents by title, subject, author, or date.

469

Metal alloy identifier  

DOEpatents

To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

Riley, William D. (Avondale, MD); Brown, Jr., Robert D. (Avondale, MD)

1987-01-01

470

Asteraceae (Aster family) Common ragweed  

E-print Network

Asteraceae (Aster family) Common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Common ragweed seedling. Life. psilostachya DC.) Differs by having a perennial nature with prolific creeping roots, densely hairy leaves

471

Common pediatric epilepsy syndromes.  

PubMed

Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), childhood idiopathic occipital epilepsy (CIOE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are some of the common epilepsy syndromes in the pediatric age group. Among the four, BRE is the most commonly encountered. BRE remits by age 16 years with many children requiring no treatment. Seizures in CAE also remit at the rate of approximately 80%; whereas, JME is considered a lifelong condition even with the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Neonates and infants may also present with seizures that are self-limited with no associated psychomotor disturbances. Benign familial neonatal convulsions caused by a channelopathy, and inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, have a favorable outcome with spontaneous resolution. Benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, also referred to as "fifth-day fits," are an example of another epilepsy syndrome in infants that carries a good prognosis. BRE, CIOE, benign familial neonatal convulsions, benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, and benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy are characterized as "benign" idiopathic age-related epilepsies as they have favorable implications, no structural brain abnormality, are sensitive to AEDs, have a high remission rate, and have no associated psychomotor disturbances. However, sometimes selected patients may have associated comorbidities such as cognitive and language delay for which the term "benign" may not be appropriate. [Pediatr Ann. 2015;44(2):e30-e35.]. PMID:25658216

Park, Jun T; Shahid, Asim M; Jammoul, Adham

2015-02-01

472

Application of the Denitrification-Decomposition Model to Predict Carbon Dioxide Emissions under Alternative Straw Retention Methods  

PubMed Central

Straw retention has been shown to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from agricultural soils. But it remains a big challenge for models to effectively predict CO2 emission fluxes under different straw retention methods. We used maize season data in the Griffith region, Australia, to test whether the denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model could simulate annual CO2 emission. We also identified driving factors of CO2 emission by correlation analysis and path analysis. We show that the DNDC model was able to simulate CO2 emission under alternative straw retention scenarios. The correlation coefficients between simulated and observed daily values for treatments of straw burn and straw incorporation were 0.74 and 0.82, respectively, in the straw retention period and 0.72 and 0.83, respectively, in the crop growth period. The results also show that simulated values of annual CO2 emission for straw burn and straw incorporation were 3.45?t?C?ha?1?y?1 and 2.13?t?C?ha?1?y?1, respectively. In addition the DNDC model was found to be more suitable in simulating CO2 mission fluxes under straw incorporation. Finally the standard multiple regression describing the relationship between CO2 emissions and factors found that soil mean temperature (SMT), daily mean temperature (Tmean), and water-filled pore space (WFPS) were significant. PMID:24453915

Chen, Deli; Pan, Jianjun; Lam, Shu Kee

2013-01-01

473

Application of the denitrification-decomposition model to predict carbon dioxide emissions under alternative straw retention methods.  

PubMed

Straw retention has been shown to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from agricultural soils. But it remains a big challenge for models to effectively predict CO2 emission fluxes under different straw retention methods. We used maize season data in the Griffith region, Australia, to test whether the denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model could simulate annual CO2 emission. We also identified driving factors of CO2 emission by correlation analysis and path analysis. We show that the DNDC model was able to simulate CO2 emission under alternative straw retention scenarios. The correlation coefficients between simulated and observed daily values for treatments of straw burn and straw incorporation were 0.74 and 0.82, respectively, in the straw retention period and 0.72 and 0.83, respectively, in the crop growth period. The results also show that simulated values of annual CO2 emission for straw burn and straw incorporation were 3.45 t C ha(-1) y(-1) and 2.13 t C ha(-1) y(-1), respectively. In addition the DNDC model was found to be more suitable in simulating CO2 mission fluxes under straw incorporation. Finally the standard multiple regression describing the relationship between CO2 emissions and factors found that soil mean temperature (SMT), daily mean temperature (T mean), and water-filled pore space (WFPS) were significant. PMID:24453915

Chen, Can; Chen, Deli; Pan, Jianjun; Lam, Shu Kee

2013-01-01

474

Identifying Plane Figures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here you can practice identifying triangles, quadrilaterals and other polygons. Spring training is here so work on you baseball skills while studying your math! Baseball Angle Review and Baseball Triangle Practice will help your game in and out of the classroom. Make Benchmark a breeze with the Quadrilateral Sorter. ...

West, Mrs.

2013-03-07

475

Identifying Technical Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared four different approaches to identifying technical words in an anatomy text. The first approach used a four step rating scale, and was used as the comparison for evaluating the other three approaches. It had a high degree of reliability. The least successful approach was that using clues provided by the writer such as labels in…

Chung, Teresa Mihwa; Nation, Paul

2004-01-01

476

National PTA Common Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US National Parents and Teachers Association, in conjunction with GTE Corporation, furnishes this site, an information hub for the promotion of drug- and alcohol-free children. Presently, the site is divided into three sections of both serious and fun activities. The Parent's Center consists of interactive quizzes and tip sheets related to developing drug awareness, being a role model, and getting involved in your kids' activities. Visitors to the Family Room will find activities to help kids with their self-esteem, as well as teach them drug-awareness. Family games, quizzes, and cartoons are also available. Help and Hotlines points to organizations that can provide further support and information (links are provided), as well as books and videos. Finally, the site includes an interactive poll, several bulletin boards (registration required), and information for PTA leaders, highlighted by a library of resources to help spread the common sense message.

477

CPL: Common Pipeline Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules (using programs such as EsoRex).

ESO CPL Development Team

2014-02-01

478

Common herbal remedies.  

PubMed

Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular as people seek more effective, natural, or safer methods for treating a variety of complaints. As a result, nurses in every setting may expect to see increased numbers of patients who are using herbal products. When patients assume that the nurses will be critical of their use of herbals, they may withhold such information to avoid unpleasantness. This could place patients at risk for adverse effects, drug interactions, and complications related to ineffective treatment. Nurses who are knowledgeable about herbal products and who are open to discussion about these products can provide information and advice about safe use. The discussion in this article addresses actions, possible benefits, and dangers of the most common herbal products. Guidelines for assessing and teaching clients about herbal use are included. PMID:11062629

Turkoski, B B

2000-01-01

479

Mapping Common Psychiatric Disorders  

PubMed Central

Context Clinical experience and factor analytic studies suggest that some psychiatric disorders may be more closely related to one another, as indicated by the frequency of their co-occurrence, which may have etiologic and treatment implications. Objective To construct a virtual space of common psychiatric disorders, spanned by factors reflecting major psychopathologic dimensions, and locate psychiatric disorders in that space, as well as to examine whether the location of disorders at baseline predicts the prevalence and incidence of disorders at 3-year follow-up. Design, Setting, and Patients A total of 34 653 individuals participated in waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Main Outcome Measures The distance between disorders at wave 1, calculated using the loadings of the factors spanning the space of disorders as coordinates. This distance was correlated with the adjusted odds ratios for age, sex, and race/ethnicity of the prevalence and incidence of Axis I disorders in wave 2, with the aim of determining whether smaller distances between disorders at wave 1 predicts higher disorder prevalence and incidence at wave 2. Results A model with 3 correlated factors provided an excellent fit (Comparative Fit Index = 0.99, Tucker-Lewis Index=0.98, root mean square error of approximation=0.008) for the structure of common psychiatric disorders and was used to span the space of disorders. Distances ranged from 0.070 (between drug abuse and dysthymia) to 1.032 (between drug abuse and avoidant personality disorder). The correlation of distance between disorders in wave 1 with adjusted odds ratios of prevalence in wave 2 was ?0.56. The correlation of distance in wave 1 with adjusted odds ratios of incidence in wave 2 was ?0.57. Conclusions Mapping psychiatric disorders can be used to quantify the distances among disorders. Proximity in turn can be used to predict prospectively the incidence and prevalence of Axis I disorders. PMID:23266570

Blanco, Carlos; Krueger, Robert F.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Liu, Shang-Min; Wang, Shuai; Kerridge, Bradley T.; Saha, Tulshi; Olfson, Mark

2013-01-01

480

Effect of stationary phase polarity on the retention of ionic liquid cations in reversed phase liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Chromatographic analysis of ionic liquids on different types of packings offers interesting possibility to determine their retention mechanism. As a consequence, the major interactions between stationary phase ligands and analyzed chemical entities can be defined. The main aim of this work was to analyze cations of ionic liquids on chemically bonded stationary phases with specific structural properties. The attempt to predict the main interactions between positive ions of ionic liquids and stationary phase ligands was undertaken. For that purpose, butyl, octyl, octadecyl, phenyl, aryl, mixed, alkylamide, and cholesterolic packings were chosen and applied to the analysis of six most commonly used ionic liquids' cations. Obtained results indicate mainly dispersive and pi-pi type of interaction part in the retention mechanism of analyzed compounds. PMID:17313103

Kowalska, Sylwia; Buszewski, Boguslaw

2006-11-01

481

Portable conduit retention apparatus for releasably retaining a conduit therein  

DOEpatents

Portable conduit retention apparatus for releasably retaining a conduit therein. The apparatus releasably retains the conduit out of the way of nearby personnel and equipment. The apparatus includes a portable support frame defining a slot therein having an open mouth portion in communication with the slot for receiving the conduit through the open mouth portion and into the slot. A retention bar is pivotally connected to the support frame adjacent the mouth portion for releasably retaining the conduit in the slot. The retention bar freely pivots to a first position, so that the mouth portion is unblocked in order that the conduit is received through the mouth portion and into the slot. In addition, the retention bar freely pivots to a second position, so that the mouth portion is blocked in order that the conduit is retained in the slot. The conduit is released from the slot by pivoting the retention bar to the first position to unblock the mouth portion and thereafter manipulating the conduit from the slot and through the mouth portion. The apparatus may further include a mounting member attached to the support frame for mounting the apparatus on a vertical support surface. Another embodiment of the apparatus includes a shoe assembly of predetermined weight removably connected to the support frame for resting the apparatus on a floor in such a manner that the apparatus is substantially stationary on the floor.

Metzger, Richard H. (West Seneca, NY)

1998-01-01

482

Retention of elemental mercury in fly ashes in different atmospheres  

SciTech Connect

Mercury is an extremely volatile element, which is emitted from coal combustion to the environment mostly in the vapor phase. To avoid the environmental problems that the toxic species of this element may cause, control technologies for the removal of mercury are necessary. Recent research has shown that certain fly ash materials have an affinity for mercury. Moreover, it has been observed that fly ashes may catalyze the oxidation of elemental mercury and facilitate its capture. However, the exact nature of Hg-fly ash interactions is still unknown, and mercury oxidation through fly ash needs to be investigated more thoroughly. In this work, the influence of a gas atmosphere on the retention of elemental mercury on fly ashes of different characteristics was evaluated. The retention capacity was estimated comparatively in inert and two gas atmospheres containing species present in coal gasification and coal combustion. Fly ashes produced in two pulverized coal combustion (PCC) plants, produced from coals of different rank (CTA and CTSR), and a fly ash (CTP) produced in a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) plant were used as raw materials. The mercury retention capacity of these fly ashes was compared to the retention obtained in different activated carbons. Although the capture of mercury is very similar in the gasification atmosphere and N{sub 2}, it is much more efficient in a coal combustion retention, being greater in fly ashes from PCC than those from FBC plants. 22 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

M.A. Lopez-Anton; M. Diaz-Somoano; M.R. Martinez-Tarazona [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

2007-01-15

483

Comparative study of enema retention and preference in ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Therapeutic enemas are often used to treat active colitis but their retention may be limited because of urgency to defecate. Some preparations may be better retain