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Sample records for identify common retention

  1. IDENTIFYING RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruitment and Retention Issues for the National Children's Study
    Danelle T Lobdell1, Suzanne Gilboa2, Pauline Mendola1 (1US EPA, NHEERL; 2UNC Chapel Hill)

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, co...

  2. 5 CFR 595.104 - What criteria are used to identify a recruitment and retention problem?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... recruitment and retention problem? 595.104 Section 595.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... identify a recruitment and retention problem? The head of each agency may determine that a significant recruitment and retention problem exists for each category of physician position established under §...

  3. 5 CFR 595.104 - What criteria are used to identify a recruitment and retention problem?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... recruitment and retention problem? 595.104 Section 595.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... identify a recruitment and retention problem? The head of each agency may determine that a significant recruitment and retention problem exists for each category of physician position established under §...

  4. A Computer-Based Instrument That Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrabee, Timothy G.; Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for and development of a computer-based instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. The instrument, known as the Science Beliefs Test, is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. The use of an online data collection system…

  5. Identifying Common Genetic Risk Factors of Diabetic Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, Ini-Isabée; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Khalaf, Kinda; Lee, Sungmun; Khandoker, Ahsan H.; Alsafar, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global public health problem of epidemic proportions, with 60–70% of affected individuals suffering from associated neurovascular complications that act on multiple organ systems. The most common and clinically significant neuropathies of T2DM include uremic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. These conditions seriously impact an individual’s quality of life and significantly increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. Although advances in gene sequencing technologies have identified several genetic variants that may regulate the development and progression of T2DM, little is known about whether or not the variants are involved in disease progression and how these genetic variants are associated with diabetic neuropathy specifically. Significant missing heritability data and complex disease etiologies remain to be explained. This article is the first to provide a review of the genetic risk variants implicated in the diabetic neuropathies and to highlight potential commonalities. We thereby aim to contribute to the creation of a genetic-metabolic model that will help to elucidate the cause of diabetic neuropathies, evaluate a patient’s risk profile, and ultimately facilitate preventative and targeted treatment for the individual. PMID:26074879

  6. Common Somatic Alterations Identified in Maffucci Syndrome by Molecular Karyotyping

    PubMed Central

    Amyere, Mustapha; Dompmartin, Anne; Wouters, Vinciane; Enjolras, Odile; Kaitila, Ilkka; Docquier, Pierre-Louis; Godfraind, Catherine; Mulliken, John Butler; Boon, Laurence Myriam; Vikkula, Miikka

    2014-01-01

    Maffucci syndrome (MS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by multiple central cartilaginous tumors (enchondromas) in association with cutaneous spindle cell hemangiomas. These patients have a high incidence of malignant transformation. No familial case is known and the etiopathogenic cause remains unknown. In enchondromatosis (Ollier disease, OD), which is comprised of enchondromas only, 4 mutations in the PTHR1 gene have been identified in 4 patients; 3 were somatic and 1 was germline. No PTHR1 mutations have been detected in MS, whereas somatic IDH1 and, more rarely, IDH2 mutations have been observed in 77% of patients with MS and 81% of patients with OD. These genetic alterations are shared with other tumors, including glioma, leukemia and carcinoma. To search for underlying somatic genomic causes, we screened MS tissues using Affymetrix SNP-chips. We looked for CNVs, LOH and uniparental isodisomy (UPID) by performing pairwise analyses between allelic intensities in tumoral DNA versus the corresponding blood-extracted DNA. While common chromosomal anomalies were absent in constitutional DNA, several shared CNVs were identified in MS-associated tumors. The most frequently encountered somatic alterations were localized in 2p22.3, 2q24.3 and 14q11.2, implicating these chromosomal rearrangements in the formation of enchondromas and spindle cell hemangiomas in MS. In one chondrosarcoma specimen, large amplifications and/or deletions were observed in chromosomes 3, 6, 9, 10, 12, 13, and 19. Some of these genetic changes have been reported in other chondrosarcomas suggesting an etiopathogenic role. No LOH/UPID was observed in any Maffucci tissue. Our findings identify frequent somatic chromosomal rearrangements on 2p22.3, 2q24.3 and 14q11.2, which may unmask mutations leading to the lesions pathognomonic of MS. PMID:25565925

  7. The newly identified yeast GRD genes are required for retention of late-Golgi membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Nothwehr, S F; Bryant, N J; Stevens, T H

    1996-01-01

    Processing of A-ALP, a late-Golgi membrane protein constructed by fusing the cytosolic domain of dipeptidyl aminopeptidase A to the transmembrane and lumenal domains of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serves as a convenient assay for loss of retention of late-Golgi membrane proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, a large group of novel grd (for Golgi retention defective) yeast mutants, representing 18 complementation groups, were identified on the basis of their mislocalization of A-ALP to the vacuole, where it was proteolytically processed and thus became enzymatically activated. All of the grd mutants exhibited significant mislocalization of A-ALP, as measured by determining the kinetics of A-ALP processing and by analyzing its PMID:8649377

  8. Identifying Psychological Contract Breaches to Guide Improvements in Faculty Recruitment, Retention, and Development

    PubMed Central

    Desselle, Shane P.; Draugalis, JoLaine R.; Spies, Alan R.; Davis, Tamra S.; Bolino, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To identify pharmacy faculty members’ perceptions of psychological contract breaches that can be used to guide improvements in faculty recruitment, retention, and development. Methods. A list of psychological contract breaches was developed using a Delphi procedure involving a panel of experts assembled through purposive sampling. The Delphi consisted of 4 rounds, the first of which elicited examples of psychological contract breaches in an open-ended format. The ensuing 3 rounds consisting of a survey and anonymous feedback on aggregated group responses. Results. Usable responses were obtained from 11 of 12 faculty members who completed the Delphi procedure. The final list of psychological contract breaches included 27 items, after modifications based on participant feedback in subsequent rounds. Conclusion. The psychological contract breach items generated in this study provide guidance for colleges and schools of pharmacy regarding important aspects of faculty recruitment, retention, and development. PMID:22919084

  9. Identifying the Best Treatment Among Common Nonsurgical Neck Pain Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.; Cassidy, J. David; Côté, Pierre; Boyle, Eleanor; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Chan, Stella; Subrata, Peter; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Hurwitz, Eric; Bombardier, Claire; Krahn, Murray

    2008-01-01

    Study Design Decision analysis. Objective To identify the best treatment for nonspecific neck pain. Summary of Background Data In Canada and the United States, the most commonly prescribed neck pain treatments are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), exercise, and manual therapy. Deciding which treatment is best is difficult because of the trade-offs between beneficial and harmful effects, and because of the uncertainty of these effects. Methods (Quality-adjusted) life expectancy associated with standard NSAIDs, Cox-2 NSAIDs, exercise, mobilization, and manipulation were compared in a decision-analytic model. Estimates of the course of neck pain, background risk of adverse events in the general population, treatment effectiveness and risk, and patient-preferences were input into the model. Assuming equal effectiveness, we conducted a baseline analysis using risk of harm only. We assessed the stability of the baseline results by conducting a second analysis that incorporated effectiveness data from a high-quality randomized trial. Results There were no important differences across treatments. The difference between the highest and lowest ranked treatments predicted by the baseline model was 4.5 days of life expectancy and 3.4 quality-adjusted life-days. The difference between the highest and lowest ranked treatments predicted by the second model was 7.3 quality-adjusted life-days. Conclusion When the objective is to maximize life expectancy and quality-adjusted life expectancy, none of the treatments in our analysis were clearly superior.

  10. Iodine content in bread, milk and the retention of inherent iodine in commonly used Indian recipes.

    PubMed

    Longvah, T; Toteja, G S; Upadhyay, A

    2013-01-15

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) is still a major public health problem and iodized salt remains the most effective means to control IDD in India. Few reports indicate that vegans have inadequate iodine intake while at the same time concerns are being raised on the implementation of universal salt iodization in the country. Therefore, we investigated the iodine content in bread, milk and commonly used Indian recipes prepared without iodized salt and the retention of inherent iodine therein. Results showed considerable iodine content in bread (25 μg/100g) and milk (303 μg/L) as a positive fallout of universal salt iodization. Iodine content in 38 vegetarian recipes prepared without iodized salt was very low (2.9 ± 2.4 μg/100g). Retention of inherent iodine (65.6 ± 15.4%) and iodine from iodized salt (76.7 ± 10.3%) in the same recipes was comparable. Thus, universal salt iodization programme remains the single most important source of dietary iodine for the Indian population. PMID:23122074

  11. Learning Outcomes in Academic Disciplines: Identifying Common Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Marybeth Drechsler; Komives, Susan R.; Fincher, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Diverse entities, such as disciplinary-based accreditors, academic affairs associations, and student affairs professional organizations, promote student learning outcomes. This study identified eight themes among outcomes required by 25 disciplinary accreditors who are members of the Council for Higher Education Accreditation. The authors compared…

  12. Folate content and retention in commonly consumed vegetables in the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Prayna P P; Prasad, Surendra; Devi, Riteshma; Gopalan, Romila

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the effect of boiling and frying on the retention of folate in commonly consumed Fijian vegetables (drumstick leaves, taro leaves, bele leaves, amaranth leaves, fern/ota, okra and French bean). The folate content was determined by microbiological assay (Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus) and tri-enzyme (protease, α-amylase and chicken pancreas conjugase) extraction treatment. The folate loss varied among the vegetables from 10-64% on boiling while 1-36% on frying. The higher folate loss was observed during boiling. The folate content in the water derived after boiling different vegetables ranged from 11.9 ± 0.5 to 61.6 ± 2.5 μg/100mL. The folate loss on boiling was accounted for in the cooking water. The predominant way of folate loss on boiling was leaching rather than thermal degradation which makes boiling the better choice of cooking the studied vegetables for folate intake, provided the cooking water is consumed together with the vegetables. PMID:25842344

  13. Modeling Retention at a Large Public University: Can At-Risk Students Be Identified Early Enough to Treat?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singell, Larry D.; Waddell, Glen R.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the extent to which readily available data at a large public university can be used to a priori identify at-risk students who may benefit from targeted retention efforts. Although it is possible to identify such students, there remains an inevitable tradeoff in any resource allocation between not treating the students who are likely to…

  14. Identifying elements of job satisfaction to improve retention rates in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Lamberth, Becky; Comello, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    According to the American Hospital Association, by the year 2010, the United States will need 1,000,000 qualified nurses to care for patients, an additional 75,000 licensed radiologic technologists, and several other ancillary medical staff employees. A number of health professionals question why there is such a significant shortage--especially considering that many facilities; are implementing cost initiatives and insurance companies are decreasing the length of patient hospital stays. One specific factor may not be fully appreciated: Although the length of stay is decreasing,the acuity level of the patient is increasing. The number and types of available opportunities also contribute to the staffing shortage. Hospitals and healthcare facilities are now working diligently to address the crisis and answer that one very important question: How can they keep employees satisfied and willing commit long-term to the organization? This review focuses on identifying those key variables of job satisfaction that will lead to long-term retention of healthcare workers, including money, work environment, performance feedback, advancement opportunities, group cohesion, and relationships with management. It also discusses the effects of demographic characteristics such as age and gender on job satisfaction. PMID:15988869

  15. Faecal retention: a common cause in functional bowel disorders, appendicitis and haemorrhoids--with medical and surgical therapy.

    PubMed

    Raahave, Dennis

    2015-03-01

    prolapsing haemorrhoids. Finally, a common cause may be suspected for diseases constantly associated with one another. Epidemiological evidence has recognized that constipation, diverticulosis and IBS increase the risk of colon cancer (and adenomas), diseases exceedingly rare in communities exempt from appendicitis. Haemorrhoids are a colonic co-morbidity as well. Notably, the patients with a functional bowel disorder had a much higher rate of a previous appendectomy than the background population. In addition, the patients who had previously had an appendectomy had a significantly longer CTT compared to patients, who had not. The data points to the involvement of faecal retention in the origin of faecaliths and, thus, acute appendicitis. Faecal reservoirs were shown in the right and left colon segments in both patients and controls, which are the same areas bearing the highest incidences of adenomateous polyps and malignancies. Familial colorectal cancer occurred significantly more often in patients who had a higher faecal load than the controls. Four malignancies and 25 adenomas were identified. An increased faecal load in the colon with or without delayed transit will increase bacterial counts and create a chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa, which is a risk factor for cancer onset. A functional bowel disorder is then likely to occur with gradually transition from a primary functional disease into specific organic diseases. A diet rich in fibre and regular physical activity have a therapeutic and preventive effect on colorectal diseases associated with faecal retention. A “common cause” was earlier proposed for constipation, colon diverticula, cancer, appendicitis, and haemorrhoids. The actual results of the present studies support this unifying theory for these diet-related diseases, in which the functional retention of faeces maybe the common cause. PMID:25748875

  16. IDENTIFYING RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES AMONG NON-WHITE PARTICIPANTS FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding potential stakeholders perspectives prior to recruitment may improve the effectiveness of a recruitment campaign as well as sustain participant retention. In early 2003, eighteen focus groups were conducted across the United States to address these issues, but non-...

  17. Mineralocorticoid-induced sodium appetite and renal salt retention: evidence for common signaling and effector mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yiling; Vallon, Volker

    2014-01-01

    An increase in renal sodium chloride (salt) retention and an increase in sodium appetite are the body's responses to salt restriction or depletion in order to restore salt balance. Renal salt retention and increased sodium appetite can also be maladaptive and sustain the pathophysiology in conditions like salt-sensitive hypertension and chronic heart failure. Here we review the central role of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in both the increase in renal salt reabsorption and sodium appetite. We discuss the working hypothesis that aldosterone activates similar signaling and effector mechanisms in the kidney and brain, including the mineralocorticoid receptor, the serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase SGK1, the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2, and the epithelial sodium channel ENaC. The latter also mediates the gustatory salt sensing in the tongue, which is required for the manifestation of increased salt intake. Effects of aldosterone on both the brain and kidney synergize with the effects of angiotensin II. Thus, mineralocorticoids appear to induce similar molecular pathways in the kidney, brain, and possibly tongue, which could provide opportunities for more effective therapeutic interventions. Inhibition of renal salt reabsorption is compensated by stimulation of salt appetite and vice versa; targeting both mechanisms should be more effective. Inhibiting the arousal to consume salty food may improve a patient's compliance to reducing salt intake. While a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms is needed and will provide new therapeutic options, current pharmacological interventions that target both salt retention and sodium appetite include mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and potentially inhibitors of angiotensin II and ENaC. PMID:25376899

  18. Mineralocorticoid-induced sodium appetite and renal salt retention: Evidence for common signaling and effector mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yiling; Vallon, Volker

    2014-01-01

    An increase in renal sodium chloride (salt) retention and an increase in sodium appetite is the body's response to salt restriction or depletion in order to restore salt balance. Renal salt retention and increased sodium appetite can also be maladaptive and sustain the pathophysiology in conditions like salt-sensitive hypertension and chronic heart failure. Here we review the central role of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in both the increase in renal salt reabsorption and sodium appetite. We discuss the working hypothesis that aldosterone activates similar signaling and effector mechanisms in the kidney and brain, including the mineralocorticoid receptor, the serum-and-glucocorticoid-induced kinase SGK1, the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2, and the epithelial sodium channel ENaC. The latter also mediates the gustatory salt sensing in the tongue, which is required for the manifestation of increased salt intake. Effects of aldosterone on both brain and kidney synergize with the effects of angiotensin II. Thus, mineralocorticoids appear to induce similar molecular pathways in the kidney, brain, and possibly tongue, which could provide opportunities for more effective therapeutic interventions. Inhibition of renal salt reabsorption is compensated by stimulation of salt appetite and vice versa; targeting both mechanisms should be more effective. Inhibiting the arousal to consume salty food may improve a patient's compliance to reducing salt intake. While a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms is needed and will provide new options, current pharmacological interventions that target both salt retention and sodium appetite include mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and potentially inhibitors of angiotensin II and ENaC. PMID:25376899

  19. Identifying the Common Characteristics of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deslatte, Kyrie'; Carson, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to (a) determine the common characteristics of current comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP) in Louisiana and (b) identify strategies for implementing a CSPAP. Four individuals (i.e., one physical education teacher, one principal, and two classroom teachers) were recruited from three public schools…

  20. What Are They Thinking? The Development and Use of an Instrument that Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles R.; Larrabee, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for, and development of, an online instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. Science Beliefs is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. It utilizes a true or false, along with a written-explanation, format. The true or…

  1. Common Marker Genes Identified from Various Sample Types for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Lei, Shu-Feng; Deng, Fei-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex auto-immune disease. Gene expression studies have been conducted to identify SLE-related genes in various types of samples. It is unknown whether there are common marker genes significant for SLE but independent of sample types, which may have potentials for follow-up translational research. The aim of this study is to identify common marker genes across various sample types for SLE. Methods Based on four public microarray gene expression datasets for SLE covering three representative types of blood-born samples (monocyte; peripheral blood mononuclear cell, PBMC; whole blood), we utilized three statistics (fold-change, FC; t-test p value; false discovery rate adjusted p value) to scrutinize genes simultaneously regulated with SLE across various sample types. For common marker genes, we conducted the Gene Ontology enrichment analysis and Protein-Protein Interaction analysis to gain insights into their functions. Results We identified 10 common marker genes associated with SLE (IFI6, IFI27, IFI44L, OAS1, OAS2, EIF2AK2, PLSCR1, STAT1, RNASE2, and GSTO1). Significant up-regulation of IFI6, IFI27, and IFI44L with SLE was observed in all the studied sample types, though the FC was most striking in monocyte, compared with PBMC and whole blood (8.82–251.66 vs. 3.73–74.05 vs. 1.19–1.87). Eight of the above 10 genes, except RNASE2 and GSTO1, interact with each other and with known SLE susceptibility genes, participate in immune response, RNA and protein catabolism, and cell death. Conclusion Our data suggest that there exist common marker genes across various sample types for SLE. The 10 common marker genes, identified herein, deserve follow-up studies to dissert their potentials as diagnostic or therapeutic markers to predict SLE or treatment response. PMID:27257790

  2. Efforts to Improve Undergraduate Student Retention Rates at a Hispanic Serving Institution: Building Collaborative Relationships for the Common Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nancy K.; Meyer, Kristi

    2010-01-01

    This article describes efforts to improve retention and graduation rates at the University of Texas at San Antonio, a large Hispanic serving institution (HSI). One college within the university is focusing on increasing retention and graduation rates primarily by building relationships and capitalizing on university resources. In addition to…

  3. An Effective Method to Identify Shared Pathways and Common Factors among Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Nie, Yaling; Yu, Jingkai

    2015-01-01

    Groups of distinct but related diseases often share common symptoms, which suggest likely overlaps in underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Identifying the shared pathways and common factors among those disorders can be expected to deepen our understanding for them and help designing new treatment strategies effected on those diseases. Neurodegeneration diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), were taken as a case study in this research. Reported susceptibility genes for AD, PD and HD were collected and human protein-protein interaction network (hPPIN) was used to identify biological pathways related to neurodegeneration. 81 KEGG pathways were found to be correlated with neurodegenerative disorders. 36 out of the 81 are human disease pathways, and the remaining ones are involved in miscellaneous human functional pathways. Cancers and infectious diseases are two major subclasses within the disease group. Apoptosis is one of the most significant functional pathways. Most of those pathways found here are actually consistent with prior knowledge of neurodegenerative diseases except two cell communication pathways: adherens and tight junctions. Gene expression analysis showed a high probability that the two pathways were related to neurodegenerative diseases. A combination of common susceptibility genes and hPPIN is an effective method to study shared pathways involved in a group of closely related disorders. Common modules, which might play a bridging role in linking neurodegenerative disorders and the enriched pathways, were identified by clustering analysis. The identified shared pathways and common modules can be expected to yield clues for effective target discovery efforts on neurodegeneration. PMID:26575483

  4. Genome-Wide Association Studies: Progress in Identifying Genetic Biomarkers in Common, Complex Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Lindquist, Ingrid E.; Mudge, Joann; Beavis, William D.

    2007-01-01

    Novel, comprehensive approaches for biomarker discovery and validation are urgently needed. One particular area of methodologic need is for discovery of novel genetic biomarkers in complex diseases and traits. Here, we review recent successes in the use of genome wide association (GWA) approaches to identify genetic biomarkers in common human diseases and traits. Such studies are yielding initial insights into the allelic architecture of complex traits. In general, it appears that complex diseases are associated with many common polymorphisms, implying profound genetic heterogeneity between affected individuals. PMID:19662211

  5. Use of satellite telemetry to identify common loon migration routes, staging areas and wintering range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Evers, D.C.; Douglas, D.C.; Hines, J.

    2002-01-01

    We developed a satellite transmitter attachment technique for adult Common Loons (Gavia immer) that would help in identifying important migration routes, staging areas, and the location of wintering grounds of birds that breed in the north central United States. During the autumn and winter of 1998, the migration of six adult loons that were radio marked in northern Wisconsin and Minnesota was monitored. The results of this work offer insight into autumn movement patterns of Common Loons. Timing of autumn staging and migration to wintering grounds appeared to be related to low pressure systems that delivered winter weather to the Upper Midwest. Most of the radiomarked birds staged on the Great Lakes and then followed one of two distinct migration routes to the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. Several of the birds used lakes and reservoirs in the southeastern United States during migration. This study provides a basis for more extensive studies of Common Loon migration.

  6. Common Viral Integration Sites Identified in Avian Leukosis Virus-Induced B-Cell Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Justice, James F.; Morgan, Robin W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian leukosis virus (ALV) induces B-cell lymphoma and other neoplasms in chickens by integrating within or near cancer genes and perturbing their expression. Four genes—MYC, MYB, Mir-155, and TERT—have previously been identified as common integration sites in these virus-induced lymphomas and are thought to play a causal role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we employ high-throughput sequencing to identify additional genes driving tumorigenesis in ALV-induced B-cell lymphomas. In addition to the four genes implicated previously, we identify other genes as common integration sites, including TNFRSF1A, MEF2C, CTDSPL, TAB2, RUNX1, MLL5, CXorf57, and BACH2. We also analyze the genome-wide ALV integration landscape in vivo and find increased frequency of ALV integration near transcriptional start sites and within transcripts. Previous work has shown ALV prefers a weak consensus sequence for integration in cultured human cells. We confirm this consensus sequence for ALV integration in vivo in the chicken genome. PMID:26670384

  7. Fine-Mapping of Common Genetic Variants Associated with Colorectal Tumor Risk Identified Potential Functional Variants

    PubMed Central

    Gala, Manish; Abecasis, Goncalo; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Butterbach, Katja; Caan, Bette J.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Casey, Graham; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Conti, David V.; Curtis, Keith R.; Duggan, David; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Küry, Sébastien; Le Marchand, Loic; Leal, Suzanne M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Potter, John D.; Schoen, Robert E.; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L.; Hsu, Li; Chan, Andrew T.; White, Emily; Berndt, Sonja I.; Peters, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with colorectal cancer risk. These SNPs may tag correlated variants with biological importance. Fine-mapping around GWAS loci can facilitate detection of functional candidates and additional independent risk variants. We analyzed 11,900 cases and 14,311 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colon Cancer Family Registry. To fine-map genomic regions containing all known common risk variants, we imputed high-density genetic data from the 1000 Genomes Project. We tested single-variant associations with colorectal tumor risk for all variants spanning genomic regions 250-kb upstream or downstream of 31 GWAS-identified SNPs (index SNPs). We queried the University of California, Santa Cruz Genome Browser to examine evidence for biological function. Index SNPs did not show the strongest association signals with colorectal tumor risk in their respective genomic regions. Bioinformatics analysis of SNPs showing smaller P-values in each region revealed 21 functional candidates in 12 loci (5q31.1, 8q24, 11q13.4, 11q23, 12p13.32, 12q24.21, 14q22.2, 15q13, 18q21, 19q13.1, 20p12.3, and 20q13.33). We did not observe evidence of additional independent association signals in GWAS-identified regions. Our results support the utility of integrating data from comprehensive fine-mapping with expanding publicly available genomic databases to help clarify GWAS associations and identify functional candidates that warrant more onerous laboratory follow-up. Such efforts may aid the eventual discovery of disease-causing variant(s). PMID:27379672

  8. Fine-Mapping of Common Genetic Variants Associated with Colorectal Tumor Risk Identified Potential Functional Variants.

    PubMed

    Du, Mengmeng; Jiao, Shuo; Bien, Stephanie A; Gala, Manish; Abecasis, Goncalo; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Butterbach, Katja; Caan, Bette J; Carlson, Christopher S; Casey, Graham; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Conti, David V; Curtis, Keith R; Duggan, David; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W; Harrison, Tabitha A; Hayes, Richard B; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L; Hudson, Thomas J; Jenkins, Mark A; Küry, Sébastien; Le Marchand, Loic; Leal, Suzanne M; Newcomb, Polly A; Nickerson, Deborah A; Potter, John D; Schoen, Robert E; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L; Hsu, Li; Chan, Andrew T; White, Emily; Berndt, Sonja I; Peters, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with colorectal cancer risk. These SNPs may tag correlated variants with biological importance. Fine-mapping around GWAS loci can facilitate detection of functional candidates and additional independent risk variants. We analyzed 11,900 cases and 14,311 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colon Cancer Family Registry. To fine-map genomic regions containing all known common risk variants, we imputed high-density genetic data from the 1000 Genomes Project. We tested single-variant associations with colorectal tumor risk for all variants spanning genomic regions 250-kb upstream or downstream of 31 GWAS-identified SNPs (index SNPs). We queried the University of California, Santa Cruz Genome Browser to examine evidence for biological function. Index SNPs did not show the strongest association signals with colorectal tumor risk in their respective genomic regions. Bioinformatics analysis of SNPs showing smaller P-values in each region revealed 21 functional candidates in 12 loci (5q31.1, 8q24, 11q13.4, 11q23, 12p13.32, 12q24.21, 14q22.2, 15q13, 18q21, 19q13.1, 20p12.3, and 20q13.33). We did not observe evidence of additional independent association signals in GWAS-identified regions. Our results support the utility of integrating data from comprehensive fine-mapping with expanding publicly available genomic databases to help clarify GWAS associations and identify functional candidates that warrant more onerous laboratory follow-up. Such efforts may aid the eventual discovery of disease-causing variant(s). PMID:27379672

  9. Identifying the common elements of treatment engagement interventions in children's mental health services.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Michael A; Brandt, Nicole E; Becker, Kimberly D; Lee, Bethany R; Barth, Richard P; Daleiden, Eric L; Chorpita, Bruce F

    2014-09-01

    Difficulty engaging families in mental health treatment is seen as an underlying reason for the disparity between child mental health need and service use. Interpretation of the literature on how best to engage families is complicated by a diversity of operational definitions of engagement outcomes and related interventions. Thus, we sought to review studies of engagement interventions using a structured methodology allowing for an aggregate summary of the most common practices associated with effective engagement interventions. We identified 344 articles through a combination of database search methods and recommendations from engagement research experts; 38 articles describing 40 studies met our inclusion criteria. Following coding methods described by Chorpita and Daleiden (J Consul Clin Psychol 77(3):566-579, 2009, doi: 10.1037/a0014565 ), we identified 22 engagement practice elements from 89 study groups that examined or implemented family engagement strategies. Most frequently identified engagement practice elements included assessment, accessibility promotion, psychoeducation about services, homework assignment, and appointment reminders. Assessment and accessibility promotion were two practice elements present in at least 50 % of treatment groups that outperformed a control group in a randomized controlled trial. With the exception of appointment reminders, these frequently identified engagement practice elements had a high likelihood of being associated with winning treatments when they were used. This approach offers a novel way of summarizing the engagement literature and provides the foundation for enhancing clinical decision-making around treatment engagement. PMID:24379129

  10. Unbiased analysis of senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) to identify common components following different genotoxic stresses.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Servet; Alessio, Nicola; Acar, Mustafa B; Mert, Eda; Omerli, Fatih; Peluso, Gianfranco; Galderisi, Umberto

    2016-07-01

    Senescent cells secrete senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) proteins to carry out several functions, such as sensitizing surrounding cells to senesce; immunomodulation; impairing or fostering cancer growth; and promoting tissue development. Identifying secreted factors that achieve such tasks is a challenging issue since the profile of secreted proteins depends on genotoxic stress and cell type. Currently, researchers are trying to identify common markers for SASP. The present investigation compared the secretome composition of five different senescent phenotypes in two different cell types: bone marrow and adipose mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). We induced MSC senescence by oxidative stress, doxorubicin treatment, X-ray irradiation, and replicative exhaustion. We took advantage of LC-MS/MS proteome identification and subsequent gene ontology (GO) evaluation to perform an unbiased analysis (hypothesis free manner) of senescent secretomes. GO analysis allowed us to distribute SASP components into four classes: extracellular matrix/cytoskeleton/cell junctions; metabolic processes; ox-redox factors; and regulators of gene expression. We used Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to determine common pathways among the different senescent phenotypes. This investigation, along with identification of eleven proteins that were exclusively expressed in all the analyzed senescent phenotypes, permitted the identification of three key signaling paths: MMP2 - TIMP2; IGFBP3 - PAI-1; and Peroxiredoxin 6 - ERP46 - PARK7 - Cathepsin D - Major vault protein. We suggest that these paths could be involved in the paracrine circuit that induces senescence in neighboring cells and may confer apoptosis resistance to senescent cells. PMID:27288264

  11. Unbiased analysis of senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) to identify common components following different genotoxic stresses

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Servet; Alessio, Nicola; Acar, Mustafa B.; Mert, Eda; Omerli, Fatih; Peluso, Gianfranco; Galderisi, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Senescent cells secrete senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) proteins to carry out several functions, such as sensitizing surrounding cells to senesce; immunomodulation; impairing or fostering cancer growth; and promoting tissue development. Identifying secreted factors that achieve such tasks is a challenging issue since the profile of secreted proteins depends on genotoxic stress and cell type. Currently, researchers are trying to identify common markers for SASP. The present investigation compared the secretome composition of five different senescent phenotypes in two different cell types: bone marrow and adipose mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). We induced MSC senescence by oxidative stress, doxorubicin treatment, X-ray irradiation, and replicative exhaustion. We took advantage of LC-MS/MS proteome identification and subsequent gene ontology (GO) evaluation to perform an unbiased analysis (hypothesis free manner) of senescent secretomes. GO analysis allowed us to distribute SASP components into four classes: extracellular matrix/cytoskeleton/cell junctions; metabolic processes; ox-redox factors; and regulators of gene expression. We used Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to determine common pathways among the different senescent phenotypes. This investigation, along with identification of eleven proteins that were exclusively expressed in all the analyzed senescent phenotypes, permitted the identification of three key signaling paths: MMP2 - TIMP2; IGFBP3 - PAI-1; and Peroxiredoxin 6 - ERP46 - PARK7 - Cathepsin D - Major vault protein. We suggest that these paths could be involved in the paracrine circuit that induces senescence in neighboring cells and may confer apoptosis resistance to senescent cells. PMID:27288264

  12. Sequencing of SCN5A identifies rare and common variants associated with cardiac conduction

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, Jared W.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Prins, Bram P.; Arking, Dan E.; Lin, Honghuang; Yin, Xiaoyan; Liu, Ching-Ti; Morrison, Alanna C.; Zhang, Feng; Spector, Tim D.; Alonso, Alvaro; Bis, Joshua C.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Lumley, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Lubitz, Steven A.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Pulit, Sara L.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Santibanez, Jireh; Taylor, Herman A.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Lange, Leslie A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Jackson, Rebecca; Rich, Stephen S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Jamshidi, Yalda; Sotoodehnia, Nona

    2014-01-01

    Background The cardiac sodium channel SCN5A regulates atrioventricular and ventricular conduction. Genetic variants in this gene are associated with PR and QRS intervals. We sought to further characterize the contribution of rare and common coding variation in SCN5A to cardiac conduction. Methods and Results In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Targeted Sequencing Study (CHARGE), we performed targeted exonic sequencing of SCN5A (n=3699, European-ancestry individuals) and identified 4 common (minor allele frequency >1%) and 157 rare variants. Common and rare SCN5A coding variants were examined for association with PR and QRS intervals through meta-analysis of European ancestry participants from CHARGE, NHLBI’s Exome Sequencing Project (ESP, n=607) and the UK10K (n=1275) and by examining ESP African-ancestry participants (N=972). Rare coding SCN5A variants in aggregate were associated with PR interval in European and African-ancestry participants (P=1.3×10−3). Three common variants were associated with PR and/or QRS interval duration among European-ancestry participants and one among African-ancestry participants. These included two well-known missense variants; rs1805124 (H558R) was associated with PR and QRS shortening in European-ancestry participants (P=6.25×10−4 and P=5.2×10−3 respectively) and rs7626962 (S1102Y) was associated with PR shortening in those of African ancestry (P=2.82×10−3). Among European-ancestry participants, two novel synonymous variants, rs1805126 and rs6599230, were associated with cardiac conduction. Our top signal, rs1805126 was associated with PR and QRS lengthening (P=3.35×10−7 and P=2.69×10−4 respectively), and rs6599230 was associated with PR shortening (P=2.67×10−5). Conclusions By sequencing SCN5A, we identified novel common and rare coding variants associated with cardiac conduction. PMID:24951663

  13. Genome-wide analysis identifies a role for common copy number variants in specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Nuala H; Ceroni, Fabiola; Reader, Rose H; Covill, Laura E; Knight, Julian C; Hennessy, Elizabeth R; Bolton, Patrick F; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; O'Hare, Anne; Baird, Gillian; Fisher, Simon E; Newbury, Dianne F

    2015-10-01

    An exploratory genome-wide copy number variant (CNV) study was performed in 127 independent cases with specific language impairment (SLI), their first-degree relatives (385 individuals) and 269 population controls. Language-impaired cases showed an increased CNV burden in terms of the average number of events (11.28 vs 10.01, empirical P=0.003), the total length of CNVs (717 vs 513 Kb, empirical P=0.0001), the average CNV size (63.75 vs 51.6 Kb, empirical P=0.0005) and the number of genes spanned (14.29 vs 10.34, empirical P=0.0007) when compared with population controls, suggesting that CNVs may contribute to SLI risk. A similar trend was observed in first-degree relatives regardless of affection status. The increased burden found in our study was not driven by large or de novo events, which have been described as causative in other neurodevelopmental disorders. Nevertheless, de novo CNVs might be important on a case-by-case basis, as indicated by identification of events affecting relevant genes, such as ACTR2 and CSNK1A1, and small events within known micro-deletion/-duplication syndrome regions, such as chr8p23.1. Pathway analysis of the genes present within the CNVs of the independent cases identified significant overrepresentation of acetylcholine binding, cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity and MHC proteins as compared with controls. Taken together, our data suggest that the majority of the risk conferred by CNVs in SLI is via common, inherited events within a 'common disorder-common variant' model. Therefore the risk conferred by CNVs will depend upon the combination of events inherited (both CNVs and SNPs), the genetic background of the individual and the environmental factors. PMID:25585696

  14. Identifying common components across biological network graphs using a bipartite data model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The GeneWeaver bipartite data model provides an efficient means to evaluate shared molecular components from sets derived across diverse species, disease states and biological processes. In order to adapt this model for examining related molecular components and biological networks, such as pathway or gene network data, we have developed a means to leverage the bipartite data structure to extract and analyze shared edges. Using the Pathway Commons database we demonstrate the ability to rapidly identify shared connected components among a diverse set of pathways. In addition, we illustrate how results from maximal bipartite discovery can be decomposed into hierarchical relationships, allowing shared pathway components to be mapped through various parent-child relationships to help visualization and discovery of emergent kernel driven relationships. Interrogating common relationships among biological networks and conventional GeneWeaver gene lists will increase functional specificity and reliability of the shared biological components. This approach enables self-organization of biological processes through shared biological networks. PMID:25374613

  15. A Common Ancestral Mutation in CRYBB3 Identified in Multiple Consanguineous Families with Congenital Cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Irum, Bushra; Khan, Arif O.; Wang, Qiwei; Li, David; Khan, Asma A.; Husnain, Tayyab; Akram, Javed; Riazuddin, Sheikh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to investigate the genetic determinants of autosomal recessive congenital cataracts in large consanguineous families. Methods Affected individuals underwent a detailed ophthalmological examination and slit-lamp photographs of the cataractous lenses were obtained. An aliquot of blood was collected from all participating family members and genomic DNA was extracted from white blood cells. Initially, a genome-wide scan was performed with genomic DNAs of family PKCC025 followed by exclusion analysis of our familial cohort of congenital cataracts. Protein-coding exons of CRYBB1, CRYBB2, CRYBB3, and CRYBA4 were sequenced bidirectionally. A haplotype was constructed with SNPs flanking the causal mutation for affected individuals in all four families, while the probability that the four familial cases have a common founder was estimated using EM and CHM-based algorithms. The expression of Crybb3 in the developing murine lens was investigated using TaqMan assays. Results The clinical and ophthalmological examinations suggested that all affected individuals had nuclear cataracts. Genome-wide linkage analysis localized the causal phenotype in family PKCC025 to chromosome 22q with statistically significant two-point logarithm of odds (LOD) scores. Subsequently, we localized three additional families, PKCC063, PKCC131, and PKCC168 to chromosome 22q. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing identified a missense variation: c.493G>C (p.Gly165Arg) in CRYBB3 that segregated with the disease phenotype in all four familial cases. This variation was not found in ethnically matched control chromosomes, the NHLBI exome variant server, or the 1000 Genomes or dbSNP databases. Interestingly, all four families harbor a unique disease haplotype that strongly suggests a common founder of the causal mutation (p<1.64E-10). We observed expression of Crybb3 in the mouse lens as early as embryonic day 15 (E15), and expression remained relatively steady throughout

  16. Pleiotropy among Common Genetic Loci Identified for Cardiometabolic Disorders and C-Reactive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ligthart, Symen; de Vries, Paul S.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Dehghan, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Pleiotropic genetic variants have independent effects on different phenotypes. C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with several cardiometabolic phenotypes. Shared genetic backgrounds may partially underlie these associations. We conducted a genome-wide analysis to identify the shared genetic background of inflammation and cardiometabolic phenotypes using published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We also evaluated whether the pleiotropic effects of such loci were biological or mediated in nature. First, we examined whether 283 common variants identified for 10 cardiometabolic phenotypes in GWAS are associated with CRP level. Second, we tested whether 18 variants identified for serum CRP are associated with 10 cardiometabolic phenotypes. We used a Bonferroni corrected p-value of 1.1×10-04 (0.05/463) as a threshold of significance. We evaluated the independent pleiotropic effect on both phenotypes using individual level data from the Women Genome Health Study. Evaluating the genetic overlap between inflammation and cardiometabolic phenotypes, we found 13 pleiotropic regions. Additional analyses showed that 6 regions (APOC1, HNF1A, IL6R, PPP1R3B, HNF4A and IL1F10) appeared to have a pleiotropic effect on CRP independent of the effects on the cardiometabolic phenotypes. These included loci where individuals carrying the risk allele for CRP encounter higher lipid levels and risk of type 2 diabetes. In addition, 5 regions (GCKR, PABPC4, BCL7B, FTO and TMEM18) had an effect on CRP largely mediated through the cardiometabolic phenotypes. In conclusion, our results show genetic pleiotropy among inflammation and cardiometabolic phenotypes. In addition to reverse causation, our data suggests that pleiotropic genetic variants partially underlie the association between CRP and cardiometabolic phenotypes. PMID:25768928

  17. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Shared Risk Loci Common to Two Malignancies in Golden Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    Tonomura, Noriko; Elvers, Ingegerd; Thomas, Rachael; Megquier, Kate; Turner-Maier, Jason; Howald, Cedric; Sarver, Aaron L.; Swofford, Ross; Frantz, Aric M.; Ito, Daisuke; Mauceli, Evan; Arendt, Maja; Noh, Hyun Ji; Koltookian, Michele; Biagi, Tara; Fryc, Sarah; Williams, Christina; Avery, Anne C.; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Barber, Lisa; Burgess, Kristine; Lander, Eric S.; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Azuma, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Dogs, with their breed-determined limited genetic background, are great models of human disease including cancer. Canine B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma are both malignancies of the hematologic system that are clinically and histologically similar to human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and angiosarcoma, respectively. Golden retrievers in the US show significantly elevated lifetime risk for both B-cell lymphoma (6%) and hemangiosarcoma (20%). We conducted genome-wide association studies for hemangiosarcoma and B-cell lymphoma, identifying two shared predisposing loci. The two associated loci are located on chromosome 5, and together contribute ~20% of the risk of developing these cancers. Genome-wide p-values for the top SNP of each locus are 4.6×10-7 and 2.7×10-6, respectively. Whole genome resequencing of nine cases and controls followed by genotyping and detailed analysis identified three shared and one B-cell lymphoma specific risk haplotypes within the two loci, but no coding changes were associated with the risk haplotypes. Gene expression analysis of B-cell lymphoma tumors revealed that carrying the risk haplotypes at the first locus is associated with down-regulation of several nearby genes including the proximal gene TRPC6, a transient receptor Ca2+-channel involved in T-cell activation, among other functions. The shared risk haplotype in the second locus overlaps the vesicle transport and release gene STX8. Carrying the shared risk haplotype is associated with gene expression changes of 100 genes enriched for pathways involved in immune cell activation. Thus, the predisposing germ-line mutations in B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma appear to be regulatory, and affect pathways involved in T-cell mediated immune response in the tumor. This suggests that the interaction between the immune system and malignant cells plays a common role in the tumorigenesis of these relatively different cancers. PMID:25642983

  18. Genome-wide association study identifies shared risk loci common to two malignancies in golden retrievers.

    PubMed

    Tonomura, Noriko; Elvers, Ingegerd; Thomas, Rachael; Megquier, Kate; Turner-Maier, Jason; Howald, Cedric; Sarver, Aaron L; Swofford, Ross; Frantz, Aric M; Ito, Daisuke; Mauceli, Evan; Arendt, Maja; Noh, Hyun Ji; Koltookian, Michele; Biagi, Tara; Fryc, Sarah; Williams, Christina; Avery, Anne C; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Barber, Lisa; Burgess, Kristine; Lander, Eric S; Karlsson, Elinor K; Azuma, Chieko; Modiano, Jaime F; Breen, Matthew; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2015-02-01

    Dogs, with their breed-determined limited genetic background, are great models of human disease including cancer. Canine B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma are both malignancies of the hematologic system that are clinically and histologically similar to human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and angiosarcoma, respectively. Golden retrievers in the US show significantly elevated lifetime risk for both B-cell lymphoma (6%) and hemangiosarcoma (20%). We conducted genome-wide association studies for hemangiosarcoma and B-cell lymphoma, identifying two shared predisposing loci. The two associated loci are located on chromosome 5, and together contribute ~20% of the risk of developing these cancers. Genome-wide p-values for the top SNP of each locus are 4.6×10-7 and 2.7×10-6, respectively. Whole genome resequencing of nine cases and controls followed by genotyping and detailed analysis identified three shared and one B-cell lymphoma specific risk haplotypes within the two loci, but no coding changes were associated with the risk haplotypes. Gene expression analysis of B-cell lymphoma tumors revealed that carrying the risk haplotypes at the first locus is associated with down-regulation of several nearby genes including the proximal gene TRPC6, a transient receptor Ca2+-channel involved in T-cell activation, among other functions. The shared risk haplotype in the second locus overlaps the vesicle transport and release gene STX8. Carrying the shared risk haplotype is associated with gene expression changes of 100 genes enriched for pathways involved in immune cell activation. Thus, the predisposing germ-line mutations in B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma appear to be regulatory, and affect pathways involved in T-cell mediated immune response in the tumor. This suggests that the interaction between the immune system and malignant cells plays a common role in the tumorigenesis of these relatively different cancers. PMID:25642983

  19. Common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance identified using the proxy-phenotype method.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, Cornelius A; Esko, Tõnu; Davies, Gail; Pers, Tune H; Turley, Patrick; Benyamin, Beben; Chabris, Christopher F; Emilsson, Valur; Johnson, Andrew D; Lee, James J; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Marioni, Riccardo E; Medland, Sarah E; Miller, Michael B; Rostapshova, Olga; van der Lee, Sven J; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Amin, Najaf; Conley, Dalton; Derringer, Jaime; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Franke, Lude; Glaeser, Edward L; Hansell, Narelle K; Hayward, Caroline; Iacono, William G; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla; Jaddoe, Vincent; Karjalainen, Juha; Laibson, David; Lichtenstein, Paul; Liewald, David C; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; McMahon, George; Pedersen, Nancy L; Pinker, Steven; Porteous, David J; Posthuma, Danielle; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Smith, Blair H; Starr, John M; Tiemeier, Henning; Timpson, Nicholas J; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Uitterlinden, André G; Verhulst, Frank C; Ward, Mary E; Wright, Margaret J; Davey Smith, George; Deary, Ian J; Johannesson, Magnus; Plomin, Robert; Visscher, Peter M; Benjamin, Daniel J; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D

    2014-09-23

    We identify common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance using a two-stage approach, which we call the proxy-phenotype method. First, we conduct a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in a large sample (n = 106,736), which produces a set of 69 education-associated SNPs. Second, using independent samples (n = 24,189), we measure the association of these education-associated SNPs with cognitive performance. Three SNPs (rs1487441, rs7923609, and rs2721173) are significantly associated with cognitive performance after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. In an independent sample of older Americans (n = 8,652), we also show that a polygenic score derived from the education-associated SNPs is associated with memory and absence of dementia. Convergent evidence from a set of bioinformatics analyses implicates four specific genes (KNCMA1, NRXN1, POU2F3, and SCRT). All of these genes are associated with a particular neurotransmitter pathway involved in synaptic plasticity, the main cellular mechanism for learning and memory. PMID:25201988

  20. Developing germplasm resources to identify the genetic basis of resistance to common scab in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common scab, caused mainly by the soil-borne bacterium Streptomyces scabies, produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing tuber quality and profitability. Methods to manage common scab are often expensive, impractical, and can be ineffective. Therefore, creating cultivars that are resistant to common...

  1. Pathway Analysis Incorporating Protein-Protein Interaction Networks Identified Candidate Pathways for the Seven Common Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peng-Lin; Yu, Ya-Wen; Chung, Ren-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Pathway analysis has become popular as a secondary analysis strategy for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most of the current pathway analysis methods aggregate signals from the main effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes within a pathway without considering the effects of gene-gene interactions. However, gene-gene interactions can also have critical effects on complex diseases. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks have been used to define gene pairs for the gene-gene interaction tests. Incorporating the PPI information to define gene pairs for interaction tests within pathways can increase the power for pathway-based association tests. We propose a pathway association test, which aggregates the interaction signals in PPI networks within a pathway, for GWAS with case-control samples. Gene size is properly considered in the test so that genes do not contribute more to the test statistic simply due to their size. Simulation studies were performed to verify that the method is a valid test and can have more power than other pathway association tests in the presence of gene-gene interactions within a pathway under different scenarios. We applied the test to the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium GWAS datasets for seven common diseases. The most significant pathway is the chaperones modulate interferon signaling pathway for Crohn's disease (p-value = 0.0003). The pathway modulates interferon gamma, which induces the JAK/STAT pathway that is involved in Crohn's disease. Several other pathways that have functional implications for the seven diseases were also identified. The proposed test based on gene-gene interaction signals in PPI networks can be used as a complementary tool to the current existing pathway analysis methods focusing on main effects of genes. An efficient software implementing the method is freely available at http://puppi.sourceforge.net. PMID:27622767

  2. School Grounds Guide: A Pictured Guide for Identifying Common Organisms Found In and Around the School Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Rodney

    Designed for quick, easy identification of some of the most commonly encountered organisms found in and around the school ground, this illustrated guide identifies by a picture and a short biological description the common animals and plants found in and around school lawns, house lawns, parks, fence rows, flower gardens, vacant lots, and…

  3. Identifying the Role of Common Interests in Online User Trust Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Lei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Hou, Lei; Guo, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Despite enormous recent efforts in detecting the mechanism of the social relation formation in online social systems, the underlying rules between the common interests and social relations are still under dispute. Do online users befriend others who have similar tastes, or do their tastes become more similar after they become friends? In this paper, we investigate the correlation between online user trust formation and their common interests, measured by the overlap rate ρ and taste similarity θ respectively. The trust relation creation time is set as the zero timestamp. The statistical results before and after the trust formation for an online network, namely Epinions, show that, the overlap rate ρ increases greatly before the trust formation, while it would increase smoothly after the creation of the trust relation. Comparing with the empirical results, two null models are presented by shuffling the temporal behaviors of online users, which suggests that the accumulation of the common interests can result in the trust formation. Furthermore, we investigate the taste similarity θ of the common interests, which can reflect the users’ preference on their common interests. The empirical results show that the taste similarity θ is rapidly increased around the day when users trust the others. That is, the similar tastes on the common interests among users lead to the trust formation. Finally, we report that the user degree can also influence the effect of the taste similarity θ on user trust formation. This work may shed some light for deeply understanding the evolution mechanism of the online social systems. PMID:26161853

  4. Identifying and Reconstructing Common Cold Misconceptions among Developing K-12 Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcus Lee; Bungum, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Common cold misconceptions may contribute to ill-informed decisions and recommendations made by K-12 educators who often encounter infected students. Understanding the structure of educators' misconceptions can be used to improve health instruction in teacher professional preparation programs. Purpose: The purposes of this project were…

  5. Identifying and Teaching against Misconceptions: Six Common Mistakes about the Supreme Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Diana E.

    2006-01-01

    An institution that is commonly taught about in middle and high schools is the U.S. Supreme Court. Many people--adults and young people alike--hold misconceptions about how it works. Interestingly, however, this lack of knowledge does not stop people from having a generally positive opinion of the Court--especially relative to the other two…

  6. Sequence-based introgression mapping identifies candidate white mold tolerance genes in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold disease, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a major pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). More than 20 QTL were reported using multiple bi-parental populations. To study the disease in more detail, advanced back-cross populations seg...

  7. Computational approaches to identify common subunit vaccine candidates against bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Munikumar, Manne; Priyadarshini, I Vani; Pradhan, Dibyabhaba; Umamaheswari, Amineni; Vengamma, Bhuma

    2013-06-01

    Bacterial meningitis, an infection of the membranes (meninges) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounding the brain and spinal cord, is a major cause of death and disability all over the world. From perinatal period to adult, four common organisms responsible for most of the bacterial meningitis are Streptococcus pneumonia, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenza and Staphylococcus aureus. As the disease is caused by more organisms, currently available vaccines for bacterial meningitis are specific and restricted to some of the serogroups or serotypes of each bacterium. In an effort to design common vaccine against bacterial meningitis, proteomes of the four pathogens were compared to extract seven common surface exposed ABC transporter proteins. Pro-Pred server was used to investigate the seven surface exposed proteins for promiscuous T-cell epitopes prediction. Predicted 22 T-cell epitopes were validated through published positive control, SYFPEITHI and immune epitope database to reduce the epitope dataset into seven. T-cell epitope 162-FMILPIFNV-170 of spermidine/putrescine ABC transporter permease (potH) protein was conserved across the four selected pathogens of bacterial meningitis. Hence, structural analysis was extended for epitope 162-FMILPIFNV-170. Crystal structures of HLA-DRB alleles were retrieved and structure of potH was modeled using Prime v3.0 for structural analysis. Computational docking of HLA-DRB alleles and epitope 162-FMILPIFNV-170 of potH was performed using Glide v5.7. RMSD and RMSF of simulation studies were analyzed by Desmond v3.2. The docking and simulation results revealed that the HLA-DRB-epitope complex was stable with interaction repressive function of HLA. Thus, the epitope would be ideal candidate for T-cell driven subunit vaccine design against bacterial meningitis. PMID:23740398

  8. Identifying common genetic variants in blood pressure due to polygenic pleiotropy with associated phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Ole A; McEvoy, Linda K; Thompson, Wesley K; Wang, Yunpeng; Reppe, Sjur; Schork, Andrew J; Zuber, Verena; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Gautvik, Kaare; Aukrust, Pål; Karlsen, Tom H; Djurovic, Srdjan; Desikan, Rahul S; Dale, Anders M

    2014-04-01

    Blood pressure is a critical determinant of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is affected by environmental factors, but has a strong heritable component. Despite recent large genome-wide association studies, few genetic risk factors for blood pressure have been identified. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between blood pressure and several diseases and traits, which may partly arise from a shared genetic basis (genetic pleiotropy). Using genome-wide association studies summary statistics and a genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate method, we systematically investigated genetic overlap between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 12 comorbid traits and diseases. We found significant enrichment of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with SBP as a function of their association with body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, waist/hip ratio, schizophrenia, bone mineral density, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and celiac disease. In contrast, the magnitude of enrichment due to shared polygenic effects was smaller with the other phenotypes (triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, type 2 diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, and height). Applying the conditional false discovery rate method to the enriched phenotypes, we identified 62 loci associated with SBP (false discovery rate <0.01), including 42 novel loci. The observed polygenic overlap between SBP and several related disorders indicates that the epidemiological associations are not mediated solely via lifestyle factors but also reflect an etiologic relation that warrants further investigation. The new gene loci identified implicate novel genetic mechanisms related to lipid biology and the immune system in SBP. PMID:24396023

  9. Identifying common genetic variants in blood pressure due to polygenic pleiotropy with associated phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Andreassen, Ole A.; McEvoy, Linda K.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Wang, Yunpeng; Reppe, Sjur; Schork, Andrew J.; Zuber, Verena; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Gautvik, Kaare; Aukrust, Pål; Karlsen, Tom H.; Djurovic, Srdjan; Desikan, Rahul S.; Dale, Anders M.

    2014-01-01

    Blood pressure is a critical determinant of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is affected by environmental factors, but has a strong heritable component. Despite recent large genome-wide association studies, few genetic risk factors for blood pressure have been identified. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between blood pressure and several diseases and traits, which may partly arise from a shared genetic basis (genetic pleiotropy). Using genome-wide association studies summary statistics and a genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional False Discovery Rate method, we systematically investigated genetic overlap between systolic blood pressure and 12 co-morbid traits and diseases. We found significant ‘enrichment’ of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with systolic blood pressure as a function of their association with body mass index, low density lipoprotein, waist hip ratio, schizophrenia, bone mineral density, type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. In contrast, the magnitude of enrichment due to shared polygenic effects was smaller with the other phenotypes (triglycerides, high density lipoproteins, type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and height). Applying the conditional False Discovery Rate method to the enriched phenotypes, we identified 62 loci associated with systolic blood pressure (False Discovery Rate < 0.01), including 42 novel loci. The observed polygenic overlap between systolic blood pressure and several related disorders indicates that the epidemiological associations are not mediated solely via lifestyle factors, but also reflect an etiological relation that warrants further investigation. The new gene loci identified implicate novel genetic mechanisms related to lipid biology and the immune system in systolic blood pressure. PMID:24396023

  10. There is need for antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests to identify common acute tropical illnesses.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Henry; Suankratay, Chusana

    2007-01-01

    Enteric fever, typhus, leptospirosis, dengue, melioidosis, and tuberculous meningitis present urgent diagnostic problems that require experience and clinical judgment to make early evidence-based management decisions. Basic and applied research dealing with reliable antigen-based diagnostics has been published and confirmed for several of these infections. This should have initiated commercial production but has not. Established international firms see little profit in such diagnostic kits since they would be used in poor countries with little prospects for return of investment capital. We attempt to illustrate this issue, using common causes of acute febrile illnesses in the Southeast Asian region. We believe that rapid diagnostic technology could prevent significant delay in starting appropriate therapy, reduce hospital expenses, and even save lives. PMID:17617848

  11. Identifying Genetic Hotspots by Mapping Molecular Diversity of Widespread Trees: When Commonness Matters.

    PubMed

    Souto, Cintia P; Mathiasen, Paula; Acosta, María Cristina; Quiroga, María Paula; Vidal-Russell, Romina; Echeverría, Cristian; Premoli, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Conservation planning requires setting priorities at the same spatial scale at which decision-making processes are undertaken considering all levels of biodiversity, but current methods for identifying biodiversity hotspots ignore its genetic component. We developed a fine-scale approach based on the definition of genetic hotspots, which have high genetic diversity and unique variants that represent their evolutionary potential and evolutionary novelties. Our hypothesis is that wide-ranging taxa with similar ecological tolerances, yet of phylogenetically independent lineages, have been and currently are shaped by ecological and evolutionary forces that result in geographically concordant genetic patterns. We mapped previously published genetic diversity and unique variants of biparentally inherited markers and chloroplast sequences for 9 species from 188 and 275 populations, respectively, of the 4 woody dominant families of the austral temperate forest, an area considered a biodiversity hotspot. Spatial distribution patterns of genetic polymorphisms differed among taxa according to their ecological tolerances. Eight genetic hotspots were detected and we recommend conservation actions for some in the southern Coastal Range in Chile. Existing spatially explicit genetic data from multiple populations and species can help to identify biodiversity hotspots and guide conservation actions to establish science-based protected areas that will preserve the evolutionary potential of key habitats and species. PMID:26245788

  12. Nine endangered taxa, one recovering ecosystem: Identifying common ground for recovery on Santa Cruz Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Wilken, Dieter H.

    2011-01-01

    It is not uncommon to have several rare and listed taxa occupying habitats in one landscape or management area where conservation amounts to defense against the possibility of further loss. It is uncommon and extremely exciting, however, to have several listed taxa occupying one island that is managed cooperatively for conservation and recovery. On Santa Cruz Island, the largest of the northern California island group in the Santa Barbara Channel, we have a golden opportunity to marry ecological knowledge and institutional "good will" in a field test of holistic rare plant conservation. Here, the last feral livestock have been removed, active weed control is underway, and management is focused on understanding and demonstrating system response to conservation management. Yet funding limitations still exist and we need to plan the most fiscally conservative and marketable approach to rare plant restoration. We still experience the tension between desirable quick results and the ecological pace of system recovery. Therefore, our research has focused on identifying fundamental constraints on species recovery at individual, demographic, habitat, and ecosystem levels, and then developing suites of actions that might be taken across taxa and landscapes. At the same time, we seek a performance middle ground that balances an institutional need for quick demonstration of hands-on positive results with a contrasting approach that allows ecosystem recovery to facilitate species recovery in the long term. We find that constraints vary across breeding systems, life-histories, and island locations. We take a hybrid approach in which we identify several actions that we can take now to enhance population size or habitat occupancy for some taxa by active restoration, while allowing others to recover at the pace of ecosystem change. We make our recommendations on the basis of data we have collected over the last decade, so that management is firmly grounded in ecological observation.

  13. Genome Sequence of Complex HIV-1 Unique Recombinant Forms Sharing a Common Recombination Breakpoint Identified in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Hui Ting; Ng, Kim Tien; Ong, Lai Yee; Takebe, Yutaka; Chan, Kok Gan; Koh, Clayton; Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2015-01-01

    Three strains of HIV-1 unique recombinant forms (URFs) descended from subtypes B, B′, and CRF01_AE were identified among people who inject drugs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. These three URFs shared a common recombination breakpoint in the reverse transcriptase region, indicating frequent linkage within the drug-injecting networks in Malaysia. PMID:26543107

  14. Risk assessment derived from migrants identified in several adhesives commonly used in food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Canellas, E; Vera, P; Nerín, C

    2015-01-01

    Adhesives are used to manufacture multilayer materials, where their components pass through the layers and migrate to the food. Nine different adhesives (acrylic, vinyl and hotmelt) and their migration in 21 laminates for future use as market samples have been evaluated and risk assessment has been carried out. A total of 75 volatiles and non volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Most of the compounds migrated below their specific migration limit (SML), lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and values recommended by Cramer. Six compounds classified as high toxicity class III according to Cramer classification, migrated over their SML and exposure values recommended by Cramer, when they were applied in the full area of the packaging. Nevertheless, these adhesives fulfill the threshold in the real application as they are applied in a small area of the packaging. PMID:25445514

  15. Identifying and attributing common data quality problems: temperature and precipitation observations in Bolivia and Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunziker, Stefan; Gubler, Stefanie; Calle, Juan; Moreno, Isabel; Andrade, Marcos; Velarde, Fernando; Ticona, Laura; Carrasco, Gualberto; Castellón, Yaruska; Oria Rojas, Clara; Brönnimann, Stefan; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Konzelmann, Thomas; Rohrer, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Assessing climatological trends and extreme events requires high-quality data. However, for many regions of the world, observational data of the desired quality is not available. In order to eliminate errors in the data, quality control (QC) should be applied before data analysis. If the data still contains undetected errors and quality problems after QC, a consequence may be misleading and erroneous results. A region which is seriously affected by observational data quality problems is the Central Andes. At the same time, climatological information on ongoing climate change and climate risks are of utmost importance in this area due to its vulnerability to meteorological extreme events and climatic changes. Beside data quality issues, the lack of metadata and the low station network density complicate quality control and assessment, and hence, appropriate application of the data. Errors and data problems may occur at any point of the data generation chain, e.g. due to unsuitable station configuration or siting, poor station maintenance, erroneous instrument reading, or inaccurate data digitalization and post processing. Different measurement conditions in the predominantly conventional station networks in Bolivia and Peru compared to the mostly automated networks e.g. in Europe or Northern America may cause different types of errors. Hence, applying QC methods used on state of the art networks to Bolivian and Peruvian climate observations may not be suitable or sufficient. A comprehensive amount of Bolivian and Peruvian maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation in-situ measurements were analyzed to detect and describe common data quality problems. Furthermore, station visits and reviews of the original documents were done. Some of the errors could be attributed to a specific source. Such information is of great importance for data users, since it allows them to decide for what applications the data still can be used. In ideal cases, it may even allow to

  16. Teaching assistants' performance at identifying common introductory student difficulties in mechanics revealed by the Force Concept Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-06-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been widely used to assess student understanding of introductory mechanics concepts by a variety of educators and physics education researchers. One reason for this extensive use is that many of the items on the FCI have strong distractor choices which correspond to students' alternate conceptions in mechanics. Instruction is unlikely to be effective if instructors do not know the common alternate conceptions of introductory physics students and explicitly take into account students' initial knowledge states in their instructional design. Here, we discuss research involving the FCI to evaluate one aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of teaching assistants (TAs): knowledge of introductory student alternate conceptions in mechanics as revealed by the FCI. For each item on the FCI, the TAs were asked to identify the most common incorrect answer choice of introductory physics students. This exercise was followed by a class discussion with the TAs related to this task, including the importance of knowing student difficulties in teaching and learning. Then, we used FCI pretest and post-test data from a large population (˜900 ) of introductory physics students to assess the extent to which TAs were able to identify alternate conceptions of introductory students related to force and motion. In addition, we carried out think-aloud interviews with graduate students who had more than two semesters of teaching experience in recitations to examine how they reason about the task. We find that while the TAs, on average, performed better than random guessing at identifying introductory students' difficulties with FCI content, they did not identify many common difficulties that introductory physics students have after traditional instruction. We discuss specific alternate conceptions, the extent to which TAs are able to identify them, and results from the think-aloud interviews that provided valuable information about why TAs sometimes

  17. Genome wide association identifies common variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 locus influencing plasma cortisol and corticosteroid binding globulin.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Jennifer L; Hayward, Caroline; Direk, Nese; Lewis, John G; Hammond, Geoffrey L; Hill, Lesley A; Anderson, Anna; Huffman, Jennifer; Wilson, James F; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan; Hastie, Nicholas; Wild, Sarah H; Velders, Fleur P; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G; Kaakinen, Marika; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J; Davey Smith, George; Ring, Susan M; Evans, David M; St Pourcain, Beate; Tanaka, Toshiko; Milaneschi, Yuri; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; van der Harst, Pim; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Bakker, Stephen J L; Verweij, Niek; Dullaart, Robin P F; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Morris, Andrew; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Anderson, Laura N; Pennell, Craig E; Lye, Stephen J; Matthews, Stephen G; Eriksson, Joel; Mellstrom, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes; Price, Jackie F; Strachan, Mark W J; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Tiemeier, Henning; Walker, Brian R

    2014-07-01

    Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30-60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma), and SERPINA1, encoding α1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG). Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136) influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases. PMID:25010111

  18. Genome Wide Association Identifies Common Variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 Locus Influencing Plasma Cortisol and Corticosteroid Binding Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Direk, Nese; Lewis, John G.; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Hill, Lesley A.; Anderson, Anna; Huffman, Jennifer; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan; Hastie, Nicholas; Wild, Sarah H.; Velders, Fleur P.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kaakinen, Marika; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Davey Smith, George; Ring, Susan M.; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Tanaka, Toshiko; Milaneschi, Yuri; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; van der Harst, Pim; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Bakker, Stephen J. L.; Verweij, Niek; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Morris, Andrew; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Anderson, Laura N.; Pennell, Craig E.; Lye, Stephen J.; Matthews, Stephen G.; Eriksson, Joel; Mellstrom, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes; Price, Jackie F.; Strachan, Mark W. J.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Tiemeier, Henning; Walker, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30–60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma), and SERPINA1, encoding α1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG). Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136) influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases. PMID:25010111

  19. A screening method to identify genes commonly overexpressed in carcinomas and the identification of a novel complementary DNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Byrne, J A; Tomasetto, C; Garnier, J M; Rouyer, N; Mattei, M G; Bellocq, J P; Rio, M C; Basset, P

    1995-07-01

    We describe a differential screening method for cDNA libraries which used a combination of subtracted and PCR-amplified cDNA probes, and which can be applied to the selection of genes expressed in multiple tissues. This technique was used to identify genes commonly overexpressed in breast and basal cell carcinomas. These represent stromally dependent, invasive tumors with and without metastatic capacity. Thus, this screening sought to identify genes involved in the early stages of tumor progression. We identified a total of 16 genes, including c-erbB-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 whose products have been implicated in tumorigenesis or invasion. We also identified a novel sequence (D52) showing little homology with others described in any species, which maps to the human chromosomal band 8q21. In situ RNA hybridizations of breast carcinoma sections indicated that the D52 gene was expressed in cancer cells, whereas other genes identified in the differential screening were expressed in fibroblastic or inflammatory cells within the tumor stroma. Thus, the procedure developed in this study selected genes expressed in a diversity of cell types, indicating its potential usefulness in other systems. PMID:7796418

  20. A Pan-Cancer Modular Regulatory Network Analysis to Identify Common and Cancer-Specific Network Components

    PubMed Central

    Knaack, Sara A; Siahpirani, Alireza Fotuhi; Roy, Sushmita

    2014-01-01

    Many human diseases including cancer are the result of perturbations to transcriptional regulatory networks that control context-specific expression of genes. A comparative approach across multiple cancer types is a powerful approach to illuminate the common and specific network features of this family of diseases. Recent efforts from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) have generated large collections of functional genomic data sets for multiple types of cancers. An emerging challenge is to devise computational approaches that systematically compare these genomic data sets across different cancer types that identify common and cancer-specific network components. We present a module- and network-based characterization of transcriptional patterns in six different cancers being studied in TCGA: breast, colon, rectal, kidney, ovarian, and endometrial. Our approach uses a recently developed regulatory network reconstruction algorithm, modular regulatory network learning with per gene information (MERLIN), within a stability selection framework to predict regulators for individual genes and gene modules. Our module-based analysis identifies a common theme of immune system processes in each cancer study, with modules statistically enriched for immune response processes as well as targets of key immune response regulators from the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) families. Comparison of the inferred regulatory networks from each cancer type identified a core regulatory network that included genes involved in chromatin remodeling, cell cycle, and immune response. Regulatory network hubs included genes with known roles in specific cancer types as well as genes with potentially novel roles in different cancer types. Overall, our integrated module and network analysis recapitulated known themes in cancer biology and additionally revealed novel regulatory hubs that suggest a complex interplay of immune response, cell

  1. Preserved Proteins from Extinct Bison latifrons Identified by Tandem Mass Spectrometry; Hydroxylysine Glycosides are a Common Feature of Ancient Collagen.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ryan C; Wither, Matthew J; Nemkov, Travis; Barrett, Alexander; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Hansen, Kirk C

    2015-07-01

    Bone samples from several vertebrates were collected from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, in Snowmass Village, Colorado, and processed for proteomics analysis. The specimens come from Pleistocene megafauna Bison latifrons, dating back ∼ 120,000 years. Proteomics analysis using a simplified sample preparation procedure and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was applied to obtain protein identifications. Several bioinformatics resources were used to obtain peptide identifications based on sequence homology to extant species with annotated genomes. With the exception of soil sample controls, all samples resulted in confident peptide identifications that mapped to type I collagen. In addition, we analyzed a specimen from the extinct B. latifrons that yielded peptide identifications mapping to over 33 bovine proteins. Our analysis resulted in extensive fibrillar collagen sequence coverage, including the identification of posttranslational modifications. Hydroxylysine glucosylgalactosylation, a modification thought to be involved in collagen fiber formation and bone mineralization, was identified for the first time in an ancient protein dataset. Meta-analysis of data from other studies indicates that this modification may be common in well-preserved prehistoric samples. Additional peptide sequences from extracellular matrix (ECM) and non-ECM proteins have also been identified for the first time in ancient tissue samples. These data provide a framework for analyzing ancient protein signatures in well-preserved fossil specimens, while also contributing novel insights into the molecular basis of organic matter preservation. As such, this analysis has unearthed common posttranslational modifications of collagen that may assist in its preservation over time. The data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001827. PMID:25948757

  2. Preserved Proteins from Extinct Bison latifrons Identified by Tandem Mass Spectrometry; Hydroxylysine Glycosides are a Common Feature of Ancient Collagen*

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Ryan C.; Wither, Matthew J.; Nemkov, Travis; Barrett, Alexander; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Hansen, Kirk C.

    2015-01-01

    Bone samples from several vertebrates were collected from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, in Snowmass Village, Colorado, and processed for proteomics analysis. The specimens come from Pleistocene megafauna Bison latifrons, dating back ∼120,000 years. Proteomics analysis using a simplified sample preparation procedure and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was applied to obtain protein identifications. Several bioinformatics resources were used to obtain peptide identifications based on sequence homology to extant species with annotated genomes. With the exception of soil sample controls, all samples resulted in confident peptide identifications that mapped to type I collagen. In addition, we analyzed a specimen from the extinct B. latifrons that yielded peptide identifications mapping to over 33 bovine proteins. Our analysis resulted in extensive fibrillar collagen sequence coverage, including the identification of posttranslational modifications. Hydroxylysine glucosylgalactosylation, a modification thought to be involved in collagen fiber formation and bone mineralization, was identified for the first time in an ancient protein dataset. Meta-analysis of data from other studies indicates that this modification may be common in well-preserved prehistoric samples. Additional peptide sequences from extracellular matrix (ECM) and non-ECM proteins have also been identified for the first time in ancient tissue samples. These data provide a framework for analyzing ancient protein signatures in well-preserved fossil specimens, while also contributing novel insights into the molecular basis of organic matter preservation. As such, this analysis has unearthed common posttranslational modifications of collagen that may assist in its preservation over time. The data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001827. PMID:25948757

  3. A common rejection module (CRM) for acute rejection across multiple organs identifies novel therapeutics for organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Purvesh; Roedder, Silke; Kimura, Naoyuki; De Vusser, Katrien; Morgan, Alexander A.; Gong, Yongquan; Fischbein, Michael P.; Robbins, Robert C.; Naesens, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Using meta-analysis of eight independent transplant datasets (236 graft biopsy samples) from four organs, we identified a common rejection module (CRM) consisting of 11 genes that were significantly overexpressed in acute rejection (AR) across all transplanted organs. The CRM genes could diagnose AR with high specificity and sensitivity in three additional independent cohorts (794 samples). In another two independent cohorts (151 renal transplant biopsies), the CRM genes correlated with the extent of graft injury and predicted future injury to a graft using protocol biopsies. Inferred drug mechanisms from the literature suggested that two FDA-approved drugs (atorvastatin and dasatinib), approved for nontransplant indications, could regulate specific CRM genes and reduce the number of graft-infiltrating cells during AR. We treated mice with HLA-mismatched mouse cardiac transplant with atorvastatin and dasatinib and showed reduction of the CRM genes, significant reduction of graft-infiltrating cells, and extended graft survival. We further validated the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on graft survival by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a single-center cohort of 2,515 renal transplant patients followed for up to 22 yr. In conclusion, we identified a CRM in transplantation that provides new opportunities for diagnosis, drug repositioning, and rational drug design. PMID:24127489

  4. Genome-wide association study identifies three common variants associated with serologic response to vitamin E supplementation in men.

    PubMed

    Major, Jacqueline M; Yu, Kai; Chung, Charles C; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Yeager, Meredith; Wheeler, William; Snyder, Kirk; Wright, Margaret E; Virtamo, Jarmo; Chanock, Stephen; Albanes, Demetrius

    2012-05-01

    Vitamin E inhibits lipid peroxidation in cell membranes, prevents oxidative damage to DNA by scavenging free radicals, and reduces carcinogen production. No study to our knowledge, however, has examined the association between genetic variants and response to long-term vitamin E supplementation. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of common variants associated with circulating α-tocopherol concentrations following 3 y of controlled supplementation. The study population included 2112 middle-aged, male smokers in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort who received a trial supplementation of α-tocopherol (50 mg/d) and had fasting serum α-tocopherol concentrations measured after 3 y. Serum concentrations were log-transformed for statistical analysis and general linear models adjusted for age, BMI, serum total cholesterol, and cancer case status. Associations with serum response to α-tocopherol supplementation achieved genome-wide significance for 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP): rs964184 on 11q23.3 (P = 2.6 × 10(-12)) and rs2108622 on 19pter-p13.11 (P = 2.2 × 10(-7)), and approached genome-wide significance for one SNP, rs7834588 on 8q12.3 (P = 6.2 × 10(-7)). Combined, these SNP explain 3.4% of the residual variance in serum α-tocopherol concentrations during controlled vitamin E supplementation. A GWAS has identified 3 genetic variants at different loci that appear associated with serum concentrations after vitamin E supplementation in men. Identifying genetic variants that influence serum nutrient biochemical status (e.g., α-tocopherol) under supplementation conditions improves our understanding of the biological determinants of these nutritional exposures and their associations with cancer etiology. PMID:22437554

  5. Non-targeted metabolomics identified a common metabolic signature of lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmia (LVTA) in two rat models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingxing; Wang, Dian; Yu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Guohong; Wu, Jiayan; Zhu, Guanghui; Su, Ruibing; Lv, Junyao

    2016-06-21

    Lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmia (LVTA) is the predominant underlying mechanism of sudden cardiac death (SCD). The aim of this study is to characterize the metabolic features of myocardia following LVTA, and identify potential biomarkers to diagnose LVTA. We developed two LVTA rat models induced by aconitine injection or coronary artery ligation, which represent cardiac ion channel disease-related and cardiac ischemia-related SCD, respectively. The myocardial metabolic profile was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics. Twenty-three aconitine-injected and 14 coronary artery ligation-treated rats developed LVTA SCD. A total of 38 differential metabolites of myocardia were identified in aconitine-induced LVTA rats, of which 31 metabolites showed a similar change in coronary artery ligation-related LVTA rats. Fatty acids (stearic, palmitic, linoleic, elaidic, and myristic) and branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) were the most down-regulated metabolites. Furthermore, elevated ADP, phosphate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, threonine, choline and arginine were also observed. Major pathways regarding these dysregulated metabolites post LVTA are energy excessive consumption and deficit, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, cardiac cytotoxicity and membrane injury. Valine, stearic acid and leucine collectively enable a precision of 92.9% to distinguish LVTA from its control, and are correlated with several arrhythmia indices. Our results uncovered a common metabolic feature of LVTA in myocardia in two rat models, which represent cardiac ion channel disease and cardiac ischemia, respectively. l-Valine, l-leucine and stearic acid jointly confer good potential for distinguishing LVTA, which might be potential biomarkers of LVTA-related SCD. PMID:27138062

  6. GeneBrowser 2: an application to explore and identify common biological traits in a set of genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The development of high-throughput laboratory techniques created a demand for computer-assisted result analysis tools. Many of these techniques return lists of genes whose interpretation requires finding relevant biological roles for the problem at hand. The required information is typically available in public databases, and usually, this information must be manually retrieved to complement the analysis. This process is a very time-consuming task that should be automated as much as possible. Results GeneBrowser is a web-based tool that, for a given list of genes, combines data from several public databases with visualisation and analysis methods to help identify the most relevant and common biological characteristics. The functionalities provided include the following: a central point with the most relevant biological information for each inserted gene; a list of the most related papers in PubMed and gene expression studies in ArrayExpress; and an extended approach to functional analysis applied to Gene Ontology, homologies, gene chromosomal localisation and pathways. Conclusions GeneBrowser provides a unique entry point to several visualisation and analysis methods, providing fast and easy analysis of a set of genes. GeneBrowser fills the gap between Web portals that analyse one gene at a time and functional analysis tools that are limited in scope and usually desktop-based. PMID:20663121

  7. Meta-Analysis of 28,141 Individuals Identifies Common Variants within Five New Loci That Influence Uric Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Serena; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Perola, Markus; Mangino, Massimo; Albrecht, Eva; Wallace, Chris; Farrall, Martin; Johansson, Åsa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Aulchenko, Yurii; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Campbell, Harry; Connell, John; Dominiczak, Anna; Homuth, Georg; Lamina, Claudia; McCarthy, Mark I.; Meitinger, Thomas; Mooser, Vincent; Munroe, Patricia; Nauck, Matthias; Peden, John; Prokisch, Holger; Salo, Perttu; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Waterworth, Dawn; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Wright, Alan F.; Adamski, Jerzy; Whitfield, John B.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Pramstaller, Peter; Watkins, Hugh; Doering, Angela; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Spector, Tim D.; Peltonen, Leena; Völzke, Henry; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Vollenweider, Peter; Caulfield, Mark; Illig, Thomas; Gieger, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Elevated serum uric acid levels cause gout and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To investigate the polygenetic basis of serum uric acid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans from 14 studies totalling 28,141 participants of European descent, resulting in identification of 954 SNPs distributed across nine loci that exceeded the threshold of genome-wide significance, five of which are novel. Overall, the common variants associated with serum uric acid levels fall in the following nine regions: SLC2A9 (p = 5.2×10−201), ABCG2 (p = 3.1×10−26), SLC17A1 (p = 3.0×10−14), SLC22A11 (p = 6.7×10−14), SLC22A12 (p = 2.0×10−9), SLC16A9 (p = 1.1×10−8), GCKR (p = 1.4×10−9), LRRC16A (p = 8.5×10−9), and near PDZK1 (p = 2.7×10−9). Identified variants were analyzed for gender differences. We found that the minor allele for rs734553 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in lowering uric acid levels in women and the minor allele of rs2231142 in ABCG2 elevates uric acid levels more strongly in men compared to women. To further characterize the identified variants, we analyzed their association with a panel of metabolites. rs12356193 within SLC16A9 was associated with DL-carnitine (p = 4.0×10−26) and propionyl-L-carnitine (p = 5.0×10−8) concentrations, which in turn were associated with serum UA levels (p = 1.4×10−57 and p = 8.1×10−54, respectively), forming a triangle between SNP, metabolites, and UA levels. Taken together, these associations highlight additional pathways that are important in the regulation of serum uric acid levels and point toward novel potential targets for pharmacological intervention to prevent or treat hyperuricemia. In addition, these findings strongly support the hypothesis that transport proteins are key in regulating serum uric acid levels. PMID:19503597

  8. Short non-coding RNAs as bacteria species identifiers detected by surface plasmon resonance enhanced common path interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greef, Charles; Petropavlovskikh, Viatcheslav; Nilsen, Oyvind; Khattatov, Boris; Plam, Mikhail; Gardner, Patrick; Hall, John

    2008-04-01

    Small non-coding RNA sequences have recently been discovered as unique identifiers of certain bacterial species, raising the possibility that they can be used as highly specific Biowarfare Agent detection markers in automated field deployable integrated detection systems. Because they are present in high abundance they could allow genomic based bacterial species identification without the need for pre-assay amplification. Further, a direct detection method would obviate the need for chemical labeling, enabling a rapid, efficient, high sensitivity mechanism for bacterial detection. Surface Plasmon Resonance enhanced Common Path Interferometry (SPR-CPI) is a potentially market disruptive, high sensitivity dual technology that allows real-time direct multiplex measurement of biomolecule interactions, including small molecules, nucleic acids, proteins, and microbes. SPR-CPI measures differences in phase shift of reflected S and P polarized light under Total Internal Reflection (TIR) conditions at a surface, caused by changes in refractive index induced by biomolecular interactions within the evanescent field at the TIR interface. The measurement is performed on a microarray of discrete 2-dimensional areas functionalized with biomolecule capture reagents, allowing simultaneous measurement of up to 100 separate analytes. The optical beam encompasses the entire microarray, allowing a solid state detector system with no scanning requirement. Output consists of simultaneous voltage measurements proportional to the phase differences resulting from the refractive index changes from each microarray feature, and is automatically processed and displayed graphically or delivered to a decision making algorithm, enabling a fully automatic detection system capable of rapid detection and quantification of small nucleic acids at extremely sensitive levels. Proof-of-concept experiments on model systems and cell culture samples have demonstrated utility of the system, and efforts are in

  9. Identifying Future Sacred Heart Administrators by Examining the Characteristics, Commonalities, and Personal Motivations of Current School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Julie Brill

    2012-01-01

    Since their inception, all schools of the Sacred Heart have been headed by nuns of the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Jesus [RSCJ]. As the years have passed, many RSCJ nuns have aged and retired leaving vacancies that have proven difficult to fill. In this qualitative study, the characteristics, commonalities, and personal motivations of Sacred…

  10. Association scan of 14,500 nsSNPs in four common diseases identifies variants involved in autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    We have genotyped 14,436 nsSNPs and 897 MHC tagSNPs in 1000 independent cases of Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD), Multiple Sclerosis and Breast Cancer. Comparing each of these diseases against a common control set of 1500 unselected healthy British individuals, we report initial association and independent replication of two new loci for AS, ARTS1 and IL23R, and confirmation of the previously reported AITD association with TSHR and FCRL3. These findings, enabled in part by expanding the control reference group with individuals from the other disease groups to increase statistical power, highlight important new possibilities for autoimmune regulation and suggest that IL23R may be a common susceptibility factor for the major ‘seronegative’ diseases. PMID:17952073

  11. Retention Revisited: R=E, Id+E & In, Iv.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Recent research on college student attrition is examined for trends, and it is suggested that the common perspective on retention and attrition is too narrow; it should be viewed from three perspectives: within-course retention; program retention; and institutional retention rate. Recommended for retention (R) is early (E) identification (Id) plus…

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Common Variants Associated with Brachial Circumference: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Boraska, Vesna; Day-Williams, Aaron; Franklin, Christopher S.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Albrecht, Eva; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Bochud, Murielle; Cadby, Gemma; Ernst, Florian; Evans, David M.; Hayward, Caroline; Hicks, Andrew A.; Huffman, Jennifer; Huth, Cornelia; James, Alan L.; Klopp, Norman; Kolcic, Ivana; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Musk, Arthur W.; Pehlic, Marina; Pennell, Craig E.; Perry, John R. B.; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pourcain, Beate St; Ring, Susan M.; Salvi, Erika; Schipf, Sabine; Staessen, Jan A.; Teumer, Alexander; Timpson, Nicholas; Vitart, Veronique; Warrington, Nicole M.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; An, Ping; Anttila, Verneri; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Holmen, Jostein; Ntalla, Ioanna; Palotie, Aarno; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Wedenoja, Juho; Winsvold, Bendik S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Province, Michael A.; Zwart, John-Anker; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Cusi, Daniele; Davey Smith, George; Frayling, Timothy M.; Gieger, Christian; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rudan, Igor; Völzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Wright, Alan F.; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2012-01-01

    Brachial circumference (BC), also known as upper arm or mid arm circumference, can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and fat tissue, which are distributed differently in men and women. Analysis of anthropometric measures of peripheral fat distribution such as BC could help in understanding the complex pathophysiology behind overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic variants associated with BC through a large-scale genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis. We used fixed-effects meta-analysis to synthesise summary results across 14 GWAS discovery and 4 replication cohorts comprising overall 22,376 individuals (12,031 women and 10,345 men) of European ancestry. Individual analyses were carried out for men, women, and combined across sexes using linear regression and an additive genetic model: adjusted for age and adjusted for age and BMI. We prioritised signals for follow-up in two-stages. We did not detect any signals reaching genome-wide significance. The FTO rs9939609 SNP showed nominal evidence for association (p<0.05) in the age-adjusted strata for men and across both sexes. In this first GWAS meta-analysis for BC to date, we have not identified any genome-wide significant signals and do not observe robust association of previously established obesity loci with BC. Large-scale collaborations will be necessary to achieve higher power to detect loci underlying BC. PMID:22479309

  13. The Effects of Small Sample Size on Identifying Polytomous DIF Using the Liu-Agresti Estimator of the Cumulative Common Odds Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Jorge; Skorupski, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of the behavior of the Liu-Agresti estimator of the cumulative common odds ratio when identifying differential item functioning (DIF) with polytomously scored test items using small samples. The Liu-Agresti estimator has been proposed by Penfield and Algina as a promising approach for the study of polytomous DIF but no…

  14. Gene profiling reveals hydrogen sulphide recruits death signaling via the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor identifying commonalities with excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minghui Jessica; Peng, Zhao Feng; Manikandan, Jayapal; Melendez, Alirio J; Tan, Gek San; Chung, Ching Ming; Li, Qiu-Tian; Tan, Theresa M; Deng, Lih Wen; Whiteman, Matthew; Beart, Philip M; Moore, Phillip K; Cheung, Nam Sang

    2011-05-01

    Recently the role of hydrogen sulphide (H(2) S) as a gasotransmitter stimulated wide interest owing to its involvement in Alzheimer's disease and ischemic stroke. Previously we demonstrated the importance of functional ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs) by neurons is critical for H(2) S-mediated dose- and time-dependent injury. Moreover N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists abolished the consequences of H(2) S-induced neuronal death. This study focuses on deciphering the downstream effects activation of NMDAR on H(2) S-mediated neuronal injury by analyzing the time-course of global gene profiling (5, 15, and 24 h) to provide a comprehensive description of the recruitment of NMDAR-mediated signaling. Microarray analyses were performed on RNA from cultured mouse primary cortical neurons treated with 200 µM sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) or NMDA over a time-course of 5-24 h. Data were validated via real-time PCR, western blotting, and global proteomic analysis. A substantial overlap of 1649 genes, accounting for over 80% of NMDA global gene profile present in that of H(2) S and over 50% vice versa, was observed. Within these commonly occurring genes, the percentage of transcriptional consistency at each time-point ranged from 81 to 97%. Gene families involved included those related to cell death, endoplasmic reticulum stress, calcium homeostasis, cell cycle, heat shock proteins, and chaperones. Examination of genes exclusive to H(2) S-mediated injury (43%) revealed extensive dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. These data form a foundation for the development of screening platforms and define targets for intervention in H(2) S neuropathologies where NMDAR-activated signaling cascades played a substantial role. PMID:20945398

  15. A Comprehensive Analysis of Common and Rare Variants to Identify Adiposity Loci in Hispanic Americans: The IRAS Family Study (IRASFS)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chuan; Wang, Nan; Guo, Xiuqing; Ziegler, Julie T.; Taylor, Kent D.; Xiang, Anny H.; Hai, Yang; Kridel, Steven J.; Nadler, Jerry L.; Kandeel, Fouad; Raffel, Leslie J.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Norris, Jill M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Watanabe, Richard M.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Bowden, Donald W.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Palmer, Nicholette D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is growing epidemic affecting 35% of adults in the United States. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci associated with obesity. However, the majority of studies have been completed in Caucasians focusing on total body measures of adiposity. Here we report the results from genome-wide and exome chip association studies focusing on total body measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF) and measures of fat deposition including waist circumference (WAIST), waist-hip ratio (WHR), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in Hispanic Americans (nmax = 1263) from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). Five SNPs from two novel loci attained genome-wide significance (P<5.00x10-8) in IRASFS. A missense SNP in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) was associated with WAIST (rs34218846, MAF = 6.8%, PDOM = 1.62x10-8). This protein is postulated to play an important role in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis as demonstrated in cell and knock-out animal models. Four correlated intronic SNPs in the Zinc finger, GRF-type containing 1 gene (ZGRF1; SNP rs1471880, MAF = 48.1%, PDOM = 1.00x10-8) were strongly associated with WHR. The exact biological function of ZGRF1 and the connection with adiposity remains unclear. SNPs with p-values less than 5.00x10-6 from IRASFS were selected for replication. Meta-analysis was computed across seven independent Hispanic-American cohorts (nmax = 4156) and the strongest signal was rs1471880 (PDOM = 8.38x10-6) in ZGRF1 with WAIST. In conclusion, a genome-wide and exome chip association study was conducted that identified two novel loci (IDH1 and ZGRF1) associated with adiposity. While replication efforts were inconclusive, when taken together with the known biology, IDH1 and ZGRF1 warrant further evaluation. PMID:26599207

  16. Toward a Record Retention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jason

    2007-01-01

    An academic library working group was charged in 2005 to create a records retention schedule and policy applicable to records containing personally identifiable information of library patrons. This group conducted a survey and extensive research, culminating in an adopted library records retention schedule and policy implemented in 2006.

  17. Inhibition of iron-induced lipid peroxidation by newly identified bacterial carotenoids in model gastric conditions: comparison with common carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Sy, Charlotte; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Dufour, Claire; Boutaleb, Malika; Borel, Patrick; Dangles, Olivier

    2013-04-30

    Newly identified spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria, Bacillus indicus HU36 and Bacillus firmus GB1, are sources of carotenoids (mainly 15 yellow and orange pigments and 13 pink pigments, respectively) with original structures. These bacterial carotenoids were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the iron-induced peroxidation of linoleic acid micelles, or sunflower oil-in-water emulsions, in comparison with β-carotene, lycopene and astaxanthin. Lipid peroxidation was carried out in acidic conditions and initiated by dietary heme or non-heme iron (metmyoglobin or Fe(II), respectively) so as to simply simulate the postprandial gastric medium, a possible site for dietary oxidative stress. Lipid hydroperoxide formation and carotenoid consumption were followed by UV-vis spectroscopy and appropriate indicators of the antioxidant activity were estimated in each model. The bacterial carotenoids were found to be better inhibitors of heme-induced lipid peroxidation than the reference carotenoids as a likely consequence of their location closer to the interface in micelles and lipid droplets. However, this trend was not confirmed in lipid peroxidation induced by non-heme iron, possibly because of the redox recycling of Fe(II) by carotenoids. The quantitative kinetic analysis of the peroxidation curves suggests that the carotenoids mainly inhibit the propagation phase of lipid peroxidation by direct scavenging of the lipid peroxyl radicals, in agreement with independent experiments showing that carotenoids are unable to reduce the one-electron oxidized form of metmyoglobin (ferrylmyoglobin), a model of initiating species in heme-induced lipid peroxidation. Overall, carotenoids from Bacillus indicus HU36 and Bacillus firmus GB1 were found to be interesting antioxidants to fight postprandial oxidative stress in the stomach. PMID:23411789

  18. Principals Retention. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Many districts are struggling with the problem of administrator retention. Hoffman (2004) identifies some of the reasons for this: (1) Increased accountability expectations; (2) Diminished or static levels of resources to support reform efforts; (3) Greater administrator vulnerability to sanctions; (4) The complex demands of government and the…

  19. Evaluation of Fluoride Retention Due to Most Commonly Consumed Estuarine Fishes Among Fish Consuming Population of Andhra Pradesh as a Contributing Factor to Dental Fluorosis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ganta, Shravani; Nagaraj, Anup; Pareek, Sonia; Sidiq, Mohsin; Singh, Kushpal; Vishnani, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    Background Fluoride in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. The principal sources of fluoride include water, some species of vegetation, certain edible marine animals, dust and industrial processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride retention of most commonly consumed estuarine fishes among fish consuming population of Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the amount of fluoride retention due to ten most commonly consumed estuarine fishes as a contributing factor to Fluorosis by SPADNS Spectrophotometric method. The presence and severity of dental fluorosis among fish consuming population was recorded using Community Fluorosis Index. Statistical analysis was done using MedCalc v12.2.1.0 software. Results For Sea water fishes, the fluoride levels in bone were maximum in Indian Sardine (4.22 ppm). Amongst the river water fishes, the fluoride levels in bone were maximum in Catla (1.51 ppm). Also, the mean total fluoride concentrations of all the river fishes in skin, muscle and bone were less (0.86 ppm) as compared to the sea water fishes (2.59 ppm). It was unveiled that sea fishes accumulate relatively large amounts of Fluoride as compared to the river water fishes. The mean Community Fluorosis Index was found to be 1.06 amongst a sampled fish consuming population. Evaluation by Community Index for Dental fluorosis (CFI) suggested that fluorosis is of medium public health importance. Conclusion It was analysed that bone tends to accumulate more amount of fluoride followed by muscle and skin which might be due to the increased permeability and chemical trapping of fluoride inside the tissues. The amount of fluoride present in the fishes is directly related to the severity of fluorosis amongst fish consuming population, suggesting fishes as a contributing factor to fluorosis depending upon the dietary consumption. PMID:26266208

  20. Urinary Retention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bladder does not empty completely. A health care provider performs this test during an office visit. The patient often receives ... urodynamic tests to diagnose urinary retention. The health care provider will perform these tests during an office visit. For tests that use ...

  1. Modelling the fate of six common pharmaceuticals in a small stream: quantification of attenuation and retention in different stream-specific environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riml, Joakim; Wörman, Anders; Kunkel, Uwe; Radke, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Detection of pharmaceutical residues in streaming waters is common in urbanized areas. Although the occurrence and source of these micropollutants is known, their behavior in these aquatic ecosystems is still only partly understood. Specifically, quantitative information of biogeochemical processes in stream-specific environments where predominant reactions occur is often missing. In an attempt to address this knowledge gap, we performed simultaneous tracer tests in Säva Brook, Sweden, with bezafibrate, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, metoprolol and naproxen, as well as with the more inert solutes uranine and Rhodamine WT. The breakthrough curves at five successive sampling stations along a 16 km long stream reach were evaluated using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model framework containing surface water transport together with a representation of transient storage in slow/immobile zones of the stream. The multi-tracer experiment opens for decoupling of hydrological and biogeochemical contribution to the fate, and by linking impact and sensitivity analyses to relative significance of model parameters the most important processes for each contaminant were elucidated. Specifically for Säva Brook, the proposed methodology revealed that the pharmaceutical-contaminated stream water remained in the storage zones for times corresponding to 5-25% of the flow time of the stream. Furthermore, the results indicate a great variability in terms of predominant biogeochemical processes between the different contaminants. Rapid reactions occurring in the transient storage zone attenuated both ibuprofen and clofibric acid, and we conclude that a major degradation pathway for these contaminants was biodegradation in the hyporheic zone. In contrast, bezafibrate, metoprolol, and naproxen were mainly affected by sorption both in the storage zone and the main channel, while diclofenac displayed negligible effects of biogeochemical reactions.

  2. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  3. A Repurposing Approach Identifies Off-Patent Drugs with Fungicidal Cryptococcal Activity, a Common Structural Chemotype, and Pharmacological Properties Relevant to the Treatment of Cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Arielle; DiDone, Louis; Koselny, Kristy; Baxter, Bonnie K.; Chabrier-Rosello, Yeissa; Wellington, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    New, more accessible therapies for cryptococcosis represent an unmet clinical need of global importance. We took a repurposing approach to identify previously developed drugs with fungicidal activity toward Cryptococcus neoformans, using a high-throughput screening assay designed to detect drugs that directly kill fungi. From a set of 1,120 off-patent medications and bioactive molecules, we identified 31 drugs/molecules with fungicidal activity, including 15 drugs for which direct antifungal activity had not previously been reported. A significant portion of the drugs are orally bioavailable and cross the blood-brain barrier, features key to the development of a widely applicable anticryptococcal agent. Structural analysis of this set revealed a common chemotype consisting of a hydrophobic moiety linked to a basic amine, features that are common to drugs that cross the blood-brain barrier and access the phagolysosome, two important niches of C. neoformans. Consistent with their fungicidal activity, the set contains eight drugs that are either additive or synergistic in combination with fluconazole. Importantly, we identified two drugs, amiodarone and thioridazine, with activity against intraphagocytic C. neoformans. Finally, the set of drugs is also enriched for molecules that inhibit calmodulin, and we have confirmed that seven drugs directly bind C. neoformans calmodulin, providing a molecular target that may contribute to the mechanism of antifungal activity. Taken together, these studies provide a foundation for the optimization of the antifungal properties of a set of pharmacologically attractive scaffolds for the development of novel anticryptococcal therapies. PMID:23243064

  4. Transcriptome meta-analysis reveals common differential and global gene expression profiles in cystic fibrosis and other respiratory disorders and identifies CFTR regulators.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Luka A; Botelho, Hugo M; Sousa, Lisete; Falcao, Andre O; Amaral, Margarida D

    2015-11-01

    A meta-analysis of 13 independent microarray data sets was performed and gene expression profiles from cystic fibrosis (CF), similar disorders (COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IPF: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, asthma), environmental conditions (smoking, epithelial injury), related cellular processes (epithelial differentiation/regeneration), and non-respiratory "control" conditions (schizophrenia, dieting), were compared. Similarity among differentially expressed (DE) gene lists was assessed using a permutation test, and a clustergram was constructed, identifying common gene markers. Global gene expression values were standardized using a novel approach, revealing that similarities between independent data sets run deeper than shared DE genes. Correlation of gene expression values identified putative gene regulators of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, of potential therapeutic significance. Our study provides a novel perspective on CF epithelial gene expression in the context of other lung disorders and conditions, and highlights the contribution of differentiation/EMT and injury to gene signatures of respiratory disease. PMID:26225835

  5. Uncommon HLA alleles identified by hemizygous ultra-high Sanger sequencing: haplotype associations and reconsideration of their assignment in the Common and Well-Documented catalogue.

    PubMed

    Voorter, Christina E M; Groeneweg, Mathijs; Groeneveld, Lisette; Tilanus, Marcel G J

    2016-02-01

    Although the number of HLA alleles still increases, many of them have been reported being uncommon. This is partly due to lack of full length gene sequencing, especially for those alleles belonging to an allele ambiguity in which the first discovered allele has been assigned as the most frequent one. As members of the working group on Common and Well Documented (CWD) alleles and since we implemented full length group-specific sequencing as standard method routinely, we have investigated the presence of presumably rare alleles in our collection of HLA typing data. We identified 50 alleles, that were not previously encountered as Common or Well Documented. Sixteen of them should be added to the CWD catalogue, since we encountered them in 5 or more unrelated individuals. Another 11 could be added, based upon our results and the data present in the IMGT database and the rare allele section of the allele frequencies database. Furthermore, tight associations were observed between several different alleles even at the level of synonymous and non-coding sequences. In addition, in several cases the uncommon allele was found to be more frequent than its common counterpart. PMID:26610902

  6. Genome-wide Ancestry Association Testing Identifies a Common European Variant on 6q14.1 as a Risk Factor for Asthma in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Torgerson, Dara G.; Capurso, Daniel; Ampleford, Elizabeth J.; Li, Xingnan; Moore, Wendy C.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Hu, Donglei; Eng, Celeste; Mathias, Rasika A.; Busse, William W.; Castro, Mario; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Gaston, Benjamin; Israel, Elliot; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Teague, W. Gerald; Wenzel, Sally E.; Rodríguez-Santana, José R.; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William; Avila, Pedro C.; Ford, Jean G.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic variants that contribute to asthma susceptibility may be present at varying frequencies in different populations, which is an important consideration and advantage for performing genetic association studies in admixed populations. Objective To identify asthma-associated loci in African Americans. Methods We compared local African and European ancestry estimated from dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data in African American adults with asthma and non-asthmatic controls. Allelic tests of association were performed within the candidate regions identified, correcting for local European admixture. Results We identified a significant ancestry association peak on chromosomes 6q. Allelic tests for association within this region identified a SNP (rs1361549) on 6q14.1 that was associated with asthma exclusively in African Americans with local European admixture (OR=2.2). The risk allele is common in Europe (42% in the HapMap CEU) but absent in West Africa (0% in the HapMap YRI), suggesting the allele is present in African Americans due to recent European admixture. We replicated our findings in Puerto Ricans and similarly found that the signal of association is largely specific to individuals who are heterozygous for African and non-African ancestry at 6q14.1. However, we found no evidence for association in European Americans or in Puerto Ricans in the absence of local African ancestry, suggesting that the association with asthma at rs1361549 is due to an environmental or genetic interaction. Conclusion We identified a novel asthma-associated locus that is relevant to admixed populations with African ancestry, and highlight the importance of considering local ancestry in genetic association studies of admixed populations. PMID:22607992

  7. Trans-Ethnic Meta-Analysis Identifies Common and Rare Variants Associated with Hepatocyte Growth Factor Levels in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicholas B.; Berardi, Cecilia; Decker, Paul A.; Wassel, Christina L.; Kirsch, Phillip S.; Pankow, James S.; Sale, Michele M.; de Andrade, Mariza; Sicotte, Hugues; Tang, Weihong; Hanson, Naomi Q.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Taylor, Kent D.; Bielinski, Suzette J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a mesenchyme-derived pleiotropic factor that regulates cell growth, motility, mitogenesis, and morphogenesis in a variety of cells, and increased serum levels of HGF have been linked to a number of clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease phenotypes. However, little is currently known regarding what genetic factors influence HGF levels, despite evidence of substantial genetic contributions to HGF variation. Based upon ethnicity-stratified single-variant association analysis and trans-ethnic meta-analysis of 6201 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we discovered five statistically significant common and low-frequency variants: HGF missense polymorphism rs5745687 (p.E299K) as well as four variants (rs16844364, rs4690098, rs114303452, rs3748034) within or in proximity to HGFAC. We also identified two significant ethnicity-specific gene-level associations (A1BG in African Americans; FASN in Chinese Americans) based upon low-frequency/rare variants, while meta-analysis of gene-level results identified a significant association for HGFAC. However, identified single-variant associations explained modest proportions of the total trait variation and were not significantly associated with coronary artery calcium or coronary heart disease. Our findings indicate genetic factors influencing circulating HGF levels may be complex and ethnically diverse. PMID:25998175

  8. Genome-Wide Gene by Environment Interaction Analysis Identifies Common SNPs at 17q21.2 that Are Associated with Increased Body Mass Index Only among Asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Leyao; Murk, William; DeWan, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Asthmatics have an increased risk of being overweight/obese. Although the underlying mechanisms of this are unclear, genetic factors are believed to play an essential role. To identify common genetic variants that are associated with asthma-related BMI increase, we performed a genome-wide gene by environment (asthma) interaction analysis for the outcome of BMI in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) study (N = 2474 Caucasians, 257 asthmatics), and replicated findings in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) offspring cohort (N = 1408 Caucasians, 382 asthmatics). The replicable tagging SNP, rs2107212, was further examined in stratified analyses. Seven SNPs clustered in 17q21.2 were identified to be associated with higher BMI among asthmatics (interaction p < 5×10−7 in MESA and p < 0.05 in FHS). In both MESA and FHS asthmatics, subjects carrying the A allele on rs2107212 had significantly higher odds of obesity than non-carriers, which was not the case for non-asthmatics. We further examined BMI change subsequent to asthma diagnosis over a period of 26 years in FHS and demonstrated greater BMI increase among asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics. Asthmatics carrying the A allele at rs2107212 had significantly greater net BMI increase over the 26-year period compared to non-asthmatics. In this study, we found that common genetic variants on 17q21.2 are associated with post-asthma BMI increase among Caucasians. This finding will help elucidate pathways involved in the comorbidity of asthma and obesity. PMID:26672748

  9. Managing retention.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2007-01-01

    To build this process it is necessary to consult customers for preferences, build familiarity and knowledge to build a relationship and conduct business in a customized fashion. The process takes every opportunity to build customer satisfaction with each customer contact. It is an important process to have, since customers today are more demanding, sophisticated, educated and comfortable speaking to the company as an equal (Belk, 2003). Customers have more customized expectations so they want to be reached as individuals (Raymond and Tanner, 1994). Also, a disproportionate search for new business is costly. The cost to cultivate new customers is more than maintaining existing customers (Cathcart, 1990). Other reasons that customer retention is necessary is because many unhappy customers will never buy again from a company that dissatisfied them and they will communicate their displeasure to other people. These dissatisfied customers may not even convey their displeasure but without saying anything just stop doing business with that company, which may keep them unaware for some time that there is any problem (Cathcart, 1990). PMID:18453139

  10. A Four-Year Longitudinal Study of the Sustained Effects of Promotion/Retention and Skill-Specific Intervention Relative to Identified Deficiencies on the Performance of Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachal, Janella; Hoffman, Lee McGraw

    One of a series of studies examining Louisiana's compensatory education program, this study investigated four assumptions upon which a skill-specific intervention program was based. Framed as questions, these assumptions are: (1) Is retention effective for students who do not know basic content for a given grade level? (2) When is retention most…

  11. The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor and alpha-L-fucosidase are located near a newly identified common virus integration site, Evi11.

    PubMed Central

    Valk, P J; Hol, S; Vankan, Y; Ihle, J N; Askew, D; Jenkins, N A; Gilbert, D J; Copeland, N G; de Both, N J; Löwenberg, B; Delwel, R

    1997-01-01

    A new common region of virus integration, Evi11, has been identified in two retrovirally induced murine myeloid leukemia cell lines, NFS107 and NFS78. By interspecific backcross analysis, it was shown that Evi11 is located at the distal end of mouse chromosome 4, in a region that shows homology with human 1p36. The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor (Cnr2) and alpha-L-fucosidase (Fuca1) were identified near the integration site by using a novel exon trapping system. Cnr2 is suggested to be the target gene for viral interference in Evi11, since proviruses are integrated in the first intron of Cnr2 and retroviral integrations alter mRNA expression of Cnr2 in NFS107 and NFS78. In addition, proviral integrations were demonstrated within the 3' untranslated region of Cnr2 in five independent newly derived CasBrM-MuLV (mouse murine leukemia virus) tumors, CSL13, CSL14, CSL16, CSL27, and CSL97. The Cnr2 gene encodes a seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor which is normally expressed in hematopoietic tissues. Our data suggest that the peripheral cannabinoid receptor gene might be involved in leukemogenesis as a result of aberrant expression of Cnr2 due to retroviral integration in Evi11. PMID:9261404

  12. Comparison of low molecular weight glutenin subunits identified by SDS-PAGE, 2-DE, MALDI-TOF-MS and PCR in common wheat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) play a crucial role in determining end-use quality of common wheat by influencing the viscoelastic properties of dough. Four different methods - sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, IEF × SDS-PAGE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were used to characterize the LMW-GS composition in 103 cultivars from 12 countries. Results At the Glu-A3 locus, all seven alleles could be reliably identified by 2-DE and PCR. However, the alleles Glu-A3e and Glu-A3d could not be routinely distinguished from Glu-A3f and Glu-A3g, respectively, based on SDS-PAGE, and the allele Glu-A3a could not be differentiated from Glu-A3c by MALDI-TOF-MS. At the Glu-B3 locus, alleles Glu-B3a, Glu-B3b, Glu-B3c, Glu-B3g, Glu-B3h and Glu-B3j could be clearly identified by all four methods, whereas Glu-B3ab, Glu-B3ac, Glu-B3ad could only be identified by the 2-DE method. At the Glu-D3 locus, allelic identification was problematic for the electrophoresis based methods and PCR. MALDI-TOF-MS has the potential to reliably identify the Glu-D3 alleles. Conclusions PCR is the simplest, most accurate, lowest cost, and therefore recommended method for identification of Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 alleles in breeding programs. A combination of methods was required to identify certain alleles, and would be especially useful when characterizing new alleles. A standard set of 30 cultivars for use in future studies was chosen to represent all LMW-GS allelic variants in the collection. Among them, Chinese Spring, Opata 85, Seri 82 and Pavon 76 were recommended as a core set for use in SDS-PAGE gels. Glu-D3c and Glu-D3e are the same allele. Two new alleles, namely, Glu-D3m in cultivar Darius, and Glu-D3n in Fengmai 27, were identified by 2-DE. Utilization of the suggested standard cultivar set, seed of

  13. Plasma proteome profiling of a mouse model of breast cancer identifies a set of up-regulated proteins in common with human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pitteri, Sharon J; Faca, Vitor M; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S; Kasarda, A Erik; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Qing; Newcomb, Lisa; Krasnoselsky, Alexei; Paczesny, Sophie; Choi, Gina; Fitzgibbon, Matthew; McIntosh, Martin W; Kemp, Christopher J; Hanash, Samir M

    2008-04-01

    We have applied an in-depth quantitative proteomic approach, combining isotopic labeling extensive intact protein separation and mass spectrometry, for high confidence identification of protein changes in plasmas from a mouse model of breast cancer. We hypothesized that a wide spectrum of proteins may be up-regulated in plasma with tumor development and that comparisons with proteins expressed in human breast cancer cell lines may identify a subset of up-regulated proteins in common with proteins expressed in breast cancer cell lines that may represent candidate biomarkers for breast cancer. Plasma from PyMT transgenic tumor-bearing mice and matched controls were obtained at two time points during tumor growth. A total of 133 proteins were found to be increased by 1.5-fold or greater at one or both time points. A comparison of this set of proteins with published findings from proteomic analysis of human breast cancer cell lines yielded 49 proteins with increased levels in mouse plasma that were identified in breast cancer cell lines. Pathway analysis comparing the subset of up-regulated proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer cell lines with other up-regulated proteins indicated a cancer related function for the former and a host-response function for the latter. We conclude that integration of proteomic findings from mouse models of breast cancer and from human breast cancer cell lines may help identify a subset of proteins released by breast cancer cells into the circulation and that occur at increased levels in breast cancer. PMID:18311905

  14. An Orientation Course and Community College Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Dustin; Smith, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Orientation and retention programs are common in institutions of higher education. The potential association between orientation programs and student retention, particularly within the community college sector, has long been neglected. This study presents an institutional view of a potential associative relationship between an orientation course…

  15. Screening for phenotype selective activity in multidrug resistant cells identifies a novel tubulin active agent insensitive to common forms of cancer drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug resistance is a common cause of treatment failure in cancer patients and encompasses a multitude of different mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to identify drugs effective on multidrug resistant cells. Methods The RPMI 8226 myeloma cell line and its multidrug resistant subline 8226/Dox40 was screened for cytotoxicity in response to 3,000 chemically diverse compounds using a fluorometric cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). Follow-up profiling was subsequently performed using various cellular and biochemical assays. Results One compound, designated VLX40, demonstrated a higher activity against 8226/Dox40 cells compared to its parental counterpart. VLX40 induced delayed cell death with apoptotic features. Mechanistic exploration was performed using gene expression analysis of drug exposed tumor cells to generate a drug-specific signature. Strong connections to tubulin inhibitors and microtubule cytoskeleton were retrieved. The mechanistic hypothesis of VLX40 acting as a tubulin inhibitor was confirmed by direct measurements of interaction with tubulin polymerization using a biochemical assay and supported by demonstration of G2/M cell cycle arrest. When tested against a broad panel of primary cultures of patient tumor cells (PCPTC) representing different forms of leukemia and solid tumors, VLX40 displayed high activity against both myeloid and lymphoid leukemias in contrast to the reference compound vincristine to which myeloid blast cells are often insensitive. Significant in vivo activity was confirmed in myeloid U-937 cells implanted subcutaneously in mice using the hollow fiber model. Conclusions The results indicate that VLX40 may be a useful prototype for development of novel tubulin active agents that are insensitive to common mechanisms of cancer drug resistance. PMID:23919498

  16. TfoX-Based Genetic Mapping Identifies Vibrio fischeri Strain-Level Differences and Reveals a Common Lineage of Laboratory Strains

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, John F.; Gyllborg, Mattias C.; Kocher, Acadia A.; Markey, Laura E. H.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial strain variation exists in natural populations of bacteria and can be generated experimentally through directed or random mutation. The advent of rapid and cost-efficient whole-genome sequencing has facilitated strain-level genotyping. Even with modern tools, however, it often remains a challenge to map specific traits to individual genetic loci, especially for traits that cannot be selected under culture conditions (e.g., colonization level or pathogenicity). Using a combination of classical and modern approaches, we analyzed strain-level variation in Vibrio fischeri and identified the basis by which some strains lack the ability to utilize glycerol as a carbon source. We proceeded to reconstruct the lineage of the commonly used V. fischeri laboratory strains. Compared to the wild-type ES114 strain, we identify in ES114-L a 9.9-kb deletion with endpoints in tadB2 and glpF; restoration of the missing portion of glpF restores the wild-type phenotype. The widely used strains ESR1, JRM100, and JRM200 contain the same deletion, and ES114-L is likely a previously unrecognized intermediate strain in the construction of many ES114 derivatives. ES114-L does not exhibit a defect in competitive squid colonization but ESR1 does, demonstrating that glycerol utilization is not required for early squid colonization. Our genetic mapping approach capitalizes on the recently discovered chitin-based transformation pathway, which is conserved in the Vibrionaceae; therefore, the specific approach used is likely to be useful for mapping genetic traits in other Vibrio species. PMID:25561715

  17. Fission-product retention in HTGR fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, F.J.; Kania, M.J.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    Retention data for gaseous and metallic fission products are presented for both Triso-coated and Biso-coated HTGR fuel particles. Performance trends are established that relate fission product retention to operating parameters, such as temperature, burnup, and neutron exposure. It is concluded that Biso-coated particles are not adequately retentive of fission gas or metallic cesium, and Triso-coated particles which retain cesium still lose silver. Design implications related to these performance trends are identified and discussed.

  18. Common variants identified in genome-wide association studies of testicular germ cell tumour: an update, biological insights and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Litchfield, K; Shipley, J; Turnbull, C

    2015-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) is the most common cause of cancer in young men (aged 15-45 years) in many populations. Multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of TGCT have now been conducted, yielding over 25 disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)s at 19 independent loci. The genes at these loci have provided rich biological and genetic insight into possible mechanisms underlying testicular germ cell oncogenesis. In this review, we summarize these mechanisms which can be grouped into five distinct categories: KIT/KITLG signalling, other pathways of male germ cell development/differentiation, telomerase function, microtubule assembly and DNA damage repair. The TGCT risk markers identified through GWAS include individual SNPs carrying per allele odds ratios (OR) in excess of 2.5. These ORs are among the highest reported in GWAS of any cancer type, hence suggesting a potential clinical utility in risk determination. Here, we present analysis of such an approach, using polygenic risk scores to calculate the combined effect of all risk loci on overall TGCT risk and discuss how a potential screening strategy may fit within a broader clinical context. PMID:25598472

  19. TF2LncRNA: Identifying Common Transcription Factors for a List of lncRNA Genes from ChIP-Seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qinghua; Wang, Jixuan; Wang, Yadong; Ma, Rui; Wu, Xiaoliang; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput genomic technologies like lncRNA microarray and RNA-Seq often generate a set of lncRNAs of interest, yet little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the set of lncRNA genes. Here, based on ChIP-Seq peak lists of transcription factors (TFs) from ENCODE and annotated human lncRNAs from GENCODE, we developed a web-based interface titled “TF2lncRNA,” where TF peaks from each ChIP-Seq experiment are crossed with the genomic coordinates of a set of input lncRNAs, to identify which TFs present a statistically significant number of binding sites (peaks) within the regulatory region of the input lncRNA genes. The input can be a set of coexpressed lncRNA genes or any other cluster of lncRNA genes. Users can thus infer which TFs are likely to be common transcription regulators of the set of lncRNAs. In addition, users can retrieve all lncRNAs potentially regulated by a specific TF in a specific cell line of interest or retrieve all TFs that have one or more binding sites in the regulatory region of a given lncRNA in the specific cell line. TF2LncRNA is an efficient and easy-to-use web-based tool. PMID:24729968

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study of Absolute QRS Voltage Identifies Common Variants of TBX3 as Genetic Determinants of Left Ventricular Mass in a Healthy Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Motoaki; Kamitsuji, Shigeo; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Tabara, Yasuharu; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) represents a common final pathway leading to heart failure. We have searched for genetic determinants of left ventricular (LV) mass using values for absolute electrocardiographic QRS voltage in a healthy Japanese population. After adjusting for covariates, the corrected S and R wave voltages in leads V1 and V5 from 2,994 healthy volunteers in the Japan Pharmacogenomics Data Science Consortium (JPDSC) database were subjected to a genome-wide association study. Potential associations were validated by an in silico replication study using an independent Japanese population obtained from the Nagahama Prospective Genome Cohort for Comprehensive Human Bioscience. We identified a novel association between the lead V5, R wave voltage in Japanese individuals and SNP rs7301743[G], which maps near the gene encoding T-box transcription factor Tbx3. Meta-analysis of two independent Japanese datasets demonstrated a marginally significant association of SNP rs7301743 in TBX3|MED13L with a 0.071 mV (95% CI, 0.038–0.11 mV) shorter R wave amplitude in the V5 lead per minor allele copy (P = 7.635 x 10−8). The transcriptional repressor, TBX3, is proposed to suppress the development of working ventricular myocardium. Our findings suggest that genetic variation of Tbx3 is associated with LV mass in a healthy Japanese population. PMID:27195777

  1. Demographic clusters identified within the northern Gulf of Mexico common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates) unusual mortality event: January 2010-June 2013.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Garrison, Lance; Litz, Jenny; Fougeres, Erin; Mase, Blair; Rappucci, Gina; Stratton, Elizabeth; Carmichael, Ruth; Odell, Daniel; Shannon, Delphine; Shippee, Steve; Smith, Suzanne; Staggs, Lydia; Tumlin, Mandy; Whitehead, Heidi; Rowles, Teri

    2015-01-01

    A multi-year unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates) was declared in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) with an initial start date of February 2010 and remains ongoing as of August 2014. To examine potential changing characteristics of the UME over time, we compared the number and demographics of dolphin strandings from January 2010 through June 2013 across the entire GoM as well as against baseline (1990-2009) GoM stranding patterns. Years 2010 and 2011 had the highest annual number of stranded dolphins since Louisiana's record began, and 2011 was one of the years with the highest strandings for both Mississippi and Alabama. Statewide, annual numbers of stranded dolphins were not elevated for GoM coasts of Florida or Texas during the UME period. Demographic, spatial, and temporal clusters identified within this UME included increased strandings in northern coastal Louisiana and Mississippi (March-May 2010); Barataria Bay, Louisiana (August 2010-December 2011); Mississippi and Alabama (2011, including a high prevalence and number of stranded perinates); and multiple GoM states during early 2013. While the causes of the GoM UME have not been determined, the location and magnitude of dolphin strandings during and the year following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including the Barataria Bay cluster from August 2010 to December 2011, overlap in time and space with locations that received heavy and prolonged oiling. There are, however, multiple known causes of previous GoM dolphin UMEs, including brevetoxicosis and dolphin morbillivirus. Additionally, increased dolphin strandings occurred in northern Louisiana and Mississippi before the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Identification of spatial, temporal, and demographic clusters within the UME suggest that this mortality event may involve different contributing factors varying by location, time, and bottlenose dolphin populations that will be better discerned

  2. Demographic Clusters Identified within the Northern Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncates) Unusual Mortality Event: January 2010 - June 2013

    PubMed Central

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Garrison, Lance; Litz, Jenny; Fougeres, Erin; Mase, Blair; Rappucci, Gina; Stratton, Elizabeth; Carmichael, Ruth; Odell, Daniel; Shannon, Delphine; Shippee, Steve; Smith, Suzanne; Staggs, Lydia; Tumlin, Mandy; Whitehead, Heidi; Rowles, Teri

    2015-01-01

    A multi-year unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates) was declared in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) with an initial start date of February 2010 and remains ongoing as of August 2014. To examine potential changing characteristics of the UME over time, we compared the number and demographics of dolphin strandings from January 2010 through June 2013 across the entire GoM as well as against baseline (1990-2009) GoM stranding patterns. Years 2010 and 2011 had the highest annual number of stranded dolphins since Louisiana’s record began, and 2011 was one of the years with the highest strandings for both Mississippi and Alabama. Statewide, annual numbers of stranded dolphins were not elevated for GoM coasts of Florida or Texas during the UME period. Demographic, spatial, and temporal clusters identified within this UME included increased strandings in northern coastal Louisiana and Mississippi (March-May 2010); Barataria Bay, Louisiana (August 2010-December 2011); Mississippi and Alabama (2011, including a high prevalence and number of stranded perinates); and multiple GoM states during early 2013. While the causes of the GoM UME have not been determined, the location and magnitude of dolphin strandings during and the year following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including the Barataria Bay cluster from August 2010 to December 2011, overlap in time and space with locations that received heavy and prolonged oiling. There are, however, multiple known causes of previous GoM dolphin UMEs, including brevetoxicosis and dolphin morbillivirus. Additionally, increased dolphin strandings occurred in northern Louisiana and Mississippi before the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Identification of spatial, temporal, and demographic clusters within the UME suggest that this mortality event may involve different contributing factors varying by location, time, and bottlenose dolphin populations that will be better

  3. Grade Retention: What are the Costs and Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eide, Eric R.; Goldhaber, Dan D.

    2005-01-01

    Grade retention is a common practice used when students fail to meet required benchmarks. Therefore, it is important that we understand the relative benefits and costs associated with students repeating a grade. In this article we analyze the costs and benefits of grade retention. In our examination of retention, we obtain our calculations of the…

  4. Medical education and the retention of rural physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Pathman, D E; Konrad, T R; Ricketts, T C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study inquires whether retention in rural practice settings is longer for graduates of public medical schools and community hospital-based residencies, and for those who participated in rural rotations as medical students and residents. These questions are addressed separately for "mainstream" rural physicians and physicians serving in the National Health Service Corps (NHSC). DESIGN. Design is a prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS. Study subjects were 202 primary care physicians who graduated from U.S. allopathic medical schools from 1970-1980, and who in 1981 were working in a nationally representative sample of externally subsidized rural practices. Nearly half were serving in the NHSC. Physicians were first identified in 1981 as part of an earlier study. INTERVENTION. In 1990, study subjects were re-located and sent a follow-up mail survey inquiring about their medical training backgrounds and their careers from the time of graduation until 1990. We examined associations between four features of physicians' medical training and their subsequent retention in rural practice settings. RESULTS. Among those not in the NHSC, rural retention duration did not differ for those from public versus private medical schools, those who trained in community hospitals versus university hospital-based residencies, or for those who completed versus did not complete rural rotations as students or residents. Among NHSC physicians, no retention duration differences were noted for those with rural experiences as students or residents, or for those trained in community hospital residencies. Contrary to common wisdom, public school graduates in the NHSC remained in rural areas for shorter periods than private school graduates. CONCLUSIONS. These findings call into question whether current rural-focused medical education initiatives prepare rural physicians in ways able to influence their retention in rural settings. For purposes of enhancing the rural practice

  5. Neckband retention for lesser snow geese in the western Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Smith, A.E.; Baranyuk, W.; Cooch, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    Neckbands are commonly used in waterfowl studies (especially geese) to identify individuals for determination of movement and behavior and to estimate population parameters. Substantial neckband loss can adversely affect these research objectives and produce biased survival estimates. We used capture, recovery, and observation histories for lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) banded in the western Arctic, 1993-1996, to estimate neckband retention. We found that neckband retention differed between snow goose breeding colonies at Wrangel Island, Russia, and Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Male snow geese had higher neckband loss than females, a pattern similar to that found for Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and lesser snow geese in Alaska. We found that the rate of neckband loss increased with time, suggesting that neckbands are lost as the plastic deteriorates. Survival estimates for geese based on resighting neckbands will be biased unless estimates are corrected for neckband loss. We recommend that neckband loss be estimated using survival estimators that incorporate recaptures, recoveries, and observations of marked birds. Research and management studies using neckbands should be designed to improve neckband retention and to include the assessment of neckband retention.

  6. Targeted next generation sequencing identifies novel mutations in RP1 as a relatively common cause of autosomal recessive rod-cone dystrophy.

    PubMed

    El Shamieh, Said; Boulanger-Scemama, Elise; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Antonio, Aline; Démontant, Vanessa; Condroyer, Christel; Letexier, Mélanie; Saraiva, Jean-Paul; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Sahel, José-Alain; Audo, Isabelle; Zeitz, Christina

    2015-01-01

    We report ophthalmic and genetic findings in families with autosomal recessive rod-cone dystrophy (arRCD) and RP1 mutations. Detailed ophthalmic examination was performed in 242 sporadic and arRCD subjects. Genomic DNA was investigated using our customized next generation sequencing panel targeting up to 123 genes implicated in inherited retinal disorders. Stringent filtering coupled with Sanger sequencing and followed by cosegregation analysis was performed to confirm biallelism and the implication of the most likely disease causing variants. Sequencing identified 9 RP1 mutations in 7 index cases. Eight of the mutations were novel, and all cosegregated with severe arRCD phenotype, found associated with additional macular changes. Among the identified mutations, 4 belong to a region, previously associated with arRCD, and 5 others in a region previously associated with adRCD. Our prevalence studies showed that RP1 mutations account for up to 2.5% of arRCD. These results point out for the necessity of sequencing RP1 when genetically investigating sporadic and arRCD. It further highlights the interest of unbiased sequencing technique, which allows investigating the implication of the same gene in different modes of inheritance. Finally, it reports that different regions of RP1 can also lead to arRCD. PMID:25692139

  7. Genome-wide association study identifies common and low-frequency variants at the AMH gene locus that strongly predict serum AMH levels in males

    PubMed Central

    Perry, John R.B.; McMahon, George; Day, Felix R.; Ring, Susan M; Nelson, Scott M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an essential messenger of sexual differentiation in the foetus and is an emerging biomarker of postnatal reproductive function in females. Due to a paucity of adequately sized studies, the genetic determinants of circulating AMH levels are poorly characterized. In samples from 2815 adolescents aged 15 from the ALSPAC study, we performed the first genome-wide association study of serum AMH levels across a set of ∼9 m ‘1000 Genomes Reference Panel’ imputed genetic variants. Genetic variants at the AMH protein-coding gene showed considerable allelic heterogeneity, with both common variants [rs4807216 (PMale = 2 × 10−49, Beta: ∼0.9 SDs per allele), rs8112524 (PMale = 3 × 10−8, Beta: ∼0.25)] and low-frequency variants [rs2385821 (PMale = 6 × 10−31, Beta: ∼1.2, frequency 3.6%)] independently associated with apparently large effect sizes in males, but not females. For all three SNPs, we highlight mechanistic links to AMH gene function and demonstrate highly significant sex interactions (PHet 0.0003–6.3 × 10−12), culminating in contrasting estimates of trait variance explained (24.5% in males versus 0.8% in females). Using these SNPs as a genetic proxy for AMH levels, we found no evidence in additional datasets to support a biological role for AMH in complex traits and diseases in men. PMID:26604150

  8. Two-stage association study to identify the genetic susceptibility of a novel common variant of rs2075290 in ZPR1 to type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Guan, Fanglin; Niu, Yu; Zhang, Tianxiao; Liu, Songfang; Ma, Lei; Qi, Ting; Feng, Jia; Zuo, Hong; Li, Guohong; Liu, Xufeng; Wang, Shujin

    2016-01-01

    The SNP of rs964184 in ZPR1 has recently been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Japanese individuals. To comprehensively investigate the association of common variants in ZPR1 with T2DM in Han Chinese individuals, we designed a two-stage case-control study of 3,505 T2DM patients and 6,911 unrelated healthy Han Chinese individuals. A total of 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped, and single-SNP association, imputation and gender-specific association analyses were performed. To increase the coverage of genetic markers, we implemented imputation techniques to extend the number of tested makers to 280. A novel SNP, rs2075290, and the previously reported SNP, rs964184, were significantly associated with T2DM in the two independent datasets, and individuals harboring the CC genotype of rs2075290 and GG genotype of rs964184 exhibited higher levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and blood hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) than individuals of other genotypes. Additionally, haplotype analyses indicated that two haplotype blocks containing rs2075290 or rs964184 were also significantly associated with T2DM. In summary, these results suggest that ZPR1 plays an important role in the etiology of T2DM, and this gene might be involved in abnormal glucose metabolism. PMID:27411854

  9. Two-stage association study to identify the genetic susceptibility of a novel common variant of rs2075290 in ZPR1 to type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Fanglin; Niu, Yu; Zhang, Tianxiao; Liu, Songfang; Ma, Lei; Qi, Ting; Feng, Jia; Zuo, Hong; Li, Guohong; Liu, Xufeng; Wang, Shujin

    2016-01-01

    The SNP of rs964184 in ZPR1 has recently been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Japanese individuals. To comprehensively investigate the association of common variants in ZPR1 with T2DM in Han Chinese individuals, we designed a two-stage case-control study of 3,505 T2DM patients and 6,911 unrelated healthy Han Chinese individuals. A total of 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped, and single-SNP association, imputation and gender-specific association analyses were performed. To increase the coverage of genetic markers, we implemented imputation techniques to extend the number of tested makers to 280. A novel SNP, rs2075290, and the previously reported SNP, rs964184, were significantly associated with T2DM in the two independent datasets, and individuals harboring the CC genotype of rs2075290 and GG genotype of rs964184 exhibited higher levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and blood hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) than individuals of other genotypes. Additionally, haplotype analyses indicated that two haplotype blocks containing rs2075290 or rs964184 were also significantly associated with T2DM. In summary, these results suggest that ZPR1 plays an important role in the etiology of T2DM, and this gene might be involved in abnormal glucose metabolism. PMID:27411854

  10. RNA-sequencing of Cercospora beticola DMI-sensitive and -resistant isolates after treatment with tetraconazole identifies common and contrasting pathway induction.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Melvin D; Ebert, Malaika K; Faino, Luigi; Rivera-Varas, Viviana; de Jonge, Ronnie; Van de Peer, Yves; Thomma, Bart P H J; Secor, Gary A

    2016-07-01

    Cercospora beticola causes Cercospora leaf spot of sugar beet. Cercospora leaf spot management measures often include application of the sterol demethylation inhibitor (DMI) class of fungicides. The reliance on DMIs and the consequent selection pressures imposed by their widespread use has led to the emergence of resistance in C. beticola populations. Insight into the molecular basis of tetraconazole resistance may lead to molecular tools to identify DMI-resistant strains for fungicide resistance management programs. Previous work has shown that expression of the gene encoding the DMI target enzyme (CYP51) is generally higher and inducible in DMI-resistant C. beticola field strains. In this study, we extended the molecular basis of DMI resistance in this pathosystem by profiling the transcriptional response of two C. beticola strains contrasting for resistance to tetraconazole. A majority of the genes in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway were induced to similar levels in both strains with the exception of CbCyp51, which was induced several-fold higher in the DMI-resistant strain. In contrast, a secondary metabolite gene cluster was induced in the resistance strain, but repressed in the sensitive strain. Genes encoding proteins with various cell membrane fortification processes were induced in the resistance strain. Site-directed and ectopic mutants of candidate DMI-resistance genes all resulted in significantly higher EC50 values than the wild-type strain, suggesting that the cell wall and/or membrane modified as a result of the transformation process increased resistance to tetraconazole. Taken together, this study identifies important cell membrane components and provides insight into the molecular events underlying DMI resistance in C. beticola. PMID:27112724

  11. Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analyses to Identify Common Genetic Variants Associated with Hallux Valgus in Caucasian and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Liu, Youfang; Hannan, Marian T.; Maixner, William; Smith, Shad B.; Diatchenko, Luda; Golightly, Yvonne M.; Menz, Hylton B.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Doherty, Michael; Wilson, A.G.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hallux valgus (HV) affects ~36% of Caucasian adults. Although considered highly heritable, the underlying genetic determinants are unclear. We conducted the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) aimed to identify genetic variants associated with HV. Methods HV was assessed in 3 Caucasian cohorts (n=2,263, n=915, and n=1,231 participants, respectively). In each cohort, a GWAS was conducted using 2.5M imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Mixed-effect regression with the additive genetic model adjusted for age, sex, weight and within-family correlations was used for both sex-specific and combined analyses. To combine GWAS results across cohorts, fixed-effect inverse-variance meta-analyses were used. Following meta-analyses, top-associated findings were also examined in an African American cohort (n=327). Results The proportion of HV variance explained by genome-wide genotyped SNPs was 50% in men and 48% in women. A higher proportion of genetic determinants of HV was sex-specific. The most significantly associated SNP in men was rs9675316 located on chr17q23-a24 near the AXIN2 gene (p=5.46×10−7); the most significantly associated SNP in women was rs7996797 located on chr13q14.1-q14.2 near the ESD gene (p=7.21×10−7). Genome-wide significant SNP-by-sex interaction was found for SNP rs1563374 located on chr11p15.1 near the MRGPRX3 gene (interaction p-value =4.1×10−9). The association signals diminished when combining men and women. Conclusion Findings suggest that the potential pathophysiological mechanisms of HV are complex and strongly underlined by sex-specific interactions. The identified genetic variants imply contribution of biological pathways observed in osteoarthritis as well as new pathways, influencing skeletal development and inflammation. PMID:26337638

  12. Typewriting: Retention and Relearning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagman, Joseph D.

    Retention and relearning of straight-copy typewriting skill among thirty-eight administrative specialists, 71L Military Occupational Speciality, were examined after the no-practice retention interval between Advanced Individual Training (AIT) graduation and unit duty. Over this interval, average typing speed decreased and errors increased. As a…

  13. Measuring Graduate Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    The conceptual and technical problems that need to be considered when studying graduate student retention and degree progress are examined, and practical suggestions for the institutional researcher are offered. Terms are defined, retention measures are explained, and different types of analysis are outlined. Ideas are given for database…

  14. Systematic analysis of RNAi reports identifies dismal commonality at gene-level & reveals an unprecedented enrichment in pooled shRNA screens

    PubMed Central

    Bhinder, Bhavneet; Djaballah, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has opened promising avenues to better understand gene function. Though many RNAi screens report on the identification of genes, very few, if any, have been further studied and validated. Data discrepancy is emerging as one of RNAi main pitfalls. We reasoned that a systematic analysis of lethality-based screens, since they score for cell death, would examine the extent of hit discordance at inter-screen level. To this end, we developed a methodology for literature mining and overlap analysis of several screens using both siRNA and shRNA flavors, and obtained 64 gene lists censoring an initial list of 7,430 nominated genes. We further performed a comparative analysis first at a global level followed by hit re-assessment under much more stringent conditions. To our surprise, none of the hits overlapped across the board even for PLK1, which emerged as a strong candidate in siRNA screens; but only marginally in the shRNA ones. Furthermore, EIF5B emerges as the most common hit only in the shRNA screens. A highly unusual and unprecedented result was the observation that 5,269 out of 6,664 nominated genes (~80%) in the shRNA screens were exclusive to the pooled format, raising concerns as to the merits of pooled screens which qualify hits based on relative depletions, possibly due to multiple integrations per cell, data deconvolution or inaccuracies in intracellular processing causing off-target effects. Without golden standards in place, we would encourage the community to pay more attention to RNAi screening data analysis practices, bearing in mind that it is combinatorial in nature and one active siRNA duplex or shRNA hairpin per gene does not suffice credible hit nomination. Finally, we also would like to caution interpretation of pooled shRNA screening outcomes. PMID:23848309

  15. Systematic Review of Micro-RNA Expression in Pre-Eclampsia Identifies a Number of Common Pathways Associated with the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Adam M.; Currie, Gemma; Delles, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a complex, multi-systemic condition of pregnancy which greatly impacts maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. MicroRNAs (miRs) are differentially expressed in PE and may be important in helping to understand the condition and its pathogenesis. Methods Case-control studies investigating expression of miRs in PE were collected through a systematic literature search. Data was extracted and compared from 58 studies to identify the most promising miRs associated with PE pathogenesis and identify areas of methodology which could account for often conflicting results. Results Some of the most frequently differentially expressed miRs in PE include miR-210, miR-223 and miR-126/126* which associate strongly with the etiological domains of hypoxia, immunology and angiogenesis. Members of the miR-515 family belonging to the imprinted chromosome 19 miR cluster with putative roles in trophoblast invasion were also found to be differentially expressed. Certain miRs appear to associate with more severe forms of PE such as miR-210 and the immune-related miR-181a and miR-15 families. Patterns of miR expression may help pinpoint key pathways (e.g. IL-6/miR-223/STAT3) and aid in untangling the heterogeneous nature of PE. The detectable presence of many PE-associated miRs in antenatal circulatory samples suggests their usefulness as predictive biomarkers. Further progress in ascertaining the clinical value of miRs and in understanding how they might contribute to pathogenesis is predicated upon resolving current methodological challenges in studies. These include differences in diagnostic criteria, cohort characteristics, sampling technique, RNA isolation and platform-dependent variation in miR profiling. Conclusion Reviewing studies of PE-associated miRs has revealed their potential as informants of underlying target genes and pathways relating to PE pathogenesis. However, the incongruity in results across current studies hampers their

  16. Meta-analysis of rare and common exome chip variants identifies S1PR4 and other loci influencing blood cell traits.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Hematologic measures such as hematocrit and white blood cell (WBC) count are heritable and clinically relevant. We analyzed erythrocyte and WBC phenotypes in 52,531 individuals (37,775 of European ancestry, 11,589 African Americans, and 3,167 Hispanic Americans) from 16 population-based cohorts with Illumina HumanExome BeadChip genotypes. We then performed replication analyses of new discoveries in 18,018 European-American women and 5,261 Han Chinese. We identified and replicated four new erythrocyte trait-locus associations (CEP89, SHROOM3, FADS2, and APOE) and six new WBC loci for neutrophil count (S1PR4), monocyte count (BTBD8, NLRP12, and IL17RA), eosinophil count (IRF1), and total WBC count (MYB). The association of a rare missense variant in S1PR4 supports the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling in leukocyte trafficking and circulating neutrophil counts. Loss-of-function experiments for S1pr4 in mouse and s1pr4 in zebrafish demonstrated phenotypes consistent with the association observed in humans and altered kinetics of neutrophil recruitment and resolution in response to tissue injury. PMID:27399967

  17. Use of Anisotropy, 3D Segmented Atlas, and Computational Analysis to Identify Gray Matter Subcortical Lesions Common to Concussive Injury from Different Sites on the Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Praveen; Kenkel, William; Finklestein, Seth P.; Barchet, Thomas M.; Ren, JingMei; Davenport, Mathew; Shenton, Martha E.; Kikinis, Zora; Nedelman, Mark; Ferris, Craig F.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can occur anywhere along the cortical mantel. While the cortical contusions may be random and disparate in their locations, the clinical outcomes are often similar and difficult to explain. Thus a question that arises is, do concussions at different sites on the cortex affect similar subcortical brain regions? To address this question we used a fluid percussion model to concuss the right caudal or rostral cortices in rats. Five days later, diffusion tensor MRI data were acquired for indices of anisotropy (IA) for use in a novel method of analysis to detect changes in gray matter microarchitecture. IA values from over 20,000 voxels were registered into a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas covering 150 brain areas. Comparisons between left and right hemispheres revealed a small population of subcortical sites with altered IA values. Rostral and caudal concussions were of striking similarity in the impacted subcortical locations, particularly the central nucleus of the amygdala, laterodorsal thalamus, and hippocampal complex. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis of these sites showed significant neuroinflammation. This study presents three significant findings that advance our understanding and evaluation of TBI: 1) the introduction of a new method to identify highly localized disturbances in discrete gray matter, subcortical brain nuclei without postmortem histology, 2) the use of this method to demonstrate that separate injuries to the rostral and caudal cortex produce the same subcortical, disturbances, and 3) the central nucleus of the amygdala, critical in the regulation of emotion, is vulnerable to concussion. PMID:25955025

  18. High density genome wide genotyping-by-sequencing and association identifies common and low frequency SNPs, and novel candidate genes influencing cow milk traits.

    PubMed

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Peters, Sunday O; Akwanji, Kingsley A; Imumorin, Ikhide G; Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies have increased the ability to detect sequence variations for complex trait improvement. A high throughput genome wide genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) method was used to generate 515,787 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from which 76,355 SNPs with call rates >85% and minor allele frequency ≥1.5% were used in genome wide association study (GWAS) of 44 milk traits in 1,246 Canadian Holstein cows. GWAS was accomplished with a mixed linear model procedure implementing the additive and dominant models. A strong signal within the centromeric region of bovine chromosome 14 was associated with test day fat percentage. Several SNPs were associated with eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, CLA:9c11t and gamma linolenic acid. Most of the significant SNPs for 44 traits studied are novel and located in intergenic regions or introns of genes. Novel potential candidate genes for milk traits or mammary gland functions include ERCC6, TONSL, NPAS2, ACER3, ITGB4, GGT6, ACOX3, MECR, ADAM12, ACHE, LRRC14, FUK, NPRL3, EVL, SLCO3A1, PSMA4, FTO, ADCK5, PP1R16A and TEP1. Our study further demonstrates the utility of the GBS approach for identifying population-specific SNPs for use in improvement of complex dairy traits. PMID:27506634

  19. High density genome wide genotyping-by-sequencing and association identifies common and low frequency SNPs, and novel candidate genes influencing cow milk traits

    PubMed Central

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M.; Peters, Sunday O.; Akwanji, Kingsley A.; Imumorin, Ikhide G.; Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies have increased the ability to detect sequence variations for complex trait improvement. A high throughput genome wide genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) method was used to generate 515,787 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from which 76,355 SNPs with call rates >85% and minor allele frequency ≥1.5% were used in genome wide association study (GWAS) of 44 milk traits in 1,246 Canadian Holstein cows. GWAS was accomplished with a mixed linear model procedure implementing the additive and dominant models. A strong signal within the centromeric region of bovine chromosome 14 was associated with test day fat percentage. Several SNPs were associated with eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, CLA:9c11t and gamma linolenic acid. Most of the significant SNPs for 44 traits studied are novel and located in intergenic regions or introns of genes. Novel potential candidate genes for milk traits or mammary gland functions include ERCC6, TONSL, NPAS2, ACER3, ITGB4, GGT6, ACOX3, MECR, ADAM12, ACHE, LRRC14, FUK, NPRL3, EVL, SLCO3A1, PSMA4, FTO, ADCK5, PP1R16A and TEP1. Our study further demonstrates the utility of the GBS approach for identifying population-specific SNPs for use in improvement of complex dairy traits. PMID:27506634

  20. One-Class Support Vector Machines Identify the Language and Default Mode Regions As Common Patterns of Structural Alterations in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Retico, Alessandra; Gori, Ilaria; Giuliano, Alessia; Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The identification of reliable brain endophenotypes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been hampered to date by the heterogeneity in the neuroanatomical abnormalities detected in this condition. To handle the complexity of neuroimaging data and to convert brain images in informative biomarkers of pathology, multivariate analysis techniques based on Support Vector Machines (SVM) have been widely used in several disease conditions. They are usually trained to distinguish patients from healthy control subjects by making a binary classification. Here, we propose the use of the One-Class Classification (OCC) or Data Description method that, in contrast to two-class classification, is based on a description of one class of objects only. This approach, by defining a multivariate normative rule on one class of subjects, allows recognizing examples from a different category as outliers. We applied the OCC to 314 regional features extracted from brain structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of young children with ASD (21 males and 20 females) and control subjects (20 males and 20 females), matched on age [range: 22-72 months of age; mean = 49 months] and non-verbal intelligence quotient (NVIQ) [range: 31-123; mean = 73]. We demonstrated that a common pattern of features characterize the ASD population. The OCC SVM trained on the group of ASD subjects showed the following performances in the ASD vs. controls separation: the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.74 for the male and 0.68 for the female population, respectively. Notably, the ASD vs. controls discrimination results were maximized when evaluated on the subsamples of subjects with NVIQ ≥ 70, leading to AUC = 0.81 for the male and AUC = 0.72 for the female populations, respectively. Language regions and regions from the default mode network-posterior cingulate cortex, pars opercularis and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, and transverse temporal gyrus

  1. One-Class Support Vector Machines Identify the Language and Default Mode Regions As Common Patterns of Structural Alterations in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Retico, Alessandra; Gori, Ilaria; Giuliano, Alessia; Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The identification of reliable brain endophenotypes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been hampered to date by the heterogeneity in the neuroanatomical abnormalities detected in this condition. To handle the complexity of neuroimaging data and to convert brain images in informative biomarkers of pathology, multivariate analysis techniques based on Support Vector Machines (SVM) have been widely used in several disease conditions. They are usually trained to distinguish patients from healthy control subjects by making a binary classification. Here, we propose the use of the One-Class Classification (OCC) or Data Description method that, in contrast to two-class classification, is based on a description of one class of objects only. This approach, by defining a multivariate normative rule on one class of subjects, allows recognizing examples from a different category as outliers. We applied the OCC to 314 regional features extracted from brain structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of young children with ASD (21 males and 20 females) and control subjects (20 males and 20 females), matched on age [range: 22–72 months of age; mean = 49 months] and non-verbal intelligence quotient (NVIQ) [range: 31–123; mean = 73]. We demonstrated that a common pattern of features characterize the ASD population. The OCC SVM trained on the group of ASD subjects showed the following performances in the ASD vs. controls separation: the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.74 for the male and 0.68 for the female population, respectively. Notably, the ASD vs. controls discrimination results were maximized when evaluated on the subsamples of subjects with NVIQ ≥ 70, leading to AUC = 0.81 for the male and AUC = 0.72 for the female populations, respectively. Language regions and regions from the default mode network—posterior cingulate cortex, pars opercularis and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, and transverse temporal

  2. Identifying common and specific microRNAs expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cell of type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Regardless the regulatory function of microRNAs (miRNA), their differential expression pattern has been used to define miRNA signatures and to disclose disease biomarkers. To address the question of whether patients presenting the different types of diabetes mellitus could be distinguished on the basis of their miRNA and mRNA expression profiling, we obtained peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) RNAs from 7 type 1 (T1D), 7 type 2 (T2D), and 6 gestational diabetes (GDM) patients, which were hybridized to Agilent miRNA and mRNA microarrays. Data quantification and quality control were obtained using the Feature Extraction software, and data distribution was normalized using quantile function implemented in the Aroma light package. Differentially expressed miRNAs/mRNAs were identified using Rank products, comparing T1DxGDM, T2DxGDM and T1DxT2D. Hierarchical clustering was performed using the average linkage criterion with Pearson uncentered distance as metrics. Results The use of the same microarrays platform permitted the identification of sets of shared or specific miRNAs/mRNA interaction for each type of diabetes. Nine miRNAs (hsa-miR-126, hsa-miR-1307, hsa-miR-142-3p, hsa-miR-142-5p, hsa-miR-144, hsa-miR-199a-5p, hsa-miR-27a, hsa-miR-29b, and hsa-miR-342-3p) were shared among T1D, T2D and GDM, and additional specific miRNAs were identified for T1D (20 miRNAs), T2D (14) and GDM (19) patients. ROC curves allowed the identification of specific and relevant (greater AUC values) miRNAs for each type of diabetes, including: i) hsa-miR-1274a, hsa-miR-1274b and hsa-let-7f for T1D; ii) hsa-miR-222, hsa-miR-30e and hsa-miR-140-3p for T2D, and iii) hsa-miR-181a and hsa-miR-1268 for GDM. Many of these miRNAs targeted mRNAs associated with diabetes pathogenesis. Conclusions These results indicate that PBMC can be used as reporter cells to characterize the miRNA expression profiling disclosed by the different diabetes mellitus manifestations. Shared miRNAs may

  3. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common susceptibility polymorphisms for colorectal and endometrial cancer near SH2B3 and TSHZ1

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Timothy HT; Thompson, Deborah; Painter, Jodie; O’Mara, Tracy; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Palles, Claire; Jones, Angela; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Ko Win, Aung; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Giles, Graham G; Pharoah, Paul; Peto, Julian; Cox, Angela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Couch, Fergus; Cunningham, Julie M; Goode, Ellen L; Winham, Stacey J; Lambrechts, Diether; Fasching, Peter; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Salvesen, Helga B.; Kristensen, Vessela; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Tao; Lindblom, Annika; Hall, Per; de Polanco, Magdalena Echeverry; Sans, Monica; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Aguiar Jnr, Samuel; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Dunning, Alison M; Dennis, Joe; Otton, Geoffrey; Proietto, Tony; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Ashton, Katie; Scott, Rodney J; McEvoy, Mark; Dowdy, Sean C; Fridley, Brooke L; Werner, Henrica MJ; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Tham, Emma; Mints, Miriam; Runnebaum, Ingo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Amant, Frederic; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif; Czene, Kamila; Meindl, Alfons; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wang, Qin; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Shah, Mitul; Annibali, Daniela; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Al-Tassan, Nada A.; Harris, Rebecca; Meyer, Brian F.; Whiffin, Nicola; Hosking, Fay J; Kinnersley, Ben; Farrington, Susan M.; Timofeeva, Maria; Tenesa, Albert; Campbell, Harry; Haile, Robert W.; Hodgson, Shirley; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Cheadle, Jeremy P.; Easton, Douglas; Dunlop, Malcolm; Houlston, Richard; Spurdle, Amanda; Tomlinson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    High-risk mutations in several genes predispose to both colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC). We therefore hypothesised that some lower-risk genetic variants might also predispose to both CRC and EC. Using CRC and EC genome-wide association series, totalling 13,265 cancer cases and 40,245 controls, we found that the protective allele [G] at one previously-identified CRC polymorphism, rs2736100 near TERT, was associated with EC risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, P = 0.000167); this polymorphism influences the risk of several other cancers. A further CRC polymorphism near TERC also showed evidence of association with EC (OR = 0.92; P = 0.03). Overall, however, there was no good evidence that the set of CRC polymorphisms was associated with EC risk, and neither of two previously-reported EC polymorphisms was associated with CRC risk. A combined analysis revealed one genome-wide significant polymorphism, rs3184504, on chromosome 12q24 (OR = 1.10, P = 7.23 × 10−9) with shared effects on CRC and EC risk. This polymorphism, a missense variant in the gene SH2B3, is also associated with haematological and autoimmune disorders, suggesting that it influences cancer risk through the immune response. Another polymorphism, rs12970291 near gene TSHZ1, was associated with both CRC and EC (OR = 1.26, P = 4.82 × 10−8), with the alleles showing opposite effects on the risks of the two cancers. PMID:26621817

  4. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common susceptibility polymorphisms for colorectal and endometrial cancer near SH2B3 and TSHZ1.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Timothy H T; Thompson, Deborah; Painter, Jodie; O'Mara, Tracy; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Palles, Claire; Jones, Angela; Buchanan, Daniel D; Ko Win, Aung; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Giles, Graham G; Pharoah, Paul; Peto, Julian; Cox, Angela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Couch, Fergus; Cunningham, Julie M; Goode, Ellen L; Winham, Stacey J; Lambrechts, Diether; Fasching, Peter; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Salvesen, Helga B; Kristensen, Vessela; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Tao; Lindblom, Annika; Hall, Per; de Polanco, Magdalena Echeverry; Sans, Monica; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Aguiar Jnr, Samuel; Teixeira, Manuel R; Dunning, Alison M; Dennis, Joe; Otton, Geoffrey; Proietto, Tony; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Ashton, Katie; Scott, Rodney J; McEvoy, Mark; Dowdy, Sean C; Fridley, Brooke L; Werner, Henrica M J; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Tham, Emma; Mints, Miriam; Runnebaum, Ingo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Amant, Frederic; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif; Czene, Kamila; Meindl, Alfons; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wang, Qin; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Shah, Mitul; Annibali, Daniela; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Al-Tassan, Nada A; Harris, Rebecca; Meyer, Brian F; Whiffin, Nicola; Hosking, Fay J; Kinnersley, Ben; Farrington, Susan M; Timofeeva, Maria; Tenesa, Albert; Campbell, Harry; Haile, Robert W; Hodgson, Shirley; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Cheadle, Jeremy P; Easton, Douglas; Dunlop, Malcolm; Houlston, Richard; Spurdle, Amanda; Tomlinson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    High-risk mutations in several genes predispose to both colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC). We therefore hypothesised that some lower-risk genetic variants might also predispose to both CRC and EC. Using CRC and EC genome-wide association series, totalling 13,265 cancer cases and 40,245 controls, we found that the protective allele [G] at one previously-identified CRC polymorphism, rs2736100 near TERT, was associated with EC risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, P = 0.000167); this polymorphism influences the risk of several other cancers. A further CRC polymorphism near TERC also showed evidence of association with EC (OR = 0.92; P = 0.03). Overall, however, there was no good evidence that the set of CRC polymorphisms was associated with EC risk, and neither of two previously-reported EC polymorphisms was associated with CRC risk. A combined analysis revealed one genome-wide significant polymorphism, rs3184504, on chromosome 12q24 (OR = 1.10, P = 7.23 × 10(-9)) with shared effects on CRC and EC risk. This polymorphism, a missense variant in the gene SH2B3, is also associated with haematological and autoimmune disorders, suggesting that it influences cancer risk through the immune response. Another polymorphism, rs12970291 near gene TSHZ1, was associated with both CRC and EC (OR = 1.26, P = 4.82 × 10(-8)), with the alleles showing opposite effects on the risks of the two cancers. PMID:26621817

  5. Retention Initiatives Used by Professional Bachelor's Athletic Training Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Retaining athletic training students has been identified as problematic by approximately half of athletic training program (ATP) directors. It is unknown what ATP directors do to improve athletic training student retention. Objective: To identify initiatives that ATP directors use to improve the retention rates of athletic training…

  6. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  7. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  8. [Chronic monstrous urine retention].

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Frederik Gustav; Holm, Mette Lind

    2015-01-26

    A 75-year-old male was diagnosed with renal mass at a computed tomography during an examination for extended abdominal girth. A large mesenterical cyst was also detected. The patient had infrequent voiding, which he had trained over many years as a taxi driver. A basic physical examination led to suspect urinary retention. His creatinine level was normal and he had no hydronephrosis. A renography showed equal function, but prolonged bilateral outflow. The volume extracted by urethral catheter passed 15 l. Absence of hydronephrosis and normal S-creatinine level has not been described in chronic urinary retention of this extent. Hydronephrosis is seen, but in much smaller volume of retention. Infrequent voiding is easily diagnosed. Urinary retention should be suspected when finding median cystic processes. PMID:25612956

  9. Retention in Tough Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Beverly; Jordan-Evans, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 25 global talent leaders discuss keeping good people and the challenges and emerging practices for retaining employees. Sidebars discuss retention tips and what keeps people on the job. (JOW)

  10. Recruitment and Retention with a Spin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Rita; Hixson, Carla Braun

    2010-01-01

    Strategic planning and innovation at Bismarck State College (BSC) found common ground in the college's goal to recruit and retain employees in an environment of low unemployment and strong competition for skilled employees. BSC's strategic plan for 2007-09 included the objective "to increase retention of employees." One of the strategies connected…

  11. Retention Indices for Frequently Reported Compounds of Plant Essential Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babushok, V. I.; Linstrom, P. J.; Zenkevich, I. G.

    2011-12-01

    Gas chromatographic retention indices were evaluated for 505 frequently reported plant essential oil components using a large retention index database. Retention data are presented for three types of commonly used stationary phases: dimethyl silicone (nonpolar), dimethyl silicone with 5% phenyl groups (slightly polar), and polyethylene glycol (polar) stationary phases. The evaluations are based on the treatment of multiple measurements with the number of data records ranging from about 5 to 800 per compound. Data analysis was limited to temperature programmed conditions. The data reported include the average and median values of retention index with standard deviations and confidence intervals.

  12. Predictors of retention in treatment in a tertiary care de-addiction center

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Pradipta; Sarkar, Siddharth; Gupta, Rishab; Patra, Bichitra Nanda; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Context: Retention in treatment can improve the outcomes of patients with substance use disorders. Aims: This study aimed to assess the predictors of treatment retention in a set of patients admitted with substance use disorders. Setting and Design: This record-based study was conducted among consecutive patients discharged from the inpatient unit of a tertiary care de-addiction facility in Northern India. Materials and Methods: Patients were classified as being retained in treatment or drop-outs based on follow-up records. Statistical Analysis: Those who were retained and those who dropped out were compared using appropriate parametric and nonparametric tests. Logistic regression was used to find out the predictors of retention in treatment. Results: A total of 88 case records were evaluated. All subjects were males and majority of the sample was married, educated up to 10th grade, employed, belonged to the nuclear family and urban background. Opioid dependence syndrome (96.6%) was the most common substance use disorder identified. Guilt feelings, general weakness of body, and loss of social respect were the most common substance-related complications experienced. Of the total sample, 40 (45.4%) were classified as retained into treatment. Higher socioeconomic status and having a family member with substance use was associated with higher chances of treatment retention. Conclusion: Identification of patient characteristics predicting drop-outs can help in targeting those individuals at higher risk. This can help in more favorable patient outcomes. PMID:26985101

  13. Clinic Network Collaboration and Patient Tracing to Maximize Retention in HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, James H.; Moore, Richard; Eu, Beng; Tee, Ban-Kiem; Chen, Marcus; El-Hayek, Carol; Street, Alan; Woolley, Ian; Buggie, Andrew; Collins, Danielle; Medland, Nicholas; Hoy, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding retention and loss to follow up in HIV care, in particular the number of people with unknown outcomes, is critical to maximise the benefits of antiretroviral therapy. Individual-level data are not available for these outcomes in Australia, which has an HIV epidemic predominantly focused amongst men who have sex with men. Methods and Findings A network of the 6 main HIV clinical care sites was established in the state of Victoria, Australia. Individuals who had accessed care at these sites between February 2011 and June 2013 as assessed by HIV viral load testing but not accessed care between June 2013 and February 2014 were considered individuals with potentially unknown outcomes. For this group an intervention combining cross-referencing of clinical data between sites and phone tracing individuals with unknown outcomes was performed. 4966 people were in care in the network and before the intervention estimates of retention ranged from 85.9%–95.8% and the proportion with unknown outcomes ranged from 1.3-5.5%. After the intervention retention increased to 91.4–98.8% and unknown outcomes decreased to 0.1–2.4% (p<.01 for all sites for both outcomes). Most common reasons for disengagement from care were being too busy to attend or feeling well. For those with unknown outcomes prior to the intervention documented active psychiatric illness at last visit was associated with not re-entering care (p = 0.04) Conclusions The network demonstrated low numbers of people with unknown outcomes and high levels of retention in care. Increased levels of retention in care and reductions in unknown outcomes identified after the intervention largely reflected confirmation of clinic transfers while a smaller number were successfully re-engaged in care. Factors associated with disengagement from care were identified. Systems to monitor patient retention, care transfer and minimize disengagement will maximise individual and population-level outcomes for

  14. Common Space, Common Time, Common Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Melody J.

    2005-01-01

    The most valued means of support and learning cited by new teachers at Poland Regional High School in rural Maine are the collegial interactions that common workspace, common planning time, and common tasks make possible. The school has used these everyday structures to enable new and veteran teachers to converse about curricular and pedagogical…

  15. [Retention of adhesive bridges].

    PubMed

    Raes, F; De Boever, J

    1994-04-01

    Since the development of adhesive bridges in the early seventies, the retention and therefore the durability of these bridges has been tremendously improved. Conditioning of the non-precious metal by silanisation, careful acid etching of the enamel and the use of the appropriate composite resin are of prime importance. Furthermore, the meticulous preparation with enough interproximal embrace, occlusal rests, interocclusal clearance and cingulum stops is equally important. Including more teeth in the design does not necessarily lead to an improved retention. Besides the material and technical aspects, the whole clinical procedure needs much attention. The retention does not depend on one single factor, but on the precision of all the necessary clinical steps and on a well-defined selection of the material. In this way a five-year survival rate of close to 80% can be obtained. PMID:11830965

  16. Retention behavior of common mono- and divalent cations on calcinated silica gel columns in ion chromatography with conductimetric detection and the use of nitric acid, containing crown ethers, as eluents.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Kusumoto, Keiji; Takao, Yasumasa; Towata, Atsuya; Kawakami, Shoji; Murase, Yoshio; Ohashi, Masayoshi

    2002-05-17

    Ion chromatographic behavior of common mono- and divalent cations (Li+, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) on columns packed with silica gels (Super Micro Bead Silica Gel B-5, SMBSG B-5) calcinated at 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 degrees C for 5 h was investigated using nitric acid containing crown ethers [18-crown-6 (1,4,7,10,13,15-hexaoxacyclooctadecane) and 15-crown-5 (1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclopentadecane)] as eluent. When using 0.5 mM HNO3 as the eluent, the calcination had almost no effect on the improvement of peak resolution between these mono- and divalent cations. In contrast, when using 0.5 mM HNO3 containing crown ethers as the eluent, with increasing the calcinating temperature, the amount of crown ethers adsorbed on the corresponding calcinated SMBSG B-5 silica gels columns increased and, as a consequence, peak resolution between these mono- and divalent cations was quite improved. Excellent simultaneous separation of these mono- and divalent cations was achieved on column (150x4.6 mm I.D.) packed with the SMBSG B-5 silica gel calcinated at 1000 degrees C by elution with 0.5 mM HNO3 containing either 1.0 mM 18-crown-6 or 5.0 mM 15-crown-5. PMID:12108647

  17. Surface retention capacity calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Vaclav; Dostal, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Flood wave transformation in the floodplain is the phenomenon which is researched within interdisciplinary project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase. The project focuses on broad range of floodplain ecosystem services and mitigation of flooding is one of them. Despite main influence on flood wave transformation is due to flow retardation, retention in surface depressions within floodplain has been analyzed to get better overview of whole transformation process. Detail digital relief model (DRM) has been used for given purposes to be able to analyze terrain depressions volumes. The model was developed with use of stereophotogrammetric evaluation of airborne images with high resolution of 10 cm. It was essential for purposes of presented analysis not to apply pit removal routines which are often used for generation of DRM for hydrological modelling purposes. First, the methodology of analysis was prepared and tested on artificial surface. This surface was created using random raster generation, filtration and resampling with final resolution of 1000 x 1000 units and height of maximum 10 units above datum. The methodology itself is based on analysis of areas inundated by water at different elevation levels. Volume is than calculated for each depression using extraction of terrain elevations under corresponding water level. The method was then applied on the area of Lužnice River floodplain section to assess retention capacity of real floodplain. The floodplain had to be cut into sections perpendicular to main river orientation for analyses as the method was tested for square shaped area without any significant inclination. Results obtained by mentioned analysis are presented in this paper. Acknowledgement Presented research was accomplished within national project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase, nr. QH82078. The project is funded by Ministry of Agriculture of

  18. Keeping Students in Higher Education: Successful Practices & Strategies for Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, David; Najor-Durack, Anwar; Dumbrigue, Cecille

    This book explores the issues related to dropouts from higher education and presents a guide to identifying problems and developing practical solutions to the problems of retaining students. The chapters of part 1, The Challenge of Retention, are: (1) Keeping Students in Higher Education: A Pathway for Retention; and (2) A Student-Centered…

  19. Retention in Special Education Teachers in Georgia: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Arndra N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was to identify and examine factors influencing the retention rate of special education teachers in rural and urban schools in middle Georgia. Provided in this study are factors that are related to retention in special education teachers. Semistructured interviews were used to…

  20. Retention-Attrition in the Nineties. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawer, Florence B.

    Concern about retention and attrition rates in higher education have increased over the years and efforts to identify and treat potential dropouts have grown considerably. Studies investigating the retention and attrition of community college students have found specific characteristics related to outcomes, including full- or part-time attendance,…

  1. Mechanistic failure mode investigation and resolution of parvovirus retentive filters.

    PubMed

    LaCasse, Daniel; Lute, Scott; Fiadeiro, Marcus; Basha, Jonida; Stork, Matthew; Brorson, Kurt; Godavarti, Ranga; Gallo, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Virus retentive filters are a key product safety measure for biopharmaceuticals. A simplistic perception is that they function solely based on a size-based particle removal mechanism of mechanical sieving and retention of particles based on their hydrodynamic size. Recent observations have revealed a more nuanced picture, indicating that changes in viral particle retention can result from process pressure and/or flow interruptions. In this study, a mechanistic investigation was performed to help identify a potential mechanism leading to the reported reduced particle retention in small virus filters. Permeate flow rate or permeate driving force were varied and analyzed for their impact on particle retention in three commercially available small virus retentive filters. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:959-970, 2016. PMID:27160325

  2. Student Retention in an Historically Black Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Cleve; Graham, Steven W.

    This study developed a statistical model to identify college students most prone to dropping out, testing the model to predict the retention status of black residential and white commuter students at an historically black institution with an open admissions policy. The model used 25 pre- and early-matriculation variables, including gender, age,…

  3. Seed Implant Retention Score Predicts the Risk of Prolonged Urinary Retention After Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoon K.; Adams, Marc T.; Shi, Qiuhu; Basillote, Jay; LaMonica, Joanne; Miranda, Luis; Motta, Joseph

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To risk-stratify patients for urinary retention after prostate brachytherapy according to a novel seed implant retention score (SIRS). Patients and Methods: A total of 835 patients underwent transperineal prostate seed implant from March 1993 to January 2007; 197 patients had {sup 125}I and 638 patients had {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy. Four hundred ninety-four patients had supplemental external-beam radiation. The final downsized prostate volume was used for the 424 patients who had neoadjuvant hormone therapy. Retention was defined as reinsertion of a Foley catheter after the implant. Results: Retention developed in 7.4% of patients, with an average duration of 6.7 weeks. On univariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation (10% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.02), neoadjuvant hormone therapy (9.4% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02), baseline alpha-blocker use (12.5% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.008), and increased prostate volume (13.4% vs. 6.9% vs. 2.9%, >45 cm{sup 3}, 25-45 cm{sup 3}, <25 cm{sup 3}; p = 0.0008) were significantly correlated with increased rates of retention. On multivariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation, neoadjuvant hormone therapy, baseline alpha-blocker use, and increased prostate volume were correlated with retention. A novel SIRS was modeled as the combined score of these factors, ranging from 0 to 5. There was a significant correlation between the SIRS and retention (p < 0.0001). The rates of retention were 0, 4%, 5.6%, 9%, 20.9%, and 36.4% for SIRS of 0 to 5, respectively. Conclusions: The SIRS may identify patients who are at high risk for prolonged retention after prostate brachytherapy. A prospective validation study of the SIRS is planned.

  4. Secrets of Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Recruiting students is one thing, but keeping them in a chorus, orchestra, or band is another. Although a music director has no control over some variables, there is much that can be done to help students to stay. Several experts share their advice on retention. One expert said a teacher's own attitude and classroom strategies may be two of the…

  5. Recruitment, Retention, Attrition Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Ronald J., Ed.

    Based on a series of faculty workshops conducted at Jefferson Community College (KY) in 1978 and 1980, this handbook outlines 95 practical suggestions for increasing student retention rates. After introductory material describing these workshops, the first 22 suggestions recommend ways to foster positive student/teacher interaction. Methods are…

  6. Tritium retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Wilson, K.L.

    1988-04-01

    This report discusses the materials physics related to D-T operation in TFTR. Research activities are described pertaining to basic studies of hydrogenic retention in graphite, hydrogen recycling phenomena, first-wall and limiter conditioning, surface analysis of TFTR first-wall components, and estimates of the tritium inventory.

  7. [Retention of adhesive bridges].

    PubMed

    Raes, F; De Boever, J

    1990-01-01

    Since the development of adhesive bridges in the early seventies, the retention and therefore the durability of these bridges has been tremendously improved. To ensure an adequate retention over a number of years different factors have to be considered. Conditioning of the non-precious metal by silanisation, careful acid etching of the enamel and the use of the appropriate composite resin (Panavia Ex) are of prime importance. Furthermore, the meticulous preparation with enough interproximal embrace, occlusal rets, interocclusal clearance of 0.4 mm and cingulum stops is equally important. Care should be taken not to remove all the enamel in the cervical region in preparing a mini chamfer. Including more teeth in the design does not necessarily lead to an improved retention. Teeth with a different mobility should not be included in the same bridge. Besides the material and technical aspects, the whole clinical procedure needs much attention. Only an exact impression, a precise model and a reliable casting technique will provide a metal frame with an optimal marginal adaptation and a close fit. The retention does not depend on one single factor but on the precision of all the necessary clinical steps and on a well-defined selection of the material. In this way a five-year survival rate of close to 90% can be obtained. PMID:2077574

  8. Retention and Persistence Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Timothy R.

    Two studies are combined with an introductory section: one is "Persistence to Graduation for Freshmen Entering the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1967-75," by Timothy Sanford, and the second is "Freshman, Transfer, Professional, Masters, and Doctoral Student Retention at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill," by Paul D.…

  9. Improving College Freshman Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Winnie Y.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, access to higher education was greatly improved through public funding. This improvement is not matched by a similar increase in graduation rate. The purpose of this study is to examine what postsecondary institutions can do to improve college freshman retention. The conceptual framework was based on research on college student…

  10. Mobile Learning and Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozdar, Bharat Inder; Kumar, Lalita S.

    2007-01-01

    Student retention in open and distance learning (ODL) is comparatively poor to traditional education and, in some contexts, embarrassingly low. Literature on the subject of student retention in ODL indicates that even when interventions are designed and undertaken to improve student retention, they tend to fall short. Moreover, this area has not…

  11. Common Schools for Common Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Eamonn

    1995-01-01

    A vision of common education for citizens of a liberal democracy warrants faith in common schools as an instrument of social good. Some kinds of separate schooling are not inconsistent with common schooling and are even desirable. Equal respect, as defined by J. Rawls, is a basis for common education. (SLD)

  12. Variability of Moisture Retention and Hydrophobicity Among Biochars

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research identifies factors and mechanisms that control changes in moisture retention when biochars produced from different feedstocks and under different heat treatment temperatures are mixed with fine sand. While substantial experimental research has been conducted on the ...

  13. Stemming the Revolving Door: Teacher Retention and Attrition in Arctic Alaska Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaden, Ute; Patterson, Philip P.; Healy, Joanne; Adams, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    Limited research is available concerning teacher retention and teacher attrition in Arctic Alaska. This paper reports survey research findings, which identify factors related to teacher retention and attrition in Alaskan Arctic Native communities. Teacher retention rates (2009-2013) vary widely over time showing no significant trends. Results…

  14. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Common Cold Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page ... Help people who are suffering from the common cold by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials. ...

  15. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...

  16. Sediment retention in rangeland riparian buffers.

    PubMed

    Hook, Paul B

    2003-01-01

    Controlling nonpoint-source sediment pollution is a common goal of riparian management, but there is little quantitative information about factors affecting performance of rangeland riparian buffers. This study evaluated the influence of vegetation characteristics, buffer width, slope, and stubble height on sediment retention in a Montana foothills meadow. Three vegetation types (sedge wetland, rush transition, bunchgrass upland) were compared using twenty-six 6- x 2-m plots spanning 2 to 20% slopes. Plots were clipped moderately (10-15 cm stubble) or severely (2-5 cm stubble). Sediment (silt + fine sand) was added to simulated overland runoff 6, 2, or 1 m above the bottom of each plot. Runoff was sampled at 15-s to > 5-min intervals until sediment concentrations approached background levels. Sediment retention was affected strongly by buffer width and moderately by vegetation type and slope, but was not affected by stubble height. Mean sediment retention ranged from 63 to > 99% for different combinations of buffer width and vegetation type, with 94 to 99% retention in 6-m-wide buffers regardless of vegetation type or slope. Results suggest that rangeland riparian buffers should be at least 6 m wide, with dense vegetation, to be effective and reliable. Narrower widths, steep slopes, and sparse vegetation increase risk of sediment delivery to streams. Vegetation characteristics such as biomass, cover, or density are more appropriate than stubble height for judging capacity to remove sediment from overland runoff, though stubble height may indirectly indicate livestock impacts that can affect buffer performance. PMID:12809315

  17. Relating admissions criteria to dental hygiene student retention.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Tammy R

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to identify preadmission variables that relate to dental hygiene student retention. METHODS. An online survey was sent by email to 309 dental hygiene chairs/program directors. The survey comprised 18 questions to collect program demographic information, program admissions requirements, and program student retention rates. RESULTS. There were 139 respondents who participated in the survey for a 45% return rate. The mean for program retention of participating accredited dental hygiene programs was 91%. Stepwise regression analysis discovered three independent variables (aE=0.15) that relate to dental hygiene program retention rates. These independent variables include interviews (p=0.054), overall college GPA (p=0.029), and overall high school GPA (p=0.141). CONCLUSION. Preadmission requirements that include overall high school GPA, overall college GPA, and interviews can be used by admissions committees to predict dental hygiene student retention. PMID:25433188

  18. Selenide retention by mackinawite.

    PubMed

    Finck, N; Dardenne, K; Bosbach, D; Geckeis, H

    2012-09-18

    The isotope (79)Se may be of great concern with regard to the safe disposal of nuclear wastes in deep geological repositories due to its long half-life and potential mobility in the geosphere. The Se mobility is controlled by the oxidation state: the oxidized species (Se(IV)) and (Se(VI)) are highly mobile, whereas the reduced species (Se(0) and Se(-II)) form low soluble solids. The mobility of this trace pollutant can be greatly reduced by interacting with the various barriers of the repository. Numerous studies report on the oxidized species retention by mineral phases, but only very scarce studies report on the selenide (Se(-II)) retention. In the present study, the selenide retention by coprecipitation with and by adsorption on mackinawite (FeS) was investigated. XRD and SEM analyses of the samples reveal no significant influence of Se on the mackinawite precipitate morphology and structure. Samples from coprecipitation and from adsorption are characterized at the molecular scale by a multi-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigation. In the coprecipitation experiment, all elements (S, Fe, and Se) are in a low ionic oxidation state and the EXAFS data strongly point to selenium located in a mackinawite-like sulfide environment. By contacting selenide ions with FeS in suspension, part of Se is located in an environment similar to that found in the coprecipitation experiment. The explanation is a dynamical dissolution-recrystallization mechanism of the highly reactive mackinawite. This is the first experimental study to report on selenide incorporation in iron monosulfide by a multi-edge XAS approach. PMID:22900520

  19. Floating nut retention system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. F.; Theakston, H. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A floating nut retention system includes a nut with a central aperture. An inner retainer plate has an opening which is fixedly aligned with the nut aperture. An outer retainer member is formed of a base plate having an opening and a surface adjacent to a surface of the inner retainer plate. The outer retainer member includes a securing mechanism for retaining the inner retainer plate adjacent to the outer retainer member. The securing mechanism enables the inner retainer plate to float with respect to the outer retainer number, while simultaneously forming a bearing surface for inner retainer plate.

  20. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  1. Replication of Genome Wide Association Identified Candidate Genes Confirm the Role of Common and Rare Variants in PAX7 and VAX1 in the Etiology of Non-syndromic CL(P)

    PubMed Central

    Butali, Azeez; Suzuki, Satoshi; Cooper, Margaret E.; Mansilla, Adela M.; Cuenco, Karen; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Suzuki, Yasushi; Niimi, Teruyuki; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Ayanga, Gongorjav; Erkhembaatar, Tudevdorj; Furukawa, Hiroo; Fujiwawa, Kumiko; Imura, Hideto; Petrin, Aline L.; Natsume, Nagato; Beaty, Terri H.; Marazita, Mary L.; Murray, Jeffery C.

    2012-01-01

    Following recent genome wide association studies (GWAS), significant genetic associations have been identified for several genes with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL(P). To replicate two of these GWAS signals, we investigated the role of common and rare variants in the PAX7 and VAX1 genes. TaqMan genotyping was carried out for SNPs in VAX1 and PAX7 and Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) was performed to test for linkage and association in each population. Direct sequencing in and around the PAX7 and VAX1 genes in 1,326 individuals of European and Asian ancestry was done. TDT analysis showed strong associations with markers in VAX1 (rs7078160, p=2.7E-06 and rs475202, p=0.0002) in a combined sample of Mongolian and Japanese CL (P) case-parent triads. Analyses using parent-of-origin effects showed significant excess transmission of the minor allele from both parents with the effect in the mothers (p=6.5E-05, OR (transmission) =1.91) more striking than in the fathers (p=0.004, OR (transmission) =1.67) for VAX1 marker rs7078160 in the combined Mongolian and Japanese samples when all cleft types were combined. The rs6659735 trinucleotide marker in PAX7 was significantly associated with all the US cleft groups combined (p=0.007 in all clefts and p=0.02 in CL(P)). Eight rare missense mutations found in PAX7 and two rare missense mutations in VAX1. Our study replicated previous GWAS findings for markers in VAX1 in the Asian population, and identified rare variants in PAX7 and VAX1 that may contribute to the etiology of CL(P). Determining the role of rare variants clearly warrants further investigation. PMID:23463464

  2. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  3. The "Ins and Outs" of Marketing and Retention in Virginia's Community Colleges: Exemplary Marketing and Retention Practices in the Virginia Community College System. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puyear, Don, Ed.; And Others

    The Virginia Community College System (VCCS) initiated the Marketing and Retention Recognition Program (MRRP) to identify and publicize innovative marketing and retention activities being implemented throughout the system. This report offers brief sketches of some of the exemplary projects identified by the MRRP. First, introductory material…

  4. An introductory review of parallel independent component analysis (p-ICA) and a guide to applying p-ICA to genetic data and imaging phenotypes to identify disease-associated biological pathways and systems in common complex disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Liu, Jingyu; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2015-01-01

    Complex inherited phenotypes, including those for many common medical and psychiatric diseases, are most likely underpinned by multiple genes contributing to interlocking molecular biological processes, along with environmental factors (Owen et al., 2010). Despite this, genotyping strategies for complex, inherited, disease-related phenotypes mostly employ univariate analyses, e.g., genome wide association. Such procedures most often identify isolated risk-related SNPs or loci, not the underlying biological pathways necessary to help guide the development of novel treatment approaches. This article focuses on the multivariate analysis strategy of parallel (i.e., simultaneous combination of SNP and neuroimage information) independent component analysis (p-ICA), which typically yields large clusters of functionally related SNPs statistically correlated with phenotype components, whose overall molecular biologic relevance is inferred subsequently using annotation software suites. Because this is a novel approach, whose details are relatively new to the field we summarize its underlying principles and address conceptual questions regarding interpretation of resulting data and provide practical illustrations of the method. PMID:26442095

  5. An introductory review of parallel independent component analysis (p-ICA) and a guide to applying p-ICA to genetic data and imaging phenotypes to identify disease-associated biological pathways and systems in common complex disorders.

    PubMed

    Pearlson, Godfrey D; Liu, Jingyu; Calhoun, Vince D

    2015-01-01

    Complex inherited phenotypes, including those for many common medical and psychiatric diseases, are most likely underpinned by multiple genes contributing to interlocking molecular biological processes, along with environmental factors (Owen et al., 2010). Despite this, genotyping strategies for complex, inherited, disease-related phenotypes mostly employ univariate analyses, e.g., genome wide association. Such procedures most often identify isolated risk-related SNPs or loci, not the underlying biological pathways necessary to help guide the development of novel treatment approaches. This article focuses on the multivariate analysis strategy of parallel (i.e., simultaneous combination of SNP and neuroimage information) independent component analysis (p-ICA), which typically yields large clusters of functionally related SNPs statistically correlated with phenotype components, whose overall molecular biologic relevance is inferred subsequently using annotation software suites. Because this is a novel approach, whose details are relatively new to the field we summarize its underlying principles and address conceptual questions regarding interpretation of resulting data and provide practical illustrations of the method. PMID:26442095

  6. Intron retention is a widespread mechanism of tumor-suppressor inactivation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyunchul; Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Jongkeun; Park, Donghyun; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Park, Woong-Yang; Hong, Dongwan; Park, Peter J; Lee, Eunjung

    2015-11-01

    A substantial fraction of disease-causing mutations are pathogenic through aberrant splicing. Although genome profiling studies have identified somatic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in cancer, the extent to which these variants trigger abnormal splicing has not been systematically examined. Here we analyzed RNA sequencing and exome data from 1,812 patients with cancer and identified ∼900 somatic exonic SNVs that disrupt splicing. At least 163 SNVs, including 31 synonymous ones, were shown to cause intron retention or exon skipping in an allele-specific manner, with ∼70% of the SNVs occurring on the last base of exons. Notably, SNVs causing intron retention were enriched in tumor suppressors, and 97% of these SNVs generated a premature termination codon, leading to loss of function through nonsense-mediated decay or truncated protein. We also characterized the genomic features predictive of such splicing defects. Overall, this work demonstrates that intron retention is a common mechanism of tumor-suppressor inactivation. PMID:26437032

  7. Reactive barriers for 137Cs retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumhansl, James L.; Brady, Patrick V.; Anderson, Howard L.

    2001-02-01

    137Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of 137Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half-life of 137Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if 137Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with 135Cs (half-life 2.3×10 6 years) in addition to 137Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention, Cs desorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO 3 and LiCl washes. Washed clays were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F-Ill were similar; 0.017% to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12% to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were Cs-doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt (˜0.33 wt.% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artifical reactive barriers.

  8. Reactive barriers for 137Cs retention.

    PubMed

    Krumhansl, J L; Brady, P V; Anderson, H L

    2001-02-01

    137Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of 137Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half-life of 137Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if 137Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with 135Cs (half-life 2.3 x 10(6) years) in addition to 137Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention, Cs desorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO3 and LiCl washes. Washed clays were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F-Ill were similar; 0.017% to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12% to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were Cs-doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt (approximately 0.33 wt.% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artifical reactive barriers. PMID:11288579

  9. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work. Parents often get colds ... other children. A cold can spread quickly through schools or daycares. Colds can occur at any time ...

  10. Analysis of common bean expressed sequence tags identifies sulfur metabolic pathways active in seed and sulfur-rich proteins highly expressed in the absence of phaseolin and major lectins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A deficiency in phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin is associated with a near doubling of sulfur amino acid content in genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), particularly cysteine, elevated by 70%, and methionine, elevated by 10%. This mostly takes place at the expense of an abundant non-protein amino acid, S-methyl-cysteine. The deficiency in phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin is mainly compensated by increased levels of the 11S globulin legumin and residual lectins. Legumin, albumin-2, defensin and albumin-1 were previously identified as contributing to the increased sulfur amino acid content in the mutant line, on the basis of similarity to proteins from other legumes. Results Profiling of free amino acid in developing seeds of the BAT93 reference genotype revealed a biphasic accumulation of gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine, the main soluble form of S-methyl-cysteine, with a lag phase occurring during storage protein accumulation. A collection of 30,147 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was generated from four developmental stages, corresponding to distinct phases of gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine accumulation, and covering the transitions to reserve accumulation and dessication. Analysis of gene ontology categories indicated the occurrence of multiple sulfur metabolic pathways, including all enzymatic activities responsible for sulfate assimilation, de novo cysteine and methionine biosynthesis. Integration of genomic and proteomic data enabled the identification and isolation of cDNAs coding for legumin, albumin-2, defensin D1 and albumin-1A and -B induced in the absence of phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin. Their deduced amino acid sequences have a higher content of cysteine than methionine, providing an explanation for the preferential increase of cysteine in the mutant line. Conclusion The EST collection provides a foundation to further investigate sulfur metabolism and the differential accumulation of sulfur amino acids in seed

  11. Molten core retention assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1976-06-22

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical, imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods.

  12. Retention through redemption.

    PubMed

    Abrashoff, D M

    2001-02-01

    Corporate America and the U.S. Navy share one big problem: employee retention. Today's knowledge workers hop from start-up to start-up. And 40% of the navy's new recruits leave the service before their four-year tours of duty are up. D. Michael Abrashoff came face to face with the navy's retention problem when he took command of the USS Benfold. Before he became captain, sailors couldn't get away from the ship fast enough. Today the vessel is the pride of the Pacific fleet, and sailors from other ships are clamoring to join its crew. In this firsthand account, Abrashoff explains how he got the ship and its crew back on course by breaking bad habits--personal and professional ones--and jettisoning old attitudes. During his 21 months aboard the Benfold, Abrashoff came to realize that in today's technology-intensive U.S. Navy, the traditional command-and-control style wouldn't work. And it hadn't--the Benfold's 310 sailors had cheered derisively when Abrashoff's predecessor had left the ship. So he defied 225 years of navy tradition in his quest to engage the sailors in their work, increase their performance, and keep them around for their entire tours of duty. He retained his crew by redeeming them--showing them how to be not just better sailors but better people, too. That meant breaking them down when they were at their worst and then building them up to reach their best. It also meant personal redemption for Abrashoff; he resolved to really listen to what his sailors were saying. The result? Cost-saving ideas for the entire navy and surging confidence and commitment among crew members. PMID:11213688

  13. Teacher Retention in Catholic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przygocki, Walter F.

    2004-01-01

    Teacher attrition is a concern in all educational sectors but is of special importance to Catholic schools because of the salary disparity between public and Catholic schools. This review examines the research on teacher retention in general with a view to understanding how this knowledge might inform teacher recruitment and retention strategies…

  14. Retention of Motor Skills: Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, J. D.; And Others

    A summary of an extensive literature survey deals with the variables known or suspected to affect the retention of learned motor behaviors over lengthy no-practice intervals. Emphasis was given to research conducted by or for the military. The variables that may affect the retention of motor skills were dichotomized into task variables and…

  15. Retention in Grade: Lethal Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Charles

    Despite a growing trend toward retention in grade of low-achieving students and apparent public support for the practice, many educators and psychologists disagree with the perception that flunking is an appropriate response to poor academic performance. Research reported in the past two decades indicates that grade-level retention produces little…

  16. SULFUR RETENTION IN COAL ASH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analytical study to assess the potential for sulfur retention in various types of coal-fired boilers. Results of a field test of 10 industrial coal-fired boilers were used to evaluate the impact on sulfur retention of the operating variables (load a...

  17. Payload retention device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A payload retention device for grappling and retaining a payload in docked position on a supporting structure in the cargo bay of a space vehicle is presented. The device comprises a two-fault tolerant electromagnetic grappling system comprising electromagnets for attracting and grappling a grapple strike plate affixed to the payload when in proximity thereto and an electromechanical latching assembly comprising a pair of independent latching subassemblies. Each subassembly comprises a set of latching pawls which are driven into latching and unlatching positions relative to a grappled payload by a pair of gearmotors, each equipped with a ratchet clutch drive mechanism which is two-fault tolerant with respect to latching such that only one gearmotor of the four needs to be operational to effect a latch of the payload but is single fault tolerant with respect to release of a latched payload. Sensors are included for automatically sensing the magnetic grappling of a payload and for automatically de-energizing the gearmotors of the latching subassemblies when a latch condition is achieved.

  18. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  19. Enrolment Management in Graduate Business Programs: Predicting Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshghi, Abdoloreza; Haughton, Dominique; Li, Mingfei; Senne, Linda; Skaletsky, Maria; Woolford, Sam

    2011-01-01

    The increasing competition for graduate students among business schools has resulted in a greater emphasis on graduate business student retention. In an effort to address this issue, the current article uses survival analysis, decision trees and TreeNet® to identify factors that can be used to identify students who are at risk of dropping out of a…

  20. Nitrogen surface water retention in the Baltic Sea drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålnacke, P.; Pengerud, A.; Vassiljev, A.; Smedberg, E.; Mörth, C.-M.; Hägg, H. E.; Humborg, C.; Andersen, H. E.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N) in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW) for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for which we had observed data, with a sufficient degree of precision and accuracy. The estimated retention parameters were also statistically significant. Our results show that around 380 000 t of N are annually retained in surface waters draining to the Baltic Sea. The total annual riverine load from the 117 basins to the Baltic Sea was estimated at 570 000 t of N, giving a total surface water N retention of around 40%. In terms of absolute retention values, three major river basins account for 50% of the total retention in the 117 basins; i.e. around 104 000 t of N are retained in Neva, 55 000 t in Vistula and 32 000 t in Oder. The largest retention was found in river basins with a high percentage of lakes as indicated by a strong relationship between N retention (%) and share of lake area in the river drainage areas. For example in Göta älv, we estimated a total N retention of 72%, whereof 67% of the retention occurred in the lakes of that drainage area (Lake Vänern primarily). The obtained results will hopefully enable the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) to refine the nutrient load targets in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), as well as to better identify cost-efficient measures to reduce nutrient loadings to the Baltic Sea.

  1. Veterans’ Perspectives on Interventions to Improve Retention in HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    Kertz, Barbara L.; Cully, Jeffery A.; Stanley, Melinda A.; Davila, Jessica A.; Dang, Bich N.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Giordano, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Poor retention in HIV medical care is associated with increased mortality among patients with HIV/AIDS. Developing new interventions to improve retention in HIV primary care is needed. The Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) is the largest single provider of HIV care in the US. We sought to understand what veterans would want in an intervention to improve retention in VA HIV care. We conducted 18 one-on-one interviews and 15 outpatient focus groups with 46 patients living with HIV infection from the Michael E. DeBakey VAMC (MEDVAMC). Analysis identified three focus areas for improving retention in care: developing an HIV friendly clinic environment, providing mental health and substance use treatment concurrent with HIV care and encouraging peer support from other Veterans with HIV. PMID:26829641

  2. Veterans' Perspectives on Interventions to Improve Retention in HIV Care.

    PubMed

    Minick, Sophie G; Stafford, Crystal L; Kertz, Barbara L; Cully, Jeffery A; Stanley, Melinda A; Davila, Jessica A; Dang, Bich N; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Giordano, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Poor retention in HIV medical care is associated with increased mortality among patients with HIV/AIDS. Developing new interventions to improve retention in HIV primary care is needed. The Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) is the largest single provider of HIV care in the US. We sought to understand what veterans would want in an intervention to improve retention in VA HIV care. We conducted 18 one-on-one interviews and 15 outpatient focus groups with 46 patients living with HIV infection from the Michael E. DeBakey VAMC (MEDVAMC). Analysis identified three focus areas for improving retention in care: developing an HIV friendly clinic environment, providing mental health and substance use treatment concurrent with HIV care and encouraging peer support from other Veterans with HIV. PMID:26829641

  3. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  4. Pulmonary retention of coal dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, P.E.; Gibb, F.R.; Beiter, H.; Amato, F.; Yuile, C.; Kilpper, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The principal objectives of this study were: to determine, quantitatively, coal dust retention times in the dog lung; to test the appropriateness of a pulmonary retention model which incorporates first order rate coefficients obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments on neutron-activated coal; to acquire a temporal description of the pulmonary disposition of the retained coal dust, and to compare the behavior of two different Pennsylvania coals in the foregoing regards. The principal findings include: retention half-times for both coals of approximately 2 years following single, hour-long exposures; a vivid association of the retained coal dust with the pulmonic lymphatics; and a general validation of the retention model.

  5. Mnemonic benefits of retrieval practice at short retention intervals.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Christopher A; DeLosh, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    The testing effect refers to the retention benefit conferred by prior retrieval of information from memory. Although the testing effect is a robust phenomenon, a common assumption is that reliable memory benefits only emerge after long retention intervals of days or weeks. The present study focused on potential test-induced retention benefits for brief retention intervals on the order of minutes and tens of seconds. Participants in four experiments studied lists of words. Some of the items were subjected to an initial cued recall test, and others were re-presented for additional study. Free recall tests were administered in each experiment following retention intervals ranging from 30 s to 8 min. When initial retrieval practice was successful (Experiments 1 through 3), or feedback compensated for unsuccessful retrieval (Experiment 4), significant testing effects emerged at all retention intervals. Results are discussed in the context of a bifurcated item-distribution model and highlight the importance of initial test performance and the type of analysis employed when examining testing effect data. PMID:24579674

  6. Maternal stress predicts postpartum weight retention.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-11-01

    Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

  7. Maternal Stress Predicts Postpartum Weight Retention

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Kara; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

  8. The Recruitment and Retention of African-American Students in Gifted Education Programs: Implications and Recommendations. Recruitment and Retention Research-Based Decision Making Series 9406.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Donna Y.

    This report describes barriers to the successful recruitment and retention of African American students in gifted education programs and services, and offers recommendations for ensuring successful recruitment and retention of this population. Barriers to recruitment identified include: inadequate identification practices, too little attention…

  9. An Investigation of Variables Influencing the Delay Retention Effect. The Effect of Form of Information Feedback on Test Conditions on the Delay Retention Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Persis T.

    The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to separate variables combined in the forms of Information Feedback (IF); and (2) to identify additional variables in the effect upon retention of 24 hour delay of feedback. In two of the experiments, the effect of IF delay, immediate test conditions, and different forms of IF upon seven day retention,…

  10. Geographic Characteristics and First-Year Retention: An Examination of the Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Mingchu; Williams, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Enrollment practitioners commonly discuss the effect of geographic factors on retention at rural or small-city institutions. This study examined the correlations between geographic characteristics of first-year college students' home location and their retention to the second year at a university located in a small city. The dimension of…

  11. Enhancing Minority Student Retention and Academic Performance: What We Can Learn from Program Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    In this important resource, Dr. Fleming (a noted expert in the field of minority retention) draws on educational evaluations she has developed in the course of her distinguished career. This book analyzes the common factors and the role institutional characteristics play in minority student retention to show what really works in increasing…

  12. Turnover: strategies for staff retention.

    PubMed

    SnowAntle, S

    1990-01-01

    This discussion has focused on a number of areas where organizations may find opportunities for more effectively managing employee retention. Given the multitude of causes and consequences, there is no one quick fix. Effective management of employee retention requires assessment of the entire human resources process, that is, recruitment, selection, job design, compensation, supervision, work conditions, etc. Regular and systematic diagnosis of turnover and implementation of multiple strategies and evaluation are needed (Mobley, 1982). PMID:10106673

  13. Strategies to improve retention in randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Brueton, Valerie C; Tierney, Jayne; Stenning, Sally; Harding, Seeromanie; Meredith, Sarah; Nazareth, Irwin; Rait, Greta

    2013-01-01

    Background Loss to follow-up from randomised trials can introduce bias and reduce study power, affecting the generalisability, validity and reliability of results. Many strategies are used to reduce loss to follow-up and improve retention but few have been formally evaluated. Objectives To quantify the effect of strategies to improve retention on the proportion of participants retained in randomised trials and to investigate if the effect varied by trial strategy and trial setting. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, DARE, CINAHL, Campbell Collaboration's Social, Psychological, Educational and Criminological Trials Register, and ERIC. We handsearched conference proceedings and publication reference lists for eligible retention trials. We also surveyed all UK Clinical Trials Units to identify further studies. Selection criteria We included eligible retention trials of randomised or quasi-randomised evaluations of strategies to increase retention that were embedded in 'host' randomised trials from all disease areas and healthcare settings. We excluded studies aiming to increase treatment compliance. Data collection and analysis We contacted authors to supplement or confirm data that we had extracted. For retention trials, we recorded data on the method of randomisation, type of strategy evaluated, comparator, primary outcome, planned sample size, numbers randomised and numbers retained. We used risk ratios (RR) to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of strategies to improve retention. We assessed heterogeneity between trials using the Chi2 and I2 statistics. For main trials that hosted retention trials, we extracted data on disease area, intervention, population, healthcare setting, sequence generation and allocation concealment. Main results We identified 38 eligible retention trials. Included trials evaluated six broad types of strategies to improve retention. These

  14. A Social Network Analysis of Student Retention Using Archival Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, James E.; Stradley, Eric G.

    2012-01-01

    This study attempts to determine if a relationship exists between first-to-second-year retention and social network variables for a cohort of first-year students at a small liberal arts college. The social network is reconstructed using not survey data as is most common, but rather using archival data from a student information system. Each…

  15. Phospohorus and calcium retention in serially harvested cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from 3 serial harvest trials were utilized to calculate phosphorus and calcium retention in cattle. Trial 1 evaluated the effect of three rates of gain during a growing period followed by a common finishing diet utilizing British crossbred steers. Four steers were harvested from each treatmen...

  16. Retention Rate by Ethnicity. Information Capsule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Anne

    This document discusses retention rate based on ethnicity for Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) for December 2002. The study found that the 2001 Fall-Spring retention rates increased among all ethnic groups. The total college retention rate rose by 2.7 percentage points to 75.2%. Among individual groups, the highest retention rate of 76.9% was…

  17. Retention in medication-assisted treatment for opiate dependence: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Timko, Christine; Schultz, Nicole R; Cucciare, Michael A; Vittorio, Lisa; Garrison-Diehn, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Retention in medication-assisted treatment among opiate-dependent patients is associated with better outcomes. This systematic review (55 articles, 2010-2014) found wide variability in retention rates (i.e., 19%-94% at 3-month, 46%-92% at 4-month, 3%-88% at 6-month, and 37%-91% at 12-month follow-ups in randomized controlled trials), and identified medication and behavioral therapy factors associated with retention. As expected, patients who received naltrexone or buprenorphine had better retention rates than patients who received a placebo or no medication. Consistent with prior research, methadone was associated with better retention than buprenorphine/naloxone. And, heroin-assisted treatment was associated with better retention than methadone among treatment-refractory patients. Only a single study examined retention in medication-assisted treatment for longer than 1 year, and studies of behavioral therapies may have lacked statistical power; thus, studies with longer-term follow-ups and larger samples are needed. Contingency management showed promise to increase retention, but other behavioral therapies to increase retention, such as supervision of medication consumption, or additional counseling, education, or support, failed to find differences between intervention and control conditions. Promising behavioral therapies to increase retention have yet to be identified. PMID:26467975

  18. Reactive barriers for {sup 137}Cs retention

    SciTech Connect

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BRADY,PATRICK V.; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

    2000-05-19

    {sup 137}Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of {sup 137}Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half life of {sup 137}Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if {sup 137}Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with {sup 135}Cs (half life 2.3x10{sup 6} years) in addition to {sup 137}Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention Cs resorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO{sub 3} and LiCl washes. Washed clay were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F- 111 were similar; 0.017 to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12 to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake so most soils have some limited ability to act as a natural barrier to Cs migration. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt ({approximately} 0.33 wt% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artificial reactive barriers.

  19. Minority Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James C.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the community college's role in Native American education. Describes recruitment, counseling, assessment, remedial, and outreach programs developed by San Juan College to help minority students succeed, and specifically help Native Americans bridge the worlds of public school, reservation, and university. Identifies keys to the programs'…

  20. Bimodal Hearing Aid Retention after Unilateral Cochlear Implantation.

    PubMed

    Devocht, Elke M J; George, Erwin L J; Janssen, A Miranda L; Stokroos, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate contralateral hearing aid (HA) use after unilateral cochlear implantation and to identify factors of influence on the occurrence of a unilateral cochlear implant (CI) recipient becoming a bimodal user. A retrospective cross-sectional chart review was carried out among 77 adult unilateral CI recipients 1 year after implantation. A bimodal HA retention rate of 64% was observed. Associations with demographics, hearing history, residual hearing and speech recognition ability were investigated. Better pure-tone thresholds and unaided speech scores in the non-implanted ear, as well as a smaller difference in speech recognition scores between both ears, were significantly associated with HA retention. A combined model of HA retention was proposed, and cut-off points were determined to identify those CI recipients who were most likely to become bimodal users. These results can provide input to clinical guidelines concerning bimodal CI candidacy. PMID:26461124

  1. Retention of hydrogen in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Langley, R.A.

    1986-10-01

    The retention of hydrogen in POCO AXF-5Q graphite has been measured at room temperature as a function of fluence and flux for H/sub 2//sup +/ ions at energies from 250 to 500 eV provided by a glow discharge. More than 2 x 10/sup 18/ H/cm/sup 2/ has been retained, and no indication of saturation has been observed to a fluence of 5 x 10/sup 19/ H/cm/sup 2/. In this experiment, retention was found to increase linearly with fluence for constant flux. A flux dependence was observed; that is, the retention rate was observed to decrease monotonically as the flux increased. A change-over experiment, deuterium to hydrogen, was conducted; the results show that significant change-over occurs (i.e., about 30% change-over for a fluence of 5 x 10/sup 17/ D/cm/sup 2/).

  2. Risk Factors for Postoperative Retention After Hemorrhoidectomy: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Qi-Ming, Xue; Jue-Ying, Xiang; Ben-Hui, Chen; Jing, Wu; Ning, Li

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for urinary retention after hemorrhoidectomy. With the approval of West China Hospital of Sichuan University Ethics Board, data were abstracted from 961 charts of patients who underwent hemorrhoidectomy from January 1, 2009, to June 30, 2011. The outcome was urinary retention in the first 24 hours after surgery. Risk factors were identified using multivariable logistic regression, and they were expressed as odds ratios or 95% confidence intervals. The overall urinary retention rate was 14.8% (n = 142). Significant risk factors associated with postoperative urinary retention included female gender, anesthesia methods, severity of hemorrhoid, a large amount of intravenous fluid administered perioperatively, and length of hospital stay. Logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender (odds ratio, 2.607; p < .01), sacral anesthesia (odds ratio, 2.481; p = .02), more than 3 hemorrhoids resected (odds ratio, 2.658; p < .01), hemorrhoids having 4 degrees of severity (odds ratio, 3.101; p < .01), intravenous fluids > 700 ml (odds ratio, 1.597; p = .02), and length of stay more than 7 days (odds ratio, 1.852; p < .01) were significant predictors of urinary retention post-hemorrhoidectomy. PMID:25974011

  3. Easy come, easy go. Retention of blood donors.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, A

    2015-08-01

    Retention of blood donors has benefits over recruitment of new blood donors. Retention is defined as preventing donors from lapsing and eventually becoming inactive. This review paper discusses literature on the importance of efforts to retain donors, specifically new donors, since lapsing is most common before the fifth donation. Studies have found that intention to donate, attitudes towards blood donation and self-efficacy (does one feel capable of donating blood) are predictors of blood donation. Feelings of 'warm glow' predict donation behaviour better than altruism. The existing literature further suggests that first time donors can be retained by paying extra attention to adverse events (vasovagal reactions and fatigue). These events could be reduced by drinking water and muscle tension exercises. Feelings of anxiety (in regular donors) and stress can further prevent donors from returning. Planning donations amongst busy lives can help retention, and suggestions are given on which interventions might be helpful. PMID:26399971

  4. Can retention forestry help conserve biodiversity? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fedrowitz, Katja; Koricheva, Julia; Baker, Susan C; Lindenmayer, David B; Palik, Brian; Rosenvald, Raul; Beese, William; Franklin, Jerry F; Kouki, Jari; Macdonald, Ellen; Messier, Christian; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Gustafsson, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Industrial forestry typically leads to a simplified forest structure and altered species composition. Retention of trees at harvest was introduced about 25 years ago to mitigate negative impacts on biodiversity, mainly from clearcutting, and is now widely practiced in boreal and temperate regions. Despite numerous studies on response of flora and fauna to retention, no comprehensive review has summarized its effects on biodiversity in comparison to clearcuts as well as un-harvested forests. Using a systematic review protocol, we completed a meta-analysis of 78 studies including 944 comparisons of biodiversity between retention cuts and either clearcuts or un-harvested forests, with the main objective of assessing whether retention forestry helps, at least in the short term, to moderate the negative effects of clearcutting on flora and fauna. Retention cuts supported higher richness and a greater abundance of forest species than clearcuts as well as higher richness and abundance of open-habitat species than un-harvested forests. For all species taken together (i.e. forest species, open-habitat species, generalist species and unclassified species), richness was higher in retention cuts than in clearcuts. Retention cuts had negative impacts on some species compared to un-harvested forest, indicating that certain forest-interior species may not survive in retention cuts. Similarly, retention cuts were less suitable for some open-habitat species compared with clearcuts. Positive effects of retention cuts on richness of forest species increased with proportion of retained trees and time since harvest, but there were not enough data to analyse possible threshold effects, that is, levels at which effects on biodiversity diminish. Spatial arrangement of the trees (aggregated vs. dispersed) had no effect on either forest species or open-habitat species, although limited data may have hindered our capacity to identify responses. Results for different comparisons were largely

  5. Diffusion-limited retention of porous particles at density interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kindler, Kolja; Khalili, Arzhang; Stocker, Roman

    2010-01-01

    Downward carbon flux in the ocean is largely governed by particle settling. Most marine particles settle at low Reynolds numbers and are highly porous, yet the fluid dynamics of this regime have remained unexplored. We present results of an experimental investigation of porous particles settling through a density interface at Reynolds numbers between 0.1 and 1. We tracked 100 to 500 μm hydrogel spheres with 95.5% porosity and negligible permeability. We found that a small negative initial excess density relative to the lower (denser) fluid layer, a common scenario in the ocean, results in long retention times of particles at the interface. We hypothesized that the retention time was determined by the diffusive exchange of the stratifying agent between interstitial and ambient fluid, which increases excess density of particles that have stalled at the interface, enabling their settling to resume. This hypothesis was confirmed by observations, which revealed a quadratic dependence of retention time on particle size, consistent with diffusive exchange. These results demonstrate that porosity can control retention times and therefore accumulation of particles at density interfaces, a mechanism that could underpin the formation of particle layers frequently observed at pycnoclines in the ocean. We estimate retention times of 3 min to 3.3 d for the characteristic size range of marine particles. This enhancement in retention time can affect carbon transformation through increased microbial colonization and utilization of particles and release of dissolved organics. The observed size dependence of the retention time could further contribute to improve quantifications of vertical carbon flux. PMID:21135242

  6. Oral mucoceles; extravasation cysts and retention cysts. A study of 298 cases.

    PubMed

    Granholm, Carina; Olsson Bergland, Kamilla; Walhjalt, Hanna; Magnusson, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Oral mucoceles can be divided in two different forms, extravasation and retention cysts. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of each form, sex- and age distribution, location, recurrences, referent and the differences between the two forms. A total of three-hundred-five cases were retrieved from the Department of Oral Pathology at the Institution of Odontology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University between 1993 and 2003. Seven referrals were disregarded because there was insufficient information, leaving 298 cases for this study. In relation to other studies, our study investigated a larger number of cases. Extravasation cysts were the most common type (258 cases). There was a slight predominance among women (55%) and the most frequent location was the lower lip (71%). 84% occurred between the ages of 0 and 40 years with peak incidence in the second decade (34%). 62% of the referrals came from specialists, 28% from general practitioners, and 10% from the Department of Oral Medicine. Retention cysts were not found as frequently as extravasation cysts (40 cases) and the occurrence in women was also a bit higher (58%). We found a more even distribution regarding age and location. The most common locations were floor of the mouth (25%), cheek (20%), and lower lip (18%). They occurred more often between the ages of 11 and 30 (31%), and between 50 and 80 (50%). 75% of the referrals came from specialists, 15% from general practitioners,and 10% from the Department of Oral Medicine. Recurrences were unusual for both cyst types. 17 cases of extravasation cysts were reported as recurrences and one case of retention cyst. PMID:19994562

  7. 37 CFR 202.23 - Full term retention of copyright deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... records of the Office. (b) Form and content of request for full term retention—(1) Forms. The Copyright Office does not provide printed forms for the use of persons requesting full term retention of copyright... acceptable identifying materials for retention in lieu of the actual copyright deposit. (d) Form of...

  8. 78 FR 40149 - Scientific Information Request on Chronic Urinary Retention (CUR) Treatment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Urinary Retention (CUR) Treatment AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION... retention (CUR) treatment, which is currently being conducted by the Evidence-based Practice Centers for the... (CUR) treatment. The EHC Program is dedicated to identifying as many studies as possible that...

  9. The Impact of Principal Leadership on Working Conditions and Teacher Retention in North Carolina Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomon, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates that administrative leadership is the most important factor in determining the climate of a school, and there are specific leadership attributes such as improving working conditions that promote retention. This study seeks to identify leadership behaviors that positively affect quality teacher retention among two particular…

  10. EVALUATION OF SOIL WATER RETENTION MODELS BASED ON BASIC SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algorithms to model soil water retention are needed to study the response of vegetation and hydrologic systems to climate change. he objective of this study was to evaluate some soil water retention models to identify minimum input data requirements. ix models that function with ...

  11. Factors Affecting Student Retention in Online Courses: Overcoming This Critical Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaytan, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what a panel of 15 experts would identify as critical factors affecting student retention in online courses that will serve as implications for educational leaders to guide their student retention strategies, online organizational structures, institutional policies, and online instructional activities. A…

  12. Confounding Impacts of Iron Reduction on Arsenic Retention

    SciTech Connect

    Tufano, K.J.; Fendorf, S.

    2009-05-26

    A transition from oxidizing to reducing conditions has long been implicated to increase aqueous As concentrations, for which reductive dissolution of iron (hydr)oxides is commonly implicated as the primary culprit. Confounding our understanding of processes controlling As retention, however, is that reductive transformation of ferrihydrite has recently been shown to promote As retention rather than release. To resolve the role iron phases have in regulating arsenic concentrations, here we examine As desorption from ferrihydrite-coated sands presorbed with As(lll); experiments were performed at circumneutral pH under Fe-reducing conditions with the dissimilatory iron reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN-32 over extended time periods. We reveal that with the initial phase of iron reduction, ferrihydrite undergoes transformation to secondary phases and increases As(lll) retention (relative to abiotic controls). However, with increased reaction time, cessation of the phase transitions and ensuing reductive dissolution result in prolonged release of As(III) to the aqueous phase. Our results suggest that As(lll) retention during iron reduction is temporally dependent on secondary precipitation of iron phases; during transformation to secondary phases, particularly magnetite, As(lll) retention is enhanced even relative to oxidized systems. However, conditions that retard secondary transformation (more stable iron oxides or limited iron reducing bacterial activity), or prolonged anaerobiosis, will lead to both the dissolution of ferric (hydr)oxides and release of As(lll) to the aqueous phase.

  13. Genetic programming based quantitative structure-retention relationships for the prediction of Kovats retention indices.

    PubMed

    Goel, Purva; Bapat, Sanket; Vyas, Renu; Tambe, Amruta; Tambe, Sanjeev S

    2015-11-13

    The development of quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) aims at constructing an appropriate linear/nonlinear model for the prediction of the retention behavior (such as Kovats retention index) of a solute on a chromatographic column. Commonly, multi-linear regression and artificial neural networks are used in the QSRR development in the gas chromatography (GC). In this study, an artificial intelligence based data-driven modeling formalism, namely genetic programming (GP), has been introduced for the development of quantitative structure based models predicting Kovats retention indices (KRI). The novelty of the GP formalism is that given an example dataset, it searches and optimizes both the form (structure) and the parameters of an appropriate linear/nonlinear data-fitting model. Thus, it is not necessary to pre-specify the form of the data-fitting model in the GP-based modeling. These models are also less complex, simple to understand, and easy to deploy. The effectiveness of GP in constructing QSRRs has been demonstrated by developing models predicting KRIs of light hydrocarbons (case study-I) and adamantane derivatives (case study-II). In each case study, two-, three- and four-descriptor models have been developed using the KRI data available in the literature. The results of these studies clearly indicate that the GP-based models possess an excellent KRI prediction accuracy and generalization capability. Specifically, the best performing four-descriptor models in both the case studies have yielded high (>0.9) values of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) and low values of root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute percent error (MAPE) for training, test and validation set data. The characteristic feature of this study is that it introduces a practical and an effective GP-based method for developing QSRRs in gas chromatography that can be gainfully utilized for developing other types of data-driven models in chromatography science

  14. Using Blended Learning to Increase Learner Support and Improve Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Gwyneth

    2007-01-01

    Improving retention and identifying "at risk" learners are high profile issues in higher education, and a proposed solution is to provide good learner support. Blending of online learning with classroom sessions offers the potential to use a virtual learning environment to deliver learning activities, and to support learners using a distance…

  15. College Student Retention: A Self-Determination Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetreault, Jules

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to identify the relationship between a student's level of self-determination towards aspiring to receive a college degree and student retention from the first to second year. Deci & Ryan's (2000) self-determination theory served as the conceptual framework for this study. The fundamental assumption of…

  16. Research and Practice of Student Retention: What Next?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinto, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    After reviewing the state of student retention research and practice, past and present, the author looks to the future and identifies three areas of research and practice that call for further exploration. These concern issues of institutional action, program implementation, and the continuing challenge of promoting the success of low-income…

  17. Promoting Hispanic Student Retention in Two Texas Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Karissa R.; Scott, Joyce A.

    2014-01-01

    Texas' Hispanic population has increased dramatically since 2000 as have Hispanic enrollments in higher education (+118%). Despite having the largest spike in college enrollment, Hispanic students' completion rates remain the lowest among all ethnic groups. To identify institutional practices that might encourage Hispanic student retention,…

  18. Social Promotion or Retention? Factors That Influence Committee Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groom, Ileetha Brooks

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented here is to identify which factors school level practitioners consider in deciding whether to retain or promote a student and to ascertain their knowledge of and training in retention research. This research illuminates the process of determining which students are promoted and which are retained, and the…

  19. Research Analysis on MOOC Course Dropout and Retention Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Zermeno, Marcela Gerogina; Aleman de La Garza, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    This research's objective was to identify the terminal efficiency of the Massive Online Open Course "Educational Innovation with Open Resources" offered by a Mexican private university. A quantitative methodology was used, combining descriptive statistics and probabilistic models to analyze the levels of retention, completion, and…

  20. Employee voice and employee retention.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D G

    1986-09-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the extent to which employees have opportunities to voice dissatisfaction and voluntary turnover in 111 short-term, general care hospitals. Results show that, whether or not a union is present, high numbers of mechanisms for employee voice are associated with high retention rates. Implications for theory and research as well as management practice are discussed. PMID:10278801

  1. Strategies for improving employee retention.

    PubMed

    Verlander, Edward G; Evans, Martin R

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes a solution to the perennial problem of talent retention in the clinical laboratory. It includes the presentation of 12 strategies that may be used to significantly improve institutional identity formation and establishment of the psychological contract that employees form with laboratory management. Identity formation and psychological contracting are deemed as essential in helping reduce employee turnover and increase retention. The 12 conversational strategies may be used as a set of best practices for all employees, but most importantly for new employees, and should be implemented at the critical moment when employees first join the laboratory. This time is referred to as "retention on-boarding"--the period of induction and laboratory orientation. Retention on-boarding involves a dialogue between employees and management that is focused on the psychological, practical, cultural, and political dimensions of the laboratory. It is placed in the context of the modern clinical laboratory, which is faced with employing and managing Generation X knowledge workers. Specific topics and broad content areas of those conversations are outlined. PMID:17394785

  2. Meeting Individual Needs Fosters Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artman, Johanne I.; Gore, Robert C.

    A 1991 study of non-returning students at Del Mar College (DMC), in Corpus Christi, Texas, revealed that only 37.9% of these students were actual dropouts (i.e., had failed to accomplish their educational goals, and had no plans to take up further study). Retention studies conducted in Texas between 1985 and 1989 have shown that DMC has…

  3. Implicit Memory: Retention without Remembering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roediger, Henry L., III

    1990-01-01

    Reviews recent research on retention that is demonstrated without conscious recollection, such as the ability to tie shoelaces or drive a car. Suggests that future research in this field may have implications for such educational issues as the transfer of training and the carryover of abstract classroom learning to problems in other contexts. (EVL)

  4. JCC Recruitment, Retention, Attrition Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Ronald J.

    In an effort to reduce the class attrition rate of 40% at Jefferson Community College (JCC), and to investigate the entire process of recruitment, retention, and attrition (RRA), a series of four faculty workshops were held. The plan was to look at the RRA process from the student's point of view in terms of four phases: (1) the pre-enrollment…

  5. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  6. Classroom Management for Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Rita, Emilio

    This guidebook recommends methods for teachers to use to improve teacher-student interaction in the classroom, as a means of increasing student retention. Chapter I introduces eight major systems of classroom management which teachers may use as their values and the classroom situation dictate: "Behavior Modification,""Reality Therapy,""Discipline…

  7. Self-Managed Skill Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Robert D.

    1986-01-01

    Presents the Relapse Prevention model, which provides the structure in which managers can analyze potential lapses in their own skill retention. Discusses training goals, self-management, specific strategies, choosing a skill to retain, imagery and prediction, and holistic training. (CT)

  8. Course Retention Analysis. Focus Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.

    A study was conducted at Mount San Antonio College (MSAC), California, to analyze patterns in credit course retention between fall 1986 and spring 1989. The study investigated the development of course prerequisites based on faculty perceptions of the skills necessary for success and minimal skill levels associated with success; student assessment…

  9. Mechanisms of gas bubble retention

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Mendoza, D.P.; Miller, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns regarding double-shell tanks (DSTs) containing waste slurries. Previous investigations have concluded that gas bubbles are retained by the slurry that has settled at the bottom of the DST. However, the mechanisms responsible for the retention of these bubbles are not well understood. In addition, the presence of retained gas bubbles is expected to affect the physical properties of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of these bubbles. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to gas bubble retention and release from sludge such as is in Tank 241-SY-101, understand how the bubbles affect the physical properties of the sludge, develop correlations of these physical properties to include in computer models, and collect experimental data on the physical properties of simulated sludges with bubbles. This report presents a theory and experimental observations of bubble retention in simulated sludge and gives correlations and new data on the effect of gas bubbles on sludge yield strength.

  10. Exploring General Education Development Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Sharon D.

    2013-01-01

    According to the instructors and administrators at a local adult education (AE) program in Houston, Texas, retaining and graduating general education development (GED) students has been a constant challenge. Locating GED attendance barriers could enable AE programs to develop techniques that increase student retention and graduation rates. The…

  11. Analyzing Commonality In A System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacheco, Alfred; Pool, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    Cost decreased by use of fewer types of parts. System Commonality Analysis Tool (SCAT) computer program designed to aid managers and engineers in identifying common, potentially common, and unique components of system. Incorporates three major functions: program for creation and maintenance of data base, analysis of commonality, and such system utilities as host-operating-system commands and loading and unloading of data base. Produces reports tabulating maintenance, initial configurations, and expected total costs. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  12. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were swollen and ... at one time. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid retention) Weigh yourself. l Weigh yourself at the ...

  13. A Genome-wide Association Study of Early-onset Breast Cancer Identifies PFKM as a Novel Breast Cancer Gene and Supports a Common Genetic Spectrum for Breast Cancer at Any Age

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Habibul; Halpern, Jerry; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Pierce, Brandon L; Tong, Lin; Gamazon, Eric; McGuire, Valerie; Felberg, Anna; Shi, Jianxin; Jasmine, Farzana; Roy, Shantanu; Brutus, Rachelle; Argos, Maria; Melkonian, Stephanie; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Andrulis, Irene; Hopper, John L; John, Esther M.; Malone, Kathi; Ursin, Giske; Gammon, Marilie D; Thomas, Duncan C; Seminara, Daniela; Casey, Graham; Knight, Julia A; Southey, Melissa C; Giles, Graham G; Santella, Regina M; Lee, Eunjung; Conti, David; Duggan, David; Gallinger, Steve; Haile, Robert; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Apicella, Carmel; Park, Daniel J; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Lathrop, Mark; Hunter, David J; Chanock, Stephen J; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lochmann, Magdalena; Beckmann, Lars; Hein, Rebecca; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Bui, Quang Minh; Stone, Jennifer; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Dahmen, Norbert; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Nicolae, Dan; Easton, Douglas F; Cox, Nancy J; Whittemore, Alice S

    2014-01-01

    Early-onset breast cancer (EOBC) causes substantial loss of life and productivity, creating a major burden among women worldwide. We analyzed 1,265,548 Hapmap3 SNPs among a discovery set of 3,523 EOBC incident case and 2,702 population control women aged <=51 years. The SNPs with smallest P-values were examined in a replication set of 3,470 EOBC case and 5,475 control women. We also tested EOBC association with 19,684 genes by annotating each gene with putative functional SNPs, and then combining their P-values to obtain a gene-based P-value. We examined the gene with smallest P-value for replication in 1,145 breast cancer case and 1,142 control women. The combined discovery and replication sets identified 72 new SNPs associated with EOBC (P<4×10−8) located in six genomic regions previously reported to contain SNPs associated largely with later-onset breast cancer (LOBC). SNP rs2229882 and 10 other SNPs on chromosome 5q11.2 remained associated (P<6×10−4) after adjustment for the strongest published SNPs in the region. Thirty-two of the 82 currently known LOBC SNPs were associated with EOBC (P<0.05). Low power is likely responsible for the remaining 50 unassociated known LOBC SNPs. The gene-based analysis identified an association between breast cancer and the phosphofructokinase-muscle (PFKM) gene on chromosome 12q13.11 that met the genomewide gene-based threshold of 2.5×10−6. In conclusion, EOBC and LOBC appear to have similar genetic etiologies; the 5q11.2 region may contain multiple distinct breast cancer loci; and the PFKM gene region is worthy of further investigation. These findings should enhance our understanding of the etiology of breast cancer. PMID:24493630

  14. A genome-wide association study of early-onset breast cancer identifies PFKM as a novel breast cancer gene and supports a common genetic spectrum for breast cancer at any age.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Habibul; Halpern, Jerry; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Pierce, Brandon L; Tong, Lin; Gamazon, Eric; McGuire, Valerie; Felberg, Anna; Shi, Jianxin; Jasmine, Farzana; Roy, Shantanu; Brutus, Rachelle; Argos, Maria; Melkonian, Stephanie; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Andrulis, Irene; Hopper, John L; John, Esther M; Malone, Kathi; Ursin, Giske; Gammon, Marilie D; Thomas, Duncan C; Seminara, Daniela; Casey, Graham; Knight, Julia A; Southey, Melissa C; Giles, Graham G; Santella, Regina M; Lee, Eunjung; Conti, David; Duggan, David; Gallinger, Steve; Haile, Robert; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Apicella, Carmel; Park, Daniel J; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Lathrop, Mark; Hunter, David J; Chanock, Stephen J; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lochmann, Magdalena; Beckmann, Lars; Hein, Rebecca; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Bui, Quang Minh; Stone, Jennifer; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Dahmen, Norbert; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Dunning, Alison M; Pharoah, Paul; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Nicolae, Dan; Easton, Douglas F; Cox, Nancy J; Whittemore, Alice S

    2014-04-01

    Early-onset breast cancer (EOBC) causes substantial loss of life and productivity, creating a major burden among women worldwide. We analyzed 1,265,548 Hapmap3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) among a discovery set of 3,523 EOBC incident cases and 2,702 population control women ages ≤ 51 years. The SNPs with smallest P values were examined in a replication set of 3,470 EOBC cases and 5,475 control women. We also tested EOBC association with 19,684 genes by annotating each gene with putative functional SNPs, and then combining their P values to obtain a gene-based P value. We examined the gene with smallest P value for replication in 1,145 breast cancer cases and 1,142 control women. The combined discovery and replication sets identified 72 new SNPs associated with EOBC (P < 4 × 10(-8)) located in six genomic regions previously reported to contain SNPs associated largely with later-onset breast cancer (LOBC). SNP rs2229882 and 10 other SNPs on chromosome 5q11.2 remained associated (P < 6 × 10(-4)) after adjustment for the strongest published SNPs in the region. Thirty-two of the 82 currently known LOBC SNPs were associated with EOBC (P < 0.05). Low power is likely responsible for the remaining 50 unassociated known LOBC SNPs. The gene-based analysis identified an association between breast cancer and the phosphofructokinase-muscle (PFKM) gene on chromosome 12q13.11 that met the genome-wide gene-based threshold of 2.5 × 10(-6). In conclusion, EOBC and LOBC seem to have similar genetic etiologies; the 5q11.2 region may contain multiple distinct breast cancer loci; and the PFKM gene region is worthy of further investigation. These findings should enhance our understanding of the etiology of breast cancer. PMID:24493630

  15. Successful recruitment and retention of Latino study participants.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Mary Clare; Orpinas, Pamela; Davis, Marsha

    2012-11-01

    A high prevalence of risk behaviors among the rapidly growing Latino youth population in the United States adds urgency to the need to identify effective recruitment and retention strategies for research studies and prevention programs. The objectives of this study are to (a) describe the culturally responsive recruitment and retention strategies used in the Familias Fuertes-Georgia program and (b) discuss the evaluation of the relative importance of these strategies. Familias Fuertes (i.e., Strong Families) is a community-based, primary prevention program for families in Latin America with children between the ages of 10 and 14 years. The main program goal is to reduce high-risk behaviors among adolescents by strengthening family relationships and promoting self-regulation and positive conflict resolution strategies. A pilot feasibility study was conducted to determine the appropriateness of the Familias Fuertes program for Latino families living in the United States. To promote participation, 15 culturally responsive recruitment and retention strategies were developed using a three-step process. These strategies contributed to the successful recruitment and retention of Familias Fuertes-Georgia study participants. Participating parents, the community liaison, and the community leader evaluated the relative importance of the 15 culturally responsive recruitment and retention strategies. Three of the strategies emerged as more important than others: face-to-face recruitment by the community liaison; bilingual, bicultural, and experienced facilitators; and free on-site child care. Further research is needed to develop strategies promoting the participation of male caregivers/fathers. PMID:21540195

  16. 12 CFR 1002.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 1002.12 Section 1002.12 Banks....12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor may retain in its files... statutes or regulations. (b) Preservation of records—(1) Applications. For 25 months (12 months...

  17. 12 CFR 1002.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 1002.12 Section 1002.12 Banks....12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor may retain in its files... statutes or regulations. (b) Preservation of records—(1) Applications. For 25 months (12 months...

  18. 12 CFR 202.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 202.12 Section 202.12 Banks... OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor...) Applications. For 25 months (12 months for business credit, except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of...

  19. 12 CFR 202.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 202.12 Section 202.12 Banks... OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor...) Applications. For 25 months (12 months for business credit, except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of...

  20. 12 CFR 202.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 202.12 Section 202.12 Banks... OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor...) Applications. For 25 months (12 months for business credit, except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of...

  1. 12 CFR 202.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 202.12 Section 202.12 Banks... OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor...) Applications. For 25 months (12 months for business credit, except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of...

  2. 12 CFR 1002.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 1002.12 Section 1002.12 Banks....12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor may retain in its files... statutes or regulations. (b) Preservation of records—(1) Applications. For 25 months (12 months...

  3. Persistence-Retention. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This snapshot report provides information on student persistence and retention rates for Spring 2014. Data is presented in tabular format on the following: (1) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Starting Enrollment Intensity (all institutional sectors); (2) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Age at College Entry (all…

  4. Persistence-Retention. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Snapshot Report offers information on student persistence and retention rates for 2009-2013. It offers data on the following: (1) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates for Students Who Start College at Four-Year Private Nonprofit Institutions; (2) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates for Students Who Start College at Four-Year…

  5. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spittle, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Few words have dominated the vocabulary of college retention as has the word "persistence." Many institutions still struggle to engage faculty and administrators in building campuswide retention efforts, to find the organizational levers that translate the abstractions and complexities of retention theory into scalable and durable initiatives, and…

  6. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.; Zucker, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Over 35 years of retention theory and literature have acknowledged the importance of institutional and student profiles in accounting for cross-sectional differences in retention and completion rates between types of colleges and universities. The first "P" within a 4 Ps framework of student retention--"profile"--recognizes that an institution's…

  7. The HIV Care Continuum: Changes over Time in Retention in Care and Viral Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Yehia, Baligh R.; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J.; Fleishman, John A.; Berry, Stephen A.; Agwu, Allison L.; Metlay, Joshua P.; Moore, Richard D.; Christopher Mathews, W.; Nijhawan, Ank; Rutstein, Richard; Gaur, Aditya H.; Gebo, Kelly A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The HIV care continuum (diagnosis, linkage to care, retention in care, receipt of antiretroviral therapy (ART), viral suppression) has been used to identify opportunities for improving the delivery of HIV care. Continuum steps are typically calculated in a conditional manner, with the number of persons completing the prior step serving as the base population for the next step. This approach may underestimate the prevalence of viral suppression by excluding patients who are suppressed but do not meet standard definitions of retention in care. Understanding how retention in care and viral suppression interact and change over time may improve our ability to intervene on these steps in the continuum. Methods We followed 17,140 patients at 11 U.S. HIV clinics between 2010-2012. For each calendar year, patients were classified into one of five categories: (1) retained/suppressed, (2) retained/not-suppressed, (3) not-retained/suppressed, (4) not-retained/not-suppressed, and (5) lost to follow-up (for calendar years 2011 and 2012 only). Retained individuals were those completing ≥2 HIV medical visits separated by ≥90 days in the year. Persons not retained completed ≥1 HIV medical visit during the year, but did not meet the retention definition. Persons lost to follow-up had no HIV medical visits in the year. HIV viral suppression was defined as HIV-1 RNA ≤200 copies/mL at the last measure in the year. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the probability of patients’ transitioning between retention/suppression categories from 2010 to 2011 and 2010 to 2012, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, HIV risk factor, insurance status, CD4 count, and use of ART. Results Overall, 65.8% of patients were retained/suppressed, 17.4% retained/not-suppressed, 10.0% not-retained/suppressed, and 6.8% not-retained/not-suppressed in 2010. 59.5% of patients maintained the same status in 2011 (kappa=0.458) and 53.3% maintained the same status in 2012

  8. Establishment of reliable mass spectra and retention indices library: identification of fatty acids in human plasma without authentic standards.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangxiao; Tan, Binbin; Zeng, Maomao; Lu, Hongmei; Liang, Yizeng

    2012-01-15

    Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is routinely employed to analyze small molecules in various samples. The more challenge of GC-MS data processing is to identify the unknown compounds in samples. Mass spectra and retention indices library searching are commonly used method. However, the current libraries are often built through collecting data from different groups. To unknown compounds with similar mass spectra and retention indices (e.g. geometric (cis/trans) isomers), the inaccurate results sometime are supplied. In this case, the costly standard compounds have to be used in every analysis. In this report, taking identification of fatty acids as an example, we proposed a strategy of establishment of special database constructed by equivalent chain length (ECL) values in uniform conditions and mass spectra of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The mass spectral characteristics were firstly used to identify all expected straight saturated fatty acids, and subsequently calculate the ECL for fatty acids in the sample. Finally, the ECL values of fatty acids in the sample were compared with those of fatty acids in the customized database to identify their structures. The results showed that the method developed in this report could effectively identify similar unknown compounds (FAMEs in the human plasma) after validated by the authentic standards. PMID:22265504

  9. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  10. Bioassay data and a retention-excretion model for systemic plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    The estimation of systemic burdens from urinalyses has been the most common and useful method of quantifying occupational exposures to plutonium. Problems arise in using this technique, however, because of inadequate modeling of human retention, translocation, and excretion of this element. Present methods for estimating the systemic burden from urinalyses were derived to a large extent from patterns observed in the first few months after exposure, but there is now evidence that these same patterns do not persist over long periods. In this report we collect and discuss data needed for the interpretation of bioassay results for Pu. These data are used to develop a model that describes the movement, retention, and excretion of systemic Pu in the human body in terms of explicitly identified anatomical compartments. This model may be used in conjunction with existing models and/or case-specific information concerning the translocation of Pu from the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract or from wounds to the bloodstream. Attention is restricted to the behavior of Pu after it has gained access to the bloodstream. There remain significant uncertainties concerning some aspects of the movement of Pu, particularly its translocation from the liver. An attempt has been made to construct the model in such a way as to elucidate those areas needing further attention. 98 references, 18 figures, 16 tables.