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1

Identifying Common Sweet Corn Caterpillars  

E-print Network

Identifying Common Sweet Corn Caterpillars Education Center and Info Line practical solutions, and European corn borer caterpillars can all infest the ears of sweet corn. The most reliable way to identify them is to examine the heads of the caterpillars. Corn earworm caterpillars have a uniform light yellow

New Hampshire, University of

2

5 CFR 595.104 - What criteria are used to identify a recruitment and retention problem?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to identify a recruitment and retention problem? 595.104 Section 595.104 Administrative...to identify a recruitment and retention problem? The head of each agency may determine...a significant recruitment and retention problem exists for each category of...

2012-01-01

3

5 CFR 595.104 - What criteria are used to identify a recruitment and retention problem?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to identify a recruitment and retention problem? 595.104 Section 595.104 Administrative...to identify a recruitment and retention problem? The head of each agency may determine...a significant recruitment and retention problem exists for each category of...

2013-01-01

4

5 CFR 595.104 - What criteria are used to identify a recruitment and retention problem?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to identify a recruitment and retention problem? 595.104 Section 595.104 Administrative...to identify a recruitment and retention problem? The head of each agency may determine...a significant recruitment and retention problem exists for each category of...

2011-01-01

5

5 CFR 595.104 - What criteria are used to identify a recruitment and retention problem?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to identify a recruitment and retention problem? 595.104 Section 595.104 Administrative...to identify a recruitment and retention problem? The head of each agency may determine...a significant recruitment and retention problem exists for each category of...

2010-01-01

6

5 CFR 595.104 - What criteria are used to identify a recruitment and retention problem?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...to identify a recruitment and retention problem? 595.104 Section 595.104 Administrative...to identify a recruitment and retention problem? The head of each agency may determine...a significant recruitment and retention problem exists for each category of...

2014-01-01

7

Intron retention: a human DKC1 gene common splicing event.  

PubMed

Identification of alternatively spliced transcripts produced by a gene is a crucial step in deciphering the bulk of its biological roles and the overall processes that regulate its activity. By using a combination of bioinformatic and molecular approaches we identified, cloned, and characterized 3 novel alternative splice isoforms derived from human dyskeratosis congenita 1 (hDKC1), an essential human gene causative of the X-linked dyskeratosis congenita disease and involved in multiple functions related to cell growth, proliferation, and telomere maintenance. Expression of the new isoforms, all characterized by intron retention, was confirmed by RT-PCR in a panel of diverse cell lines and normal human tissues, and despite the presence of premature termination codons, was not down-regulated by the mechanism of nonsense-mediated decay. Accumulation of these transcripts fluctuated distinctly in the diverse tissues and during in vitro differentiation of Caco2 cells, suggesting that their ratio may contribute to the gene functional diversity across different cell types. Intriguingly, the structure of one isoform leads to exonize an intronically encoded small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), highlighting an additional layer of complexity that can contribute to overall gene regulation. PMID:24219293

Turano, Mimmo; Angrisani, Alberto; Di Maio, Nunzia; Furia, Maria

2013-12-01

8

IDENTIFYING RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Recruitment and Retention Issues for the National Children's Study Danelle T Lobdell1, Suzanne Gilboa2, Pauline Mendola1 (1US EPA, NHEERL; 2UNC Chapel Hill) A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, co...

9

Key to Identifying Common Household Ants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short lucid key to 8 common household ant species with control strategies. The information presented is accurate and the key easy to use; ancillary pages are also useful. The key may present difficulties if other ant species are encountered or in other parts of the U.S.

0000-00-00

10

Mapping patient-identified barriers and facilitators to retention in HIV care and antiretroviral therapy adherence to Andersen's Behavioral Model.  

PubMed

Andersen's Behavioral Model (ABM) provides a framework for understanding how patient and environmental factors impact health behaviors and outcomes. We compared patient-identified barriers/facilitators to retention in care and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and evaluated how they mapped to ABM. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 51 HIV-infected adults at HIV clinics in Philadelphia, PA, in 2013 were used to explore patients' experiences with HIV care and treatment. Interview data were analyzed for themes using a grounded theory approach. Among those interviewed, 53% were male and 88% were nonwhite; 49% were retained in care, 96% were on ART, and 57% were virally suppressed. Patients discussed 18 barriers/facilitators to retention in care and ART adherence: 11 common to both behaviors (stigma, mental illness, substance abuse, social support, reminder strategies, housing, insurance, symptoms, competing life activities, colocation of services, provider factors), 3 distinct to retention (transportation, clinic experiences, appointment scheduling), and 4 distinct to adherence (medication characteristics, pharmacy services, health literacy, health beliefs). Identified barriers/facilitators mapped to all ABM domains. These data support the use of ABM as a framework for classifying factors influencing HIV-specific health behaviors and have the potential to inform the design of interventions to improve retention in care and ART adherence. PMID:25671515

Holtzman, Carol W; Shea, Judy A; Glanz, Karen; Jacobs, Lisa M; Gross, Robert; Hines, Janet; Mounzer, Karam; Samuel, Rafik; Metlay, Joshua P; Yehia, Baligh R

2015-07-01

11

Endoplasmic reticulum retention is a common defect associated with tyrosinase-negative albinism  

E-print Network

Endoplasmic reticulum retention is a common defect associated with tyrosinase-negative albinism, March 16, 2000 (received for review February 17, 2000) Tyrosinase is a melanocyte-specific enzyme albino substitution TYR(T373K), and the temperature-sensitive tyrosinase TYR(R402Q) Tyr(H402A) found

Hebert, Daniel N.

12

Course Completion Rates among Distance Learners: Identifying Possible Methods to Improve Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many colleges continue to report high attrition rates among distance education students. This study included a survey of students at Coastline Community College to determine why they dropped or failed their distance-learning courses and to identify methods that might improve their success and retention. Questionnaires were sent to a group of randomly selected students who responded to five general topics.

Robert D. Nash

13

Modeling Retention at a Large Public University: Can At-Risk Students Be Identified Early Enough to Treat?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the extent to which readily available data at a large public university can be used to a priori identify at-risk students who may benefit from targeted retention efforts. Although it is possible to identify such students, there remains an inevitable tradeoff in any resource allocation between not treating the students who are likely to…

Singell, Larry D.; Waddell, Glen R.

2010-01-01

14

Folate content and retention in commonly consumed vegetables in the South Pacific.  

PubMed

This paper reports the effect of boiling and frying on the retention of folate in commonly consumed Fijian vegetables (drumstick leaves, taro leaves, bele leaves, amaranth leaves, fern/ota, okra and French bean). The folate content was determined by microbiological assay (Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus) and tri-enzyme (protease, ?-amylase and chicken pancreas conjugase) extraction treatment. The folate loss varied among the vegetables from 10-64% on boiling while 1-36% on frying. The higher folate loss was observed during boiling. The folate content in the water derived after boiling different vegetables ranged from 11.9±0.5 to 61.6±2.5?g/100mL. The folate loss on boiling was accounted for in the cooking water. The predominant way of folate loss on boiling was leaching rather than thermal degradation which makes boiling the better choice of cooking the studied vegetables for folate intake, provided the cooking water is consumed together with the vegetables. PMID:25842344

Maharaj, Prayna P P; Prasad, Surendra; Devi, Riteshma; Gopalan, Romila

2015-09-01

15

Potential drug targets identified in common childhood brain cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers studying the genetic roots of the most common malignant childhood brain tumor have discovered missteps in three of the four subtypes of the cancer that involve genes already targeted for drug development. The most significant gene alterations are linked to subtypes of medulloblastoma that currently have the best and worst prognosis. They were among 41 genes associated for the first time to medulloblastoma by the St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital – Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project.

16

IDENTIFYING RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES AMONG NON-WHITE PARTICIPANTS FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding potential stakeholders perspectives prior to recruitment may improve the effectiveness of a recruitment campaign as well as sustain participant retention. In early 2003, eighteen focus groups were conducted across the United States to address these issues, but non-...

17

Identifying common traits among Australian irrigators using cluster analysis.  

PubMed

In Australia there is a growing awareness that the over-allocation of water entitlements to irrigators needs to be reduced so that environmental flow allocations can be increased. This means that some water will need to be acquired from irrigators and returned to the environment. Most current water reform policies assume that irrigators are solely motivated by profit and will be willing sellers of water, but this might be an untenable approach. Authorities will need to consider new ways of encouraging the participation of irrigators in water reform. The main aim of this research was to identify the non-commercial influences acting on irrigators' behaviour, especially the influence of the values that they hold toward family, land, water, community and lifestyle. The study also aimed to investigate whether it is possible to group irrigators according to these values and then use the groupings to describe how these might affect their willingness to participate in environmental reforms. We clustered the irrigators into three groups with differing orientations; (i) Investors [25%]-profit oriented, (ii) Lifestylers [25%]-lifestyle oriented, (iii) Providers [50%]-family-succession oriented. This research indicates that when designing policy instruments to acquire water for environmental purposes policy-makers should pay more attention to the factors influencing irrigators' decision making, especially non-commercial factors. PMID:18725725

Kuehne, G; Bjornlund, H; Cheers, B

2008-01-01

18

Keeping Our Students: Identifying Factors that Influence Student Withdrawal and Strategies to Enhance the Experience and Retention of First-Year Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article derives from local research at two UK universities as part of their institutional strategies to address retention and progression and enhance their students' experiences of higher education. In both Middlesex University and the University of Salford, research has been undertaken to identify factors which influence the retention and…

Parmar, Deeba; Trotter, Eileen

2004-01-01

19

Mass General study identifies growth factor essential to the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor  

Cancer.gov

A multi-institutional team led by Massachusetts General Hospital researchers has identified a molecular pathway that appears to be essential for the growth and spread of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children.

20

What Are They Thinking? The Development and Use of an Instrument that Identifies Common Science Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the rationale for, and development of, an online instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. Science Beliefs is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. It utilizes a true or false, along with a written-explanation, format. The true or…

Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles R.; Larrabee, Timothy

2007-01-01

21

Efforts to Improve Undergraduate Student Retention Rates at a Hispanic Serving Institution: Building Collaborative Relationships for the Common Good  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes efforts to improve retention and graduation rates at the University of Texas at San Antonio, a large Hispanic serving institution (HSI). One college within the university is focusing on increasing retention and graduation rates primarily by building relationships and capitalizing on university resources. In addition to…

Martin, Nancy K.; Meyer, Kristi

2010-01-01

22

Lipid composition, retention and oxidation in fresh and completely trimmed beef muscles as affected by common culinary practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine how and to what extent several culinary practices (i.e. household cooking methods), each applied to the beef muscle deemed most suitable (boiling to infraspinatus, broiling to longissimus lumborum, oven-roasting and microwaving to semitendinosus), could induce significant changes in: lipid and cholesterol contents, fatty acid composition and contents, their true and apparent retention

A. Badiani; S. Stipa; F. Bitossi; P. P. Gatta; G. Vignola; R. Chizzolini

2002-01-01

23

Genetic screens to identify pathogenic gene variants in the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome.  

PubMed

In many individuals suspected of the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome, variants of unclear significance (VUS), rather than an obviously pathogenic mutations, are identified in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. The uncertainty of whether such VUS inactivate MMR, and therefore are pathogenic, precludes targeted healthcare for both carriers and their relatives. To facilitate the identification of pathogenic VUS, we have developed an in cellulo genetic screen-based procedure for the large-scale mutagenization, identification, and cataloging of residues of MMR genes critical for MMR gene function. When a residue identified as mutated in an individual suspected of Lynch syndrome is listed as critical in such a reverse diagnosis catalog, there is a high probability that the corresponding human VUS is pathogenic. To investigate the applicability of this approach, we have generated and validated a prototypic reverse diagnosis catalog for the MMR gene MutS Homolog 2 (Msh2) by mutagenizing, identifying, and cataloging 26 deleterious mutations in 23 amino acids. Extensive in vivo and in vitro analysis of mutants listed in the catalog revealed both recessive and dominant-negative phenotypes. Nearly half of these critical residues match with VUS previously identified in individuals suspected of Lynch syndrome. This aids in the assignment of pathogenicity to these human VUS and validates the approach described here as a diagnostic tool. In a wider perspective, this work provides a model for the translation of personalized genomics into targeted healthcare. PMID:23690608

Drost, Mark; Lützen, Anne; van Hees, Sandrine; Ferreira, Daniel; Calléja, Fabienne; Zonneveld, José B M; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; de Wind, Niels

2013-06-01

24

Genetic screens to identify pathogenic gene variants in the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome  

PubMed Central

In many individuals suspected of the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome, variants of unclear significance (VUS), rather than an obviously pathogenic mutations, are identified in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. The uncertainty of whether such VUS inactivate MMR, and therefore are pathogenic, precludes targeted healthcare for both carriers and their relatives. To facilitate the identification of pathogenic VUS, we have developed an in cellulo genetic screen-based procedure for the large-scale mutagenization, identification, and cataloging of residues of MMR genes critical for MMR gene function. When a residue identified as mutated in an individual suspected of Lynch syndrome is listed as critical in such a reverse diagnosis catalog, there is a high probability that the corresponding human VUS is pathogenic. To investigate the applicability of this approach, we have generated and validated a prototypic reverse diagnosis catalog for the MMR gene MutS Homolog 2 (Msh2) by mutagenizing, identifying, and cataloging 26 deleterious mutations in 23 amino acids. Extensive in vivo and in vitro analysis of mutants listed in the catalog revealed both recessive and dominant-negative phenotypes. Nearly half of these critical residues match with VUS previously identified in individuals suspected of Lynch syndrome. This aids in the assignment of pathogenicity to these human VUS and validates the approach described here as a diagnostic tool. In a wider perspective, this work provides a model for the translation of personalized genomics into targeted healthcare. PMID:23690608

Drost, Mark; Lützen, Anne; van Hees, Sandrine; Ferreira, Daniel; Calléja, Fabienne; Zonneveld, José B. M.; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; de Wind, Niels

2013-01-01

25

Ectopic spleen: An easily identifiable but commonly undiagnosed entity until manifestation of complications  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Ectopic spleen is an uncommon clinical entity as splenectomy for treatment of ectopic spleens accounts for less than 0.25% of splenectomies. The most common age of presentation is childhood especially under 1 year of age followed by the third decade of life. PRESENTATION OF CASE The present report refers to a patient with torsion of a pelvic spleen treated with splenectomy. The patient exhibited a period of vague intermittent lower abdominal pain lasted 65 days followed by a period of constant left lower quadrant pain of increasing severity lasted 6 days. On the first 65 days, vague pain was attributed to progressive torsion of the spleen which resulted in venous congestion. On the last 6 days, exacerbation of pain was attributed to irreducible torsion, infraction of the arterial supply, acute ischemia, strangulation and rupture of the gangrenous spleen. Diagnosis was made by CT which revealed absence of the spleen in its normal position, a homogeneous pelvic mass with no contrast enhancement, free blood in the peritoneal cavity, and confirmed by laparotomy. DISCUSSION Clinical manifestations of ectopic spleen vary from asymptomatic to abdominal emergency. Symptoms are most commonly attributed to complications related to torsion. Operative management, including splenopexy or splenectomy, is the treatment of choice in uncomplicated and complicated cases because conservative treatment of an asymptomatic ectopic spleen is associated with a complication rate of 65%. CONCLUSION Although an ectopic spleen can be easily identified on clinical examination, it is commonly misdiagnosed until the manifestation of complications in adulthood. PMID:24973525

Blouhos, Konstantinos; Boulas, Konstantinos A.; Salpigktidis, Ilias; Barettas, Nikolaos; Hatzigeorgiadis, Anestis

2014-01-01

26

Common Fusion Transcripts Identified in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines by High-Throughput RNA Sequencing12  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer disease in the Western world, and about 40% of the patients die from this disease. The cancer cells are commonly genetically unstable, but only a few low-frequency recurrent fusion genes have so far been reported for this disease. In this study, we present a thorough search for novel fusion transcripts in CRC using high-throughput RNA sequencing. From altogether 220 million paired-end sequence reads from seven CRC cell lines, we identified 3391 candidate fused transcripts. By stringent requirements, we nominated 11 candidate fusion transcripts for further experimental validation, of which 10 were positive by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Six were intrachromosomal fusion transcripts, and interestingly, three of these, AKAP13-PDE8A, COMMD10-AP3S1, and CTB-35F21.1-PSD2, were present in, respectively, 18, 18, and 20 of 21 analyzed cell lines and in, respectively, 18, 61, and 48 (17%-58%) of 106 primary cancer tissues. These three fusion transcripts were also detected in 2 to 4 of 14 normal colonic mucosa samples (14%–28%). Whole-genome sequencing identified a specific genomic breakpoint in COMMD10-AP3S1 and further indicates that both the COMMD10-AP3S1 and AKAP13-PDE8A fusion transcripts are due to genomic duplications in specific cell lines. In conclusion, we have identified AKAP13-PDE8A, COMMD10-AP3S1, and CTB-35F21.1-PSD2 as novel intrachromosomal fusion transcripts and the most highly recurring chimeric transcripts described for CRC to date. The functional and clinical relevance of these chimeric RNA molecules remains to be elucidated. PMID:24151535

Nome, Torfinn; Thomassen, Gard OS; Bruun, Jarle; Ahlquist, Terje; Bakken, Anne C; Hoff, Andreas M; Rognum, Torleiv; Nesbakken, Arild; Lorenz, Susanne; Sun, Jinchang; Barros-Silva, João Diogo; Lind, Guro E; Myklebost, Ola; Teixeira, Manuel R; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Skotheim, Rolf I

2013-01-01

27

Simple multiplex RT-PCR for identifying common fusion transcripts in childhood acute leukemia.  

PubMed

Nonrandom gene rearrangements have been demonstrated in leukemic cells at diagnosis. These genetic abnormalities are associated with specific types, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of acute leukemia. Common fusion transcripts in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are TEL-AML1, E2A-PBX, MLL-AF4, and BCR-ABL (p190) and in acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL) are AML-ETO, PML-RARA, and CBFB-MYH11. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of each individual fusion transcript is impractical and time consuming. The purpose of this study was to develop simple RT-PCR methods to identify common fusion transcripts of newly diagnosed acute leukemia in children. Total RNA was extracted from bone marrow samples of children diagnosed with acute leukemia. Multiplex RT-PCR panel A (ALL) included primers for TEL-AML1, E2A-PBX, MLL-AF4, and BCR-ABL (p190) whereas panel B (ANLL) composed of primers for AML-ETO, PML-RARA, and CBFB-MYH11. Known leukemic cell lines were used to serve as positive controls. Eighty three children diagnosed with ALL (n = 63) and ANLL (n = 20) were included in this study. Fusion transcripts could be identified using multiplex RT-PCR panel A for ALL and panel B for ANLL in 26/83 (31.3%) cases. In ALL samples, we found TEL-AML1 = 16/63 (25.4%), E2A-PBX = 3/63 (4.8%), MLL-AF4 = 1/63 (1.6%), and BCR-ABL = 1/63 (1.6%). Four cases of AML1-ETO (20%) and one PML-RARA (5%) were found in ANLL samples. In conclusion, our simple multiplex RT-PCR for detection of fusion transcripts in childhood acute leukemia was found to be a rapid, accurate, and effective method. PMID:18665825

Pakakasama, S; Kajanachumpol, S; Kanjanapongkul, S; Sirachainan, N; Meekaewkunchorn, A; Ningsanond, V; Hongeng, S

2008-08-01

28

Identifying common components across biological network graphs using a bipartite data model  

PubMed Central

The GeneWeaver bipartite data model provides an efficient means to evaluate shared molecular components from sets derived across diverse species, disease states and biological processes. In order to adapt this model for examining related molecular components and biological networks, such as pathway or gene network data, we have developed a means to leverage the bipartite data structure to extract and analyze shared edges. Using the Pathway Commons database we demonstrate the ability to rapidly identify shared connected components among a diverse set of pathways. In addition, we illustrate how results from maximal bipartite discovery can be decomposed into hierarchical relationships, allowing shared pathway components to be mapped through various parent-child relationships to help visualization and discovery of emergent kernel driven relationships. Interrogating common relationships among biological networks and conventional GeneWeaver gene lists will increase functional specificity and reliability of the shared biological components. This approach enables self-organization of biological processes through shared biological networks. PMID:25374613

2014-01-01

29

A Genome Wide Association Study Identifies Common Variants Associated with Lipid Levels in the Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Plasma lipid levels are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several lipid-associated loci, but these loci have been identified primarily in European populations. In order to identify genetic markers for lipid levels in a Chinese population and analyze the heterogeneity between Europeans and Asians, especially Chinese, we performed a meta-analysis of two genome wide association studies on four common lipid traits including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) in a Han Chinese population totaling 3,451 healthy subjects. Replication was performed in an additional 8,830 subjects of Han Chinese ethnicity. We replicated eight loci associated with lipid levels previously reported in a European population. The loci genome wide significantly associated with TC were near DOCK7, HMGCR and ABO; those genome wide significantly associated with TG were near APOA1/C3/A4/A5 and LPL; those genome wide significantly associated with LDL were near HMGCR, ABO and TOMM40; and those genome wide significantly associated with HDL were near LPL, LIPC and CETP. In addition, an additive genotype score of eight SNPs representing the eight loci that were found to be associated with lipid levels was associated with higher TC, TG and LDL levels (P = 5.52×10-16, 1.38×10-6 and 5.59×10-9, respectively). These findings suggest the cumulative effects of multiple genetic loci on plasma lipid levels. Comparisons with previous GWAS of lipids highlight heterogeneity in allele frequency and in effect size for some loci between Chinese and European populations. The results from our GWAS provided comprehensive and convincing evidence of the genetic determinants of plasma lipid levels in a Chinese population. PMID:24386095

Wu, Chen; Yang, Handong; Yu, Dianke; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wang, Yiqin; Sun, Jielin; Gao, Yong; Tan, Aihua; He, Yunfeng; Zhang, Haiying; Qin, Xue; Zhu, Jingwen; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu; Zhu, Jiang; Min, Xinwen; Lang, Mingjian; Li, Dongfeng; Zhai, Kan; Chang, Jiang; Tan, Wen; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Weihong; Wang, Youjie; Wei, Sheng; Miao, Xiaoping; Wang, Feng; Fang, Weimin; Liang, Yuan; Deng, Qifei; Dai, Xiayun; Lin, Dafeng; Huang, Suli; Guo, Huan; Lilly Zheng, S.; Xu, Jianfeng; Lin, Dongxin; Hu, Frank B.; Wu, Tangchun

2013-01-01

30

Pleiotropy among Common Genetic Loci Identified for Cardiometabolic Disorders and C-Reactive Protein  

PubMed Central

Pleiotropic genetic variants have independent effects on different phenotypes. C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with several cardiometabolic phenotypes. Shared genetic backgrounds may partially underlie these associations. We conducted a genome-wide analysis to identify the shared genetic background of inflammation and cardiometabolic phenotypes using published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We also evaluated whether the pleiotropic effects of such loci were biological or mediated in nature. First, we examined whether 283 common variants identified for 10 cardiometabolic phenotypes in GWAS are associated with CRP level. Second, we tested whether 18 variants identified for serum CRP are associated with 10 cardiometabolic phenotypes. We used a Bonferroni corrected p-value of 1.1×10-04 (0.05/463) as a threshold of significance. We evaluated the independent pleiotropic effect on both phenotypes using individual level data from the Women Genome Health Study. Evaluating the genetic overlap between inflammation and cardiometabolic phenotypes, we found 13 pleiotropic regions. Additional analyses showed that 6 regions (APOC1, HNF1A, IL6R, PPP1R3B, HNF4A and IL1F10) appeared to have a pleiotropic effect on CRP independent of the effects on the cardiometabolic phenotypes. These included loci where individuals carrying the risk allele for CRP encounter higher lipid levels and risk of type 2 diabetes. In addition, 5 regions (GCKR, PABPC4, BCL7B, FTO and TMEM18) had an effect on CRP largely mediated through the cardiometabolic phenotypes. In conclusion, our results show genetic pleiotropy among inflammation and cardiometabolic phenotypes. In addition to reverse causation, our data suggests that pleiotropic genetic variants partially underlie the association between CRP and cardiometabolic phenotypes. PMID:25768928

Ligthart, Symen; de Vries, Paul S.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Dehghan, Abbas

2015-01-01

31

Identifying Patients Most Likely to Have a Common Bile Duct Stone After a Positive Intraoperative Cholangiogram  

PubMed Central

The false-positive rates of a positive intraoperative cholangiogram (IOC) are as high as 60%. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for stone removal is required after a positive IOC. It is unclear which clinical factors identify patients most likely to have a stone after a positive IOC. This study was conducted to identify factors predictive of common bile duct (CBD) stone(s) on ERCP after a positive IOC. A retrospective review of our endoscopic database identified all ERCP and/or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) procedures performed for a positive IOC between August 2003 and August 2009. Collected data included patient demographics; indication for cholecystectomy; IOC findings; blood tests before and after cholecystectomy, including liver function tests, complete blood count, and amylase and lipase measurements; and ERCP and/or EUS results. Patients who had a negative EUS for CBD stones and no subsequent ERCP were contacted by phone to see if they eventually required an ERCP. Univariate and multi-variable analyses were performed. A total of 114 patients were included in the study. IOC findings included a single stone, multiple stones, nonpassage of contrast into the duodenum, dilated CBD, and poor visualization of the bile duct. Eighty-four percent of patients had ERCP only, 9% had EUS only, and 7% had EUS followed by ERCP. Sixty-five patients (57%) had CBD stones on ERCP or EUS. Older age, multiple stones, dilated CBD on IOC, and elevated postcholecystectomy bilirubin levels were the clinical variables with statistically significant differences on univariate analysis. On multivariable analysis, older age and elevated postcholecystectomy total bilirubin levels correlated with the presence of CBD stones on ERCP. Fifty-seven percent of patients referred for endoscopic evaluation after a positive IOC had CBD stones on ERCP. Patients with CBD stones after a positive IOC were more likely to be older with elevated post-cholecystectomy total serum bilirubin levels. PMID:24976807

Conway, Jason; Mishra, Girish; Baillie, John; Gilliam, John; Fernandez, Adolfo; Evans, John

2014-01-01

32

Faecal retention: a common cause in functional bowel disorders, appendicitis and haemorrhoids - with medical and surgical therapy.  

PubMed

The present studies explored whether faecal retention in the colon is a causative factor in functional bowel disease, appendicitis, and haemorrhoids. Faecal retention was characterized by colon transit time (CTT) after radio-opaque marker ingestion and estimation of faecal loading on abdominal radiographs at 48 h and 96 h. Specific hypotheses were tested in patients (n = 251 plus 281) and in healthy random controls (n = 44). A questionnaire was completed for each patient, covering abdominal and anorectal symptoms and without a priori grouping. Patients with functional bowel disorders, predominantly women, had a significantly increased CTT and faecal load compared to controls. The CTT was significantly and positively correlated with segmental and total faecal loading. The faecal load was equal at 48 h and 96 h, mirroring the presence of permanent faecal reservoirs. In these first clinical studies to correlate bowel symptoms with CTT and colon faecal loading, abdominal bloating was significantly correlated with faecal loading in the right colon, total faecal load, and CTT. Abdominal pain was significantly and positively correlated to distal faecal loading and significantly associated with bloating. A new phenomenon with a high faecal load and a normal CTT was observed in a subset of patients (n = 90), proving faecal retention as hidden constipation. The CTT and faecal load were significantly higher in the right-side compared to the left and distal segments. Within the control group of healthy persons, the right-sided faecal load was significantly greater than the left and distal load. The CTT and faecal load significantly positively correlated with a palpable mass in the left iliac fossa and meteorism. Cluster analysis revealed that CTT and faecal load positively correlated with a symptom factor consisting of bloating, proctalgia and infrequent defecation of solid faeces. On the other hand, CTT and faecal load negatively correlated with a symptom factor comprising frequent easy defecations, repetitiveness, and incompleteness with solid or liquid faeces. The majority of patients with a heavy faecal load but normal CTT had repetitive daily defecation, mostly with ease and with altering faecal consistence. Flue-like episodes co-existed in symptom factors with abdominal pain and meteorism, and these symptoms together with a palpable right iliac fossa mass and tenderness, and in other factors with seldom and difficult defecation, and with epigastric discomfort and halitosis. Patients with seldom and difficult defecation of solid faeces experienced abdominal pain significantly more often and presented a palpable mass in the right iliac fossa with tenderness and meteorism. The CTT was significantly prolonged and faecal load significantly increased. In patients with a normal CTT and increased faecal load, only patients with abdominal pain had a significant correlation between faecal loading and bloating. CTT and faecal load were shown for the first time to increase significantly with the number of colonic redundancies (colon length), which also resulted in significantly increased bloating and pain. Intervention with a bowel stimulation regimen combining a fibre-rich diet, fluid, physical activity, and a prokinetic drug was essential to proving that abdominal symptoms and defecation disorders are caused by faecal retention, with or without a prolonged CTT. The CTT was significantly reduced, as was faecal load. Bloating and pain were reduced significantly. The defecation became easy with solid faeces, towards one per day and with significant reductions in incompleteness and repetitiveness. Proctalgia and flue-like episodes were significantly reduced. The intervention significantly reduced the presence of a tender palpable mass in the right fossa and rectal constipation. In patients with a normal CTT but increased faecal load, the intervention did not significantly change the CTT or load, but bloating and pain were significantly reduced, just as defecation improved overall. The novel knowledge of faecal retention in the patients does

Raahave, Dennis

2015-03-01

33

Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Shared Risk Loci Common to Two Malignancies in Golden Retrievers.  

PubMed

Dogs, with their breed-determined limited genetic background, are great models of human disease including cancer. Canine B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma are both malignancies of the hematologic system that are clinically and histologically similar to human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and angiosarcoma, respectively. Golden retrievers in the US show significantly elevated lifetime risk for both B-cell lymphoma (6%) and hemangiosarcoma (20%). We conducted genome-wide association studies for hemangiosarcoma and B-cell lymphoma, identifying two shared predisposing loci. The two associated loci are located on chromosome 5, and together contribute ~20% of the risk of developing these cancers. Genome-wide p-values for the top SNP of each locus are 4.6×10-7 and 2.7×10-6, respectively. Whole genome resequencing of nine cases and controls followed by genotyping and detailed analysis identified three shared and one B-cell lymphoma specific risk haplotypes within the two loci, but no coding changes were associated with the risk haplotypes. Gene expression analysis of B-cell lymphoma tumors revealed that carrying the risk haplotypes at the first locus is associated with down-regulation of several nearby genes including the proximal gene TRPC6, a transient receptor Ca2+-channel involved in T-cell activation, among other functions. The shared risk haplotype in the second locus overlaps the vesicle transport and release gene STX8. Carrying the shared risk haplotype is associated with gene expression changes of 100 genes enriched for pathways involved in immune cell activation. Thus, the predisposing germ-line mutations in B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma appear to be regulatory, and affect pathways involved in T-cell mediated immune response in the tumor. This suggests that the interaction between the immune system and malignant cells plays a common role in the tumorigenesis of these relatively different cancers. PMID:25642983

Tonomura, Noriko; Elvers, Ingegerd; Thomas, Rachael; Megquier, Kate; Turner-Maier, Jason; Howald, Cedric; Sarver, Aaron L; Swofford, Ross; Frantz, Aric M; Ito, Daisuke; Mauceli, Evan; Arendt, Maja; Noh, Hyun Ji; Koltookian, Michele; Biagi, Tara; Fryc, Sarah; Williams, Christina; Avery, Anne C; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Barber, Lisa; Burgess, Kristine; Lander, Eric S; Karlsson, Elinor K; Azuma, Chieko; Modiano, Jaime F; Breen, Matthew; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

2015-02-01

34

Common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance identified using the proxy-phenotype method  

PubMed Central

We identify common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance using a two-stage approach, which we call the proxy-phenotype method. First, we conduct a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in a large sample (n = 106,736), which produces a set of 69 education-associated SNPs. Second, using independent samples (n = 24,189), we measure the association of these education-associated SNPs with cognitive performance. Three SNPs (rs1487441, rs7923609, and rs2721173) are significantly associated with cognitive performance after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. In an independent sample of older Americans (n = 8,652), we also show that a polygenic score derived from the education-associated SNPs is associated with memory and absence of dementia. Convergent evidence from a set of bioinformatics analyses implicates four specific genes (KNCMA1, NRXN1, POU2F3, and SCRT). All of these genes are associated with a particular neurotransmitter pathway involved in synaptic plasticity, the main cellular mechanism for learning and memory. PMID:25201988

Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Esko, Tõnu; Davies, Gail; Pers, Tune H.; Turley, Patrick; Benyamin, Beben; Chabris, Christopher F.; Emilsson, Valur; Johnson, Andrew D.; Lee, James J.; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Medland, Sarah E.; Miller, Michael B.; Rostapshova, Olga; van der Lee, Sven J.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Amin, Najaf; Conley, Dalton; Derringer, Jaime; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Franke, Lude; Glaeser, Edward L.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hayward, Caroline; Iacono, William G.; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla; Jaddoe, Vincent; Karjalainen, Juha; Laibson, David; Lichtenstein, Paul; Liewald, David C.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; McMahon, George; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pinker, Steven; Porteous, David J.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Smith, Blair H.; Starr, John M.; Tiemeier, Henning; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Uitterlinden, André G.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ward, Mary E.; Wright, Margaret J.; Davey Smith, George; Deary, Ian J.; Johannesson, Magnus; Plomin, Robert; Visscher, Peter M.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Koellinger, Philipp D.

2014-01-01

35

Root Cause Analysis Reports Help Identify Common Factors In Delayed Diagnosis And Treatment Of Outpatients  

PubMed Central

Delays in diagnosis and treatment are widely considered to be threats to outpatient safety. However, few studies have identified and described what factors contribute to delays that might result in patient harm in the outpatient setting. We analyzed 111 root cause analysis reports that investigated such delays and were submitted to the Veterans Affairs National Center for Patient Safety in the period 2005–12. The most common contributing factors noted in the reports included coordination problems resulting from inadequate follow-up planning, delayed scheduling for unspecified reasons, inadequate tracking of test results, and the absence of a system to track patients in need of short-term follow-up. Other contributing factors were team-level decision making problems resulting from miscommunication of urgency between providers and providers' lack of awareness of or knowledge about a patient's situation; and communication failures among providers, patients, and other health care team members. Our findings suggest that to support care goals in the Affordable Care Act and the National Quality Strategy, even relatively sophisticated electronic health record systems will require enhancements. At the same time, policy initiatives should support programs to implement, and perhaps reward the use of, more rigorous interprofessional teamwork principles to improve outpatient communication and coordination. PMID:23918480

Giardina, Traber Davis; King, Beth J.; Ignaczak, Aartee; Paull, Douglas E.; Hoeksema, Laura; Mills, Peter D.; Neily, Julia; Hemphill, Robin R.; Singh, Hardeep

2013-01-01

36

Molecular profiling of experimental endometriosis identified gene expression patterns in common with human disease  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To validate a rat model of endometriosis using cDNA microarrays by identifying common gene expression patterns beween experimental and natural disease. DESIGN Autotransplantation rat model. SETTING Medical school department. ANIMALS Female Sprague-Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS Endometriosis was surgically-induced by suturing uterine horn implants next to the small intestine’s mesentery. Control rats received sutures with no implants. After 60 days, endometriotic implants and uterine horn were obtained. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Gene expression levels determined by cDNA microarrays and QRT-PCR. METHODS Cy5-labeled cDNA was synthesized from total RNA obtained from endometriotic implants. Cy3-labeled cDNA was synthesized using uterine RNA from a control rat. Gene expression levels were analyzed after hybridizing experimental and control labeled cDNA to PIQOR™ Toxicology Rat Microarrays (Miltenyi Biotec) containing 1,252 known genes. Cy5/Cy3 ratios were determined and genes with >2-fold higher or <0.5-fold lower expression levels were selected. Microarray results were validated by QRT-PCR. RESULTS We observed differential expression of genes previously shown to be upregulated in patients, including growth factors, inflammatory cytokines/receptors, tumor invasion/metastasis factors, adhesion molecules, and anti-apoptotic factors. CONCLUSIONS This study presents evidence in support of using this rat model to study the natural history of endometriosis and test novel therapeutics for this incurable disease. PMID:17478174

Flores, Idhaliz; Rivera, Elizabeth; Ruiz, Lynnette A.; Santiago, Olga I.; Vernon, Michael W.; Appleyard, Caroline B.

2007-01-01

37

Common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance identified using the proxy-phenotype method.  

PubMed

We identify common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance using a two-stage approach, which we call the proxy-phenotype method. First, we conduct a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in a large sample (n = 106,736), which produces a set of 69 education-associated SNPs. Second, using independent samples (n = 24,189), we measure the association of these education-associated SNPs with cognitive performance. Three SNPs (rs1487441, rs7923609, and rs2721173) are significantly associated with cognitive performance after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. In an independent sample of older Americans (n = 8,652), we also show that a polygenic score derived from the education-associated SNPs is associated with memory and absence of dementia. Convergent evidence from a set of bioinformatics analyses implicates four specific genes (KNCMA1, NRXN1, POU2F3, and SCRT). All of these genes are associated with a particular neurotransmitter pathway involved in synaptic plasticity, the main cellular mechanism for learning and memory. PMID:25201988

Rietveld, Cornelius A; Esko, Tõnu; Davies, Gail; Pers, Tune H; Turley, Patrick; Benyamin, Beben; Chabris, Christopher F; Emilsson, Valur; Johnson, Andrew D; Lee, James J; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Marioni, Riccardo E; Medland, Sarah E; Miller, Michael B; Rostapshova, Olga; van der Lee, Sven J; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Amin, Najaf; Conley, Dalton; Derringer, Jaime; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Franke, Lude; Glaeser, Edward L; Hansell, Narelle K; Hayward, Caroline; Iacono, William G; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla; Jaddoe, Vincent; Karjalainen, Juha; Laibson, David; Lichtenstein, Paul; Liewald, David C; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; McMahon, George; Pedersen, Nancy L; Pinker, Steven; Porteous, David J; Posthuma, Danielle; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Smith, Blair H; Starr, John M; Tiemeier, Henning; Timpson, Nicholas J; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Uitterlinden, André G; Verhulst, Frank C; Ward, Mary E; Wright, Margaret J; Davey Smith, George; Deary, Ian J; Johannesson, Magnus; Plomin, Robert; Visscher, Peter M; Benjamin, Daniel J; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D

2014-09-23

38

Developing germplasm resources to identify the genetic basis of resistance to common scab in potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Common scab, caused mainly by the soil-borne bacterium Streptomyces scabies, produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing tuber quality and profitability. Methods to manage common scab are often expensive, impractical, and can be ineffective. Therefore, creating cultivars that are resistant to common...

39

School Grounds Guide: A Pictured Guide for Identifying Common Organisms Found In and Around the School Ground.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for quick, easy identification of some of the most commonly encountered organisms found in and around the school ground, this illustrated guide identifies by a picture and a short biological description the common animals and plants found in and around school lawns, house lawns, parks, fence rows, flower gardens, vacant lots, and…

Bain, Rodney

40

Probabilistic latent semantic analysis applied to whole bacterial genomes identifies common genomic features.  

PubMed

The spread of drug resistance amongst clinically-important bacteria is a serious, and growing, problem [1]. However, the analysis of entire genomes requires considerable computational effort, usually including the assembly of the genome and subsequent identification of genes known to be important in pathology. An alternative approach is to use computational algorithms to identify genomic differences between pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria, even without knowing the biological meaning of those differences. To overcome this problem, a range of techniques for dimensionality reduction have been developed. One such approach is known as latent-variable models [2]. In latent-variable models dimensionality reduction is achieved by representing a high-dimensional data by a few hidden or latent variables, which are not directly observed but inferred from the observed variables present in the model. Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing (PLSA) is an extention of LSA [3]. PLSA is based on a mixture decomposition derived from a latent class model. The main objective of the algorithm, as in LSA, is to represent high-dimensional co-occurrence information in a lower-dimensional way in order to discover the hidden semantic structure of the data using a probabilistic framework. In this work we applied the PLSA approach to analyse the common genomic features in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, using tokens derived from amino acid sequences rather than DNA. We characterised genome-scale amino acid sequences in terms of their components, and then investigated the relationships between genomes and tokens and the phenotypes they generated. As a control we used the non-pathogenic model Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. PMID:24980693

Rusakovica, Julija; Hallinan, Jennifer; Wipat, Anil; Zuliani, Paolo

2014-01-01

41

Identifying strategies to maximise recruitment and retention of practices and patients in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of an intervention to optimise secondary prevention for coronary heart disease in primary care. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Identifying strategies to maximise recruitment and retention of practices and patients in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of an intervention to optimise secondary prevention for coronary heart disease in primary care.

42

Identifying and Reconstructing Common Cold Misconceptions among Developing K-12 Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Common cold misconceptions may contribute to ill-informed decisions and recommendations made by K-12 educators who often encounter infected students. Understanding the structure of educators' misconceptions can be used to improve health instruction in teacher professional preparation programs. Purpose: The purposes of this project were…

Johnson, Marcus Lee; Bungum, Timothy

2013-01-01

43

Metabolic and cardiovascular traits: an abundance of recently identified common genetic variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome-wide association studies are providing new insights into the genetic basis of metabolic and cardi- ovascular traits. In the past 3 years, common variants in 50 loci have been strongly associated with meta- bolic and cardiovascular traits. Several of these loci have implicated genes without a previously known connection with metabolism. Further studies will be required to characterize the full

Karen L. Mohlke; Michael Boehnke; Goncalo R. Abecasis

2008-01-01

44

Meta-Analysis of 28,141 Individuals Identifies Common Variants within Five New Loci That Influence Uric Acid  

E-print Network

Meta-Analysis of 28,141 Individuals Identifies Common Variants within Five New Loci That Influence's College London, London, United Kingdom, 11 The Diabetes Inflammation Laboratory, Cambridge Institute of Medical Research, Cambridge University, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 12 Department of Cardiovascular

Nyholt, Dale R.

45

The Genome Sequence of the Emerging Common Midwife Toad Virus Identifies an Evolutionary Intermediate within Ranaviruses  

PubMed Central

Worldwide amphibian population declines have been ascribed to global warming, increasing pollution levels, and other factors directly related to human activities. These factors may additionally be favoring the emergence of novel pathogens. In this report, we have determined the complete genome sequence of the emerging common midwife toad ranavirus (CMTV), which has caused fatal disease in several amphibian species across Europe. Phylogenetic and gene content analyses of the first complete genomic sequence from a ranavirus isolated in Europe show that CMTV is an amphibian-like ranavirus (ALRV). However, the CMTV genome structure is novel and represents an intermediate evolutionary stage between the two previously described ALRV groups. We find that CMTV clusters with several other ranaviruses isolated from different hosts and locations which might also be included in this novel ranavirus group. This work sheds light on the phylogenetic relationships within this complex group of emerging, disease-causing viruses. PMID:22301140

Mavian, Carla; López-Bueno, Alberto; Balseiro, Ana; Casais, Rosa; Alcamí, Antonio

2012-01-01

46

Genome-wide association identifies diverse causes of common variable immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Background Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous immune defect characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, failure of specific antibody production, susceptibility to infections, and an array of comorbidities. Objective To address the underlying immunopathogenesis of CVID and comorbidities, we conducted the first genome-wide association and gene copy number variation (CNV) study in patients with CVID. Methods Three hundred sixty-three patients with CVID from 4 study sites were genotyped with 610,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Patients were divided into a discovery cohort of 179 cases in comparison with 1,917 control subjects and a replication cohort of 109 cases and 1,114 control subjects. Results Our analyses detected strong association with the MHC region and association with a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) genes (P combined = 1.96 × 10?7) replicated in the independent cohort. CNV analysis defined 16 disease-associated deletions and duplications, including duplication of origin recognition complex 4L (ORC4L) that was unique to 15 cases (P = 8.66 × 10?16), as well as numerous unique rare intraexonic deletions and duplications suggesting multiple novel genetic causes of CVID. Furthermore, the 1,000 most significant SNPs were strongly predictive of the CVID phenotype by using a Support Vector Machine algorithm with positive and negative predictive values of 1.0 and 0.957, respectively. Conclusion Our integrative genome-wide analysis of SNP genotypes and CNVs has uncovered multiple novel susceptibility loci for CVID, both common and rare, which is consistent with the highly heterogeneous nature of CVID. These results provide new mechanistic insights into immunopathogenesis based on these unique genetic variations and might allow for improved diagnosis of CVID based on accurate prediction of the CVID clinical phenotypes by using our Support Vector Machine model. PMID:21497890

Orange, Jordan S.; Glessner, Joseph T.; Resnick, Elena; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Lucas, Mary; Ferry, Berne; Kim, Cecilia E.; Hou, Cuiping; Wang, Fengxiang; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Kugathasan, Subra; Sleasman, John W.; Baldassano, Robert; Perez, Elena E.; Chapel, Helen; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Hakonarson, Hakon

2013-01-01

47

Nine endangered taxa, one recovering ecosystem: Identifying common ground for recovery on Santa Cruz Island, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is not uncommon to have several rare and listed taxa occupying habitats in one landscape or management area where conservation amounts to defense against the possibility of further loss. It is uncommon and extremely exciting, however, to have several listed taxa occupying one island that is managed cooperatively for conservation and recovery. On Santa Cruz Island, the largest of the northern California island group in the Santa Barbara Channel, we have a golden opportunity to marry ecological knowledge and institutional "good will" in a field test of holistic rare plant conservation. Here, the last feral livestock have been removed, active weed control is underway, and management is focused on understanding and demonstrating system response to conservation management. Yet funding limitations still exist and we need to plan the most fiscally conservative and marketable approach to rare plant restoration. We still experience the tension between desirable quick results and the ecological pace of system recovery. Therefore, our research has focused on identifying fundamental constraints on species recovery at individual, demographic, habitat, and ecosystem levels, and then developing suites of actions that might be taken across taxa and landscapes. At the same time, we seek a performance middle ground that balances an institutional need for quick demonstration of hands-on positive results with a contrasting approach that allows ecosystem recovery to facilitate species recovery in the long term. We find that constraints vary across breeding systems, life-histories, and island locations. We take a hybrid approach in which we identify several actions that we can take now to enhance population size or habitat occupancy for some taxa by active restoration, while allowing others to recover at the pace of ecosystem change. We make our recommendations on the basis of data we have collected over the last decade, so that management is firmly grounded in ecological observation.

McEachern, A. Kathryn; Wilken, Dieter H.

2011-01-01

48

Emergency imaging discrepancy rates at a level 1 trauma center: identifying the most common on-call resident "misses".  

PubMed

The focus of our research is to identify the most frequently reported on-call discrepancies at our hospital by modality and level of resident training. Our intent is to identify specific areas of concern that may be amenable to improvement through initiation of dedicated resident training in the field of emergency radiology. Our study included 648 significant discrepancies from 193,722 studies ordered through the emergency department over a 7-year period. The overall discrepancy rates were calculated for each resident level of training and modality type. Significance was determined using ?2 testing with ??=?0.05. The most common types of discrepancies were identified. The overall rate of reported discrepancies was low for all levels of training (0.23-0.42 %) with a small, but statistically significant, decrease in rate for the senior residents. Common categories of discrepancies for all residents included fractures on radiographs (XR) and computed tomography (CT), masses and hemorrhage on CT, and lung nodules and pulmonary infiltrates on radiographs. Specific discrepancies reported more frequently for new call-takers included phalangeal fractures on XR as well as white matter disease, hepatic lacerations, pyelonephritis, peritoneal fluid, lymphadenopathy, and pneumothoraces on CT. It is our recommendation that radiology resident training programs ensure that the common discrepancies illustrated herein are specifically addressed as part of a dedicated emergency radiology course. PMID:23887692

Tomich, Jennifer; Retrouvey, Michele; Shaves, Sarah

2013-12-01

49

Genome Wide Association Identifies Common Variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 Locus Influencing Plasma Cortisol and Corticosteroid Binding Globulin  

PubMed Central

Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30–60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma), and SERPINA1, encoding ?1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG). Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136) influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases. PMID:25010111

Direk, Nese; Lewis, John G.; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Hill, Lesley A.; Anderson, Anna; Huffman, Jennifer; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan; Hastie, Nicholas; Wild, Sarah H.; Velders, Fleur P.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kaakinen, Marika; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Davey Smith, George; Ring, Susan M.; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Tanaka, Toshiko; Milaneschi, Yuri; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; van der Harst, Pim; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Bakker, Stephen J. L.; Verweij, Niek; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Morris, Andrew; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Anderson, Laura N.; Pennell, Craig E.; Lye, Stephen J.; Matthews, Stephen G.; Eriksson, Joel; Mellstrom, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes; Price, Jackie F.; Strachan, Mark W. J.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Tiemeier, Henning; Walker, Brian R.

2014-01-01

50

Genome wide association identifies common variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 locus influencing plasma cortisol and corticosteroid binding globulin.  

PubMed

Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30-60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma), and SERPINA1, encoding ?1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG). Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136) influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases. PMID:25010111

Bolton, Jennifer L; Hayward, Caroline; Direk, Nese; Lewis, John G; Hammond, Geoffrey L; Hill, Lesley A; Anderson, Anna; Huffman, Jennifer; Wilson, James F; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan; Hastie, Nicholas; Wild, Sarah H; Velders, Fleur P; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G; Kaakinen, Marika; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J; Davey Smith, George; Ring, Susan M; Evans, David M; St Pourcain, Beate; Tanaka, Toshiko; Milaneschi, Yuri; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; van der Harst, Pim; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Bakker, Stephen J L; Verweij, Niek; Dullaart, Robin P F; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Morris, Andrew; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Anderson, Laura N; Pennell, Craig E; Lye, Stephen J; Matthews, Stephen G; Eriksson, Joel; Mellstrom, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes; Price, Jackie F; Strachan, Mark W J; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Tiemeier, Henning; Walker, Brian R

2014-07-01

51

A Pan-Cancer Modular Regulatory Network Analysis to Identify Common and Cancer-Specific Network Components  

PubMed Central

Many human diseases including cancer are the result of perturbations to transcriptional regulatory networks that control context-specific expression of genes. A comparative approach across multiple cancer types is a powerful approach to illuminate the common and specific network features of this family of diseases. Recent efforts from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) have generated large collections of functional genomic data sets for multiple types of cancers. An emerging challenge is to devise computational approaches that systematically compare these genomic data sets across different cancer types that identify common and cancer-specific network components. We present a module- and network-based characterization of transcriptional patterns in six different cancers being studied in TCGA: breast, colon, rectal, kidney, ovarian, and endometrial. Our approach uses a recently developed regulatory network reconstruction algorithm, modular regulatory network learning with per gene information (MERLIN), within a stability selection framework to predict regulators for individual genes and gene modules. Our module-based analysis identifies a common theme of immune system processes in each cancer study, with modules statistically enriched for immune response processes as well as targets of key immune response regulators from the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) families. Comparison of the inferred regulatory networks from each cancer type identified a core regulatory network that included genes involved in chromatin remodeling, cell cycle, and immune response. Regulatory network hubs included genes with known roles in specific cancer types as well as genes with potentially novel roles in different cancer types. Overall, our integrated module and network analysis recapitulated known themes in cancer biology and additionally revealed novel regulatory hubs that suggest a complex interplay of immune response, cell cycle, and chromatin remodeling across multiple cancers. PMID:25374456

Knaack, Sara A; Siahpirani, Alireza Fotuhi; Roy, Sushmita

2014-01-01

52

Genome-wide association analyses of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm identifies multiple loci for aluminium resistance.  

PubMed

Aluminium (Al3+) toxicity restricts productivity and profitability of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops grown on acid soils worldwide. Continued gains will be obtained by identifying superior alleles and novel Al3+ resistance loci that can be incorporated into breeding programs. We used association mapping to identify genomic regions associated with Al3+ resistance using 1055 accessions of common wheat from different geographic regions of the world and 178 polymorphic diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. Bayesian analyses based on genetic distance matrices classified these accessions into 12 subgroups. Genome-wide association analyses detected markers that were significantly associated with Al3+ resistance on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 2D, 3A, 3B, 4A, 4B, 4D, 5B, 6A, 6B, 7A, and 7B. Some of these genomic regions correspond to previously identified loci for Al3+ resistance, whereas others appear to be novel. Among the markers targeting TaALMT1 (the major Al3+-resistance gene located on chromosome 4D), those that detected alleles in the promoter explained most of the phenotypic variance for Al3+ resistance, which is consistent with this region controlling the level of TaALMT1 expression. These results demonstrate that genome-wide association mapping cannot only confirm known Al3+-resistance loci, such as those on chromosomes 4D and 4B, but they also highlight the utility of this technique in identifying novel resistance loci. PMID:21076511

Raman, Harsh; Stodart, Benjamin; Ryan, Peter R; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Emebiri, Livinus; Raman, Rosy; Coombes, Neil; Milgate, Andrew

2010-11-01

53

Ugene, a newly identified protein that is commonly over-expressed in cancer, and that binds uracil DNA-glycosylase  

PubMed Central

Expression microarrays identified a novel transcript, designated as Ugene, whose expression is absent in normal colon and colon adenomas, but that is commonly induced in malignant colon cancers. These findings were validated by real-time PCR and Northern blot analysis in an independent panel of colon cancer cases. In addition, Ugene expression was found to be elevated in many other common cancer types, including, breast, lung, uterus, and ovary. Immunofluorescence of V5-tagged Ugene revealed it to have a nuclear localization. In a pull-down assay, uracil DNA-glycosylase 2 (UNG2), an important enzyme in the base excision repair pathway, was identified as a partner protein that binds to Ugene. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis confirmed the binding between the endogenous Ugene and UNG2 proteins. Using deletion constructs, we find that Ugene binds to the first 25 amino acids of the UNG2 NH2-terminus. We suggest Ugene induction in cancer may contribute to the cancer phenotype by interacting with the base excision repair pathway. PMID:18676834

Guo, Chunguang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Fink, Stephen P; Platzer, Petra; Wilson, Keith; Willson, James K. V.; Wang, Zhenghe; Markowitz, Sanford D

2008-01-01

54

Gene co-expression analysis identifies common modules related to prognosis and drug resistance in cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

To discover a common gene co-expression network in cancer cell, we applied weighted gene co-expression network analysis to transcriptional profiles of 917 cancer cell lines. Fourteen biologically meaningful modules were identified, including cytoskeleton, cell cycle, RNA splicing, signaling pathway, transcription, translation and others. These modules were robust in an independent human cancer microarray dataset. Furthermore, we collected 11 independent cancer microarray datasets, and correlated these modules with clinical outcome. Most of these modules could predict patient survival in one or more cancer types. Some modules were predictive of relapse, metastasis and drug resistance. Novel regulatory mechanisms were also implicated. In summary, our findings, for the first time, provide a modular map for cancer cell lines, new targets for therapy and modules for regulatory mechanism of cancer development and drug resistance. PMID:24771271

Liu, Wei; Li, Li; Li, Weidong

2014-12-15

55

An exome sequencing pipeline for identifying and genotyping common CNVs associated with disease with application to psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Despite the prevalence of copy number variation (CNV) in the human genome, only a handful of confirmed associations have been reported between common CNVs and complex disease. This may be partially attributed to the difficulty in accurately genotyping CNVs in large cohorts using array-based technologies. Exome sequencing is now widely being applied to case–control cohorts and presents an exciting opportunity to look for common CNVs associated with disease. Results: We developed ExoCNVTest: an exome sequencing analysis pipeline to identify disease-associated CNVs and to generate absolute copy number genotypes at putatively associated loci. Our method re-discovered the LCE3B_LCE3C CNV association with psoriasis (P-value = 5 × 10e?6) while controlling inflation of test statistics (? < 1). ExoCNVTest-derived absolute CNV genotypes were 97.4% concordant with PCR-derived genotypes at this locus. Availability and implementation: ExoCNVTest has been implemented in Java and R and is freely available from www1.imperial.ac.uk/medicine/people/l.coin/. Contact: wangj@genomics.org.cn or Lachlan.J.M.Coin@genomics.org.cn PMID:22962454

Coin, Lachlan J.M.; Cao, Dandan; Ren, Jingjing; Zuo, Xianbo; Sun, Liangdan; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Xuejun; Cui, Yong; Li, Yingrui; Jin, Xin; Wang, Jun

2012-01-01

56

The collection and retention of a range of common airborne spore types trapped directly into microtiter wells for enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collection and retention of a range of fungal spores for a novel spore trap (Microtiter immunospore trap (MTIST)), designed for use with immunoassays, was investigated in wind tunnel experiments. Concentrations of spores of Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Lycopodium clavatum, Erysiphe cruciferarum and Penicillium roqueforti, were measured using the MTIST and miniature suction traps (same characteristics as a Burkard 7

Alison Wakeham; Roy Kennedy; Alastair McCartney

2004-01-01

57

Network-based SNP meta-analysis identifies joint and disjoint genetic features across common human diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided a large set of genetic loci influencing the risk for many common diseases. Association studies typically analyze one specific trait in single populations in an isolated fashion without taking into account the potential phenotypic and genetic correlation between traits. However, GWA data can be efficiently used to identify overlapping loci with analogous or contrasting effects on different diseases. Results Here, we describe a new approach to systematically prioritize and interpret available GWA data. We focus on the analysis of joint and disjoint genetic determinants across diseases. Using network analysis, we show that variant-based approaches are superior to locus-based analyses. In addition, we provide a prioritization of disease loci based on network properties and discuss the roles of hub loci across several diseases. We demonstrate that, in general, agonistic associations appear to reflect current disease classifications, and present the potential use of effect sizes in refining and revising these agonistic signals. We further identify potential branching points in disease etiologies based on antagonistic variants and describe plausible small-scale models of the underlying molecular switches. Conclusions The observation that a surprisingly high fraction (>15%) of the SNPs considered in our study are associated both agonistically and antagonistically with related as well as unrelated disorders indicates that the molecular mechanisms influencing causes and progress of human diseases are in part interrelated. Genetic overlaps between two diseases also suggest the importance of the affected entities in the specific pathogenic pathways and should be investigated further. PMID:22988944

2012-01-01

58

Meta-Analysis of 28,141 Individuals Identifies Common Variants within Five New Loci That Influence Uric Acid Concentrations  

PubMed Central

Elevated serum uric acid levels cause gout and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To investigate the polygenetic basis of serum uric acid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans from 14 studies totalling 28,141 participants of European descent, resulting in identification of 954 SNPs distributed across nine loci that exceeded the threshold of genome-wide significance, five of which are novel. Overall, the common variants associated with serum uric acid levels fall in the following nine regions: SLC2A9 (p?=?5.2×10?201), ABCG2 (p?=?3.1×10?26), SLC17A1 (p?=?3.0×10?14), SLC22A11 (p?=?6.7×10?14), SLC22A12 (p?=?2.0×10?9), SLC16A9 (p?=?1.1×10?8), GCKR (p?=?1.4×10?9), LRRC16A (p?=?8.5×10?9), and near PDZK1 (p?=?2.7×10?9). Identified variants were analyzed for gender differences. We found that the minor allele for rs734553 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in lowering uric acid levels in women and the minor allele of rs2231142 in ABCG2 elevates uric acid levels more strongly in men compared to women. To further characterize the identified variants, we analyzed their association with a panel of metabolites. rs12356193 within SLC16A9 was associated with DL-carnitine (p?=?4.0×10?26) and propionyl-L-carnitine (p?=?5.0×10?8) concentrations, which in turn were associated with serum UA levels (p?=?1.4×10?57 and p?=?8.1×10?54, respectively), forming a triangle between SNP, metabolites, and UA levels. Taken together, these associations highlight additional pathways that are important in the regulation of serum uric acid levels and point toward novel potential targets for pharmacological intervention to prevent or treat hyperuricemia. In addition, these findings strongly support the hypothesis that transport proteins are key in regulating serum uric acid levels. PMID:19503597

Sanna, Serena; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Perola, Markus; Mangino, Massimo; Albrecht, Eva; Wallace, Chris; Farrall, Martin; Johansson, Åsa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Aulchenko, Yurii; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Campbell, Harry; Connell, John; Dominiczak, Anna; Homuth, Georg; Lamina, Claudia; McCarthy, Mark I.; Meitinger, Thomas; Mooser, Vincent; Munroe, Patricia; Nauck, Matthias; Peden, John; Prokisch, Holger; Salo, Perttu; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Waterworth, Dawn; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Wright, Alan F.; Adamski, Jerzy; Whitfield, John B.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Pramstaller, Peter; Watkins, Hugh; Doering, Angela; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Spector, Tim D.; Peltonen, Leena; Völzke, Henry; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Vollenweider, Peter; Caulfield, Mark; Illig, Thomas; Gieger, Christian

2009-01-01

59

Short non-coding RNAs as bacteria species identifiers detected by surface plasmon resonance enhanced common path interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small non-coding RNA sequences have recently been discovered as unique identifiers of certain bacterial species, raising the possibility that they can be used as highly specific Biowarfare Agent detection markers in automated field deployable integrated detection systems. Because they are present in high abundance they could allow genomic based bacterial species identification without the need for pre-assay amplification. Further, a direct detection method would obviate the need for chemical labeling, enabling a rapid, efficient, high sensitivity mechanism for bacterial detection. Surface Plasmon Resonance enhanced Common Path Interferometry (SPR-CPI) is a potentially market disruptive, high sensitivity dual technology that allows real-time direct multiplex measurement of biomolecule interactions, including small molecules, nucleic acids, proteins, and microbes. SPR-CPI measures differences in phase shift of reflected S and P polarized light under Total Internal Reflection (TIR) conditions at a surface, caused by changes in refractive index induced by biomolecular interactions within the evanescent field at the TIR interface. The measurement is performed on a microarray of discrete 2-dimensional areas functionalized with biomolecule capture reagents, allowing simultaneous measurement of up to 100 separate analytes. The optical beam encompasses the entire microarray, allowing a solid state detector system with no scanning requirement. Output consists of simultaneous voltage measurements proportional to the phase differences resulting from the refractive index changes from each microarray feature, and is automatically processed and displayed graphically or delivered to a decision making algorithm, enabling a fully automatic detection system capable of rapid detection and quantification of small nucleic acids at extremely sensitive levels. Proof-of-concept experiments on model systems and cell culture samples have demonstrated utility of the system, and efforts are in progress for full development and deployment of the device. The technology has broad applicability as a universal detection platform for BWA detection, medical diagnostics, and drug discovery research, and represents a new class of instrumentation as a rapid, high sensitivity, label-free methodology.

Greef, Charles; Petropavlovskikh, Viatcheslav; Nilsen, Oyvind; Khattatov, Boris; Plam, Mikhail; Gardner, Patrick; Hall, John

2008-04-01

60

Toward a Record Retention Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An academic library working group was charged in 2005 to create a records retention schedule and policy applicable to records containing personally identifiable information of library patrons. This group conducted a survey and extensive research, culminating in an adopted library records retention schedule and policy implemented in 2006.

Vaughan, Jason

2007-01-01

61

EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

Wagner, Howard A.

2010-01-01

62

Identifying Future Sacred Heart Administrators by Examining the Characteristics, Commonalities, and Personal Motivations of Current School Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since their inception, all schools of the Sacred Heart have been headed by nuns of the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Jesus [RSCJ]. As the years have passed, many RSCJ nuns have aged and retired leaving vacancies that have proven difficult to fill. In this qualitative study, the characteristics, commonalities, and personal motivations of Sacred…

Teixeira, Julie Brill

2012-01-01

63

Association scan of 14,500 nsSNPs in four common diseases identifies variants involved in autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

We have genotyped 14,436 nsSNPs and 897 MHC tagSNPs in 1000 independent cases of Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD), Multiple Sclerosis and Breast Cancer. Comparing each of these diseases against a common control set of 1500 unselected healthy British individuals, we report initial association and independent replication of two new loci for AS, ARTS1 and IL23R, and confirmation of the previously reported AITD association with TSHR and FCRL3. These findings, enabled in part by expanding the control reference group with individuals from the other disease groups to increase statistical power, highlight important new possibilities for autoimmune regulation and suggest that IL23R may be a common susceptibility factor for the major ‘seronegative’ diseases. PMID:17952073

2009-01-01

64

Consent to Release Education Records -for the "Common Application" The University of Oregon shall obtain written consent from students before disclosing any personally identifiable  

E-print Network

Consent to Release Education Records - for the "Common Application" The University of Oregon shall obtain written consent from students before disclosing any personally identifiable information from their education record. Such written consent for disclosure must: (a) specify the record(s) to be released; (b

Oregon, University of

65

Law, Societies, and Justice is an interdisciplinary program committed to exploring the forms of social control, institutionalized disputing, rights claiming, and justice commonly identified with  

E-print Network

Law, Societies, and Justice is an interdisciplinary program committed to exploring the forms of social control, institutionalized disputing, rights claiming, and justice commonly identified with law majors 85 Law, Societies, and Justice minors 77 Human Rights minors 1 Disability Studies major 15

Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

66

Identifiers Identifiers  

E-print Network

, July 1998. . Tim Berners­Lee: Cool URIs don't change. [http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI] Stefan://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url­primer.html] . T. Berners­Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC Names. RFC 1737, December 1994, 7 pages. . T. Berners­Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill: Uniform Resource

Brass, Stefan

67

Identifiers Identifiers  

E-print Network

, July 1998. . Tim Berners­Lee: Cool URIs don't change. [http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI] . Uniform://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url­primer.html] . T. Berners­Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC Names. RFC 1737, December 1994, 7 pages. . T. Berners­Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill: Uniform Resource

Brass, Stefan

68

Preparation and In Vivo Evaluation of Radioiodinated closo-Decaborate(2-) Derivatives to Identify Structural Components That Provide Low Retention in Tissues  

PubMed Central

Introduction In vivo deastatination of 211At-labeled biomolecules can severely limit their use in endoradiotherapy. Our studies have shown that the use of closo-decaborate(2-) moiety for 211At-labeling of biomolecules provides high in vivo stability towards deastatination. However, data from those studies have also been suggestive that some astatinated closo-decaborate(2-) catabolites may be retained in tissues. In this study, we investigated the in vivo distributions of several structurally simple closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives to gain information on the effects of functional groups if catabolites are released into the blood system from the carrier biomolecule. Methods Thirteen closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives were synthesized and radioiodinated for evaluation. Tissue concentrations of the radioiodinated compounds were obtained in groups of 5 mice at 1 and 4 h post injection (pi). Dual label (125I and 131I) experiments permitted evaluation of 2 compounds in each set of mice. Results All of the target compounds were readily synthesized. Radioiodination reactions were conducted with chloramine-T and Na[125/131I]I in water to give high yields (75-96%) of the desired compounds. Biodistribution data at 1 and 4 h pi (representing catabolites released into the blood system) showed small differences in tissue concentrations for some compounds, but large differences for others. The results indicate that formal (overall) charge on the compounds could not be used as a predictor of tissue localization or retention. However, derivatives containing carboxylate groups generally had lower tissue concentrations. Acid cleavable hydrazone functionalities appeared to be the best candidates for further study. Conclusions Further studies incorporating hydrazone functionalities into pendant groups for biomolecule radiohalogenation are warranted. PMID:20152716

Wilbur, D. Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K.; Perry, Matthew A.

2009-01-01

69

Clonal analysis identifies hemogenic endothelium as the source of the blood-endothelial common lineage in the mouse embryo  

PubMed Central

The first blood and endothelial cells of amniote embryos appear in close association in the blood islands of the yolk sac (YS). This association and in vitro lineage analyses have suggested a common origin from mesodermal precursors called hemangioblasts, specified in the primitive streak during gastrulation. Fate mapping and chimera studies, however, failed to provide strong evidence for a common origin in the early mouse YS. Additional in vitro studies suggest instead that mesodermal precursors first generate hemogenic endothelium, which then generate blood cells in a linear sequence. We conducted an in vivo clonal analysis to determine the potential of individual cells in the mouse epiblast, primitive streak, and early YS. We found that early YS blood and endothelial lineages mostly derive from independent epiblast populations, specified before gastrulation. Additionally, a subpopulation of the YS endothelium has hemogenic activity and displays characteristics similar to those found later in the embryonic hemogenic endothelium. Our results show that the earliest blood and endothelial cell populations in the mouse embryo are specified independently, and that hemogenic endothelium first appears in the YS and produces blood precursors with markers related to definitive hematopoiesis. PMID:25139355

Padrón-Barthe, Laura; Temiño, Susana; Villa del Campo, Cristina; Carramolino, Laura; Isern, Joan

2014-01-01

70

Common variants in the JAZF1 gene associated with height identified by linkage and genome-wide association analysis.  

PubMed

Genes for height have gained interest for decades, but only recently have candidate genes started to be identified. We have performed linkage analysis and genome-wide association for height in approximately 4000 individuals from five European populations. A total of five chromosomal regions showed suggestive linkage and in one of these regions, two SNPs (rs849140 and rs1635852) were associated with height (nominal P = 7.0 x 10(-8) and P = 9.6 x 10(-7), respectively). In total, five SNPs across the genome showed an association with height that reached the threshold of genome-wide significance (nominal P < 1.6 x 10(-7)). The association with height was replicated for two SNPs (rs1635852 and rs849140) using three independent studies (n = 31 077, n=1268 and n = 5746) with overall meta P-values of 9.4 x 10(-10) and 5.3 x 10(-8). These SNPs are located in the JAZF1 gene, which has recently been associated with type II diabetes, prostate and endometrial cancer. JAZF1 is a transcriptional repressor of NR2C2, which results in low IGF1 serum concentrations, perinatal and early postnatal hypoglycemia and growth retardation when knocked out in mice. Both the linkage and association analyses independently identified the JAZF1 region affecting human height. We have demonstrated, through replication in additional independent populations, the consistency of the effect of the JAZF1 SNPs on height. Since this gene also has a key function in the metabolism of growth, JAZF1 represents one of the strongest candidates influencing human height identified so far. PMID:18952825

Johansson, Asa; Marroni, Fabio; Hayward, Caroline; Franklin, Christopher S; Kirichenko, Anatoly V; Jonasson, Inger; Hicks, Andrew A; Vitart, Veronique; Isaacs, Aaron; Axenovich, Tatiana; Campbell, Susan; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Floyd, Jamie; Hastie, Nick; Hofman, Albert; Knott, Sara; Kolcic, Ivana; Pichler, Irene; Polasek, Ozren; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Tenesa, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Wild, Sarah H; Zorkoltseva, Irina V; Meitinger, Thomas; Wilson, James F; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Pattaro, Cristian; Pramstaller, Peter; Oostra, Ben A; Wright, Alan F; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Gyllensten, Ulf

2009-01-15

71

Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Common Variants Associated with Brachial Circumference: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Brachial circumference (BC), also known as upper arm or mid arm circumference, can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and fat tissue, which are distributed differently in men and women. Analysis of anthropometric measures of peripheral fat distribution such as BC could help in understanding the complex pathophysiology behind overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic variants associated with BC through a large-scale genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis. We used fixed-effects meta-analysis to synthesise summary results across 14 GWAS discovery and 4 replication cohorts comprising overall 22,376 individuals (12,031 women and 10,345 men) of European ancestry. Individual analyses were carried out for men, women, and combined across sexes using linear regression and an additive genetic model: adjusted for age and adjusted for age and BMI. We prioritised signals for follow-up in two-stages. We did not detect any signals reaching genome-wide significance. The FTO rs9939609 SNP showed nominal evidence for association (p<0.05) in the age-adjusted strata for men and across both sexes. In this first GWAS meta-analysis for BC to date, we have not identified any genome-wide significant signals and do not observe robust association of previously established obesity loci with BC. Large-scale collaborations will be necessary to achieve higher power to detect loci underlying BC. PMID:22479309

Boraska, Vesna; Day-Williams, Aaron; Franklin, Christopher S.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Albrecht, Eva; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Bochud, Murielle; Cadby, Gemma; Ernst, Florian; Evans, David M.; Hayward, Caroline; Hicks, Andrew A.; Huffman, Jennifer; Huth, Cornelia; James, Alan L.; Klopp, Norman; Kolcic, Ivana; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Musk, Arthur W.; Pehlic, Marina; Pennell, Craig E.; Perry, John R. B.; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pourcain, Beate St; Ring, Susan M.; Salvi, Erika; Schipf, Sabine; Staessen, Jan A.; Teumer, Alexander; Timpson, Nicholas; Vitart, Veronique; Warrington, Nicole M.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; An, Ping; Anttila, Verneri; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Holmen, Jostein; Ntalla, Ioanna; Palotie, Aarno; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Wedenoja, Juho; Winsvold, Bendik S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Province, Michael A.; Zwart, John-Anker; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Cusi, Daniele; Davey Smith, George; Frayling, Timothy M.; Gieger, Christian; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rudan, Igor; Völzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Wright, Alan F.; Zeggini, Eleftheria

2012-01-01

72

A genome-wide association study identifies common variants influencing serum uric acid concentrations in a Chinese population  

PubMed Central

Background Uric acid (UA) is a complex phenotype influenced by both genetic and environmental factors as well as their interactions. Current genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a variety of genetic determinants of UA in Europeans; however, such studies in Asians, especially in Chinese populations remain limited. Methods A two-stage GWAS was performed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were associated with serum uric acid (UA) in a Chinese population of 12,281 participants (GWAS discovery stage included 1452 participants from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort (DFTJ-cohort) and 1999 participants from the Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey (FAMHES). The validation stage included another independent 8830 individuals from the DFTJ-cohort). Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 chips and Illumina Omni-Express platform were used for genotyping for DFTJ-cohort and FAMHES, respectively. Gene-environment interactions on serum UA levels were further explored in 10,282 participants from the DFTJ-cohort. Results Briefly, we identified two previously reported UA loci of SLC2A9 (rs11722228, combined P = 8.98 × 10-31) and ABCG2 (rs2231142, combined P = 3.34 × 10-42). The two independent SNPs rs11722228 and rs2231142 explained 1.03% and 1.09% of the total variation of UA levels, respectively. Heterogeneity was observed across different populations. More importantly, both independent SNPs rs11722228 and rs2231142 were nominally significantly interacted with gender on serum UA levels (P for interaction = 4.0 × 10-2 and 2.0 × 10-2, respectively). The minor allele (T) for rs11722228 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in elevating serum UA levels in females compared to males and the minor allele (T) of rs2231142 in ABCG2 had stronger effects on serum UA levels in males than that in females. Conclusions Two genetic loci (SLC2A9 and ABCG2) were confirmed to be associated with serum UA concentration. These findings strongly support the evidence that SLC2A9 and ABCG2 function in UA metabolism across human populations. Furthermore, we observed these associations are modified by gender. PMID:24513273

2014-01-01

73

Implementing a clinical practice guideline to manage postpartum urinary retention.  

PubMed

Postpartum urinary retention is a common condition in obstetric units. A Clinical Practice Guideline was implemented in a high-risk obstetrical unit to decrease variance of clinical practice, rate of postpartum urinary retention, and number of urinary catheterizations and increase awareness of this common condition. Guideline implementation met the 4 aims, including a decreased rate of urinary retention. PMID:25166910

Stanley, Angela Y; Conner, Brian T

2015-01-01

74

RAN/TC4 mutants identify a common requirement for snRNP and protein import into the nucleus  

PubMed Central

Kinetic competition experiments have demonstrated that at least some factors required for the nuclear import of proteins and U snRNPs are distinct. Both import processes require energy, and in the case of protein import, the energy requirement is known to be at least partly met by GTP hydrolysis by the Ran GTPase. We have compared the effects of nonhydrolyzable GTP analogues and two mutant Ran proteins on the nuclear import of proteins and U snRNPs in vitro. The mutant Ran proteins have different defects; Q69L (glutamine 69 changed to leucine) is defective in GTP hydrolysis while T24N (threonine 24 changed to asparagine) is defective in binding GTP. Both protein and snRNP import are sensitive either to the presence of the two mutant Ran proteins, which act as dominant negative inhibitors of nuclear import, or to incubation with nonhydrolyzable GTP analogues. This demonstrates that there is a requirement for a GTPase activity for the import of U snRNPs, as well as proteins, into the nucleus. The dominant negative effects of the two mutant Ran proteins indicate that the pathways of protein and snRNP import share at lease one common component. PMID:8636225

1996-01-01

75

Molecular cloning of the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) identifies a type II integral membrane protein.  

PubMed Central

Common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) is a 100-kDa cell-surface glycoprotein expressed on most acute lymphoblastic leukemias and certain other immature lymphoid malignancies and on normal lymphoid progenitors. The latter are either uncommitted to B- or T-cell lineage or committed to only the earliest stages of B- or T-lymphocyte maturation. To elucidate to homogeneity, obtained the NH2-terminal sequence from both the intact protein and derived tryptic and V8 protease peptides and isolated CALLA cDNAs from a Nalm-6 cell line lambda gt10 library using redundant oligonucleotide probes. The CALLA cDNA sequence predicts a 750-amino acid integral membrane protein with a single 24-amino acid hydrophobic segment that could function as both a transmembrane region and a signal peptide. The COOH-terminal 700 amino acids, including six potential N-linked glycosylation sites compose the extracellular protein segment, whereas the 25 NH2-terminal amino acids remaining after cleavage of the initiation methionine form the cytoplasmic tail. CALLA+ cells contain CALLA transcripts of 2.7 to 5.7 kilobases with the major 5.7- and 3.7-kilobase mRNAs being preferentially expressed in specific cell types. Images PMID:2968607

Shipp, M A; Richardson, N E; Sayre, P H; Brown, N R; Masteller, E L; Clayton, L K; Ritz, J; Reinherz, E L

1988-01-01

76

Glutamine Sensitivity Analysis Identifies the xCT Antiporter as a Common Triple Negative Breast Tumor Therapeutic Target  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY A handful of tumor-derived cell lines form the mainstay of cancer therapeutic development, yielding drugs with impact typically measured as months to disease progression. To develop more effective breast cancer therapeutics and more readily understand their clinical impact, we constructed a functional metabolic portrait of 46 independently-derived breast cell lines. Our analysis of glutamine uptake and dependence identified a subset of triple negative samples that are glutamine auxotrophs. Ambient glutamine indirectly supports environmental cystine acquisition via the xCT antiporter, which is expressed on 1/3 of triple negative tumors in vivo. xCT inhibition with the clinically approved anti-inflammatory Sulfasalazine decreases tumor growth revealing a therapeutic target in breast tumors of poorest prognosis, and a lead compound for rapid, effective drug development. PMID:24094812

Timmerman, Luika A.; Holton, Thomas; Yuneva, Mariia; Louie, Raymond J.; Padró, Mercè; Daemen, Anneleen; Hu, Min; Chan, Denise A.; Ethier, Stephen P.; van ‘t Veer, Laura J.; Polyak, Kornelia; McCormick, Frank; Gray, Joe W.

2014-01-01

77

Evaluation of common genetic variants identified by GWAS for early onset and morbid obesity in population-based samples  

PubMed Central

Background Meta-analysis of case-control genome wide association studies (GWAS) for early onset and morbid obesity identified four variants in/near the PRL, PTER, MAF and NPC1 genes. Objective We aimed to validate association of these variants with obesity-related traits in population-based samples. Design Genotypes and anthropometric traits were available in up to 31 083 adults from the Fenland, EPIC-Norfolk, Whitehall II, Ely and Hertfordshire studies and in 2 042 children and adolescents from the European Youth Heart Study. In each study, we tested associations of rs4712652 (near-PRL), rs10508503 (near-PTER), rs1424233 (near-MAF) and rs1805081 (NPC1), or proxy variants (r2>0.8), with the odds of being overweight and obese, as well as with BMI, percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). Associations were adjusted for sex, age and age2 in adults and for sex, age, age-group, country and maturity in children and adolescents. Summary statistics were combined using fixed effects meta-analysis methods. Results We had 80% power to detect ORs of 1.046 to 1.092 for overweight and 1.067 to 1.136 for obesity. Variants near PRL, PTER and MAF were not associated with the odds of being overweight or obese, or with BMI, %BF or WC after meta-analysis (P > 0.15). The NPC1 variant rs1805081 showed some evidence of association with %BF (beta=0.013 SD/allele, P =0.040), but not with any of the remaining obesity-related traits (P >0.3). Conclusion Overall, these variants, which were identified in a GWAS for early onset and morbid obesity, do not seem to influence obesity-related traits in the general population. PMID:22430306

den Hoed, Marcel; Luan, Jian’an; Langenberg, Claudia; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Jameson, Karen; Kumari, Meena; Kivimaki, Mika; Hingorani, Aroon D; Grøntved, Anders; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ekelund, Ulf; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth JF

2013-01-01

78

Dual activators of Protein Kinase R (PKR) and Protein Kinase R Like Kinase (PERK) Identify Common and Divergent Catalytic Targets  

PubMed Central

Chemical genetics has evolved into a powerful tool for studying gene function in normal- and patho-biology. PKR and PERK, two eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2?) kinases, play critical roles in maintenance of cellular hemostasis, metabolic stability, and anti-viral defenses. Both kinases interact with and phosphorylate additional substrates including tumor suppressor p53 and nuclear protein 90. Loss of function of both kinases has been studied by reverse genetics and recently identified inhibitors. In contrast, activating probes for studying the role of catalytic activity of these kinases are not available. We identified a 3-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)-5,7-dihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one (DHBDC) as specific dual activator of PKR and PERK by screening a chemical library of 20,000 small molecules in a dual luciferase surrogate eIF2? phosphorylation assay. We present here extensive biological characterization and preliminary structure-activity relationship of DHBDC, which phosphorylate eIF2? by activating PKR and PERK but no other eIF2? kinases. These agents also activate downstream effectors of eIF2? phosphorylation; inducing CHOP and suppressing cyclin D1 expression and inhibiting cancer cell proliferation, all in a manner dependent on PKR and PERK. Consistent with the role of eIF2? phosphorylation in viral infection, DHBDC inhibits proliferation of human hepatitis C virus. Finally, DHBDC induces phosphorylation of Ik??, and activates NF-?B pathway. Surprisingly, activation of NF-?B pathway is dependent on PERK but independent of PKR activity. These data indicate that DHBDC is an invaluable probe for elucidating the role of PKR and PERK in normal- and patho-biology. PMID:23784735

Ming, Jie; Sun, Hong; Cao, Peng; Fusco, Dahlene N.; Chung, Raymond T.; Chorev, Michael; Jin, Qi; Aktas, Bertal H.

2013-01-01

79

Transcriptome Analysis of the Dihydrotestosterone-Exposed Fetal Rat Gubernaculum Identifies Common Androgen and Insulin-Like 3 Targets1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Androgens and insulin-like 3 (INSL3) are required for development of the fetal gubernaculum and testicular descent. Previous studies suggested that the INSL3-exposed fetal gubernacular transcriptome is enriched for genes involved in neural pathways. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of fetal gubernaculum explants exposed to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and compared this response to that with INSL3. We exposed fetal (Embryonic Day 17) rat gubernacula to DHT for 24 h (10 and 30 nM) or 6 h (1 and 10 nM) in organ culture and analyzed gene expression relative to that of vehicle-treated controls using Affymetrix arrays. Results were annotated using functional, pathway, and promoter analyses and independently validated for selected transcripts using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Transcripts were differentially expressed after 24 h but not 6 h. Most highly overrepresented functional categories included those related to gene expression, skeletal and muscular development and function, and Wnt signaling. Promoter response elements enriched in the DHT-specific transcriptome included consensus sequences for c-ETS1, ELK1, CREB, CRE-BP1/c-June, NRF2, and USF. We observed that 55% of DHT probe sets were also differentially expressed after INSL3 exposure and that the direction of change was the same in 96%. The qRT-PCR results confirmed that DHT increased expression of the INSL3-responsive genes Crlf1 and Chrdl2 but reduced expression of Wnt4. We also validated reduced Tgfb2 and Cxcl12 and increased Slit3 expression following DHT exposure. These data suggest a robust overlap in the DHT- and INSL3-regulated transcriptome that may be mediated in part by CREB signaling and a common Wnt pathway response for both hormones in the fetal gubernaculum. PMID:24174575

Barthold, Julia S.; Wang, Yanping; Robbins, Alan; Pike, Jack; McDowell, Erin; Johnson, Kamin J.; McCahan, Suzanne M.

2013-01-01

80

Inhibition of iron-induced lipid peroxidation by newly identified bacterial carotenoids in model gastric conditions: comparison with common carotenoids.  

PubMed

Newly identified spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria, Bacillus indicus HU36 and Bacillus firmus GB1, are sources of carotenoids (mainly 15 yellow and orange pigments and 13 pink pigments, respectively) with original structures. These bacterial carotenoids were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the iron-induced peroxidation of linoleic acid micelles, or sunflower oil-in-water emulsions, in comparison with ?-carotene, lycopene and astaxanthin. Lipid peroxidation was carried out in acidic conditions and initiated by dietary heme or non-heme iron (metmyoglobin or Fe(II), respectively) so as to simply simulate the postprandial gastric medium, a possible site for dietary oxidative stress. Lipid hydroperoxide formation and carotenoid consumption were followed by UV-vis spectroscopy and appropriate indicators of the antioxidant activity were estimated in each model. The bacterial carotenoids were found to be better inhibitors of heme-induced lipid peroxidation than the reference carotenoids as a likely consequence of their location closer to the interface in micelles and lipid droplets. However, this trend was not confirmed in lipid peroxidation induced by non-heme iron, possibly because of the redox recycling of Fe(II) by carotenoids. The quantitative kinetic analysis of the peroxidation curves suggests that the carotenoids mainly inhibit the propagation phase of lipid peroxidation by direct scavenging of the lipid peroxyl radicals, in agreement with independent experiments showing that carotenoids are unable to reduce the one-electron oxidized form of metmyoglobin (ferrylmyoglobin), a model of initiating species in heme-induced lipid peroxidation. Overall, carotenoids from Bacillus indicus HU36 and Bacillus firmus GB1 were found to be interesting antioxidants to fight postprandial oxidative stress in the stomach. PMID:23411789

Sy, Charlotte; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Dufour, Claire; Boutaleb, Malika; Borel, Patrick; Dangles, Olivier

2013-04-30

81

Modelling the fate of six common pharmaceuticals in a small stream: quantification of attenuation and retention in different stream-specific environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of pharmaceutical residues in streaming waters is common in urbanized areas. Although the occurrence and source of these micropollutants is known, their behavior in these aquatic ecosystems is still only partly understood. Specifically, quantitative information of biogeochemical processes in stream-specific environments where predominant reactions occur is often missing. In an attempt to address this knowledge gap, we performed simultaneous tracer tests in Säva Brook, Sweden, with bezafibrate, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, metoprolol and naproxen, as well as with the more inert solutes uranine and Rhodamine WT. The breakthrough curves at five successive sampling stations along a 16 km long stream reach were evaluated using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model framework containing surface water transport together with a representation of transient storage in slow/immobile zones of the stream. The multi-tracer experiment opens for decoupling of hydrological and biogeochemical contribution to the fate, and by linking impact and sensitivity analyses to relative significance of model parameters the most important processes for each contaminant were elucidated. Specifically for Säva Brook, the proposed methodology revealed that the pharmaceutical-contaminated stream water remained in the storage zones for times corresponding to 5-25% of the flow time of the stream. Furthermore, the results indicate a great variability in terms of predominant biogeochemical processes between the different contaminants. Rapid reactions occurring in the transient storage zone attenuated both ibuprofen and clofibric acid, and we conclude that a major degradation pathway for these contaminants was biodegradation in the hyporheic zone. In contrast, bezafibrate, metoprolol, and naproxen were mainly affected by sorption both in the storage zone and the main channel, while diclofenac displayed negligible effects of biogeochemical reactions.

Riml, Joakim; Wörman, Anders; Kunkel, Uwe; Radke, Michael

2013-04-01

82

A repurposing approach identifies off-patent drugs with fungicidal cryptococcal activity, a common structural chemotype, and pharmacological properties relevant to the treatment of cryptococcosis.  

PubMed

New, more accessible therapies for cryptococcosis represent an unmet clinical need of global importance. We took a repurposing approach to identify previously developed drugs with fungicidal activity toward Cryptococcus neoformans, using a high-throughput screening assay designed to detect drugs that directly kill fungi. From a set of 1,120 off-patent medications and bioactive molecules, we identified 31 drugs/molecules with fungicidal activity, including 15 drugs for which direct antifungal activity had not previously been reported. A significant portion of the drugs are orally bioavailable and cross the blood-brain barrier, features key to the development of a widely applicable anticryptococcal agent. Structural analysis of this set revealed a common chemotype consisting of a hydrophobic moiety linked to a basic amine, features that are common to drugs that cross the blood-brain barrier and access the phagolysosome, two important niches of C. neoformans. Consistent with their fungicidal activity, the set contains eight drugs that are either additive or synergistic in combination with fluconazole. Importantly, we identified two drugs, amiodarone and thioridazine, with activity against intraphagocytic C. neoformans. Finally, the set of drugs is also enriched for molecules that inhibit calmodulin, and we have confirmed that seven drugs directly bind C. neoformans calmodulin, providing a molecular target that may contribute to the mechanism of antifungal activity. Taken together, these studies provide a foundation for the optimization of the antifungal properties of a set of pharmacologically attractive scaffolds for the development of novel anticryptococcal therapies. PMID:23243064

Butts, Arielle; DiDone, Louis; Koselny, Kristy; Baxter, Bonnie K; Chabrier-Rosello, Yeissa; Wellington, Melanie; Krysan, Damian J

2013-02-01

83

Comparative gene expression analysis in mouse models for multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and stroke for identifying commonly regulated and disease-specific gene changes  

PubMed Central

The brain responds to injury and infection by activating innate defense and tissue repair mechanisms. Working upon the hypothesis that the brain defense response involves common genes and pathways across diverse pathologies, we analysed global gene expression in brain from mouse models representing three major central nervous system disorders, cerebral stroke, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease compared to normal brain using DNA microarray expression profiling. A comparison of dysregulated genes across disease models revealed common genes and pathways including key components of estrogen and TGF-? signaling pathways that have been associated with neuroprotection as well as a neurodegeneration mediator, TRPM7. Further, for each disease model, we discovered collections of differentially expressed genes that provide novel insight into the individual pathology and its associated mechanisms. Our data provide a resource for exploring the complex molecular mechanisms that underlie brain neurodegeneration and a new approach for identifying generic and disease-specific targets for therapy. PMID:20435134

Tseveleki, Vivian; Rubio, Renee; Vamvakas, Sotiris-Spyros; White, Joseph; Taoufik, Era; Petit, Edwige; Quackenbush, John; Probert, Lesley

2014-01-01

84

Deep sequencing of RYR3 gene identifies rare and common variants associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in HIV-infected individuals.  

PubMed

Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a subclinical measure of atherosclerosis with mounting evidence that higher cIMT confers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The ryanodine receptor 3 gene (RYR3) has previously been linked to increased cIMT; however, the causal variants have not yet been localized. Therefore, we sequenced 339,480 bp encompassing 104 exons and 2?kb flanking region of the RYR3 gene in 96 HIV-positive white men from the extremes of the distribution of common cIMT from the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Changes in HIV infection study (FRAM). We identified 2710 confirmed variants (2414 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 296 insertion/deletions (indels)), with a mean count of 736 SNPs (ranging from 528 to 1032) and 170 indels (ranging from 128 to 214) distributed in each individual. There were 39 variants in the exons and 15 of these were non-synonymous, of which with only 4 were common variants and the remaining 11 were rare variants, one was a novel SNP. We confirmed that the common variant rs2229116 was significantly associated with cIMT in this design (P<7.9 × 10(-9)), and observed seven other significantly associated SNPs (P<10(-8)). These variants including the private non-synonymous SNPs need to be followed up in a larger sample size and also tested with clinical atherosclerotic outcomes. PMID:25500725

Zhi, Degui; Shendre, Aditi; Scherzer, Rebecca; Irvin, Marguerite R; Perry, Rodney T; Levy, Shawn; Arnett, Donna K; Grunfeld, Carl; Shrestha, Sadeep

2015-02-01

85

Genome-wide Ancestry Association Testing Identifies a Common European Variant on 6q14.1 as a Risk Factor for Asthma in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic variants that contribute to asthma susceptibility may be present at varying frequencies in different populations, which is an important consideration and advantage for performing genetic association studies in admixed populations. Objective To identify asthma-associated loci in African Americans. Methods We compared local African and European ancestry estimated from dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data in African American adults with asthma and non-asthmatic controls. Allelic tests of association were performed within the candidate regions identified, correcting for local European admixture. Results We identified a significant ancestry association peak on chromosomes 6q. Allelic tests for association within this region identified a SNP (rs1361549) on 6q14.1 that was associated with asthma exclusively in African Americans with local European admixture (OR=2.2). The risk allele is common in Europe (42% in the HapMap CEU) but absent in West Africa (0% in the HapMap YRI), suggesting the allele is present in African Americans due to recent European admixture. We replicated our findings in Puerto Ricans and similarly found that the signal of association is largely specific to individuals who are heterozygous for African and non-African ancestry at 6q14.1. However, we found no evidence for association in European Americans or in Puerto Ricans in the absence of local African ancestry, suggesting that the association with asthma at rs1361549 is due to an environmental or genetic interaction. Conclusion We identified a novel asthma-associated locus that is relevant to admixed populations with African ancestry, and highlight the importance of considering local ancestry in genetic association studies of admixed populations. PMID:22607992

Torgerson, Dara G.; Capurso, Daniel; Ampleford, Elizabeth J.; Li, Xingnan; Moore, Wendy C.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Hu, Donglei; Eng, Celeste; Mathias, Rasika A.; Busse, William W.; Castro, Mario; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Gaston, Benjamin; Israel, Elliot; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Teague, W. Gerald; Wenzel, Sally E.; Rodríguez-Santana, José R.; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William; Avila, Pedro C.; Ford, Jean G.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan L.

2012-01-01

86

Efficacy of the core DNA barcodes in identifying processed and poorly conserved plant materials commonly used in South African traditional medicine  

PubMed Central

Abstract Medicinal plants cover a broad range of taxa, which may be phylogenetically less related but morphologically very similar. Such morphological similarity between species may lead to misidentification and inappropriate use. Also the substitution of a medicinal plant by a cheaper alternative (e.g. other non-medicinal plant species), either due to misidentification, or deliberately to cheat consumers, is an issue of growing concern. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to identify commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. Using the core plant barcodes, matK and rbcLa, obtained from processed and poorly conserved materials sold at the muthi traditional medicine market, we tested efficacy of the barcodes in species discrimination. Based on genetic divergence, PCR amplification efficiency and BLAST algorithm, we revealed varied discriminatory potentials for the DNA barcodes. In general, the barcodes exhibited high discriminatory power, indicating their effectiveness in verifying the identity of the most common plant species traded in South African medicinal markets. BLAST algorithm successfully matched 61% of the queries against a reference database, suggesting that most of the information supplied by sellers at traditional medicinal markets in South Africa is correct. Our findings reinforce the utility of DNA barcoding technique in limiting false identification that can harm public health. PMID:24453559

Mankga, Ledile T.; Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Moteetee, Annah M.; Daru, Barnabas H.; van der Bank, Michelle

2013-01-01

87

The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor and alpha-L-fucosidase are located near a newly identified common virus integration site, Evi11.  

PubMed Central

A new common region of virus integration, Evi11, has been identified in two retrovirally induced murine myeloid leukemia cell lines, NFS107 and NFS78. By interspecific backcross analysis, it was shown that Evi11 is located at the distal end of mouse chromosome 4, in a region that shows homology with human 1p36. The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor (Cnr2) and alpha-L-fucosidase (Fuca1) were identified near the integration site by using a novel exon trapping system. Cnr2 is suggested to be the target gene for viral interference in Evi11, since proviruses are integrated in the first intron of Cnr2 and retroviral integrations alter mRNA expression of Cnr2 in NFS107 and NFS78. In addition, proviral integrations were demonstrated within the 3' untranslated region of Cnr2 in five independent newly derived CasBrM-MuLV (mouse murine leukemia virus) tumors, CSL13, CSL14, CSL16, CSL27, and CSL97. The Cnr2 gene encodes a seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor which is normally expressed in hematopoietic tissues. Our data suggest that the peripheral cannabinoid receptor gene might be involved in leukemogenesis as a result of aberrant expression of Cnr2 due to retroviral integration in Evi11. PMID:9261404

Valk, P J; Hol, S; Vankan, Y; Ihle, J N; Askew, D; Jenkins, N A; Gilbert, D J; Copeland, N G; de Both, N J; Löwenberg, B; Delwel, R

1997-01-01

88

Antibody screening identifies 78 putative host proteins involved in Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection or propagation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed Central

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a serious and notifiable disease afflicting common and koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L., termed koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). Significant progress has been achieved in the last 15 years, since the initial reports surfaced from Germany, USA and Israel of the CyHV-3 virus, in terms of pathology and detection. However, relatively few studies have been carried out in understanding viral replication and propagation. Antibody-based affinity has been used for detection of CyHV-3 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR-based techniques, and immunohistological assays have been used to describe a CyHV-3 membrane protein, termed ORF81. In this study, monoclonal antibodies linked to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated spin columns were used to purify CyHV-3 and host proteins from tissue samples originating in either CyHV-3 symptomatic or asymptomatic fish. The samples were next analysed either by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and subsequently by electrospray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) or by ESI-MS analysis directly after purification. A total of 78 host proteins and five CyHV-3 proteins were identified in the two analyses. These data can be used to develop novel control methods for CyHV-3, based on pathways or proteins identified in this study. PMID:23347276

Gotesman, M; Soliman, H; El-Matbouli, M

2014-01-01

89

Comparison of low molecular weight glutenin subunits identified by SDS-PAGE, 2-DE, MALDI-TOF-MS and PCR in common wheat  

PubMed Central

Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) play a crucial role in determining end-use quality of common wheat by influencing the viscoelastic properties of dough. Four different methods - sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, IEF × SDS-PAGE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were used to characterize the LMW-GS composition in 103 cultivars from 12 countries. Results At the Glu-A3 locus, all seven alleles could be reliably identified by 2-DE and PCR. However, the alleles Glu-A3e and Glu-A3d could not be routinely distinguished from Glu-A3f and Glu-A3g, respectively, based on SDS-PAGE, and the allele Glu-A3a could not be differentiated from Glu-A3c by MALDI-TOF-MS. At the Glu-B3 locus, alleles Glu-B3a, Glu-B3b, Glu-B3c, Glu-B3g, Glu-B3h and Glu-B3j could be clearly identified by all four methods, whereas Glu-B3ab, Glu-B3ac, Glu-B3ad could only be identified by the 2-DE method. At the Glu-D3 locus, allelic identification was problematic for the electrophoresis based methods and PCR. MALDI-TOF-MS has the potential to reliably identify the Glu-D3 alleles. Conclusions PCR is the simplest, most accurate, lowest cost, and therefore recommended method for identification of Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 alleles in breeding programs. A combination of methods was required to identify certain alleles, and would be especially useful when characterizing new alleles. A standard set of 30 cultivars for use in future studies was chosen to represent all LMW-GS allelic variants in the collection. Among them, Chinese Spring, Opata 85, Seri 82 and Pavon 76 were recommended as a core set for use in SDS-PAGE gels. Glu-D3c and Glu-D3e are the same allele. Two new alleles, namely, Glu-D3m in cultivar Darius, and Glu-D3n in Fengmai 27, were identified by 2-DE. Utilization of the suggested standard cultivar set, seed of which is available from the CIMMYT and INRA Clermont-Ferrand germplasm collections, should also promote information sharing in the identification of individual LMW-GS and thus provide useful information for quality improvement in common wheat. PMID:20573275

2010-01-01

90

The Role of Supervision in the Retention of Public Child Welfare Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to common belief, having a manageable caseload size may not be critical to the retention of child welfare MSW social workers. In this study of the retention of 765 title IV-E MSWs in public child welfare, support from supervisors emerged as a pivotal factor in employee retention. With analyses regressing retention and intent to leave public child welfare agencies,

Susan E. Jacquet; Sherrill J. Clark; Jennifer L. Morazes; Rebecca Withers

2008-01-01

91

TfoX-Based Genetic Mapping Identifies Vibrio fischeri Strain-Level Differences and Reveals a Common Lineage of Laboratory Strains.  

PubMed

Bacterial strain variation exists in natural populations of bacteria and can be generated experimentally through directed or random mutation. The advent of rapid and cost-efficient whole-genome sequencing has facilitated strain-level genotyping. Even with modern tools, however, it often remains a challenge to map specific traits to individual genetic loci, especially for traits that cannot be selected under culture conditions (e.g., colonization level or pathogenicity). Using a combination of classical and modern approaches, we analyzed strain-level variation in Vibrio fischeri and identified the basis by which some strains lack the ability to utilize glycerol as a carbon source. We proceeded to reconstruct the lineage of the commonly used V. fischeri laboratory strains. Compared to the wild-type ES114 strain, we identify in ES114-L a 9.9-kb deletion with endpoints in tadB2 and glpF; restoration of the missing portion of glpF restores the wild-type phenotype. The widely used strains ESR1, JRM100, and JRM200 contain the same deletion, and ES114-L is likely a previously unrecognized intermediate strain in the construction of many ES114 derivatives. ES114-L does not exhibit a defect in competitive squid colonization but ESR1 does, demonstrating that glycerol utilization is not required for early squid colonization. Our genetic mapping approach capitalizes on the recently discovered chitin-based transformation pathway, which is conserved in the Vibrionaceae; therefore, the specific approach used is likely to be useful for mapping genetic traits in other Vibrio species. PMID:25561715

Brooks, John F; Gyllborg, Mattias C; Kocher, Acadia A; Markey, Laura E H; Mandel, Mark J

2015-03-15

92

Postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery: Assessment of risk factors in a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the obstetrics risk factors for postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery. Material and Methods Of 234 women with a vaginal delivery, 19 (8.1%) women who had postpartum urinary retention were cases, and 215 (91.9%) women who did not were controls. Postpartum urinary retention was defined as the presence of postvoid residual bladder volume ?150 mL or the inability to void within 6 hours after vaginal delivery. Logistic regression analysis identified risk factors for urinary retention. Results Prolonged duration of the second stage of labor (OR=0.46, 95% CI for OR=0.06–3.67, p<0.001), presence of episiotomy (OR=0.07, 95% CI for OR=0.01–0.68, p=0.022) and perineal laceration (OR=97.09, 95% CI for OR=7.93–1188.93, p<0.001), and birth weight of >4000 g for the newborn (OR=0.04, 95% CI for OR=0.01–0.20, p<0.001) were found as independent risk factors for postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery. Conclusion Postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery is a relatively common condition. Awareness of risk factors, including prolonged second stage of labor, episiotomy, perineal lacerations, and macrosomic birth, may allow us to take the necessary precautions against this complication. PMID:25317040

Cavkaytar, Sabri; Kokanal?, Mahmut Kuntay; Baylas, Ay?egül; Topçu, Hasan Onur; Laleli, Bergen; Ta?ç?, Yasemin

2014-01-01

93

Spinal morphine anesthesia and urinary retention.  

PubMed

Spinal anesthetic is a common form of surgical anesthetic used in foot and ankle surgery. Spinal morphine anesthetic is less common, but has the advantage of providing postoperative analgesia for 12 to 24 hr. A number of complications can occur with spinal anesthesia, including urinary retention that may be a source of severe and often prolonged discomfort and pain for the patient. Management of this problem may require repeated bladder catheterization, which may lead to urinary tract infections or impairment of urethrovesicular function. This study reviews the incidence of urinary retention in 80 patients (40 after general anesthesia and 40 after spinal anesthesia) who underwent foot and ankle surgery at Saint Joseph's Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. Twenty-five percent of the patients who had spinal anesthesia experienced urinary retention, while only 7 1/2% of the group who had general anesthesia had this complication. Predisposing factors, treatment regimen, and recommendations for the prevention and management of urinary retention are presented. PMID:8258772

Mahan, K T; Wang, J

1993-11-01

94

MONOGRAPH - Recruitment & Retention of Engineering Technology Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identifying strategies to assist with recruitment and retention of engineering technology students particularly women and minorities was the focus of a 1998 Retention Forum, held in Columbia, SC, and sponsored by the South Carolina Advanced Technological Education (SC ATE) Center of Excellence. The Center is funded by the National Science Foundation and the South Carolina State Board for Technical and Comprehensive Education. Approximately 90 Retention Forum participants discussed results from research on enrollment and retention of engineering technology (ET) students in South Carolinas technical college system. The SC ATE Center of Excellence commissioned the research report, Determinants of Enrollment and Retention in South Carolina Engineering Technology Programs, by Dr. W. Douglas Evans. Forum participants also heard a report on what SC technical colleges are doing well to recruit and retain women and minorities in ET fields. During the forum, a panel of women and minority ET students from South Carolina technical colleges shared their perspectives and experiences. In conclusion, participants met in focus groups to discuss new ways of enhancing recruitment and retention of engineering technology students. These research activities reveal some significant findings, which are being used to develop new retention strategies. In addition to an in-depth examination of opinions and attitudes of first- and second-year engineering technology students and engineering technology faculty and administrators, the research takes a closer look at recruitment and retention of women and minority students. The various components of this research activity by the SC ATE Center of Excellence are presented in this monograph.

Craft, Elaine

95

Demographic Clusters Identified within the Northern Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncates) Unusual Mortality Event: January 2010 - June 2013  

PubMed Central

A multi-year unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates) was declared in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) with an initial start date of February 2010 and remains ongoing as of August 2014. To examine potential changing characteristics of the UME over time, we compared the number and demographics of dolphin strandings from January 2010 through June 2013 across the entire GoM as well as against baseline (1990-2009) GoM stranding patterns. Years 2010 and 2011 had the highest annual number of stranded dolphins since Louisiana’s record began, and 2011 was one of the years with the highest strandings for both Mississippi and Alabama. Statewide, annual numbers of stranded dolphins were not elevated for GoM coasts of Florida or Texas during the UME period. Demographic, spatial, and temporal clusters identified within this UME included increased strandings in northern coastal Louisiana and Mississippi (March-May 2010); Barataria Bay, Louisiana (August 2010-December 2011); Mississippi and Alabama (2011, including a high prevalence and number of stranded perinates); and multiple GoM states during early 2013. While the causes of the GoM UME have not been determined, the location and magnitude of dolphin strandings during and the year following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including the Barataria Bay cluster from August 2010 to December 2011, overlap in time and space with locations that received heavy and prolonged oiling. There are, however, multiple known causes of previous GoM dolphin UMEs, including brevetoxicosis and dolphin morbillivirus. Additionally, increased dolphin strandings occurred in northern Louisiana and Mississippi before the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Identification of spatial, temporal, and demographic clusters within the UME suggest that this mortality event may involve different contributing factors varying by location, time, and bottlenose dolphin populations that will be better discerned by incorporating diagnostic information, including histopathology. PMID:25671657

Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Garrison, Lance; Litz, Jenny; Fougeres, Erin; Mase, Blair; Rappucci, Gina; Stratton, Elizabeth; Carmichael, Ruth; Odell, Daniel; Shannon, Delphine; Shippee, Steve; Smith, Suzanne; Staggs, Lydia; Tumlin, Mandy; Whitehead, Heidi; Rowles, Teri

2015-01-01

96

Easy and accurate calculation of programmed temperature gas chromatographic retention times by back-calculation of temperature and hold-up time profiles.  

PubMed

Linear retention indices are commonly used to identify compounds in programmed-temperature gas chromatography (GC), but they are unreliable unless the original experimental conditions used to measure them are stringently reproduced. However, differences in many experimental conditions may be properly taken into account by calculating programmed-temperature retention times of compounds from their measured isothermal retention vs. temperature relationships. We call this approach "retention projection". Until now, retention projection has been impractical because it required very precise, meticulous measurement of the temperature vs. time and hold-up time vs. temperature profiles actually produced by a specific GC instrument to be accurate. Here we present a new, easy-to-use methodology to precisely measure those profiles: we spike a sample with 25 n-alkanes and use their measured, programmed-temperature retention times to precisely back-calculate what the instrument profiles must have been. Then, when we use those back-calculated profiles to project retention times of 63 chemically diverse compounds, we found that the projections are extremely accurate (e.g. to ±0.9 s in a 40 min ramp). They remained accurate with different temperature programs, GC instruments, inlet pressures, flow rates, and with columns taken from different batches of stationary phase while the accuracy of retention indices became worse the more the experimental conditions were changed from the original ones used to measure them. We also developed new, open-source software (http://www.retentionprediction.org/gc) to demonstrate the system. PMID:23040964

Boswell, Paul G; Carr, Peter W; Cohen, Jerry D; Hegeman, Adrian D

2012-11-01

97

Student Retention in Athletic Training Education Programs  

PubMed Central

Context: The success of any academic program, including athletic training, depends upon attracting and keeping quality students. The nature of persistent students versus students who prematurely leave the athletic training major is not known. Understanding the profiles of athletic training students who persist or leave is important. Objective: To (1) explore the relationships among the following variables: anticipatory factors, academic integration, clinical integration, social integration, and motivation; (2) determine which of the aforementioned variables discriminate between senior athletic training students and major changers; and (3) identify which variable is the strongest predictor of persistence in athletic training education programs. Design: Descriptive study using a qualitative and quantitative mixed-methods approach. Setting: Thirteen athletic training education programs located in District 3 of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Patients or Other Participants: Ninety-four senior-level athletic training students and 31 college students who changed majors from athletic training to another degree option. Data Collection: Data were collected with the Athletic Training Education Program Student Retention Questionnaire (ATEPSRQ). Analysis: Data from the ATEPSRQ were analyzed via Pearson correlations, multivariate analysis of variance, univariate analysis of variance, and a stepwise discriminant analysis. Open-ended questions were transcribed and analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding procedures. Member checks and peer debriefing techniques ensured trustworthiness of the study. Results: Pearson correlations identified moderate relationships among motivation and clinical integration (r ?=? 0.515, P < .01) and motivation and academic integration (r ?=? 0.509, P < .01). Univariate analyses of variance showed that academic integration (F1,122 ?=? 8.483, P < .004), clinical integration (F1,119 ?=? 30.214, P < .001), and motivation (F1,121 ?=? 68.887, P < .001) discriminated between seniors and major changers. Discriminant analysis indicated that motivation was the strongest predictor of persistence in athletic training education, accounting for 37.2% of the variance between groups. The theoretic model accurately classified 95.7% of the seniors and 53.8% of the major changers. A common theme emerging from the qualitative data was the presence of a strong peer-support group that surrounded many of the senior-level students. Conclusions: Understanding student retention in athletic training is important for our profession. Results from this study suggest 3 key factors associated with student persistence in athletic training education programs: (1) student motivation, (2) clinical and academic integration, and (3) the presence of a peer-support system. Educators and program directors must create comprehensive recruitment and retention strategies that address factors influencing students' decisions to stay in the athletic training profession. PMID:19295966

Dodge, Thomas M; Mitchell, Murray F; Mensch, James M

2009-01-01

98

A trans-ethnic genetic study of rheumatoid arthritis identified FCGR2A as a candidate common risk factor in Japanese and European populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common systemic autoimmune disease and its onset and prognosis are controlled by genetic, immunological,\\u000a and environmental factors. The HLA locus, particularly HLA-DRB1, is its strongest genetic risk determinant across ethnicities. Several other genes, including PTPN22 and PADI4, show modest association with RA. However, they cover only a part of its genetic components and their relative

Roubila Meziani; Ryo Yamada; Meiko Takahashi; Kenei Ohigashi; Akio Morinobu; Chikashi Terao; Hitomi Hiratani; Koichiro Ohmura; Masao Yamaguchi; Takashi Nomura; Alexandre Vasilescu; Miki Kokubo; Victor Renault; Katsura Hirosawa; Chanavee Ratanajaraya; Simon Heath; Tsuneyo Mimori; Shimon Sakaguchi; Mark Lathrop; Inga Melchers; Shunichi Kumagai; Fumihiko Matsuda

99

Student Responses to Merit Scholarship Retention Rules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common justification for state-sponsored merit scholarships like Georgia's HOPE program is to promote academic achievement. However, grade-based retention rules encourage other behavioral responses. Using longitudinal records of enrolled undergraduates at the University of Georgia between 1989 and 1997, we estimate the effects of HOPE on…

Cornwell, Christopher M.; Lee, Kyung Hee; Mustard, David B.

2005-01-01

100

Urinary retention in females: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female urinary retention is a common urological problem with many possible etiologies. Prior treatments attempted to decrease urethral resistance, but current neurourologic investigation has shown that this is rarely needed. Intermittent catheterization, along with diagnosing appropriate etiologic factors is the best management. If the workup reveals no organic etiology, psychological investigation may be needed because many of the patients have

J. S. Wheeler; J. S. Walter

1992-01-01

101

Recruitment and Retention with a Spin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strategic planning and innovation at Bismarck State College (BSC) found common ground in the college's goal to recruit and retain employees in an environment of low unemployment and strong competition for skilled employees. BSC's strategic plan for 2007-09 included the objective "to increase retention of employees." One of the strategies connected…

Lindgren, Rita; Hixson, Carla Braun

2010-01-01

102

Scientists Identify Markers on Human Breast Cancer Cells Linked to Development of an Aggressive, But Less Common Form of Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Scientists have identified a group of surface markers on cells linked to an aggressive type of breast cancer called estrogen receptor-negative cancer. The research, conducted by scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, appeared online May 18, 2010, and in print June 1, 2010, in Cancer Research.

103

Coupling osteological development of the feeding apparatus with feeding performance in common snook, Centropomus undecimalis, larvae: Identifying morphological constraints to feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying bottlenecks to feeding in marine finfish larvae is becoming a dominant theme as commercially important fish stocks collapse worldwide. The transition from endogenous yolk reserves to feeding exogenously is perhaps the largest constraint to developing aquaculture technologies in closed systems. Mass mortality during early larval development is generally attributed to a lack of suitable prey during the first feeding

Matthew L. Wittenrich; Nicole R. Rhody; Ralph G. Turingan; Kevan L. Main

2009-01-01

104

Drug Retention Times  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

Center for Human Reliability Studies

2007-05-01

105

Drug Retention Times  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

Center for Human Reliability Studies

2007-05-01

106

47 CFR 68.326 - Retention of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Conditions for Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.326 Retention of records. (a) The responsible party for a...

2010-10-01

107

In vitro analysis of ovarian cancer response to cisplatin, carboplatin, and paclitaxel identifies common pathways that are also associated with overall patient survival  

PubMed Central

Background: Carboplatin and cisplatin, alone or in combination with paclitaxel, have similar efficacies against ovarian cancer (OVCA) yet exhibit different toxicity profiles. We characterised the common and unique cellular pathways that underlie OVCA response to these drugs and analyse whether they have a role in OVCA survival. Methods: Ovarian cancer cell lines (n=36) were treated with carboplatin, cisplatin, paclitaxel, or carboplatin–paclitaxel (CPTX). For each cell line, IC50 levels were quantified and pre-treatment gene expression analyses were performed. Genes demonstrating expression/IC50 correlations (measured by Pearson; P<0.01) were subjected to biological pathway analysis. An independent OVCA clinico-genomic data set (n=142) was evaluated for clinical features associated with represented pathways. Results: Cell line sensitivity to carboplatin, cisplatin, paclitaxel, and CPTX was associated with the expression of 77, 68, 64, and 25 biological pathways (P<0.01), respectively. We found three common pathways when drug combinations were compared. Expression of one pathway (‘Transcription/CREB pathway') was associated with OVCA overall survival. Conclusion: The identification of the Transcription/CREB pathway (associated with OVCA cell line platinum sensitivity and overall survival) could improve patient stratification for treatment with current therapies and the rational selection of future OVCA therapy agents targeted to these pathways. PMID:22596241

Bicaku, E; Xiong, Y; Marchion, D C; Chon, H S; Stickles, X B; Chen, N; Judson, P L; Hakam, A; Gonzalez-Bosquet, J; Wenham, R M; Apte, S M; Fulp, W; Cubitt, C L; Chen, D-T; Lancaster, J M

2012-01-01

108

Thermodynamic vs. extrathermodynamic modeling of chromatographic retention.  

PubMed

To predict a given physicochemical or biological property, and hence, to design rationally requested chemical entity, the relationships must be identified between the chemical structure and the desired property. Unfortunately, classical thermodynamics never predicts any property by itself, even so simple one like chromatographic retention. Therefore progress in understanding and describing molecular equilibrium between phases requires a combination of experimental measurements and correlations by means of empirical equations and approximate theories. In this work the retention prediction performance was tested of the well thermodynamically founded solvophobic theory of Horváth and co-workers of reversed-phase HPLC. The retention parameters of four series of analytes were modeled with regard to their chemical structure by: (1) observing the rules of classical thermodynamics; (2) applying an extrathermodynamically derived correction to the model based on the thermodynamic hermeneutics; (3) using extrathermodynamic, chemical intuition-based Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships (QSRR). The combined thermodynamic/extrathermodynamic model with empirical correction accounting for the number of polar atoms provided an improvement of the agreement between the observed and the predicted retention parameters. However, a purely extrathermodynamic QSRR model, employing analyte descriptors from calculation chemistry, produced similar retention predictions. Both thermodynamic and QSRR models accounted well for abilities of analyte to participate in nonspecific, dispersive intermolecular interactions. Less reliable appeared descriptors of analyte polarity. The approach presented here can be further developed to search for proper polarity parameters, necessary to correctly predict complex physicochemical and biological properties of chemical compounds. PMID:21665211

Kaliszan, Roman; Wiczling, Pawe?; Markuszewski, Micha? J; Al-Haj, Mehdi A

2011-08-01

109

Targeted NGS gene panel identifies mutations in RSPH1 causing primary ciliary dyskinesia and a common mechanism for ciliary central pair agenesis due to radial spoke defects  

PubMed Central

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited chronic respiratory obstructive disease with randomized body laterality and infertility, resulting from cilia and sperm dysmotility. PCD is characterized by clinical variability and extensive genetic heterogeneity, associated with different cilia ultrastructural defects and mutations identified in >20 genes. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies therefore present a promising approach for genetic diagnosis which is not yet in routine use. We developed a targeted panel-based NGS pipeline to identify mutations by sequencing of selected candidate genes in 70 genetically undefined PCD patients. This detected loss-of-function RSPH1 mutations in four individuals with isolated central pair (CP) agenesis and normal body laterality, from two unrelated families. Ultrastructural analysis in RSPH1-mutated cilia revealed transposition of peripheral outer microtubules into the ‘empty’ CP space, accompanied by a distinctive intermittent loss of the central pair microtubules. We find that mutations in RSPH1, RSPH4A and RSPH9, which all encode homologs of components of the ‘head’ structure of ciliary radial spoke complexes identified in Chlamydomonas, cause clinical phenotypes that appear to be indistinguishable except at the gene level. By high-resolution immunofluorescence we identified a loss of RSPH4A and RSPH9 along with RSPH1 from RSPH1-mutated cilia, suggesting RSPH1 mutations may result in loss of the entire spoke head structure. CP loss is seen in up to 28% of PCD cases, in whom laterality determination specified by CP-less embryonic node cilia remains undisturbed. We propose this defect could arise from instability or agenesis of the ciliary central microtubules due to loss of their normal radial spoke head tethering. PMID:24518672

Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Shoemark, Amelia; Schmidts, Miriam; Patel, Mitali; Jimenez, Gina; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Biju; Dixon, Mellisa; Hirst, Robert A.; Rutman, Andrew; Burgoyne, Thomas; Williams, Christopher; Scully, Juliet; Bolard, Florence; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Beales, Philip L.; Hogg, Claire; Yang, Pinfen; Chung, Eddie M.K.; Emes, Richard D.; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Mitchison, Hannah M.

2014-01-01

110

An SNP-guided microRNA map of fifteen common human disorders identifies a consensus disease phenocode aiming at principal components of the nuclear import pathway.  

PubMed

Recent large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) studies of SNP variations captured many thousands individual genetic profiles of H. sapiens and facilitated identification of significant genetic traits which are highly likely to influence the pathogenesis of several major human diseases. Here we apply the integrative genomics principles to interrogate relationships between structural features and gene expression patterns of disease-linked SNPs, microRNAs and mRNAs of protein-coding genes in association to phenotypes of 15 major human disorders, namely bipolar disease (BD); rheumatoid arthritis (RA); coronary artery disease (CAD); Crohn's disease (CD); type 1 diabetes (T1D); type 2 diabetes (T2D); hypertension (HT); ankylosing spondylitis (AS); Graves' disease (autoimmune thyroid disease; AITD); multiple sclerosis (MS); breast cancer (BC); prostate cancer (PC); systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); vitiligo-associated multiple autoimmune disease (VIT); and ulcerative colitis (UC). We selected for sequence homology profiling a set of approximately 250 SNPs which were unequivocally associated with common human disorders based on multiple independent studies of 220,124 individual samples comprising 85,077 disease cases and 129,506 controls. Our analysis reveals a systematic primary sequence homology/complementarity-driven pattern of associations between disease-linked SNPs, microRNAs and protein-coding mRNAs defined here as a human disease phenocode. We utilize this approach to draw SNP-guided microRNA maps of major human diseases and define a consensus disease phenocode for fifteen major human disorders. A consensus disease phenocode comprises 72 SNPs and 18 microRNAs with an apparent propensity to target mRNA sequences derived from a single protein-coding gene, KPNA1. Each of microRNAs in this elite set appears linked to at least three common human diseases and has potential protein-coding mRNA targets among the principal components of the nuclear import pathway. We confirmed the validity of our findings by analyzing independent sets of most significant disease-linked SNPs and demonstrating statistically significant KPNA1-gene expression phenotypes associated with human genotypes of CD, BD, T2D and RA populations. Our analysis supports the idea that variations in DNA sequences associated with multiple human diseases may affect phenotypes in trans via non-protein-coding RNA intermediaries interfering with functions of microRNAs and defines the nuclear import pathway as a potential major target in 15 common human disorders. PMID:18719369

Glinsky, Gennadi V

2008-08-15

111

Cytometric profiling of CD133+ cells in human colon ?carcinoma cell lines identifies a common core phenotype ?and cell type-specific mosaics.  

PubMed

In colorectal cancer, CD133+ cells from fresh biopsies proved to be more tumorigenic than their CD133- counterparts. Nevertheless, the function of CD133 protein in tumorigenic cells seems only marginal. Moreover, CD133 expression alone is insufficient to isolate true cancer stem cells, since only 1 out of 262 CD133+ cells actually displays stem-cell capacity. Thus, new markers for colorectal cancer stem cells are needed. Here, we show the extensive characterization of CD133+ cells in 5 different colon carcinoma continuous cell lines (HT29, HCT116, Caco2, GEO and LS174T), each representing a different maturation level of colorectal cancer cells. Markers associated with stemness, tumorigenesis and metastatic potential were selected. We identified 6 molecules consistently present on CD133+ cells: CD9, CD29, CD49b, CD59, CD151, and CD326. By contrast, CD24, CD26, CD54, CD66c, CD81, CD90, CD99, CD112, CD164, CD166, and CD200 showed a discontinuous behavior, which led us to identify cell type-specific surface antigen mosaics. Finally, some antigens, e.g. CD227, indicated the possibility of classifying the CD133+ cells into 2 subsets likely exhibiting specific features. This study reports, for the first time, an extended characterization of the CD133+ cells in colon carcinoma cell lines and provides a "dictionary" of antigens to be used in colorectal cancer research. PMID:23709346

Gemei, Marica; Di Noto, Rosa; Mirabelli, Peppino; Del Vecchio, Luigi

2013-05-14

112

Targeted Next Generation Sequencing Identifies Novel Mutations in RP1 as a Relatively Common Cause of Autosomal Recessive Rod-Cone Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

We report ophthalmic and genetic findings in families with autosomal recessive rod-cone dystrophy (arRCD) and RP1 mutations. Detailed ophthalmic examination was performed in 242 sporadic and arRCD subjects. Genomic DNA was investigated using our customized next generation sequencing panel targeting up to 123 genes implicated in inherited retinal disorders. Stringent filtering coupled with Sanger sequencing and followed by cosegregation analysis was performed to confirm biallelism and the implication of the most likely disease causing variants. Sequencing identified 9 RP1 mutations in 7 index cases. Eight of the mutations were novel, and all cosegregated with severe arRCD phenotype, found associated with additional macular changes. Among the identified mutations, 4 belong to a region, previously associated with arRCD, and 5 others in a region previously associated with adRCD. Our prevalence studies showed that RP1 mutations account for up to 2.5% of arRCD. These results point out for the necessity of sequencing RP1 when genetically investigating sporadic and arRCD. It further highlights the interest of unbiased sequencing technique, which allows investigating the implication of the same gene in different modes of inheritance. Finally, it reports that different regions of RP1 can also lead to arRCD. PMID:25692139

El Shamieh, Said; Boulanger-Scemama, Elise; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Antonio, Aline; Démontant, Vanessa; Condroyer, Christel; Letexier, Mélanie; Saraiva, Jean-Paul; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Sahel, José-Alain; Audo, Isabelle; Zeitz, Christina

2015-01-01

113

Flying Blind: National Graduation Goals and Adult Student Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this article is to shed light on a variety of metrics institutions and some accreditors currently use to track the retention of working adults. Further, it identifies a number of important principles that all stakeholders should consider when creating a standard measure of adult student retention. Finally, it describes a few errors to…

Tilghman, Chris

2012-01-01

114

Student Retention in the Community College: The Faculty Role.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses retention in community colleges, identifying four reasons that students leave college, including attainment of goals and frustrated expectations. Lists eight intervention strategies that have proved successful, and provides suggestions for retention, such as having faculty serve as mentors to students, and providing the most appropriate…

Malm, Nelda W.

1999-01-01

115

Predictors of First-Year Retention in a Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retention is a complex issue of great importance to community colleges. Several retention models have been developed to help explain this phenomenon. However, these models typically have used four-year college and university environments to build their foundations. Several researchers have attempted to identify predictor variables using…

Mertes, Scott J.; Hoover, Richard E.

2014-01-01

116

Changing Perspectives on Student Retention: A Role for Institutional Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a role for institutional research in changing institutional attitudes about priority placed on student retention efforts. Identifies organizational/attitudinal barriers to improving student retention efforts relative to theory on stages of grief (denial, hostility, bargaining, depression, acceptance); outlines tactics for moving the…

McLaughlin, Gerald W.; Brozovsky, Paul V.; McLaughlin, Josetta S.

1998-01-01

117

Predicting Rural College Retention among First-Year Undergraduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project identified statistically significant predictors of first-year retention among 1991-92 freshmen who were enrolled in a rural midwestern comprehensive college. Results of a step-wise discriminant analysis indicated that college grade point average (GPA) was the best overall predictor of retention of first-year students (n=376). Results…

Roweton, William E.

118

Screening to Identify Commonly Used Chinese Herbs That Affect ERBB2 and ESR1 Gene Expression Using the Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Aim. Our aim the was to screen the commonly used Chinese herbs in order to detect changes in ERBB2 and ESR1 gene expression using MCF-7 cells. Methods. Using the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, cell cytotoxicity and proliferation were evaluated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays, respectively. A luciferase reporter assay was established by transient transfecting MCF-7 cells with plasmids containing either the ERBB2 or the ESR1 promoter region linked to the luciferase gene. Chinese herbal extracts were used to treat the cells at 24?h after transfection, followed by measurement of their luciferase activity. The screening results were verified by Western blotting to measure HER2 and ER? protein expression. Results. At concentrations that induced little cytotoxicity, thirteen single herbal extracts and five compound recipes were found to increase either ERBB2 or ESR1 luciferase activity. By Western blotting, Si-Wu-Tang, Kuan-Shin-Yin, and Suan-Tsao-Ren-Tang were found to increase either HER2 or ER? protein expression. In addition, Ligusticum chuanxiong was shown to have a great effect on ERBB2 gene expression and synergistically with estrogen to stimulate MCF-7 cell growth. Conclusion. Our results provide important information that should affect clinical treatment strategies among breast cancer patients who are receiving hormonal or targeted therapies. PMID:24987437

Chang, Chun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Chong; Wen, Che-Sheng; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Wei-Shone; Shyr, Yi-Ming

2014-01-01

119

Disease-causing mutations in cis with the common arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency allele compound the difficulties in accurately identifying patients and carriers of metachromatic leukodystrophy.  

PubMed

Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a lysosomal storage disorder most often caused by mutations in the sulfatide sulfatase or arylsulfatase A (ASA) gene. This results in the storage of sulfatides in the peripheral and central nervous systems as well as in the kidneys. Patients with MLD exhibit a wide range of clinical features presenting from the late infantile period to adulthood. Testing for this disease is performed on a majority of the patient samples received for diagnostic testing in the authors' laboratory. If low ASA activity is measured, additional testing is required to confirm the diagnosis due to several factors. ASA activity is also low in individuals with multiple sulfatase deficiency and in individuals with copies of the so-called pseudodeficiency (Pd) allele. Due to the high frequency of the common Pd allele, it is possible for individuals, both with and without neurologic disease, to have low ASA activity but not have MLD. Unfortunately, the finding of the Pd mutation by molecular analysis does not rule out a diagnosis of MLD. In a recent 25 month period, this laboratory diagnosed 52 patients with MLD, and of these, 13 patients from 10 families had one or two copies of the Pd mutation. Sequencing of the ASA gene in these 10 families revealed four new mutations in cis with the Pd allele (S43R, R84Q, R311X, and E329R) and two additional new mutations (R299W, C488R). Six patients had previously reported mutations on the Pd background. Thus, a total of 14 mutations have been found to occur in cis with the Pd allele. We estimate that 1-2% of Pd alleles will have a disease-causing mutation, and this complicates the identification of patients and the assignment of risk for a couple when a copy of the Pd allele is detected. PMID:12809637

Rafi, Mohammad A; Coppola, Stephanie; Liu, Shu Ling; Rao, Han Zhi; Wenger, David A

2003-06-01

120

Genomic analysis of LPS-stimulated myeloid cells identifies a common pro-inflammatory response but divergent IL-10 anti-inflammatory responses.  

PubMed

Inflammation is an essential physiological response to infection and injury that must be kept within strict bounds. The IL-10/STAT3 anti-inflammatory response (AIR) is indispensable for controlling the extent of inflammation, although the complete mechanisms downstream of STAT3 have not yet been elucidated. The AIR is widely known to extend to other myeloid cells, but it has best been characterized in macrophages. Here we set out to characterize the LPS-mediated pro-inflammatory response and the AIR across a range of myeloid cells. We found that whereas the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response is broadly similar among macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, mast cells and eosinophils, the AIR is drastically different across all myeloid cell types that respond to IL-10 (all bar eosinophils). We propose a model whereby the IL-10/STAT3 AIR works by selectively inhibiting specific pathways in distinct cell types: in macrophages the AIR most likely works through the inhibition of NF-?B target genes; in DCs and mast cells through indirect IRF disruption; and in neutrophils through IRF disruption and possibly also indirect NF-?B inhibition. In summary, no conserved IL-10/STAT3 AIR effectors were identified; instead a cell type-specific model of the AIR is proposed. PMID:25765318

Hutchins, Andrew Paul; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego

2015-01-01

121

Seed Implant Retention Score Predicts the Risk of Prolonged Urinary Retention After Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To risk-stratify patients for urinary retention after prostate brachytherapy according to a novel seed implant retention score (SIRS). Patients and Methods: A total of 835 patients underwent transperineal prostate seed implant from March 1993 to January 2007; 197 patients had {sup 125}I and 638 patients had {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy. Four hundred ninety-four patients had supplemental external-beam radiation. The final downsized prostate volume was used for the 424 patients who had neoadjuvant hormone therapy. Retention was defined as reinsertion of a Foley catheter after the implant. Results: Retention developed in 7.4% of patients, with an average duration of 6.7 weeks. On univariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation (10% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.02), neoadjuvant hormone therapy (9.4% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02), baseline alpha-blocker use (12.5% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.008), and increased prostate volume (13.4% vs. 6.9% vs. 2.9%, >45 cm{sup 3}, 25-45 cm{sup 3}, <25 cm{sup 3}; p = 0.0008) were significantly correlated with increased rates of retention. On multivariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation, neoadjuvant hormone therapy, baseline alpha-blocker use, and increased prostate volume were correlated with retention. A novel SIRS was modeled as the combined score of these factors, ranging from 0 to 5. There was a significant correlation between the SIRS and retention (p < 0.0001). The rates of retention were 0, 4%, 5.6%, 9%, 20.9%, and 36.4% for SIRS of 0 to 5, respectively. Conclusions: The SIRS may identify patients who are at high risk for prolonged retention after prostate brachytherapy. A prospective validation study of the SIRS is planned.

Lee, Hoon K., E-mail: Dr.Hoon@gmail.co [Regional Radiation Oncology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY (United States); Adams, Marc T. [Regional Radiation Oncology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY (United States); Shi, Qiuhu [Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, New York Medical School, Valhalla, NY (United States); Basillote, Jay; LaMonica, Joanne; Miranda, Luis; Motta, Joseph [Department of Urology, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY (United States)

2010-04-15

122

Molecular and genetic analyses of four nonfunctional S haplotype variants derived from a common ancestral S haplotype identified in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).  

PubMed

Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) has an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system; however, individuals can be either self-incompatible (SI) or self-compatible (SC). Unlike the situation in the Solanaceae, where self-compatibility accompanying polyploidization is often due to the compatibility of heteroallelic pollen, the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the compatibility of pollen containing two nonfunctional S haplotypes. Sour cherry individuals with the S(4)S(6)S(36a)S(36b) genotype are predicted to be SC, as only pollen containing both nonfunctional S(36a) and S(36b) haplotypes would be SC. However, we previously found that individuals of this genotype were SI. Here we describe four nonfunctional S(36) variants. Our molecular analyses identified a mutation that would confer loss of stylar S function for one of the variants, and two alterations that might cause loss of pollen S function for all four variants. Genetic crosses showed that individuals possessing two nonfunctional S(36) haplotypes and two functional S haplotypes have reduced self-fertilization due to a very low frequency of transmission of the one pollen type that would be SC. Our finding that the underlying mechanism limiting successful transmission of genetically compatible gametes does not involve GSI is consistent with our previous genetic model for Prunus in which heteroallelic pollen is incompatible. This provides a unique case in which breakdown of SI does not occur despite the potential to generate SC pollen genotypes. PMID:19917768

Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Hauck, Nathanael R; Tao, Ryutaro; Jiang, Ning; Iezzoni, Amy F

2010-02-01

123

708 Common and 2010 rare DISC1 locus variants identified in 1542 subjects: analysis for association with psychiatric disorder and cognitive traits.  

PubMed

A balanced t(1;11) translocation that transects the Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene shows genome-wide significant linkage for schizophrenia and recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) in a single large Scottish family, but genome-wide and exome sequencing-based association studies have not supported a role for DISC1 in psychiatric illness. To explore DISC1 in more detail, we sequenced 528?kb of the DISC1 locus in 653 cases and 889 controls. We report 2718 validated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of which 2010 have a minor allele frequency of <1%. Only 38% of these variants are reported in the 1000 Genomes Project European subset. This suggests that many DISC1 SNPs remain undiscovered and are essentially private. Rare coding variants identified exclusively in patients were found in likely functional protein domains. Significant region-wide association was observed between rs16856199 and rMDD (P=0.026, unadjusted P=6.3 × 10(-5), OR=3.48). This was not replicated in additional recurrent major depression samples (replication P=0.11). Combined analysis of both the original and replication set supported the original association (P=0.0058, OR=1.46). Evidence for segregation of this variant with disease in families was limited to those of rMDD individuals referred from primary care. Burden analysis for coding and non-coding variants gave nominal associations with diagnosis and measures of mood and cognition. Together, these observations are likely to generalise to other candidate genes for major mental illness and may thus provide guidelines for the design of future studies. PMID:23732877

Thomson, P A; Parla, J S; McRae, A F; Kramer, M; Ramakrishnan, K; Yao, J; Soares, D C; McCarthy, S; Morris, S W; Cardone, L; Cass, S; Ghiban, E; Hennah, W; Evans, K L; Rebolini, D; Millar, J K; Harris, S E; Starr, J M; MacIntyre, D J; McIntosh, A M; Watson, J D; Deary, I J; Visscher, P M; Blackwood, D H; McCombie, W R; Porteous, D J

2014-06-01

124

Molecular and Genetic Analyses of Four Nonfunctional S Haplotype Variants Derived from a Common Ancestral S Haplotype Identified in Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.)  

PubMed Central

Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) has an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system; however, individuals can be either self-incompatible (SI) or self-compatible (SC). Unlike the situation in the Solanaceae, where self-compatibility accompanying polyploidization is often due to the compatibility of heteroallelic pollen, the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the compatibility of pollen containing two nonfunctional S haplotypes. Sour cherry individuals with the S4S6S36aS36b genotype are predicted to be SC, as only pollen containing both nonfunctional S36a and S36b haplotypes would be SC. However, we previously found that individuals of this genotype were SI. Here we describe four nonfunctional S36 variants. Our molecular analyses identified a mutation that would confer loss of stylar S function for one of the variants, and two alterations that might cause loss of pollen S function for all four variants. Genetic crosses showed that individuals possessing two nonfunctional S36 haplotypes and two functional S haplotypes have reduced self-fertilization due to a very low frequency of transmission of the one pollen type that would be SC. Our finding that the underlying mechanism limiting successful transmission of genetically compatible gametes does not involve GSI is consistent with our previous genetic model for Prunus in which heteroallelic pollen is incompatible. This provides a unique case in which breakdown of SI does not occur despite the potential to generate SC pollen genotypes. PMID:19917768

Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Hauck, Nathanael R.; Tao, Ryutaro; Jiang, Ning; Iezzoni, Amy F.

2010-01-01

125

High IL-17E and Low IL-17C Dermal Expression Identifies a Fibrosis-Specific Motif Common to Morphea and Systemic Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background High interleukin (IL)-17A levels are characteristically found in the skin of systemic sclerosis (SSc) individuals. Our aim was to investigate whether the dermal expression of IL-17A and related IL-17 family members (i.e. IL-17C, IL-17E and IL-17F) could distinguish fibrotic from healthy skin and could show similarities in SSc and morphea, two disorders with presumed distinct pathogenesis, but characterized by skin fibrosis. Methods Biopsies were obtained from the involved skin of 14 SSc, 5 morphea and 8 healthy donors (HD) undergoing plastic surgery. Immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence techniques were coupled to a semi-automated imaging quantification approach to determine the presence of the IL-17 family members in the skin. The in vitro effects induced by the IL-17 family members on fibroblasts from normal and SSc individuals were assessed by ELISA and RIA. Results Positive cells for each of the IL-17 isoforms investigated were present in the dermis of all the individuals tested, though with variable frequencies. SSc individuals had increased frequency of IL-17A+ (p?=?0.0237) and decreased frequency of IL-17F+ (p?=?0.0127) and IL-17C+ cells (p?=?0.0008) when compared to HD. Similarly, morphea individuals had less frequent IL-17C+ cells (p?=?0.0186) in their skin but showed similar number of IL-17A+ and IL-17F+ cells when compared to HD. Finally, IL-17E+ cells were more numerous in morphea (p?=?0.0109) and tended to be more frequent in SSc than in HD. Fibroblast production of IL-6, MMP-1 and MCP-1 was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of IL-17E and IL-17F, but not in the presence of IL-17C. None of the cytokine tested had significant effect on type I collagen production. Of interest, in SSc the frequency of both IL-17A and IL-17F positive cells increased with disease duration. Conclusions The frequency of IL-17A and IL-17F distinguish SSc to morphea individuals while dermal expression of IL-17C (low) and IL-17E (high) identifies a fibrosis-specific motif. The specific IL-17C/IL-17E cytokine combination may thus play a role in the development of fibrosis. PMID:25136988

Lonati, Paola Adele; Brembilla, Nicolò Costantino; Montanari, Elisa; Fontao, Lionel; Gabrielli, Armando; Vettori, Serena; Valentini, Gabriele; Laffitte, Emmanuel; Kaya, Gurkan; Meroni, Pier-Luigi; Chizzolini, Carlo

2014-01-01

126

Water retention and gas relative permeability of two industrial concretes  

SciTech Connect

This experimental study aims at identifying the water retention properties of two industrial concretes to be used for long term underground nuclear waste storage structures. Together with water retention, gas transfer properties are identified at varying water saturation level, i.e. relative gas permeability is assessed directly as a function of water saturation level S{sub w}. The influence of the initial de-sorption path and of the subsequent re-saturation are analysed both in terms of water retention and gas transfer properties. Also, the influence of concrete microstructure upon water retention and relative gas permeability is assessed, using porosity measurements, analysis of the BET theory from water retention properties, and MIP. Finally, a single relative gas permeability curve is proposed for each concrete, based on Van Genuchten-Mualem's statistical model, to be used for continuous modelling approaches of concrete structures, both during drying and imbibition.

Chen Wei; Liu Jian; Brue, Flore; Skoczylas, Frederic [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ECLille, LML, BP 48, F-59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); CNRS, UMR 8107, F-59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); Davy, C.A., E-mail: catherine.davy@ec-lille.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ECLille, LML, BP 48, F-59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); CNRS, UMR 8107, F-59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); Bourbon, Xavier; Talandier, Jean [Andra, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, F-92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France)

2012-07-15

127

Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients for two ponds in North Carolina. Employing a simple first order model that includes water residence time, the first order process responsible for species removal have been separated from the water residence time over which it acts. Assuming the rate constant for species removal is constant within the pond (arguable at least), the annual average rate constant for species removal is generated. Using the annual mean rate constant for species removal and monthly water residence times results in a significantly enhanced predictive capability for Davis Pond during most months of the year. Predictive ability remains poor in Davis Pond during winter/unstratified periods when internal loading of P and N results in low to negative chemical retention. Predictive ability for Piedmont Pond (which has numerous negative chemical retention periods) is improved but not to the same extent as Davis Pond. In Davis Pond, the rate constant for sediment removal (each month) is faster than the rate constant for water and explains the good predictability for sediment retention. However, the removal rate constant for P and N is slower than the removal rate constant for sediment (longer water column residence time for P,N than for sediment). Thus sedimentation is not an overall control on nutrient retention. Additionally, the removal rate constant for P is slower than for TOC (TOC is not the dominate removal process for P) and N is removed slower than P (different in pond controls). For Piedmont Pond, sediment removal rate constants are slower than the removal rate constant for water indicating significant sediment resuspension episodes. It appears that these sediment resuspension events are aperiodic and control the loading and the chemical retention capability of Piedmont Pond for N,P,TOC. These calculated rate constants reflect the differing internal loading processes for each component and suggest means and mechanisms for the use of ponds in water quality management.

Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.; John, B.

2002-05-01

128

Data protection — retention policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A data retention policy is a bit of an enigmatic beast. Everyone knows what it is, and most companies recognize that it is vital to have a policy in place but what should it look like? What should be included in the policy and how much detail is required?

Rowan Middleton; Herbert Smith

2003-01-01

129

Three Exemplary Retention Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three retention programs for regularly admitted students of color. Outlines each program's history and inception; its funding, staffing, and facilities; how the program has become institutionalized and marketed. The key components of the program and assessment of program effectiveness are presented, as well as the crises encountered and…

Carreathers, Kevin R.; And Others

1996-01-01

130

RETENTION BASIN Definition  

E-print Network

A retention basin is a stormwater facility which includes a permanent impoundment, or pool of water, and, therefore, is normally wet, even during non-rainfall periods. Inflows from stormwater runoff may be temporarily stored above this permanent pool. Purpose A retention basin provides for long-term water quality enhancement of stormwater runoff. Stormwater inflows may also be temporarily stored above the permanent pool for downstream flood control and channel erosion control. A retention basin is considered one of the most reliable and versatile BMPs available. Water Quality Enhancement High removal rates of particulate and soluble pollutants (nutrients) can be achieved in retention basins through gravitational settling, biological uptake and decomposition. When an even higher degree of pollutant removal efficiency is required, the basin can be enhanced by using various modifications relating to the size and design of the permanent pool. Monitoring studies have shown sediment removal efficiencies to range from 50-90%, total phosphorus removal efficiencies to range from 30-90 % and soluble nutrient removal efficiencies to

Figure Figures Page

131

Secrets of Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recruiting students is one thing, but keeping them in a chorus, orchestra, or band is another. Although a music director has no control over some variables, there is much that can be done to help students to stay. Several experts share their advice on retention. One expert said a teacher's own attitude and classroom strategies may be two of the…

Poliniak, Susan

2012-01-01

132

Data Show Retention Disparities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New nationwide data collected by the U.S. Department of Education's civil rights office reveal stark racial and ethnic disparities in student retentions, with black and Hispanic students far more likely than white students to repeat a grade, especially in elementary and middle school. The contrast is especially strong for African-Americans. In the…

Adams, Caralee J.; Robelen, Erik W.; Shah, Nirvi

2012-01-01

133

Mobile Learning and Student Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student retention in open and distance learning (ODL) is comparatively poor to traditional education and, in some contexts, embarrassingly low. Literature on the subject of student retention in ODL indicates that even when interventions are designed and undertaken to improve student retention, they tend to fall short. Moreover, this area has not…

Fozdar, Bharat Inder; Kumar, Lalita S.

2007-01-01

134

The "Ins and Outs" of Marketing and Retention in Virginia's Community Colleges: Exemplary Marketing and Retention Practices in the Virginia Community College System. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Detailed descriptive information is provided on programs and activities identified by the Virginia Community College System's (VCCS) Marketing and Retention Recognition Program (MRRP), which was designed to identify and publicize innovative marketing and retention activities being implemented throughout the system. Following introductory material,…

Puyear, Don, Ed.; And Others

135

The "Ins and Outs" of Marketing and Retention in Virginia's Community Colleges: Exemplary Marketing and Retention Practices in the Virginia Community College System. Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Virginia Community College System (VCCS) initiated the Marketing and Retention Recognition Program (MRRP) to identify and publicize innovative marketing and retention activities being implemented throughout the system. This report offers brief sketches of some of the exemplary projects identified by the MRRP. First, introductory material…

Puyear, Don, Ed.; And Others

136

Selenide retention by mackinawite.  

PubMed

The isotope (79)Se may be of great concern with regard to the safe disposal of nuclear wastes in deep geological repositories due to its long half-life and potential mobility in the geosphere. The Se mobility is controlled by the oxidation state: the oxidized species (Se(IV)) and (Se(VI)) are highly mobile, whereas the reduced species (Se(0) and Se(-II)) form low soluble solids. The mobility of this trace pollutant can be greatly reduced by interacting with the various barriers of the repository. Numerous studies report on the oxidized species retention by mineral phases, but only very scarce studies report on the selenide (Se(-II)) retention. In the present study, the selenide retention by coprecipitation with and by adsorption on mackinawite (FeS) was investigated. XRD and SEM analyses of the samples reveal no significant influence of Se on the mackinawite precipitate morphology and structure. Samples from coprecipitation and from adsorption are characterized at the molecular scale by a multi-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigation. In the coprecipitation experiment, all elements (S, Fe, and Se) are in a low ionic oxidation state and the EXAFS data strongly point to selenium located in a mackinawite-like sulfide environment. By contacting selenide ions with FeS in suspension, part of Se is located in an environment similar to that found in the coprecipitation experiment. The explanation is a dynamical dissolution-recrystallization mechanism of the highly reactive mackinawite. This is the first experimental study to report on selenide incorporation in iron monosulfide by a multi-edge XAS approach. PMID:22900520

Finck, N; Dardenne, K; Bosbach, D; Geckeis, H

2012-09-18

137

Patient retention at dental school clinics: a marketing perspective.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the drivers of patient retention at dental school clinics from a services marketing perspective. An analysis of patient characteristics at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Dentistry, screened between August 2010 and July 2011 (N=3604), was performed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations, and a binary logistic regression. The main findings were that 42 percent of patients in the study were retained and that no response to communication efforts (36 percent) and financial problems (28 percent) constituted the most common reasons for non-retention. Older age, having insurance, and living within a sixty-mile radius were significant drivers of retention (p<0.05). Patients who had completed disease control treatments had a significantly higher retention rate (62 percent) than those who did not (42 percent). Finally, some groups of dental students had higher retention rates than others (p<0.05), indicating that service providers were a driver of retention. The resulting insights benefit dental schools in recruiting patients with the greatest likelihood of returning for care, providing dental students with skills to better service them, and consequently increasing retention. This will lead to providing a continuum of care and student education and to ensuring the sustainability and quality of the school's educational programs. PMID:25362692

Makarem, Suzanne C; Coe, Julie M

2014-11-01

138

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

139

SULFUR RETENTION IN COAL ASH  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an analytical study to assess the potential for sulfur retention in various types of coal-fired boilers. Results of a field test of 10 industrial coal-fired boilers were used to evaluate the impact on sulfur retention of the operating variables (load a...

140

7 CFR 3015.21 - Retention period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention period. 3015.21 Section 3015.21...UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Record Retention and Access Requirements § 3015.21 Retention period. (a) Except as provided...

2010-01-01

141

49 CFR 576.7 - Retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention. 576.7 Section 576.7 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) RECORD RETENTION § 576.7 Retention. Duplicate copies need not be retained....

2010-10-01

142

7 CFR 3015.21 - Retention period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention period. 3015.21 Section 3015.21...UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Record Retention and Access Requirements § 3015.21 Retention period. (a) Except as provided...

2011-01-01

143

49 CFR 576.7 - Retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention. 576.7 Section 576.7 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) RECORD RETENTION § 576.7 Retention. Duplicate copies need not be retained....

2011-10-01

144

Nitrogen surface water retention in the Baltic Sea drainage basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N) in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW) for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for which we had observed data, with a sufficient degree of precision and accuracy. The estimated retention parameters were also statistically significant. Our results show that around 380 000 t of N are annually retained in surface waters draining to the Baltic Sea. The total annual riverine load from the 117 basins to the Baltic Sea was estimated at 570 000 t of N, giving a total surface water N retention of around 40%. In terms of absolute retention values, three major river basins account for 50% of the total retention in the 117 basins; i.e. around 104 000 t of N are retained in Neva, 55 000 t in Vistula and 32 000 t in Oder. The largest retention was found in river basins with a high percentage of lakes as indicated by a strong relationship between N retention (%) and share of lake area in the river drainage areas. For example in Göta älv, we estimated a total N retention of 72%, whereof 67% of the retention occurred in the lakes of that drainage area (Lake Vänern primarily). The obtained results will hopefully enable the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) to refine the nutrient load targets in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), as well as to better identify cost-efficient measures to reduce nutrient loadings to the Baltic Sea.

Stålnacke, P.; Pengerud, A.; Vassiljev, A.; Smedberg, E.; Mörth, C.-M.; Hägg, H. E.; Humborg, C.; Andersen, H. E.

2015-02-01

145

Nitrogen surface water retention in the Baltic Sea drainage basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N) in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW) for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for which we had observed data, with a sufficient degree of precision and accuracy. The estimated retention parameters were also statistically significant. Our results show that around 380 000 t of N are annually retained in surface waters draining to the Baltic Sea. The total annual riverine load from the 117 basins to the Baltic Sea was estimated to 570 000 t of N, giving a total surface water N retention of around 40%. In terms of absolute retention values, three major river basins account for 50% of the total retention in the 117 basins; i.e. around 104 000 t of N is retained in Neva, 55 000 t in Vistula and 32 000 t in Oder. The largest retention was found in river basins with a high percentage of lakes as indicated by a strong relationship between N retention (%) and share of lake area in the river drainage areas. For example in Göta älv, we estimated a total N retention of 72%, whereof 67% of the retention occurred in the lakes of that drainage area (Lake Vänern primarily). The obtained results will hopefully enable the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) to refine the nutrient load targets in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), as well as to better identify cost-efficient measures to reduce nutrient loadings to the Baltic Sea.

Stålnacke, P.; Pengerud, A.; Vassiljev, A.; Smedberg, E.; Mörth, C.-M.; Hägg, H. E.; Humborg, C.; Andersen, H. E.

2014-09-01

146

Defining and analyzing retention-in-care among pregnant and breastfeeding HIV-infected women: unpacking the data to interpret and improve PMTCT outcomes.  

PubMed

The prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) "cascade" describes the programmatic steps for pregnant and breastfeeding women that influence HIV transmission rates. To this end, HIV-infected pregnant women and mothers need access to health services and adhere to antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis or lifetime treatment. Within the cascade, the concept of "retention-in-care" is commonly used as a proxy for adherence to ARV interventions and, even, viral suppression. Yet surprisingly, there is no standard definition of retention-in-care either for the purposes of HIV surveillance or implementation research. Implicit to the concept of retention-in-care is the sense of continuity and receipt of care at relevant time points. In the context of PMTCT, the main challenge for surveillance and implementation research is to estimate effective coverage of ARV interventions over a prolonged period of time. These data are used to inform program management and also to estimate postnatal MTCT rates. Attendance of HIV-infected mothers at clinic at 12-month postpartum is often equated with full retention in PMTCT programs over this period. Yet, measurement approaches that fail to register missed visits, or inconsistent attendance or other missing data in the interval period, fail to capture patterns of attendance and care received by mothers and children and risk introducing systematic errors and bias. More importantly, providing only an aggregated rate of attendance as a proxy for retention-in-care fails to identify specific gaps in health services where interventions to improve retention along the PMTCT cascade are most needed. In this article, we discuss how data on retention-in-care can be understood and analyzed, and what are the implications and opportunities for programs and implementation research. PMID:25310122

Rollins, Nigel C; Becquet, Renaud; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Phiri, Sam; Hayashi, Chika; Baller, April; Shaffer, Nathan

2014-11-01

147

Enhancing Minority Student Retention and Academic Performance: What We Can Learn from Program Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this important resource, Dr. Fleming (a noted expert in the field of minority retention) draws on educational evaluations she has developed in the course of her distinguished career. This book analyzes the common factors and the role institutional characteristics play in minority student retention to show what really works in increasing…

Fleming, Jacqueline

2012-01-01

148

Mnemonic benefits of retrieval practice at short retention intervals.  

PubMed

The testing effect refers to the retention benefit conferred by prior retrieval of information from memory. Although the testing effect is a robust phenomenon, a common assumption is that reliable memory benefits only emerge after long retention intervals of days or weeks. The present study focused on potential test-induced retention benefits for brief retention intervals on the order of minutes and tens of seconds. Participants in four experiments studied lists of words. Some of the items were subjected to an initial cued recall test, and others were re-presented for additional study. Free recall tests were administered in each experiment following retention intervals ranging from 30 s to 8 min. When initial retrieval practice was successful (Experiments 1 through 3), or feedback compensated for unsuccessful retrieval (Experiment 4), significant testing effects emerged at all retention intervals. Results are discussed in the context of a bifurcated item-distribution model and highlight the importance of initial test performance and the type of analysis employed when examining testing effect data. PMID:24579674

Rowland, Christopher A; DeLosh, Edward L

2015-04-01

149

Data Retention and Anonymity Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

150

Phosphorus and calcium retention in serially harvested cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Data from 3 serial harvest trials were utilized to calculate phosphorus and calcium retention in cattle. Trial 1 evaluated three rates of gain during a growing period followed by a common finishing diet utilizing British crossbred steers. Four steers were harvested from each treatment following th...

151

A Social Network Analysis of Student Retention Using Archival Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempts to determine if a relationship exists between first-to-second-year retention and social network variables for a cohort of first-year students at a small liberal arts college. The social network is reconstructed using not survey data as is most common, but rather using archival data from a student information system. Each…

Eckles, James E.; Stradley, Eric G.

2012-01-01

152

Payload retention device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A payload retention device for grappling and retaining a payload in docked position on a supporting structure in the cargo bay of a space vehicle is presented. The device comprises a two-fault tolerant electromagnetic grappling system comprising electromagnets for attracting and grappling a grapple strike plate affixed to the payload when in proximity thereto and an electromechanical latching assembly comprising a pair of independent latching subassemblies. Each subassembly comprises a set of latching pawls which are driven into latching and unlatching positions relative to a grappled payload by a pair of gearmotors, each equipped with a ratchet clutch drive mechanism which is two-fault tolerant with respect to latching such that only one gearmotor of the four needs to be operational to effect a latch of the payload but is single fault tolerant with respect to release of a latched payload. Sensors are included for automatically sensing the magnetic grappling of a payload and for automatically de-energizing the gearmotors of the latching subassemblies when a latch condition is achieved.

Monford, Leo G., Jr.

1992-06-01

153

Pond age and riparian zone proximity influence anuran occupancy of urban retention ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization is widespread throughout the United States and negatively affects many wildlife populations. However, certain\\u000a urban features, such as retention ponds, may provide habitat for some species, such as amphibians. This study examines the\\u000a influence of riparian zone proximity and pond age on retention pond occupancy by anurans. We identified and estimated the\\u000a age of 25 retention ponds near Charlotte,

Devynn A. Birx-Raybuck; Steven J. Price; Michael E. Dorcas

2010-01-01

154

Turnover: strategies for staff retention.  

PubMed

This discussion has focused on a number of areas where organizations may find opportunities for more effectively managing employee retention. Given the multitude of causes and consequences, there is no one quick fix. Effective management of employee retention requires assessment of the entire human resources process, that is, recruitment, selection, job design, compensation, supervision, work conditions, etc. Regular and systematic diagnosis of turnover and implementation of multiple strategies and evaluation are needed (Mobley, 1982). PMID:10106673

SnowAntle, S

1990-01-01

155

Elementary Grade Retention: Making the Decision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews historic approaches to grade retention, what research does and does not show about retention, and some factors to weigh when considering retention. Focuses on models developed by H. Wayne Light and Laurence Lieberman. Includes a sample elementary school promotion policy and a sample retention referral form. (IW)

Bucko, Richard L.

1986-01-01

156

Analysis of common bean expressed sequence tags identifies sulfur metabolic pathways active in seed and sulfur-rich proteins highly expressed in the absence of phaseolin and major lectins  

PubMed Central

Background A deficiency in phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin is associated with a near doubling of sulfur amino acid content in genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), particularly cysteine, elevated by 70%, and methionine, elevated by 10%. This mostly takes place at the expense of an abundant non-protein amino acid, S-methyl-cysteine. The deficiency in phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin is mainly compensated by increased levels of the 11S globulin legumin and residual lectins. Legumin, albumin-2, defensin and albumin-1 were previously identified as contributing to the increased sulfur amino acid content in the mutant line, on the basis of similarity to proteins from other legumes. Results Profiling of free amino acid in developing seeds of the BAT93 reference genotype revealed a biphasic accumulation of gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine, the main soluble form of S-methyl-cysteine, with a lag phase occurring during storage protein accumulation. A collection of 30,147 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was generated from four developmental stages, corresponding to distinct phases of gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine accumulation, and covering the transitions to reserve accumulation and dessication. Analysis of gene ontology categories indicated the occurrence of multiple sulfur metabolic pathways, including all enzymatic activities responsible for sulfate assimilation, de novo cysteine and methionine biosynthesis. Integration of genomic and proteomic data enabled the identification and isolation of cDNAs coding for legumin, albumin-2, defensin D1 and albumin-1A and -B induced in the absence of phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin. Their deduced amino acid sequences have a higher content of cysteine than methionine, providing an explanation for the preferential increase of cysteine in the mutant line. Conclusion The EST collection provides a foundation to further investigate sulfur metabolism and the differential accumulation of sulfur amino acids in seed of common bean. Identification of sulfur-rich proteins whose levels are elevated in seed lacking phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin and sulfur metabolic genes may assist the improvement of protein quality. PMID:21615926

2011-01-01

157

Reactive barriers for {sup 137}Cs retention  

SciTech Connect

{sup 137}Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of {sup 137}Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half life of {sup 137}Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if {sup 137}Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with {sup 135}Cs (half life 2.3x10{sup 6} years) in addition to {sup 137}Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention Cs resorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO{sub 3} and LiCl washes. Washed clay were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F- 111 were similar; 0.017 to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12 to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake so most soils have some limited ability to act as a natural barrier to Cs migration. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt ({approximately} 0.33 wt% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artificial reactive barriers.

KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BRADY,PATRICK V.; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

2000-05-19

158

Developing a neonatal workforce: role evolution and retention of advanced neonatal nurse practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Over the past decade more than 120 advanced neonatal nurse practitioners (ANNPs) have graduated from the Southampton based ANNP programme.Objectives: To determine the scope of practice and evolving role of ANNPs and to identify factors that may affect future recruitment and retention.Method: An open ended structured questionnaire on clinical role, working arrangements, retention and attrition, continuing education, and professional

S L Smith; M A Hall

2003-01-01

159

Threshold effects of variable retention harvesting on understory plant communities in the boreal mixedwood forest  

E-print Network

¨usser and Lieffers, 1998; George and Bazzazz, 1999) and throughout succession (Lorimer et al., 1994; Saunders, it is important to identify these in order to choose retention levels that balance the competing objectives: Variable retention harvesting Boreal forest Understory vegetation Forest harvesting impacts Succession A B

Macdonald, Ellen

160

Factors Affecting Student Retention in Online Courses: Overcoming This Critical Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine what a panel of 15 experts would identify as critical factors affecting student retention in online courses that will serve as implications for educational leaders to guide their student retention strategies, online organizational structures, institutional policies, and online instructional activities. A…

Gaytan, Jorge

2013-01-01

161

Can retention forestry help conserve biodiversity? A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Industrial forestry typically leads to a simplified forest structure and altered species composition. Retention of trees at harvest was introduced about 25 years ago to mitigate negative impacts on biodiversity, mainly from clearcutting, and is now widely practiced in boreal and temperate regions. Despite numerous studies on response of flora and fauna to retention, no comprehensive review has summarized its effects on biodiversity in comparison to clearcuts as well as un-harvested forests. Using a systematic review protocol, we completed a meta-analysis of 78 studies including 944 comparisons of biodiversity between retention cuts and either clearcuts or un-harvested forests, with the main objective of assessing whether retention forestry helps, at least in the short term, to moderate the negative effects of clearcutting on flora and fauna. Retention cuts supported higher richness and a greater abundance of forest species than clearcuts as well as higher richness and abundance of open-habitat species than un-harvested forests. For all species taken together (i.e. forest species, open-habitat species, generalist species and unclassified species), richness was higher in retention cuts than in clearcuts. Retention cuts had negative impacts on some species compared to un-harvested forest, indicating that certain forest-interior species may not survive in retention cuts. Similarly, retention cuts were less suitable for some open-habitat species compared with clearcuts. Positive effects of retention cuts on richness of forest species increased with proportion of retained trees and time since harvest, but there were not enough data to analyse possible threshold effects, that is, levels at which effects on biodiversity diminish. Spatial arrangement of the trees (aggregated vs. dispersed) had no effect on either forest species or open-habitat species, although limited data may have hindered our capacity to identify responses. Results for different comparisons were largely consistent among taxonomic groups for forest and open-habitat species, respectively. Synthesis and applications. Our meta-analysis provides support for wider use of retention forestry since it moderates negative harvesting impacts on biodiversity. Hence, it is a promising approach for integrating biodiversity conservation and production forestry, although identifying optimal solutions between these two goals may need further attention. Nevertheless, retention forestry will not substitute for conservation actions targeting certain highly specialized species associated with forest-interior or open-habitat conditions. Our meta-analysis provides support for wider use of retention forestry since it moderates negative harvesting impacts on biodiversity. Hence, it is a promising approach for integrating biodiversity conservation and production forestry, although identifying optimal solutions between these two goals may need further attention. Nevertheless, retention forestry will not substitute for conservation actions targeting certain highly specialized species associated with forest-interior or open-habitat conditions. PMID:25552747

Fedrowitz, Katja; Koricheva, Julia; Baker, Susan C; Lindenmayer, David B; Palik, Brian; Rosenvald, Raul; Beese, William; Franklin, Jerry F; Kouki, Jari; Macdonald, Ellen; Messier, Christian; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Gustafsson, Lena

2014-01-01

162

Retention of anions on silica-based metalloporphyrin stationary phases.  

PubMed

The silica-based Fe(III)-protoporphyrin and Zn-tetraphenylporphyrin stationary phases were examined for the HPLC separation of anions. The retention of nine common inorganic anions as well as benzoate anion (BA) and its hydroxy analogues (HBA) was examined using tartrate, acetate, and succinate eluents. The retention factors of inorganic anions on the FeProP stationary phase were in the order Cl- < NO3- < ClO4- < I- < SCN- and for organic anions benzoate < p-hydroxybenzoate < m-hydoxybenzoate < o-hydroxybenzoate. The retention factors of organic anions examined for a ZnTPP column were in the order p-HBA < m-HBA < BA < o-HBA. PMID:11874117

Biesaga, Magdalena; Stolarczyk, Elzbieta; Pyrzy?ska, Krystyna; Trojanowicz, Marek

2002-02-01

163

Supporting Child Welfare Supervisors to Improve Worker Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent child welfare research has identified supervisors as key to retaining qualified and committed workers. This paper describes implementation of a federally funded child welfare training initiative designed to improve worker retention largely through developing, implementing, and evaluating a statewide supervisor training program in a…

Landsman, Miriam

2007-01-01

164

Retention Assistance Request for Curriculum Committee Academic Success Resources  

E-print Network

Retention Assistance Request for Curriculum Committee Academic Success Resources Improving-Year Experience & Transition Program success@unl.edu to identify these students, provide them with course you that these resources are available: Academic Success Coaches are available for students, they build supportive

Powers, Robert

165

INTRODUCTION Embryos of the freshwater common pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis  

E-print Network

4092 INTRODUCTION Embryos of the freshwater common pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis complete direct retention (Baldwin, 1935). Metamorphosis and shell formation have been observed for Lymnaea palustris (Morrill, 1982), L. stagnalis (Ebanks et al., 2010) and another freshwater pulmonate snail Biomphalaria

Grosell, Martin

166

Common cold  

MedlinePLUS

... are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work. Parents often get colds ... other children. A cold can spread quickly through schools or daycares. Colds can occur at any time ...

167

Lake retention of manufactured nanoparticles.  

PubMed

For twenty-five world lakes and three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), lake retention was calculated using a uniformly mixed lake mass balance model. This follows similar approaches traditionally used in water quality management. Lakes were selected such that lake residence times, depths and areal hydraulic loadings covered the widest possible range among existing lakes. Sedimentation accounted for natural colloid as well as suspended solid settling regimes. An ENP-specific mixed sedimentation regime is proposed. This regime combines ENP sedimentation through slow settling with natural colloids from the water column, with faster settling with suspended solids from a selected part of the water column. Although sedimentation data and hydrodynamic concepts as such were not new, their first time combination or application to ENPs shows in which cases lake retention is important for these particles. In combination with ENP emission data, lake retention translates directly into potential risks of ENPs for lake benthic communities. PMID:25463711

Koelmans, A A; Quik, J T K; Velzeboer, I

2015-01-01

168

Student Retention Is More Complicated Than Merely Keeping the Students You Have Today: Toward a 'Seamless Retention Theory'"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that a truly "seamless" student retention effort by colleges and universities is one that begins before students are enrolled and anticipates and identifies the needs of students as they progress in the educational system. Discusses demographic trends in the higher education market, the geography of minority enrollment, and the impact of…

Burr, Pat LeMay; Burr, Richard M.; Novak, Lorena F.

1999-01-01

169

Practical solutions for staff recruitment & retention.  

PubMed

There are three essential topics for radiology managers to consider in light of persistent staffing shortages: support of the profession and educational programs, perks as recruitment tools and incentives as retention tools. Some activities that can help support departments and educational programs for radiologic technologists are job shadowing, training for volunteer services, advanced placement for school applicants, sponsoring an educational program or clinical training site, creating a positive work environment and supporting outreach projects geared to local high schools. Traditional perks used in recruitment efforts have included relocation assistance, travel and lodging expenses during the interview process, loan repayment, scholarships and sign-on bonuses. Some common incentives for retaining employees are tuition reimbursement, cross training, availability of educational resources, continuing education opportunities, professional development and incremental increases in salary. There are many other tools that can be used, such as career ladders, creating an environment conducive to teamwork or a more personal atmosphere and showcasing talents of various staff members. There is much overlap among these suggestions in support of the profession and educational programs, recruitment and retention of qualified staff radiologic technologists. Radiology managers can and should be creative in developing different programs to build loyalty and commitment to a radiology department. PMID:11499081

Vander Hoek, N

2001-01-01

170

Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides comprehensive information, selected by medical doctors, about the common cold. "The goal is to provide a framework for critical thinking which will allow informed decisions about medical care for the common cold." The section entitled Understanding Colds gives a detailed overview of how the cold virus invades the human body and how cold symptoms are caused. Information about preventing colds, and some of the complications that can occur are also included. The Special Features section includes one of the most interesting parts of the site -- Myths of the Common Cold. This site should be interesting to almost anyone, but perhaps more so for those of us who have recently had a cold.

171

Clinical trials: the challenge of recruitment and retention of participants. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This methodological paper examines participant-related and research-related factors that affect recruitment and retention of patients in clinical trials. Recommendations include using pilot studies to identify problems prior to launching a trial and developing multiple recruitment strategies.

172

Employee voice and employee retention.  

PubMed

This study investigates the relationship between the extent to which employees have opportunities to voice dissatisfaction and voluntary turnover in 111 short-term, general care hospitals. Results show that, whether or not a union is present, high numbers of mechanisms for employee voice are associated with high retention rates. Implications for theory and research as well as management practice are discussed. PMID:10278801

Spencer, D G

1986-09-01

173

Enhancing student retention and employability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retention of first year students in the Faculty of Engineering is a significant problem. There appears to be a pattern of loss of students early in Semester 1 with students failing to engage with their program of learning and again in Semester 2 after the publication of results of the January exam diet. This project aimed to address these problems

D. Ballance; A. Browitt; J. Davies; J. Pritchard; S. Roy; W. Stewart; M. Vezza; L. Walker; A. Whittaker

174

Teacher Retention: An Appreciative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nationally, the problem of teacher retention compounds the unstable nature of the educational situation, especially in urban, high-needs schools. Much of the instability of urban schools is due to teacher movement, the migration of teachers from school to another school within or between school districts, particularly from high-needs schools.…

Pesavento-Conway, Jennifer Jean

2010-01-01

175

Course Retention Analysis. Focus Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted at Mount San Antonio College (MSAC), California, to analyze patterns in credit course retention between fall 1986 and spring 1989. The study investigated the development of course prerequisites based on faculty perceptions of the skills necessary for success and minimal skill levels associated with success; student assessment…

Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.

176

Strategies for improving employee retention.  

PubMed

This article proposes a solution to the perennial problem of talent retention in the clinical laboratory. It includes the presentation of 12 strategies that may be used to significantly improve institutional identity formation and establishment of the psychological contract that employees form with laboratory management. Identity formation and psychological contracting are deemed as essential in helping reduce employee turnover and increase retention. The 12 conversational strategies may be used as a set of best practices for all employees, but most importantly for new employees, and should be implemented at the critical moment when employees first join the laboratory. This time is referred to as "retention on-boarding"--the period of induction and laboratory orientation. Retention on-boarding involves a dialogue between employees and management that is focused on the psychological, practical, cultural, and political dimensions of the laboratory. It is placed in the context of the modern clinical laboratory, which is faced with employing and managing Generation X knowledge workers. Specific topics and broad content areas of those conversations are outlined. PMID:17394785

Verlander, Edward G; Evans, Martin R

2007-01-01

177

Effects of Physical Tracing on Estimates of Loss to Follow-Up, Mortality and Retention in Low and Middle Income Country Antiretroviral Therapy Programs: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background A large proportion of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) have unknown treatment outcomes and are classified as lost to follow-up (LTFU). Physical tracing of patients classified as LTFU is common; however, effects of tracing on outcomes remains unclear. The objective of this systematic review is to compare estimates of LTFU, mortality and retention in LMIC in cohorts of patients with and without physical tracing. Methods and Findings We systematically identified studies in LMIC programmatic settings using MEDLINE (2003–2011) and HIV conference abstracts (2009–2011). Studies reporting the proportion LTFU 12-months after ART initiation were included. Tracing activities were determined from manuscripts or by contacting study authors. Studies were classified as “tracing studies” if physical tracing was available for the majority of patients. Summary estimates from the 2 groups of studies (tracing and non-tracing) for LTFU, mortality, stop of ART, transfers out, and retention on ART were determined. 261 papers and 616 abstracts were identified of which 39 studies comprising 54 separate cohorts (n?=?187,666) met inclusion criteria. Of those, physical tracing was available for 46% of cohorts. Treatment programs with physical tracing activities had lower estimated LTFU (7.6% vs. 15.1%; p<.001), higher estimated mortality (10.5% vs. 6.6%; p?=?.006), higher retention on ART (80.0 vs. 75.8%; p?=?.04) and higher retention at the original site (80.0% vs. 72.9%; p?=?.02). Conclusions Knowledge of patient tracing is critical when interpreting program outcomes of LTFU, mortality and retention. The reduction of the proportion LTFU in tracing studies was only partially explained by re-classification of unknown outcomes. These data suggest that tracing may lead to increased re-engagement of patients in care, rather than just improved classification of unknown outcomes. PMID:23424643

McMahon, James H.; Elliott, Julian H.; Hong, Steven Y.; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Jordan, Michael R.

2013-01-01

178

Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)  

MedlinePLUS

... institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were swollen and ... at one time. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid retention) Weigh yourself. l Weigh yourself at the ...

179

7 CFR 70.54 - Retention authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Retention authorities... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...Products § 70.54 Retention authorities....

2011-01-01

180

7 CFR 57.426 - Retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Retention. 57.426 ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...Inspection of Eggs Retention § 57.426...

2010-01-01

181

7 CFR 56.38 - Retention authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Retention authorities... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...Products § 56.38 Retention authorities....

2011-01-01

182

7 CFR 70.54 - Retention authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Retention authorities... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...Products § 70.54 Retention authorities....

2010-01-01

183

7 CFR 57.426 - Retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Retention. 57.426 ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...Inspection of Eggs Retention § 57.426...

2011-01-01

184

12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must...

2010-01-01

185

Common Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

186

Common Chuckwalla  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

187

Soil Water Retention Curves and Their Impact on Evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate description of soil moisture dynamics in both the liquid and vapor phases is crucial to properly estimate soil evaporation. Soil moisture dynamics are largely dependent on the soil water retention. In the most commonly used models the water retention curve diverges at residual water content, the value below which liquid connectivity is lost and liquid flow stops. Not only this is physically unrealistic but results in incorrect evaporation modeling near dry conditions since the water vapor role is limited. We consider two of the main parametrizations that allow vapor flux below residual water content (modified models): one consists in a re-fit of the standard retention curve with zero residual water content, the other, supported by some laboratory measurements, considers a linear extension (on a semi-log plot) of the standard retention curve in the dry region. For a medium-textured sand and a loam we numerically investigate the effects of both the modified and the standard Van Genuchten models on the liquid and vapor transport during the simulated drying process, with and without surface radiative forcing. In the isothermal case, we show how all the models almost identically describe the capillary-dominated evaporative regime whereas when vapor diffusion is the dominant evaporative mechanism the modified models yield larger and longer sustained vapor fluxes, significantly increasing soil water removal. In the presence of diurnal radiative forcing at the soil surface, we focus on the effects of temperature fluctuations on soil water retention. The impact on liquid and vapor fluxes is analyzed in order to assess whether temperature-dependent and dry-extended retention curves may 'fill the gap' or not between theory and some still debated field experimental evidences (e.g. the midday moisture content rise) without the need of introducing any questionable and ad-hoc empirical terms such as vapor enhancement and/or liquid gain factors.

Ciocca, F.; Lunati, I.; Parlange, M. B.

2013-12-01

188

Elementary Grade Retention: Making the Decision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's administrators must exercise caution in using student retention as a means of responding to changing social values and to the current media attention on declining standardized test scores. Recent reviews of hundreds of studies of student retention have concluded that some low achieving students do benefit from retention, but the majority…

Bucko, Richard

189

Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Progress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few words have dominated the vocabulary of college retention as has the word "persistence." Many institutions still struggle to engage faculty and administrators in building campuswide retention efforts, to find the organizational levers that translate the abstractions and complexities of retention theory into scalable and durable initiatives, and…

Spittle, Brian

2013-01-01

190

Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Profile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 35 years of retention theory and literature have acknowledged the importance of institutional and student profiles in accounting for cross-sectional differences in retention and completion rates between types of colleges and universities. The first "P" within a 4 Ps framework of student retention--"profile"--recognizes that an institution's…

Kalsbeek, David H.; Zucker, Brian

2013-01-01

191

A RETENTION INDEX SCHEME FOR USE WITH SULFUR SPECIFIC DETECTORS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Retention indices are very important for compound identification when using gas chromatography. Retention indices are important because they remain static under different conditions and instruments while retention times vary dramatically. Generally, a retention index is generated using a series of...

192

5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Period of grade retention. 536.204 Section...REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention...under § 536.208, an employee is entitled to retain...the employee to grade retention, the employee must continue...

2010-01-01

193

5 CFR 536.201 - Mandatory grade retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention...201 Mandatory grade retention. (a) Subject...must provide grade retention to an employee who moves from a position under a covered pay system to a...

2010-01-01

194

5 CFR 536.301 - Mandatory pay retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mandatory pay retention. 536.301 Section 536.301 Administrative...MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Pay Retention § 536.301 Mandatory pay retention....

2011-01-01

195

5 CFR 536.201 - Mandatory grade retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mandatory grade retention. 536.201 Section 536.201 Administrative...MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.201 Mandatory grade retention....

2011-01-01

196

5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Period of grade retention. 536.204 Section 536.204 Administrative...MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.204 Period of grade retention....

2011-01-01

197

5 CFR 536.202 - Optional grade retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Optional grade retention. 536.202 Section 536.202 Administrative...MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.202 Optional grade retention....

2011-01-01

198

48 CFR 4.704 - Calculation of retention periods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of retention periods. 4.704 Section 4.704 Federal...ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contractor Records Retention 4.704 Calculation of retention periods. (a) The retention...

2010-10-01

199

5 CFR 536.302 - Optional pay retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Optional pay retention. 536.302 Section 536.302 Administrative...MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Pay Retention § 536.302 Optional pay retention....

2011-01-01

200

48 CFR 4.704 - Calculation of retention periods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calculation of retention periods. 4.704 Section 4.704 Federal...ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contractor Records Retention 4.704 Calculation of retention periods. (a) The retention...

2011-10-01

201

Bioassay data and a retention-excretion model for systemic plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The estimation of systemic burdens from urinalyses has been the most common and useful method of quantifying occupational exposures to plutonium. Problems arise in using this technique, however, because of inadequate modeling of human retention, translocation, and excretion of this element. Present methods for estimating the systemic burden from urinalyses were derived to a large extent from patterns observed in the first few months after exposure, but there is now evidence that these same patterns do not persist over long periods. In this report we collect and discuss data needed for the interpretation of bioassay results for Pu. These data are used to develop a model that describes the movement, retention, and excretion of systemic Pu in the human body in terms of explicitly identified anatomical compartments. This model may be used in conjunction with existing models and/or case-specific information concerning the translocation of Pu from the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract or from wounds to the bloodstream. Attention is restricted to the behavior of Pu after it has gained access to the bloodstream. There remain significant uncertainties concerning some aspects of the movement of Pu, particularly its translocation from the liver. An attempt has been made to construct the model in such a way as to elucidate those areas needing further attention. 98 references, 18 figures, 16 tables.

Leggett, R.W.

1984-05-01

202

Tag Retention of T-Bar Anchor Tags and Passive Integrated Transponder Tags in Shovelnose Sturgeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capture–recapture methods are commonly used to estimate population parameters when the necessary assumptions are met. One of the broadest assumptions of capture–recapture models is that tags are not lost. Therefore, one must understand tag retention to be able to adjust estimates if tag loss occurs. Our objectives were to (1) determine retention rates of T-bar anchor tags and passive integrated

Martin J. Hamel; Jeremy J. Hammen; Mark A. Pegg

2012-01-01

203

Patient retention in antiretroviral therapy programs up to three years on treatment in sub-Saharan Africa, 2007–2009: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate the proportion of all-cause adult patient attrition from antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in service delivery settings in sub-Saharan Africa through 36 months on treatment. Methods We identified cohorts within Ovid Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and four conference abstract archives. We summarized retention rates from studies describing observational cohorts from sub-Saharan Africa reporting on adult HIV 1- infected patients initiating first-line three-drug ART. We estimated all-cause attrition rates for 6, 12, 18, 24, or 36 months after ART initiation including patients who died or were lost to follow-up (as defined by the author), but excluding transferred patients. Results We analysed 33 sources describing 39 cohorts and 226 307 patients. Patients were more likely to be female (median 65%) and had a median age at initiation of 37 (range 34–40). Median starting CD4 count was 109 cells/mm3. Loss to follow-up was the most common cause of attrition (59%), followed by death (41%). Median attrition at 12, 24 and 36 months was 22.6% (range 7%–45%), 25% (range 11%–32%) and 29.5% (range 13%–36.1%) respectively. After pooling data in a random-effects meta-analysis, retention declined from 86.1% at 6 months to 80.2% at 12 months, 76.8% at 24 months and 72.3% at 36 months. Adjusting for variable follow-up time in a sensitivity analysis, 24 month retention was 70.0% (range: 66.7%–73.3%), while 36 month retention was 64.6% (range: 57.5%–72.1%). Conclusions Our findings document the difficulties in retaining patients in care for lifelong treatment, and the progress being made in raising overall retention rates. PMID:20586956

Fox, Matthew P; Rosen, Sydney

2010-01-01

204

Factors affecting the retention of first-year female science and engineering students at the University of Michigan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alarming to many academics is that while the numbers of female students (at the University of Michigan in particular) in SEM (Science, Engineering, and Mathematics) departments have shown increases in enrollment over the past decades, the number of female professionals in the field has decreased. The purpose of the study was to determine the environmental perceptions of female SEM students in the Women in Science and Engineering (WISE) Program at the University of Michigan. The WISE-RP (Residence Program) is an existing living and learning education program at the university that was designed to facilitate the successful retention and graduation of undergraduate female SEM students in the capacity that the admissions statistics should logically imply. The objectives of the study included identification of the perceptions of female students that contribute to, and foster retention of students participating in the WISE-RP program. The knowledge obtained from this evaluation will guide the University of Michigan in formulating specific interventions and retention approaches, both in and out of the classroom. This was achieved by identifying (among other things) commonality of experiences, and female student's perceptions of acceptance, integration and interactivity. The data used in this secondary analysis was collected over a 2 year period (1999--2001). The primary instrument used for data collection was a structured interview protocol utilizing focus groups. The population and samples studied were comprised of: a research project consisting of 36 focus groups from WISE-RP, University Research Opportunity Program, and the University Research Opportunity in Residence Programs; the sample size of the initial project was 180 first year SEM male and female students. The research project consisted of working with a senior research team at the University of Michigan to develop a structured interview instrument, pilot the instrument, and select focus groups. Content analysis was conducted on the open-ended focus group questions. Three themes emerged from the data set: (a) general contributing factors to retention, (b) support networks and programmatic features that contributed to retention, (c) individual/gender specific challenges that students faced. It found that the initial mission of the program has been accomplished, as evidenced by the findings of this study. The University is graduating and retaining female SEM students at a higher rate than at the program's inception. The challenges for the University at this point include: increasing numbers of female SEM faculty, enhancing and focusing the living learning community mission of the program, integrating student affairs components to the program features on an administrative level, committing to longitudinal analysis and assessment of individual incoming students toward identifying strengths and weaknesses, and finally---committing increased resources to these objectives.

Ballard, Juliet Webb

205

Developing a Hybrid Model to Predict Student First Year Retention in STEM Disciplines Using Machine Learning Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to develop a hybrid framework to model first year student retention for underrepresented minority (URM) students comprising African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans. Identifying inputs that best contribute to student retention provides significant information for institutions to learn about…

Alkhasawneh, Ruba; Hargraves, Rosalyn Hobson

2014-01-01

206

Workforce Issues--Rural Illinois Hospital Chief Executive Officers' Perceptions of Provider Shortages and Issues in Rural Recruitment and Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: It is important to assess rural health professions workforce needs and identify variables in recruitment and retention of rural health professionals. Purpose: This study examined the perspectives of rural hospital chief executive officers (CEOs) regarding workforce needs and their views of factors in the recruitment and retention…

Glasser, Michael; Peters, Karen; MacDowell, Martin

2006-01-01

207

Retention modeling and method development in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.  

PubMed

In the present study, the possibility of retention modeling in the HILIC mode was investigated, testing several different literature relationships over a wide range of different analytical conditions (column chemistries and mobile phase pH) and using analytes possessing diverse physico-chemical properties. Furthermore, it was investigated how the retention prediction depends on the number of isocratic or gradient trial or initial scouting runs. The most promising set of scouting runs seems to be a combination of three isocratic runs (95, 90 and 70%ACN) and one gradient run (95 to 65%ACN in 10min), as the average prediction errors were lower than using six equally spaced isocratic runs and because it is common in Method development (MD) to perform at least one scouting gradient run in the screening step to find out the best column, temperature and pH conditions. Overall, the retention predictions were much less accurate in HILIC than what is usually experienced in RPLC. This has severe implications for MD, as it restricts the use of commercial software packages that require the simulation of the retention of every peak in the chromatogram. To overcome this problem, the recently proposed predictive elution window shifting and stretching (PEWS(2)) approach can be used. In this computer-assisted MD strategy, only an (approximate) prediction of the retention of the first and the last peak in the chromatogram is required to conduct a well-targeted trial-and-error search, with suggested search conditions uniformly covering the entire possible search and elution space. This strategy was used to optimize the separation of three representative pharmaceutical mixtures possessing diverse physico-chemical properties (pteridins, saccharides and cocktail of drugs/metabolites). All problems could be successfully handled in less than 2.5h of instrument time (including equilibration). PMID:24613041

Tyteca, Eva; Périat, Aurélie; Rudaz, Serge; Desmet, Gert; Guillarme, Davy

2014-04-11

208

Identifying Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this environmental science activity (page 3 of the PDF), leaners will identify and explain the causes of erosion. They will observe the effects of erosion on the surrounding area and further explore examples of erosion online. An extension activity allows learners to make a hands-on model of soil erosion. Though this was created as a pre-visit activity for a workshop about water flow and erosion, it makes a great stand-alone activity as well!

COSI

2009-01-01

209

Retention at Departments of Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thriving physics department is the end result of many actions, taken over time, that results in the development of a sense of community between the faculty and the students. As part of this sense of community, gifted students must receive special attention and innovative ideas must be incorporated to successfully accommodate the needs of these students. We have found that the best retention strategy for gifted undergraduates is the total involvement of them in undergraduate research projects and also the development of leadership in extracurricular activities within the department. A careful employment strategy is needed to secure a faculty committed to the goals of the community.

Muller, Rafael; Rosa, Luis

2013-03-01

210

Retention force measurement of telescopic crowns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the determination of the retentive force between primary and secondary telescopic crowns under clinical\\u000a conditions. Forty-three combined fixed–removable prostheses with a total of 140 double crowns were used for retention force\\u000a measurement of the telescopic crowns prior to cementation. The crowns had a preparation of 1–2°. A specifically designed measuring\\u000a device was used. The retentive forces

Stefan Bayer; Helmut Stark; Sebastian Mues; Ludger Keilig; Anja Schrader; Norbert Enkling

2010-01-01

211

Examining the relationship between multiple comorbidities and retention in HIV medical care: a retrospective analysis.  

PubMed

Retention in medical care among people living with HIV (PLWH) is a major component in properly managing the disease. As PLWH age, diagnoses of comorbid conditions become common and it may be important to understand how these conditions may impact engagement in care, in particular retention in HIV medical care. A secondary data analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between multiple comorbid conditions and retention in HIV care among patients who sought HIV care between 2003 and 2011. Retention in care was defined as having two clinic visits separated by ?3 months within a 12-month period. Logistic regression was conducted to determine if multiple comorbid conditions were associated with optimal retention (100%) versus suboptimal retention (<100%). There were 1261 patients included in the analysis, 47% had ?1 comorbid condition, and approximately 55%, were optimally retained in care. In the regression model, those with one comorbid condition (odds ratio [OR]: 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.81-3.39) and ?2 comorbid conditions (OR: 4.08; 95% CI: 2.59-6.45) were at significantly higher odds of being optimally retained in care. The results of the study suggest that those living with both HIV and multiple comorbid conditions are better engaged in care compared to those without any comorbid conditions, and this may not present a barrier to care as suggested by other researchers. The results of this study may shed light on the development of tailored interventions to improve retention in care. PMID:25679403

Crawford, Timothy N

2015-07-01

212

Wildfire impacts on soil-water retention in the Colorado Front Range, United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work examined the plot-scale differences in soil-water retention caused by wildfire in the area of the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in the Colorado Front Range, United States. We measured soil-water retention curves on intact cores and repacked samples, soil particle-size distributions, and organic matter content. Estimates were also made of plant-available water based on the soil-water retention curves. Parameters for use in soil-hydraulic property models were estimated; these parameters can be used in unsaturated flow modeling for comparing burned and unburned watersheds. The primary driver for measured differences in soil-water retention in burned and unburned soils was organic matter content and not soil-particle size distribution. The tendency for unburned south-facing soils to have greater organic matter content than unburned north-facing soils in this field area may explain why unburned south-facing soils had greater soil-water retention than unburned north-facing soils. Our results suggest that high-severity wildfire can "homogenize" soil-water retention across the landscape by erasing soil-water retention differences resulting from organic matter content, which for this site may be affected by slope aspect. This homogenization could have important implications for ecohydrology and plant succession/recovery in burned areas, which could be a factor in dictating the window of vulnerability of the landscape to flash floods and erosion that are a common consequence of wildfire.

Ebel, Brian A.

2012-12-01

213

A Genome-wide Association Study of Early-onset Breast Cancer Identifies PFKM as a Novel Breast Cancer Gene and Supports a Common Genetic Spectrum for Breast Cancer at Any Age  

PubMed Central

Early-onset breast cancer (EOBC) causes substantial loss of life and productivity, creating a major burden among women worldwide. We analyzed 1,265,548 Hapmap3 SNPs among a discovery set of 3,523 EOBC incident case and 2,702 population control women aged <=51 years. The SNPs with smallest P-values were examined in a replication set of 3,470 EOBC case and 5,475 control women. We also tested EOBC association with 19,684 genes by annotating each gene with putative functional SNPs, and then combining their P-values to obtain a gene-based P-value. We examined the gene with smallest P-value for replication in 1,145 breast cancer case and 1,142 control women. The combined discovery and replication sets identified 72 new SNPs associated with EOBC (P<4×10?8) located in six genomic regions previously reported to contain SNPs associated largely with later-onset breast cancer (LOBC). SNP rs2229882 and 10 other SNPs on chromosome 5q11.2 remained associated (P<6×10?4) after adjustment for the strongest published SNPs in the region. Thirty-two of the 82 currently known LOBC SNPs were associated with EOBC (P<0.05). Low power is likely responsible for the remaining 50 unassociated known LOBC SNPs. The gene-based analysis identified an association between breast cancer and the phosphofructokinase-muscle (PFKM) gene on chromosome 12q13.11 that met the genomewide gene-based threshold of 2.5×10?6. In conclusion, EOBC and LOBC appear to have similar genetic etiologies; the 5q11.2 region may contain multiple distinct breast cancer loci; and the PFKM gene region is worthy of further investigation. These findings should enhance our understanding of the etiology of breast cancer. PMID:24493630

Ahsan, Habibul; Halpern, Jerry; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Pierce, Brandon L; Tong, Lin; Gamazon, Eric; McGuire, Valerie; Felberg, Anna; Shi, Jianxin; Jasmine, Farzana; Roy, Shantanu; Brutus, Rachelle; Argos, Maria; Melkonian, Stephanie; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Andrulis, Irene; Hopper, John L; John, Esther M.; Malone, Kathi; Ursin, Giske; Gammon, Marilie D; Thomas, Duncan C; Seminara, Daniela; Casey, Graham; Knight, Julia A; Southey, Melissa C; Giles, Graham G; Santella, Regina M; Lee, Eunjung; Conti, David; Duggan, David; Gallinger, Steve; Haile, Robert; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Apicella, Carmel; Park, Daniel J; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Lathrop, Mark; Hunter, David J; Chanock, Stephen J; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lochmann, Magdalena; Beckmann, Lars; Hein, Rebecca; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Bui, Quang Minh; Stone, Jennifer; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Dahmen, Norbert; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Nicolae, Dan; Easton, Douglas F; Cox, Nancy J; Whittemore, Alice S

2014-01-01

214

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2012-09-24

215

Adult Student Retention: A Practical Approach to Retention Improvement through Learning Enhancement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult student retention is an issue of growing concern for many institutions. It differs from traditional retention much like traditional students differ from adult students. As the majority of student body growth comes from adult students, adult student retention management will become critical to the majority of colleges and universities. To…

Fincher, Mark

2010-01-01

216

“The nurse satisfaction, service quality and nurse retention chain” : Implications for management of recruitment and retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study, based on interviews with over 130 nurses and midwives in four London Trust hospitals on: the main factors influencing nurse satisfaction and retention; empirical support for the robustness of a conceptual framework or model “the nurse satisfaction, service quality and nurse retention chain”; and some managerial considerations for recruitment and retention.

Karin Newman; Uvanney Maylor; Bal Chansarkar

2002-01-01

217

FOUR COMMON TICKS OF PENNSYLVANIA  

E-print Network

FOUR COMMON TICKS OF PENNSYLVANIA Tick-borne Diseases and Prevention, Tick Distributions, Life identified in Pennsylvania.Ofthese,fourspeciesaccountfornearly90percent of all submissions to Penn State in Pennsylvania and occurs in most counties. Hosts

Kaye, Jason P.

218

Power system commonality study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening criteria (availability, environmental compatibility, mass competitiveness of energy storage, safety, and practicality for the application) were used to define concept applicability for each lunar and Mars application. A screening study resulted in 13 power systems for lunar applications and 15 for Mars applications. A commonality analysis showed several power systems with potentially high commonality (across both lunar and Mars applications). These high commonality systems include d PVA/RFC, dynamic isotope (1033 K Stirling, 1133 K Brayton, and 1300 K Brayton PCU's), SP-100 TE and dynamic derivatives (Mars systems required vacuum enclosure), in-core thermionic reactor, and liquid metal cooled reactor/Stirling cycle (1033 K). The generic commonality results were used to synthesize 3 high commonality power system architectures: (1) predominantly PV (limited nuclear and isotope), (2) predominantly in-core thermionic reactor/DIPS, and (3) predominantly SP-100 reactor/DIPS. The in-core thermionic reactor/DIPS power system architecture had the lowest total mass. Specific outputs from this study included lists of power system requirements, power system candidates, a power system application matrix, power system characteristics (mass), power system commonality ratings, example high commonality power system architectures, architecture masses, and issues/design solutions for lunar/Mars commonality.

Littman, Franklin D.

1992-07-01

219

OSTA commonality analysis, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built using DRS on the Vax. It also shows commonality of parameter requirements by discipline and by application.

Stolarik, E. G.

1981-01-01

220

Common eveningprimrose Oenothera biennis L.  

E-print Network

Common eveningprimrose Oenothera biennis L. Life cycle Usually an erect biennial or winter annual through the winter. Flowers and fruit Flowers are yellow, attached to fused sepals forming a tube plant. Back to identifying Christmas tree weeds. #12;Onagraceae (Eveningprimrose family) Common

221

Transmural migration of gastrostomy tube retention discs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Accidental dislodgment is one of the most frequent causes of avoidable cost and consternation related to gastrostomy tubes. The Sacks–Vine gastrostomy tube, inserted in an antegrade fashion by a percutaneous technique, is extremely stable due to the construction of its disc retention device. However, transmural migration of the retention disc is a known severe delayed complication associated with this

AnneMarie Cahill; Kevin M. Baskin; Robin D. Kaye; Charles R. Fitz; Richard B. Towbin

2004-01-01

222

The Grade Retention/Social Promotion Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication focuses on the retention/promotion debate regarding failing and low-achieving students. An introductory essay describes the inherent limitation in the research done on this issue--the impossibility of obtaining an appropriate control group--and suggests that the retention/promotion quandary can best be resolved by accommodating…

Lindelow, John

1985-01-01

223

Factors Affecting Students' Retention at Kuwait University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the factors that affect students' retention at Kuwait University. Five hundred seventy students participated in the study. A survey of 22 retention factors was designed to measure student perceptions. Students presented their agreement on factors which included: achieving personal aspiration, getting jobs, free-of-charge…

AlKandari, Nabila

2008-01-01

224

Unconditioned Stimulus Intensity and Retention Interval Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In single-element taste-aversion learning, retention interval effects are seen if taste aversions are paradoxically weak when they are tested 1 day after conditioning than when they are tested 3 or more days after conditioning. One explanation of this phenomenon is that weaker taste aversions may increase in strength across a retention interval. To test this possibility, rats were given saccharin

W. ROBERT BATSELL; JOHN W. GEORGE

1996-01-01

225

Healthcare Learning Community and Student Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching, learning, and retention processes have evolved historically to include multifaceted techniques beyond the traditional lecture. This article presents related results of a study using a healthcare learning community in a southwest Georgia university. The value of novel techniques and tools in promoting student learning and retention…

Johnson, Sherryl W.

2014-01-01

226

Profile in Action: Linking Admission and Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A profile-oriented retention strategy embraces the admission process as a powerful lever in improving retention and completion rates and recognizes that the student profile can be shaped by changes in admission policies or priorities--even within the current market position of the institution. In addition, the student body can be oriented toward…

Cortes, Carla M.

2013-01-01

227

A Marketing Model for Student Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model to help student personnel administrators develop cost effective approaches for improving student retention, based on the marketing process. The marketing model can be used to systematically respond to the needs of students, faculty, and the community. Outlines retention tactics at Prince Georges Community College. (JAC)

Lewis, Chad T.; And Others

1983-01-01

228

Measuring Up: Benchmarking Graduate Retention. IES Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retention of college graduates by employers across the United Kingdom was examined. Data were collected through a survey of 362 organizations and interviews with 36 employers and their graduate employees. Most employers were unworried by their levels of graduate retention; two-thirds expected to keep new recruits for the foreseeable future. Rates…

Tyers, C.; Perryman, S.; Barber, L.

229

Moisture retention properties of a mycorrhizal soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water relations of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants have been compared often, but virtually nothing is known about the comparative water relations of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal soils. Mycorrhizal symbiosis typically affects soil structure, and soil structure affects water retention properties; therefore, it seems likely that mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect soil water relations. We examined the water retention properties of a Sequatchie

Robert M. Augel; Ann J. W. Stodola; Jayme E. Tims; Arnold M. Saxton

2001-01-01

230

Managing human resources to improve employee retention.  

PubMed

Managers face increased challenges as the demand for health care services increases while the supply of employees with the requisite skills continues to lag. Employee retention will become more important in the effort to service health care needs. Appropriate human resource management strategies and policies implemented effectively can significantly assist managers in dealing with the employee retention challenges ahead. PMID:15923925

Arnold, Edwin

2005-01-01

231

Classroom Techniques for Black Male Student Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes and encourages the application of 20 classroom techniques to enhance the retention and success of black male college students. Though retention enhancement programs work best when institution-wide support and commitment are behind them, the techniques described here can be implemented in the classroom with significant results…

Gardenhire, John Fouts

232

Novel Word Retention in Sequential Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after…

Kan, Pui Fong

2014-01-01

233

The Psychology Underlying Successful Retention Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the psychological processes that lead to academic and social integration based on a retention model proposed by the authors. Describes how successful retention programs such as learning communities, freshman interest groups, tutoring, and orientation rely on psychological processes. Four psychological theories form the basis for…

Bean, John; Eaton, Shevawn Bogdan

2002-01-01

234

How work environment impacts retention.  

PubMed

Work environment is a major aspect of the day-to-day grind that drives the retention (or turnover) of RNs. When opportunities abound, it is easy to jump ship, and when turnover begins, it is usually the best and brightest who are first to depart. Recent research reported a whopping 27.1% average voluntary turnover rate among new graduate nurses during their first year of employment. Aging of the nurse workforce may be the largest factor impacting health care work environments, as employers struggle to diminish the physical effect of lifting thousands of pounds and walking several miles during each shift. Every influence on the work environment (management, peer behavior, patient acuity, equipment availability, the physical plant) should be assessed for impact on the workforce. While we cannot hope to create paradise in each work setting, we can promote an environment that is healing both to patient and to caregiver. PMID:18979696

Christmas, Kate

2008-01-01

235

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-09-30

236

New Directions in Education Research: Using Data Mining Techniques to Explore Predictors of Grade Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to use classification trees and logistic regression to identify subgroups of students more likely to be retained. The National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) was used to identify the sociodemographic, family background and school related factors associated with grade retention. The sample size for…

Kelley-Winstead, Deanna

2010-01-01

237

Factors Influencing the Retention of Secondary Family and Consumer Sciences Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of teacher retention on quality education has inspired a great deal of research. Although many factors have been identified as contributors, few have been specific to the career and technical education (CTE) area and the diversity of CTE programs demands a more specific approach. The purpose of this study was to identify specific…

Dainty, Julie D.; Sandford, Brian A.; Su, Sho-Hsien; Belcher, Gregory G.

2011-01-01

238

5 CFR 536.302 - Optional pay retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...authorized agency official may provide pay retention to an employee not entitled to pay retention under § 536.301, but whose payable...conjunction with an action that may entitle the employee to pay retention under paragraph (a) of this...

2010-01-01

239

5 CFR 536.202 - Optional grade retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Optional grade retention. (a...provide grade retention to an employee moving from...under a covered pay system to...different covered pay system is a...c) When an employee is offered...with grade retention under...

2010-01-01

240

5 CFR 536.208 - Termination of grade retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to grade retention terminates...section, the employee's rate of basic pay must be set...positions). An employee is not entitled to pay retention under subpart...in basic pay resulting...waiver of the employee's grade retention...

2010-01-01

241

7 CFR 3015.22 - Starting date of retention period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Starting date of retention period. 3015.22 Section 3015...FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Record Retention and Access Requirements § 3015.22 Starting date of retention period. (a) General....

2010-01-01

242

48 CFR 4.705 - Specific retention periods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specific retention periods. 4.705 Section 4.705 Federal... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contractor Records Retention 4.705 Specific retention periods. The contractor shall retain...

2011-10-01

243

49 CFR 239.203 - Retention of emergency preparedness plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of emergency preparedness plan. 239...PREPAREDNESS Review, Approval, and Retention of Emergency Preparedness Plans § 239.203 Retention of emergency preparedness plan....

2011-10-01

244

48 CFR 1604.705 - Specific retention periods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specific retention periods. 1604.705 Section 1604.705... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contractor Records Retention 1604.705 Specific retention periods. Unless the contracting...

2011-10-01

245

5 CFR 317.801 - Retention of SES provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention of SES provisions. 317.801 Section...EMPLOYMENT IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Retention of SES Provisions § 317.801 Retention of SES provisions. (a) Coverage....

2010-01-01

246

7 CFR 708.1 - Record retention period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention period. 708.1 Section 708.1...AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM RECORD RETENTION REQUIREMENTS-ALL PROGRAMS § 708.1 Record retention period. For the purposes...

2011-01-01

247

48 CFR 1604.705 - Specific retention periods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Specific retention periods. 1604.705 Section 1604.705... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contractor Records Retention 1604.705 Specific retention periods. Unless the contracting...

2010-10-01

248

49 CFR 239.203 - Retention of emergency preparedness plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of emergency preparedness plan. 239...PREPAREDNESS Review, Approval, and Retention of Emergency Preparedness Plans § 239.203 Retention of emergency preparedness plan....

2010-10-01

249

5 CFR 575.306 - Authorizing a retention incentive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Authorizing a retention incentive. 575.306 Section... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS...EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Retention Incentives § 575.306...

2011-01-01

250

27 CFR 646.150 - Retention of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Retention of records. 646.150 Section 646...CIGARETTES Records § 646.150 Retention of records. (a) General. ...his business premises. (b) Shorter retention periods. The appropriate ATF...

2011-04-01

251

27 CFR 646.150 - Retention of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of records. 646.150 Section 646...CIGARETTES Records § 646.150 Retention of records. (a) General. ...his business premises. (b) Shorter retention periods. The appropriate ATF...

2010-04-01

252

5 CFR 351.506 - Effective date of retention standing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Effective date of retention standing. 351.506 Section 351...SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Retention Standing § 351.506 Effective date of retention standing. Except for applying the...

2011-01-01

253

7 CFR 3015.22 - Starting date of retention period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Starting date of retention period. 3015.22 Section 3015...FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Record Retention and Access Requirements § 3015.22 Starting date of retention period. (a) General....

2011-01-01

254

22 CFR 50.20 - Retention of nationality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of nationality. 50.20 Section 50...AND PASSPORTS NATIONALITY PROCEDURES Retention and Resumption of Nationality § 50.20 Retention of nationality. (a) Section...

2010-04-01

255

7 CFR 708.1 - Record retention period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention period. 708.1 Section 708.1...AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM RECORD RETENTION REQUIREMENTS-ALL PROGRAMS § 708.1 Record retention period. For the purposes...

2010-01-01

256

48 CFR 4.705 - Specific retention periods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specific retention periods. 4.705 Section 4.705 Federal... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contractor Records Retention 4.705 Specific retention periods. The contractor shall retain...

2010-10-01

257

5 CFR 317.801 - Retention of SES provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention of SES provisions. 317.801 Section...EMPLOYMENT IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Retention of SES Provisions § 317.801 Retention of SES provisions. (a) Coverage....

2011-01-01

258

22 CFR 50.20 - Retention of nationality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retention of nationality. 50.20 Section 50...AND PASSPORTS NATIONALITY PROCEDURES Retention and Resumption of Nationality § 50.20 Retention of nationality. (a) Section...

2011-04-01

259

10 CFR 603.905 - Record retention requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention requirements. 603.905 Section 603...Other Administrative Matters Records Retention and Access Requirements § 603.905 Record retention requirements. A TIA must...

2010-01-01

260

5 CFR 536.208 - Termination of grade retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Termination of grade retention. 536.208 Section 536.208 Administrative...MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.208 Termination of grade...

2011-01-01

261

5 CFR 575.309 - Payment of retention incentives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Payment of retention incentives. 575.309 Section... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS...EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Retention Incentives § 575.309...

2011-01-01

262

46 CFR 308.600 - Records retention requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records retention requirement. 308.600 Section 308.600...EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Records Retention § 308.600 Records retention requirement. The records specified...

2010-10-01

263

46 CFR 308.600 - Records retention requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Records retention requirement. 308.600 Section 308.600...EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Records Retention § 308.600 Records retention requirement. The records specified...

2011-10-01

264

5 CFR 351.506 - Effective date of retention standing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Effective date of retention standing. 351.506 Section 351...SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Retention Standing § 351.506 Effective date of retention standing. Except for applying the...

2010-01-01

265

10 CFR 603.905 - Record retention requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention requirements. 603.905 Section 603...Other Administrative Matters Records Retention and Access Requirements § 603.905 Record retention requirements. A TIA must...

2011-01-01

266

40 CFR 160.195 - Retention of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Reports § 160.195 Retention of records. (a) Record retention requirements set forth in...do not supersede the record retention requirements of any other...application for a research or marketing permit approved by...

2010-07-01

267

21 CFR 312.62 - Investigator recordkeeping and record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Investigator recordkeeping and record retention. 312.62 Section 312...Investigator recordkeeping and record retention. (a) Disposition of drug...the study. (c) Record retention. An investigator shall...years following the date a marketing application is...

2011-04-01

268

21 CFR 312.62 - Investigator recordkeeping and record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Investigator recordkeeping and record retention. 312.62 Section 312...Investigator recordkeeping and record retention. (a) Disposition of drug...the study. (c) Record retention. An investigator shall...years following the date a marketing application is...

2010-04-01

269

40 CFR 160.195 - Retention of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Reports § 160.195 Retention of records. (a) Record retention requirements set forth in...do not supersede the record retention requirements of any other...application for a research or marketing permit approved by...

2011-07-01

270

22 CFR 50.20 - Retention of nationality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Retention of nationality. 50.20 Section 50.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS NATIONALITY PROCEDURES Retention and Resumption of Nationality § 50.20 Retention of nationality. (a)...

2012-04-01

271

22 CFR 50.20 - Retention of nationality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Retention of nationality. 50.20 Section 50.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS NATIONALITY PROCEDURES Retention and Resumption of Nationality § 50.20 Retention of nationality. (a)...

2014-04-01

272

22 CFR 50.20 - Retention of nationality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Retention of nationality. 50.20 Section 50.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS NATIONALITY PROCEDURES Retention and Resumption of Nationality § 50.20 Retention of nationality. (a)...

2013-04-01

273

Gall-bladder and colonic retention of SeHCAT: a re-evaluation.  

PubMed

A number of suggested alternatives and emendations to the 7-day SeHCAT retention test have been compared with whole-body counting. It was found that correction for colonic retention is an unnecessary complication in patients with diarrhoea and that imaging either of the gall-bladder or of the distribution of activity in the intestines at 24 h does not add useful information to the standard 7-day retention measurement. Neither could the patterns of colonic uptake identified in patients following extensive ideal resection or radiotherapy be reproduced in patients with idiopathic diarrhoea. Sadly it must be concluded that neither of these shortened techniques is of clinical value in patients with intact small bowel and that there remains no reliable alternative to the 7-day Se HCAT retention test. The simplest technique the best. PMID:7995294

Merrick, M V

1994-09-01

274

Rainwater runoff retention on an aged intensive green roof.  

PubMed

Urban areas are characterised by large proportions of impervious surfaces which increases rainwater runoff and the potential for surface water flooding. Increased precipitation is predicted under current climate change projections, which will put further pressure on urban populations and infrastructure. Roof greening can be used within flood mitigation schemes to restore the urban hydrological balance of cities. Intensive green roofs, with their deeper substrates and higher plant biomass, are able to retain greater quantities of runoff, and there is a need for more studies on this less common type of green roof which also investigate the effect of factors such as age and vegetation composition. Runoff quantities from an aged intensive green roof in Manchester, UK, were analysed for 69 rainfall events, and compared to those on an adjacent paved roof. Average retention was 65.7% on the green roof and 33.6% on the bare roof. A comprehensive soil classification revealed the substrate, a mineral soil, to be in good general condition and also high in organic matter content which can increase the water holding capacity of soils. Large variation in the retention data made the use of predictive regression models unfeasible. This variation arose from complex interactions between Antecedant Dry Weather Period (ADWP), season, monthly weather trends, and rainfall duration, quantity and peak intensity. However, significantly lower retention was seen for high rainfall events, and in autumn, which had above average rainfall. The study period only covers one unusually wet year, so a longer study may uncover relationships to factors which can be applied to intensive roofs elsewhere. Annual rainfall retention for Manchester city centre could be increased by 2.3% by a 10% increase in intensive green roof construction. The results of this study will be of particular interest to practitioners implementing greenspace adaptation in temperate and cool maritime climates. PMID:23712113

Speak, A F; Rothwell, J J; Lindley, S J; Smith, C L

2013-09-01

275

Is the Cure Worse than the Disease? A Longitudinal Study on the Effect of Grade Retention in Secondary Education on Achievement and Academic Self-Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Holding students back when they do not meet a specific attainment level is common practice in a lot of countries. However, this practice is not without controversy and recent studies point at the negative effects of grade retention, especially in the long-term. The majority of these studies focused on grade retention in primary education. In our…

Lamote, Carl; Pinxten, Maarten; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Van Damme, Jan

2014-01-01

276

Information Sheet for Retention Review During Fifth Probationary Year -Comprehensive  

E-print Network

Information Sheet for Retention Review During Fifth Probationary Year - Comprehensive Faculty Name Review in the order shown below: (1) Information Sheet for Retention Review During Fifth Probationary

277

Information Sheet for Retention Review During Third Probationary Year -Comprehensive  

E-print Network

Information Sheet for Retention Review During Third Probationary Year - Comprehensive Faculty Name Review in the order shown below: 1) Information Sheet for Retention Review During Third Probationary Year

278

Retention force measurement of telescopic crowns.  

PubMed

This study deals with the determination of the retentive force between primary and secondary telescopic crowns under clinical conditions. Forty-three combined fixed-removable prostheses with a total of 140 double crowns were used for retention force measurement of the telescopic crowns prior to cementation. The crowns had a preparation of 1-2°. A specifically designed measuring device was used. The retentive forces were measured with and without lubrication by a saliva substitute. The measured values were analyzed according to the type of tooth (incisors, canines, premolars, and molars). Additionally, a comparison between lubricated and unlubricated telescopic crowns was done. As maximum retention force value 29.98 N was recorded with a telescopic crown on a molar, while the minimum of 0.08 N was found with a specimen on a canine. The median value of retention force of all telescopic crowns reached 1.93 N with an interquartile distance of 4.35 N. No statistically significant difference between lubricated and unlubricated specimens was found. The results indicate that retention force values of telescopic crowns, measured in clinical practice, are often much lower than those cited in the literature. The measurements also show a wide range. Whether this proves to be a problem for the patient's quality of life or not can however only be established by a comparison of the presented results with a follow-up study involving measurement of intraoral retention and determination by e.g. oral health impact profile. PMID:19609574

Bayer, Stefan; Stark, Helmut; Mues, Sebastian; Keilig, Ludger; Schrader, Anja; Enkling, Norbert

2010-10-01

279

Parameters affecting retentive force of conus crowns.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the values of the retentive forces of the telescopic crowns. At the first step of the study, the samples having different heights and angles were compared in relation to retentive force. At the second step, the samples were subjected to removal procedures having a pre-determined speed, force and number. The obtained retention values were compared. Ninety dies were prepared in order to measure the retention of the conus crowns. The removal tests were performed with the insertion/separation device. The speed of the test device was 100 cm min(-1) providing the placement of the pieces with 5 kgf in 100, 200, 300, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10 000 cycles. The mean of the retention values of the changes of the angles were found to be statistically different (P < 0.01). According to the results of the variant analysis, the differences in the changes of the height were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The differences between the changes of the number of procedures of all groups were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The number of procedures, height and angle interactions were statistically insignificant (P = 0.758). According to the results of this study, the effect of the angle and height factors in terms of retention among the groups were not independent of each other. In equal angles, as the height increased, increased retention measurements were obtained. In more acute angles, the increase in retention was more obvious. It was also found that an accessory device was necessary to maintain retention capabilities after a long-term use. PMID:15025661

Güngör, M A; Artunç, C; Sonugelen, M

2004-03-01

280

Modelling global nutrient retention by river damming: Phosphorus and silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phosphorus to silicon (P:Si) nutrient ratio is a key variable affecting ecosystem health in many aquatic environments. River damming represents a major anthropogenic perturbation of natural material flows along the aquatic continuum, with the potential to profoundly modify absolute and relative nutrient availabilities in surface waters. In this study, a multi-tiered approach for estimating global nutrient retention in man-made reservoirs is presented. We illustrate its application to the global riverine flux of reactive Si, using a database of dissolved reactive Si (DSi) budgets for 24 natural lakes and 22 artificial reservoirs. The database includes information on bedrock geology, surface water pH, water residence time, reservoir age and function, climate, and trophic status. Statistical analyses (ANOVA, t-test, PCA, linear plus non-linear regressions) are used to identify the best predictors of DSi retention and delineate how reservoir properties modulate nutrient dynamics. Results indicate that (1) reservoirs retain significantly less DSi than natural lakes, and (2) the water residence time, reservoir age and function (e.g., hydroelectrical production, irrigation, flood control) are the main system variables controlling DSi retention by dams. Next, a biogeochemical Si model is used to reproduce the previously derived statistical trends for DSi retention. Calibration of the model yields a relationship that enables one to predict annual in-reservoir siliceous productivity as a function of the external reactive Si supply. The model further accounts for the transition from reservoirs where reactive Si retention is primarily due to burial of allochtonous Si to those where in-reservoir DSi uptake by diatoms dominates. Finally, the statistical and mechanistic relationships are extrapolated to estimate that 25-28 Tg SiO2 yr-1 are retained worldwide by dams, or 7% of the annual reactive Si load to watersheds. We are currently applying the same multi-tiered approach to the global P cycle. Our goal is to predict not only the effect of dams on reactive P retention, but also to determine how they are changing the P:Si ratios in river systems. Our preliminary results indicate that reservoirs are more effective in retaining nutrient P than Si.

Maavara, Taylor; Dürr, Hans; Van Cappellen, Philippe

2014-05-01

281

A strategic approach to employee retention.  

PubMed

A sound retention strategy should incorporate a business plan, a value proposition, progress measures, and management influences. The business plan will indicate whether a healthcare organization will achieve a return on investment for its effort. A value proposition will showcase an organization's strengths and differentiate it from its competitors. Measuring progress toward meeting retention goals at regular intervals will help keep an organization on track. The best managers require accountability, rewarding employees for their successes and taking corrective action as necessary. Retention rate targets must be at a level that will achieve a competitive advantage in the served market. PMID:12656028

Gering, John; Conner, John

2002-11-01

282

Differential effects of testosterone and progesterone on the activation and retention of courtship behavior in sexual  

E-print Network

, their potencies have not been compared. A common way to study the efficacy of a sex steroid hormone is to assessDifferential effects of testosterone and progesterone on the activation and retention of courtship. uniparens, both hormones elicit the full repertoire of courtship behavior. However, the relative efficacy

Crews, David

283

Correlation of bowel symptoms with colonic transit, length, and faecal load in functional faecal retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Abdominal pain, bloating, and defecation disturbances are common complaints in gastrointestinal functional disorders. This study ex- plores whether bowel symptoms are correlated to colon transit time (CTT), faecal loading (coprostasis), and colon length; and whether prokinetic inter- vention can reduce CTT, faecal retention, and symptoms. Methods: This observational and interventional study includes 281 patients, and 44 asymptomatic controls. Evaluations

Dennis Raahave; Elsebeth Christensen; Franck B. Loud; Lisbet L. Knudsen

284

A review of reporting of participant recruitment and retention in RCTs in six major journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Poor recruitment and retention of participants in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is problematic but common. Clear and detailed reporting of participant flow is essential to assess the generalisability and comparability of RCTs. Despite improved reporting since the implementation of the CONSORT statement, important problems remain. This paper aims: (i) to update and extend previous reviews evaluating reporting of participant

Merran Toerien; Sara T Brookes; Chris Metcalfe; Isabel de Salis; Zelda Tomlin; Tim J Peters; Jonathan Sterne; Jenny L Donovan

2009-01-01

285

Comparison of Retention Rates Using Traditional, Drill Sandwich, and Incremental Rehearsal Flash Card Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has demonstrated increased retention from drill, but the data regarding drill format are inconsistent. Two commonly used models, Drill Sandwich (DS) and Incremental Rehearsal (IR), were compared to each other and to a traditional flashcard method. The IR model consistently led to significantly more words retained than the traditional or…

MacQuarrie, Lara L.; Tucker, James A.; Burns, Matthew K.; Hartman, Brian

2002-01-01

286

ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

2011-09-07

287

Cucurbit leaf crumple virus Identified in Common Bean in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Detection of Cucurbit leaf crumple virus in green beans in Florida suggests that this virus may be more widely distributed than previously known in the state and that green bean (and potentially other legumes) are potential reservoirs for Cucurbit leaf crumple virus....

288

Extensive Management Promotes Plant and Microbial Nitrogen Retention in Temperate Grassland  

PubMed Central

Leaching losses of nitrogen (N) from soil and atmospheric N deposition have led to widespread changes in plant community and microbial community composition, but our knowledge of the factors that determine ecosystem N retention is limited. A common feature of extensively managed, species-rich grasslands is that they have fungal-dominated microbial communities, which might reduce soil N losses and increase ecosystem N retention, which is pivotal for pollution mitigation and sustainable food production. However, the mechanisms that underpin improved N retention in extensively managed, species-rich grasslands are unclear. We combined a landscape-scale field study and glasshouse experiment to test how grassland management affects plant and soil N retention. Specifically, we hypothesised that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands of high conservation value would have lower N loss and greater N retention than intensively managed, species-poor grasslands, and that this would be due to a greater immobilisation of N by a more fungal-dominated microbial community. In the field study, we found that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands had lower N leaching losses. Soil inorganic N availability decreased with increasing abundance of fungi relative to bacteria, although the best predictor of soil N leaching was the C/N ratio of aboveground plant biomass. In the associated glasshouse experiment we found that retention of added 15N was greater in extensively than in intensively managed grasslands, which was attributed to a combination of greater root uptake and microbial immobilisation of 15N in the former, and that microbial immobilisation increased with increasing biomass and abundance of fungi. These findings show that grassland management affects mechanisms of N retention in soil through changes in root and microbial uptake of N. Moreover, they support the notion that microbial communities might be the key to improved N retention through tightening linkages between plants and microbes and reducing N availability. PMID:23227252

de Vries, Franciska T.; Bloem, Jaap; Quirk, Helen; Stevens, Carly J.; Bol, Roland; Bardgett, Richard D.

2012-01-01

289

Extensive management promotes plant and microbial nitrogen retention in temperate grassland.  

PubMed

Leaching losses of nitrogen (N) from soil and atmospheric N deposition have led to widespread changes in plant community and microbial community composition, but our knowledge of the factors that determine ecosystem N retention is limited. A common feature of extensively managed, species-rich grasslands is that they have fungal-dominated microbial communities, which might reduce soil N losses and increase ecosystem N retention, which is pivotal for pollution mitigation and sustainable food production. However, the mechanisms that underpin improved N retention in extensively managed, species-rich grasslands are unclear. We combined a landscape-scale field study and glasshouse experiment to test how grassland management affects plant and soil N retention. Specifically, we hypothesised that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands of high conservation value would have lower N loss and greater N retention than intensively managed, species-poor grasslands, and that this would be due to a greater immobilisation of N by a more fungal-dominated microbial community. In the field study, we found that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands had lower N leaching losses. Soil inorganic N availability decreased with increasing abundance of fungi relative to bacteria, although the best predictor of soil N leaching was the C/N ratio of aboveground plant biomass. In the associated glasshouse experiment we found that retention of added (15)N was greater in extensively than in intensively managed grasslands, which was attributed to a combination of greater root uptake and microbial immobilisation of (15)N in the former, and that microbial immobilisation increased with increasing biomass and abundance of fungi. These findings show that grassland management affects mechanisms of N retention in soil through changes in root and microbial uptake of N. Moreover, they support the notion that microbial communities might be the key to improved N retention through tightening linkages between plants and microbes and reducing N availability. PMID:23227252

de Vries, Franciska T; Bloem, Jaap; Quirk, Helen; Stevens, Carly J; Bol, Roland; Bardgett, Richard D

2012-01-01

290

50 CFR 82.15 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR GRANTS-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.15 Record retention. All records of accounts, and reports,...

2012-10-01

291

50 CFR 82.15 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR GRANTS-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.15 Record retention. All records of accounts, and reports,...

2014-10-01

292

50 CFR 82.15 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR GRANTS-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.15 Record retention. All records of accounts, and reports,...

2013-10-01

293

5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative...OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.356...

2010-01-01

294

27 CFR 478.129 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Records § 478.129 Record retention. (a) Records prior to Act. Licensed...

2010-04-01

295

21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer of an infant formula shall make and retain such records respecting...

2010-04-01

296

49 CFR 599.502 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES FOR CONSUMER ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Enforcement § 599.502 Record retention. (a) Manufacturers, dealers, salvage...

2011-10-01

297

49 CFR 599.502 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES FOR CONSUMER ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Enforcement § 599.502 Record retention. (a) Manufacturers, dealers, salvage...

2014-10-01

298

49 CFR 599.502 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES FOR CONSUMER ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Enforcement § 599.502 Record retention. (a) Manufacturers, dealers, salvage...

2012-10-01

299

49 CFR 599.502 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES FOR CONSUMER ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Enforcement § 599.502 Record retention. (a) Manufacturers, dealers, salvage...

2013-10-01

300

10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.810 Record...

2013-01-01

301

10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.810 Record...

2012-01-01

302

10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.810 Record...

2011-01-01

303

10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.810 Record...

2010-01-01

304

10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.810 Record...

2014-01-01

305

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study  

E-print Network

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study Study ID Nos. 546B, 563 Prepared RECYCLING PROGRAMS Study ID Nos. 546B and 563 Prepared for Southern California Edison Rosemead, California

306

21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer of an infant formula shall make and retain such records respecting the...

2011-04-01

307

21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer of an infant formula shall make and retain such records respecting the...

2012-04-01

308

21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer of an infant formula shall make and retain such records respecting the...

2014-04-01

309

21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer of an infant formula shall make and retain such records respecting the...

2013-04-01

310

24 CFR 266.515 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Project Management and Servicing § 266.515 Record retention. (a) Loan origination and servicing. Records...

2010-04-01

311

24 CFR 266.515 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Project Management and Servicing § 266.515 Record retention. (a) Loan origination and servicing. Records...

2012-04-01

312

24 CFR 266.515 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Project Management and Servicing § 266.515 Record retention. (a) Loan origination and servicing. Records...

2011-04-01

313

24 CFR 266.515 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Project Management and Servicing § 266.515 Record retention. (a) Loan origination and servicing. Records...

2014-04-01

314

24 CFR 266.515 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Project Management and Servicing § 266.515 Record retention. (a) Loan origination and servicing. Records...

2013-04-01

315

Retention with specific and mechanical adhesive lutes.  

PubMed

Attention is drawn to some of the fundamental differences between retention afforded by specifically adhesive and mechanically adhesive lutes. Terms are defined and conclusions drawn regarding the present status and potential of polyacrylate cements. PMID:1057893

Stevens, L

1975-04-01

316

Urinary retention in women and sacral neuromodulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The remit of this article is to provide an overview of urinary retention in women, taking into account the predisposing factors,\\u000a aetiology, investigations and treatments. The information presented is based on a widespread search of the English literature\\u000a using multiple library sites on the internet and on personal experience. Urinary retention occurs when there is impaired bladder\\u000a emptying, resulting in

Sohier Elneil

2010-01-01

317

Lipiodol retention within hepatic cavernous hemangioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraarterial injection of Lipiodol has been recommended to differentiate hepatocellular carcinoma from benign lesions such\\u000a as cavernous hemangioma, because uptake and prolonged retention of the contrast medium is a characteristic of the malignant\\u000a tumors. In two cases of cavernous hemangioma of the liver in which we injected Lipiodol, uptake and retention up to 3 months\\u000a was demonstrated. We conclude that

Renan Uflacker; Guilherme S. Mourão; Ronie L. Piske

1989-01-01

318

Developing Sediment Retention Model for the Ecoservice Model InVEST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model has been gaining popularity internationally as a tool to evaluate and value services provided by nature. The sediment retention sub-model is one of the key components of the InVEST model that assesses potentials of landscape and landcover to retain sediments preventing them from reaching the waterways and reservoirs. Based on the outputs of the sediment retention sub-model, InVEST estimates landcover's economic values of avoiding water quality pollution and reservoir sedimentation. The current version of the sediment retention sub-model uses retention-coefficient approach based solely on landcover type in estimating the quantities of sediment retained and transported downstream. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a sediment-delivery-ratio approach that integrates more catchment characteristics, including slope and flow length, in addition to the landcover characteristics. This approach was tested in Midwestern U.S. using distributed sediment data. Results show that the sediment-delivery-ratio approach has improved performance in identifying sediment transport and retention processes. Incorporating this approach into the InVEST tool will enhance the model's capability in more accurately estimating the economic values of avoiding water quality pollution and reservoir sedimentation. Keywords: ecosystem service, modeling, sediment delivery ratio, sediment retention

Ghebremichael, L.; Ziv, G.; Ghile, Y.

2012-12-01

319

Common Polymorphisms in Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

A wide variety of diseases have a significant genetic component, including major causes of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Many of these diseases are also angiogenesis dependent. In humans, common polymorphisms, although more subtle in effect than rare mutations that cause Mendelian disease, are expected to have greater overall effects on human disease. Thus, common polymorphisms in angiogenesis-regulating genes may affect the response to an angiogenic stimulus and thereby affect susceptibility to or progression of such diseases. Candidate gene studies have identified several associations between angiogenesis gene polymorphisms and disease. Similarly, emerging pharmacogenomic evidence indicates that several angiogenesis-regulating polymorphisms may predict response to therapy. In contrast, genome-wide association studies have identified only a few risk alleles in obvious angiogenesis genes. As in other traits, regulatory polymorphisms appear to dominate the landscape of angiogenic responsiveness. Rodent assays, including the mouse corneal micropocket assay, tumor models, and a macular degeneration model have allowed the identification and comparison of loci that directly affect the trait. Complementarity between human and animal approaches will allow increased understanding of the genetic basis for angiogenesis-dependent disease. PMID:23125197

Rogers, Michael S.; D’Amato, Robert J.

2012-01-01

320

Identifying Harmful Marine Dinoflagellates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Smithsonian Institution website features the publication "Identifying Harmful Marine Dinoflagellates", a fully illustrated identification guide for harmful dinoflagellate taxa. The website reviews general information on dinoflagellate morphology and other criteria used in species identification. Each taxon is presented with a species overview, and a taxonomic description of cell and thecal plate morphology, reproduction, life cycle, ecology, toxicity, species comparison, habitat and locality, and etymology. This is supplemented with a number of high-resolution light and scanning electron photomicrographs and line drawings. Taxonomic treatment of harmful dinoflagellate taxa includes nomenclatural types, type locality, and common synonyms. An extensive glossary of terms and relevant literature citations are also provided.

Maria A. Faust

321

Running heading: Water retention properties of the clay in clayey soils Water retention properties of the clay in soils developed  

E-print Network

1 Running heading: Water retention properties of the clay in clayey soils Water retention. E-mail: ary.bruand@orleans.inra.fr Summary We have investigated the water retention properties retention properties have been studied from -10 hPa to -15 000 hPa water potential using small clods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

322

No Common Opinion on the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

2015-01-01

323

Psychological predictors of retention in a low-threshold methadone maintenance treatment for opioid addicts: a 1-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

This study investigated the role of psychological variables and judicial problems in treatment retention for a low-threshold methadone program in Montreal, Canada. Logistic regression analyses were computed to examine associations between psychological variables (psychological distress, self-esteem, stages of change), criminal justice involvement, and treatment retention for 106 highly-disorganized opioid users. Higher methadone dosage was associated with increased odds of treatment retention, whereas criminal charges and lower self-esteem decreased these odds. Psychological variables could be identified early in treatment and targeted to increase potential treatment retention. Financial support for this study was provided by the Fonds de Recherche en Santé du Québec. PMID:25245107

Perreault, Michel; Julien, Dominic; White, Noe Djawn; Rabouin, Daniel; Lauzon, Pierre; Milton, Diana

2015-01-01

324

"The nurse satisfaction, service quality and nurse retention chain": implications for management of recruitment and retention.  

PubMed

This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study, based on interviews with over 130 nurses and midwives in four London Trust hospitals on: the main factors influencing nurse satisfaction and retention; empirical support for the robustness of a conceptual framework or model "the nurse satisfaction, service quality and nurse retention chain"; and some managerial considerations for recruitment and retention. The three main factors influencing job satisfaction were patients, the inherent characteristics of nursing and the nursing team; the two main sources of job dissatisfaction were staff shortages and poor management and amongst nurse retention strategies improving working conditions was more important than increased pay. For recruitment, as well as retention, improving the image and reputation of nursing along with improvements in work-life balance were pre-requisites for meeting the challenging target of an additional 20,000 nurses on the wards by 2004. PMID:12463644

Newman, Karin; Maylor, Uvanney; Chansarkar, Bal

2002-01-01

325

Cross-column prediction of gas-chromatographic retention of polychlorinated biphenyls by artificial neural networks.  

PubMed

In this paper, we build a multiple-column retention model able to predict the behaviour of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in capillary gas-chromatography (GC) within a wide range of separation conditions. To this end, GC retention is related to both chemical structure of PCBs, encoded by selected theoretical molecular descriptors, and the kind of stationary phase, represented by the relative retention time (RRT) of a suitable small number of analytes. The model was generated using the retention data of 70 PCBs extracted from the pool of the 209 possible congeners collected on 17 different capillary columns featured by non-polar or moderately polar stationary phases, reported in the literature. Multilinear regression combined with genetic algorithm variable selection was preliminarily applied to generate a four-dimensional quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) for each of the 17 columns, based on theoretical molecular descriptors extracted from the large set provided by the software Dragon. 33 molecular descriptors obtained by merging the non-common descriptors of various single-column QSRRs, combined with RRTs values of the less and the most retained PCB, were considered as the starting independent variables of the multiple-column retention model. A multi-layer artificial neural network (ANN), optimised on a validation set extracted from the calibration data, was applied to generate the multi-column retention model. The influence of starting inputs on the network output was evaluated by a sensitivity analysis and model complexity was reduced through a step-wise elimination of redundant molecular descriptors, while RRTs of further PCBs were included to improve description of the stationary phase. Nine molecular descriptors and RRTs of eight selected PCBs are considered as the independent variables of the final ANN-based model, whose predictive performance was tested on the 139 PCBs excluded from calibration and on six external columns and/or temperature programs. PMID:22000780

D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Incani, Angela; Ruggieri, Fabrizio

2011-12-01

326

Employee retention: a customer service approach.  

PubMed

Employee retention is a huge problem. There are staff shortages in radiology because not enough people are entering the profession; too many people are leaving the profession for retirement, higher-paying jobs or jobs with less stress; and there are not enough opportunities for career advancement. Staff shortages are exacerbated by difficulty in retaining people who enter the profession. While much work has been focused on recruitment and getting more people "in the front door," I suggest that the bulk of future efforts be focused on employee retention and "closing the back door." Employee retention must be an ongoing process, not a program. Approaches to employee retention that focus on external things, i.e., things that the company can do to or for the employee, generally are not successful. The truth is that employee retention processes must focus on what the employee gets out of the job. The process must be a benefits-based approach that helps employees answer the question, "What's in it for me?" The retention processes must be ongoing and integrated into the daily culture of the company. The best way to keep your employees is to treat them like customers. Customer service works for external customers. We treat them nicely. We work to satisfy them. We help them achieve their goals. Why not do the same for our employees? If positive customer service policies and practices can satisfy and keep external customers, why not adapt these policies and practices for employees? And, there is a service/satisfaction link between employee retention and higher levels of customer satisfaction. Customers prefer dealing with the same employees over and over again. Employee turnover destroys a customer's confidence in the company. Just like a customer does not want to have to "train and educate" a new provider, they do not want to do the same for your "revolving door" employees. So, the key is to keep employees so they in turn will help you keep your customers. Because the techniques of this process mirror the activities of customer service and customer relationship management, I call the combined process C/ERM for customer/employee relationship management. Both activities must be going on simultaneously to create a loyalty link that ensures customer satisfaction and retention through employee service, satisfaction and retention. PMID:12080928

Gerson, Richard F

2002-01-01

327

"Common Sense" vs. Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there is much scientific research available to guide educational decision making, decision making based on prevailing conventional wisdom continues. Five areas are conspicuous for relying on this type of decision making. First, grade retention has been shown in over 600 studies to be detrimental to the child, yet the conviction persists…

Womack, Sid T.

328

WHAT SMALL BUSINESSES AND SMALL HOSPITALS SHOULD KNOW ABOUT EMPLOYEE RETENTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizations that fail to maintain an aggressive and effective employee retention program will allow their talent to walk out of their doors taking with them training and job experience that will benefit the gaining organization. Literature has shown that there are identifiable factors that cause employees to leave their employers and seek opportunity elsewhere. Once healthcare-related business and medical practice

Jim Kerner; Laura Lynn Kerner; Robert D. Gulbro

329

Generation Y Student-Teachers' Motivational Factors: Retention Implications for K-12 Educational Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generation Y represents a growing number of student-teachers who will impact the future of educational practice, yet little research has been conducted for this demographic group. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to identify motivational factors of neophyte teachers and the retention implications these findings had on Kindergarten…

Bontempo, Brian

2010-01-01

330

The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: Paths to Advancement for Single Parents. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 2000 and 2003, the Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project identified and implemented a diverse set of innovative models designed to promote employment stability and wage or earnings progression among low-income individuals, mostly current or former welfare recipients. The project's goal was to determine which strategies could…

Miller, Cynthia; Deitch, Victoria; Hill, Aaron

2010-01-01

331

Retention of front-line staff in child welfare: A systematic review of research  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing recognition that a competent, committed workforce is critical to the effective delivery of public child welfare services, this study implemented a systematic review process to identify the personal and organizational factors that may enhance retention and limit turnover among child welfare workers. Starting with an extensive search of the literature across several decades and outreach to locate

Diane DePanfilis; Joan Levy Zlotnik

2008-01-01

332

High Retention Rates, No Dropouts among Hispanic Students in California High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares characteristics of California high schools with low and high dropout rates for Hispanic students. Identifies programs and factors that positively influence student retention and keep students from dropping out. Schools with pleasing physical appearance, sound management, efficient and caring staff, and multicultural environments had…

Pulido, J. Alex

1991-01-01

333

Retention and Access Issues Affecting Black Women Attending Predominantly White Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the self-reported experiences of Black, female, undergraduate students at a small, predominantly White, Midwestern college in the United States in order to identify factors affecting retention. Specific attention was paid to how participants perceived the effects of personal and institutional factors in relation to their…

De War, Joshua J.

2009-01-01

334

Predictors of Retention in the ‘Voluntary’ and ‘Quasi-Compulsory’ Treatment of Substance Dependence in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Policies and practices related to the quasi-compulsory treatment (QCT) of substance-dependent offenders are currently implemented in many countries, despite the absence of reliable knowledge about significant predictors of treatment retention. This study aimed to identify such predictors in QCT and voluntary treatment. Methods: Participants were treated in one of 65 institutions in 5 European countries. They were interviewed at

Michael Schaub; Alex Stevens; Severin Haug; Daniele Berto; Neil Hunt; Viktoria Kerschl; Tim McSweeney; Kerrie Oeuvray; Irene Puppo; Alberto Santa Maria; Barbara Trinkl; Wolfgang Werdenich; Ambros Uchtenhagen

2011-01-01

335

Why Do They Stay? Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Job Satisfaction and Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify intrinsic and extrinsic variables that influence teacher job satisfaction and retention. A survey was sent to 300 randomly selected Missouri public elementary school teachers in grades K-5 having 5 or more years of teaching experience. The results from 201 respondents suggest that three intrinsic…

Perrachione, Beverly A.; Rosser, Vicki J.; Petersen, George J.

2008-01-01

336

An Assessment of Barriers and Strategies for Recruitment and Retention of a Diverse Graduate Student Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this exploratory qualitative investigation was to: a) describe the barriers of recruitment and retention of diverse graduate student population at one of the predominantly white universities (PWUs) in the Midwestern US as perceived by the program coordinators and directors and b) identify successful strategies for improving the…

Quarterman, Jerome

2008-01-01

337

Faculty Recruitment and Retention: A Case Study of the Chair's Role.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document states that many studies have identified faculty recruitment as a specific job responsibility of college department chairs. Because the recruitment process is time consuming and costly, the chair must also ensure that recruitment leads to retention. This paper closely examines what strategies academic chairs use to recruit and retain…

Miller, Michael; Jackson, JoAnne C.; Pope, Myron L.

338

Experimental analysis of retention forces of different magnetic devices for bone-anchored auricular facial prostheses.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine which combination of differently designed magnetic abutments provides the best retention for an auricular prosthesis. The withdrawal forces of eight combinations of abutments were measured and results compared. There was a significantly higher withdrawal force in arrangements containing three magnets over only two. The highest withdrawal force was found in the combination of one telescopic magnet and two large spherical magnets (median: 7.69 N), whereas two telescopic magnets alone showed the lowest withdrawal force (3.41 N). The use of two conical magnets increased retention slightly, but the median retention force remained the same (3.41 N). The commonly used combination of two small spherical magnets and one telescopic magnet showed the lowest retention of combinations consisting of three magnets (4.94 N). There seems to be no difference in median withdrawal force if a conical magnet instead of a telescopic magnet is used. The withdrawal force at a 45 degrees angle was about 10% higher than the vertical force but the difference was not significant. The rupture force needed to tear the magnet completely out of the silicone was 240.6-519.7 N (mean 331.74 N) and therefore over 10 times higher than magnetic retention. PMID:18440779

Voigt, A; Christ, S; Klein, M

2008-07-01

339

Deuterium retention in different tungsten grades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deuterium retention in different tungsten (W) grades was investigated for various incident ion energies ranging from 3 to 200 eV per deuterium atom and fluences ranging from 1×1023 m-2 to 2×1025 m-2. Irradiation temperatures were 320 and 500 K. The retained amount was determined by ion beam analysis and thermal desorption spectroscopy. For irradiation at 320 K, deuterium retention in plasma-sprayed tungsten (PSW) is higher compared to polycrystalline W for all investigated energies. For irradiation at 500 K, the deuterium retention for polycrystalline W increases strongly with fluence in contrast to PSW. The highest deuterium inventory was found for ITER grade W irradiated with 200 eV per deuterium at 500 K.

Ogorodnikova, O. V.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Sugiyama, K.; Dürbeck, T.; Jacob, W.

2009-12-01

340

Deuterium Retention in NSTX with Lithium Conditioning  

SciTech Connect

High (? 90%) deuterium retention was observed in NSTX gas balance measurements both withand without lithiumization of the carbon plasma facing components. The gas retained in ohmic discharges was measured by comparing the vessel pressure rise after a discharge to that of a gasonly pulse with the pumping valves closed. For neutral beam heated discharges the gas input and gas pumped by the NB cryopanels were tracked. The discharges were followed by outgassing of deuterium that reduced the retention. The relationship between retention and surface chemistry was explored with a new plasma-material interface probe connected to an in-vacuo surface science station that exposed four material samples to the plasma. XPS and TDS analysis showed that the binding of D atoms is fundamentally changed by lithium - in particular atoms are weakly bonded in regions near lithium atoms bound to either oxygen or the carbon matrix.

C.H. Skinner, J.P. Allain, W. Blanchard, H.W. Kugel, R. Maingi, L. Roquemore, V. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor

2010-06-02

341

Heavy metal retention of different embankments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accumulation and retention of heavy metals in roadside soils has been studied for at least over forty years, but it is still subject of major interest. The continuously increasing road traffic induces high heavy metal loadings in runoff and seepage water. Elevated concentrations of heavy metals are a potential environmental risk. Especially in the long term development there is an increasing problem of soil contamination and groundwater pollution. A significant rate of road runoff infiltrates into the hard and soft shoulder. They are usually built during road construction and located directly along the road edge. According to valid german law, newly constructed hard shoulders have to provide a specific bearing capacity to enable trafficability in emergency cases. Therefore the applicable materials consist of defined gravel-soil mixtures, which can fulfill this requirement. To determine and compare the concentration of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr in the road runoff and seepage water of different hard shoulder substrates, we installed 6 lysimeters along the edge of the german highway A115. Three lysimeters were filled with different materials wich are commonly used for road construction in Germany and compacted afterwards. Surface runoff is sampled, as is seepage water in two depths in the three lysimeters. Furthermore three lysimeters where installed and filled with plain gravel, to observe the distribution, quantity and quality of road runoff. Additionally soil column experiments were carried out with the same construction material. Both, the measured seepage water concentrations from field and column experiments of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr do not yet exceed the trigger values of the German Federal Soil Protection and Contamination Ordinance (BBodSchV). No significant differences in heavy metal concentrations of the three artificial hard shoulder lysimeters were determined so far. First analytical results of the road runoff show concentrations of up to 12.9 µg/l Pb, 0.1 µg/l Cd, 19.8 µg/l Cu, 3.9 µg/l Cr, and 49.6 µg/l Zn. They are in the same order of magnitude as literature values.

Werkenthin, Moritz; Kluge, Bjoern; Wessolek, Gerd

2013-04-01

342

Common Issues in Professional Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most conversations about ethics and professional behavior involve case studies and hypothetical situations. This study identifies and examines the most common concerns in professional behavior as reported by 303 student affairs practitioners in the field. Differences by gender, years of experience, organizational level, institutional type, and…

Janosik, Steven M.

2007-01-01

343

USAR Nurse Referral and Retention Program.  

PubMed

In 1987, the 804th Hospital Center made alleviating the shortfall of registered nurses in the Command a priority. The Command had only 79% of its registered nurse positions filled at the time. Using the recruitment strategies of an employee referral program and a mailing list, the Command reached 100% fill in 2 years and maintained those gains for an additional year. Retention strategies were also implemented which lowered the attrition rate. This paper describes the Army Nurse Referral and Retention Program developed and implemented at the 804th Hospital Center that relieved the shortfall of registered nurses in the United States Army Reserve in New England. PMID:1454199

Foley, J E; Foley, B J

1992-09-01

344

Common Platform Enumeration: Dictionary  

E-print Network

Common Platform Enumeration: Dictionary Specification Version 2.3 Paul Cichonski David Waltermire Karen Scarfone NIST Interagency Report 7697 #12;Common Platform Enumeration: Dictionary Specification and Director NIST Interagency Report 7697 #12;COMMON PLATFORM ENUMERATION (CPE): DICTIONARY SPECIFICATION

345

Migraine and Common Morbidities  

MedlinePLUS

... headaches . Home > Migraine and Common Morbidities Print Email Migraine and Common Morbidities ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Migraine and Common Morbidities For many patients, migraine is ...

346

Short-Term Effects of Grade Retention on the Growth Rate of Woodcock-Johnson III Broad Math and Reading Scores  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effects of grade retention in first grade on the growth of the Woodcock-Johnson broad mathematics and reading scores over three years using linear growth curve modeling on an academically at-risk sample. A large sample (n = 784) of first grade children who were at risk for retention were initially identified based on low literacy scores. Scores representing propensity for retention were constructed based on 72 variables collected in comprehensive baseline testing in first grade. We closely matched 97 pairs of retained and promoted children based on their propensity scores using optimal matching procedures. This procedure adjusted for baseline differences between the retained and promoted children. We found that grade retention decreased the growth rate of mathematical skills but had no significant effect on reading skills. In addition, several potential moderators of the effect of retention on growth of mathematical and reading skills were identified including limited English language proficiency and children's conduct problems. PMID:19083352

Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

2008-01-01

347

49 CFR 382.409 - Medical review officer record retention for controlled substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Medical review officer record retention for controlled substances. 382...Handling of Test Results, Records Retention, and Confidentiality § 382.409 Medical review officer record retention for controlled...

2011-10-01

348

49 CFR 382.409 - Medical review officer record retention for controlled substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Medical review officer record retention for controlled substances. 382...Handling of Test Results, Records Retention, and Confidentiality § 382.409 Medical review officer record retention for controlled...

2010-10-01

349

5 CFR 575.307 - Agency retention incentive plan and approval levels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Agency retention incentive plan and approval levels... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS...EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Retention Incentives § 575.307...

2011-01-01

350

Novel inner membrane retention signals in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipoproteins.  

PubMed

The ultimate membrane localization and function of most of the 185 predicted Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 lipoproteins remain unknown. We constructed a fluorescent lipoprotein, CSFP(OmlA)-ChFP, by fusing the signal peptide and the first four amino acids of the P. aeruginosa outer membrane lipoprotein OmlA to the monomeric red fluorescent protein mCherry (ChFP). When cells were plasmolyzed with 0.5 M NaCl, the inner membrane separated from the outer membrane and formed plasmolysis bays. This permits the direct observation of fluorescence in either the outer or inner membrane. CSFP(OmlA)-ChFP was shown to localize in the outer membrane by fluorescence microscopy and immunoblotting analysis of inner and outer membrane fractions. The site-directed substitution of the amino acids at positions +2, +3, and +4 in CSFP(OmlA)-ChFP was performed to test the effects on lipoprotein localization of a series of amino acid sequences selected from a panel of predicted lipoproteins. We confirmed Asp(+2) and Lys(+3) Ser(+4) function as inner membrane retention signals and identified four novel inner membrane retention signals: CK(+2) V(+3) E(+4), CG(+2) G(+3) G(+4), CG(+2) D(+3) D(+4), and CQ(+2) G(+3) S(+4). These inner membrane retention signals are found in 5% of the 185 predicted P. aeruginosa lipoproteins. Full-length chimeras of predicted lipoproteins PA4370 and PA3262 fused to mCherry were shown to reside in the inner membrane and showed a nonuniform or patchy distribution in the membrane. The optical sectioning of cells producing PA4370(CGDD)-ChFP and PA3262(CDSQ)-ChFP by confocal microscopy improved the resolution and indicated a helix-like localization pattern in the inner membrane. The method described here permits the in situ visualization of lipoprotein localization and should work equally well for other membrane-associated proteins. PMID:18641140

Lewenza, Shawn; Mhlanga, Musa M; Pugsley, Anthony P

2008-09-01

351

Recruitment and retention monitoring: facilitating the mission of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)  

PubMed Central

It is commonly accepted that inefficient recruitment and inadequate retention continue to threaten the completion of clinical trials intended to reduce the public health burden of neurological disease. This article will discuss the scientific, economic, and ethical implications of failure to recruit and retain adequate samples in clinical trials, including the consequences of failing to recruit adequately diverse samples. We will also discuss the more common challenges and barriers to efficient and effective recruitment and retention, and the impact these have on successful clinical trial planning. We will explain the newly established efforts within National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) to monitor recruitment and retention with well-defined metrics and implementation of grant awards that include feasibility milestones for continued funding. Finally, we will describe our efforts to address some of the common challenges to recruitment and retention through assistance to investigators and coordinators with evidence-based support, tools, and resources for planning and strategizing recruitment and retention as well as a trans-NIH effort to improve awareness of clinical research in the general public. PMID:23230460

Roberts, J; Waddy, S; Kaufmann, P

2012-01-01

352

Modelling of the effect of solute structure and mobile phase pH and composition on the retention of phenoxy acid herbicides in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) learned by error back-propagation is used to generate a retention predictive model for phenoxy acid herbicides in isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The investigated solutes (18 compounds), apart from the most common herbicides of this class, include some derivatives of benzoic acid and phenylacetic acid structurally related to phenoxy acids, as a whole covering a pK(a) range between 2.3 and 4.3. A mixed model in terms of both solute descriptors and eluent attributes is built with the aim of predicting retention in water-acetonitrile mobile phases within a large range of composition (acetonitrile from 30% to 70%, v/v) and acidity (pH of water before mixing with acetonitrile ranging between 2 and 5). The set of input variables consists of solute pK(a) and quantum chemical molecular descriptors of both the neutral and dissociated form, %v/v of acetonitrile in the mobile phase and pH of aqueous phase before mixing with acetonitrile. After elimination of redundant variables, a nine-dimensional model is identified and its prediction ability is evaluated by external validation based on three solutes not involved in model generation and by cross-validation. A multilinear counterpart in terms of the same descriptors is seen to provide a noticeably poorer retention prediction. PMID:18482595

Aschi, Massimiliano; D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Mazzeo, Pietro; Pierabella, Mirko; Ruggieri, Fabrizio

2008-06-01

353

Retention Time Alignment of LC/MS Data by a Divide-and-Conquer Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has become the method of choice for characterizing complex mixtures. These analyses often involve quantitative comparison of components in multiple samples. To achieve automated sample comparison, the components of interest must be detected and identified, and their retention times aligned and peak areas calculated. This article describes a simple pairwise iterative retention time alignment algorithm, based on the divide-and-conquer approach, for alignment of ion features detected in LC/MS experiments. In this iterative algorithm, ion features in the sample run are first aligned with features in the reference run by applying a single constant shift of retention time. The sample chromatogram is then divided into two shorter chromatograms, which are aligned to the reference chromatogram the same way. Each shorter chromatogram is further divided into even shorter chromatograms. This process continues until each chromatogram is sufficiently narrow so that ion features within it have a similar retention time shift. In six pairwise LC/MS alignment examples containing a total of 6507 confirmed true corresponding feature pairs with retention time shifts up to five peak widths, the algorithm successfully aligned these features with an error rate of 0.2%. The alignment algorithm is demonstrated to be fast, robust, fully automatic, and superior to other algorithms. After alignment and gap-filling of detected ion features, their abundances can be tabulated for direct comparison between samples.

Zhang, Zhongqi

2012-04-01

354

Predictors of Retention in Dual-Focus Self-Help Groups  

PubMed Central

Attendance at 12-step groups has been found useful in maintaining abstinence from substance use; many members disengage early, missing out on potential benefits. New 12-step based groups have emerged to address the recovery needs of the many substance users with psychiatric comorbidity. Little is known about factors associated with retention in 12-step, especially in this population. This study sought to identify predictors of retention over a one-year period among members of a dual-focus 12-Step fellowship (N = 276). Using multivariate analysis, the following baseline characteristics were associated with greater retention one year later: older age, more lifetime arrests, abstinence in the pre-baseline year, more psychiatric symptoms in the pre-baseline year, not taking psychiatric medication, being more troubled by substance abuse than by mental health, and greater level of self-efficacy for recovery; residing in supported housing and being enrolled in outpatient treatment at follow-up were also significantly associated with better retention. Clinical implications to enhance retention in specialized 12-step groups are discussed. PMID:12908643

Laudet, Alexandre B.; Magura, Stephen; Cleland, Charles M.; Vogel, Howard S.; Knight, Edward L.

2007-01-01

355

Staff retention and recruitment: "one great department".  

PubMed

The projected demand for healthcare workers during the next ten years has been the impetus for many organizations to develop more creative strategies to ensure adequate staffing levels in the future. In order to keep pace with service demands, the diagnostic imaging department at Valley Lutheran Medical Center (VLMC) in Mesa, Ariz., has been growing as well. Since November of 1999, the number of core FTEs increased from 54.5 to 96. As a result, efforts to retain the current employees became just as critical as efforts to recruit staff for the new positions that were created to support the expanded services. In February 2001, an AHRA seminar was held in Phoenix, which included a day-long session called "Workforce 2001: Recruitment, Selection, Retention of Quality Employees." The presenter, Clint Maun, C.S.P., emphasized the need to provide "passionate orientation" for new employees, encouraged team-based selection of new employees, and reminded the audience that new employees decide within the first three days whether or not they will stay with an organization, regardless of how long it actually takes to leave. Maun also described to the group a model for creating team effort called "One Great Unit" (OGU), which uses a "12-Week Plan" for engaging staff. For the diagnostic imaging department at VLMC, this concept was remodeled so that, instead of focusing on one modality (unit) in the department, the focus was on the whole department. The first step to creating "One Great Department" was to establish an Oversight Committee that would help define the focus of the 12-Week Teams. Five, front-line employees were recruited who represented a cross-section of the imaging department. To assist in the implementation, the director of learning and innovation at VLMC agreed to facilitate the first two meetings. The first 12-Week Team was called together in May 2001. The operational objective addressed was "improving communication inter- and intra-departmentally." Each member volunteered to take one issue to investigate. For instance, the team identified that unit secretaries used an outdated resource document for ordering radiology exams. The 2001 goal was to limit voluntary employee turnover to less than 15 percent, an aggressive goal considering that in 2000 the turnover rate was 40 percent. In January 2002, the 2001 turnover rate was 14.5 percent (Bravo!). While we accomplished our goal, there are many challenges ahead. The Arizona market is so volatile that we cannot afford to rest on any previous success. PMID:12422659

Casady, Wanda M; Dowd, Terry A

2002-01-01

356

Identifying Plant Poisoning in Livestock  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plant intoxication is a common and often deadly problem that annually costs the livestock industry more than $340 million in the western United States alone. Despite the cost or frequency, definitively identifying or diagnosing poisoning by plants in livestock is challenging. The purpos...

357

Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

2011-01-01

358

Nursing Crisis: Retention Strategies for Hospital Administrators  

Microsoft Academic Search

High nursing turnover and shortages are symptomatic of the problems faced by many hospitals around the world. While the recruitment of agency and foreign nurses may provide temporary relief to staffing issues, hospital administrators are faced with the perennial problem of losing highly trained nurses with many years of experience. This paper discusses a number of retention strategies for hospital

Christopher C. A. Chan; Ken McBey; Mark Basset; Michael O'Donnell; Richard Winter

359

Predicting Student Retention in Teacher Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the preliminary results from a longitudinal study of student teacher attrition and retention. The sample consisted of 316 students in an initial course in teacher education. Data collection included the following: high school grade point ratio (GPR); SAT scores; other demographic information, such as education of father and…

Vare, Jonatha W.; Dewalt, Mark W.; Dockery, E. Ray

360

5 CFR 293.511 - Retention schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Retention schedule. (a) Temporary EMFS records must not be placed in a newly-created EMF for a separating employee and must be removed from an already existing EMF before its transfer to another agency or to the NPRC. Such records must be...

2010-01-01

361

5 CFR 293.511 - Retention schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Retention schedule. (a) Temporary EMFS records must not be placed in a newly-created EMF for a separating employee and must be removed from an already existing EMF before its transfer to another agency or to the NPRC. Such records must be...

2011-01-01

362

Retention of Electronic Fundamentals: Differences Among Topics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criterion-referenced tests were used to measure the learning and retention of a sample of material taught by means of programed instruction in the Avionics Fundamentals Course, Class A. It was found that the students knew about 30 percent of the material before reading the programs, that mastery rose to a very high level on the immediate posttest,…

Johnson, Kirk A.

363

Supporting Struggling Readers: Intervention--Not Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as a retention alternative, the Summer Accelerated Learning Time (SALT) program combines two effective strategies, providing one-on-one tutoring within an extended-year framework for students at risk of early reading failure. An evaluation showed a 1.1 mean reading level change for 22 SALT participants. (10 references) (MLH)

Burk, Jill

1998-01-01

364

Hydrogen isotope retention and release from copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is considering the use of tritium neutral beams during the deuterium--tritium phase of operation in 1990. A concern is the tritium inventory that will develop in neutral beam components such as the copper calorimeter. In this paper we report on measurements and calculations of hydrogen isotope retention and

K. L. Wilson; R. A. Causey; M. I. Baskes; J. Kamperschroer

1987-01-01

365

76 FR 24089 - Credit Risk Retention  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...funding of long-term loans, for...and credit risk profiles that...generally fund longer-term assets with...proposed, this risk retention option...interest over the term of the loan...environmental risk assessment to gain...

2011-04-29

366

78 FR 57927 - Credit Risk Retention  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the funding of long-term loans, for example...maturity and credit risk profiles from...exemption from risk retention for...do exist with longer terms, the agencies...increase investors' risk exposure, which...to investors' long-term interests....

2013-09-20

367

Return on Investment: Libraries and Student Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data on libraries collected by the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), as well as fall-to-fall retention rates obtained from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), this study employs statistical…

Mezick, Elizabeth M.

2007-01-01

368

Alternatives to Social Promotion and Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies indicate that retention negatively impacts students' behavior, attitude, and attendance, but it is still practiced in schools around the country. Social promotion undermines students' futures when they fail to develop critical study and job-related skills; however, it too is still practiced in many schools throughout the United…

Lynch, Matthew

2013-01-01

369

Retaining Aspiring Scholars (retention, Students of Color)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tinto's retention model provided the theoretical framework for this research study of the academic and social integration of academically talented students of color into the graduate and professional science degree pipeline. The site for this study was the Life Sciences Summer Undergraduate Research Program of the University of Minnesota. This program recruits academically talented undergraduates from throughout the nation for

Nancy Bannister Walters

1997-01-01

370

Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…

Koroscik, Judith Smith

371

Using Team Learning to Improve Student Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to improve the retention rate in their entry-level information systems course, the authors of this article integrated a team-learning approach into its instructional format. This article describes the steps taken, including how team learning compares with the traditional approach based on lecture with occasional group exercises, and…

Kreie, Jennifer; Headrick, R. Wayne; Steiner, Robert

2007-01-01

372

Presentation Outline ohio state retention data  

E-print Network

% #12;Underrepresented Students: · The first-year retention rate of many underrepresented populations peaked in the mid-to-late part of the last decade and has since declined · African American males, Hispanic males, and Asian males, for example, are at their lowest rates in almost a decade #12;#12;First

373

Maximizing Retention in Engineering/Engineering Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To maximize retention and learning, the disconnect students experience among key academic disciplines must be bridged. To minimize the dropout rate, this bridge must be built as soon as possible after a student chooses an engineering or engineering technology major. Target Audience: 2-4 year College Faculty/Administrators

Craft, Elaine L.

374

A Holistic Approach to Student Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ranken Technical College, a small, private, non-profit, two-year technical college in St. Louis, developed a plan whereby at-risk students would be flagged, their needs assessed, and programs put into place to meet those needs. The desired result was a higher retention rate, especially among minorities. The following components were found to be…

Bogart, Martha; Hirshberg, Ruth

375

Teacher Retention: What Is Your Weakest Link?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is intended to help teacher preparation educators, building level leaders, staff developers, and teacher mentors address school-work patterns in five critical areas that may impact teacher attrition and retention. It supports a view of professional development that fosters the active involvement of teachers in customizing their own…

Podsen, India J.

376

Placental retention in a bonobo ( Pan paniscus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background This case report describes the first placental retention in an 11- year-old female bonobo (Pan paniscus) following the delivery of a healthy infant. Methods After unsuccessful medical treatment with oxytocin, the placenta was manually extracted. Results and conclusions Both the dam and infant survived.

Michel Halbwax; Crispin Kamate Mahamba; Anne-Marie Ngalula; Claudine André

2009-01-01

377

Procurement and Retention of Black Officers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was made of the history of the black officer in the Army, the sources and procedures the Army uses to procure black officers and the retention of black officers in the Army. Data was gathered by interviews with Department of Army personnel and black junior officers; questionnaires were used to gather information from professors of Military…

Miller, Clarence A., Jr.

378

Tallahassee Community College Retention Study. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A retention study was conducted at Tallahassee Community College (TCC) to determine reasons student withdrew from TCC prior to meeting their educational objectives. The survey population consisted of all students, apart from graduates and those who had been academically suspended, who were enrolled in winter 1981 but had not returned by winter…

Johnston, Archie B.

379

Chemical retention during dry growth riming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partitioning of volatile chemicals among the gas, liquid, and solid phases during the conversion of liquid water to ice in clouds can impact distributions of chemicals in precipitation and in the poststorm troposphere. In this paper, we extend a theoretical scaling model of chemical retention during hydrometeor freezing to all dry growth riming conditions. We account for spreading of drops

A. L. Stuart; M. Z. Jacobson

2004-01-01

380

COMPARTMENTAL MODEL OF NITRATE RETENTION IN STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A compartmental modeling approach is presented to route nitrate retention along a cascade of stream reach sections. A process transfer function is used for transient storage equations with first order reaction terms to represent nitrate uptake in the free stream, and denitrifica...

381

Health Sciences Recruitment and Retention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the Health Sciences Recruitment and Retention Program at Florida International University is to increase the numbers of qualified Hispanic and black students applying to the health sciences programs and to admit and retain them. Fields of study include dietetics, medical technology, and occupational and physical therapy. The…

Himburg, Susan P.

382

Factors Contributing to Teacher Retention in Georgia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this mixed method, survey-based inquiry was to determine how Georgia public high school faculty members perceive various pressures and experiences associated with a career in education. These perceptions were then analyzed as possible indicators of teacher attrition in order to improve retention rates. The independent demographic…

Locklear, Tina M.

2010-01-01

383

Online Student Retention: Can It Be Done?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retention has been indicated as one of the greatest weaknesses in online instruction. While a preponderance of literature about online instruction is available, concrete ideas about how to retain students are lacking. A DHHS grant for over one million dollars made it possible for the Wright State University College of Nursing and Health (Dayton,…

O'Brien, Barbara S.; Renner, Alice L.

384

Ethacrynic Acid in Pathological Fluid Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethacrynic acid was effective in completely reversing pathological fluid retention in 13 of the 14 patients stud- ied. The long-term studies in 29 patients demonstrated the effectiveness and relative safety of the drug when used in cases of true diuretic need over a period of months. The dose had to be individualized, but was gen- erally 50 mg twice daily

Robert J. Sperber; Leonard B. Di Re; Mark M. Singer; Solomon Fisch; Arthur C. DeGraff

2010-01-01

385

Effective Retention Strategies for Diverse Employees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses methods to determine why employees leave or stay, based on experiences at Pennsylvania State University libraries. Considers retention tools that work best to retain diverse employees, including mentoring, networking, career and learning opportunities, balance between work and home life, a welcoming climate, and support for research.…

Musser, Linda R.

2001-01-01

386

Measuring Learning Retention after Program Funding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated retention of gains in reading/language skills after one year by 378 eighth-grade students in 18 health studies classrooms. Six classrooms were assigned to each of three groups, two experimental and one control, taught by health science teachers who were: (1) trained in reading/language techniques; (2) not trained in…

Meckler, Terry Anne; Vogler, James D.

387

Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When institutions engage in discussions regarding improving retention and graduation rates, invariably the conversation focuses on entering student characteristics, especially ACT and SAT scores and high school grades. Clearly, attracting and enrolling well-prepared and motivated high-ability students will certainly improve institutional measures…

Schroeder, Charles C.

2013-01-01

388

5 CFR 9901.356 - Pay retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR...104-week retention limit. (d) Under NSPS...working conditions or the nature of the work involved...The 104-week time limit established under paragraphs...regard to the 104-week limit (as described in...

2011-01-01

389

Freshman Learning Communities, College Performance, and Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper applies a standard treatment effects model to determine that participation in Freshman Learning Communities improves academic performance and retention. Not controlling for individual self-selection into Freshman Learning Communities participation leads one to incorrectly conclude that the impact is the same across race and gender…

Hotchkiss, Julie L.; Moore, Robert E.; Pitts, M. Melinda

2006-01-01

390

Retention initiatives for ICT based courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ireland has one of the highest concentrations of information and communications technology activity and employment in the OECD. However, there are above average rates of non-completion in such areas of computer science (26.9%). The fact that these higher rates are recorded in an area of key national interest in terms of job creation and job retention is a worry. The

Cornelia Connolly; Eamonn Murphy

2005-01-01

391

49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General...

2012-10-01

392

49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General...

2010-10-01

393

49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General...

2014-10-01

394

49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General...

2011-10-01

395

7 CFR 274.5 - Record retention and forms security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Record retention and forms security. 274.5 Section...Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM...Record retention and forms security. (a)...

2013-01-01

396

7 CFR 274.5 - Record retention and forms security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Record retention and forms security. 274.5 Section...Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM...Record retention and forms security. (a)...

2014-01-01

397

7 CFR 274.5 - Record retention and forms security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Record retention and forms security. 274.5 Section...Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM...Record retention and forms security. (a)...

2011-01-01

398

7 CFR 274.5 - Record retention and forms security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Record retention and forms security. 274.5 Section...Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM...Record retention and forms security. (a)...

2012-01-01

399

7 CFR 1207.532 - Retention period for records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention period for records. 1207.532...Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS...Regulations Records § 1207.532 Retention period for records....

2010-01-01

400

21 CFR 54.6 - Recordkeeping and record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Recordkeeping and record retention. 54.6 Section 54.6 Food and... § 54.6 Recordkeeping and record retention. (a) Financial records of clinical... An applicant who has submitted a marketing application containing covered...

2011-04-01

401

21 CFR 54.6 - Recordkeeping and record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Recordkeeping and record retention. 54.6 Section 54.6 Food and... § 54.6 Recordkeeping and record retention. (a) Financial records of clinical... An applicant who has submitted a marketing application containing covered...

2010-04-01

402

7 CFR 1250.535 - Retention of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention of records. 1250.535 Section...Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS...Regulations Records § 1250.535 Retention of records. (a) Each...

2011-01-01

403

7 CFR 1207.532 - Retention period for records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention period for records. 1207.532...Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS...Regulations Records § 1207.532 Retention period for records....

2011-01-01

404

7 CFR 1250.535 - Retention of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention of records. 1250.535 Section...Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS...Regulations Records § 1250.535 Retention of records. (a) Each...

2010-01-01

405

21 CFR 872.3740 - Retentive and splinting pin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3740 Retentive and splinting pin. (a) Identification. A retentive and splinting pin...

2011-04-01

406

21 CFR 872.3740 - Retentive and splinting pin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3740 Retentive and splinting pin. (a) Identification. A retentive and splinting pin...

2014-04-01

407

Retention of Riverine Sediment and Nutrient Loads by Coastal Plain  

E-print Network

Retention of Riverine Sediment and Nutrient Loads by Coastal Plain Floodplains Gregory B. Noe floodplain ecosystems are important regulators of sediment, carbon, and nutrient transport in watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay. Key words: floodplain; sediment; nitrogen; phosphorus; retention; wetland; river

408

21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4930 Suture retention device. (a) Identification. A suture retention...

2014-04-01

409

21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4930 Suture retention device. (a) Identification. A suture retention...

2011-04-01

410

21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4930 Suture retention device. (a) Identification. A suture retention...

2012-04-01

411

21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4930 Suture retention device. (a) Identification. A suture retention...

2013-04-01

412

The IBEX Ribbon from the Ion Retention Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IBEX ribbon is a narrow, ˜ 20° wide feature that stretches across much of the sky observed in energetic neutral atoms from the outer heliosphere, likely in the inner heliosheath and possibly beyond. The ribbon remains largely unexplained despite its persistence after 3 years of IBEX observations and a dozen theories that attempt to explain it. Recently, a new idea emerged that attempts to explain the ribbon as a spatial region in the outer heliosheath that accumulates pickup ions converted from the neutral atoms that travel out beyond the heliopause. We review the spatial retention concept and resolve recent recent possible concerns. While the mechanism identified here is specific to ion instabilities in the outer heliosheath, there are likely other physical mechanisms that spatially isolate ions near the ribbon and additional source populations that contribute to the excess of ions in this region. Ion retention therefore encompasses the mechanisms and includes the source populations that contribute to spatial confinement of ions near the IBEX ribbon source.

Schwadron, N. A.; McComas, D. J.

2014-05-01

413

Causes and Recommendations for Unanticipated Ink Retention Following Tattoo Removal Treatment  

PubMed Central

While placement of ink into the skin is a long-standing tradition, patients are now seeking tattoo removal on a more frequent basis. Once considered acceptable removal options, tattoo ink removal via physical destruction included dermabrasion, chemical destruction, salabrasion, thermal destruction, and cryotherapy. Now these options are used extremely infrequently. These modalities provided unpredictable results and often required prolonged healing times and left patients with skin discoloration, pain, scarring, and ink retention. Even the widely adopted use of lasers, now considered the gold standard method, offers some level of unpredictability surrounding the natural progression of ink resolution. Multiple factors need to be taken into consideration when successfully removing tattoo pigment including the modalities used, number and frequency of treatments, proper device technique, and physiological barriers to tattoo removal. This paper serves to elucidate the common causes of ink retention following tattoo removal treatment with recommendations on how best to address this relatively common occurrence. PMID:23882312

Chen, Cynthia L.; Desai, Alpesh; Desai, Tejas

2013-01-01

414

Nutrient retention in riparian floodplains on landscape scale, the necessity for a monthly retention approach.  

PubMed

This study analyses the computed nitrogen retention, the distribution and the extent of riparian floodplains of three German rivers, as input data and application of the retention model has not been carried out on landscape scale so far. The Software FLYS 2.1.3 was used for the calculation of the floodplain extent and depth at certain discharges. Thus a first empirical approach is suggested to quantify the share of load that enters the floodplain (incoming load) and the extent of floodplain as variables depending on discharge ratios. Measured loads have subsequently been applied to the presented approach to calculate incoming loads on a monthly and yearly basis for the years 1999 and 2002. Finally, linear and exponential yearly retention models were applied, obtained from the literature. Large variations in the retention results were found between the years and the models and between monthly and yearly calculations. In hydrologically average years, calculated retention rates are in the range of reported values (440-670 kg N ha?¹ yr?¹), whereas for wet years, retention values account for 1,400 kg N ha?¹ yr?¹. Consequently, this approach needs to be improved to reduce overestimation by considering more complex characteristics of the floodplain, but generally its application is possible on the landscape scale. PMID:23109601

Natho, S; Venohr, M

2012-01-01

415

Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

Green, Kimberly

2012-01-01

416

On identified predictive control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-tuning control algorithms are potential successors to manually tuned PID controllers traditionally used in process control applications. A very attractive design method for self-tuning controllers, which has been developed over recent years, is the long-range predictive control (LRPC). The success of LRPC is due to its effectiveness with plants of unknown order and dead-time which may be simultaneously nonminimum phase and unstable or have multiple lightly damped poles (as in the case of flexible structures or flexible robot arms). LRPC is a receding horizon strategy and can be, in general terms, summarized as follows. Using assumed long-range (or multi-step) cost function the optimal control law is found in terms of unknown parameters of the predictor model of the process, current input-output sequence, and future reference signal sequence. The common approach is to assume that the input-output process model is known or separately identified and then to find the parameters of the predictor model. Once these are known, the optimal control law determines control signal at the current time t which is applied at the process input and the whole procedure is repeated at the next time instant. Most of the recent research in this field is apparently centered around the LRPC formulation developed by Clarke et al., known as generalized predictive control (GPC). GPC uses ARIMAX/CARIMA model of the process in its input-output formulation. In this paper, the GPC formulation is used but the process predictor model is derived from the state space formulation of the ARIMAX model and is directly identified over the receding horizon, i.e., using current input-output sequence. The underlying technique in the design of identified predictive control (IPC) algorithm is the identification algorithm of observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters developed by Juang et al. at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully applied to identification of flexible structures.

Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

1993-01-01

417

Policies and Practice: A Focus on Higher Education Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, based on a discussion at an interactive videoconference, examines student diversity issues and retention strategies in the context of the Sallie Mae National Retention Project that addressed state expectations for more accountability and federal reporting requirements on graduation and retention. The eight chapters focus on equity as it…

American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

418

Student Retention at UW-Oshkosh. Planning Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on student retention at the University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, are analyzed. The retention rate of full-time freshmen for each of the past five years is presented versus the projected effects of achieving the institutional enrollment goal each year until 1986. Retention increased by only .1 of 1 percent in 1980 as compared to just over 2…

Hoyt, Tim

419

Student Retention and the Use of Campus Facilities by Race.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether use of campus facilities was related to student retention in 100 white, 78 black, and 29 international students. Results suggest that use of campus facilities is related to retention for students, and for black students in particular. Library use was related to retention for all groups, use of nonacademic facilities was…

Mallinckrodt, Brent; Sedlacek, William E.

1987-01-01

420

The Tennessee Lottery Scholarship Program: Impact on Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined if the Tennessee Education Lottery Scholarship (TELS), which began in 2004, was related to student retention at the six Tennessee Board of Regents four-year institutions. This study investigated the impact of the TELS on student retention at TBR universities and general knowledge regarding retention. Post-facto data were…

Puryear, Carol G.

2009-01-01

421

Education for Sustainable Development and Retention: Unravelling a Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the question of what education for sustainable development (ESD) research might signify when linked to the concept of "retention", and how this relation (ESD and retention) might be researched. It considers two different perspectives on retention, as revealed through educational research trajectories, drawing on existing…

Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

2010-01-01

422

27 CFR 31.191 - Period of retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Period of retention. 31.191 Section 31.191 Alcohol...BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retention of Records and Files § 31.191 Period of retention. All records and files,...

2011-04-01

423

12 CFR Appendix A to Part 749 - Record Retention Guidelines  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record Retention Guidelines A Appendix A to Part 749...PRESERVATION PROGRAM AND APPENDICES-RECORD RETENTION GUIDELINES; CATASTROPHIC ACT PREPAREDNESS...A Appendix A to Part 749—Record Retention Guidelines Credit unions...

2011-01-01

424

27 CFR 31.191 - Period of retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Period of retention. 31.191 Section 31.191 Alcohol...BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retention of Records and Files § 31.191 Period of retention. All records and files,...

2010-04-01

425

21 CFR 320.38 - Retention of bioavailability samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Retention of bioavailability samples...Drug Products § 320.38 Retention of bioavailability samples...that has been approved for marketing, a reserve sample of the...that requires reserve sample retention under this section or §...

2011-04-01

426

21 CFR 58.195 - Retention of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...records. (a) Record retention requirements set forth...supersede the record retention requirements of any...application for a research or marketing permit, in support...application for a research or marketing permit), a period...evaluation. In no case shall retention be required for...

2011-04-01

427

Framing Retention for Institutional Improvement: A 4 Ps Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 4 Ps framework for student retention strategy is a construct for reframing the retention discussion in a way that enables institutional improvement by challenging some conventional wisdom and prevailing perspectives that have characterized retention strategy for years. It opens new possibilities for action and improvement by suggesting that…

Kalsbeek, David H.

2013-01-01

428

Grade Retention and School Performance: An Extended Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Follow-up study investigates the effects of retention on school achievement, perceived school competence, and delinquency. The strongest predictors of retention were early school performance, gender, parental participation in school, and the number of school moves. Findings suggest that intervention approaches other than grade retention are needed…

McCoy, Ann R.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

1999-01-01

429

5 CFR 536.203 - Additional eligibility requirements for grade retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536...grade retention. (a) An employee is eligible for grade retention under § 536.201(a)(1...more positions under a covered pay system at one or more...

2010-01-01

430

Identifying Effective School Principals  

E-print Network

focus on three dimensions: student performance, teacher retention, and financial management. Data is derived from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to develop a total of seven specific indicators to measure success in these three areas for Texas... tests and school accountability ratings. TEA data is used from 1996-2005 to develop indicators for these two measures. Since our goal was to capture the improvements in student performance attributable to principal effectiveness, we used a value...

Fernandez, Kandyce; Flores, Santa; Huang, Emily; Igwe, Carolyn; McDonald, Leslie; Stroud, Ryan; Willis, Rebecca; Dugat, Amber

2007-01-01

431

Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

2009-01-01

432

Facilitating job retention for chronically ill employees: perspectives of line managers and human resource managers  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic diseases are a leading contributor to work disability and job loss in Europe. Recent EU policies aim to improve job retention among chronically ill employees. Disability and occupational health researchers argue that this requires a coordinated and pro-active approach at the workplace by occupational health professionals, line managers (LMs) and human resource managers (HRM). Little is known about the perspectives of LMs an HRM on what is needed to facilitate job retention among chronically ill employees. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and compare the perspectives of Dutch LMs and HRM on this issue. Methods Concept mapping methodology was used to elicit and map statements (ideas) from 10 LMs and 17 HRM about what is needed to ensure continued employment for chronically ill employees. Study participants were recruited through a higher education and an occupational health services organization. Results Participants generated 35 statements. Each group (LMs and HRM) sorted these statements into six thematic clusters. LMs and HRM identified four similar clusters: LMs and HRM must be knowledgeable about the impact of chronic disease on the employee; employees must accept responsibility for work retention; work adaptations must be implemented; and clear company policy. Thematic clusters identified only by LMs were: good manager/employee cooperation and knowledge transfer within the company. Unique clusters identified by HRM were: company culture and organizational support. Conclusions There were both similarities and differences between the views of LMs and HRM on what may facilitate job retention for chronically ill employees. LMs perceived manager/employee cooperation as the most important mechanism for enabling continued employment for these employees. HRM perceived organizational policy and culture as the most important mechanism. The findings provide information about topics that occupational health researchers and planners should address in developing job retention programs for chronically ill workers. PMID:21586139

2011-01-01

433

Closing the loop of the soil water retention curve  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The authors, to their knowledge for the first time, produced two complete principal soil water retention curves (SWRCs) under both positive and negative matric suction regimes. An innovative testing technique combining the transient water release and imbibition method (TRIM) and constant flow method (CFM) was used to identify the principal paths of SWRC in the positive pore-water pressure regime under unsaturated conditions. A negative matric suction of 9.8 kPa is needed to reach full saturation or close the loop of the SWRC for a silty soil. This work pushes the understanding of the interaction of soil and water into new territory by quantifying the boundaries of the SWRC over the entire suction domain, including both wetting and drying conditions that are relevant to field conditions such as slope wetting under heavy rainfall or rapid groundwater table rise in earthen dams or levees.

Lu, Ning; Alsherif, N; Wayllace, Alexandra; Godt, Jonathan W.

2015-01-01

434

Preceptors promote competence and retention: strategies to achieve success.  

PubMed

When considering factors that affect nurse recruitment and retention, an appropriate response to the nursing shortage may be to either implement a preceptor model or refine an existing preceptor program. This article describes the evolution of a comprehensive preceptor model including the following: strategies to gain staff, administrative, and educational support and involvement; a preceptorship policy and procedure; a formal program to prepare preceptors; the need for identified orientation, learning expectations, and documentation of the same; evaluation methods of a preceptor model; and rewards for the preceptor. The viability and strength of this preceptor program may be attributed to the inclusion of all levels of nursing staff in its development and implementation. PMID:2513344

Hitchings, K S

1989-01-01

435

Retaining experts: retention incentives of clinical laboratory professionals.  

PubMed

A survey of members of the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS) was taken in May, 2012 to study workplace incentives and personal factors that could encourage clinical laboratory professionals (CLP) to continue working past retirement eligibility. Benefits, compensation, and opportunity for part-time work were key retention incentives identified by CLP in all age and job function groups. Career stage was shown to play a significant role in how CLP rated the importance of several retirement incentives, suggesting that age differences exist in workplace factors and personal motivators for continuing to work. There are also differences among practitioners, administrators, and educators in how they view incentives for working past retirement eligibility. Results of the study may help laboratory administrators advocate for workplace changes important to retaining staff of varying age and job function. PMID:25219072

Laudicina, Rebecca J; Moon, Tara C; Beck, Susan; Morgan, Jennifer Craft

2014-01-01

436

Capsule endoscopy device retention and magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

A 55-year-old man was hospitalized for a neurologic and infectious workup after having hallucinations and productive cough for 2 days. During hospitalization, he experienced dark stools with an acute drop in hemoglobin. Upper endoscopy and colonoscopy were negative for an identifiable source of bleed. Capsule endoscopy was later done and subsequently an anteroposterior abdominal radiograph confirmed the presence of a retained capsule near the junction of the descending and distal transverse colon, likely contained within a colonic diverticulum. In the interim, the patient developed acute right-sided lumbar radiculopathy prompting emergent lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). During the scanning process, the retained capsule was seen and the test was immediately terminated without harm to the patient. Device retention is a complication unique to capsule endoscopy, occurring at a rate of 1% to 1.7%; retained devices are considered a danger and contraindication to MRI. PMID:23814387

Liang, Jackson J.; DeJesus, Ramona S.

2013-01-01

437

Capsule endoscopy retention as a helpful tool in the management of a young patient with suspected small-bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Capsule endoscopy is an easy and painless procedure permitting visualization of the entire small-bowel during its normal peristalsis. However, important problems exist concerning capsule retention in patients at risk of small bowel obstruction. The present report describes a young patient who had recurrent episodes of overt gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin, 18 years after small bowel resection in infancy for ileal atresia. Capsule endoscopy was performed, resulting in capsule retention in the distal small bowel. However, this event contributed to patient management by clearly identifying the site of obstruction and can be used to guide surgical intervention, where an anastomotic ulcer is identified. PMID:17451218

Kalantzis, Chryssostomos; Apostolopoulos, Periklis; Mavrogiannis, Panagiota; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Papacharalampous, Xenofon; Bramis, Ioannis; Kalantzis, Nikolaos

2007-01-01

438

Improving student retention in computer engineering technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research project was to improve student retention in the Computer Engineering Technology program at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology by reducing the number of dropouts and increasing the graduation rate. This action research project utilized a mixed methods approach of a survey and face-to-face interviews. The participants were male and female, with a large majority ranging from 18 to 21 years of age. The research found that participants recognized their skills and capability, but their capacity to remain in the program was dependent on understanding and meeting the demanding pace and rigour of the program. The participants recognized that curriculum delivery along with instructor-student interaction had an impact on student retention. To be successful in the program, students required support in four domains: academic, learning management, career, and social.

Pierozinski, Russell Ivan

439

Science Teacher Retention: Mentoring and Renewal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Some forty percent of all new science teachers leave the profession within five years, and too many science teachers are wedded to their textbooks and the routines they acquired during their collegiate years." What can be done to retain new science teachers and reinvigorate more experienced science teachers? Allow Science Teacher Retention: Mentoring and Renewal to "mentor" you as you reach toward this lofty but attainable goal. For this book, Jack Rhoton and Patricia Bowers assembled some of the country's most noted science educators and asked them to offer ideas to resolve the problems of science teacher retention and renewal. Their suggestions are designed to keep the brightest and most motivated new teachers in the profession and help all science teachers to continue to learn and to treat their own profession like science itself--that is, by basing it on questions, suggesting answers, and using their interests and abilities to test the validity of these answers.

2003-01-01

440

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

PubMed Central

Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II) were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes. PMID:20459749

2010-01-01

441

300 Area Building Retention Evaluation Mitigation Plan  

SciTech Connect

Evaluate the long-term retention of several facilities associated with the PNNL Capability Replacement Laboratory and other Hanfor mission needs. WCH prepared a mitigation plan for three scenarios with different release dates for specific buildings. The evaluations present a proposed plan for providing utility services to retained facilities in support of a long-term (+20 year) lifespan in addition to temporary services to buildings with specified delayed release dates.

D. J. McBride

2007-07-03

442

Helium retention of plasma facing materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The helium retention properties such as retained amount, desorption temperature and activation energy of desorption were examined for graphite, B4C, SiC and tungsten. After the helium ion irradiation with a helium energy of 5 keV in an ECR ion source, these data were obtained by using a technique of thermal desorption spectroscopy. The amount of retained helium saturated at the

T. Hino; Y. Yamauchi; Y. Hirohata

1999-01-01

443

Enhancing nitrification at low temperature with zeolite in a mining operations retention pond.  

PubMed

Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up to 9?months of the year. The aluminosilicate mineral zeolite was tested as an additive to retention pond water to increase rates of ammonium removal at 4°C. Water samples were collected across the length of the retention pond monthly over a year. The structure of the microbial community (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya), as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, was more stable during cold months than during July-September, when there was a marked phytoplankton bloom. Of the ammonia-oxidizing community, only bacterial amoA genes were consistently detected. Zeolite (10?g) was added to retention pond water (100?mL) amended with 5?mM ammonium and incubated at 12°C to encourage development of a nitrifying biofilm. The biofilm community was composed of different amoA phylotypes from those identified in gene clone libraries of native water samples. Zeolite biofilm was added to fresh water samples collected at different times of the year, resulting in a significant increase in laboratory measurements of potential nitrification activity at 4°C. A significant positive correlation between the amount of zeolite biofilm and potential nitrification activity was observed; rates were unaffected in incubations containing 1-20?mM ammonium. Addition of zeolite to retention ponds in cold environments could effectively increase nitrification rates year-round by concentrating active nitrifying biomass. PMID:22866052

Miazga-Rodriguez, Misha; Han, Sukkyun; Yakiwchuk, Brian; Wei, Kai; English, Colleen; Bourn, Steven; Bohnert, Seth; Stein, Lisa Y

2012-01-01

444

Enhancing Nitrification at Low Temperature with Zeolite in a Mining Operations Retention Pond  

PubMed Central

Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up to 9?months of the year. The aluminosilicate mineral zeolite was tested as an additive to retention pond water to increase rates of ammonium removal at 4°C. Water samples were collected across the length of the retention pond monthly over a year. The structure of the microbial community (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya), as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, was more stable during cold months than during July–September, when there was a marked phytoplankton bloom. Of the ammonia-oxidizing community, only bacterial amoA genes were consistently detected. Zeolite (10?g) was added to retention pond water (100?mL) amended with 5?mM ammonium and incubated at 12°C to encourage development of a nitrifying biofilm. The biofilm community was composed of different amoA phylotypes from those identified in gene clone libraries of native water samples. Zeolite biofilm was added to fresh water samples collected at different times of the year, resulting in a significant increase in laboratory measurements of potential nitrification activity at 4°C. A significant positive correlation between the amount of zeolite biofilm and potential nitrification activity was observed; rates were unaffected in incubations containing 1–20?mM ammonium. Addition of zeolite to retention ponds in cold environments could effectively increase nitrification rates year-round by concentrating active nitrifying biomass. PMID:22866052

Miazga-Rodriguez, Misha; Han, Sukkyun; Yakiwchuk, Brian; Wei, Kai; English, Colleen; Bourn, Steven; Bohnert, Seth; Stein, Lisa Y.

2012-01-01

445

Canonical Commonality Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor variable. This paper outlines…

Leister, K. Dawn

446

A Common Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of a common schooling to provide a common education and to create a common culture is argued. The limited separate education supported by E. Callan will not be effective in maintaining the distinctive cultural integrity it hopes to defend. (SLD)

Barrow, Robin

1995-01-01

447

The New Common School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Horace Mann's goal of creating a common school that brings our society's children together in mutual respect and common learning need not be frustrated by residential segregation and geographical separation of the haves and have-nots. Massachusetts' new common school vision boasts a Metro Program for minority students, 80 magnet schools, and…

Glenn, Charles L.

1987-01-01

448

Improved motor sequence retention by motionless listening.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of listening to a newly learned musical piece on subsequent motor retention of the piece. Thirty-six non-musicians were trained to play an unfamiliar melody on a piano keyboard. Next, they were randomly assigned to participate in three follow-up listening sessions over 1 week. Subjects who, during their listening sessions, listened to the same initial piece showed significant improvements in motor memory and retention of the piece despite the absence of physical practice. These improvements included increased pitch accuracy, time accuracy, and dynamic intensity of key pressing. Similar improvements, though to a lesser degree, were observed in subjects who, during their listening sessions, were distracted by another task. Control subjects, who after learning the piece had listened to nonmusical sounds, showed impaired motoric retention of the piece at 1 week from the initial acquisition day. These results imply that motor sequences can be established in motor memory without direct access to motor-related information. In addition, the study revealed that the listening-induced improvements did not generalize to the learning of a new musical piece composed of the same notes as the initial piece learned, limiting the effects to musical motor sequences that are already part of the individual's motor repertoire. PMID:22434336

Lahav, Amir; Katz, Tal; Chess, Roxanne; Saltzman, Elliot

2013-05-01

449

Surface free energy effect on bacterial retention.  

PubMed

Bacterial infection is one of the most frequent and severe complications in the long-term effectiveness of medical implants and devices, greatly increasing treatment cost and inconvenience to the patient. Surface physical and chemical properties are known to influence the extent and form of bacterial infection, although the exact correlation with specific properties is difficult due to the complexity of the system. One approach in the attempt to reduce the bacterial colonisation is to modify the surface energy and chemistry, so as to influence the interactions between the surface and the bacteria that come into contact with it. Five types of coatings were investigated in this study, together with silicone, and polished and non-polished stainless steel 316L. Surfaces were tested for retention of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AK1 after 1h. A good correlation (>90%) was found between P. aeruginosa AK1 retention and total surface free energy, as well as its polar and dispersive components. The minimum level of P. aeruginosa AK1 retention was found for a range of total surface free energy in the range 20-27 mN/m. PMID:16545555

Pereni, C I; Zhao, Q; Liu, Y; Abel, E

2006-03-15

450

Testing to enhance retention in human anatomy  

PubMed Central

Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one’s knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body and four about the nervous system, were developed. The quizzes were optional, and no credit was awarded. They were posted online using Blackboard, which provided feedback, and they were very popular. To determine whether the quizzes had any effect on retention, they were given in a controlled setting to 21 future medical and dental students. The weekly quizzes included questions on regional anatomy and an expanded set of questions on the nervous system. Each question about the nervous system was given three times, in a slightly different form each time. The second quiz was given approximately half an hour after the first one, and the third was given one week after the second to assess retention. The quizzes were unpopular, but students showed robust improvement on the questions about the nervous system. The scores increased by almost 9% on the second quiz, with no intervention except viewing the correct answers. The scores were 29% higher on the third quiz than on the first, and there was also a positive correlation between the grades on the quizzes and the final examination. Thus, repeated testing is an effective strategy for learning and retaining information about human anatomy. PMID:21805688

Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

2011-01-01

451

Recruitment and retention of novice faculty.  

PubMed

As nursing faculty members younger than 35, we consider ourselves to be in the minority. Our concern about the future of nursing education has driven us to consider ways to recruit and retain new, young faculty. To stimulate discussion, 10 suggestions for schools of nursing in the recruitment and retention of new faculty are presented: provide guidance, foster socialization, encourage flexibility, conduct orientation, provide support, facilitate collaboration, allow for mistakes, coordinate teaching assignments, grow your own, and offer rewards. While this list is far from complete, we believe it is a starting point from which schools could develop individual strategies for recruitment and retention of faculty members in nursing academia. The nursing shortage continues to intensify the lack of nursing faculty members. As a result, strategies to recruit and retain young faculty members only gain importance. Generations are changing, and it is important that schools of nursing are aware that recruitment and retention strategies that may have been successful in the past, may now be obsolete. PMID:16722496

Hessler, Karen; Ritchie, Heidi

2006-05-01

452

Predictors of Workforce Retention Among Malawian Nurse Graduates of a Scholarship Program: A Mixed-Methods Study  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: Malawi faces critical health care worker shortages of both physicians and nurses. The Global AIDS Interfaith Alliance (GAIA) began a nursing scholarship program in Malawi that requires graduates to work in the public sector for 4–5 years following graduation. The main objective of this study was to identify job satisfaction and retention factors of scholarship recipients after graduation. Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods study consisting of 30 individual qualitative interviews and 56 quantitative surveys that evaluated job satisfaction, factors associated with retention, and impact of the GAIA Nursing Scholarship Program. Participants included GAIA scholarship recipients who had graduated. We used thematic analysis to analyze qualitative interviews. Kruskal-Wallis, Spearman correlation, and chi-squared tests were used to analyze survey data. Results: The majority of survey and interview participants indicated it was unlikely that they would leave the public sector (70% and 90%, respectively). Most interview and survey participants cited a lack of supplies, inadequate human resources, and high workload as major challenges to their work. Poor working relationships with management or coworkers was significantly correlated with consideration of changing jobs in the next 6 months (correlation coefficient ?0.28, P < .05 and ?0.36, P < .01, respectively). Low salaries, high workload, poor accommodations, and a lack of appreciation were the most common reasons given for considering leaving the public sector while job security, desire to pursue further education, and public service agreement were primary motivations for continuing to work in the public system. Participants felt supported by GAIA staff and expressed a desire to serve their communities in return by working in government-supported health facilities. Conclusions: Despite the many challenges faced by public-sector nurses, low-income countries such as Malawi can employ non-remuneration strategies to retain nurses in the public sector, including adequate housing, availability of supplies, advancement opportunities, and positive work environments. Scholarship programs with close follow-up of graduates may also help increase retention. PMID:25745122

Schmiedeknecht, Kelly; Perera, Melanie; Schell, Ellen; Jere, Joyce; Geoffroy, Elizabeth; Rankin, Sally

2015-01-01

453

How Common Is the Common Core?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

2014-01-01

454

Intron Retention: A Common Splicing Event within the Human Kallikrein Gene Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: All human kallikrein (KLK) genes have at least one splice variant, some of which possess clinical utility in cancer diagnostics\\/prognostics. Given that in- trons <100 bp in length are retained in 95% of human genes and that splice variants of KLK3 and KLK4 retain intron III, we hypothesized that other proteins in this family, with a small intron III,

Iacovos P. Michael; Lisa Kurlender; Nader Memari; George M. Yousef; Daisy Du; Linda Grass; Carsten Stephan; Klaus Jung; Eleftherios P. Diamandis

455

Common Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a larger, more detailed toolkit is in progress.

Steinfeld, Aaron; Lewis, Michael; Fong, Terrence; Scholtz, Jean; Schultz, Alan; Kaber, David; Goodrich, Michael

2006-01-01

456

Comparing the Effects of Hot Pack and Lukewarm-Water-Soaked Gauze on Postoperative Urinary Retention; A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Urinary retention is a common postoperative complication that mandates urinary catheterization. Urinary catheterization is associated with different physical, mental, and financial problems for both patients and healthcare systems. The patient inconvenience, urinary tract infections, and increase in hospital stay and expenses are common problems of urinary retention and urinary catheterization. Therefore, alternative ways of relieving urinary retention, preferably noninvasive interventions, are of great interest. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of placing hot pack and lukewarm-water-soaked gauze on the suprapubic region on male patients with postoperative urinary retention. Patients and Methods: This was a three-group, randomized, controlled trial. A convenience sample of 126 male patients who had undergone general, orthopedic, or urologic surgeries were recruited. The block randomization method was used for allocating patients to either the two experimental groups (the hot pack and the lukewarm-water-soaked gauze groups) or the control one. Patients in the experimental groups were treated by placing either hot pack or lukewarm-water-soaked gauze on the suprapubic region. All patients were monitored for 20 minutes for urinary retention relief. If they did not experience urinary retention relief (starting urine flow and bladder evacuate), urinary catheterization would be performed. The data was collected using information sheet. Elimination of urinary retention was compared among study groups. The one-way analysis of variance and the Chi-square tests were used for analyzing data. Results: Respectively, 59.5%, 71.4%, and 7.1% of patients in the hot pack, the soaked gauze, and the control groups experienced relief from urinary retention and the bladder was emptied. There was a significant difference among study groups in percentage of patients who experienced urinary retention relief. However, the difference between the two experimental groups was not significant. The time to urinary retention relief in hot pack, soaked gauze, and control groups was 15.45 ± 3.15, 13.83 ± 3.80, and 14.59 ± 3.29 minutes, respectively. The difference among the study groups in time to urinary retention relief was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Both the lukewarm-water-soaked gauze and the hot pack techniques had significant effects on postoperative urinary retention and significantly reduced the need for urinary catheterization. Using these two simple and cost-effective techniques for managing postoperative urinary retention is recommended. PMID:25741518

Afazel, Mohammad Reza; Jalali, Ehsan; Sadat, Zohre; Mahmoodi, Hossein

2014-01-01

457

Identifying Spirituality in Workers: A Strategy for Retention of Community Mental Health Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between workplace spirituality and intention to leave employment among community mental health workers. The study uses a cross-sectional self-administered survey of 403 direct service workers at the 20 participating community mental health centers in the state of Kansas. Results support the effect of perceived workplace spirituality on intention to leave and how intention to leave

Young Joon Hong

2011-01-01

458

Identifying Spirituality in Workers: A Strategy for Retention of Community Mental Health Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between workplace spirituality and intention to leave employment among community mental health workers. The study uses a cross-sectional self-administered survey of 403 direct service workers at the 20 participating community mental health centers in the state of Kansas. Results support the effect of perceived workplace spirituality on intention to leave and how intention to leave

Young Joon Hong

2012-01-01

459

Competing retention pathways of uranium upon reaction with Fe(II)  

SciTech Connect

Biogeochemical retention processes, including adsorption, reductive precipitation, and incorporation into host minerals, are important in contaminant transport, remediation, and geologic deposition of uranium. Recent work has shown that U can become incorporated into iron (hydr)oxide minerals, with a key pathway arising from Fe(II)-induced transformation of ferrihydrite, (Fe(OH)3•nH2O) to goethite (?-FeO(OH)); this is a possible U retention mechanism in soils and sediments. Several key questions, however, remain unanswered regarding U incorporation into iron (hydr)oxides and this pathway’s contribution to U retention, including: (i) the competitiveness of U incorporation versus reduction to U(IV) and subsequent precipitation of UO2; (ii) the oxidation state of incorporated U; (iii) the effects of uranyl aqueous speciation on U incorporation; and, (iv) the mechanism of U incorporation. Here we use a series of batch reactions conducted at pH ~7, [U(VI)] from 1 to 170 ?M, [Fe(II)] from 0 to 3 mM, and [Ca] at 0 or 4 mM) coupled with spectroscopic examination of reaction products of Fe(II)-induced ferrihydrite transformation to address these outstanding questions. Uranium retention pathways were identified and quantified using extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, x-ray powder diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of EXAFS spectra showed that 14 to 89% of total U was incorporated into goethite, upon reaction with Fe(II) and ferrihydrite. Uranium incorporation was a particularly dominant retention pathway at U concentrations ? 50 ?M when either uranyl-carbonato or calcium-uranyl-carbonato complexes were dominant, accounting for 64 to 89% of total U. With increasing U(VI) and Fe(II) concentrations, U(VI) reduction to U(IV) became more prevalent, but U incorporation remained a functioning retention pathway. These findings highlight the potential importance of U(V) incorporation within iron oxides as a retention process of U across a wide range of biogeochemical environments and the sensitivity of uranium retention processes to operative (bio)geochemical conditions.

Massey, Michael S.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Jones, Morris; Ilton, Eugene S.; Cerrato, Jose M.; Bargar, John R.; Fendorf, Scott

2014-10-01

460

Competing retention pathways of uranium upon reaction with Fe(II)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeochemical retention processes, including adsorption, reductive precipitation, and incorporation into host minerals, are important in contaminant transport, remediation, and geologic deposition of uranium. Recent work has shown that U can become incorporated into iron (hydr)oxide minerals, with a key pathway arising from Fe(II)-induced transformation of ferrihydrite, (Fe(OH)3·nH2O) to goethite (?-FeO(OH)); this is a possible U retention mechanism in soils and sediments. Several key questions, however, remain unanswered regarding U incorporation into iron (hydr)oxides and this pathway’s contribution to U retention, including: (i) the competitiveness of U incorporation versus reduction to U(IV) and subsequent precipitation of UO2; (ii) the oxidation state of incorporated U; (iii) the effects of uranyl aqueous speciation on U incorporation; and, (iv) the mechanism of U incorporation. Here we use a series of batch reactions conducted at pH ?7, [U(VI)] from 1 to 170 ?M, [Fe(II)] from 0 to 3 mM, and [Ca] at 0 or 4 mM coupled with spectroscopic examination of reaction products of Fe(II)-induced ferrihydrite transformation to address these outstanding questions. Uranium retention pathways were identified and quantified using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of EXAFS spectra showed that 14-89% of total U was incorporated into goethite, upon reaction with Fe(II) and ferrihydrite. Uranium incorporation was a particularly dominant retention pathway at U concentrations ?50 ?M when either uranyl-carbonato or calcium-uranyl-carbonato complexes were dominant, accounting for 64-89% of total U. With increasing U(VI) and Fe(II) concentrations, U(VI) reduction to U(IV) became more prevalent, but U incorporation remained a functioning retention pathway. These findings highlight the potential importance of U(V) incorporation within iron oxides as a retention process of U across a wide range of biogeochemical environments and the sensitivity of uranium retention processes to operative (bio)geochemical conditions.

Massey, Michael S.; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Jones, Morris E.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Cerrato, José M.; Bargar, John R.; Fendorf, Scott

2014-10-01

461

Common Control System Vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

Trent Nelson

2005-12-01

462

Threads of common knowledge.  

PubMed

Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information and research priorities will be examined and an action plan developed in future months. PMID:12286443

Icamina, P

1993-04-01

463

Common cancers in centenarians  

PubMed Central

Background A Centenarian is a person who attains and lives beyond the age of 100. Four percent of centenarians die from cancer. It is therefore important to understand which cancers affect them in order to devise better methods to prevent and treat them. The aim of this study was to investigate the top cancers that affect centenarians. Material/Method We identified 1385 cases with the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Result (SEER) database. Our study included centenarians age 100–115 years diagnosed with the 5 most common cancers between 1973 and 2007 in the United States. Observed survival (OS) was calculated for each cancer type. The Kaplan-Meier (KM) method was used to calculate OS at 1-month intervals for the first 40 months after diagnosis using SEER*Stat version 7.04. A log rank test was performed on KM survival output and a Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate hazard ratios. All statistical analyses were performed with 95% confidence intervals with significance determined at P<0.05. Cox proportional hazard analysis was done using GraphPad Prism version 5.04. Results There were 879 (63.47%) females and 506 (36.53%) males. There were 1118 (80.72%) whites, 159 (11.48%) blacks, and 108 (7.80%) other. The top cancers were 405 (29.24%) breast, 267 (19.28%) colorectal, 254 (18.34%) prostate, 247 (17.83%) lung and bronchus, and 212 (15.31%) urinary and kidney cancer cases. Conclusions As the prevalence of centenarians increases, it is becoming increasingly important to become aware of the cancers that affect them in order to better manage them. PMID:24399367

Joseph, Shamfa C.; Delcastilo, Estevan; Osiro, Stephen; Loukas, Marios

2014-01-01

464

Evaluation of recruitment and retention strategies for health workers in rural Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background In response to Zambia’s critical human resources for health challenges, a number of strategies have been implemented to recruit and retain health workers in rural and remote areas. Prior to this study, the effectiveness of these strategies had not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the impacts of the various health worker retention strategies on health workers in two rural districts of Zambia. Methods Using a modified outcome mapping approach, cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative data were collected from health workers and other stakeholders through focus group discussions and individual interview questionnaires and were supplemented by administrative data. Key themes emerging from qualitative data were identified from transcripts using thematic analysis. Quantitative data were analyzed descriptively as well as by regression modelling. In the latter, the degree to which variation in health workers’ self-reported job satisfaction, likelihood of leaving, and frequency of considering leaving, were modelled as functions of participation in each of several retention strategies while controlling for age, gender, profession, and district. Results Nineteen health worker recruitment and retention strategies were identified and 45 health care workers interviewed in the two districts; participation in each strategy varied from 0% to 80% of study participants. Although a salary top-up for health workers in rural areas was identified as the most effective incentive, almost none of the recruitment and retention strategies were significant predictors of health workers’ job satisfaction, likelihood of leaving, or frequency of considering leaving, which were in large part explained by individual characteristics such as age, gender, and profession. These quantitative findings were consistent with the qualitative data, which indicated that existing strategies fail to address major problems identified by health workers in these districts, such as poor living and working conditions. Conclusions Although somewhat limited by a small sample size and the cross-sectional nature of the primary data available, the results nonetheless show that the many health worker recruitment and retention strategies implemented in rural Zambia appear to have little or no impact on keeping health workers in rural areas, and highlight key issues for future recruitment and retention efforts.

2014-01-01

465

Methyl iodide retention on charcoal sorbents at parts-per-million concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breakthrough curves for charcoal beds challenged by air containing parts-per-million methyl iodide (¹²⁷I) vapor concentrations were obtained and analyzed. A goal of this research is to determine if sorbent tests at relatively high vapor concentrations give data that can be extrapolated many orders of magnitude to the region of interest for radioiodine retention and removal. Another objective is to identify

G. O. Wood; G. J. Vogt; C. A. Kasunic

1978-01-01

466

Factor XIII activity mediates red blood cell retention in venous thrombi  

PubMed Central

Venous thrombi, fibrin- and rbc-rich clots triggered by inflammation and blood stasis, underlie devastating, and sometimes fatal, occlusive events. During intravascular fibrin deposition, rbc are thought to become passively trapped in thrombi and therefore have not been considered a modifiable thrombus component. In the present study, we determined that activity of the transglutaminase factor XIII (FXIII) is critical for rbc retention within clots and directly affects thrombus size. Compared with WT mice, mice carrying a homozygous mutation in the fibrinogen ? chain (Fib?390–396A) had a striking 50% reduction in thrombus weight due to reduced rbc content. Fibrinogen from mice harboring the Fib?390–396A mutation exhibited reduced binding to FXIII, and plasma from these mice exhibited delayed FXIII activation and fibrin crosslinking, indicating these residues mediate FXIII binding and activation. FXIII-deficient mice phenocopied mice carrying Fib?390–396A and produced smaller thrombi with fewer rbc than WT mice. Importantly, FXIII-deficient human clots also exhibited reduced rbc retention. The addition of FXIII to FXIII-deficient clots increased rbc retention, while inhibition of FXIII activity in normal blood reduced rbc retention and produced smaller clots. These findings establish the FXIII-fibrinogen axis as a central determinant in venous thrombogenesis and identify FXIII as a potential therapeutic target for limiting venous thrombosis. PMID:24983320

Aleman, Maria M.; Byrnes, James R.; Wang, Jian-Guo; Tran, Reginald; Lam, Wilbur A.; Di Paola, Jorge; Mackman, Nigel; Degen, Jay L.; Flick, Matthew J.; Wolberg, Alisa S.

2014-01-01

467

COMMON WEEDS MASSACHUSETTS  

E-print Network

oleraceae Annual COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME LIFE CYCLE 6. CARPETWEED FAMILY (Aizoaceae) Carpetweed Mollugo verticillata Annual 7. PINK FAMILY (Caryophyllaceae) Bladder campion Silene cucubalus Perennial Bouncingbet

Schweik, Charles M.

468

The Impact of Financial Aid on the Enrollment and Retention of Student Athletes at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III Colleges and Universities: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to review current literature on the enrollment and retention of student athletes at NCAA Division III institutions. However, the review identifies very few studies that specifically focused on Division III programs and none that looks at the influence of financial aid on the enrollment and retention of student athletes at…

Bandre, Mark A.

2011-01-01

469

Ethnographic strategies in the tracking and retention of street-recruited community-based samples of substance using hidden populations in longitudinal studies.  

PubMed

The article presents practical and methodological strategies in the tracking and retention of a longitudinal community-based sample of 300 Mexican American noninjecting users of heroin. Presented are the ethnographic strategies the research team utilized to maintain high retention rates among this highly marginalized and hidden population. Findings indicate that these ethnographic strategies are the basis for a reliable method for subject retention among drug-using populations. Further, the strategies illustrate how qualitative methods can complement the collection of quantitative data. Discussed is how these strategies can be used to identify and engage similar populations in research studies. PMID:20222780

Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo

2010-04-01

470

Prediction of retention times in temperature programmed gas chromatography using the retention equation derived from crystallization behavior of polymer.  

PubMed

Based on the enlightenment from the crystallization behavior of polymer, a novel retention equation constructed with only three pairs of isothermal retention data was proposed to predict retention times in temperature programmed gas chromatography (TPGC). The new retention equation worked beautifully in both the single- and the multiple-ramp temperature-programmed modes, yielding the average absolute relative errors of 0.65% for single-ramp TPGC across all the 18 analytes in 3 temperature programmed experiments and 0.30% for multiple-ramp TPGC across all the 8 analytes in 6 temperature programmed experiments tested in this work. Moreover, to compare with the new retention equation systematically and thoroughly, another 13 retention equations determined by two or three parameters were derived from a universal formula lnk=a?+a?/T+a?/T²+a? lnT+a?T+a?T² as a combination of the relationships between lnk and T with reference to four widely used retention equations in publications. Calculated by these 14 retention equations with the same experimental data, the absolute relative errors of prediction retention times for single-ramp TPGC mode were compared by means of statistical analysis. At a very high significance level of 1%, statistical evidences of paired t-test strictly implied that the new retention equation yielded the best prediction results among all of the 14 retention equations. In addition, remarkably, among the 13 retention equations, three seldom used in publications retention equations also worked nicely, yielding satisfactory average absolute relative errors of 0.78%, 0.81% and 0.84% for single-ramp TPGC. PMID:23332784

Li, Xiaowei; Fan, Guoliang; Gong, Cairong; Ao, Min; Li, Hua

2013-02-15

471

Workforce Challenges and Retention Success Stories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document discusses the current and future challenges in building and retaining the required workforce of scientist and engineers for NASA. Specifically, the talk reviews the current situation at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Several programs at NASA for high school and college students to assist in inspiring the next generation of scientist and engineers are reviewed. The issue of retention of the best of the young scientists and engineers is also reviewed, with a brief review of several young engineers and their success with and for NASA.

Donohue, John T.

2008-01-01

472

Survey on workforce retention and attrition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) is conducting a survey to gather information on why technical professionals change jobs or quit working. The survey, prompted by concern about the retention of skilled workers, aims to provide information to employers that can assist them in addressing practices that can lead to significant workforce attrition. To participate in the survey, which is open to everyone (including those who are not SPE members), go to http://research.spe.org/se.ashx?s=705E3F1335720258 through 15 May 2013. For more information, contact speresearch@spe.org.

Showstack, Randy

2013-03-01

473

LARES Mission: Separation and Retention Subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Lares (LAser RElativity Satellite) mission, an all-Italian scientific mission launched with the Vega maiden flight in February 2012, a mechanical separation and retention subsystem (SSEP) has been developed to retain the LARES satellite during launch and release it in the final orbit. The design flow was based on the identification of the driving requirements and critical areas to guide the trade-off, design, analysis and test activities. In particular, the SSEP had to face very high environmental loads and to minimize the contact areas with the satellite that had a spherical shape. The test activity overview is provided.

Bursi, Alessandro; Camilli, Pierluigi; Piredda, Claudio; Babini, Gianni; Mangraviti, Elio

2014-01-01

474

Transport and retention of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in sandy soils.  

PubMed

A series of miscible-displacement experiments was conducted to examine the retention and transport behavior of oocysts in natural porous media. Three soils and a model sand were used that differed in physical and geochemical properties. Transport behavior was examined under various treatment conditions to help evaluate retention mechanisms. Significant retention of oocysts was observed for all media despite the fact that conditions were unfavorable for physicochemical interactions with respect to DLVO theory. The magnitude of retention was not influenced significantly by alterations in solution chemistry (reduction in ionic strength) or soil surface properties (removal of soil organic matter and metal oxides). On the basis of the observed results, it appears that retention by secondary energy minima or geochemical microdomains was minimal for these systems. The porous media used for the experiments exhibited large magnitudes of surface roughness, and it is suggested that this surface roughness contributed significantly to oocyst retention. PMID:22751068

Santamaría, Johanna; Brusseau, Mark L; Araujo, Juliana; Orosz-Coghlan, Patricia; Blanford, William J; Gerba, Charles P

2012-01-01

475

Garlic for the common cold.  

PubMed

Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions There is insufficient clinical trial evidence regarding the effects of garlic in preventing or treating the common cold. A single trial suggested that garlic may prevent occurrences of the common cold but more studies are needed to validate this finding. Claims of effectiveness appear to rely largely on poor-quality evidence. PMID:25386977

Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

2014-01-01

476

Transport, retention, and ecological significance of woody debris within a large ephemeral river  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spatiotemporal patterns and ecological significance of the retention of coarse particulate organic matter and large woody debris have been intensively studied in perennial rivers and streams but are virtually unknown in ephemeral systems. We examined the influence of 2 features characteristic of ephemeral systems, downstream hydrologic decay and in-channel tree growth, on the distribution, transport, and retention of woody debris following a flood having a ~2.6-y recurrence interval in the ephemeral Kuiseb River in southwestern Africa. A total of 2105 pieces of wood were painted at 8 sites along the river channel to measure retention patterns. The flood had a peak discharge of 159 m3/s at the upper end of the study area, decaying to <1 m3/s by 200 km downstream. Downstream export of wood from marking sites totaled 59.5% (n = 1253). Transport distances ranged from 1 to 124 km, and 34.8% (n = 436) of the exported wood was recovered. Marked wood retained within marking sites was significantly longer than exported wood (p < 0.001, t-test). Once in transport, there was little correlation between wood length and distance traveled (r = 0.11, correlation analysis, n = 369). Length influenced the site of retention; material retained on debris piles was significantly longer than that stranded on channel sediments (p < 0.001, t-test). In-channel growth of Faidherbia trees significantly influenced wood retention; 83.7% of marked wood not moved by the flood was associated with debris piles on Faidherbia trees. Similarly, 65% of the exported wood retained within downstream debris piles was associated with Faidherbia trees. In contrast to many perennial systems, we observed a general increase in wood retention downstream, peaking in the river's lower reaches in response to hydrologic decay. Debris piles induced sediment deposition and the formation of in-channel islands. Following flood recession, debris piles and their associated sediments provided moist, organic-rich microhabitats, which were focal points for decomposition and secondary production, mimicking patterns reported from the channels of perennial streams and rivers. The ecological significance of retentive obstacles and associated organic debris is a feature common to all fluvial ecosystems, irrespective of their hydrologic regime.

Jacobson, P.J.; Jacobson, K.M.; Angermeier, P.L.; Cherry, D.S.

1999-01-01

477

Congenital Mucous Retention Cyst of the Anterior Hard Palate! the First Case Report  

PubMed Central

Children may be born with birth defects, the most common being oro-facial clefts and fissural cysts. A well circumscribed pedunculated soft tissue growth that occurs congenitally is known as congenital epulis of the newborn or ‘Neuman’s Tumour’ as described in the literature. It is a rare lesion and the diagnosis has to be confirmed histologically. We present a rare case of a 7-year-old child with a congenital growth in the pre-maxillary region of the anterior hard palate clinically diagnosed as congenital epulis however, histologically confirmed as a mucous retention cyst. An elaborate clinical differential diagnosis is discussed. The anterior hard palate is devoid of salivary glands and the presence of a mucous retention cyst in the area is suggestive of ectopic salivary gland tissue and in a child manifesting at birth is probably the first case to be reported in the English literature. PMID:25478467

Priyadarshini, Smita; Pati, Abhishek Ranjan; Bhuyan, Sanat Kumar; Panigrahi, Rajat G

2014-01-01

478

Radiomarked Common Loon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A juvenile common loon wearing a satellite transmitter antenna follows an adult. USGS scientists and partners captured and radiomarked juvenile common loons on lakes scattered across Minnesota and Wisconsin during the last two weeks of August 2014 to track their movements and wintering ground...

479

The Common School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper is concerned with the conflicting principles revealed respectively by those who argue for the common school and by those who seek to promote a system of schools that, though maintained by the state, might reflect the different religious beliefs within the community. The philosopher, John Dewey, is appealed to in defence of the common…

Pring, Richard

2007-01-01

480

Scientist Releases Common Loon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As part of a cooperative project, scientists with the USGS and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources tagged common loons in north central Wisconsin to study the distribution and migration movements, as well as foraging patterns and depth profiles of common loons equipped with archiv...

481

Job embeddedness as a nurse retention strategy for rural hospitals.  

PubMed

RN turnover is expensive and disruptive for rural hospitals, constraining finances, impacting patient care, and stressing remaining nurses. Recent investigations have described a promising new construct related to employee retention: job embeddedness. Leaders in nonhealthcare organizations have adopted a job-embeddedness model to guide retention strategies and experienced a subsequent reduction in turnover. The author explores job embeddedness as an effective retention plan strategy for rural hospitals. PMID:20010375

Stroth, Chandra

2010-01-01

482

Retention of mineral salts by a polyamide nanofiltration membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retention measurements with single salt solutions (KCl, K2SO4, MgSO4 and MgCl2) were carried out with an AFC 30 organic membrane. The membrane showed high retentions for K2SO4 and MgSO4 solutions and moderate ones for MgCl2 and KCl solutions. The effective pore radius and the effective thickness to the porosity ratio of the membrane were determined from the limiting retention of

C. Labbez; P. Fievet; A. Szymczyk; A. Vidonne; A. Foissy; J. Pagetti

2003-01-01

483

Football and Freshmen Retention: Examining the Impact of College Football on Institutional Retention Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student retention has been one of the more researched topics in the study of American higher education over the past 20 years (Braxton, Hirschy, & McClendon, 2004; Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005). Very little of this research, however, has attempted to examine the impact of college athletics on an institution's ability to retain students. This…

Jones, Willis A.

2010-01-01

484

Predictors of 4-Year Retention among African American and White Community-Dwelling Participants in the UAB Study of Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To identify racial/ethnic differences in retention of older adults at 3 levels of participation in a prospective observational study: telephone, in-home assessments, and home visits followed by blood draws. Design and Methods: A prospective study of 1,000 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older included a…

Allman, Richard M.; Sawyer, Patricia; Crowther, Martha; Strothers, Harry S., III; Turner, Timothy; Fouad, Mona N.

2011-01-01

485

Retention, Professional Development and Quality of Life: A Comparative Study of Male/Female Non-Tenured Faculty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerns of tenure-line, nontenured faculty regarding retention, professional development, and quality of life were studied in 1979 at Indiana University. Study objectives were to identify obstacles to tenure level performance, conditions that might influence faculty to seek positions elsewhere, demographic data, appointment data, and information…

Fuchs, Rachel G.; Lovano-Kerr, Jessie

486

The global landscape of intron retentions in lung adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The transcriptome complexity in an organism can be achieved by alternative splicing of precursor messenger RNAs. It has been revealed that alternations in mRNA splicing play an important role in a number of diseases including human cancers. Methods In this study, we exploited whole transcriptome sequencing data from five lung adenocarcinoma tissues and their matched normal tissues to interrogate intron retention, a less studied alternative splicing form which has profound structural and functional consequence by modifying open reading frame or inserting premature stop codons. Results Abundant intron retention events were found in