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Sample records for identify common retention

  1. IDENTIFYING RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruitment and Retention Issues for the National Children's Study
    Danelle T Lobdell1, Suzanne Gilboa2, Pauline Mendola1 (1US EPA, NHEERL; 2UNC Chapel Hill)

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, co...

  2. 5 CFR 595.104 - What criteria are used to identify a recruitment and retention problem?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... recruitment and retention problem? 595.104 Section 595.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... identify a recruitment and retention problem? The head of each agency may determine that a significant recruitment and retention problem exists for each category of physician position established under ...

  3. 5 CFR 595.104 - What criteria are used to identify a recruitment and retention problem?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... recruitment and retention problem? 595.104 Section 595.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... identify a recruitment and retention problem? The head of each agency may determine that a significant recruitment and retention problem exists for each category of physician position established under ...

  4. 5 CFR 595.104 - What criteria are used to identify a recruitment and retention problem?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... recruitment and retention problem? 595.104 Section 595.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... identify a recruitment and retention problem? The head of each agency may determine that a significant recruitment and retention problem exists for each category of physician position established under ...

  5. 5 CFR 595.104 - What criteria are used to identify a recruitment and retention problem?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... recruitment and retention problem? 595.104 Section 595.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... identify a recruitment and retention problem? The head of each agency may determine that a significant recruitment and retention problem exists for each category of physician position established under ...

  6. 5 CFR 595.104 - What criteria are used to identify a recruitment and retention problem?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... recruitment and retention problem? 595.104 Section 595.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... identify a recruitment and retention problem? The head of each agency may determine that a significant recruitment and retention problem exists for each category of physician position established under ...

  7. A Computer-Based Instrument That Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrabee, Timothy G.; Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for and development of a computer-based instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. The instrument, known as the Science Beliefs Test, is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. The use of an online data collection system

  8. Identifying Common Genes and Networks in Multi-Organ Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wenzke, Kevin E.; Cantemir-Stone, Carmen; Zhang, Jie; Marsh, Clay B.; Huang, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Fibroproliferative diseases of organs are poorly understood and generally lack effective anti-fibrotic treatments. Our goal was to identify the key regulatory factors in pathologic fibrosis, common between organ-based fibrotic disease. We analyzed 9 microarray datasets publicly available in the GEO datasets from lung, heart, liver and kidney fibrotic disease tissue (489 microarrays total, disease and control). We identified a set of 90 genes differentially expressed in at least five microarray datasets. We used IPA and DAVID analysis to identify gene networks and their molecular functions. A mutual information based network work activity analysis showed that a connective tissue disorders network was the most active for all types of fibrosis included in this analysis. Conclusion: Our analysis indicates that despite different disease manifestation, organ fibrosis share a specific set of genes suggesting the potential for a common origin. PMID:22779061

  9. Iron and zinc retention in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) after home cooking

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Corra, Mariana M.; Pereira, Elenilda J.; Nutti, Marlia R.; Carvalho, Jos L. V.; Ribeiro, Ediane M. G.; Freitas, Sidina C.

    2012-01-01

    Background According to the World Health Organization (WHO), iron, iodine, and Vitamin A deficiencies are the most common forms of malnutrition, leading to severe public health consequences. The importance of iron and zinc in human nutrition and the number of children found to be deficient in these nutrients make further studies on retention in cooked grains and cooked bean broth important. Objectives This work aimed to evaluate iron and zinc retention in six common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars under the following conditions: raw beans, regular pot cooking, pressure cooking, with and without previous water soaking, and broth. Design Determination of iron and zinc content in the raw, cooked bean grains and broth samples was carried out by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Optical Emission Spectrometry (Spectro Analytical Instrument Spectroflame P). All experiments and analyses were carried out in triplicate. Results Overall, regardless of the cooking method, with or without previous water soaking, the highest zinc concentration was found in the cooked bean grains. However, pressure cooking and previous water soaking diminished iron retention in the cooked grains, while increasing it in the bean broth. Conclusion The common bean was confirmed to be an excellent source of iron and zinc for human consumption, and it was suggested that beans should be consumed in a combined form, i.e. grain with bean broth. PMID:22389643

  10. Identifying Common Genetic Risk Factors of Diabetic Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, Ini-Isabée; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Khalaf, Kinda; Lee, Sungmun; Khandoker, Ahsan H.; Alsafar, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global public health problem of epidemic proportions, with 60–70% of affected individuals suffering from associated neurovascular complications that act on multiple organ systems. The most common and clinically significant neuropathies of T2DM include uremic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. These conditions seriously impact an individual’s quality of life and significantly increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. Although advances in gene sequencing technologies have identified several genetic variants that may regulate the development and progression of T2DM, little is known about whether or not the variants are involved in disease progression and how these genetic variants are associated with diabetic neuropathy specifically. Significant missing heritability data and complex disease etiologies remain to be explained. This article is the first to provide a review of the genetic risk variants implicated in the diabetic neuropathies and to highlight potential commonalities. We thereby aim to contribute to the creation of a genetic-metabolic model that will help to elucidate the cause of diabetic neuropathies, evaluate a patient’s risk profile, and ultimately facilitate preventative and targeted treatment for the individual. PMID:26074879

  11. Identifying the Best Treatment Among Common Nonsurgical Neck Pain Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.; Cassidy, J. David; Ct, Pierre; Boyle, Eleanor; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Chan, Stella; Subrata, Peter; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Hurwitz, Eric; Bombardier, Claire; Krahn, Murray

    2008-01-01

    Study Design Decision analysis. Objective To identify the best treatment for nonspecific neck pain. Summary of Background Data In Canada and the United States, the most commonly prescribed neck pain treatments are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), exercise, and manual therapy. Deciding which treatment is best is difficult because of the trade-offs between beneficial and harmful effects, and because of the uncertainty of these effects. Methods (Quality-adjusted) life expectancy associated with standard NSAIDs, Cox-2 NSAIDs, exercise, mobilization, and manipulation were compared in a decision-analytic model. Estimates of the course of neck pain, background risk of adverse events in the general population, treatment effectiveness and risk, and patient-preferences were input into the model. Assuming equal effectiveness, we conducted a baseline analysis using risk of harm only. We assessed the stability of the baseline results by conducting a second analysis that incorporated effectiveness data from a high-quality randomized trial. Results There were no important differences across treatments. The difference between the highest and lowest ranked treatments predicted by the baseline model was 4.5 days of life expectancy and 3.4 quality-adjusted life-days. The difference between the highest and lowest ranked treatments predicted by the second model was 7.3 quality-adjusted life-days. Conclusion When the objective is to maximize life expectancy and quality-adjusted life expectancy, none of the treatments in our analysis were clearly superior.

  12. Development of Preschool Children's Ability to Identify Common Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, David K.

    1989-01-01

    In four tasks, 42 children between three and five years of age were asked to identify materials and familiar objects, and to predict which items would adhere to a magnet. No age differences were found in the ability to identify objects, but significant differences occurred in identification of materials and prediction of magnetic attraction. (RH)

  13. Identifying innovation in laboratory studies of cultural evolution: rates of retention and measures of adaptation.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Christine A; Cornish, Hannah; Kandler, Anne

    2016-03-19

    In recent years, laboratory studies of cultural evolution have become increasingly prevalent as a means of identifying and understanding the effects of cultural transmission on the form and functionality of transmitted material. The datasets generated by these studies may provide insights into the conditions encouraging, or inhibiting, high rates of innovation, as well as the effect that this has on measures of adaptive cultural change. Here we review recent experimental studies of cultural evolution with a view to elucidating the role of innovation in generating observed trends. We first consider how tasks are presented to participants, and how the corresponding conceptualization of task success is likely to influence the degree of intent underlying any deviations from perfect reproduction. We then consider the measures of interest used by the researchers to track the changes that occur as a result of transmission, and how these are likely to be affected by differing rates of retention. We conclude that considering studies of cultural evolution from the perspective of innovation provides us with valuable insights that help to clarify important differences in research designs, which have implications for the likely effects of variation in retention rates on measures of cultural adaptation. PMID:26926283

  14. Folate content and retention in commonly consumed vegetables in the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Prayna P P; Prasad, Surendra; Devi, Riteshma; Gopalan, Romila

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the effect of boiling and frying on the retention of folate in commonly consumed Fijian vegetables (drumstick leaves, taro leaves, bele leaves, amaranth leaves, fern/ota, okra and French bean). The folate content was determined by microbiological assay (Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus) and tri-enzyme (protease, α-amylase and chicken pancreas conjugase) extraction treatment. The folate loss varied among the vegetables from 10-64% on boiling while 1-36% on frying. The higher folate loss was observed during boiling. The folate content in the water derived after boiling different vegetables ranged from 11.9 ± 0.5 to 61.6 ± 2.5 μg/100mL. The folate loss on boiling was accounted for in the cooking water. The predominant way of folate loss on boiling was leaching rather than thermal degradation which makes boiling the better choice of cooking the studied vegetables for folate intake, provided the cooking water is consumed together with the vegetables. PMID:25842344

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum retention is a common defect associated with tyrosinase-negative albinism

    PubMed Central

    Halaban, Ruth; Svedine, Sherri; Cheng, Elaine; Smicun, Yoel; Aron, Rebecca; Hebert, Daniel N.

    2000-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a melanocyte-specific enzyme critical for the synthesis of melanin, a process normally restricted to a post-Golgi compartment termed the melanosome. Loss-of-function mutations in tyrosinase are the cause of oculocutaneous albinism, demonstrating the importance of the enzyme in pigmentation. In the present study, we explored the possibility that trafficking of albino tyrosinase from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus and beyond is disrupted. Toward this end, we analyzed the common albino mouse mutation Tyr(C85S), the frequent human albino substitution TYR(T373K), and the temperature-sensitive tyrosinase TYR(R402Q)/Tyr(H402A) found in humans and mice, respectively. Intracellular localization was monitored in albino melanocytes carrying the native mutation, as well as in melanocytes ectopically expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged tyrosinase. Enzymatic characterization of complex glycans and immunofluorescence colocalization with organelle-specific resident proteins established that all four mutations produced defective proteins that were retained in the ER. TYR(R402Q)/Tyr(H402A) Golgi processing and transport to melanosomes were promoted at the permissive temperature of 32°C, but not at the nonpermissive 37°C temperature. Furthermore, evidence of protein misfolding was demonstrated by the prolonged association of tyrosinase mutants with calnexin and calreticulin, known ER chaperones that play a key role in the quality-control processes of the secretory pathway. From these results we concluded that albinism, at least in part, is an ER retention disease. PMID:10823941

  16. Label Retention Identifies a Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Like Population in the Postnatal Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Masako; Singh, Varan J.; Wu, Kenmin; SantAngelo, Derek B.; Pezzano, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Thymic microenvironments are essential for the proper development and selection of T cells critical for a functional and self-tolerant adaptive immune response. While significant turnover occurs, it is unclear whether populations of adult stem cells contribute to the maintenance of postnatal thymic epithelial microenvironments. Here, the slow cycling characteristic of stem cells and their property of label-retention were used to identify a K5-expressing thymic stromal cell population capable of generating clonal cell lines that retain the capacity to differentiate into a number of mesenchymal lineages including adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts suggesting a mesenchymal stem cell-like phenotype. Using cell surface analysis both culture expanded LRCs and clonal thymic mesenchymal cell lines were found to express Sca1, PDGFR?, PDGFR?,CD29, CD44, CD49F, and CD90 similar to MSCs. Sorted GFP-expressing stroma, that give rise to TMSC lines, contribute to thymic architecture when reaggregated with fetal stroma and transplanted under the kidney capsule of nude mice. Together these results show that the postnatal thymus contains a population of mesenchymal stem cells that can be maintained in culture and suggests they may contribute to the maintenance of functional thymic microenvironments. PMID:24340075

  17. Identifying elements of job satisfaction to improve retention rates in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Lamberth, Becky; Comello, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    According to the American Hospital Association, by the year 2010, the United States will need 1,000,000 qualified nurses to care for patients, an additional 75,000 licensed radiologic technologists, and several other ancillary medical staff employees. A number of health professionals question why there is such a significant shortage--especially considering that many facilities; are implementing cost initiatives and insurance companies are decreasing the length of patient hospital stays. One specific factor may not be fully appreciated: Although the length of stay is decreasing,the acuity level of the patient is increasing. The number and types of available opportunities also contribute to the staffing shortage. Hospitals and healthcare facilities are now working diligently to address the crisis and answer that one very important question: How can they keep employees satisfied and willing commit long-term to the organization? This review focuses on identifying those key variables of job satisfaction that will lead to long-term retention of healthcare workers, including money, work environment, performance feedback, advancement opportunities, group cohesion, and relationships with management. It also discusses the effects of demographic characteristics such as age and gender on job satisfaction. PMID:15988869

  18. IDENTIFYING RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES AMONG NON-WHITE PARTICIPANTS FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding potential stakeholders perspectives prior to recruitment may improve the effectiveness of a recruitment campaign as well as sustain participant retention. In early 2003, eighteen focus groups were conducted across the United States to address these issues, but non-...

  19. Mineralocorticoid-induced sodium appetite and renal salt retention: Evidence for common signaling and effector mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yiling; Vallon, Volker

    2014-01-01

    An increase in renal sodium chloride (salt) retention and an increase in sodium appetite is the body's response to salt restriction or depletion in order to restore salt balance. Renal salt retention and increased sodium appetite can also be maladaptive and sustain the pathophysiology in conditions like salt-sensitive hypertension and chronic heart failure. Here we review the central role of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in both the increase in renal salt reabsorption and sodium appetite. We discuss the working hypothesis that aldosterone activates similar signaling and effector mechanisms in the kidney and brain, including the mineralocorticoid receptor, the serum-and-glucocorticoid-induced kinase SGK1, the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2, and the epithelial sodium channel ENaC. The latter also mediates the gustatory salt sensing in the tongue, which is required for the manifestation of increased salt intake. Effects of aldosterone on both brain and kidney synergize with the effects of angiotensin II. Thus, mineralocorticoids appear to induce similar molecular pathways in the kidney, brain, and possibly tongue, which could provide opportunities for more effective therapeutic interventions. Inhibition of renal salt reabsorption is compensated by stimulation of salt appetite and vice versa; targeting both mechanisms should be more effective. Inhibiting the arousal to consume salty food may improve a patient's compliance to reducing salt intake. While a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms is needed and will provide new options, current pharmacological interventions that target both salt retention and sodium appetite include mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and potentially inhibitors of angiotensin II and ENaC. PMID:25376899

  20. What Are They Thinking? The Development and Use of an Instrument that Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles R.; Larrabee, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for, and development of, an online instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. Science Beliefs is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. It utilizes a true or false, along with a written-explanation, format. The true or

  1. Identifying the Common Characteristics of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deslatte, Kyrie'; Carson, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to (a) determine the common characteristics of current comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP) in Louisiana and (b) identify strategies for implementing a CSPAP. Four individuals (i.e., one physical education teacher, one principal, and two classroom teachers) were recruited from three public schools

  2. An Effective Method to Identify Shared Pathways and Common Factors among Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Nie, Yaling; Yu, Jingkai

    2015-01-01

    Groups of distinct but related diseases often share common symptoms, which suggest likely overlaps in underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Identifying the shared pathways and common factors among those disorders can be expected to deepen our understanding for them and help designing new treatment strategies effected on those diseases. Neurodegeneration diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), were taken as a case study in this research. Reported susceptibility genes for AD, PD and HD were collected and human protein-protein interaction network (hPPIN) was used to identify biological pathways related to neurodegeneration. 81 KEGG pathways were found to be correlated with neurodegenerative disorders. 36 out of the 81 are human disease pathways, and the remaining ones are involved in miscellaneous human functional pathways. Cancers and infectious diseases are two major subclasses within the disease group. Apoptosis is one of the most significant functional pathways. Most of those pathways found here are actually consistent with prior knowledge of neurodegenerative diseases except two cell communication pathways: adherens and tight junctions. Gene expression analysis showed a high probability that the two pathways were related to neurodegenerative diseases. A combination of common susceptibility genes and hPPIN is an effective method to study shared pathways involved in a group of closely related disorders. Common modules, which might play a bridging role in linking neurodegenerative disorders and the enriched pathways, were identified by clustering analysis. The identified shared pathways and common modules can be expected to yield clues for effective target discovery efforts on neurodegeneration. PMID:26575483

  3. Genome-Wide Association Studies: Progress in Identifying Genetic Biomarkers in Common, Complex Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Lindquist, Ingrid E.; Mudge, Joann; Beavis, William D.

    2007-01-01

    Novel, comprehensive approaches for biomarker discovery and validation are urgently needed. One particular area of methodologic need is for discovery of novel genetic biomarkers in complex diseases and traits. Here, we review recent successes in the use of genome wide association (GWA) approaches to identify genetic biomarkers in common human diseases and traits. Such studies are yielding initial insights into the allelic architecture of complex traits. In general, it appears that complex diseases are associated with many common polymorphisms, implying profound genetic heterogeneity between affected individuals. PMID:19662211

  4. Efforts to Improve Undergraduate Student Retention Rates at a Hispanic Serving Institution: Building Collaborative Relationships for the Common Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nancy K.; Meyer, Kristi

    2010-01-01

    This article describes efforts to improve retention and graduation rates at the University of Texas at San Antonio, a large Hispanic serving institution (HSI). One college within the university is focusing on increasing retention and graduation rates primarily by building relationships and capitalizing on university resources. In addition to

  5. Use of satellite telemetry to identify common loon migration routes, staging areas and wintering range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Evers, D.C.; Douglas, D.C.; Hines, J.

    2002-01-01

    We developed a satellite transmitter attachment technique for adult Common Loons (Gavia immer) that would help in identifying important migration routes, staging areas, and the location of wintering grounds of birds that breed in the north central United States. During the autumn and winter of 1998, the migration of six adult loons that were radio marked in northern Wisconsin and Minnesota was monitored. The results of this work offer insight into autumn movement patterns of Common Loons. Timing of autumn staging and migration to wintering grounds appeared to be related to low pressure systems that delivered winter weather to the Upper Midwest. Most of the radiomarked birds staged on the Great Lakes and then followed one of two distinct migration routes to the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. Several of the birds used lakes and reservoirs in the southeastern United States during migration. This study provides a basis for more extensive studies of Common Loon migration.

  6. Common Viral Integration Sites Identified in Avian Leukosis Virus-Induced B-Cell Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Justice, James F.; Morgan, Robin W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian leukosis virus (ALV) induces B-cell lymphoma and other neoplasms in chickens by integrating within or near cancer genes and perturbing their expression. Four genesMYC, MYB, Mir-155, and TERThave previously been identified as common integration sites in these virus-induced lymphomas and are thought to play a causal role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we employ high-throughput sequencing to identify additional genes driving tumorigenesis in ALV-induced B-cell lymphomas. In addition to the four genes implicated previously, we identify other genes as common integration sites, including TNFRSF1A, MEF2C, CTDSPL, TAB2, RUNX1, MLL5, CXorf57, and BACH2. We also analyze the genome-wide ALV integration landscape in vivo and find increased frequency of ALV integration near transcriptional start sites and within transcripts. Previous work has shown ALV prefers a weak consensus sequence for integration in cultured human cells. We confirm this consensus sequence for ALV integration in vivo in the chicken genome. PMID:26670384

  7. Common Fusion Transcripts Identified in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines by High-Throughput RNA Sequencing12

    PubMed Central

    Nome, Torfinn; Thomassen, Gard OS; Bruun, Jarle; Ahlquist, Terje; Bakken, Anne C; Hoff, Andreas M; Rognum, Torleiv; Nesbakken, Arild; Lorenz, Susanne; Sun, Jinchang; Barros-Silva, Joo Diogo; Lind, Guro E; Myklebost, Ola; Teixeira, Manuel R; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer disease in the Western world, and about 40% of the patients die from this disease. The cancer cells are commonly genetically unstable, but only a few low-frequency recurrent fusion genes have so far been reported for this disease. In this study, we present a thorough search for novel fusion transcripts in CRC using high-throughput RNA sequencing. From altogether 220 million paired-end sequence reads from seven CRC cell lines, we identified 3391 candidate fused transcripts. By stringent requirements, we nominated 11 candidate fusion transcripts for further experimental validation, of which 10 were positive by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Six were intrachromosomal fusion transcripts, and interestingly, three of these, AKAP13-PDE8A, COMMD10-AP3S1, and CTB-35F21.1-PSD2, were present in, respectively, 18, 18, and 20 of 21 analyzed cell lines and in, respectively, 18, 61, and 48 (17%-58%) of 106 primary cancer tissues. These three fusion transcripts were also detected in 2 to 4 of 14 normal colonic mucosa samples (14%28%). Whole-genome sequencing identified a specific genomic breakpoint in COMMD10-AP3S1 and further indicates that both the COMMD10-AP3S1 and AKAP13-PDE8A fusion transcripts are due to genomic duplications in specific cell lines. In conclusion, we have identified AKAP13-PDE8A, COMMD10-AP3S1, and CTB-35F21.1-PSD2 as novel intrachromosomal fusion transcripts and the most highly recurring chimeric transcripts described for CRC to date. The functional and clinical relevance of these chimeric RNA molecules remains to be elucidated. PMID:24151535

  8. Common fusion transcripts identified in colorectal cancer cell lines by high-throughput RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Nome, Torfinn; Thomassen, Gard Os; Bruun, Jarle; Ahlquist, Terje; Bakken, Anne C; Hoff, Andreas M; Rognum, Torleiv; Nesbakken, Arild; Lorenz, Susanne; Sun, Jinchang; Barros-Silva, Joo Diogo; Lind, Guro E; Myklebost, Ola; Teixeira, Manuel R; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer disease in the Western world, and about 40% of the patients die from this disease. The cancer cells are commonly genetically unstable, but only a few low-frequency recurrent fusion genes have so far been reported for this disease. In this study, we present a thorough search for novel fusion transcripts in CRC using high-throughput RNA sequencing. From altogether 220 million paired-end sequence reads from seven CRC cell lines, we identified 3391 candidate fused transcripts. By stringent requirements, we nominated 11 candidate fusion transcripts for further experimental validation, of which 10 were positive by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Six were intrachromosomal fusion transcripts, and interestingly, three of these, AKAP13-PDE8A, COMMD10-AP3S1, and CTB-35F21.1-PSD2, were present in, respectively, 18, 18, and 20 of 21 analyzed cell lines and in, respectively, 18, 61, and 48 (17%-58%) of 106 primary cancer tissues. These three fusion transcripts were also detected in 2 to 4 of 14 normal colonic mucosa samples (14%-28%). Whole-genome sequencing identified a specific genomic breakpoint in COMMD10-AP3S1 and further indicates that both the COMMD10-AP3S1 and AKAP13-PDE8A fusion transcripts are due to genomic duplications in specific cell lines. In conclusion, we have identified AKAP13-PDE8A, COMMD10-AP3S1, and CTB-35F21.1-PSD2 as novel intrachromosomal fusion transcripts and the most highly recurring chimeric transcripts described for CRC to date. The functional and clinical relevance of these chimeric RNA molecules remains to be elucidated. PMID:24151535

  9. Genome-wide analysis identifies a role for common copy number variants in specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Nuala H; Ceroni, Fabiola; Reader, Rose H; Covill, Laura E; Knight, Julian C; Nudel, R; Monaco, A P; Simonoff, E; Bolton, P F; Pickles, A; Slonims, V; Dworzynski, K; Everitt, A; Clark, A; Watson, J; Seckl, J; Cowie, H; Cohen, W; Nasir, J; Bishop, D V M; Simkin, Z; Hennessy, Elizabeth R; Bolton, Patrick F; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; O'Hare, Anne; Baird, Gillian; Fisher, Simon E; Newbury, Dianne F

    2015-01-01

    An exploratory genome-wide copy number variant (CNV) study was performed in 127 independent cases with specific language impairment (SLI), their first-degree relatives (385 individuals) and 269 population controls. Language-impaired cases showed an increased CNV burden in terms of the average number of events (11.28 vs 10.01, empirical P=0.003), the total length of CNVs (717 vs 513?Kb, empirical P=0.0001), the average CNV size (63.75 vs 51.6?Kb, empirical P=0.0005) and the number of genes spanned (14.29 vs 10.34, empirical P=0.0007) when compared with population controls, suggesting that CNVs may contribute to SLI risk. A similar trend was observed in first-degree relatives regardless of affection status. The increased burden found in our study was not driven by large or de novo events, which have been described as causative in other neurodevelopmental disorders. Nevertheless, de novo CNVs might be important on a case-by-case basis, as indicated by identification of events affecting relevant genes, such as ACTR2 and CSNK1A1, and small events within known micro-deletion/-duplication syndrome regions, such as chr8p23.1. Pathway analysis of the genes present within the CNVs of the independent cases identified significant overrepresentation of acetylcholine binding, cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity and MHC proteins as compared with controls. Taken together, our data suggest that the majority of the risk conferred by CNVs in SLI is via common, inherited events within a common disordercommon variant' model. Therefore the risk conferred by CNVs will depend upon the combination of events inherited (both CNVs and SNPs), the genetic background of the individual and the environmental factors. PMID:25585696

  10. Genome-wide analysis identifies a role for common copy number variants in specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Nuala H; Ceroni, Fabiola; Reader, Rose H; Covill, Laura E; Knight, Julian C; Hennessy, Elizabeth R; Bolton, Patrick F; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; O'Hare, Anne; Baird, Gillian; Fisher, Simon E; Newbury, Dianne F

    2015-10-01

    An exploratory genome-wide copy number variant (CNV) study was performed in 127 independent cases with specific language impairment (SLI), their first-degree relatives (385 individuals) and 269 population controls. Language-impaired cases showed an increased CNV burden in terms of the average number of events (11.28 vs 10.01, empirical P=0.003), the total length of CNVs (717 vs 513 Kb, empirical P=0.0001), the average CNV size (63.75 vs 51.6 Kb, empirical P=0.0005) and the number of genes spanned (14.29 vs 10.34, empirical P=0.0007) when compared with population controls, suggesting that CNVs may contribute to SLI risk. A similar trend was observed in first-degree relatives regardless of affection status. The increased burden found in our study was not driven by large or de novo events, which have been described as causative in other neurodevelopmental disorders. Nevertheless, de novo CNVs might be important on a case-by-case basis, as indicated by identification of events affecting relevant genes, such as ACTR2 and CSNK1A1, and small events within known micro-deletion/-duplication syndrome regions, such as chr8p23.1. Pathway analysis of the genes present within the CNVs of the independent cases identified significant overrepresentation of acetylcholine binding, cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity and MHC proteins as compared with controls. Taken together, our data suggest that the majority of the risk conferred by CNVs in SLI is via common, inherited events within a 'common disorder-common variant' model. Therefore the risk conferred by CNVs will depend upon the combination of events inherited (both CNVs and SNPs), the genetic background of the individual and the environmental factors. PMID:25585696

  11. In-silico analysis of Pasteurella multocida to identify common epitopes between fowl, goat and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Ghaffar, Ammarah; Tariq, Aamira

    2016-04-10

    Pasteurella multocida represents a highly diverse group of bacteria infecting various hosts like the fowl, goat and buffalo leading to huge economic loss to the poultry and cattle industry. Previous reports indicated that the outer membrane proteins contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida. The comparative in-silico genome wide analysis of four pathogenic Pasteurella multocida strains (Anand1-poultry, Anand1-goat, PMTB and VTCCBAA264) with their respective hosts was performed. A pipeline was developed to identify the list of non-homologous proteins of Pasteurella multocida strains and their hosts. The list was further analyzed for the identification of the essential outer membrane proteins responsible for the pathogenicity. Outer membrane proteins were further selected from these antigenic proteins on the basis of their pathogenic potential. A common B-cell epitope (TDYRNRDRS, ARRSVTSKEN, and KINDQWRW) determined via sequential and structural approach from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) assembly outer membrane complex protein was predicted from fowl, goat and buffalo. Furthermore, we identified T-cell epitopes based on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) assembly outer membrane complex protein via docking studies which were either similar to the B-cell epitopes or were occurring in the same patch except for MHC class II M fowl. We propose that this difference in epitope sequence is due to different interacting MHC class II protein predicted from the fowl. Hence, in the current study we found that a unique epitope based on the common antigenic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) outer membrane complex protein present in fowl, goat and buffalo can be a suitable target for vaccine development against the two economic devastating diseases; fowl cholera (FC) and hemorrhagic septicemia (HS). PMID:26779825

  12. Identifying common components across biological network graphs using a bipartite data model.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ej; Culpepper, C; Philips, C; Bubier, J; Langston, M; Chesler, Ej

    2014-01-01

    The GeneWeaver bipartite data model provides an efficient means to evaluate shared molecular components from sets derived across diverse species, disease states and biological processes. In order to adapt this model for examining related molecular components and biological networks, such as pathway or gene network data, we have developed a means to leverage the bipartite data structure to extract and analyze shared edges. Using the Pathway Commons database we demonstrate the ability to rapidly identify shared connected components among a diverse set of pathways. In addition, we illustrate how results from maximal bipartite discovery can be decomposed into hierarchical relationships, allowing shared pathway components to be mapped through various parent-child relationships to help visualization and discovery of emergent kernel driven relationships. Interrogating common relationships among biological networks and conventional GeneWeaver gene lists will increase functional specificity and reliability of the shared biological components. This approach enables self-organization of biological processes through shared biological networks. PMID:25374613

  13. A Genome Wide Association Study Identifies Common Variants Associated with Lipid Levels in the Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chen; Yang, Handong; Yu, Dianke; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wang, Yiqin; Sun, Jielin; Gao, Yong; Tan, Aihua; He, Yunfeng; Zhang, Haiying; Qin, Xue; Zhu, Jingwen; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu; Zhu, Jiang; Min, Xinwen; Lang, Mingjian; Li, Dongfeng; Zhai, Kan; Chang, Jiang; Tan, Wen; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Weihong; Wang, Youjie; Wei, Sheng; Miao, Xiaoping; Wang, Feng; Fang, Weimin; Liang, Yuan; Deng, Qifei; Dai, Xiayun; Lin, Dafeng; Huang, Suli; Guo, Huan; Lilly Zheng, S.; Xu, Jianfeng; Lin, Dongxin; Hu, Frank B.; Wu, Tangchun

    2013-01-01

    Plasma lipid levels are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several lipid-associated loci, but these loci have been identified primarily in European populations. In order to identify genetic markers for lipid levels in a Chinese population and analyze the heterogeneity between Europeans and Asians, especially Chinese, we performed a meta-analysis of two genome wide association studies on four common lipid traits including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) in a Han Chinese population totaling 3,451 healthy subjects. Replication was performed in an additional 8,830 subjects of Han Chinese ethnicity. We replicated eight loci associated with lipid levels previously reported in a European population. The loci genome wide significantly associated with TC were near DOCK7, HMGCR and ABO; those genome wide significantly associated with TG were near APOA1/C3/A4/A5 and LPL; those genome wide significantly associated with LDL were near HMGCR, ABO and TOMM40; and those genome wide significantly associated with HDL were near LPL, LIPC and CETP. In addition, an additive genotype score of eight SNPs representing the eight loci that were found to be associated with lipid levels was associated with higher TC, TG and LDL levels (P = 5.5210-16, 1.3810-6 and 5.5910-9, respectively). These findings suggest the cumulative effects of multiple genetic loci on plasma lipid levels. Comparisons with previous GWAS of lipids highlight heterogeneity in allele frequency and in effect size for some loci between Chinese and European populations. The results from our GWAS provided comprehensive and convincing evidence of the genetic determinants of plasma lipid levels in a Chinese population. PMID:24386095

  14. Identifying Regulators of Morphogenesis Common to Vertebrate Neural Tube Closure and Caenorhabditis elegans Gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Sullivan-Brown, Jessica L; Tandon, Panna; Bird, Kim E; Dickinson, Daniel J; Tintori, Sophia C; Heppert, Jennifer K; Meserve, Joy H; Trogden, Kathryn P; Orlowski, Sara K; Conlon, Frank L; Goldstein, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Neural tube defects including spina bifida are common and severe congenital disorders. In mice, mutations in more than 200 genes can result in neural tube defects. We hypothesized that this large gene set might include genes whose homologs contribute to morphogenesis in diverse animals. To test this hypothesis, we screened a set of Caenorhabditis elegans homologs for roles in gastrulation, a topologically similar process to vertebrate neural tube closure. Both C. elegans gastrulation and vertebrate neural tube closure involve the internalization of surface cells, requiring tissue-specific gene regulation, actomyosin-driven apical constriction, and establishment and maintenance of adhesions between specific cells. Our screen identified several neural tube defect gene homologs that are required for gastrulation in C. elegans, including the transcription factor sptf-3. Disruption of sptf-3 in C. elegans reduced the expression of early endodermally expressed genes as well as genes expressed in other early cell lineages, establishing sptf-3 as a key contributor to multiple well-studied C. elegans cell fate specification pathways. We also identified members of the actin regulatory WAVE complex (wve-1, gex-2, gex-3, abi-1, and nuo-3a). Disruption of WAVE complex members reduced the narrowing of endodermal cells' apical surfaces. Although WAVE complex members are expressed broadly in C. elegans, we found that expression of a vertebrate WAVE complex member, nckap1, is enriched in the developing neural tube of Xenopus. We show that nckap1 contributes to neural tube closure in Xenopus. This work identifies in vivo roles for homologs of mammalian neural tube defect genes in two manipulable genetic model systems. PMID:26434722

  15. Molecular profiling of experimental endometriosis identified gene expression patterns in common with human disease

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Idhaliz; Rivera, Elizabeth; Ruiz, Lynnette A.; Santiago, Olga I.; Vernon, Michael W.; Appleyard, Caroline B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To validate a rat model of endometriosis using cDNA microarrays by identifying common gene expression patterns beween experimental and natural disease. DESIGN Autotransplantation rat model. SETTING Medical school department. ANIMALS Female Sprague-Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS Endometriosis was surgically-induced by suturing uterine horn implants next to the small intestine’s mesentery. Control rats received sutures with no implants. After 60 days, endometriotic implants and uterine horn were obtained. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Gene expression levels determined by cDNA microarrays and QRT-PCR. METHODS Cy5-labeled cDNA was synthesized from total RNA obtained from endometriotic implants. Cy3-labeled cDNA was synthesized using uterine RNA from a control rat. Gene expression levels were analyzed after hybridizing experimental and control labeled cDNA to PIQOR™ Toxicology Rat Microarrays (Miltenyi Biotec) containing 1,252 known genes. Cy5/Cy3 ratios were determined and genes with >2-fold higher or <0.5-fold lower expression levels were selected. Microarray results were validated by QRT-PCR. RESULTS We observed differential expression of genes previously shown to be upregulated in patients, including growth factors, inflammatory cytokines/receptors, tumor invasion/metastasis factors, adhesion molecules, and anti-apoptotic factors. CONCLUSIONS This study presents evidence in support of using this rat model to study the natural history of endometriosis and test novel therapeutics for this incurable disease. PMID:17478174

  16. Common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance identified using the proxy-phenotype method.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, Cornelius A; Esko, Tõnu; Davies, Gail; Pers, Tune H; Turley, Patrick; Benyamin, Beben; Chabris, Christopher F; Emilsson, Valur; Johnson, Andrew D; Lee, James J; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Marioni, Riccardo E; Medland, Sarah E; Miller, Michael B; Rostapshova, Olga; van der Lee, Sven J; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Amin, Najaf; Conley, Dalton; Derringer, Jaime; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Franke, Lude; Glaeser, Edward L; Hansell, Narelle K; Hayward, Caroline; Iacono, William G; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla; Jaddoe, Vincent; Karjalainen, Juha; Laibson, David; Lichtenstein, Paul; Liewald, David C; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; McMahon, George; Pedersen, Nancy L; Pinker, Steven; Porteous, David J; Posthuma, Danielle; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Smith, Blair H; Starr, John M; Tiemeier, Henning; Timpson, Nicholas J; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Uitterlinden, André G; Verhulst, Frank C; Ward, Mary E; Wright, Margaret J; Davey Smith, George; Deary, Ian J; Johannesson, Magnus; Plomin, Robert; Visscher, Peter M; Benjamin, Daniel J; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D

    2014-09-23

    We identify common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance using a two-stage approach, which we call the proxy-phenotype method. First, we conduct a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in a large sample (n = 106,736), which produces a set of 69 education-associated SNPs. Second, using independent samples (n = 24,189), we measure the association of these education-associated SNPs with cognitive performance. Three SNPs (rs1487441, rs7923609, and rs2721173) are significantly associated with cognitive performance after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. In an independent sample of older Americans (n = 8,652), we also show that a polygenic score derived from the education-associated SNPs is associated with memory and absence of dementia. Convergent evidence from a set of bioinformatics analyses implicates four specific genes (KNCMA1, NRXN1, POU2F3, and SCRT). All of these genes are associated with a particular neurotransmitter pathway involved in synaptic plasticity, the main cellular mechanism for learning and memory. PMID:25201988

  17. Developing germplasm resources to identify the genetic basis of resistance to common scab in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common scab, caused mainly by the soil-borne bacterium Streptomyces scabies, produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing tuber quality and profitability. Methods to manage common scab are often expensive, impractical, and can be ineffective. Therefore, creating cultivars that are resistant to common...

  18. Role of IgG4 serology in identifying common orbital lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Ma, Jian-Min; Ge, Xin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the role of IgG4 serology in identifying common orbital lymphoproliferative disorders. METHODS Eighty-one patients with orbital lymphoproliferative diseases were treated in the Department of Ocular Oncology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University between September 2010 and December 2012. Serum IgG4 levels were measured in 46 cases of idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor (IOIP), 17 benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLEL), 12 cases of orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), and 6 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL) using immuno-scatter turbidmetry (ISTM). RESULTS The frequency of elevated IgG4 levels in patients with IOIP, BLEL, MALT, and DLBL was 30.43% (14/46), 76.47% (13/17), 8.33% (1/12), and 0.00 (0/6), respectively. Among the patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels, all IgG-IOIP patients were male, and 92.31% of the IgG4-BLEL patients were female (12/13). The mean serum IgG4 level of IgG4-IOIP patients was lower than that of individuals with IgG4-BLEL, but the variation in serum IgG4 levels was larger in IgG4-IOIP than IgG4-BLEL patients. Only one case of IgG4-MALT with elevated serum IgG4 levels had a medical history >10y, which was significantly longer than the MALT patients with normal serum IgG4 levels. There was no significant elevation of serum IgG4 levels in patients with DLBL. CONCLUSION Detecting serum IgG4 levels plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of orbital lymphoproliferative diseases. PMID:26949650

  19. Probabilistic latent semantic analysis applied to whole bacterial genomes identifies common genomic features.

    PubMed

    Rusakovica, Julija; Hallinan, Jennifer; Wipat, Anil; Zuliani, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The spread of drug resistance amongst clinically-important bacteria is a serious, and growing, problem [1]. However, the analysis of entire genomes requires considerable computational effort, usually including the assembly of the genome and subsequent identification of genes known to be important in pathology. An alternative approach is to use computational algorithms to identify genomic differences between pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria, even without knowing the biological meaning of those differences. To overcome this problem, a range of techniques for dimensionality reduction have been developed. One such approach is known as latent-variable models [2]. In latent-variable models dimensionality reduction is achieved by representing a high-dimensional data by a few hidden or latent variables, which are not directly observed but inferred from the observed variables present in the model. Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing (PLSA) is an extention of LSA [3]. PLSA is based on a mixture decomposition derived from a latent class model. The main objective of the algorithm, as in LSA, is to represent high-dimensional co-occurrence information in a lower-dimensional way in order to discover the hidden semantic structure of the data using a probabilistic framework. In this work we applied the PLSA approach to analyse the common genomic features in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, using tokens derived from amino acid sequences rather than DNA. We characterised genome-scale amino acid sequences in terms of their components, and then investigated the relationships between genomes and tokens and the phenotypes they generated. As a control we used the non-pathogenic model Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. PMID:24980693

  20. School Grounds Guide: A Pictured Guide for Identifying Common Organisms Found In and Around the School Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Rodney

    Designed for quick, easy identification of some of the most commonly encountered organisms found in and around the school ground, this illustrated guide identifies by a picture and a short biological description the common animals and plants found in and around school lawns, house lawns, parks, fence rows, flower gardens, vacant lots, and…

  1. School Grounds Guide: A Pictured Guide for Identifying Common Organisms Found In and Around the School Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Rodney

    Designed for quick, easy identification of some of the most commonly encountered organisms found in and around the school ground, this illustrated guide identifies by a picture and a short biological description the common animals and plants found in and around school lawns, house lawns, parks, fence rows, flower gardens, vacant lots, and

  2. Identifying the Role of Common Interests in Online User Trust Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Lei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Hou, Lei; Guo, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Despite enormous recent efforts in detecting the mechanism of the social relation formation in online social systems, the underlying rules between the common interests and social relations are still under dispute. Do online users befriend others who have similar tastes, or do their tastes become more similar after they become friends? In this paper, we investigate the correlation between online user trust formation and their common interests, measured by the overlap rate ? and taste similarity ? respectively. The trust relation creation time is set as the zero timestamp. The statistical results before and after the trust formation for an online network, namely Epinions, show that, the overlap rate ? increases greatly before the trust formation, while it would increase smoothly after the creation of the trust relation. Comparing with the empirical results, two null models are presented by shuffling the temporal behaviors of online users, which suggests that the accumulation of the common interests can result in the trust formation. Furthermore, we investigate the taste similarity ? of the common interests, which can reflect the users preference on their common interests. The empirical results show that the taste similarity ? is rapidly increased around the day when users trust the others. That is, the similar tastes on the common interests among users lead to the trust formation. Finally, we report that the user degree can also influence the effect of the taste similarity ? on user trust formation. This work may shed some light for deeply understanding the evolution mechanism of the online social systems. PMID:26161853

  3. Identifying and Reconstructing Common Cold Misconceptions among Developing K-12 Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcus Lee; Bungum, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Common cold misconceptions may contribute to ill-informed decisions and recommendations made by K-12 educators who often encounter infected students. Understanding the structure of educators' misconceptions can be used to improve health instruction in teacher professional preparation programs. Purpose: The purposes of this project were

  4. Identifying and Reconstructing Common Cold Misconceptions among Developing K-12 Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcus Lee; Bungum, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Common cold misconceptions may contribute to ill-informed decisions and recommendations made by K-12 educators who often encounter infected students. Understanding the structure of educators' misconceptions can be used to improve health instruction in teacher professional preparation programs. Purpose: The purposes of this project were…

  5. There is need for antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests to identify common acute tropical illnesses.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Henry; Suankratay, Chusana

    2007-01-01

    Enteric fever, typhus, leptospirosis, dengue, melioidosis, and tuberculous meningitis present urgent diagnostic problems that require experience and clinical judgment to make early evidence-based management decisions. Basic and applied research dealing with reliable antigen-based diagnostics has been published and confirmed for several of these infections. This should have initiated commercial production but has not. Established international firms see little profit in such diagnostic kits since they would be used in poor countries with little prospects for return of investment capital. We attempt to illustrate this issue, using common causes of acute febrile illnesses in the Southeast Asian region. We believe that rapid diagnostic technology could prevent significant delay in starting appropriate therapy, reduce hospital expenses, and even save lives. PMID:17617848

  6. The Genome Sequence of the Emerging Common Midwife Toad Virus Identifies an Evolutionary Intermediate within Ranaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Mavian, Carla; Lpez-Bueno, Alberto; Balseiro, Ana; Casais, Rosa; Alcam, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide amphibian population declines have been ascribed to global warming, increasing pollution levels, and other factors directly related to human activities. These factors may additionally be favoring the emergence of novel pathogens. In this report, we have determined the complete genome sequence of the emerging common midwife toad ranavirus (CMTV), which has caused fatal disease in several amphibian species across Europe. Phylogenetic and gene content analyses of the first complete genomic sequence from a ranavirus isolated in Europe show that CMTV is an amphibian-like ranavirus (ALRV). However, the CMTV genome structure is novel and represents an intermediate evolutionary stage between the two previously described ALRV groups. We find that CMTV clusters with several other ranaviruses isolated from different hosts and locations which might also be included in this novel ranavirus group. This work sheds light on the phylogenetic relationships within this complex group of emerging, disease-causing viruses. PMID:22301140

  7. Genome-wide association identifies diverse causes of common variable immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Orange, Jordan S.; Glessner, Joseph T.; Resnick, Elena; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Lucas, Mary; Ferry, Berne; Kim, Cecilia E.; Hou, Cuiping; Wang, Fengxiang; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Kugathasan, Subra; Sleasman, John W.; Baldassano, Robert; Perez, Elena E.; Chapel, Helen; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2013-01-01

    Background Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous immune defect characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, failure of specific antibody production, susceptibility to infections, and an array of comorbidities. Objective To address the underlying immunopathogenesis of CVID and comorbidities, we conducted the first genome-wide association and gene copy number variation (CNV) study in patients with CVID. Methods Three hundred sixty-three patients with CVID from 4 study sites were genotyped with 610,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Patients were divided into a discovery cohort of 179 cases in comparison with 1,917 control subjects and a replication cohort of 109 cases and 1,114 control subjects. Results Our analyses detected strong association with the MHC region and association with a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) genes (P combined = 1.96 × 10−7) replicated in the independent cohort. CNV analysis defined 16 disease-associated deletions and duplications, including duplication of origin recognition complex 4L (ORC4L) that was unique to 15 cases (P = 8.66 × 10−16), as well as numerous unique rare intraexonic deletions and duplications suggesting multiple novel genetic causes of CVID. Furthermore, the 1,000 most significant SNPs were strongly predictive of the CVID phenotype by using a Support Vector Machine algorithm with positive and negative predictive values of 1.0 and 0.957, respectively. Conclusion Our integrative genome-wide analysis of SNP genotypes and CNVs has uncovered multiple novel susceptibility loci for CVID, both common and rare, which is consistent with the highly heterogeneous nature of CVID. These results provide new mechanistic insights into immunopathogenesis based on these unique genetic variations and might allow for improved diagnosis of CVID based on accurate prediction of the CVID clinical phenotypes by using our Support Vector Machine model. PMID:21497890

  8. Identifying Genetic Hotspots by Mapping Molecular Diversity of Widespread Trees: When Commonness Matters.

    PubMed

    Souto, Cintia P; Mathiasen, Paula; Acosta, Mara Cristina; Quiroga, Mara Paula; Vidal-Russell, Romina; Echeverra, Cristian; Premoli, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Conservation planning requires setting priorities at the same spatial scale at which decision-making processes are undertaken considering all levels of biodiversity, but current methods for identifying biodiversity hotspots ignore its genetic component. We developed a fine-scale approach based on the definition of genetic hotspots, which have high genetic diversity and unique variants that represent their evolutionary potential and evolutionary novelties. Our hypothesis is that wide-ranging taxa with similar ecological tolerances, yet of phylogenetically independent lineages, have been and currently are shaped by ecological and evolutionary forces that result in geographically concordant genetic patterns. We mapped previously published genetic diversity and unique variants of biparentally inherited markers and chloroplast sequences for 9 species from 188 and 275 populations, respectively, of the 4 woody dominant families of the austral temperate forest, an area considered a biodiversity hotspot. Spatial distribution patterns of genetic polymorphisms differed among taxa according to their ecological tolerances. Eight genetic hotspots were detected and we recommend conservation actions for some in the southern Coastal Range in Chile. Existing spatially explicit genetic data from multiple populations and species can help to identify biodiversity hotspots and guide conservation actions to establish science-based protected areas that will preserve the evolutionary potential of key habitats and species. PMID:26245788

  9. Of linkers and autochaperones: an unambiguous nomenclature to identify common and uncommon themes for autotransporter secretion.

    PubMed

    Drobnak, Igor; Braselmann, Esther; Chaney, Julie L; Leyton, Denisse L; Bernstein, Harris D; Lithgow, Trevor; Luirink, Joen; Nataro, James P; Clark, Patricia L

    2015-01-01

    Autotransporter (AT) proteins provide a diverse array of important virulence functions to Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, and have also been adapted for protein surface display applications. The 'autotransporter' moniker refers to early models that depicted these proteins facilitating their own translocation across the bacterial outer membrane. Although translocation is less autonomous than originally proposed, AT protein segments upstream of the C-terminal transmembrane ?-barrel have nevertheless consistently been found to contribute to efficient translocation and/or folding of the N-terminal virulence region (the 'passenger'). However, defining the precise secretion functions of these AT regions has been complicated by the use of multiple overlapping and ambiguous terms to define AT sequence, structural, and functional features, including 'autochaperone', 'linker' and 'junction'. Moreover, the precise definitions and boundaries of these features vary among ATs and even among research groups, leading to an overall murky picture of the contributions of specific features to translocation. Here we propose a unified, unambiguous nomenclature for AT structural, functional and conserved sequence features, based on explicit criteria. Applied to 16 well-studied AT proteins, this nomenclature reveals new commonalities for translocation but also highlights that the autochaperone function is less closely associated with a conserved sequence element than previously believed. PMID:25345653

  10. Of linkers and autochaperones: An unambiguous nomenclature to identify common and uncommon themes for autotransporter secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Drobnak, Igor; Braselmann, Esther; Chaney, Julie L.; Leyton, Denisse L.; Bernstein, Harris D.; Lithgow, Trevor; Luirink, Joen; Nataro, James P.; Clark, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Autotransporter (AT) proteins provide a diverse array of important virulence functions to Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, and have also been adapted for protein surface display applications. The autotransporter moniker refers to early models that depicted these proteins facilitating their own translocation across the bacterial outer membrane. Although translocation is less autonomous than originally proposed, AT protein segments upstream of the C-terminal transmembrane ?-barrel have nevertheless consistently been found to contribute to efficient translocation and/or folding of the N-terminal virulence region (the passenger). However, defining the precise secretion functions of these AT regions has been complicated by the use of multiple overlapping and ambiguous terms to define AT sequence, structural, and functional features, including autochaperone, linker and junction. Moreover, the precise definitions and boundaries of these features vary among ATs and even among research groups, leading to an overall murky picture of the contributions of specific features to translocation. Here we propose a unified, unambiguous nomenclature for AT structural, functional and conserved sequence features, based on explicit criteria. Applied to 16 well studied AT proteins, this nomenclature reveals new commonalities for translocation but also highlights that the autochaperone function is less closely coupled with a conserved sequence element than previously believed. PMID:25345653

  11. Genome Sequence of Complex HIV-1 Unique Recombinant Forms Sharing a Common Recombination Breakpoint Identified in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Hui Ting; Ng, Kim Tien; Ong, Lai Yee; Takebe, Yutaka; Chan, Kok Gan; Koh, Clayton; Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2015-01-01

    Three strains of HIV-1 unique recombinant forms (URFs) descended from subtypes B, B?, and CRF01_AE were identified among people who inject drugs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. These three URFs shared a common recombination breakpoint in the reverse transcriptase region, indicating frequent linkage within the drug-injecting networks in Malaysia. PMID:26543107

  12. Risk assessment derived from migrants identified in several adhesives commonly used in food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Canellas, E; Vera, P; Nern, C

    2015-01-01

    Adhesives are used to manufacture multilayer materials, where their components pass through the layers and migrate to the food. Nine different adhesives (acrylic, vinyl and hotmelt) and their migration in 21 laminates for future use as market samples have been evaluated and risk assessment has been carried out. A total of 75 volatiles and non volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Most of the compounds migrated below their specific migration limit (SML), lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and values recommended by Cramer. Six compounds classified as high toxicity class III according to Cramer classification, migrated over their SML and exposure values recommended by Cramer, when they were applied in the full area of the packaging. Nevertheless, these adhesives fulfill the threshold in the real application as they are applied in a small area of the packaging. PMID:25445514

  13. Identifying strategies to maximise recruitment and retention of practices and patients in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of an intervention to optimise secondary prevention for coronary heart disease in primary care. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Identifying strategies to maximise recruitment and retention of practices and patients in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of an intervention to optimise secondary prevention for coronary heart disease in primary care.

  14. Large-scale integrative network-based analysis identifies common pathways disrupted by copy number alterations across cancers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many large-scale studies analyzed high-throughput genomic data to identify altered pathways essential to the development and progression of specific types of cancer. However, no previous study has been extended to provide a comprehensive analysis of pathways disrupted by copy number alterations across different human cancers. Towards this goal, we propose a network-based method to integrate copy number alteration data with human protein-protein interaction networks and pathway databases to identify pathways that are commonly disrupted in many different types of cancer. Results We applied our approach to a data set of 2,172 cancer patients across 16 different types of cancers, and discovered a set of commonly disrupted pathways, which are likely essential for tumor formation in majority of the cancers. We also identified pathways that are only disrupted in specific cancer types, providing molecular markers for different human cancers. Analysis with independent microarray gene expression datasets confirms that the commonly disrupted pathways can be used to identify patient subgroups with significantly different survival outcomes. We also provide a network view of disrupted pathways to explain how copy number alterations affect pathways that regulate cell growth, cycle, and differentiation for tumorigenesis. Conclusions In this work, we demonstrated that the network-based integrative analysis can help to identify pathways disrupted by copy number alterations across 16 types of human cancers, which are not readily identifiable by conventional overrepresentation-based and other pathway-based methods. All the results and source code are available at http://compbio.cs.umn.edu/NetPathID/. PMID:23822816

  15. Genome Wide Association Identifies Common Variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 Locus Influencing Plasma Cortisol and Corticosteroid Binding Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Direk, Nese; Lewis, John G.; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Hill, Lesley A.; Anderson, Anna; Huffman, Jennifer; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan; Hastie, Nicholas; Wild, Sarah H.; Velders, Fleur P.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Lahti, Jari; Rikknen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kaakinen, Marika; Jrvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Davey Smith, George; Ring, Susan M.; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Tanaka, Toshiko; Milaneschi, Yuri; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; van der Harst, Pim; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Bakker, Stephen J. L.; Verweij, Niek; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Morris, Andrew; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Anderson, Laura N.; Pennell, Craig E.; Lye, Stephen J.; Matthews, Stephen G.; Eriksson, Joel; Mellstrom, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes; Price, Jackie F.; Strachan, Mark W. J.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Tiemeier, Henning; Walker, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 3060% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma), and SERPINA1, encoding ?1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG). Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136) influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases. PMID:25010111

  16. The development of a short instrument to identify common unmet needs in older people in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Iliffe, Steve; Lenihan, Penny; Orrell, Martin; Walters, Kate; Drennan, Vari; See Tai, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Background: No structured needs assessment tool exists that is appropriate for older people and also suitable for use in routine consultations in general practice. Aims: To engage older people in the development of a brief, valid, practical, and acceptable instrument to help identify common unmet needs suitable for use in routine clinical practice in primary care. Design of study: User involvement in a multi-stages approach to heuristic development. Setting: General practices, voluntary groups, and community organisations in north and central London. Method: Subjects included patients aged 65 years and over in purposively selected practices, voluntary organisations for older people in the same localities, community organisations involving older people, general practitioners and community nurses. Data were collected through mixed methodology interviews using a structured assessment tool (Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly), a postal questionnaire, and focus groups. Synthesis and interpretation of results was done through a consensus conference followed by a Delphi process involving primary care professionals. Results: Five domains of unmet need were identified as priority areas by all three data collection methods, the consensus conference, and the Delphi process: senses (vision and hearing), physical ability (mobility and falls), incontinence, cognition, and emotional distress (depression and anxiety) (SPICE). Conclusions: Public involvement in the design of clinical tools allowed the development of a brief assessment instrument that could potentially identify common, important, and tractable unmet needs in older people. PMID:15588536

  17. A Pan-Cancer Modular Regulatory Network Analysis to Identify Common and Cancer-Specific Network Components

    PubMed Central

    Knaack, Sara A; Siahpirani, Alireza Fotuhi; Roy, Sushmita

    2014-01-01

    Many human diseases including cancer are the result of perturbations to transcriptional regulatory networks that control context-specific expression of genes. A comparative approach across multiple cancer types is a powerful approach to illuminate the common and specific network features of this family of diseases. Recent efforts from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) have generated large collections of functional genomic data sets for multiple types of cancers. An emerging challenge is to devise computational approaches that systematically compare these genomic data sets across different cancer types that identify common and cancer-specific network components. We present a module- and network-based characterization of transcriptional patterns in six different cancers being studied in TCGA: breast, colon, rectal, kidney, ovarian, and endometrial. Our approach uses a recently developed regulatory network reconstruction algorithm, modular regulatory network learning with per gene information (MERLIN), within a stability selection framework to predict regulators for individual genes and gene modules. Our module-based analysis identifies a common theme of immune system processes in each cancer study, with modules statistically enriched for immune response processes as well as targets of key immune response regulators from the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) families. Comparison of the inferred regulatory networks from each cancer type identified a core regulatory network that included genes involved in chromatin remodeling, cell cycle, and immune response. Regulatory network hubs included genes with known roles in specific cancer types as well as genes with potentially novel roles in different cancer types. Overall, our integrated module and network analysis recapitulated known themes in cancer biology and additionally revealed novel regulatory hubs that suggest a complex interplay of immune response, cell cycle, and chromatin remodeling across multiple cancers. PMID:25374456

  18. Gene co-expression analysis identifies common modules related to prognosis and drug resistance in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Li, Li; Li, Weidong

    2014-12-15

    To discover a common gene co-expression network in cancer cell, we applied weighted gene co-expression network analysis to transcriptional profiles of 917 cancer cell lines. Fourteen biologically meaningful modules were identified, including cytoskeleton, cell cycle, RNA splicing, signaling pathway, transcription, translation and others. These modules were robust in an independent human cancer microarray dataset. Furthermore, we collected 11 independent cancer microarray datasets, and correlated these modules with clinical outcome. Most of these modules could predict patient survival in one or more cancer types. Some modules were predictive of relapse, metastasis and drug resistance. Novel regulatory mechanisms were also implicated. In summary, our findings, for the first time, provide a modular map for cancer cell lines, new targets for therapy and modules for regulatory mechanism of cancer development and drug resistance. PMID:24771271

  19. RETRACTED ARTICLE: What Are They Thinking? The Development and Use of an Instrument That Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles R.; Larrabee, Timothy

    2007-04-01

    This article describes the rationale for, and development of, an online instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. Science Beliefs is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. It utilizes a true or false, along with a written-explanation, format. The true or false responses provide a cursory view of the extent to which specific beliefs are prevalent, while the accompanying explanations reveal underlying reasons for those beliefs. The stages of instrument development, reliability and validity information, along with the original sources of the items are discussed. The developed instrument has the potential to help science educators understand some specific barriers to deepening understanding across a range of science topics.

  20. Global gene analysis identifying genes commonly regulated by the Ras/Raf/MEK and type I IFN pathways

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Y.; Hirasawa, K.; Christian, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses exploit alterations in cancer cells to specifically infect cancer cells but not normal healthy cells. Previous work has shown that oncogenic Ras interferes with interferon (IFN) signaling to promote viral replication. Furthermore, inhibition of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway at the level of Ras, MEK, or ERK was sufficient to restore IFN signaling. In order to identify genes that were commonly regulated by the inhibition of the Ras pathway and the IFN pathway, we treated NIH/3T3 cells that overexpress oncogenic Ras with the MEK inhibitor, U0126, or IFN-α for 6 h, and performed DNA microarray analysis (Gene Expression Omnibus accession number GSE49469). Here, we also provide additional information on the experimental and functional analysis of the genes responsive to U0126 and IFN. PMID:26484185

  1. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common variants in CTNNA2 associated with excitement-seeking

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, A; Esko, T; Sutin, A R; de Moor, M H M; Meirelles, O; Zhu, G; Tanaka, T; Giegling, I; Nutile, T; Realo, A; Allik, J; Hansell, N K; Wright, M J; Montgomery, G W; Willemsen, G; Hottenga, J-J; Friedl, M; Ruggiero, D; Sorice, R; Sanna, S; Cannas, A; Rikknen, K; Widen, E; Palotie, A; Eriksson, J G; Cucca, F; Krueger, R F; Lahti, J; Luciano, M; Smoller, J W; van Duijn, C M; Abecasis, G R; Boomsma, D I; Ciullo, M; Costa, P T; Ferrucci, L; Martin, N G; Metspalu, A; Rujescu, D; Schlessinger, D; Uda, M

    2011-01-01

    The tendency to seek stimulating activities and intense sensations define excitement-seeking, a personality trait akin to some aspects of sensation-seeking. This trait is a central feature of extraversion and is a component of the multifaceted impulsivity construct. Those who score high on measures of excitement-seeking are more likely to smoke, use other drugs, gamble, drive recklessly, have unsafe/unprotected sex and engage in other risky behaviors of clinical and social relevance. To identify common genetic variants associated with the Excitement-Seeking scale of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, we performed genome-wide association studies in six samples of European ancestry (N=7860), and combined the results in a meta-analysis. We identified a genome-wide significant association between the Excitement-Seeking scale and rs7600563 (P=2 10?8). This single-nucleotide polymorphism maps within the catenin cadherin-associated protein, alpha 2 (CTNNA2) gene, which encodes for a brain-expressed ?-catenin critical for synaptic contact. The effect of rs7600563 was in the same direction in all six samples, but did not replicate in additional samples (N=5105). The results provide insight into the genetics of excitement-seeking and risk-taking, and are relevant to hyperactivity, substance use, antisocial and bipolar disorders. PMID:22833195

  2. A common rejection module (CRM) for acute rejection across multiple organs identifies novel therapeutics for organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Purvesh; Roedder, Silke; Kimura, Naoyuki; De Vusser, Katrien; Morgan, Alexander A.; Gong, Yongquan; Fischbein, Michael P.; Robbins, Robert C.; Naesens, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Using meta-analysis of eight independent transplant datasets (236 graft biopsy samples) from four organs, we identified a common rejection module (CRM) consisting of 11 genes that were significantly overexpressed in acute rejection (AR) across all transplanted organs. The CRM genes could diagnose AR with high specificity and sensitivity in three additional independent cohorts (794 samples). In another two independent cohorts (151 renal transplant biopsies), the CRM genes correlated with the extent of graft injury and predicted future injury to a graft using protocol biopsies. Inferred drug mechanisms from the literature suggested that two FDA-approved drugs (atorvastatin and dasatinib), approved for nontransplant indications, could regulate specific CRM genes and reduce the number of graft-infiltrating cells during AR. We treated mice with HLA-mismatched mouse cardiac transplant with atorvastatin and dasatinib and showed reduction of the CRM genes, significant reduction of graft-infiltrating cells, and extended graft survival. We further validated the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on graft survival by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a single-center cohort of 2,515 renal transplant patients followed for up to 22 yr. In conclusion, we identified a CRM in transplantation that provides new opportunities for diagnosis, drug repositioning, and rational drug design. PMID:24127489

  3. Meta-Analysis of 28,141 Individuals Identifies Common Variants within Five New Loci That Influence Uric Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Serena; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Perola, Markus; Mangino, Massimo; Albrecht, Eva; Wallace, Chris; Farrall, Martin; Johansson, sa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Aulchenko, Yurii; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Campbell, Harry; Connell, John; Dominiczak, Anna; Homuth, Georg; Lamina, Claudia; McCarthy, Mark I.; Meitinger, Thomas; Mooser, Vincent; Munroe, Patricia; Nauck, Matthias; Peden, John; Prokisch, Holger; Salo, Perttu; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Vlker, Uwe; Waeber, Grard; Waterworth, Dawn; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Wright, Alan F.; Adamski, Jerzy; Whitfield, John B.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Pramstaller, Peter; Watkins, Hugh; Doering, Angela; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Spector, Tim D.; Peltonen, Leena; Vlzke, Henry; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Vollenweider, Peter; Caulfield, Mark; Illig, Thomas; Gieger, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Elevated serum uric acid levels cause gout and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To investigate the polygenetic basis of serum uric acid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans from 14 studies totalling 28,141 participants of European descent, resulting in identification of 954 SNPs distributed across nine loci that exceeded the threshold of genome-wide significance, five of which are novel. Overall, the common variants associated with serum uric acid levels fall in the following nine regions: SLC2A9 (p?=?5.210?201), ABCG2 (p?=?3.110?26), SLC17A1 (p?=?3.010?14), SLC22A11 (p?=?6.710?14), SLC22A12 (p?=?2.010?9), SLC16A9 (p?=?1.110?8), GCKR (p?=?1.410?9), LRRC16A (p?=?8.510?9), and near PDZK1 (p?=?2.710?9). Identified variants were analyzed for gender differences. We found that the minor allele for rs734553 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in lowering uric acid levels in women and the minor allele of rs2231142 in ABCG2 elevates uric acid levels more strongly in men compared to women. To further characterize the identified variants, we analyzed their association with a panel of metabolites. rs12356193 within SLC16A9 was associated with DL-carnitine (p?=?4.010?26) and propionyl-L-carnitine (p?=?5.010?8) concentrations, which in turn were associated with serum UA levels (p?=?1.410?57 and p?=?8.110?54, respectively), forming a triangle between SNP, metabolites, and UA levels. Taken together, these associations highlight additional pathways that are important in the regulation of serum uric acid levels and point toward novel potential targets for pharmacological intervention to prevent or treat hyperuricemia. In addition, these findings strongly support the hypothesis that transport proteins are key in regulating serum uric acid levels. PMID:19503597

  4. Short non-coding RNAs as bacteria species identifiers detected by surface plasmon resonance enhanced common path interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greef, Charles; Petropavlovskikh, Viatcheslav; Nilsen, Oyvind; Khattatov, Boris; Plam, Mikhail; Gardner, Patrick; Hall, John

    2008-04-01

    Small non-coding RNA sequences have recently been discovered as unique identifiers of certain bacterial species, raising the possibility that they can be used as highly specific Biowarfare Agent detection markers in automated field deployable integrated detection systems. Because they are present in high abundance they could allow genomic based bacterial species identification without the need for pre-assay amplification. Further, a direct detection method would obviate the need for chemical labeling, enabling a rapid, efficient, high sensitivity mechanism for bacterial detection. Surface Plasmon Resonance enhanced Common Path Interferometry (SPR-CPI) is a potentially market disruptive, high sensitivity dual technology that allows real-time direct multiplex measurement of biomolecule interactions, including small molecules, nucleic acids, proteins, and microbes. SPR-CPI measures differences in phase shift of reflected S and P polarized light under Total Internal Reflection (TIR) conditions at a surface, caused by changes in refractive index induced by biomolecular interactions within the evanescent field at the TIR interface. The measurement is performed on a microarray of discrete 2-dimensional areas functionalized with biomolecule capture reagents, allowing simultaneous measurement of up to 100 separate analytes. The optical beam encompasses the entire microarray, allowing a solid state detector system with no scanning requirement. Output consists of simultaneous voltage measurements proportional to the phase differences resulting from the refractive index changes from each microarray feature, and is automatically processed and displayed graphically or delivered to a decision making algorithm, enabling a fully automatic detection system capable of rapid detection and quantification of small nucleic acids at extremely sensitive levels. Proof-of-concept experiments on model systems and cell culture samples have demonstrated utility of the system, and efforts are in progress for full development and deployment of the device. The technology has broad applicability as a universal detection platform for BWA detection, medical diagnostics, and drug discovery research, and represents a new class of instrumentation as a rapid, high sensitivity, label-free methodology.

  5. Comparison of initial interception and retention of wet-deposited contaminants on leaves of coniferous and broad-leafed forest species with other common vegetation types

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.; Thiessen, K.M. ); Rael, R.M. . Dept. of Soil Science)

    1992-01-01

    Simulated rain containing both soluble radionuclides and an insoluble particle labelled with a radionuclide was manually applied to several kinds of vegetation. The plant species were chosen to represent extreme types of plant and leaf structure and included a conifer (Picea sp.), a broad-leafed tree (Acer sp.), and several herbaceous species. Each plot received 8.5 mm total simulated rain at an intensity of 17 mm h{sup {minus}1}. For each plant type, the fraction of radioactive material in rain intercepted and initially retained by the vegetation was determined for a 9-{mu}m insoluble polystyrene microsphere labelle with {sup 141}Ce and the following cations and anions: {sup 51}Cr{sup 3+}, {sup 85}Sr{sup 2+}, {sup 109}Cd{sup 2+} {sup 7}Be{sup 2+}, {sup 131}I{sub {minus}}, and {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. This fraction was determine in two ways: (1 ) the deposition per unit mass of vegetation was divided by the total amount applied per unit ground area (the mass interception factor, r/Y, m{sup 2} kg{sup {minus}1}), and (2) the deposition per unit leaf surface area was divided by the total amount applied per unit ground area (the leaf area interception fraction, LAIF). The similarities in retention among plant species indicate that for moderate-intensity rainfall, the interception and initial retention at the top of a forest canopy may be similar to that of herbaceous growth in an open field. The differences among chemical substances have a much more important effect on interception and initial retention than do the differences among plant species; the single most important consideration is whether chemical substances in rainwater are present as cations, anions, or insoluble particles.

  6. Identifying Future Sacred Heart Administrators by Examining the Characteristics, Commonalities, and Personal Motivations of Current School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Julie Brill

    2012-01-01

    Since their inception, all schools of the Sacred Heart have been headed by nuns of the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Jesus [RSCJ]. As the years have passed, many RSCJ nuns have aged and retired leaving vacancies that have proven difficult to fill. In this qualitative study, the characteristics, commonalities, and personal motivations of Sacred…

  7. Identifying Future Sacred Heart Administrators by Examining the Characteristics, Commonalities, and Personal Motivations of Current School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Julie Brill

    2012-01-01

    Since their inception, all schools of the Sacred Heart have been headed by nuns of the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Jesus [RSCJ]. As the years have passed, many RSCJ nuns have aged and retired leaving vacancies that have proven difficult to fill. In this qualitative study, the characteristics, commonalities, and personal motivations of Sacred

  8. Association scan of 14,500 nsSNPs in four common diseases identifies variants involved in autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    We have genotyped 14,436 nsSNPs and 897 MHC tagSNPs in 1000 independent cases of Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD), Multiple Sclerosis and Breast Cancer. Comparing each of these diseases against a common control set of 1500 unselected healthy British individuals, we report initial association and independent replication of two new loci for AS, ARTS1 and IL23R, and confirmation of the previously reported AITD association with TSHR and FCRL3. These findings, enabled in part by expanding the control reference group with individuals from the other disease groups to increase statistical power, highlight important new possibilities for autoimmune regulation and suggest that IL23R may be a common susceptibility factor for the major ‘seronegative’ diseases. PMID:17952073

  9. A novel common large genomic deletion and two new missense mutations identified in the Romanian phenylketonuria population.

    PubMed

    Gemperle-Britschgi, Corinne; Iorgulescu, Daniela; Mager, Monica Alina; Anton-Paduraru, Dana; Vulturar, Romana; Thöny, Beat

    2016-01-15

    The mutation spectrum for the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene was investigated in a cohort of 84 hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) patients from Romania identified through newborn screening or neurometabolic investigations. Differential diagnosis identified 81 patients with classic PAH deficiency while 3 had tetrahydropterin-cofactor deficiency and/or remained uncertain due to insufficient specimen. PAH-genetic analysis included a combination of Sanger sequencing of exons and exon–intron boundaries, MLPA and NGS with genomic DNA, and cDNA analysis from immortalized lymphoblasts. A diagnostic efficiency of 99.4% was achieved, as for one allele (out of a total of 162 alleles) no mutation could be identified. The most prevalent mutation was p.Arg408Trp which was found in ~ 38% of all PKU alleles. Three novel mutations were identified, including the two missense mutations p.Gln226Lys and p.Tyr268Cys that were both disease causing by prediction algorithms, and the large genomic deletion EX6del7831 (c.509 + 4140_706 + 510del7831) that resulted in skipping of exon 6 based on PAH-cDNA analysis in immortalized lymphocytes. The genomic deletion was present in a heterozygous state in 12 patients, i.e. in ~ 8% of all the analyzed PKU alleles, and might have originated from a Romanian founder. PMID:26481238

  10. Clonal analysis identifies hemogenic endothelium as the source of the blood-endothelial common lineage in the mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Padrón-Barthe, Laura; Temiño, Susana; Villa del Campo, Cristina; Carramolino, Laura; Isern, Joan; Torres, Miguel

    2014-10-16

    The first blood and endothelial cells of amniote embryos appear in close association in the blood islands of the yolk sac (YS). This association and in vitro lineage analyses have suggested a common origin from mesodermal precursors called hemangioblasts, specified in the primitive streak during gastrulation. Fate mapping and chimera studies, however, failed to provide strong evidence for a common origin in the early mouse YS. Additional in vitro studies suggest instead that mesodermal precursors first generate hemogenic endothelium, which then generate blood cells in a linear sequence. We conducted an in vivo clonal analysis to determine the potential of individual cells in the mouse epiblast, primitive streak, and early YS. We found that early YS blood and endothelial lineages mostly derive from independent epiblast populations, specified before gastrulation. Additionally, a subpopulation of the YS endothelium has hemogenic activity and displays characteristics similar to those found later in the embryonic hemogenic endothelium. Our results show that the earliest blood and endothelial cell populations in the mouse embryo are specified independently, and that hemogenic endothelium first appears in the YS and produces blood precursors with markers related to definitive hematopoiesis. PMID:25139355

  11. Contribution of 32 GWAS-identified common variants to severe obesity in European adults referred for bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Mägi, Reedik; Manning, Sean; Yousseif, Ahmed; Pucci, Andrea; Santini, Ferruccio; Karra, Efthimia; Querci, Giorgia; Pelosini, Caterina; McCarthy, Mark I; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Batterham, Rachel L

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of severe obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35.0 kg/m(2), is rising rapidly. Given the disproportionately high health burden and healthcare costs associated with this condition, understanding the underlying aetiology, including predisposing genetic factors, is a biomedical research priority. Previous studies have suggested that severe obesity represents an extreme tail of the population BMI variation, reflecting shared genetic factors operating across the spectrum. Here, we sought to determine whether a panel of 32 known common obesity-susceptibility variants contribute to severe obesity in patients (n = 1,003, mean BMI 48.4 ± 8.1 kg/m(2)) attending bariatric surgery clinics in two European centres. We examined the effects of these 32 common variants on obesity risk and BMI, both as individual markers and in combination as a genetic risk score, in a comparison with normal-weight controls (n = 1,809, BMI 18.0-24.9 kg/m(2)); an approach which, to our knowledge, has not been previously undertaken in the setting of a bariatric clinic. We found strong associations with severe obesity for SNP rs9939609 within the FTO gene (P = 9.3 × 10(-8)) and SNP rs2815752 near the NEGR1 gene (P = 3.6 × 10(-4)), and directionally consistent nominal associations (P<0.05) for 12 other SNPs. The genetic risk score associated with severe obesity (P = 8.3 × 10(-11)) but, within the bariatric cohort, this score did not associate with BMI itself (P = 0.264). Our results show significant effects of individual BMI-associated common variants within a relatively small sample size of bariatric patients. Furthermore, the burden of such low-penetrant risk alleles contributes to severe obesity in this population. Our findings support that severe obesity observed in bariatric patients represents an extreme tail of the population BMI variation. Moreover, future genetic studies focused on bariatric patients may provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of obesity at a population level. PMID:23950990

  12. Contribution of 32 GWAS-Identified Common Variants to Severe Obesity in European Adults Referred for Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yousseif, Ahmed; Pucci, Andrea; Santini, Ferruccio; Karra, Efthimia; Querci, Giorgia; Pelosini, Caterina; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Batterham, Rachel L.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of severe obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) ?35.0 kg/m2, is rising rapidly. Given the disproportionately high health burden and healthcare costs associated with this condition, understanding the underlying aetiology, including predisposing genetic factors, is a biomedical research priority. Previous studies have suggested that severe obesity represents an extreme tail of the population BMI variation, reflecting shared genetic factors operating across the spectrum. Here, we sought to determine whether a panel of 32 known common obesity-susceptibility variants contribute to severe obesity in patients (n?=?1,003, mean BMI 48.48.1 kg/m2) attending bariatric surgery clinics in two European centres. We examined the effects of these 32 common variants on obesity risk and BMI, both as individual markers and in combination as a genetic risk score, in a comparison with normal-weight controls (n?=?1,809, BMI 18.024.9 kg/m2); an approach which, to our knowledge, has not been previously undertaken in the setting of a bariatric clinic. We found strong associations with severe obesity for SNP rs9939609 within the FTO gene (P?=?9.310?8) and SNP rs2815752 near the NEGR1 gene (P?=?3.610?4), and directionally consistent nominal associations (P<0.05) for 12 other SNPs. The genetic risk score associated with severe obesity (P?=?8.310?11) but, within the bariatric cohort, this score did not associate with BMI itself (P?=?0.264). Our results show significant effects of individual BMI-associated common variants within a relatively small sample size of bariatric patients. Furthermore, the burden of such low-penetrant risk alleles contributes to severe obesity in this population. Our findings support that severe obesity observed in bariatric patients represents an extreme tail of the population BMI variation. Moreover, future genetic studies focused on bariatric patients may provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of obesity at a population level. PMID:23950990

  13. Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Common Variants Associated with Brachial Circumference: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Boraska, Vesna; Day-Williams, Aaron; Franklin, Christopher S.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Albrecht, Eva; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Bochud, Murielle; Cadby, Gemma; Ernst, Florian; Evans, David M.; Hayward, Caroline; Hicks, Andrew A.; Huffman, Jennifer; Huth, Cornelia; James, Alan L.; Klopp, Norman; Kolcic, Ivana; Kutalik, Zoltn; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Musk, Arthur W.; Pehlic, Marina; Pennell, Craig E.; Perry, John R. B.; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pourcain, Beate St; Ring, Susan M.; Salvi, Erika; Schipf, Sabine; Staessen, Jan A.; Teumer, Alexander; Timpson, Nicholas; Vitart, Veronique; Warrington, Nicole M.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; An, Ping; Anttila, Verneri; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Holmen, Jostein; Ntalla, Ioanna; Palotie, Aarno; Pietilinen, Kirsi H.; Wedenoja, Juho; Winsvold, Bendik S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Province, Michael A.; Zwart, John-Anker; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Cusi, Daniele; Davey Smith, George; Frayling, Timothy M.; Gieger, Christian; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rudan, Igor; Vlzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Wright, Alan F.; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2012-01-01

    Brachial circumference (BC), also known as upper arm or mid arm circumference, can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and fat tissue, which are distributed differently in men and women. Analysis of anthropometric measures of peripheral fat distribution such as BC could help in understanding the complex pathophysiology behind overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic variants associated with BC through a large-scale genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis. We used fixed-effects meta-analysis to synthesise summary results across 14 GWAS discovery and 4 replication cohorts comprising overall 22,376 individuals (12,031 women and 10,345 men) of European ancestry. Individual analyses were carried out for men, women, and combined across sexes using linear regression and an additive genetic model: adjusted for age and adjusted for age and BMI. We prioritised signals for follow-up in two-stages. We did not detect any signals reaching genome-wide significance. The FTO rs9939609 SNP showed nominal evidence for association (p<0.05) in the age-adjusted strata for men and across both sexes. In this first GWAS meta-analysis for BC to date, we have not identified any genome-wide significant signals and do not observe robust association of previously established obesity loci with BC. Large-scale collaborations will be necessary to achieve higher power to detect loci underlying BC. PMID:22479309

  14. dcVar: a method for identifying common variants that modulate differential correlation structures in gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    Lareau, Caleb A.; White, Bill C.; Montgomery, Courtney G.; McKinney, Brett A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated the role of differential co-expression or correlation structure in gene expression data to help explain phenotypic differences. However, few attempts have been made to characterize the function of variants based on their role in regulating differential co-expression. Here, we describe a statistical methodology that identifies pairs of transcripts that display differential correlation structure conditioned on genotypes of variants that regulate co-expression. Additionally, we present a user-friendly, computationally efficient tool, dcVar, that can be applied to expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) or RNA-Seq datasets to infer differential co-expression variants (dcVars). We apply dcVar to the HapMap3 eQTL dataset and demonstrate the utility of this methodology at uncovering novel function of variants of interest with examples from a height genome-wide association and cancer drug resistance. We provide evidence that differential correlation structure is a valuable intermediate molecular phenotype for further characterizing the function of variants identified in GWAS and related studies. PMID:26539209

  15. Whole transcriptome sequencing identifies BCOR internal tandem duplication as a common feature of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Astolfi, Annalisa; Melchionda, Fraia; Perotti, Daniela; Fois, Maura; Indio, Valentina; Urbini, Milena; Genovese, Chiara Giusy; Collini, Paola; Salfi, Nunzio; Nantron, Marilina; D'Angelo, Paolo; Spreafico, Filippo; Pession, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) is a rare pediatric renal tumor that is frequently difficult to distinguish among other childhood renal tumors due to its histological heterogeneity. This work evaluates genetic abnormalities carried by a series of CCSK samples by whole transcriptome sequencing (WTS), to identify molecular biomarkers that could improve the diagnostic process. Methods WTS was performed on tumor RNA from 8 patients with CCSK. Bioinformatic analysis, with implementation of a pipeline for detection of intragenic rearrangements, was executed. Sanger sequencing and gene expression were evaluated to validate BCOR internal tandem duplication (ITD). Results WTS did not identify any shared SNVs, Ins/Del or fusion event. Conversely, analysis of intragenic rearrangements enabled the detection of a breakpoint within BCOR transcript recurrent in all samples. Three different in-frame ITD in exon15 of BCOR, were detected. The presence of the ITD was confirmed on tumor DNA and cDNA, and resulted in overexpression of BCOR. Conclusion WTS coupled with specific bioinformatic analysis is able to detect rare genetic events, as intragenic rearrangements. ITD in the last exon of BCOR is recurrent in all CCSK samples analyzed, representing a valuable molecular marker to improve diagnosis of this rare childhood renal tumor. PMID:26516930

  16. Molecular cloning of the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) identifies a type II integral membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Shipp, M A; Richardson, N E; Sayre, P H; Brown, N R; Masteller, E L; Clayton, L K; Ritz, J; Reinherz, E L

    1988-01-01

    Common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) is a 100-kDa cell-surface glycoprotein expressed on most acute lymphoblastic leukemias and certain other immature lymphoid malignancies and on normal lymphoid progenitors. The latter are either uncommitted to B- or T-cell lineage or committed to only the earliest stages of B- or T-lymphocyte maturation. To elucidate to homogeneity, obtained the NH2-terminal sequence from both the intact protein and derived tryptic and V8 protease peptides and isolated CALLA cDNAs from a Nalm-6 cell line lambda gt10 library using redundant oligonucleotide probes. The CALLA cDNA sequence predicts a 750-amino acid integral membrane protein with a single 24-amino acid hydrophobic segment that could function as both a transmembrane region and a signal peptide. The COOH-terminal 700 amino acids, including six potential N-linked glycosylation sites compose the extracellular protein segment, whereas the 25 NH2-terminal amino acids remaining after cleavage of the initiation methionine form the cytoplasmic tail. CALLA+ cells contain CALLA transcripts of 2.7 to 5.7 kilobases with the major 5.7- and 3.7-kilobase mRNAs being preferentially expressed in specific cell types. Images PMID:2968607

  17. A genome-wide association study identifies common variants influencing serum uric acid concentrations in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Uric acid (UA) is a complex phenotype influenced by both genetic and environmental factors as well as their interactions. Current genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a variety of genetic determinants of UA in Europeans; however, such studies in Asians, especially in Chinese populations remain limited. Methods A two-stage GWAS was performed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were associated with serum uric acid (UA) in a Chinese population of 12,281 participants (GWAS discovery stage included 1452 participants from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort (DFTJ-cohort) and 1999 participants from the Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey (FAMHES). The validation stage included another independent 8830 individuals from the DFTJ-cohort). Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 chips and Illumina Omni-Express platform were used for genotyping for DFTJ-cohort and FAMHES, respectively. Gene-environment interactions on serum UA levels were further explored in 10,282 participants from the DFTJ-cohort. Results Briefly, we identified two previously reported UA loci of SLC2A9 (rs11722228, combined P = 8.98 10-31) and ABCG2 (rs2231142, combined P = 3.34 10-42). The two independent SNPs rs11722228 and rs2231142 explained 1.03% and 1.09% of the total variation of UA levels, respectively. Heterogeneity was observed across different populations. More importantly, both independent SNPs rs11722228 and rs2231142 were nominally significantly interacted with gender on serum UA levels (P for interaction = 4.0 10-2 and 2.0 10-2, respectively). The minor allele (T) for rs11722228 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in elevating serum UA levels in females compared to males and the minor allele (T) of rs2231142 in ABCG2 had stronger effects on serum UA levels in males than that in females. Conclusions Two genetic loci (SLC2A9 and ABCG2) were confirmed to be associated with serum UA concentration. These findings strongly support the evidence that SLC2A9 and ABCG2 function in UA metabolism across human populations. Furthermore, we observed these associations are modified by gender. PMID:24513273

  18. The Effects of Small Sample Size on Identifying Polytomous DIF Using the Liu-Agresti Estimator of the Cumulative Common Odds Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Jorge; Skorupski, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of the behavior of the Liu-Agresti estimator of the cumulative common odds ratio when identifying differential item functioning (DIF) with polytomously scored test items using small samples. The Liu-Agresti estimator has been proposed by Penfield and Algina as a promising approach for the study of polytomous DIF but no…

  19. A Comprehensive Analysis of Common and Rare Variants to Identify Adiposity Loci in Hispanic Americans: The IRAS Family Study (IRASFS).

    PubMed

    Gao, Chuan; Wang, Nan; Guo, Xiuqing; Ziegler, Julie T; Taylor, Kent D; Xiang, Anny H; Hai, Yang; Kridel, Steven J; Nadler, Jerry L; Kandeel, Fouad; Raffel, Leslie J; Chen, Yii-Der I; Norris, Jill M; Rotter, Jerome I; Watanabe, Richard M; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Bowden, Donald W; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Goodarzi, Mark O; Langefeld, Carl D; Palmer, Nicholette D

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is growing epidemic affecting 35% of adults in the United States. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci associated with obesity. However, the majority of studies have been completed in Caucasians focusing on total body measures of adiposity. Here we report the results from genome-wide and exome chip association studies focusing on total body measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF) and measures of fat deposition including waist circumference (WAIST), waist-hip ratio (WHR), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in Hispanic Americans (nmax = 1263) from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). Five SNPs from two novel loci attained genome-wide significance (P<5.00x10-8) in IRASFS. A missense SNP in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) was associated with WAIST (rs34218846, MAF = 6.8%, PDOM = 1.62x10-8). This protein is postulated to play an important role in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis as demonstrated in cell and knock-out animal models. Four correlated intronic SNPs in the Zinc finger, GRF-type containing 1 gene (ZGRF1; SNP rs1471880, MAF = 48.1%, PDOM = 1.00x10-8) were strongly associated with WHR. The exact biological function of ZGRF1 and the connection with adiposity remains unclear. SNPs with p-values less than 5.00x10-6 from IRASFS were selected for replication. Meta-analysis was computed across seven independent Hispanic-American cohorts (nmax = 4156) and the strongest signal was rs1471880 (PDOM = 8.38x10-6) in ZGRF1 with WAIST. In conclusion, a genome-wide and exome chip association study was conducted that identified two novel loci (IDH1 and ZGRF1) associated with adiposity. While replication efforts were inconclusive, when taken together with the known biology, IDH1 and ZGRF1 warrant further evaluation. PMID:26599207

  20. A Comprehensive Analysis of Common and Rare Variants to Identify Adiposity Loci in Hispanic Americans: The IRAS Family Study (IRASFS)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chuan; Wang, Nan; Guo, Xiuqing; Ziegler, Julie T.; Taylor, Kent D.; Xiang, Anny H.; Hai, Yang; Kridel, Steven J.; Nadler, Jerry L.; Kandeel, Fouad; Raffel, Leslie J.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Norris, Jill M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Watanabe, Richard M.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Bowden, Donald W.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Palmer, Nicholette D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is growing epidemic affecting 35% of adults in the United States. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci associated with obesity. However, the majority of studies have been completed in Caucasians focusing on total body measures of adiposity. Here we report the results from genome-wide and exome chip association studies focusing on total body measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF) and measures of fat deposition including waist circumference (WAIST), waist-hip ratio (WHR), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in Hispanic Americans (nmax = 1263) from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). Five SNPs from two novel loci attained genome-wide significance (P<5.00x10-8) in IRASFS. A missense SNP in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) was associated with WAIST (rs34218846, MAF = 6.8%, PDOM = 1.62x10-8). This protein is postulated to play an important role in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis as demonstrated in cell and knock-out animal models. Four correlated intronic SNPs in the Zinc finger, GRF-type containing 1 gene (ZGRF1; SNP rs1471880, MAF = 48.1%, PDOM = 1.00x10-8) were strongly associated with WHR. The exact biological function of ZGRF1 and the connection with adiposity remains unclear. SNPs with p-values less than 5.00x10-6 from IRASFS were selected for replication. Meta-analysis was computed across seven independent Hispanic-American cohorts (nmax = 4156) and the strongest signal was rs1471880 (PDOM = 8.38x10-6) in ZGRF1 with WAIST. In conclusion, a genome-wide and exome chip association study was conducted that identified two novel loci (IDH1 and ZGRF1) associated with adiposity. While replication efforts were inconclusive, when taken together with the known biology, IDH1 and ZGRF1 warrant further evaluation. PMID:26599207

  1. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common variants associated with blood pressure variation in East Asians

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Norihiro; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Kelly, Tanika N.; Go, Min Jin; Sim, Xueling; Tay, Wan Ting; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Zhang, Yi; Yamamoto, Ken; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Kim, Young Jin; Ong, Rick Twee Hee; Nabika, Toru; Gu, Dongfeng; Chang, Li-ching; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Huang, Wei; Ohnaka, Keizo; Yamori, Yukio; Nakashima, Eitaro; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Lee, Jong-Young; Seielstad, Mark; Isono, Masato; Hixson, James E.; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Miki, Tetsuro; Zhang, Xuegong; Sugiyama, Takao; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Liu, Jian Jun; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Kim, Sung Soo; Aung, Tin; Sung, Yun Ju; Zhou, Xueya; Wong, Tien Yin; Han, Bok-Ghee; Kobayashi, Shotai; Ogihara, Toshio; Zhu, Dingliang; Iwai, Naoharu; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Teo, Yik Ying; Tai, E Shyong; Cho, Yoon Shin; He, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in 19,608 subjects of East Asian ancestry from the AGEN-BP consortium followed by de novo genotypingin 2 stages of replication involving 10,518 and 20,247 East Asian samples. We identified novel genome-wide significant (P < 5 10?8) associations between SBP or DBP and variants at four novel loci: ST7L-CAPZA1, FIGN-GRB14, ENPEP, and NPR3, as well as a novel variant near TBX3. Except for NPR3, all novel findings were significantly replicated for SBP or DBP in independent samples. Sevenloci previously reported in populations of European descent were confirmed. On 12q24.13, we observed an ethnic specific association(implicating rs671 at the ALDH2 locus as the causal variant) that affected SBP, DBP and multiple traits related to coronary artery disease. These findings provide novel insights into blood pressure regulation and potential targets for intervention. PMID:21572416

  2. Population sequencing of two endocannabinoid metabolic genes identifies rare and common regulatory variants associated with extreme obesity and metabolite level

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Targeted re-sequencing of candidate genes in individuals at the extremes of a quantitative phenotype distribution is a method of choice to gain information on the contribution of rare variants to disease susceptibility. The endocannabinoid system mediates signaling in the brain and peripheral tissues involved in the regulation of energy balance, is highly active in obese patients, and represents a strong candidate pathway to examine for genetic association with body mass index (BMI). Results We sequenced two intervals (covering 188 kb) encoding the endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) in 147 normal controls and 142 extremely obese cases. After applying quality filters, we called 1,393 high quality single nucleotide variants, 55% of which are rare, and 143 indels. Using single marker tests and collapsed marker tests, we identified four intervals associated with BMI: the FAAH promoter, the MGLL promoter, MGLL intron 2, and MGLL intron 3. Two of these intervals are composed of rare variants and the majority of the associated variants are located in promoter sequences or in predicted transcriptional enhancers, suggesting a regulatory role. The set of rare variants in the FAAH promoter associated with BMI is also associated with increased level of FAAH substrate anandamide, further implicating a functional role in obesity. Conclusions Our study, which is one of the first reports of a sequence-based association study using next-generation sequencing of candidate genes, provides insights into study design and analysis approaches and demonstrates the importance of examining regulatory elements rather than exclusively focusing on exon sequences. PMID:21118518

  3. Low-resolution mass spectrometric relative response factors (RRFs) and relative retention times (RRTs) on two common gas chromatographic stationary phases for 87 polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Kjell; Rappe, Christoffer; Tysklind, Mats

    2004-05-01

    All 87 tetra- to octa-chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were analysed using high-resolution gas chromatography/low-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-LRMS). The mass spectrometer was operated in two different modes: electron ionisation (EI), and negative ion chemical ionisation (NCI) with methane as a reagent gas. Baseline separation and identification of all PCDF congeners was carried out using one non-polar (DB-5) and one polar (RT-2330) capillary GC column. Relative retention times (RRTs) on both columns, and relative response factors (RRFs) in both EI- and NCI-modes, were calculated for all 87 of the PCDFs. Comparison of the EI-RRFs and NCI-RRFs showed that the mass spectrometric NCI-responses varied to a higher degree than the EI-responses. The level of NCI-response was dependent on the substitution positions of the chlorine atoms on the dibenzofuran molecule skeleton. The ratio between the highest and lowest RRFs was 26 in the NCI-mode, but only 2.3 in the EI-mode. Thus, quantification of tetra- to octa-CDFs in environmental samples using the NCI-mode will result in incorrect estimates of PCDF concentrations unless 13C-labelled internal standards are used for each congener, or RRFs are taken into consideration. In contrast, the quantification of PCDFs in the EI-mode using a single internal 13C-labelled PCDF standard for each PCDF homologue is accurate according to the findings in this investigation. A flue gas sample from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) analysed in the NCI-mode was quantified with and without NCI-RRFs. When using NCI-RRFs the reported concentration of SigmaPCDFs in the flue gas sample increased by 40%. Furthermore, TCDF analysis was compared using two mass spectrometers (a VG 12-250 and a Finnigan 4500) operating in EI-mode. These quadrupole instruments performed equally well, giving similar EI-RRFs for the tested compounds. PMID:15051368

  4. Toward a Record Retention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jason

    2007-01-01

    An academic library working group was charged in 2005 to create a records retention schedule and policy applicable to records containing personally identifiable information of library patrons. This group conducted a survey and extensive research, culminating in an adopted library records retention schedule and policy implemented in 2006.

  5. Evaluation of Fluoride Retention Due to Most Commonly Consumed Estuarine Fishes Among Fish Consuming Population of Andhra Pradesh as a Contributing Factor to Dental Fluorosis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ganta, Shravani; Nagaraj, Anup; Pareek, Sonia; Sidiq, Mohsin; Singh, Kushpal; Vishnani, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    Background Fluoride in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. The principal sources of fluoride include water, some species of vegetation, certain edible marine animals, dust and industrial processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride retention of most commonly consumed estuarine fishes among fish consuming population of Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the amount of fluoride retention due to ten most commonly consumed estuarine fishes as a contributing factor to Fluorosis by SPADNS Spectrophotometric method. The presence and severity of dental fluorosis among fish consuming population was recorded using Community Fluorosis Index. Statistical analysis was done using MedCalc v12.2.1.0 software. Results For Sea water fishes, the fluoride levels in bone were maximum in Indian Sardine (4.22 ppm). Amongst the river water fishes, the fluoride levels in bone were maximum in Catla (1.51 ppm). Also, the mean total fluoride concentrations of all the river fishes in skin, muscle and bone were less (0.86 ppm) as compared to the sea water fishes (2.59 ppm). It was unveiled that sea fishes accumulate relatively large amounts of Fluoride as compared to the river water fishes. The mean Community Fluorosis Index was found to be 1.06 amongst a sampled fish consuming population. Evaluation by Community Index for Dental fluorosis (CFI) suggested that fluorosis is of medium public health importance. Conclusion It was analysed that bone tends to accumulate more amount of fluoride followed by muscle and skin which might be due to the increased permeability and chemical trapping of fluoride inside the tissues. The amount of fluoride present in the fishes is directly related to the severity of fluorosis amongst fish consuming population, suggesting fishes as a contributing factor to fluorosis depending upon the dietary consumption. PMID:26266208

  6. Principals Retention. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Many districts are struggling with the problem of administrator retention. Hoffman (2004) identifies some of the reasons for this: (1) Increased accountability expectations; (2) Diminished or static levels of resources to support reform efforts; (3) Greater administrator vulnerability to sanctions; (4) The complex demands of government and the

  7. Predicting Rural College Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roweton, William E.; Bare, Charles

    This paper identified significant precollege predictors of retention in two freshman classes of a rural college. The subjects of the study were the 1987 and 1988 freshman classes (with 256 and 302 students, respectively) of Chadron State College (Nebraska), a rural college of over 3,000 students. Thirty-three student background variables were

  8. Preparation and In Vivo Evaluation of Radioiodinated closo-Decaborate(2-) Derivatives to Identify Structural Components That Provide Low Retention in Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, D. Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K.; Perry, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In vivo deastatination of 211At-labeled biomolecules can severely limit their use in endoradiotherapy. Our studies have shown that the use of closo-decaborate(2-) moiety for 211At-labeling of biomolecules provides high in vivo stability towards deastatination. However, data from those studies have also been suggestive that some astatinated closo-decaborate(2-) catabolites may be retained in tissues. In this study, we investigated the in vivo distributions of several structurally simple closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives to gain information on the effects of functional groups if catabolites are released into the blood system from the carrier biomolecule. Methods Thirteen closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives were synthesized and radioiodinated for evaluation. Tissue concentrations of the radioiodinated compounds were obtained in groups of 5 mice at 1 and 4 h post injection (pi). Dual label (125I and 131I) experiments permitted evaluation of 2 compounds in each set of mice. Results All of the target compounds were readily synthesized. Radioiodination reactions were conducted with chloramine-T and Na[125/131I]I in water to give high yields (75-96%) of the desired compounds. Biodistribution data at 1 and 4 h pi (representing catabolites released into the blood system) showed small differences in tissue concentrations for some compounds, but large differences for others. The results indicate that formal (overall) charge on the compounds could not be used as a predictor of tissue localization or retention. However, derivatives containing carboxylate groups generally had lower tissue concentrations. Acid cleavable hydrazone functionalities appeared to be the best candidates for further study. Conclusions Further studies incorporating hydrazone functionalities into pendant groups for biomolecule radiohalogenation are warranted. PMID:20152716

  9. Modelling the fate of six common pharmaceuticals in a small stream: quantification of attenuation and retention in different stream-specific environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riml, Joakim; Wörman, Anders; Kunkel, Uwe; Radke, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Detection of pharmaceutical residues in streaming waters is common in urbanized areas. Although the occurrence and source of these micropollutants is known, their behavior in these aquatic ecosystems is still only partly understood. Specifically, quantitative information of biogeochemical processes in stream-specific environments where predominant reactions occur is often missing. In an attempt to address this knowledge gap, we performed simultaneous tracer tests in Säva Brook, Sweden, with bezafibrate, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, metoprolol and naproxen, as well as with the more inert solutes uranine and Rhodamine WT. The breakthrough curves at five successive sampling stations along a 16 km long stream reach were evaluated using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model framework containing surface water transport together with a representation of transient storage in slow/immobile zones of the stream. The multi-tracer experiment opens for decoupling of hydrological and biogeochemical contribution to the fate, and by linking impact and sensitivity analyses to relative significance of model parameters the most important processes for each contaminant were elucidated. Specifically for Säva Brook, the proposed methodology revealed that the pharmaceutical-contaminated stream water remained in the storage zones for times corresponding to 5-25% of the flow time of the stream. Furthermore, the results indicate a great variability in terms of predominant biogeochemical processes between the different contaminants. Rapid reactions occurring in the transient storage zone attenuated both ibuprofen and clofibric acid, and we conclude that a major degradation pathway for these contaminants was biodegradation in the hyporheic zone. In contrast, bezafibrate, metoprolol, and naproxen were mainly affected by sorption both in the storage zone and the main channel, while diclofenac displayed negligible effects of biogeochemical reactions.

  10. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  11. Comparative gene expression analysis in mouse models for multiple sclerosis, Alzheimers disease and stroke for identifying commonly regulated and disease-specific gene changes

    PubMed Central

    Tseveleki, Vivian; Rubio, Renee; Vamvakas, Sotiris-Spyros; White, Joseph; Taoufik, Era; Petit, Edwige; Quackenbush, John; Probert, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    The brain responds to injury and infection by activating innate defense and tissue repair mechanisms. Working upon the hypothesis that the brain defense response involves common genes and pathways across diverse pathologies, we analysed global gene expression in brain from mouse models representing three major central nervous system disorders, cerebral stroke, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimers disease compared to normal brain using DNA microarray expression profiling. A comparison of dysregulated genes across disease models revealed common genes and pathways including key components of estrogen and TGF-? signaling pathways that have been associated with neuroprotection as well as a neurodegeneration mediator, TRPM7. Further, for each disease model, we discovered collections of differentially expressed genes that provide novel insight into the individual pathology and its associated mechanisms. Our data provide a resource for exploring the complex molecular mechanisms that underlie brain neurodegeneration and a new approach for identifying generic and disease-specific targets for therapy. PMID:20435134

  12. Transcriptome meta-analysis reveals common differential and global gene expression profiles in cystic fibrosis and other respiratory disorders and identifies CFTR regulators.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Luka A; Botelho, Hugo M; Sousa, Lisete; Falcao, Andre O; Amaral, Margarida D

    2015-11-01

    A meta-analysis of 13 independent microarray data sets was performed and gene expression profiles from cystic fibrosis (CF), similar disorders (COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IPF: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, asthma), environmental conditions (smoking, epithelial injury), related cellular processes (epithelial differentiation/regeneration), and non-respiratory "control" conditions (schizophrenia, dieting), were compared. Similarity among differentially expressed (DE) gene lists was assessed using a permutation test, and a clustergram was constructed, identifying common gene markers. Global gene expression values were standardized using a novel approach, revealing that similarities between independent data sets run deeper than shared DE genes. Correlation of gene expression values identified putative gene regulators of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, of potential therapeutic significance. Our study provides a novel perspective on CF epithelial gene expression in the context of other lung disorders and conditions, and highlights the contribution of differentiation/EMT and injury to gene signatures of respiratory disease. PMID:26225835

  13. Genome-Wide Gene by Environment Interaction Analysis Identifies Common SNPs at 17q21.2 that Are Associated with Increased Body Mass Index Only among Asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Leyao; Murk, William; DeWan, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Asthmatics have an increased risk of being overweight/obese. Although the underlying mechanisms of this are unclear, genetic factors are believed to play an essential role. To identify common genetic variants that are associated with asthma-related BMI increase, we performed a genome-wide gene by environment (asthma) interaction analysis for the outcome of BMI in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) study (N = 2474 Caucasians, 257 asthmatics), and replicated findings in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) offspring cohort (N = 1408 Caucasians, 382 asthmatics). The replicable tagging SNP, rs2107212, was further examined in stratified analyses. Seven SNPs clustered in 17q21.2 were identified to be associated with higher BMI among asthmatics (interaction p < 510?7 in MESA and p < 0.05 in FHS). In both MESA and FHS asthmatics, subjects carrying the A allele on rs2107212 had significantly higher odds of obesity than non-carriers, which was not the case for non-asthmatics. We further examined BMI change subsequent to asthma diagnosis over a period of 26 years in FHS and demonstrated greater BMI increase among asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics. Asthmatics carrying the A allele at rs2107212 had significantly greater net BMI increase over the 26-year period compared to non-asthmatics. In this study, we found that common genetic variants on 17q21.2 are associated with post-asthma BMI increase among Caucasians. This finding will help elucidate pathways involved in the comorbidity of asthma and obesity. PMID:26672748

  14. Search for common targets of lithium and valproic acid identifies novel epigenetic effects of lithium on the rat leptin receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Lee, R S; Pirooznia, M; Guintivano, J; Ly, M; Ewald, E R; Tamashiro, K L; Gould, T D; Moran, T H; Potash, J B

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics may have an important role in mood stabilizer action. Valproic acid (VPA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and lithium (Li) may have downstream epigenetic actions. To identify genes commonly affected by both mood stabilizers and to assess potential epigenetic mechanisms that may be involved in their mechanism of action, we administered Li (N = 12), VPA (N = 12), and normal chow (N = 12) to Brown Norway rats for 30 days. Genomic DNA and mRNA were extracted from the hippocampus. We used the mRNA to perform gene expression analysis on Affymetrix microarray chips, and for genes commonly regulated by both Li and VPA, we validated expression levels using quantitative real-time PCR. To identify potential mechanisms underlying expression changes, genomic DNA was bisulfite treated for pyrosequencing of key CpG island 'shores' and promoter regions, and chromatin was prepared from both hippocampal tissue and a hippocampal-derived cell line to assess modifications of histones. For most genes, we found little evidence of DNA methylation changes in response to the medications. However, we detected histone H3 methylation and acetylation in the leptin receptor gene, Lepr, following treatment with both drugs. VPA-mediated effects on histones are well established, whereas the Li effects constitute a novel mechanism of transcriptional derepression for this drug. These data support several shared transcriptional targets of Li and VPA, and provide evidence suggesting leptin signaling as an epigenetic target of two mood stabilizers. Additional work could help clarify whether leptin signaling in the brain has a role in the therapeutic action of Li and VPA in bipolar disorder. PMID:26171981

  15. Key principles of community-based natural resource management: a synthesis and interpretation of identified effective approaches for managing the commons.

    PubMed

    Gruber, James S

    2010-01-01

    This article examines recent research on approaches to community-based environmental and natural resource management and reviews the commonalities and differences between these interdisciplinary and multistakeholder initiatives. To identify the most effective characteristics of Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM), I collected a multiplicity of perspectives from research teams and then grouped findings into a matrix of organizational principles and key characteristics. The matrix was initially vetted (or "field tested") by applying numerous case studies that were previously submitted to the World Bank International Workshop on CBNRM. These practitioner case studies were then compared and contrasted with the findings of the research teams. It is hoped that the developed matrix may be useful to researchers in further focusing research, understanding core characteristics of effective and sustainable CBNRM, providing practitioners with a framework for developing new CBNRM initiatives for managing the commons, and providing a potential resource for academic institutions during their evaluation of their practitioner-focused environmental management and leadership curriculum. PMID:19083051

  16. Efficacy of the core DNA barcodes in identifying processed and poorly conserved plant materials commonly used in South African traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mankga, Ledile T.; Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Moteetee, Annah M.; Daru, Barnabas H.; van der Bank, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Medicinal plants cover a broad range of taxa, which may be phylogenetically less related but morphologically very similar. Such morphological similarity between species may lead to misidentification and inappropriate use. Also the substitution of a medicinal plant by a cheaper alternative (e.g. other non-medicinal plant species), either due to misidentification, or deliberately to cheat consumers, is an issue of growing concern. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to identify commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. Using the core plant barcodes, matK and rbcLa, obtained from processed and poorly conserved materials sold at the muthi traditional medicine market, we tested efficacy of the barcodes in species discrimination. Based on genetic divergence, PCR amplification efficiency and BLAST algorithm, we revealed varied discriminatory potentials for the DNA barcodes. In general, the barcodes exhibited high discriminatory power, indicating their effectiveness in verifying the identity of the most common plant species traded in South African medicinal markets. BLAST algorithm successfully matched 61% of the queries against a reference database, suggesting that most of the information supplied by sellers at traditional medicinal markets in South Africa is correct. Our findings reinforce the utility of DNA barcoding technique in limiting false identification that can harm public health. PMID:24453559

  17. From flower to seed: identifying phenological markers and reliable growth functions to model reproductive development in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Clavijo Michelangeli, Jose A; Bhakta, Mehul; Gezan, Salvador A; Boote, Kenneth J; Vallejos, C Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    The lack of dependable morphological indicators for the onset and end of seed growth has hindered modeling work in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). We have addressed this problem through the use of mathematical growth functions to analyse and identify critical developmental stages, which can be linked to existing developmental indices. We performed this study under greenhouse conditions with an Andean and a Mesoamerican genotype of contrasting pod and seed phenotypes, and three selected recombinant inbred lines. Pods from tagged flowers were harvested at regular time intervals for various measurements. Differences in flower production and seed and pod growth trajectories among genotypes were detected via comparisons of parameters of fitted growth functions. Regardless of the genotype, the end of pod elongation marked the beginning of seed growth, which lasted until pods displayed a sharp decline in color, or pod hue angle. These results suggest that the end of pod elongation and the onset of color change are reliable indicators of important developmental transitions in the seed, even for widely differing pod phenotypes. We also provide a set of equations that can be used to model different aspects of reproductive growth and development in the common bean. PMID:23586628

  18. The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor and alpha-L-fucosidase are located near a newly identified common virus integration site, Evi11.

    PubMed Central

    Valk, P J; Hol, S; Vankan, Y; Ihle, J N; Askew, D; Jenkins, N A; Gilbert, D J; Copeland, N G; de Both, N J; Lwenberg, B; Delwel, R

    1997-01-01

    A new common region of virus integration, Evi11, has been identified in two retrovirally induced murine myeloid leukemia cell lines, NFS107 and NFS78. By interspecific backcross analysis, it was shown that Evi11 is located at the distal end of mouse chromosome 4, in a region that shows homology with human 1p36. The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor (Cnr2) and alpha-L-fucosidase (Fuca1) were identified near the integration site by using a novel exon trapping system. Cnr2 is suggested to be the target gene for viral interference in Evi11, since proviruses are integrated in the first intron of Cnr2 and retroviral integrations alter mRNA expression of Cnr2 in NFS107 and NFS78. In addition, proviral integrations were demonstrated within the 3' untranslated region of Cnr2 in five independent newly derived CasBrM-MuLV (mouse murine leukemia virus) tumors, CSL13, CSL14, CSL16, CSL27, and CSL97. The Cnr2 gene encodes a seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor which is normally expressed in hematopoietic tissues. Our data suggest that the peripheral cannabinoid receptor gene might be involved in leukemogenesis as a result of aberrant expression of Cnr2 due to retroviral integration in Evi11. PMID:9261404

  19. Antibody screening identifies 78 putative host proteins involved in Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection or propagation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed Central

    Gotesman, M; Soliman, H; El-Matbouli, M

    2014-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a serious and notifiable disease afflicting common and koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L., termed koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). Significant progress has been achieved in the last 15 years, since the initial reports surfaced from Germany, USA and Israel of the CyHV-3 virus, in terms of pathology and detection. However, relatively few studies have been carried out in understanding viral replication and propagation. Antibody-based affinity has been used for detection of CyHV-3 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR-based techniques, and immunohistological assays have been used to describe a CyHV-3 membrane protein, termed ORF81. In this study, monoclonal antibodies linked to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated spin columns were used to purify CyHV-3 and host proteins from tissue samples originating in either CyHV-3 symptomatic or asymptomatic fish. The samples were next analysed either by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and subsequently by electrospray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) or by ESI-MS analysis directly after purification. A total of 78 host proteins and five CyHV-3 proteins were identified in the two analyses. These data can be used to develop novel control methods for CyHV-3, based on pathways or proteins identified in this study. PMID:23347276

  20. Substitution of Feline Leukemia Virus Long Terminal Repeat Sequences into Murine Leukemia Virus Alters the Pattern of Insertional Activation and Identifies New Common Insertion Sites

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Chassidy; Lobelle-Rich, Patricia A.; Puetter, Adriane; Levy, Laura S.

    2005-01-01

    The recombinant retrovirus, MoFe2-MuLV (MoFe2), was constructed by replacing the U3 region of Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) with homologous sequences from the FeLV-945 LTR. NIH/Swiss mice neonatally inoculated with MoFe2 developed T-cell lymphomas of immature thymocyte surface phenotype. MoFe2 integrated infrequently (0 to 9%) near common insertion sites (CISs) previously identified for either parent virus. Using three different strategies, CISs in MoFe2-induced tumors were identified at six loci, none of which had been previously reported as CISs in tumors induced by either parent virus in wild-type animals. Two of the newly identified CISs had not previously been implicated in lymphoma in any retrovirus model. One of these, designated 3-19, encodes the p101 regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase-gamma. The other, designated Rw1, is predicted to encode a protein that functions in the immune response to virus infection. Thus, substitution of FeLV-945 U3 sequences into the M-MuLV long terminal repeat (LTR) did not alter the target tissue for M-MuLV transformation but significantly altered the pattern of CIS utilization in the induction of T-cell lymphoma. These observations support a growing body of evidence that the distinctive sequence and/or structure of the retroviral LTR determines its pattern of insertional activation. The findings also demonstrate the oligoclonal nature of retrovirus-induced lymphomas by demonstrating proviral insertions at CISs in subdominant populations in the tumor mass. Finally, the findings demonstrate the utility of novel recombinant retroviruses such as MoFe2 to contribute new genes potentially relevant to the induction of lymphoid malignancy. PMID:15596801

  1. Managing retention.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2007-01-01

    To build this process it is necessary to consult customers for preferences, build familiarity and knowledge to build a relationship and conduct business in a customized fashion. The process takes every opportunity to build customer satisfaction with each customer contact. It is an important process to have, since customers today are more demanding, sophisticated, educated and comfortable speaking to the company as an equal (Belk, 2003). Customers have more customized expectations so they want to be reached as individuals (Raymond and Tanner, 1994). Also, a disproportionate search for new business is costly. The cost to cultivate new customers is more than maintaining existing customers (Cathcart, 1990). Other reasons that customer retention is necessary is because many unhappy customers will never buy again from a company that dissatisfied them and they will communicate their displeasure to other people. These dissatisfied customers may not even convey their displeasure but without saying anything just stop doing business with that company, which may keep them unaware for some time that there is any problem (Cathcart, 1990). PMID:18453139

  2. Fluid retention in cirrhosis: pathophysiology and management.

    PubMed

    Kashani, A; Landaverde, C; Medici, V; Rossaro, L

    2008-02-01

    Accumulation of fluid as ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis. This is occurring in about 50% of patients within 10 years of the diagnosis of cirrhosis. It is a prognostic sign with 1-year and 5-year survival of 85% and 56%, respectively. The most acceptable theory for ascites formation is peripheral arterial vasodilation leading to underfilling of circulatory volume. This triggers the baroreceptor-mediated activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system and nonosmotic release of vasopressin to restore circulatory integrity. The result is an avid sodium and water retention, identified as a preascitic state. This condition will evolve in overt fluid retention and ascites, as the liver disease progresses. Once ascites is present, most therapeutic modalities are directed on maintaining negative sodium balance, including salt restriction, bed rest and diuretics. Paracentesis and albumin infusion is applied to tense ascites. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is considered for refractory ascites. With worsening of liver disease, fluid retention is associated with other complications; such as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. This is a primary infection of ascitic fluid caused by organisms originating from large intestinal normal flora. Diagnostic paracentesis and antibiotic therapy plus prophylactic regimen are mandatory. Hepatorenal syndrome is a state of functional renal failure in the setting of low cardiac output and impaired renal perfusion. Its management is based on drugs that restore normal renal blood flow through peripheral arterial and splanchnic vasoconstriction, renal vasodilation and/or plasma volume expansion. However, the definitive treatment is liver transplantation. PMID:18184668

  3. TfoX-based genetic mapping identifies Vibrio fischeri strain-level differences and reveals a common lineage of laboratory strains.

    PubMed

    Brooks, John F; Gyllborg, Mattias C; Kocher, Acadia A; Markey, Laura E H; Mandel, Mark J

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial strain variation exists in natural populations of bacteria and can be generated experimentally through directed or random mutation. The advent of rapid and cost-efficient whole-genome sequencing has facilitated strain-level genotyping. Even with modern tools, however, it often remains a challenge to map specific traits to individual genetic loci, especially for traits that cannot be selected under culture conditions (e.g., colonization level or pathogenicity). Using a combination of classical and modern approaches, we analyzed strain-level variation in Vibrio fischeri and identified the basis by which some strains lack the ability to utilize glycerol as a carbon source. We proceeded to reconstruct the lineage of the commonly used V. fischeri laboratory strains. Compared to the wild-type ES114 strain, we identify in ES114-L a 9.9-kb deletion with endpoints in tadB2 and glpF; restoration of the missing portion of glpF restores the wild-type phenotype. The widely used strains ESR1, JRM100, and JRM200 contain the same deletion, and ES114-L is likely a previously unrecognized intermediate strain in the construction of many ES114 derivatives. ES114-L does not exhibit a defect in competitive squid colonization but ESR1 does, demonstrating that glycerol utilization is not required for early squid colonization. Our genetic mapping approach capitalizes on the recently discovered chitin-based transformation pathway, which is conserved in the Vibrionaceae; therefore, the specific approach used is likely to be useful for mapping genetic traits in other Vibrio species. PMID:25561715

  4. TfoX-Based Genetic Mapping Identifies Vibrio fischeri Strain-Level Differences and Reveals a Common Lineage of Laboratory Strains

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, John F.; Gyllborg, Mattias C.; Kocher, Acadia A.; Markey, Laura E. H.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial strain variation exists in natural populations of bacteria and can be generated experimentally through directed or random mutation. The advent of rapid and cost-efficient whole-genome sequencing has facilitated strain-level genotyping. Even with modern tools, however, it often remains a challenge to map specific traits to individual genetic loci, especially for traits that cannot be selected under culture conditions (e.g., colonization level or pathogenicity). Using a combination of classical and modern approaches, we analyzed strain-level variation in Vibrio fischeri and identified the basis by which some strains lack the ability to utilize glycerol as a carbon source. We proceeded to reconstruct the lineage of the commonly used V. fischeri laboratory strains. Compared to the wild-type ES114 strain, we identify in ES114-L a 9.9-kb deletion with endpoints in tadB2 and glpF; restoration of the missing portion of glpF restores the wild-type phenotype. The widely used strains ESR1, JRM100, and JRM200 contain the same deletion, and ES114-L is likely a previously unrecognized intermediate strain in the construction of many ES114 derivatives. ES114-L does not exhibit a defect in competitive squid colonization but ESR1 does, demonstrating that glycerol utilization is not required for early squid colonization. Our genetic mapping approach capitalizes on the recently discovered chitin-based transformation pathway, which is conserved in the Vibrionaceae; therefore, the specific approach used is likely to be useful for mapping genetic traits in other Vibrio species. PMID:25561715

  5. Strategies for Teacher Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    Strategies for teacher retention are presented, including successful approaches and elements for operating a state system for personnel recruitment and retention in special education. Such initiatives as the Utah Mentor Teacher Academy; the Texas Teacher Recruitment, Retention and Assistance Program; and the Kansas Recruitment/Retention Project

  6. Fission-product retention in HTGR fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, F.J.; Kania, M.J.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    Retention data for gaseous and metallic fission products are presented for both Triso-coated and Biso-coated HTGR fuel particles. Performance trends are established that relate fission product retention to operating parameters, such as temperature, burnup, and neutron exposure. It is concluded that Biso-coated particles are not adequately retentive of fission gas or metallic cesium, and Triso-coated particles which retain cesium still lose silver. Design implications related to these performance trends are identified and discussed.

  7. Demographic clusters identified within the northern Gulf of Mexico common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates) unusual mortality event: January 2010-June 2013.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Garrison, Lance; Litz, Jenny; Fougeres, Erin; Mase, Blair; Rappucci, Gina; Stratton, Elizabeth; Carmichael, Ruth; Odell, Daniel; Shannon, Delphine; Shippee, Steve; Smith, Suzanne; Staggs, Lydia; Tumlin, Mandy; Whitehead, Heidi; Rowles, Teri

    2015-01-01

    A multi-year unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates) was declared in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) with an initial start date of February 2010 and remains ongoing as of August 2014. To examine potential changing characteristics of the UME over time, we compared the number and demographics of dolphin strandings from January 2010 through June 2013 across the entire GoM as well as against baseline (1990-2009) GoM stranding patterns. Years 2010 and 2011 had the highest annual number of stranded dolphins since Louisiana's record began, and 2011 was one of the years with the highest strandings for both Mississippi and Alabama. Statewide, annual numbers of stranded dolphins were not elevated for GoM coasts of Florida or Texas during the UME period. Demographic, spatial, and temporal clusters identified within this UME included increased strandings in northern coastal Louisiana and Mississippi (March-May 2010); Barataria Bay, Louisiana (August 2010-December 2011); Mississippi and Alabama (2011, including a high prevalence and number of stranded perinates); and multiple GoM states during early 2013. While the causes of the GoM UME have not been determined, the location and magnitude of dolphin strandings during and the year following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including the Barataria Bay cluster from August 2010 to December 2011, overlap in time and space with locations that received heavy and prolonged oiling. There are, however, multiple known causes of previous GoM dolphin UMEs, including brevetoxicosis and dolphin morbillivirus. Additionally, increased dolphin strandings occurred in northern Louisiana and Mississippi before the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Identification of spatial, temporal, and demographic clusters within the UME suggest that this mortality event may involve different contributing factors varying by location, time, and bottlenose dolphin populations that will be better discerned by incorporating diagnostic information, including histopathology. PMID:25671657

  8. Demographic Clusters Identified within the Northern Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncates) Unusual Mortality Event: January 2010 - June 2013

    PubMed Central

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Garrison, Lance; Litz, Jenny; Fougeres, Erin; Mase, Blair; Rappucci, Gina; Stratton, Elizabeth; Carmichael, Ruth; Odell, Daniel; Shannon, Delphine; Shippee, Steve; Smith, Suzanne; Staggs, Lydia; Tumlin, Mandy; Whitehead, Heidi; Rowles, Teri

    2015-01-01

    A multi-year unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates) was declared in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) with an initial start date of February 2010 and remains ongoing as of August 2014. To examine potential changing characteristics of the UME over time, we compared the number and demographics of dolphin strandings from January 2010 through June 2013 across the entire GoM as well as against baseline (1990-2009) GoM stranding patterns. Years 2010 and 2011 had the highest annual number of stranded dolphins since Louisiana’s record began, and 2011 was one of the years with the highest strandings for both Mississippi and Alabama. Statewide, annual numbers of stranded dolphins were not elevated for GoM coasts of Florida or Texas during the UME period. Demographic, spatial, and temporal clusters identified within this UME included increased strandings in northern coastal Louisiana and Mississippi (March-May 2010); Barataria Bay, Louisiana (August 2010-December 2011); Mississippi and Alabama (2011, including a high prevalence and number of stranded perinates); and multiple GoM states during early 2013. While the causes of the GoM UME have not been determined, the location and magnitude of dolphin strandings during and the year following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including the Barataria Bay cluster from August 2010 to December 2011, overlap in time and space with locations that received heavy and prolonged oiling. There are, however, multiple known causes of previous GoM dolphin UMEs, including brevetoxicosis and dolphin morbillivirus. Additionally, increased dolphin strandings occurred in northern Louisiana and Mississippi before the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Identification of spatial, temporal, and demographic clusters within the UME suggest that this mortality event may involve different contributing factors varying by location, time, and bottlenose dolphin populations that will be better discerned by incorporating diagnostic information, including histopathology. PMID:25671657

  9. Variations in susceptibility to common insecticides and resistance mechanisms among morphologically identified sibling species of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anopheles subpictus s.l., an important malaria vector in Sri Lanka, is a complex of four morphologically identified sibling species A-D. Species A-D reportedly differ in bio-ecological traits that are important for vector control. We investigated possible variations that had not been reported previously, in the susceptibility to common insecticides and resistance mechanisms among the An. subpictus sibling species. Methods Adult An. subpictus were collected from localities in four administrative districts in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Single female isoprogeny lines were established and sibling species status determined according to reported egg morphology. World Health Organization's standard protocols were used for insecticide bioassays and biochemical assays to determine insecticide susceptibility and resistance mechanisms. Susceptibility of mosquitoes was tested against DDT (5%), malathion (4%), deltamethrin (0.05%) and ?-cyhalothrin (0.05%). Biochemical basis for resistance was determined through assaying for esterase, glutathione-S-transferase and monooxygenase activities and the insensitivity of acetycholinesterase (AChE) to propoxur inhibition. Results All sibling species were highly resistant to DDT. However there were significant differences among the sibling species in their susceptibility to the other tested insecticides. Few species A could be collected for testing, and where testing was possible, species A tended to behave more similarly to species C and D than to B. Species B was more susceptible to all the tested insecticides than the other sibling species. This difference may be attributed to the predominance of species B in coastal areas where selection pressure due to indoor residual spraying of insecticides (IRS) was lower. However there were significant differences between the more inland species C and D mainly towards pyrethroids. Higher GST activities in species C and D might have contributed to their greater DDT resistance than species B. Malathion resistance in both species C and D may be caused by elevated GST activity and an altered insensitive target site in AChE. In addition, a carboxylesterase based malathion resistance mechanisms was also detected in species C and D. Elevated esterase levels in species C and D might have contributed to the low levels of pyrethroid resistance. However an absence of elevated activity of monooxygenases in species B, C and D indicates that monooxygenases are unlikely to be the cause of this partial resistance to pyrethroids. Conclusions The differences in insecticide susceptibility and insecticide resistance mechanism shown by An. subpictus sibling species are important considerations for developing the malaria control and eradication program in Sri Lanka. Similar studies on species complexes of other anopheline vectors of malaria are necessary for effective malaria control worldwide. The differential susceptibility findings are also consistent with most, if not all, morphologically identified An. subpictus species B in Sri Lanka belonging to the An. sundaicus complex. There is a need therefore to develop molecular techniques that can be used to differentiate morphologically similar anopheline species in field conditions for more effective vector control. PMID:22325737

  10. Improving Student Athlete Academic Success and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobneck, Cheryl; Mudge, Linda; Turchi, Mary

    This study examined a program to improve the academic success and retention of student athletes at a target community college in central Illinois. The problem of academic success and retention was identified through use of document analysis, surveys, and interviews. Analysis of probable cause data revealed that varied perceptions of student

  11. Common pressure vessel battery performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otzinger, B.

    1978-01-01

    Performance tests run on two common pressure vessel type nickel hydrogen batteries are described and the results presented. The study included: (1) charge retention tests, (2) synchronous eclipse season cycling tests, and (3) temperature differential tests.

  12. Influence of the retention of PI calves identified in 2012 during the voluntary phase of the Irish national bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication programme on herd-level outcomes in 2013.

    PubMed

    Graham, D A; Clegg, T A; O'Sullivan, P; More, S J

    2015-07-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of the retention of calves born in one calving season and considered to be persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) on herd-level outcomes in the following calving season. A secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between retention and the number of BVD+ calves detected the following season. The study population included a subset of herds enrolled in the 2012 voluntary BVD eradication programme in Ireland, specifically those with a birth registered to more than 80% of the cows between 1st January and 15th July and BVDV test results available for at least 80% of these calves, during both 2012 and 2013. Calves were considered PI based on either an initial positive result without further testing (BVDPOS) or a positive result on confirmatory testing (BVDPI), collectively considered BVD+ calves. Herd-level outcomes included the BVD status of the herd, and the number of BVD+ calves born between 1st January and 15th July 2013 (the study period). There was a significant univariable association between herd BVD status in 2013 and a number of general herd factors, including location, herd type, size and number of introduced animals (overall and those pregnant at time of introduction), as well as with each of six different factors related to the retention of virus-positive calves: the number of BVD+ calves in 2012; the maximum time (days) any one BVD+ born in 2012 was retained up to September 2013; the mean time (days) BVD+ animal(s) born in 2012 were retained up to September 2013; the date (quarter/year) the last BVD+ left the herd; the presence/number of 2012-born BVD+ retained in the herd at 1st January 2013. Separate multivariable models were constructed for each retention variable. The best model fit (based on AIC) was obtained using the retention variable "date (quarter/year) last BVD+ calf left the herd", followed by "total time all BVD+ calves were retained in the herd", with (log) herd size also retained in the models. Significant differences were also found in the number of positive calves detected in positive herds in 2013 for all of the calf retention risk factors. These findings confirm an increased probability of finding a BVD+ animal in a herd following the retention of positive calves born in the previous calving season, highlighting the importance of their prompt removal. PMID:25975666

  13. Fall 1984 Retention Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    A study was conducted of the retention patterns of students enrolled in the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) in fall 1984 using college reports on withdrawals and grade distributions. The study focused on successful retention (i.e., all students who received a passing grade) and on total retention (i.e., all students who received any

  14. Fall 1982 Retention Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    In fall 1982, a study was conducted in the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) using withdrawal and grade distribution data to analyze student retention patterns. Successful retention rates were based on the percentage of students who received a passing grade, while total retention rates were based on the percentage of students who received

  15. Neckband retention for lesser snow geese in the western Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Smith, A.E.; Baranyuk, W.; Cooch, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    Neckbands are commonly used in waterfowl studies (especially geese) to identify individuals for determination of movement and behavior and to estimate population parameters. Substantial neckband loss can adversely affect these research objectives and produce biased survival estimates. We used capture, recovery, and observation histories for lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) banded in the western Arctic, 1993-1996, to estimate neckband retention. We found that neckband retention differed between snow goose breeding colonies at Wrangel Island, Russia, and Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Male snow geese had higher neckband loss than females, a pattern similar to that found for Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and lesser snow geese in Alaska. We found that the rate of neckband loss increased with time, suggesting that neckbands are lost as the plastic deteriorates. Survival estimates for geese based on resighting neckbands will be biased unless estimates are corrected for neckband loss. We recommend that neckband loss be estimated using survival estimators that incorporate recaptures, recoveries, and observations of marked birds. Research and management studies using neckbands should be designed to improve neckband retention and to include the assessment of neckband retention.

  16. Redox Proteomics of the Inflammatory Secretome Identifies a Common Set of Redoxins and Other Glutathionylated Proteins Released in Inflammation, Influenza Virus Infection and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Checconi, Paola; Salzano, Sonia; Bowler, Lucas; Mullen, Lisa; Mengozzi, Manuela; Hanschmann, Eva-Maria; Lillig, Christopher Horst; Sgarbanti, Rossella; Panella, Simona; Nencioni, Lucia; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Ghezzi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Protein cysteines can form transient disulfides with glutathione (GSH), resulting in the production of glutathionylated proteins, and this process is regarded as a mechanism by which the redox state of the cell can regulate protein function. Most studies on redox regulation of immunity have focused on intracellular proteins. In this study we have used redox proteomics to identify those proteins released in glutathionylated form by macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) after pre-loading the cells with biotinylated GSH. Of the several proteins identified in the redox secretome, we have selected a number for validation. Proteomic analysis indicated that LPS stimulated the release of peroxiredoxin (PRDX) 1, PRDX2, vimentin (VIM), profilin1 (PFN1) and thioredoxin 1 (TXN1). For PRDX1 and TXN1, we were able to confirm that the released protein is glutathionylated. PRDX1, PRDX2 and TXN1 were also released by the human pulmonary epithelial cell line, A549, infected with influenza virus. The release of the proteins identified was inhibited by the anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (DEX), which also inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α release, and by thiol antioxidants (N-butanoyl GSH derivative, GSH-C4, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which did not affect TNF-α production. The proteins identified could be useful as biomarkers of oxidative stress associated with inflammation, and further studies will be required to investigate if the extracellular forms of these proteins has immunoregulatory functions. PMID:25985305

  17. Complexity in the tumour microenvironment: Cancer associated fibroblast gene expression patterns identify both common and unique features of tumour-stroma crosstalk across cancer types.

    PubMed

    Gandellini, Paolo; Andriani, Francesca; Merlino, Giuseppe; D'Aiuto, Francesca; Roz, Luca; Callari, Maurizio

    2015-12-01

    Cancer is a complex disease, driven by the accumulation of several somatic aberrations but fostered by a two-way interaction between tumour cells and the surrounding microenvironment. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) represent one of the major players in tumour-stroma crosstalk. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies, often conducted by employing high throughput approaches, have started unravelling the key pathways involved in their functional effects. This review focus on open challenges in the study of CAF properties and function, highlighting at the same time the existence of common mechanisms as well as peculiarities in different cancer types (breast, prostate and lung cancer). Although still limited by current experimental models, which are unable to deal with the full level of complexity of the tumour microenvironment, a better understanding of these mechanisms may enable the identification of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets, to improve current strategies for cancer diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26320408

  18. Targeted Next Generation Sequencing Identifies Novel Mutations in RP1 as a Relatively Common Cause of Autosomal Recessive Rod-Cone Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    El Shamieh, Said; Boulanger-Scemama, Elise; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Antonio, Aline; Dmontant, Vanessa; Condroyer, Christel; Letexier, Mlanie; Saraiva, Jean-Paul; Mohand-Sad, Saddek; Sahel, Jos-Alain; Audo, Isabelle; Zeitz, Christina

    2015-01-01

    We report ophthalmic and genetic findings in families with autosomal recessive rod-cone dystrophy (arRCD) and RP1 mutations. Detailed ophthalmic examination was performed in 242 sporadic and arRCD subjects. Genomic DNA was investigated using our customized next generation sequencing panel targeting up to 123 genes implicated in inherited retinal disorders. Stringent filtering coupled with Sanger sequencing and followed by cosegregation analysis was performed to confirm biallelism and the implication of the most likely disease causing variants. Sequencing identified 9 RP1 mutations in 7 index cases. Eight of the mutations were novel, and all cosegregated with severe arRCD phenotype, found associated with additional macular changes. Among the identified mutations, 4 belong to a region, previously associated with arRCD, and 5 others in a region previously associated with adRCD. Our prevalence studies showed that RP1 mutations account for up to 2.5% of arRCD. These results point out for the necessity of sequencing RP1 when genetically investigating sporadic and arRCD. It further highlights the interest of unbiased sequencing technique, which allows investigating the implication of the same gene in different modes of inheritance. Finally, it reports that different regions of RP1 can also lead to arRCD. PMID:25692139

  19. Targeted next generation sequencing identifies novel mutations in RP1 as a relatively common cause of autosomal recessive rod-cone dystrophy.

    PubMed

    El Shamieh, Said; Boulanger-Scemama, Elise; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Antonio, Aline; Dmontant, Vanessa; Condroyer, Christel; Letexier, Mlanie; Saraiva, Jean-Paul; Mohand-Sad, Saddek; Sahel, Jos-Alain; Audo, Isabelle; Zeitz, Christina

    2015-01-01

    We report ophthalmic and genetic findings in families with autosomal recessive rod-cone dystrophy (arRCD) and RP1 mutations. Detailed ophthalmic examination was performed in 242 sporadic and arRCD subjects. Genomic DNA was investigated using our customized next generation sequencing panel targeting up to 123 genes implicated in inherited retinal disorders. Stringent filtering coupled with Sanger sequencing and followed by cosegregation analysis was performed to confirm biallelism and the implication of the most likely disease causing variants. Sequencing identified 9 RP1 mutations in 7 index cases. Eight of the mutations were novel, and all cosegregated with severe arRCD phenotype, found associated with additional macular changes. Among the identified mutations, 4 belong to a region, previously associated with arRCD, and 5 others in a region previously associated with adRCD. Our prevalence studies showed that RP1 mutations account for up to 2.5% of arRCD. These results point out for the necessity of sequencing RP1 when genetically investigating sporadic and arRCD. It further highlights the interest of unbiased sequencing technique, which allows investigating the implication of the same gene in different modes of inheritance. Finally, it reports that different regions of RP1 can also lead to arRCD. PMID:25692139

  20. Screening to Identify Commonly Used Chinese Herbs That Affect ERBB2 and ESR1 Gene Expression Using the Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Chong; Wen, Che-Sheng; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Wei-Shone; Shyr, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Our aim the was to screen the commonly used Chinese herbs in order to detect changes in ERBB2 and ESR1 gene expression using MCF-7 cells. Methods. Using the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, cell cytotoxicity and proliferation were evaluated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays, respectively. A luciferase reporter assay was established by transient transfecting MCF-7 cells with plasmids containing either the ERBB2 or the ESR1 promoter region linked to the luciferase gene. Chinese herbal extracts were used to treat the cells at 24 h after transfection, followed by measurement of their luciferase activity. The screening results were verified by Western blotting to measure HER2 and ERα protein expression. Results. At concentrations that induced little cytotoxicity, thirteen single herbal extracts and five compound recipes were found to increase either ERBB2 or ESR1 luciferase activity. By Western blotting, Si-Wu-Tang, Kuan-Shin-Yin, and Suan-Tsao-Ren-Tang were found to increase either HER2 or ERα protein expression. In addition, Ligusticum chuanxiong was shown to have a great effect on ERBB2 gene expression and synergistically with estrogen to stimulate MCF-7 cell growth. Conclusion. Our results provide important information that should affect clinical treatment strategies among breast cancer patients who are receiving hormonal or targeted therapies. PMID:24987437

  1. Genome-wide association study identifies common and low-frequency variants at the AMH gene locus that strongly predict serum AMH levels in males

    PubMed Central

    Perry, John R.B.; McMahon, George; Day, Felix R.; Ring, Susan M; Nelson, Scott M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an essential messenger of sexual differentiation in the foetus and is an emerging biomarker of postnatal reproductive function in females. Due to a paucity of adequately sized studies, the genetic determinants of circulating AMH levels are poorly characterized. In samples from 2815 adolescents aged 15 from the ALSPAC study, we performed the first genome-wide association study of serum AMH levels across a set of ∼9 m ‘1000 Genomes Reference Panel’ imputed genetic variants. Genetic variants at the AMH protein-coding gene showed considerable allelic heterogeneity, with both common variants [rs4807216 (PMale = 2 × 10−49, Beta: ∼0.9 SDs per allele), rs8112524 (PMale = 3 × 10−8, Beta: ∼0.25)] and low-frequency variants [rs2385821 (PMale = 6 × 10−31, Beta: ∼1.2, frequency 3.6%)] independently associated with apparently large effect sizes in males, but not females. For all three SNPs, we highlight mechanistic links to AMH gene function and demonstrate highly significant sex interactions (PHet 0.0003–6.3 × 10−12), culminating in contrasting estimates of trait variance explained (24.5% in males versus 0.8% in females). Using these SNPs as a genetic proxy for AMH levels, we found no evidence in additional datasets to support a biological role for AMH in complex traits and diseases in men. PMID:26604150

  2. A family inheriting different subtypes of acute myelogenous leukemia identifies a gene common to the differentation of multiple hematopoetic lineages and acting early in leukemogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, M.S.; Radich, J.; Sabath, D.E.

    1994-09-01

    The initial steps promoting carcinogenesis in the hematologic malignancies remain poorly understood. We report on a family with an incompletely penetrant, autosomal dominant syndrome of acute myelogenous leukemia, affecting at least eight adults from three generations. The affected individuals have developed leukemias differing in morphologic subtype, tumor cytogenetics, and abruptness of presentation. Within this family are found subtypes affecting the granulocytic, monocytic, and megakaryocytic lineages. At least one individual has a normal tumor karyotype while another has complex rearrangements including monsomy 7, trisomy 8 and translocation 1;7. Some have presented with acute onset and others with a protracted myelodysplasia syndrome. One person at fifty percent risk of inheriting this gene developed disseminated atypical mycobacterium infection in the absence of leukemia, but also without apparent causes for acquired deficiencies in cellular immunity. Features common to affected family members, including the individual with mycobacterium infection, are the early presence in bone marrow of red cell and platelet maturation defects. A search for mutations in diseased marrows fails to detect abnormalities of p53 exons 5, 6, 7 and 8 or N-ras codons 12, 13 and 61. We conclude that there is a gene in this family that probably acts early in hematopoetic differentiation and confers susceptibility to a wide range of leukemia subtypes spanning the maturation of the myeloid series.

  3. Genome-wide association study identifies common and low-frequency variants at the AMH gene locus that strongly predict serum AMH levels in males.

    PubMed

    Perry, John R B; McMahon, George; Day, Felix R; Ring, Susan M; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2016-01-15

    Anti-Mllerian hormone (AMH) is an essential messenger of sexual differentiation in the foetus and is an emerging biomarker of postnatal reproductive function in females. Due to a paucity of adequately sized studies, the genetic determinants of circulating AMH levels are poorly characterized. In samples from 2815 adolescents aged 15 from the ALSPAC study, we performed the first genome-wide association study of serum AMH levels across a set of ?9 m '1000 Genomes Reference Panel' imputed genetic variants. Genetic variants at the AMH protein-coding gene showed considerable allelic heterogeneity, with both common variants [rs4807216 (PMale = 2 10(-49), Beta: ?0.9 SDs per allele), rs8112524 (PMale = 3 10(-8), Beta: ?0.25)] and low-frequency variants [rs2385821 (PMale = 6 10(-31), Beta: ?1.2, frequency 3.6%)] independently associated with apparently large effect sizes in males, but not females. For all three SNPs, we highlight mechanistic links to AMH gene function and demonstrate highly significant sex interactions (PHet 0.0003-6.3 10(-12)), culminating in contrasting estimates of trait variance explained (24.5% in males versus 0.8% in females). Using these SNPs as a genetic proxy for AMH levels, we found no evidence in additional datasets to support a biological role for AMH in complex traits and diseases in men. PMID:26604150

  4. Genomic analysis of LPS-stimulated myeloid cells identifies a common pro-inflammatory response but divergent IL-10 anti-inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, Andrew Paul; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is an essential physiological response to infection and injury that must be kept within strict bounds. The IL-10/STAT3 anti-inflammatory response (AIR) is indispensable for controlling the extent of inflammation, although the complete mechanisms downstream of STAT3 have not yet been elucidated. The AIR is widely known to extend to other myeloid cells, but it has best been characterized in macrophages. Here we set out to characterize the LPS-mediated pro-inflammatory response and the AIR across a range of myeloid cells. We found that whereas the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response is broadly similar among macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, mast cells and eosinophils, the AIR is drastically different across all myeloid cell types that respond to IL-10 (all bar eosinophils). We propose a model whereby the IL-10/STAT3 AIR works by selectively inhibiting specific pathways in distinct cell types: in macrophages the AIR most likely works through the inhibition of NF-?B target genes; in DCs and mast cells through indirect IRF disruption; and in neutrophils through IRF disruption and possibly also indirect NF-?B inhibition. In summary, no conserved IL-10/STAT3 AIR effectors were identified; instead a cell type-specific model of the AIR is proposed. PMID:25765318

  5. Common components of the infection thread matrix and the intercellular space identified by immunocytochemical analysis of pea nodules and uninfected roots

    PubMed Central

    VandenBosch, Kathryn A.; Bradley, Desmond J.; Knox, J. Paul; Perotto, Silvia; Butcher, Geoffrey W.; Brewin, Nicholas J.

    1989-01-01

    Three rat hybridoma cell lines have been isolated which produce monoclonal antibodies identifying a noduleenhanced, soluble component of Pisum sativum root nodules. These antibodies each recognized a protease-sensitive band (Mr 95K) on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The 95K antigen was resolved by isoelectric focusing into acidic and neutral components which were separately detected by AFRC MAC 236 and MAC 265 respectively. The third antibody (MAC 204) reacted with both acidic and neutral components through an epitope that was sensitive to periodate oxidation. These monoclonal antibodies were used for immunogold localizations at light and electron microscopic levels. In each case, the antigen was shown to be present in the matrix that surrounds the invading rhizobia in infection threads and infection droplets, as well as in the intercellular spaces between plant cell walls of nodules and also of uninfected roots. By contrast, a fourth monoclonal antibody, AFRC JIM 5, labelled a pectic component in the walls of infection threads, and JIM 5 was also found to label the middle lamella of plant cell walls, especially at three-way junctions between cells. The composition and structure of the infection thread lumen is thus comparable to that of an intercellular space. Images PMID:16453870

  6. Genomic analysis of LPS-stimulated myeloid cells identifies a common pro-inflammatory response but divergent IL-10 anti-inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Andrew Paul; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is an essential physiological response to infection and injury that must be kept within strict bounds. The IL-10/STAT3 anti-inflammatory response (AIR) is indispensable for controlling the extent of inflammation, although the complete mechanisms downstream of STAT3 have not yet been elucidated. The AIR is widely known to extend to other myeloid cells, but it has best been characterized in macrophages. Here we set out to characterize the LPS-mediated pro-inflammatory response and the AIR across a range of myeloid cells. We found that whereas the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response is broadly similar among macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, mast cells and eosinophils, the AIR is drastically different across all myeloid cell types that respond to IL-10 (all bar eosinophils). We propose a model whereby the IL-10/STAT3 AIR works by selectively inhibiting specific pathways in distinct cell types: in macrophages the AIR most likely works through the inhibition of NF-?B target genes; in DCs and mast cells through indirect IRF disruption; and in neutrophils through IRF disruption and possibly also indirect NF-?B inhibition. In summary, no conserved IL-10/STAT3 AIR effectors were identified; instead a cell type-specific model of the AIR is proposed. PMID:25765318

  7. Use of Anisotropy, 3D Segmented Atlas, and Computational Analysis to Identify Gray Matter Subcortical Lesions Common to Concussive Injury from Different Sites on the Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Praveen; Kenkel, William; Finklestein, Seth P.; Barchet, Thomas M.; Ren, JingMei; Davenport, Mathew; Shenton, Martha E.; Kikinis, Zora; Nedelman, Mark; Ferris, Craig F.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can occur anywhere along the cortical mantel. While the cortical contusions may be random and disparate in their locations, the clinical outcomes are often similar and difficult to explain. Thus a question that arises is, do concussions at different sites on the cortex affect similar subcortical brain regions? To address this question we used a fluid percussion model to concuss the right caudal or rostral cortices in rats. Five days later, diffusion tensor MRI data were acquired for indices of anisotropy (IA) for use in a novel method of analysis to detect changes in gray matter microarchitecture. IA values from over 20,000 voxels were registered into a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas covering 150 brain areas. Comparisons between left and right hemispheres revealed a small population of subcortical sites with altered IA values. Rostral and caudal concussions were of striking similarity in the impacted subcortical locations, particularly the central nucleus of the amygdala, laterodorsal thalamus, and hippocampal complex. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis of these sites showed significant neuroinflammation. This study presents three significant findings that advance our understanding and evaluation of TBI: 1) the introduction of a new method to identify highly localized disturbances in discrete gray matter, subcortical brain nuclei without postmortem histology, 2) the use of this method to demonstrate that separate injuries to the rostral and caudal cortex produce the same subcortical, disturbances, and 3) the central nucleus of the amygdala, critical in the regulation of emotion, is vulnerable to concussion. PMID:25955025

  8. Molecular and genetic analyses of four nonfunctional S haplotype variants derived from a common ancestral S haplotype identified in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Hauck, Nathanael R; Tao, Ryutaro; Jiang, Ning; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2010-02-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) has an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system; however, individuals can be either self-incompatible (SI) or self-compatible (SC). Unlike the situation in the Solanaceae, where self-compatibility accompanying polyploidization is often due to the compatibility of heteroallelic pollen, the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the compatibility of pollen containing two nonfunctional S haplotypes. Sour cherry individuals with the S(4)S(6)S(36a)S(36b) genotype are predicted to be SC, as only pollen containing both nonfunctional S(36a) and S(36b) haplotypes would be SC. However, we previously found that individuals of this genotype were SI. Here we describe four nonfunctional S(36) variants. Our molecular analyses identified a mutation that would confer loss of stylar S function for one of the variants, and two alterations that might cause loss of pollen S function for all four variants. Genetic crosses showed that individuals possessing two nonfunctional S(36) haplotypes and two functional S haplotypes have reduced self-fertilization due to a very low frequency of transmission of the one pollen type that would be SC. Our finding that the underlying mechanism limiting successful transmission of genetically compatible gametes does not involve GSI is consistent with our previous genetic model for Prunus in which heteroallelic pollen is incompatible. This provides a unique case in which breakdown of SI does not occur despite the potential to generate SC pollen genotypes. PMID:19917768

  9. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common susceptibility polymorphisms for colorectal and endometrial cancer near SH2B3 and TSHZ1.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Timothy H T; Thompson, Deborah; Painter, Jodie; O'Mara, Tracy; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Palles, Claire; Jones, Angela; Buchanan, Daniel D; Ko Win, Aung; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Giles, Graham G; Pharoah, Paul; Peto, Julian; Cox, Angela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Couch, Fergus; Cunningham, Julie M; Goode, Ellen L; Winham, Stacey J; Lambrechts, Diether; Fasching, Peter; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Salvesen, Helga B; Kristensen, Vessela; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Tao; Lindblom, Annika; Hall, Per; de Polanco, Magdalena Echeverry; Sans, Monica; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Aguiar Jnr, Samuel; Teixeira, Manuel R; Dunning, Alison M; Dennis, Joe; Otton, Geoffrey; Proietto, Tony; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Ashton, Katie; Scott, Rodney J; McEvoy, Mark; Dowdy, Sean C; Fridley, Brooke L; Werner, Henrica M J; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Tham, Emma; Mints, Miriam; Runnebaum, Ingo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Amant, Frederic; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif; Czene, Kamila; Meindl, Alfons; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wang, Qin; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Shah, Mitul; Annibali, Daniela; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Al-Tassan, Nada A; Harris, Rebecca; Meyer, Brian F; Whiffin, Nicola; Hosking, Fay J; Kinnersley, Ben; Farrington, Susan M; Timofeeva, Maria; Tenesa, Albert; Campbell, Harry; Haile, Robert W; Hodgson, Shirley; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Cheadle, Jeremy P; Easton, Douglas; Dunlop, Malcolm; Houlston, Richard; Spurdle, Amanda; Tomlinson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    High-risk mutations in several genes predispose to both colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC). We therefore hypothesised that some lower-risk genetic variants might also predispose to both CRC and EC. Using CRC and EC genome-wide association series, totalling 13,265 cancer cases and 40,245 controls, we found that the protective allele [G] at one previously-identified CRC polymorphism, rs2736100 near TERT, was associated with EC risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, P = 0.000167); this polymorphism influences the risk of several other cancers. A further CRC polymorphism near TERC also showed evidence of association with EC (OR = 0.92; P = 0.03). Overall, however, there was no good evidence that the set of CRC polymorphisms was associated with EC risk, and neither of two previously-reported EC polymorphisms was associated with CRC risk. A combined analysis revealed one genome-wide significant polymorphism, rs3184504, on chromosome 12q24 (OR = 1.10, P = 7.23 × 10(-9)) with shared effects on CRC and EC risk. This polymorphism, a missense variant in the gene SH2B3, is also associated with haematological and autoimmune disorders, suggesting that it influences cancer risk through the immune response. Another polymorphism, rs12970291 near gene TSHZ1, was associated with both CRC and EC (OR = 1.26, P = 4.82 × 10(-8)), with the alleles showing opposite effects on the risks of the two cancers. PMID:26621817

  10. 708 Common and 2010 rare DISC1 locus variants identified in 1542 subjects: analysis for association with psychiatric disorder and cognitive traits

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, P A; Parla, J S; McRae, A F; Kramer, M; Ramakrishnan, K; Yao, J; Soares, D C; McCarthy, S; Morris, S W; Cardone, L; Cass, S; Ghiban, E; Hennah, W; Evans, K L; Rebolini, D; Millar, J K; Harris, S E; Starr, J M; MacIntyre, D J; McIntosh, A M; Watson, J D; Deary, I J; Visscher, P M; Blackwood, D H; McCombie, W R; Porteous, D J

    2014-01-01

    A balanced t(1;11) translocation that transects the Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene shows genome-wide significant linkage for schizophrenia and recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) in a single large Scottish family, but genome-wide and exome sequencing-based association studies have not supported a role for DISC1 in psychiatric illness. To explore DISC1 in more detail, we sequenced 528 kb of the DISC1 locus in 653 cases and 889 controls. We report 2718 validated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of which 2010 have a minor allele frequency of <1%. Only 38% of these variants are reported in the 1000 Genomes Project European subset. This suggests that many DISC1 SNPs remain undiscovered and are essentially private. Rare coding variants identified exclusively in patients were found in likely functional protein domains. Significant region-wide association was observed between rs16856199 and rMDD (P=0.026, unadjusted P=6.3 × 10−5, OR=3.48). This was not replicated in additional recurrent major depression samples (replication P=0.11). Combined analysis of both the original and replication set supported the original association (P=0.0058, OR=1.46). Evidence for segregation of this variant with disease in families was limited to those of rMDD individuals referred from primary care. Burden analysis for coding and non-coding variants gave nominal associations with diagnosis and measures of mood and cognition. Together, these observations are likely to generalise to other candidate genes for major mental illness and may thus provide guidelines for the design of future studies. PMID:23732877

  11. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common susceptibility polymorphisms for colorectal and endometrial cancer near SH2B3 and TSHZ1

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Timothy HT; Thompson, Deborah; Painter, Jodie; O’Mara, Tracy; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Palles, Claire; Jones, Angela; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Ko Win, Aung; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Giles, Graham G; Pharoah, Paul; Peto, Julian; Cox, Angela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Couch, Fergus; Cunningham, Julie M; Goode, Ellen L; Winham, Stacey J; Lambrechts, Diether; Fasching, Peter; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Salvesen, Helga B.; Kristensen, Vessela; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Tao; Lindblom, Annika; Hall, Per; de Polanco, Magdalena Echeverry; Sans, Monica; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Aguiar Jnr, Samuel; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Dunning, Alison M; Dennis, Joe; Otton, Geoffrey; Proietto, Tony; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Ashton, Katie; Scott, Rodney J; McEvoy, Mark; Dowdy, Sean C; Fridley, Brooke L; Werner, Henrica MJ; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Tham, Emma; Mints, Miriam; Runnebaum, Ingo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Amant, Frederic; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif; Czene, Kamila; Meindl, Alfons; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wang, Qin; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Shah, Mitul; Annibali, Daniela; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Al-Tassan, Nada A.; Harris, Rebecca; Meyer, Brian F.; Whiffin, Nicola; Hosking, Fay J; Kinnersley, Ben; Farrington, Susan M.; Timofeeva, Maria; Tenesa, Albert; Campbell, Harry; Haile, Robert W.; Hodgson, Shirley; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Cheadle, Jeremy P.; Easton, Douglas; Dunlop, Malcolm; Houlston, Richard; Spurdle, Amanda; Tomlinson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    High-risk mutations in several genes predispose to both colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC). We therefore hypothesised that some lower-risk genetic variants might also predispose to both CRC and EC. Using CRC and EC genome-wide association series, totalling 13,265 cancer cases and 40,245 controls, we found that the protective allele [G] at one previously-identified CRC polymorphism, rs2736100 near TERT, was associated with EC risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, P = 0.000167); this polymorphism influences the risk of several other cancers. A further CRC polymorphism near TERC also showed evidence of association with EC (OR = 0.92; P = 0.03). Overall, however, there was no good evidence that the set of CRC polymorphisms was associated with EC risk, and neither of two previously-reported EC polymorphisms was associated with CRC risk. A combined analysis revealed one genome-wide significant polymorphism, rs3184504, on chromosome 12q24 (OR = 1.10, P = 7.23 × 10−9) with shared effects on CRC and EC risk. This polymorphism, a missense variant in the gene SH2B3, is also associated with haematological and autoimmune disorders, suggesting that it influences cancer risk through the immune response. Another polymorphism, rs12970291 near gene TSHZ1, was associated with both CRC and EC (OR = 1.26, P = 4.82 × 10−8), with the alleles showing opposite effects on the risks of the two cancers. PMID:26621817

  12. Pathogenesis-Related Proteins Limit the Retention of Condensed Tannin Additions to Red Wines.

    PubMed

    Springer, Lindsay F; Sherwood, Robert W; Sacks, Gavin L

    2016-02-17

    Exogenous additions of condensed tannin (CT) to must or wine are a common winemaking practice, but many studies have reported inexplicably low and variable retention of added CT. We observed that additions of purified CT to red wines can result in the formation of an insoluble precipitate with high nitrogen content. Proteomic analysis of the precipitant identified several classes of pathogenesis-related proteins. Proteins in juices and red wines were quantitated by SDS-PAGE and were highest in native Vitis spp., followed by interspecific hybrids and Vitis vinifera. Wine protein was positively correlated with the ratio of juice protein to the quantity of tannin derived from fruit. The binding of added CT by wine protein could be well modeled by the Freundlich equation. These observations may explain the poor CT retention in previous studies, particularly for interspecific hybrids, and also indicate that protein removal during winemaking may improve exogenous CT retention. PMID:26806526

  13. 17?-carboxamide steroids--in vitro prediction of human skin permeability and retention using PAMPA technique.

    PubMed

    Dobri?i?, Vladimir; Markovi?, Bojan; Nikolic, Katarina; Savi?, Vladimir; Vladimirov, Sote; ?udina, Olivera

    2014-02-14

    In this paper, twenty-two 17?-carboxamide steroids were synthesized from five corticosteroids (hydrocortisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone, dexamethasone and betamethasone) in two steps. The first step was periodic acid oxydation of these corticosteroids to corresponding cortienic acids and the second step was amidation of thus obtained cortienic acids with esterified l-amino acids. These compounds are potential soft corticosteroids with local anti-inflammatory activity in the skin. Parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) was applied in order to predict permeability and retention of these compounds in human skin. Comparison of permeability and retention parameters between 17?-carboxamide steroids and corresponding corticosteroids was performed. Compounds with significantly higher retention were identified and the derivative that does not have significantly higher permeability was underlined. Molecular structures of all compounds were optimized by use of Gaussian semiempirical/PM3 method. Geometrical, thermodynamic, physicochemical and electronical molecular parameters of the optimized structures were calculated and quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) analysis was performed in order to explain permeability and retention of these compounds. ANN-, PLS- and MLR-QSPR models were created. Quality of these models was evaluated by commonly used statistical parameters and the most reliable models were selected. Analyzing descriptors in the selected models, main molecular properties that influence permeability and retention in the PAMPA artificial membrane were identified. Based on these data, further structural modifications could be applied in order to increase retention without significant increase of permeability, which can positively affect potential local anti-inflammatory activity of these compounds. Selected QSPR models could be used as in silico tool for predicting human skin permeability and retention of novel 17?-carboxamide steroids without performing PAMPA experiments. PMID:24239478

  14. Easy and Accurate Calculation of Programmed Temperature Gas Chromatographic Retention Times by Back-Calculation of Temperature and Hold-up Time Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, Paul G.; Carr, Peter W.; Cohen, Jerry D.; Hegeman, Adrian D.

    2012-01-01

    Linear retention indices are commonly used to identify compounds in programmed-temperature gas chromatography (GC), but they are unreliable unless the original experimental conditions used to measure them are stringently reproduced. However, differences in many experimental conditions may be properly taken into account by calculating programmed-temperature retention times of compounds from their measured isothermal retention vs. temperature relationships. We call this approach retention projection. Until now, retention projection has been impractical because it required very precise, meticulous measurement of the temperature vs. time and hold-up time vs. temperature profiles actually produced by a specific GC instrument to be accurate. Here we present a new, easy-to-use methodology to precisely measure those profiles: We spike a sample with 25 n-alkanes and use their measured, programmed-temperature retention times to precisely back-calculate what the instrument profiles must have been. Then, when we use those back-calculated profiles to project retention times of 63 chemically diverse compounds, we found that the projections are extremely accurate (e.g. to 0.9 s in a 40 min ramp). They remained accurate with different temperature programs, GC instruments, inlet pressures, flow rates, and with columns taken from different batches of stationary phase while the accuracy of retention indices became worse the more the experimental conditions were changed from the original ones used to measure them. We also developed new, open-source software (http://www.retentionprediction.org/gc) to demonstrate the system. PMID:23040964

  15. Central genetic alterations common to all HCV-positive, HBV-positive and non-B, non-C hepatocellular carcinoma: a new approach to identify novel tumor markers.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Yukinori; Honma, Kimi; Takemasa, Ichiro; Nakamori, Shoji; Kita-Matsuo, Hiroko; Motoori, Masaaki; Nagano, Hiroaki; Dono, Keizo; Ochiya, Takahiro; Monden, Morito; Kato, Kikuya

    2006-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy, but the prognosis remains poor due to the lack of sensitive diagnostic markers. To gain insight into the central molecular features common to all types of HCC, and to identify novel diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets for HCC, we performed a gene expression profiling analysis using a high throughput RT-PCR system. After examining the mRNA expression of 3,072 genes in 204 (119 tumor and 85 non-tumor) liver samples, we identified differential gene expression between the HCV group (n=80), HBV group (n=19) and non-B, non-C group (n=20) with a principal component analysis and a correlation spectrum analysis. After selection of genes differentially expressed between tumor and non-tumor tissues (p<0.01) within each HCC group, a total of 51 differentially expressed genes (23 upregulated and 28 downregulated genes) were found to be common to the three HCC groups. Gene Ontology grouping analysis revealed that genes with functions related to cell proliferation or differentiation and genes encoding extracellular proteins were found to be significantly enriched in these 51 common genes. Using an atelocollagen-based cell transfection array for functional analysis of eight upregulated genes, five (CANX, FAM34A, PVRL2, LAMR1, and GBA) significantly inhibited cellular apoptosis by two independent assays. In conclusion, we identified 51 differentially expressed genes, common to all HCC types. Among these genes, there was a high incidence of anti-apoptotic activity. This combination approach with the advanced statistical methods and the bioinformatical analysis may be useful for finding novel molecular targets for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:16391793

  16. Recruitment and retention of emergency medical technicians: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Patterson, P Daniel; Probst, Janice C; Leith, Katherine H; Corwin, Sara J; Powell, M Paige

    2005-01-01

    Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are critical to out-of-hospital care, but maintaining staff can be difficult. The study objective was to identify factors that contribute to recruitment and retention of EMTs and paramedics. Information was drawn from three focus groups of EMT-Basic, EMT-Intermediate, and EMT-Paramedic personnel recruited from participants at an annual conference. Thoughts and feelings of EMTs and paramedics were investigated using eight questions designed to explore entry into emergency medical services, what it is like to be an EMT or paramedic, and the EMT educational process. Data were analyzed at the group level for common themes using NVivo. For a majority of respondents, emergency medical services was not a primary career path. Most respondents entered the industry as an alternate or replacement for a nursing career or as a second career following military medic service. The majority of respondents believed the job was stressful yet rewarding, and although it negatively affected their personal lives, the occupation gave them a sense of accomplishment and belonging. Respondents expressed a preference for EMT education resulting in college credit or licensure versus professional certification. Job-related stress produced by numerous factors appears to be a likely contributor to low employee retention. Recruitment and retention efforts should address study findings, incorporating key findings into educational, evaluation, and job enhancement programs. PMID:16252678

  17. 47 CFR 68.326 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of records. 68.326 Section 68.326 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Conditions for Terminal Equipment Approval 68.326 Retention of records. (a) The...

  18. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  19. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  20. [Chronic monstrous urine retention].

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Frederik Gustav; Holm, Mette Lind

    2015-01-26

    A 75-year-old male was diagnosed with renal mass at a computed tomography during an examination for extended abdominal girth. A large mesenterical cyst was also detected. The patient had infrequent voiding, which he had trained over many years as a taxi driver. A basic physical examination led to suspect urinary retention. His creatinine level was normal and he had no hydronephrosis. A renography showed equal function, but prolonged bilateral outflow. The volume extracted by urethral catheter passed 15 l. Absence of hydronephrosis and normal S-creatinine level has not been described in chronic urinary retention of this extent. Hydronephrosis is seen, but in much smaller volume of retention. Infrequent voiding is easily diagnosed. Urinary retention should be suspected when finding median cystic processes. PMID:25612956

  1. Recruitment and Retention with a Spin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Rita; Hixson, Carla Braun

    2010-01-01

    Strategic planning and innovation at Bismarck State College (BSC) found common ground in the college's goal to recruit and retain employees in an environment of low unemployment and strong competition for skilled employees. BSC's strategic plan for 2007-09 included the objective "to increase retention of employees." One of the strategies connected

  2. Student Responses to Merit Scholarship Retention Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Christopher M.; Lee, Kyung Hee; Mustard, David B.

    2005-01-01

    A common justification for state-sponsored merit scholarships like Georgia's HOPE program is to promote academic achievement. However, grade-based retention rules encourage other behavioral responses. Using longitudinal records of enrolled undergraduates at the University of Georgia between 1989 and 1997, we estimate the effects of HOPE on

  3. Retention Indices for Frequently Reported Compounds of Plant Essential Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babushok, V. I.; Linstrom, P. J.; Zenkevich, I. G.

    2011-12-01

    Gas chromatographic retention indices were evaluated for 505 frequently reported plant essential oil components using a large retention index database. Retention data are presented for three types of commonly used stationary phases: dimethyl silicone (nonpolar), dimethyl silicone with 5% phenyl groups (slightly polar), and polyethylene glycol (polar) stationary phases. The evaluations are based on the treatment of multiple measurements with the number of data records ranging from about 5 to 800 per compound. Data analysis was limited to temperature programmed conditions. The data reported include the average and median values of retention index with standard deviations and confidence intervals.

  4. Common Space, Common Time, Common Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Melody J.

    2005-01-01

    The most valued means of support and learning cited by new teachers at Poland Regional High School in rural Maine are the collegial interactions that common workspace, common planning time, and common tasks make possible. The school has used these everyday structures to enable new and veteran teachers to converse about curricular and pedagogical

  5. Predictors of retention in treatment in a tertiary care de-addiction center

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Pradipta; Sarkar, Siddharth; Gupta, Rishab; Patra, Bichitra Nanda; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Context: Retention in treatment can improve the outcomes of patients with substance use disorders. Aims: This study aimed to assess the predictors of treatment retention in a set of patients admitted with substance use disorders. Setting and Design: This record-based study was conducted among consecutive patients discharged from the inpatient unit of a tertiary care de-addiction facility in Northern India. Materials and Methods: Patients were classified as being retained in treatment or drop-outs based on follow-up records. Statistical Analysis: Those who were retained and those who dropped out were compared using appropriate parametric and nonparametric tests. Logistic regression was used to find out the predictors of retention in treatment. Results: A total of 88 case records were evaluated. All subjects were males and majority of the sample was married, educated up to 10th grade, employed, belonged to the nuclear family and urban background. Opioid dependence syndrome (96.6%) was the most common substance use disorder identified. Guilt feelings, general weakness of body, and loss of social respect were the most common substance-related complications experienced. Of the total sample, 40 (45.4%) were classified as retained into treatment. Higher socioeconomic status and having a family member with substance use was associated with higher chances of treatment retention. Conclusion: Identification of patient characteristics predicting drop-outs can help in targeting those individuals at higher risk. This can help in more favorable patient outcomes. PMID:26985101

  6. A Descriptive Study of the Retention of Secondary Trade and Industrial Teachers in Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Sho-Hsien; Dainty, Julie D.; Sandford, Brian A.; Townsend, Donald; Belcher, Gregory G.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher retention is an important issue which can influence the delivery of quality education. However, only a few factors have been identified in the area of career and technical education that may influence teacher retention. The purpose of this study was to identify specific factors that may influence the retention of trade and industrial…

  7. Clinic Network Collaboration and Patient Tracing to Maximize Retention in HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, James H.; Moore, Richard; Eu, Beng; Tee, Ban-Kiem; Chen, Marcus; El-Hayek, Carol; Street, Alan; Woolley, Ian; Buggie, Andrew; Collins, Danielle; Medland, Nicholas; Hoy, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding retention and loss to follow up in HIV care, in particular the number of people with unknown outcomes, is critical to maximise the benefits of antiretroviral therapy. Individual-level data are not available for these outcomes in Australia, which has an HIV epidemic predominantly focused amongst men who have sex with men. Methods and Findings A network of the 6 main HIV clinical care sites was established in the state of Victoria, Australia. Individuals who had accessed care at these sites between February 2011 and June 2013 as assessed by HIV viral load testing but not accessed care between June 2013 and February 2014 were considered individuals with potentially unknown outcomes. For this group an intervention combining cross-referencing of clinical data between sites and phone tracing individuals with unknown outcomes was performed. 4966 people were in care in the network and before the intervention estimates of retention ranged from 85.9%95.8% and the proportion with unknown outcomes ranged from 1.3-5.5%. After the intervention retention increased to 91.498.8% and unknown outcomes decreased to 0.12.4% (p<.01 for all sites for both outcomes). Most common reasons for disengagement from care were being too busy to attend or feeling well. For those with unknown outcomes prior to the intervention documented active psychiatric illness at last visit was associated with not re-entering care (p = 0.04) Conclusions The network demonstrated low numbers of people with unknown outcomes and high levels of retention in care. Increased levels of retention in care and reductions in unknown outcomes identified after the intervention largely reflected confirmation of clinic transfers while a smaller number were successfully re-engaged in care. Factors associated with disengagement from care were identified. Systems to monitor patient retention, care transfer and minimize disengagement will maximise individual and population-level outcomes for populations with HIV. PMID:26011034

  8. Development of a Multiplexed Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) Assay to Identify Common Members of the Subgenera Culex (Culex) and Culex (Phenacomyia) in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Rebekah J.; Deus, Stephen; Williams, Martin; Savage, Harry M.

    2010-01-01

    Morphological differentiation of mosquitoes in the subgenera Culex (Culex) and Culex (Phenacomyia) in Guatemala is difficult, with reliable identification ensured only through examination of larval skins from individually reared specimens and associated male genitalia. We developed a multiplexed polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay to identify common Cx. (Cux.) and Cx. (Phc.). Culex (Cux.) chidesteri, Cx. (Cux.) coronator, Cx. (Cux.) interrogator, Cx. (Cux.) quinquefasciatus, Cx. (Cux.) nigripalpus/Cx. (Cux.) thriambus, and Cx. (Phc.) lactator were identified directly with a multiplexed primer cocktail comprising a conserved forward primer and specific reverse primers targeting ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Culex nigripalpus and Cx. thriambus were differentiated by restriction digest of homologous amplicons. The assay was developed and optimized using well-characterized specimens from Guatemala and the United States and field tested with unknown material from Guatemala. This assay will be a valuable tool for mosquito identification in entomological and arbovirus ecology studies in Guatemala. PMID:20682869

  9. Common Cold

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  10. Standardized fluorescence in situ hybridization testing based on an appropriate panel of probes more effectively identifies common cytogenetic abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes than conventional cytogenetic analysis: a multicenter prospective study of 2302 patients in China.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yue-Yun; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Li, Juan; Zou, Ping; Xu, Ze-Feng; Sun, Hui; Shao, Zong-Hong; Zhou, Dao-Bin; Chen, Fang-Ping; Liu, Zhuo-Gang; Zhu, Huan-Ling; Wu, De-Pei; Wang, Chun; Zhang, Yin; Li, Yan; Hou, Ming; Du, Xin; Wang, Xin; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Rong; Zhou, Jin; Zhou, Yu-Hong; Fang, Mei-Yun; Qiu, Lin; Wang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Guang-Sen; Jiang, Ming; Liang, Ying-Min; Zhang, Lian-Sheng; Chen, Xie-Qun; Bai, Hai; Lin, Jin-Ying

    2015-05-01

    In an attempt to establish the advantages of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies over conventional cytogenetic (CC) analysis, a total of 2302 de novo MDS patients from 31 Chinese institutions were prospectively selected in the present study for both CC and standardized FISH analysis for +8, -7/7q-, -5/5q-, 20q- and-Y chromosomal abnormalities. CC analysis was successful in 94.0% of the patients; of these patients, 35.9% of the cases were abnormal. FISH analysis was successful in all 2302 patients and detected at least one type of common cytogenetic abnormality in 42.7% of the cases. The incidences of +8, -7/7q-, -5/5q-, 20q- and-Y chromosomal abnormalities by FISH were 4.1% to 8.7% higher than those by CC. FISH identified abnormalities in 23.6% of the patients exhibiting normal CC results and revealed that 20.7% of the patients with adequate normal metaphases (?20) had abnormal clones. FISH identified cytogenetic abnormalities in 50.4% of the patients with failed CC analysis. In summary, our multicenter studies emphasised and confirmed the importance of applying standardized FISH testing based on an appropriate panel of probes to detect common cytogenetic abnormalities in Chinese de novo MDS patients, particularly those with normal or failed CC results. PMID:25823643

  11. Retention can be improved!

    PubMed

    Bauer, M; Cherry, R J; Clutter, P; Nelson, B; Sandwell, A

    1993-10-01

    A unique program has been developed to encourage retention of nurses who prefer to remain in direct patient care roles. Both recognition and monetary reward are available to nurses who join the "Professional Excellence in Nursing" (PEN) program. The underlying philosophy is that stable employment, clearly defined and attainable goals and recognition for a higher level of performance are keys to job satisfaction--and thus to retention. Evaluative data on this young program are not available but informal surveys indicate a positive outcome. PMID:8414299

  12. Predictors of First-Year Retention in a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertes, Scott J.; Hoover, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Retention is a complex issue of great importance to community colleges. Several retention models have been developed to help explain this phenomenon. However, these models typically have used four-year college and university environments to build their foundations. Several researchers have attempted to identify predictor variables using

  13. Retention in Special Education Teachers in Georgia: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Arndra N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was to identify and examine factors influencing the retention rate of special education teachers in rural and urban schools in middle Georgia. Provided in this study are factors that are related to retention in special education teachers. Semistructured interviews were used to…

  14. Predictors of First-Year Retention in a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertes, Scott J.; Hoover, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Retention is a complex issue of great importance to community colleges. Several retention models have been developed to help explain this phenomenon. However, these models typically have used four-year college and university environments to build their foundations. Several researchers have attempted to identify predictor variables using…

  15. Flying Blind: National Graduation Goals and Adult Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilghman, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this article is to shed light on a variety of metrics institutions and some accreditors currently use to track the retention of working adults. Further, it identifies a number of important principles that all stakeholders should consider when creating a standard measure of adult student retention. Finally, it describes a few errors to…

  16. Changing Perspectives on Student Retention: A Role for Institutional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Gerald W.; Brozovsky, Paul V.; McLaughlin, Josetta S.

    1998-01-01

    Proposes a role for institutional research in changing institutional attitudes about priority placed on student retention efforts. Identifies organizational/attitudinal barriers to improving student retention efforts relative to theory on stages of grief (denial, hostility, bargaining, depression, acceptance); outlines tactics for moving the…

  17. Retention in Special Education Teachers in Georgia: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Arndra N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was to identify and examine factors influencing the retention rate of special education teachers in rural and urban schools in middle Georgia. Provided in this study are factors that are related to retention in special education teachers. Semistructured interviews were used to

  18. Retention-Attrition in the Nineties. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawer, Florence B.

    Concern about retention and attrition rates in higher education have increased over the years and efforts to identify and treat potential dropouts have grown considerably. Studies investigating the retention and attrition of community college students have found specific characteristics related to outcomes, including full- or part-time attendance,

  19. Seed Implant Retention Score Predicts the Risk of Prolonged Urinary Retention After Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoon K.; Adams, Marc T.; Shi, Qiuhu; Basillote, Jay; LaMonica, Joanne; Miranda, Luis; Motta, Joseph

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To risk-stratify patients for urinary retention after prostate brachytherapy according to a novel seed implant retention score (SIRS). Patients and Methods: A total of 835 patients underwent transperineal prostate seed implant from March 1993 to January 2007; 197 patients had {sup 125}I and 638 patients had {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy. Four hundred ninety-four patients had supplemental external-beam radiation. The final downsized prostate volume was used for the 424 patients who had neoadjuvant hormone therapy. Retention was defined as reinsertion of a Foley catheter after the implant. Results: Retention developed in 7.4% of patients, with an average duration of 6.7 weeks. On univariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation (10% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.02), neoadjuvant hormone therapy (9.4% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02), baseline alpha-blocker use (12.5% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.008), and increased prostate volume (13.4% vs. 6.9% vs. 2.9%, >45 cm{sup 3}, 25-45 cm{sup 3}, <25 cm{sup 3}; p = 0.0008) were significantly correlated with increased rates of retention. On multivariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation, neoadjuvant hormone therapy, baseline alpha-blocker use, and increased prostate volume were correlated with retention. A novel SIRS was modeled as the combined score of these factors, ranging from 0 to 5. There was a significant correlation between the SIRS and retention (p < 0.0001). The rates of retention were 0, 4%, 5.6%, 9%, 20.9%, and 36.4% for SIRS of 0 to 5, respectively. Conclusions: The SIRS may identify patients who are at high risk for prolonged retention after prostate brachytherapy. A prospective validation study of the SIRS is planned.

  20. Financial Literacy and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ruth L.

    2006-01-01

    Higher education administrators know it is more cost-effective to keep students than to recruit them. Understanding financial literacy--and how it impacts student retention and persistence on the campuses--is an important concept for administrators to comprehend. Most students are not financially literate when they enter the world of higher

  1. Tritium retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Wilson, K.L.

    1988-04-01

    This report discusses the materials physics related to D-T operation in TFTR. Research activities are described pertaining to basic studies of hydrogenic retention in graphite, hydrogen recycling phenomena, first-wall and limiter conditioning, surface analysis of TFTR first-wall components, and estimates of the tritium inventory.

  2. Improving Doctoral Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Shelly M.; Papalewis, Rosemary

    This report describes a case study in the use of peer mentoring and cohorts to improve doctoral student retention and summarizes survey data reflecting the experience of eight universities. The University of California/California State University Fresno Joint Doctoral Program in Educational Leadership was designed to create cohorts of doctoral…

  3. Retention and Persistence Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Timothy R.

    Two studies are combined with an introductory section: one is "Persistence to Graduation for Freshmen Entering the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1967-75," by Timothy Sanford, and the second is "Freshman, Transfer, Professional, Masters, and Doctoral Student Retention at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill," by Paul D.

  4. Improving College Freshman Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Winnie Y.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, access to higher education was greatly improved through public funding. This improvement is not matched by a similar increase in graduation rate. The purpose of this study is to examine what postsecondary institutions can do to improve college freshman retention. The conceptual framework was based on research on college student…

  5. Data Show Retention Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee J.; Robelen, Erik W.; Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    New nationwide data collected by the U.S. Department of Education's civil rights office reveal stark racial and ethnic disparities in student retentions, with black and Hispanic students far more likely than white students to repeat a grade, especially in elementary and middle school. The contrast is especially strong for African-Americans. In the

  6. Recruitment, Retention, Attrition Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Ronald J., Ed.

    Based on a series of faculty workshops conducted at Jefferson Community College (KY) in 1978 and 1980, this handbook outlines 95 practical suggestions for increasing student retention rates. After introductory material describing these workshops, the first 22 suggestions recommend ways to foster positive student/teacher interaction. Methods are

  7. Secrets of Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Recruiting students is one thing, but keeping them in a chorus, orchestra, or band is another. Although a music director has no control over some variables, there is much that can be done to help students to stay. Several experts share their advice on retention. One expert said a teacher's own attitude and classroom strategies may be two of the…

  8. Promoting Employment Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relave, Nanette

    2000-01-01

    This document examines policy and program issues related to promoting employment retention among recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) who have moved from welfare into employment. The document begins with background information about the work requirements and time limits affecting TANF recipients. The second section…

  9. Secrets of Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Recruiting students is one thing, but keeping them in a chorus, orchestra, or band is another. Although a music director has no control over some variables, there is much that can be done to help students to stay. Several experts share their advice on retention. One expert said a teacher's own attitude and classroom strategies may be two of the

  10. Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.; John, B.

    2002-05-01

    Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients for two ponds in North Carolina. Employing a simple first order model that includes water residence time, the first order process responsible for species removal have been separated from the water residence time over which it acts. Assuming the rate constant for species removal is constant within the pond (arguable at least), the annual average rate constant for species removal is generated. Using the annual mean rate constant for species removal and monthly water residence times results in a significantly enhanced predictive capability for Davis Pond during most months of the year. Predictive ability remains poor in Davis Pond during winter/unstratified periods when internal loading of P and N results in low to negative chemical retention. Predictive ability for Piedmont Pond (which has numerous negative chemical retention periods) is improved but not to the same extent as Davis Pond. In Davis Pond, the rate constant for sediment removal (each month) is faster than the rate constant for water and explains the good predictability for sediment retention. However, the removal rate constant for P and N is slower than the removal rate constant for sediment (longer water column residence time for P,N than for sediment). Thus sedimentation is not an overall control on nutrient retention. Additionally, the removal rate constant for P is slower than for TOC (TOC is not the dominate removal process for P) and N is removed slower than P (different in pond controls). For Piedmont Pond, sediment removal rate constants are slower than the removal rate constant for water indicating significant sediment resuspension episodes. It appears that these sediment resuspension events are aperiodic and control the loading and the chemical retention capability of Piedmont Pond for N,P,TOC. These calculated rate constants reflect the differing internal loading processes for each component and suggest means and mechanisms for the use of ponds in water quality management.

  11. The Principles of Effective Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinto, Vincent

    An overview is provided of the problem of student attrition and the essential components of effective retention programs. Following introductory arguments that the secret of retention is in the development of communities committed to education rather than retention, the paper discusses several major causes of student attrition, including academic

  12. Research Synopsis: Spring 1983 Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    An analysis of spring 1983 retention rates and grade distributions within the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) revealed: (1) College of Alameda had the highest successful retention rate in the PCCD, defined as the total of all students who completed the term with a grade of A, B, C, D, or CR (credit); (2) the PCCD's successful retention

  13. Mobile Learning and Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozdar, Bharat Inder; Kumar, Lalita S.

    2007-01-01

    Student retention in open and distance learning (ODL) is comparatively poor to traditional education and, in some contexts, embarrassingly low. Literature on the subject of student retention in ODL indicates that even when interventions are designed and undertaken to improve student retention, they tend to fall short. Moreover, this area has not…

  14. Enhancing retention of partial dentures using elastomeric retention rings.

    PubMed

    Revathi, Kakkirala; Reddy, Srikanth S; Reddy, Kesava K

    2015-01-01

    This report presents an alternative method for the retention of partial dentures that relies on the engagement of tooth undercuts by a lining material. The lab procedures are also presented. A new maxillary and mandibular acrylic partial dentures were fabricated using elastomeric retention technique for a partially dentate patient. A partially dentate man reported difficulty in retaining his upper removable partial denture (RPD). The maxillary RPD was designed utilizing elastomeric retention technique. During follow-up, it was necessary to replace the retention rings due to wear. The replacement of the retention rings, in this case, was done through a chairside reline technique. Elastomeric retention technique provides exceptionally good retention can be indicated to stabilize, cushion, splint periodontally involved teeth, no enough undercut for clasps, eliminate extractions, single or isolated teeth. PMID:26275205

  15. Variability of Moisture Retention and Hydrophobicity Among Biochars

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research identifies factors and mechanisms that control changes in moisture retention when biochars produced from different feedstocks and under different heat treatment temperatures are mixed with fine sand. While substantial experimental research has been conducted on the ...

  16. Stemming the Revolving Door: Teacher Retention and Attrition in Arctic Alaska Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaden, Ute; Patterson, Philip P.; Healy, Joanne; Adams, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    Limited research is available concerning teacher retention and teacher attrition in Arctic Alaska. This paper reports survey research findings, which identify factors related to teacher retention and attrition in Alaskan Arctic Native communities. Teacher retention rates (2009-2013) vary widely over time showing no significant trends. Results…

  17. Meningitis-Retention Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Basoulis, Dimitrios; Mylona, Maria; Toskas, Pantelis; Tsilingiris, Dimitris; Fytili, Christina

    2015-09-01

    Meningitis-retention syndrome (MRS) is a clinical entity that has recently appeared in the literature. We present the case of a 22-year-old man with fever and headache who, in the course of his hospitalization with a diagnosis of aseptic meningitis, developed acute urinary retention. Fewer than 30 such cases have been described and in several of them, no clear associations with other disorders have been made. In some cases, direct association with viral infection has been proved, and in others, there are indications of an underlying demyelinating condition. To further complicate the issue, various conditions such as Elsberg syndrome and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, which not only have some similarities but also have some distinct differences, have been placed under the umbrella definition of MRS. In our review, we attempt to address these conditions and better define MRS by establishing diagnostic criteria based on what has thus far been described in the literature. PMID:26620904

  18. Meningitis-Retention Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Basoulis, Dimitrios; Mylona, Maria; Toskas, Pantelis; Tsilingiris, Dimitris; Fytili, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Meningitis-retention syndrome (MRS) is a clinical entity that has recently appeared in the literature. We present the case of a 22-year-old man with fever and headache who, in the course of his hospitalization with a diagnosis of aseptic meningitis, developed acute urinary retention. Fewer than 30 such cases have been described and in several of them, no clear associations with other disorders have been made. In some cases, direct association with viral infection has been proved, and in others, there are indications of an underlying demyelinating condition. To further complicate the issue, various conditions such as Elsberg syndrome and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, which not only have some similarities but also have some distinct differences, have been placed under the umbrella definition of MRS. In our review, we attempt to address these conditions and better define MRS by establishing diagnostic criteria based on what has thus far been described in the literature. PMID:26620904

  19. A survey on retention practice among orthodontists in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Low, Tze Fui; Idris, Nur Shaheera

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate retention practices commonly employed by orthodontists. The objectives were to identify the types of retainer frequently used and to investigate the variations in retention practice. Methods A total of 97 orthodontists were randomly selected, and a questionnaire consisting of 25 multiple-choice questions sent to them by mail. Upon receiving of the completed questionnaires, the data were statistically analyzed. Results A total of 32 responses were received; among these, 59.4% of orthodontists' practiced is in a government setting and 40.6% were in private practice. A vacuum-formed retainer was the most commonly used removable retainer for both maxillary (46.9%) and mandibular (46.9%) arches, followed by a Hawley retainer (maxilla, 43.8%; mandible, 37.5%), and a fixed retainer (maxilla, 3.1%; mandible, 9.4%). Of the responding orthodontists, 78.1% prescribed full-time wear (more than 20 h per day) for a duration of 3–9 months for a maxillary arch, compared to 71.9% for the mandibular arch. Only 18.8% of the orthodontists prescribed part-time wear of the retainer for the maxillary arch, compared to 21.9% for the mandibular arch. The majority of orthodontists did not instruct their patients to stop wearing removable retainers (71.9%) or fixed retainers (66.8%) at any specific time and they preferred their patients to continue wearing retainers. Conclusions Vacuum-formed retainers are the most commonly used retainers among orthodontists. The majority of orthodontists prescribed full-time wear for more than 20 h per day with a duration of 3–9 months and preferred indefinite use of the retainer. PMID:26877981

  20. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  1. Sediment retention in rangeland riparian buffers.

    PubMed

    Hook, Paul B

    2003-01-01

    Controlling nonpoint-source sediment pollution is a common goal of riparian management, but there is little quantitative information about factors affecting performance of rangeland riparian buffers. This study evaluated the influence of vegetation characteristics, buffer width, slope, and stubble height on sediment retention in a Montana foothills meadow. Three vegetation types (sedge wetland, rush transition, bunchgrass upland) were compared using twenty-six 6- x 2-m plots spanning 2 to 20% slopes. Plots were clipped moderately (10-15 cm stubble) or severely (2-5 cm stubble). Sediment (silt + fine sand) was added to simulated overland runoff 6, 2, or 1 m above the bottom of each plot. Runoff was sampled at 15-s to > 5-min intervals until sediment concentrations approached background levels. Sediment retention was affected strongly by buffer width and moderately by vegetation type and slope, but was not affected by stubble height. Mean sediment retention ranged from 63 to > 99% for different combinations of buffer width and vegetation type, with 94 to 99% retention in 6-m-wide buffers regardless of vegetation type or slope. Results suggest that rangeland riparian buffers should be at least 6 m wide, with dense vegetation, to be effective and reliable. Narrower widths, steep slopes, and sparse vegetation increase risk of sediment delivery to streams. Vegetation characteristics such as biomass, cover, or density are more appropriate than stubble height for judging capacity to remove sediment from overland runoff, though stubble height may indirectly indicate livestock impacts that can affect buffer performance. PMID:12809315

  2. SNP-guided microRNA maps (MirMaps) of 16 common human disorders identify a clinically accessible therapy reversing transcriptional aberrations of nuclear import and inflammasome pathways.

    PubMed

    Glinsky, Gennadi V

    2008-11-15

    We report the results of a disease phenocode analysis interrogating the relationships between structural features and gene expression patterns of disease-linked SNPs, microRNAs and mRNAs of protein-coding genes in association to phenotypes of 16 major human disorders, which was enabled by multiple independent studies of up to 451,012 combined samples including 194,258 disease cases and 256,754 controls. SNP sequence homology-guided microRNA maps (MirMaps) identify consensus components of a disease phenocode consisting of 81 SNPs and 17 microRNAs. microRNAs of the consensus set are associated with at least 4 common human diseases (range 4 to 7 diseases) and manifest sequence homology/complementarity to at least 4 distinct disease-linked SNPs (range 4 to 14 SNPs). Nearly all microRNAs (15 of 17; 88%) of the consensus set has potential protein-coding mRNA targets among the principal components of the nuclear import pathway (NIP) and/or inflammasome pathways including KPNA1, NLRP1 (NALP1) and NLRP3 (NALP3) genes. Analysis of expression profiling experiments of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) demonstrates statistically significant KPNA1-, NLRP1- and NLRP3-gene expression phenotypes associated with human genotypes of Crohn's disease (CD), Huntington's disease (HD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) populations. Unexpectedly, microarray analysis of PBMC from patients treated with chloroquine reveals a reversal of disease-linked KPNA1-, NLRP1- and NLRP3-gene expression phenotypes, implying that chloroquine could serve as a readily clinically available drug for targeted correction of identified aberrations. We conclude that genetically-defined malfunctions of the NIP and inflammasome pathways are likely to contribute to pathogenesis of multiple common human disorders and PBMC-based genetic tests may be useful for monitoring the individual's response to therapy. Prescription of chloroquine, an FDA-approved drug which is widely utilized for treatment of malaria, RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), may have a therapeutic value in clinical management of a large spectrum of human disorders. PMID:19001869

  3. Replication of Genome Wide Association Identified Candidate Genes Confirm the Role of Common and Rare Variants in PAX7 and VAX1 in the Etiology of Non-syndromic CL(P)

    PubMed Central

    Butali, Azeez; Suzuki, Satoshi; Cooper, Margaret E.; Mansilla, Adela M.; Cuenco, Karen; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Suzuki, Yasushi; Niimi, Teruyuki; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Ayanga, Gongorjav; Erkhembaatar, Tudevdorj; Furukawa, Hiroo; Fujiwawa, Kumiko; Imura, Hideto; Petrin, Aline L.; Natsume, Nagato; Beaty, Terri H.; Marazita, Mary L.; Murray, Jeffery C.

    2012-01-01

    Following recent genome wide association studies (GWAS), significant genetic associations have been identified for several genes with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL(P). To replicate two of these GWAS signals, we investigated the role of common and rare variants in the PAX7 and VAX1 genes. TaqMan genotyping was carried out for SNPs in VAX1 and PAX7 and Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) was performed to test for linkage and association in each population. Direct sequencing in and around the PAX7 and VAX1 genes in 1,326 individuals of European and Asian ancestry was done. TDT analysis showed strong associations with markers in VAX1 (rs7078160, p=2.7E-06 and rs475202, p=0.0002) in a combined sample of Mongolian and Japanese CL (P) case-parent triads. Analyses using parent-of-origin effects showed significant excess transmission of the minor allele from both parents with the effect in the mothers (p=6.5E-05, OR (transmission) =1.91) more striking than in the fathers (p=0.004, OR (transmission) =1.67) for VAX1 marker rs7078160 in the combined Mongolian and Japanese samples when all cleft types were combined. The rs6659735 trinucleotide marker in PAX7 was significantly associated with all the US cleft groups combined (p=0.007 in all clefts and p=0.02 in CL(P)). Eight rare missense mutations found in PAX7 and two rare missense mutations in VAX1. Our study replicated previous GWAS findings for markers in VAX1 in the Asian population, and identified rare variants in PAX7 and VAX1 that may contribute to the etiology of CL(P). Determining the role of rare variants clearly warrants further investigation. PMID:23463464

  4. Using standardized fMRI protocols to identify patterns of prefrontal circuit dysregulation that are common and specific to cognitive and emotional tasks in major depressive disorder: first wave results from the iSPOT-D study.

    PubMed

    Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Etkin, Amit; Koslow, Stephen H; Williams, Leanne M

    2013-04-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated dysregulation of prefrontal circuits in major depressive disorder (MDD), and these circuits are a viable target for predicting treatment outcomes. However, because of the heterogeneity of tasks and samples used in studies to date, it is unclear whether the central dysfunction is one of prefrontal hyperreactivity or hyporeactivity. We used a standardized battery of tasks and protocols for functional magnetic resonance imaging, to identify the common vs the specific prefrontal circuits engaged by these tasks in the same 30 outpatients with MDD compared with 30 matched, healthy control participants, recruited as part of the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D). Reflecting cognitive neuroscience theory and established evidence, the battery included cognitive tasks designed to assess functions of selective attention, sustained attention-working memory and response inhibition, and emotion tasks to assess explicit conscious and implicit nonconscious viewing of facial emotion. MDD participants were distinguished by a distinctive biosignature of: hypoactivation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during working memory updating and during conscious negative emotion processing; hyperactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during working memory and response inhibition cognitive tasks and hypoactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal during conscious processing of positive emotion. These results show that the use of standardized tasks in the same participants provides a way to tease out prefrontal circuitry dysfunction related to cognitive and emotional functions, and not to methodological or sample variations. These findings provide the frame of reference for identifying prefrontal biomarker predictors of treatment outcomes in MDD. PMID:23303059

  5. Commons Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, William E.; Tyler, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    Explains how a commons area can serve both the school and community by becoming a cost-effective, space-saving asset to the school building. Examines the commons area as a place for interaction; discusses subdividing it into smaller functional units, locating it, and related lighting and heating issues. (GR)

  6. Common cold

    MedlinePLUS

    The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, ... It is called the common cold for good reason. There are over one billion colds in the United States each year. You and your children will ...

  7. An introductory review of parallel independent component analysis (p-ICA) and a guide to applying p-ICA to genetic data and imaging phenotypes to identify disease-associated biological pathways and systems in common complex disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Liu, Jingyu; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2015-01-01

    Complex inherited phenotypes, including those for many common medical and psychiatric diseases, are most likely underpinned by multiple genes contributing to interlocking molecular biological processes, along with environmental factors (Owen et al., 2010). Despite this, genotyping strategies for complex, inherited, disease-related phenotypes mostly employ univariate analyses, e.g., genome wide association. Such procedures most often identify isolated risk-related SNPs or loci, not the underlying biological pathways necessary to help guide the development of novel treatment approaches. This article focuses on the multivariate analysis strategy of parallel (i.e., simultaneous combination of SNP and neuroimage information) independent component analysis (p-ICA), which typically yields large clusters of functionally related SNPs statistically correlated with phenotype components, whose overall molecular biologic relevance is inferred subsequently using annotation software suites. Because this is a novel approach, whose details are relatively new to the field we summarize its underlying principles and address conceptual questions regarding interpretation of resulting data and provide practical illustrations of the method. PMID:26442095

  8. Selenide retention by mackinawite.

    PubMed

    Finck, N; Dardenne, K; Bosbach, D; Geckeis, H

    2012-09-18

    The isotope (79)Se may be of great concern with regard to the safe disposal of nuclear wastes in deep geological repositories due to its long half-life and potential mobility in the geosphere. The Se mobility is controlled by the oxidation state: the oxidized species (Se(IV)) and (Se(VI)) are highly mobile, whereas the reduced species (Se(0) and Se(-II)) form low soluble solids. The mobility of this trace pollutant can be greatly reduced by interacting with the various barriers of the repository. Numerous studies report on the oxidized species retention by mineral phases, but only very scarce studies report on the selenide (Se(-II)) retention. In the present study, the selenide retention by coprecipitation with and by adsorption on mackinawite (FeS) was investigated. XRD and SEM analyses of the samples reveal no significant influence of Se on the mackinawite precipitate morphology and structure. Samples from coprecipitation and from adsorption are characterized at the molecular scale by a multi-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigation. In the coprecipitation experiment, all elements (S, Fe, and Se) are in a low ionic oxidation state and the EXAFS data strongly point to selenium located in a mackinawite-like sulfide environment. By contacting selenide ions with FeS in suspension, part of Se is located in an environment similar to that found in the coprecipitation experiment. The explanation is a dynamical dissolution-recrystallization mechanism of the highly reactive mackinawite. This is the first experimental study to report on selenide incorporation in iron monosulfide by a multi-edge XAS approach. PMID:22900520

  9. Floating nut retention system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. F.; Theakston, H. A. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    A floating nut retention system includes a nut with a central aperture. An inner retainer plate has an opening which is fixedly aligned with the nut aperture. An outer retainer member is formed of a base plate having an opening and a surface adjacent to a surface of the inner retainer plate. The outer retainer member includes a securing mechanism for retaining the inner retainer plate adjacent to the outer retainer member. The securing mechanism enables the inner retainer plate to float with respect to the outer retainer number, while simultaneously forming a bearing surface for inner retainer plate.

  10. The "Ins and Outs" of Marketing and Retention in Virginia's Community Colleges: Exemplary Marketing and Retention Practices in the Virginia Community College System. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puyear, Don, Ed.; And Others

    The Virginia Community College System (VCCS) initiated the Marketing and Retention Recognition Program (MRRP) to identify and publicize innovative marketing and retention activities being implemented throughout the system. This report offers brief sketches of some of the exemplary projects identified by the MRRP. First, introductory material…

  11. The "Ins and Outs" of Marketing and Retention in Virginia's Community Colleges: Exemplary Marketing and Retention Practices in the Virginia Community College System. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puyear, Don, Ed.; And Others

    Detailed descriptive information is provided on programs and activities identified by the Virginia Community College System's (VCCS) Marketing and Retention Recognition Program (MRRP), which was designed to identify and publicize innovative marketing and retention activities being implemented throughout the system. Following introductory material,

  12. Analysis of common bean expressed sequence tags identifies sulfur metabolic pathways active in seed and sulfur-rich proteins highly expressed in the absence of phaseolin and major lectins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A deficiency in phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin is associated with a near doubling of sulfur amino acid content in genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), particularly cysteine, elevated by 70%, and methionine, elevated by 10%. This mostly takes place at the expense of an abundant non-protein amino acid, S-methyl-cysteine. The deficiency in phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin is mainly compensated by increased levels of the 11S globulin legumin and residual lectins. Legumin, albumin-2, defensin and albumin-1 were previously identified as contributing to the increased sulfur amino acid content in the mutant line, on the basis of similarity to proteins from other legumes. Results Profiling of free amino acid in developing seeds of the BAT93 reference genotype revealed a biphasic accumulation of gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine, the main soluble form of S-methyl-cysteine, with a lag phase occurring during storage protein accumulation. A collection of 30,147 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was generated from four developmental stages, corresponding to distinct phases of gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine accumulation, and covering the transitions to reserve accumulation and dessication. Analysis of gene ontology categories indicated the occurrence of multiple sulfur metabolic pathways, including all enzymatic activities responsible for sulfate assimilation, de novo cysteine and methionine biosynthesis. Integration of genomic and proteomic data enabled the identification and isolation of cDNAs coding for legumin, albumin-2, defensin D1 and albumin-1A and -B induced in the absence of phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin. Their deduced amino acid sequences have a higher content of cysteine than methionine, providing an explanation for the preferential increase of cysteine in the mutant line. Conclusion The EST collection provides a foundation to further investigate sulfur metabolism and the differential accumulation of sulfur amino acids in seed of common bean. Identification of sulfur-rich proteins whose levels are elevated in seed lacking phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin and sulfur metabolic genes may assist the improvement of protein quality. PMID:21615926

  13. Recruitment, Retention, and Blinding in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Persch, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    The recruitment and retention of participants and the blinding of participants, health care providers, and data collectors present challenges for clinical trial investigators. This article reviews challenges and alternative strategies associated with these three important clinical trial activities. Common recruiting pitfalls, including low sample size, unfriendly study designs, suboptimal testing locations, and untimely recruitment are discussed together with strategies for overcoming these barriers. The use of active controls, technology-supported visit reminders, and up-front scheduling is recommended to prevent attrition and maximize retention of participants. Blinding is conceptualized as the process of concealing research design elements from key players in the research process. Strategies for blinding participants, health care providers, and data collectors are suggested. PMID:23433269

  14. Reactive barriers for 137Cs retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumhansl, James L.; Brady, Patrick V.; Anderson, Howard L.

    2001-02-01

    137Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of 137Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half-life of 137Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if 137Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with 135Cs (half-life 2.310 6 years) in addition to 137Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention, Cs desorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO 3 and LiCl washes. Washed clays were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F-Ill were similar; 0.017% to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12% to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were Cs-doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt (0.33 wt.% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artifical reactive barriers.

  15. Patient retention at dental school clinics: a marketing perspective.

    PubMed

    Makarem, Suzanne C; Coe, Julie M

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the drivers of patient retention at dental school clinics from a services marketing perspective. An analysis of patient characteristics at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Dentistry, screened between August 2010 and July 2011 (N=3604), was performed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations, and a binary logistic regression. The main findings were that 42 percent of patients in the study were retained and that no response to communication efforts (36 percent) and financial problems (28 percent) constituted the most common reasons for non-retention. Older age, having insurance, and living within a sixty-mile radius were significant drivers of retention (p<0.05). Patients who had completed disease control treatments had a significantly higher retention rate (62 percent) than those who did not (42 percent). Finally, some groups of dental students had higher retention rates than others (p<0.05), indicating that service providers were a driver of retention. The resulting insights benefit dental schools in recruiting patients with the greatest likelihood of returning for care, providing dental students with skills to better service them, and consequently increasing retention. This will lead to providing a continuum of care and student education and to ensuring the sustainability and quality of the school's educational programs. PMID:25362692

  16. Stability and Retention.

    PubMed

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    Stability of tooth position in the broader sense considers all the forces that may act on the tooth. Reitan reported that significant forces remained in the periodontium after tooth movement, and he carried out research that demonstrated residual stretching of the crestal periodontal fibers more than 7 months after tooth movement. Brain demonstrated that severing the fibers reduced the relapse in tooth position in dogs. Edwards published a series of papers exploring the effects of surgical transection of the gingival fibers on tooth stability, recommending that circumferential fiberotomy be performed in order to increase posttreatment tooth stability. Other researchers have suggested ways to increase the stability of the incisors, which are typically most prone to relapse. Peck and Peck recommended that interproximal reduction be done to broaden the contact point. Boese also recommended interproximal reduction as part of a four-pronged approach to retention. PMID:26599118

  17. SULFUR RETENTION IN COAL ASH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analytical study to assess the potential for sulfur retention in various types of coal-fired boilers. Results of a field test of 10 industrial coal-fired boilers were used to evaluate the impact on sulfur retention of the operating variables (load a...

  18. Retention in Grade: Lethal Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Charles

    Despite a growing trend toward retention in grade of low-achieving students and apparent public support for the practice, many educators and psychologists disagree with the perception that flunking is an appropriate response to poor academic performance. Research reported in the past two decades indicates that grade-level retention produces little

  19. Understanding the behavioral determinants of retention in HIV care: a qualitative evaluation of a situated information, motivation, behavioral skills model of care initiation and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laramie R; Fisher, Jeffrey D; Cunningham, Chinazo O; Amico, K Rivet

    2012-06-01

    The current study provides a qualitative test of a recently proposed application of an Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behavior situated to the social-environmental, structural, cognitive-affective, and behavioral demands of retention in HIV care. Mixed-methods qualitative analysis was used to identify the content and context of critical theory-based determinants of retention in HIV care, and to evaluate the relative fit of the model to the qualitative data collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews with a sample of inner-city patients accessing traditional and nontraditional HIV care services in the Bronx, NY. The sample reflected a diverse marginalized patient population who commonly experienced comorbid chronic conditions (e.g., psychiatric disorders, substance abuse disorders, diabetes, hepatitis C). Through deductive content coding, situated IMB model-based content was identified in all but 7.1% of statements discussing facilitators or barriers to retention in HIV care. Inductive emergent theme identification yielded a number of important themes influencing retention in HIV care (e.g., acceptance of diagnosis, stigma, HIV cognitive/physical impairments, and global constructs of self-care). Multiple elements of these themes strongly aligned with the model's IMB constructs. The convergence of the results from both sets of analysis demonstrate that participants' experiences map well onto the content and structure of the situated IMB model, providing a systematic classification of important theoretical and contextual determinants of retention in care. Future intervention efforts to enhance retention in HIV care should address these multiple determinants (i.e., information, motivation, behavioral skills) of self-directed retention in HIV care. PMID:22612447

  20. Understanding the Behavioral Determinants of Retention in HIV Care: A Qualitative Evaluation of a Situated Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills Model of Care Initiation and Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.; Amico, K. Rivet

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The current study provides a qualitative test of a recently proposed application of an Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behavior situated to the social-environmental, structural, cognitive-affective, and behavioral demands of retention in HIV care. Mixed-methods qualitative analysis was used to identify the content and context of critical theory-based determinants of retention in HIV care, and to evaluate the relative fit of the model to the qualitative data collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews with a sample of inner-city patients accessing traditional and nontraditional HIV care services in the Bronx, NY. The sample reflected a diverse marginalized patient population who commonly experienced comorbid chronic conditions (e.g., psychiatric disorders, substance abuse disorders, diabetes, hepatitis C). Through deductive content coding, situated IMB model-based content was identified in all but 7.1% of statements discussing facilitators or barriers to retention in HIV care. Inductive emergent theme identification yielded a number of important themes influencing retention in HIV care (e.g., acceptance of diagnosis, stigma, HIV cognitive/physical impairments, and global constructs of self-care). Multiple elements of these themes strongly aligned with the model's IMB constructs. The convergence of the results from both sets of analysis demonstrate that participants' experiences map well onto the content and structure of the situated IMB model, providing a systematic classification of important theoretical and contextual determinants of retention in care. Future intervention efforts to enhance retention in HIV care should address these multiple determinants (i.e., information, motivation, behavioral skills) of self-directed retention in HIV care. PMID:22612447

  1. Common Chuckwalla

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

  2. Salivary secretion and denture retention.

    PubMed

    Niedermeier, W H; Krmer, R

    1992-02-01

    Correlations between the retention of complete dentures and flow rates of the palatal and parotid glands were studied in 86 patients. The determination of secretion rates and forces of the forward leverage leading to a dislocation of the dentures showed a narrow correlation between the secretion of palatal glands and the retention of maxillary dentures. The retention of mandibular complete dentures is adversely influenced by the secretion rate of minor salivary glands. However, there is no correlation between the flow rate of parotid saliva and the retention of either denture. In addition, the medicinal stimulation of salivation showed that an increase of mucus secretion induced an improved retention of maxillary complete dentures. PMID:1538328

  3. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any

  4. Simulating the Retention of an Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kevin M.; Siedell, C. M.; Davis, A. N.

    2006-12-01

    This poster will describe new simulations exploring concepts related to the retention of an atmosphere. Users have will have the capability to investigate the distribution of speeds for common gases and how they vary with temperature. Another simulator will focus on escape velocity. These concepts will be linked together in simulating exactly which gases are retained by various solar system bodies over time. The Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project consists of high quality astrophysics simulations surrounded by variety of supporting materials. The resources include complete background information, student guides, instructor guides, and embedded assessment. These materials are publicly available at http://astro.unl.edu and are funded by NSF grant #0231270.

  5. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, Stefan; Bhme, Rainer; Kpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  6. Nitrogen surface water retention in the Baltic Sea drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stlnacke, P.; Pengerud, A.; Vassiljev, A.; Smedberg, E.; Mrth, C.-M.; Hgg, H. E.; Humborg, C.; Andersen, H. E.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N) in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW) for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for which we had observed data, with a sufficient degree of precision and accuracy. The estimated retention parameters were also statistically significant. Our results show that around 380 000 t of N are annually retained in surface waters draining to the Baltic Sea. The total annual riverine load from the 117 basins to the Baltic Sea was estimated at 570 000 t of N, giving a total surface water N retention of around 40%. In terms of absolute retention values, three major river basins account for 50% of the total retention in the 117 basins; i.e. around 104 000 t of N are retained in Neva, 55 000 t in Vistula and 32 000 t in Oder. The largest retention was found in river basins with a high percentage of lakes as indicated by a strong relationship between N retention (%) and share of lake area in the river drainage areas. For example in Gta lv, we estimated a total N retention of 72%, whereof 67% of the retention occurred in the lakes of that drainage area (Lake Vnern primarily). The obtained results will hopefully enable the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) to refine the nutrient load targets in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), as well as to better identify cost-efficient measures to reduce nutrient loadings to the Baltic Sea.

  7. Veterans’ Perspectives on Interventions to Improve Retention in HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    Kertz, Barbara L.; Cully, Jeffery A.; Stanley, Melinda A.; Davila, Jessica A.; Dang, Bich N.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Giordano, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Poor retention in HIV medical care is associated with increased mortality among patients with HIV/AIDS. Developing new interventions to improve retention in HIV primary care is needed. The Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) is the largest single provider of HIV care in the US. We sought to understand what veterans would want in an intervention to improve retention in VA HIV care. We conducted 18 one-on-one interviews and 15 outpatient focus groups with 46 patients living with HIV infection from the Michael E. DeBakey VAMC (MEDVAMC). Analysis identified three focus areas for improving retention in care: developing an HIV friendly clinic environment, providing mental health and substance use treatment concurrent with HIV care and encouraging peer support from other Veterans with HIV. PMID:26829641

  8. Veterans' Perspectives on Interventions to Improve Retention in HIV Care.

    PubMed

    Minick, Sophie G; Stafford, Crystal L; Kertz, Barbara L; Cully, Jeffery A; Stanley, Melinda A; Davila, Jessica A; Dang, Bich N; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Giordano, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Poor retention in HIV medical care is associated with increased mortality among patients with HIV/AIDS. Developing new interventions to improve retention in HIV primary care is needed. The Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) is the largest single provider of HIV care in the US. We sought to understand what veterans would want in an intervention to improve retention in VA HIV care. We conducted 18 one-on-one interviews and 15 outpatient focus groups with 46 patients living with HIV infection from the Michael E. DeBakey VAMC (MEDVAMC). Analysis identified three focus areas for improving retention in care: developing an HIV friendly clinic environment, providing mental health and substance use treatment concurrent with HIV care and encouraging peer support from other Veterans with HIV. PMID:26829641

  9. Mnemonic benefits of retrieval practice at short retention intervals.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Christopher A; DeLosh, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    The testing effect refers to the retention benefit conferred by prior retrieval of information from memory. Although the testing effect is a robust phenomenon, a common assumption is that reliable memory benefits only emerge after long retention intervals of days or weeks. The present study focused on potential test-induced retention benefits for brief retention intervals on the order of minutes and tens of seconds. Participants in four experiments studied lists of words. Some of the items were subjected to an initial cued recall test, and others were re-presented for additional study. Free recall tests were administered in each experiment following retention intervals ranging from 30 s to 8 min. When initial retrieval practice was successful (Experiments 1 through 3), or feedback compensated for unsuccessful retrieval (Experiment 4), significant testing effects emerged at all retention intervals. Results are discussed in the context of a bifurcated item-distribution model and highlight the importance of initial test performance and the type of analysis employed when examining testing effect data. PMID:24579674

  10. Enhancing Minority Student Retention and Academic Performance: What We Can Learn from Program Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    In this important resource, Dr. Fleming (a noted expert in the field of minority retention) draws on educational evaluations she has developed in the course of her distinguished career. This book analyzes the common factors and the role institutional characteristics play in minority student retention to show what really works in increasing…

  11. Pulmonary retention of coal dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, P.E.; Gibb, F.R.; Beiter, H.; Amato, F.; Yuile, C.; Kilpper, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The principal objectives of this study were: to determine, quantitatively, coal dust retention times in the dog lung; to test the appropriateness of a pulmonary retention model which incorporates first order rate coefficients obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments on neutron-activated coal; to acquire a temporal description of the pulmonary disposition of the retained coal dust, and to compare the behavior of two different Pennsylvania coals in the foregoing regards. The principal findings include: retention half-times for both coals of approximately 2 years following single, hour-long exposures; a vivid association of the retained coal dust with the pulmonic lymphatics; and a general validation of the retention model.

  12. Maternal Stress Predicts Postpartum Weight Retention

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Kara; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

  13. Turnover: strategies for staff retention.

    PubMed

    SnowAntle, S

    1990-01-01

    This discussion has focused on a number of areas where organizations may find opportunities for more effectively managing employee retention. Given the multitude of causes and consequences, there is no one quick fix. Effective management of employee retention requires assessment of the entire human resources process, that is, recruitment, selection, job design, compensation, supervision, work conditions, etc. Regular and systematic diagnosis of turnover and implementation of multiple strategies and evaluation are needed (Mobley, 1982). PMID:10106673

  14. Phospohorus and calcium retention in serially harvested cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from 3 serial harvest trials were utilized to calculate phosphorus and calcium retention in cattle. Trial 1 evaluated the effect of three rates of gain during a growing period followed by a common finishing diet utilizing British crossbred steers. Four steers were harvested from each treatmen...

  15. Phosphorus and calcium retention in serially harvested cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from 3 serial harvest trials were utilized to calculate phosphorus and calcium retention in cattle. Trial 1 evaluated three rates of gain during a growing period followed by a common finishing diet utilizing British crossbred steers. Four steers were harvested from each treatment following th...

  16. A Social Network Analysis of Student Retention Using Archival Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, James E.; Stradley, Eric G.

    2012-01-01

    This study attempts to determine if a relationship exists between first-to-second-year retention and social network variables for a cohort of first-year students at a small liberal arts college. The social network is reconstructed using not survey data as is most common, but rather using archival data from a student information system. Each…

  17. A Social Network Analysis of Student Retention Using Archival Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, James E.; Stradley, Eric G.

    2012-01-01

    This study attempts to determine if a relationship exists between first-to-second-year retention and social network variables for a cohort of first-year students at a small liberal arts college. The social network is reconstructed using not survey data as is most common, but rather using archival data from a student information system. Each

  18. Retention in medication-assisted treatment for opiate dependence: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Timko, Christine; Schultz, Nicole R; Cucciare, Michael A; Vittorio, Lisa; Garrison-Diehn, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Retention in medication-assisted treatment among opiate-dependent patients is associated with better outcomes. This systematic review (55 articles, 2010-2014) found wide variability in retention rates (i.e., 19%-94% at 3-month, 46%-92% at 4-month, 3%-88% at 6-month, and 37%-91% at 12-month follow-ups in randomized controlled trials), and identified medication and behavioral therapy factors associated with retention. As expected, patients who received naltrexone or buprenorphine had better retention rates than patients who received a placebo or no medication. Consistent with prior research, methadone was associated with better retention than buprenorphine/naloxone. And, heroin-assisted treatment was associated with better retention than methadone among treatment-refractory patients. Only a single study examined retention in medication-assisted treatment for longer than 1 year, and studies of behavioral therapies may have lacked statistical power; thus, studies with longer-term follow-ups and larger samples are needed. Contingency management showed promise to increase retention, but other behavioral therapies to increase retention, such as supervision of medication consumption, or additional counseling, education, or support, failed to find differences between intervention and control conditions. Promising behavioral therapies to increase retention have yet to be identified. PMID:26467975

  19. 32 CFR 240.6 - Retention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retention program. 240.6 Section 240.6 National... INFORMATION ASSURANCE SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM (IASP) § 240.6 Retention program. (a) The DoD IASP retention program... for their selected program, which are outlined in DoD IASP Academic Programs for Retention...

  20. 32 CFR 240.6 - Retention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retention program. 240.6 Section 240.6 National... INFORMATION ASSURANCE SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM (IASP) § 240.6 Retention program. (a) The DoD IASP retention program... for their selected program, which are outlined in DoD IASP Academic Programs for Retention...

  1. Reactive barriers for {sup 137}Cs retention

    SciTech Connect

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BRADY,PATRICK V.; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

    2000-05-19

    {sup 137}Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of {sup 137}Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half life of {sup 137}Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if {sup 137}Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with {sup 135}Cs (half life 2.3x10{sup 6} years) in addition to {sup 137}Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention Cs resorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO{sub 3} and LiCl washes. Washed clay were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F- 111 were similar; 0.017 to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12 to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake so most soils have some limited ability to act as a natural barrier to Cs migration. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt ({approximately} 0.33 wt% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artificial reactive barriers.

  2. Physical Factors in Denture Retention.

    PubMed

    Iida, Y

    1975-03-01

    AAThis investigation was carried out to analyze the physical factors of saliva affecting denture retention. A model of examining denture retention is given by two parallel disks separated by a liquid layer. Metal, polyisobutylene (PIB) and poly (methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) were used instead of a denture and mucous membrane; and glycerol, olive oil and castor oil instead of saliva. The experiments were performed with three disk conditions: (1) Both upper and lower disks of metal, (2) both upper and lower disks of PMMA, (3) upper disk with PIB lining and lower of PMMA soley. A strain gauge was used in the experimental apparatus in order to obtain a measurement of high accuracy. In the experiments, the retentive forces developed in layers of 50 mu tickness were measured and compared with the values calculated from theoretical equations. The results are summarized as follows: (1)Retentive force must be resolved into static adhesive and separating forces, (2) surface tension of liquid may not highly influence the retention, and (3) viscosity of liquid plays an important role when two disks are separated. PMID:1092486

  3. Place memory retention in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Daniela; Kahsai, Lily; Kramer, Elizabeth F; Knutson, Patrick; Zars, Troy

    2015-09-01

    Some memories last longer than others, with some lasting a lifetime. Using several approaches memory phases have been identified. How are these different phases encoded, and do these different phases have similar temporal properties across learning situations? Place memory in Drosophila using the heat-box provides an excellent opportunity to examine the commonalities of genetically-defined memory phases across learning contexts. Here we determine optimal conditions to test place memories that last up to three hours. An aversive temperature of 41C was identified as critical for establishing a long-lasting place memory. Interestingly, adding an intermittent-training protocol only slightly increased place memory when intermediate aversive temperatures were used, and slightly extended the stability of a memory. Genetic analysis of this memory identified four genes as critical for place memory within minutes of training. The role of the rutabaga type I adenylyl cyclase was confirmed, and the latheo Orc3 origin of recognition complex component, the novel gene encoded by pastrel, and the small GTPase rac were all identified as essential for normal place memory. Examination of the dopamine and ecdysone receptor (DopEcR) did not reveal a function for this gene in place memory. When compared to the role of these genes in other memory types, these results suggest that there are genes that have both common and specific roles in memory formation across learning contexts. Importantly, contrasting the timing for the function of these four genes, plus a previously described role of the radish gene, in place memory with the temporal requirement of these genes in classical olfactory conditioning reveals variability in the timing of genetically-defined memory phases depending on the type of learning. PMID:26143995

  4. Easy come, easy go. Retention of blood donors.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, A

    2015-08-01

    Retention of blood donors has benefits over recruitment of new blood donors. Retention is defined as preventing donors from lapsing and eventually becoming inactive. This review paper discusses literature on the importance of efforts to retain donors, specifically new donors, since lapsing is most common before the fifth donation. Studies have found that intention to donate, attitudes towards blood donation and self-efficacy (does one feel capable of donating blood) are predictors of blood donation. Feelings of 'warm glow' predict donation behaviour better than altruism. The existing literature further suggests that first time donors can be retained by paying extra attention to adverse events (vasovagal reactions and fatigue). These events could be reduced by drinking water and muscle tension exercises. Feelings of anxiety (in regular donors) and stress can further prevent donors from returning. Planning donations amongst busy lives can help retention, and suggestions are given on which interventions might be helpful. PMID:26399971

  5. Fuel retention studies on MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast Team Huang, J.; Lisgo, S.; Maddison, G.

    2011-08-01

    Fuel retention has been studied on MAST using gas-balance analysis. With 8-15 min of inter-shot helium glow-discharge cleaning (4He-GDC), the wall retention fraction stays very high (>90%) during the flat-top of the plasma current, indicating this component is dominant during the discharge. Recovery of wall conditioning with 4He-GDC suggests the retention process is dominated by direct implantation of particles in shallow surface layers. The effect of 4He-GDC duration on the particle balance has also been investigated. It is shown that when there was no preceding 4He-GDC, the wall pumping capacity was reduced, causing higher plasma density and tank pressure for the next shot.

  6. Lake retention of manufactured nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Koelmans, A A; Quik, J T K; Velzeboer, I

    2015-01-01

    For twenty-five world lakes and three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), lake retention was calculated using a uniformly mixed lake mass balance model. This follows similar approaches traditionally used in water quality management. Lakes were selected such that lake residence times, depths and areal hydraulic loadings covered the widest possible range among existing lakes. Sedimentation accounted for natural colloid as well as suspended solid settling regimes. An ENP-specific mixed sedimentation regime is proposed. This regime combines ENP sedimentation through slow settling with natural colloids from the water column, with faster settling with suspended solids from a selected part of the water column. Although sedimentation data and hydrodynamic concepts as such were not new, their first time combination or application to ENPs shows in which cases lake retention is important for these particles. In combination with ENP emission data, lake retention translates directly into potential risks of ENPs for lake benthic communities. PMID:25463711

  7. Risk Factors for Postoperative Retention After Hemorrhoidectomy: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Qi-Ming, Xue; Jue-Ying, Xiang; Ben-Hui, Chen; Jing, Wu; Ning, Li

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for urinary retention after hemorrhoidectomy. With the approval of West China Hospital of Sichuan University Ethics Board, data were abstracted from 961 charts of patients who underwent hemorrhoidectomy from January 1, 2009, to June 30, 2011. The outcome was urinary retention in the first 24 hours after surgery. Risk factors were identified using multivariable logistic regression, and they were expressed as odds ratios or 95% confidence intervals. The overall urinary retention rate was 14.8% (n = 142). Significant risk factors associated with postoperative urinary retention included female gender, anesthesia methods, severity of hemorrhoid, a large amount of intravenous fluid administered perioperatively, and length of hospital stay. Logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender (odds ratio, 2.607; p < .01), sacral anesthesia (odds ratio, 2.481; p = .02), more than 3 hemorrhoids resected (odds ratio, 2.658; p < .01), hemorrhoids having 4 degrees of severity (odds ratio, 3.101; p < .01), intravenous fluids > 700 ml (odds ratio, 1.597; p = .02), and length of stay more than 7 days (odds ratio, 1.852; p < .01) were significant predictors of urinary retention post-hemorrhoidectomy. PMID:25974011

  8. Can retention forestry help conserve biodiversity? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fedrowitz, Katja; Koricheva, Julia; Baker, Susan C; Lindenmayer, David B; Palik, Brian; Rosenvald, Raul; Beese, William; Franklin, Jerry F; Kouki, Jari; Macdonald, Ellen; Messier, Christian; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Gustafsson, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Industrial forestry typically leads to a simplified forest structure and altered species composition. Retention of trees at harvest was introduced about 25 years ago to mitigate negative impacts on biodiversity, mainly from clearcutting, and is now widely practiced in boreal and temperate regions. Despite numerous studies on response of flora and fauna to retention, no comprehensive review has summarized its effects on biodiversity in comparison to clearcuts as well as un-harvested forests. Using a systematic review protocol, we completed a meta-analysis of 78 studies including 944 comparisons of biodiversity between retention cuts and either clearcuts or un-harvested forests, with the main objective of assessing whether retention forestry helps, at least in the short term, to moderate the negative effects of clearcutting on flora and fauna. Retention cuts supported higher richness and a greater abundance of forest species than clearcuts as well as higher richness and abundance of open-habitat species than un-harvested forests. For all species taken together (i.e. forest species, open-habitat species, generalist species and unclassified species), richness was higher in retention cuts than in clearcuts. Retention cuts had negative impacts on some species compared to un-harvested forest, indicating that certain forest-interior species may not survive in retention cuts. Similarly, retention cuts were less suitable for some open-habitat species compared with clearcuts. Positive effects of retention cuts on richness of forest species increased with proportion of retained trees and time since harvest, but there were not enough data to analyse possible threshold effects, that is, levels at which effects on biodiversity diminish. Spatial arrangement of the trees (aggregated vs. dispersed) had no effect on either forest species or open-habitat species, although limited data may have hindered our capacity to identify responses. Results for different comparisons were largely consistent among taxonomic groups for forest and open-habitat species, respectively. Synthesis and applications. Our meta-analysis provides support for wider use of retention forestry since it moderates negative harvesting impacts on biodiversity. Hence, it is a promising approach for integrating biodiversity conservation and production forestry, although identifying optimal solutions between these two goals may need further attention. Nevertheless, retention forestry will not substitute for conservation actions targeting certain highly specialized species associated with forest-interior or open-habitat conditions. Our meta-analysis provides support for wider use of retention forestry since it moderates negative harvesting impacts on biodiversity. Hence, it is a promising approach for integrating biodiversity conservation and production forestry, although identifying optimal solutions between these two goals may need further attention. Nevertheless, retention forestry will not substitute for conservation actions targeting certain highly specialized species associated with forest-interior or open-habitat conditions. PMID:25552747

  9. Monitoring Student Retention in the Open University: Definition, Measurement, Interpretation and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Alison

    2004-01-01

    Attempts to improve retention in conventional college settings in the United States (see Barefoot article in this issue) have emphasized the importance of institutions having good information systems and appropriate interpretation of information as a means of identifying where retention is a problem and what might be causing student withdrawal,

  10. Factors Affecting Student Retention in Online Courses: Overcoming This Critical Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaytan, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what a panel of 15 experts would identify as critical factors affecting student retention in online courses that will serve as implications for educational leaders to guide their student retention strategies, online organizational structures, institutional policies, and online instructional activities. A…

  11. Confounding Impacts of Iron Reduction on Arsenic Retention

    SciTech Connect

    Tufano, K.J.; Fendorf, S.

    2009-05-26

    A transition from oxidizing to reducing conditions has long been implicated to increase aqueous As concentrations, for which reductive dissolution of iron (hydr)oxides is commonly implicated as the primary culprit. Confounding our understanding of processes controlling As retention, however, is that reductive transformation of ferrihydrite has recently been shown to promote As retention rather than release. To resolve the role iron phases have in regulating arsenic concentrations, here we examine As desorption from ferrihydrite-coated sands presorbed with As(lll); experiments were performed at circumneutral pH under Fe-reducing conditions with the dissimilatory iron reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN-32 over extended time periods. We reveal that with the initial phase of iron reduction, ferrihydrite undergoes transformation to secondary phases and increases As(lll) retention (relative to abiotic controls). However, with increased reaction time, cessation of the phase transitions and ensuing reductive dissolution result in prolonged release of As(III) to the aqueous phase. Our results suggest that As(lll) retention during iron reduction is temporally dependent on secondary precipitation of iron phases; during transformation to secondary phases, particularly magnetite, As(lll) retention is enhanced even relative to oxidized systems. However, conditions that retard secondary transformation (more stable iron oxides or limited iron reducing bacterial activity), or prolonged anaerobiosis, will lead to both the dissolution of ferric (hydr)oxides and release of As(lll) to the aqueous phase.

  12. Genetic programming based quantitative structure-retention relationships for the prediction of Kovats retention indices.

    PubMed

    Goel, Purva; Bapat, Sanket; Vyas, Renu; Tambe, Amruta; Tambe, Sanjeev S

    2015-11-13

    The development of quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) aims at constructing an appropriate linear/nonlinear model for the prediction of the retention behavior (such as Kovats retention index) of a solute on a chromatographic column. Commonly, multi-linear regression and artificial neural networks are used in the QSRR development in the gas chromatography (GC). In this study, an artificial intelligence based data-driven modeling formalism, namely genetic programming (GP), has been introduced for the development of quantitative structure based models predicting Kovats retention indices (KRI). The novelty of the GP formalism is that given an example dataset, it searches and optimizes both the form (structure) and the parameters of an appropriate linear/nonlinear data-fitting model. Thus, it is not necessary to pre-specify the form of the data-fitting model in the GP-based modeling. These models are also less complex, simple to understand, and easy to deploy. The effectiveness of GP in constructing QSRRs has been demonstrated by developing models predicting KRIs of light hydrocarbons (case study-I) and adamantane derivatives (case study-II). In each case study, two-, three- and four-descriptor models have been developed using the KRI data available in the literature. The results of these studies clearly indicate that the GP-based models possess an excellent KRI prediction accuracy and generalization capability. Specifically, the best performing four-descriptor models in both the case studies have yielded high (>0.9) values of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) and low values of root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute percent error (MAPE) for training, test and validation set data. The characteristic feature of this study is that it introduces a practical and an effective GP-based method for developing QSRRs in gas chromatography that can be gainfully utilized for developing other types of data-driven models in chromatography science. PMID:26460075

  13. Analyzing Commonality In A System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacheco, Alfred; Pool, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    Cost decreased by use of fewer types of parts. System Commonality Analysis Tool (SCAT) computer program designed to aid managers and engineers in identifying common, potentially common, and unique components of system. Incorporates three major functions: program for creation and maintenance of data base, analysis of commonality, and such system utilities as host-operating-system commands and loading and unloading of data base. Produces reports tabulating maintenance, initial configurations, and expected total costs. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  14. The Recruitment and Retention of Minority Teachers in Gifted Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Donna Y.; Grantham, Tarek C.; Harris, J. John, III

    1997-01-01

    Presents data on the underrepresentation of black and other minority teachers and provides recommendations for the recruitment and retention of minority teachers in gifted education in the context of affective, philosophical, and cultural considerations. Research needs are identified in the areas of demographic data, career decisions,

  15. Supporting Child Welfare Supervisors to Improve Worker Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsman, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    Recent child welfare research has identified supervisors as key to retaining qualified and committed workers. This paper describes implementation of a federally funded child welfare training initiative designed to improve worker retention largely through developing, implementing, and evaluating a statewide supervisor training program in a

  16. Contacting Students To Raise Retention Rates. Action Research Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenburger, Lydia

    This research project was conducted to identify the reasons for the low retention rate for adult students enrolled in the prep level of the General Educational Development (GED) programs offered by the Clinton County (Pennsylvania) Development Center for Adults. All adult students who attended class at least once from July 1998 through January

  17. Social Promotion or Retention? Factors That Influence Committee Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groom, Ileetha Brooks

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented here is to identify which factors school level practitioners consider in deciding whether to retain or promote a student and to ascertain their knowledge of and training in retention research. This research illuminates the process of determining which students are promoted and which are retained, and the

  18. Social Promotion or Retention? Factors That Influence Committee Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groom, Ileetha Brooks

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented here is to identify which factors school level practitioners consider in deciding whether to retain or promote a student and to ascertain their knowledge of and training in retention research. This research illuminates the process of determining which students are promoted and which are retained, and the…

  19. Promoting Hispanic Student Retention in Two Texas Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Karissa R.; Scott, Joyce A.

    2014-01-01

    Texas' Hispanic population has increased dramatically since 2000 as have Hispanic enrollments in higher education (+118%). Despite having the largest spike in college enrollment, Hispanic students' completion rates remain the lowest among all ethnic groups. To identify institutional practices that might encourage Hispanic student retention,…

  20. College Student Retention: A Self-Determination Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetreault, Jules

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to identify the relationship between a student's level of self-determination towards aspiring to receive a college degree and student retention from the first to second year. Deci & Ryan's (2000) self-determination theory served as the conceptual framework for this study. The fundamental assumption of…

  1. Tracking/Monitoring Program To Enhance Multicultural Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Jose; Corzo, Miguel

    The StudentPal program is a student tracking system developed jointly by the Multicultural Affairs program and High Technology Center at Glendale Community College, in Arizona. The program uses computer-assisted tracking to target students and various student characteristics and identify at-risk factors to improve the retention and success of…

  2. Practical solutions for staff recruitment & retention.

    PubMed

    Vander Hoek, N

    2001-01-01

    There are three essential topics for radiology managers to consider in light of persistent staffing shortages: support of the profession and educational programs, perks as recruitment tools and incentives as retention tools. Some activities that can help support departments and educational programs for radiologic technologists are job shadowing, training for volunteer services, advanced placement for school applicants, sponsoring an educational program or clinical training site, creating a positive work environment and supporting outreach projects geared to local high schools. Traditional perks used in recruitment efforts have included relocation assistance, travel and lodging expenses during the interview process, loan repayment, scholarships and sign-on bonuses. Some common incentives for retaining employees are tuition reimbursement, cross training, availability of educational resources, continuing education opportunities, professional development and incremental increases in salary. There are many other tools that can be used, such as career ladders, creating an environment conducive to teamwork or a more personal atmosphere and showcasing talents of various staff members. There is much overlap among these suggestions in support of the profession and educational programs, recruitment and retention of qualified staff radiologic technologists. Radiology managers can and should be creative in developing different programs to build loyalty and commitment to a radiology department. PMID:11499081

  3. The Development, Validation, and Use of Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Models of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (2B) Receptor Ligands to Identify Novel Receptor Binders and Putative Valvulopathic Compounds among Common Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hajjo, Rima; Grulke, Christopher; Golbraikh, Alexander; Setola, Vincent; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Some antipsychotic drugs are known to cause valvular heart disease by activating serotonin 5-HT2B receptors. We have developed and validated binary classification QSAR models capable of predicting potential 5-HT2B binders. The classification accuracies of the models to discriminate 5-HT2B actives from the inactives were as high as 80% for the external test set. These models were used to screen in silico 59,000 compounds included in the World Drug Index and 122 compounds were predicted as actives with high confidence. Ten of them were tested in radioligand binding assays and nine were found active suggesting a success rate of 90%. All validated binders were then tested in functional assays and one compound was identified as a true 5-HT2B agonist. We suggest that the QSAR models developed in this study could be used as reliable predictors to flag drug candidates that are likely to cause valvulopathy. PMID:20958049

  4. A Genome-wide Association Study of Early-onset Breast Cancer Identifies PFKM as a Novel Breast Cancer Gene and Supports a Common Genetic Spectrum for Breast Cancer at Any Age

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Habibul; Halpern, Jerry; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Pierce, Brandon L; Tong, Lin; Gamazon, Eric; McGuire, Valerie; Felberg, Anna; Shi, Jianxin; Jasmine, Farzana; Roy, Shantanu; Brutus, Rachelle; Argos, Maria; Melkonian, Stephanie; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Andrulis, Irene; Hopper, John L; John, Esther M.; Malone, Kathi; Ursin, Giske; Gammon, Marilie D; Thomas, Duncan C; Seminara, Daniela; Casey, Graham; Knight, Julia A; Southey, Melissa C; Giles, Graham G; Santella, Regina M; Lee, Eunjung; Conti, David; Duggan, David; Gallinger, Steve; Haile, Robert; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Apicella, Carmel; Park, Daniel J; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Lathrop, Mark; Hunter, David J; Chanock, Stephen J; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Mller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lochmann, Magdalena; Beckmann, Lars; Hein, Rebecca; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Bui, Quang Minh; Stone, Jennifer; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Dahmen, Norbert; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Nicolae, Dan; Easton, Douglas F; Cox, Nancy J; Whittemore, Alice S

    2014-01-01

    Early-onset breast cancer (EOBC) causes substantial loss of life and productivity, creating a major burden among women worldwide. We analyzed 1,265,548 Hapmap3 SNPs among a discovery set of 3,523 EOBC incident case and 2,702 population control women aged <=51 years. The SNPs with smallest P-values were examined in a replication set of 3,470 EOBC case and 5,475 control women. We also tested EOBC association with 19,684 genes by annotating each gene with putative functional SNPs, and then combining their P-values to obtain a gene-based P-value. We examined the gene with smallest P-value for replication in 1,145 breast cancer case and 1,142 control women. The combined discovery and replication sets identified 72 new SNPs associated with EOBC (P<410?8) located in six genomic regions previously reported to contain SNPs associated largely with later-onset breast cancer (LOBC). SNP rs2229882 and 10 other SNPs on chromosome 5q11.2 remained associated (P<610?4) after adjustment for the strongest published SNPs in the region. Thirty-two of the 82 currently known LOBC SNPs were associated with EOBC (P<0.05). Low power is likely responsible for the remaining 50 unassociated known LOBC SNPs. The gene-based analysis identified an association between breast cancer and the phosphofructokinase-muscle (PFKM) gene on chromosome 12q13.11 that met the genomewide gene-based threshold of 2.510?6. In conclusion, EOBC and LOBC appear to have similar genetic etiologies; the 5q11.2 region may contain multiple distinct breast cancer loci; and the PFKM gene region is worthy of further investigation. These findings should enhance our understanding of the etiology of breast cancer. PMID:24493630

  5. A genome-wide association study of early-onset breast cancer identifies PFKM as a novel breast cancer gene and supports a common genetic spectrum for breast cancer at any age.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Habibul; Halpern, Jerry; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Pierce, Brandon L; Tong, Lin; Gamazon, Eric; McGuire, Valerie; Felberg, Anna; Shi, Jianxin; Jasmine, Farzana; Roy, Shantanu; Brutus, Rachelle; Argos, Maria; Melkonian, Stephanie; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Andrulis, Irene; Hopper, John L; John, Esther M; Malone, Kathi; Ursin, Giske; Gammon, Marilie D; Thomas, Duncan C; Seminara, Daniela; Casey, Graham; Knight, Julia A; Southey, Melissa C; Giles, Graham G; Santella, Regina M; Lee, Eunjung; Conti, David; Duggan, David; Gallinger, Steve; Haile, Robert; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Apicella, Carmel; Park, Daniel J; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Lathrop, Mark; Hunter, David J; Chanock, Stephen J; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lochmann, Magdalena; Beckmann, Lars; Hein, Rebecca; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Bui, Quang Minh; Stone, Jennifer; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Dahmen, Norbert; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Dunning, Alison M; Pharoah, Paul; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Nicolae, Dan; Easton, Douglas F; Cox, Nancy J; Whittemore, Alice S

    2014-04-01

    Early-onset breast cancer (EOBC) causes substantial loss of life and productivity, creating a major burden among women worldwide. We analyzed 1,265,548 Hapmap3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) among a discovery set of 3,523 EOBC incident cases and 2,702 population control women ages ≤ 51 years. The SNPs with smallest P values were examined in a replication set of 3,470 EOBC cases and 5,475 control women. We also tested EOBC association with 19,684 genes by annotating each gene with putative functional SNPs, and then combining their P values to obtain a gene-based P value. We examined the gene with smallest P value for replication in 1,145 breast cancer cases and 1,142 control women. The combined discovery and replication sets identified 72 new SNPs associated with EOBC (P < 4 × 10(-8)) located in six genomic regions previously reported to contain SNPs associated largely with later-onset breast cancer (LOBC). SNP rs2229882 and 10 other SNPs on chromosome 5q11.2 remained associated (P < 6 × 10(-4)) after adjustment for the strongest published SNPs in the region. Thirty-two of the 82 currently known LOBC SNPs were associated with EOBC (P < 0.05). Low power is likely responsible for the remaining 50 unassociated known LOBC SNPs. The gene-based analysis identified an association between breast cancer and the phosphofructokinase-muscle (PFKM) gene on chromosome 12q13.11 that met the genome-wide gene-based threshold of 2.5 × 10(-6). In conclusion, EOBC and LOBC seem to have similar genetic etiologies; the 5q11.2 region may contain multiple distinct breast cancer loci; and the PFKM gene region is worthy of further investigation. These findings should enhance our understanding of the etiology of breast cancer. PMID:24493630

  6. Strategies to improve retention in randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Brueton, Valerie C; Tierney, Jayne; Stenning, Sally; Harding, Seeromanie; Meredith, Sarah; Nazareth, Irwin; Rait, Greta

    2013-01-01

    Background Loss to follow-up from randomised trials can introduce bias and reduce study power, affecting the generalisability, validity and reliability of results. Many strategies are used to reduce loss to follow-up and improve retention but few have been formally evaluated. Objectives To quantify the effect of strategies to improve retention on the proportion of participants retained in randomised trials and to investigate if the effect varied by trial strategy and trial setting. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, DARE, CINAHL, Campbell Collaboration's Social, Psychological, Educational and Criminological Trials Register, and ERIC. We handsearched conference proceedings and publication reference lists for eligible retention trials. We also surveyed all UK Clinical Trials Units to identify further studies. Selection criteria We included eligible retention trials of randomised or quasi-randomised evaluations of strategies to increase retention that were embedded in 'host' randomised trials from all disease areas and healthcare settings. We excluded studies aiming to increase treatment compliance. Data collection and analysis We contacted authors to supplement or confirm data that we had extracted. For retention trials, we recorded data on the method of randomisation, type of strategy evaluated, comparator, primary outcome, planned sample size, numbers randomised and numbers retained. We used risk ratios (RR) to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of strategies to improve retention. We assessed heterogeneity between trials using the Chi2 and I2 statistics. For main trials that hosted retention trials, we extracted data on disease area, intervention, population, healthcare setting, sequence generation and allocation concealment. Main results We identified 38 eligible retention trials. Included trials evaluated six broad types of strategies to improve retention. These were incentives, communication strategies, new questionnaire format, participant case management, behavioural and methodological interventions. For 34 of the included trials, retention was response to postal and electronic questionnaires with or without medical test kits. For four trials, retention was the number of participants remaining in the trial. Included trials were conducted across a spectrum of disease areas, countries, healthcare and community settings. Strategies that improved trial retention were addition of monetary incentives compared with no incentive for return of trial-related postal questionnaires (RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.28, P value < 0.0001), addition of an offer of monetary incentive compared with no offer for return of electronic questionnaires (RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.38, P value < 0.00001) and an offer of a GBP20 voucher compared with GBP10 for return of postal questionnaires and biomedical test kits (RR 1.12; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22, P value < 0.005). The evidence that shorter questionnaires are better than longer questionnaires was unclear (RR 1.04; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.08, P value = 0.07) and the evidence for questionnaires relevant to the disease/condition was also unclear (RR 1.07; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.14). Although each was based on the results of a single trial, recorded delivery of questionnaires seemed to be more effective than telephone reminders (RR 2.08; 95% CI 1.11 to 3.87, P value = 0.02) and a 'package' of postal communication strategies with reminder letters appeared to be better than standard procedures (RR 1.43; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.67, P value < 0.0001). An open trial design also appeared more effective than a blind trial design for return of questionnaires in one fracture prevention trial (RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.63, P value = 0.0003). There was no good evidence that the addition of a non-monetary incentive, an offer of a non-monetary incentive, 'enhanced' letters, letters delivered by priority post, additional reminders, or questionnaire question order either increased or decreased trial questionnaire response/retention. There was also no evidence that a telephone survey was either more or less effective than a monetary incentive and a questionnaire. As our analyses are based on single trials, the effect on questionnaire response of using offers of charity donations, sending reminders to trial sites and when a questionnaire is sent, may need further evaluation. Case management and behavioural strategies used for trial retention may also warrant further evaluation. Authors' conclusions Most of the retention trials that we identified evaluated questionnaire response. There were few evaluations of ways to improve participants returning to trial sites for trial follow-up. Monetary incentives and offers of monetary incentives increased postal and electronic questionnaire response. Some other strategies evaluated in single trials looked promising but need further evaluation. Application of the findings of this review would depend on trial setting, population, disease area, data collection and follow-up procedures. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Methods that might help to keep people in randomised trials Background Most trials follow people up to collect data through personal contact after they have been recruited. Some trials get data from other sources, such as routine collected data or disease registers. There are many ways to collect data from people in trials, and these include using letters, the internet, telephone calls, text messaging, face-to-face meetings or the return of medical test kits. Most trials have missing data, for example, because people are too busy to reply, are unable to attend a clinic, have moved or no longer want to participate. Sometimes data has not been recorded at study sites, or are not sent to the trial co-ordinating centre. Researchers call this 'loss to follow-up', 'drop out' or 'attrition' and it can affect the trial's results. For example, if the people with the most or least severe symptoms do not return questionnaires or attend a follow-up visit, this will bias the findings of the trial. Many methods are used by researchers to keep people in trials. These encourage people to send back data by questionnaire, return to a clinic or hospital for trial-related tests, or be seen by a health or community care worker. Study characteristics This review identified methods that encouraged people to stay in trials. We searched scientific databases for randomised studies (where people are allocated to one of two or more possible treatments in a random manner) or quasi-randomised studies (where allocation is not really random, e.g. based on date of birth, order in which they attended clinic) that compared methods of increasing retention in trials. We included trials of participants from any age, gender, ethnic, cultural, language and geographic groups. Key results The methods that appeared to work were offering or giving a small amount of money for return of a completed questionnaire and enclosing a small amount of money with a questionnaire with the promise of a further small amount of money for return of a filled in questionnaire. The effect of other ways to keep people in trials is still not clear and more research is needed to see if these really do work. Such methods are shorter questionnaires, sending questionnaires by recorded delivery, using a trial design where people know which treatment they will receive, sending specially designed letters with a reply self addressed stamped envelope followed by a number of reminders, offering a donation to charity or entry into a prize draw, sending a reminder to the study site about participants to follow-up, sending questionnaires close to the time the patient was last followed-up, managing peoples' follow-up, conducting follow-up by telephone and changing the order of questionnaire questions. Quality of evidence The methods that we identified were tested in trials run in many different disease areas and settings and, in some cases, were tested in only one trial. Therefore, more studies are needed to help decide whether our findings could be used in other research fields. PMID:24297482

  7. Implicit Memory: Retention without Remembering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roediger, Henry L., III

    1990-01-01

    Reviews recent research on retention that is demonstrated without conscious recollection, such as the ability to tie shoelaces or drive a car. Suggests that future research in this field may have implications for such educational issues as the transfer of training and the carryover of abstract classroom learning to problems in other contexts. (EVL)

  8. Teacher Retention: An Appreciative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesavento-Conway, Jennifer Jean

    2010-01-01

    Nationally, the problem of teacher retention compounds the unstable nature of the educational situation, especially in urban, high-needs schools. Much of the instability of urban schools is due to teacher movement, the migration of teachers from school to another school within or between school districts, particularly from high-needs schools.…

  9. Strategies for improving employee retention.

    PubMed

    Verlander, Edward G; Evans, Martin R

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes a solution to the perennial problem of talent retention in the clinical laboratory. It includes the presentation of 12 strategies that may be used to significantly improve institutional identity formation and establishment of the psychological contract that employees form with laboratory management. Identity formation and psychological contracting are deemed as essential in helping reduce employee turnover and increase retention. The 12 conversational strategies may be used as a set of best practices for all employees, but most importantly for new employees, and should be implemented at the critical moment when employees first join the laboratory. This time is referred to as "retention on-boarding"--the period of induction and laboratory orientation. Retention on-boarding involves a dialogue between employees and management that is focused on the psychological, practical, cultural, and political dimensions of the laboratory. It is placed in the context of the modern clinical laboratory, which is faced with employing and managing Generation X knowledge workers. Specific topics and broad content areas of those conversations are outlined. PMID:17394785

  10. JCC Recruitment, Retention, Attrition Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Ronald J.

    In an effort to reduce the class attrition rate of 40% at Jefferson Community College (JCC), and to investigate the entire process of recruitment, retention, and attrition (RRA), a series of four faculty workshops were held. The plan was to look at the RRA process from the student's point of view in terms of four phases: (1) the pre-enrollment…

  11. Teacher Retention: An Appreciative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesavento-Conway, Jennifer Jean

    2010-01-01

    Nationally, the problem of teacher retention compounds the unstable nature of the educational situation, especially in urban, high-needs schools. Much of the instability of urban schools is due to teacher movement, the migration of teachers from school to another school within or between school districts, particularly from high-needs schools.

  12. Mechanisms of gas bubble retention

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Mendoza, D.P.; Miller, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns regarding double-shell tanks (DSTs) containing waste slurries. Previous investigations have concluded that gas bubbles are retained by the slurry that has settled at the bottom of the DST. However, the mechanisms responsible for the retention of these bubbles are not well understood. In addition, the presence of retained gas bubbles is expected to affect the physical properties of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of these bubbles. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to gas bubble retention and release from sludge such as is in Tank 241-SY-101, understand how the bubbles affect the physical properties of the sludge, develop correlations of these physical properties to include in computer models, and collect experimental data on the physical properties of simulated sludges with bubbles. This report presents a theory and experimental observations of bubble retention in simulated sludge and gives correlations and new data on the effect of gas bubbles on sludge yield strength.

  13. Course Retention Analysis. Focus Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.

    A study was conducted at Mount San Antonio College (MSAC), California, to analyze patterns in credit course retention between fall 1986 and spring 1989. The study investigated the development of course prerequisites based on faculty perceptions of the skills necessary for success and minimal skill levels associated with success; student assessment…

  14. Retention-Oriented Curricular Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanovic, Ivana; Eppes, Tom A.; Girouard, Janice; Townsend, Lee

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a retention-oriented approach to the educational value stream within the STEM undergraduate area. Faced with several strategic challenges and opportunities, a Flex Advantage Plan was developed to enhance the undergraduate engineering technology programs and better utilize the curricular flexibilities inherent in the current

  15. Institutionalization of a Retention Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, E. J.; Campbell, A.

    2006-05-01

    Bowie State University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center have, for the past 10 years, worked diligently together to enhance the science, mathematics, engineering and technology (SMET) domain. Efforts made, because of a Model Institutions for Excellence (MIE) Award, have changed the landscape of the SMET domain by increasing the retention and graduation rates, the number of students entering graduate and professional schools, and the number of students entering SMET related careers for minorities and women. Several initiatives a Scholarship Program, PRISEM Tutoring Center, Safety-net Program, Research emphasis, Focused Mentoring, a Summer Academy for accepted incoming students, a Bridge Program for students needing assistance being admitted to the University, the RISE Program and the Bowie State Satellite Operations and Control Center (BSOCC) provide the nurturing, mentoring, and opportunities for our students. As a result of efforts made, the retention rate has increase to approximately 80%, the graduation rate has increased 40%, and 85% of the SMET students are now interested or entering graduate and professional schools. Successes that have been documented by various assessment activities have led to the institutionalization of the Retention Model of the MIE Initiative. It is anticipated that University-wide application of the retention model will prove the incentives necessary to obtain similar results as the MIE Initiative.

  16. Exploring General Education Development Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Sharon D.

    2013-01-01

    According to the instructors and administrators at a local adult education (AE) program in Houston, Texas, retaining and graduating general education development (GED) students has been a constant challenge. Locating GED attendance barriers could enable AE programs to develop techniques that increase student retention and graduation rates. The…

  17. Retention as a School Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, William A.

    1970-01-01

    Argues that because of the need for the experiences of a child to be positive and successful, a process of uninterrupted promotion into each succeeding grade merits consideration; that each such retention be considered as an individual case, the school system instigating new programs for such retained students. (RJ)

  18. Strategic Moves for Retention Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitz, Randi S.; Noel, Lee; Richter, Beth J.

    1999-01-01

    Three retention and enrollment management experts share their most effective innovations and best practices that have achieved cost-effective results. Tables provide data on dropout rates, graduation rates, and results of a student satisfaction rating survey of four-year colleges and universities. (DB)

  19. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and

  20. Measurement errors of water retention curve using pressure plates: consequences on parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittelli, M.; Solone, R.

    2012-04-01

    Pressure plates are very common experimental devices to measure the soil water retention curve. However, recent studies have demonstrated the lack of reliability of pressure plates when measuring the soil water retention curve in the dry range, due to low plate and soil conductance, lack of soil-plate contact and soil dispersion. In a recent investigation on a silt loam soil, water retention data were determined using pressure plates only and a combination of pressure plates and a dew point meter, showing errors in the measurement of the soil water retention curve at potentials less than 20 m-H2O. This error led to unreliable evaluation of soil hydraulic properties and their parameterization. We extended the investigation on the effects of water retention measurement error to eighteen soils having different textural properties, by comparing measurements of soil water retention curves obtained with a combination of Stackman's beds and pressure plates and soil water retention curves obtained with the chilled-mirror dew point technique. The aim of this research was to investigate the differences between the soil water retention curves as function of different soil textural properties and their effect of soil hydraulic properties and water drainage. Comparison between retention curves and fitting van Genuchten parameters, showed an error in measurements made by the combination Stackman's beds and Richards' pressure plates, for potential values below 1 m-H2O to 57 m-H2O. By characterizing textural properties by using geometric mean diameters, a clear relationship between texture and errors in water retention was established. In particular coarser soil displayed errors at lower potential (in absolute value) with respect to finer textures. The occurrence of these errors in the water retention measurement performed with pressure plates showed that it is advisable to use a combination of methodologies to correctly measure an entire soil retention curve and current parameters database should be used with caution.

  1. TA705 Data Retention Chassis operating manual

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.D.

    1989-10-01

    The Data Retention Chassis (DRC) is a data acquisition component based on the Motorola 68000 microprocessor. The purpose of the DRC is to download the correct set-up parameters into sixteen Tektronix 7912 digitizers, to verify that the digitizers retain their settings, and (once the digitizers have triggered) to load that data into the DRC battery back-up CMOS memory. The DRC also has a circuit built into it called the COMMAND LINK. With the help of the TA698 Alternate Common Equipment (ACE), the user employs this link to communicate interactively with the digitizers and the DRC. Another circuit built into the DRC is the data stream multiplexer (DSM) for high-speed data transfers.

  2. Retention: A Commitment to Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Allen, Georgio H.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews literature on student retention in colleges and universities and considers components of a college retention program that will enhance student's primary objective of academic achievement. Discusses need for quality instructional program and appropriate leadership structure. (NB)

  3. The HIV Care Continuum: Changes over Time in Retention in Care and Viral Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Yehia, Baligh R.; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J.; Fleishman, John A.; Berry, Stephen A.; Agwu, Allison L.; Metlay, Joshua P.; Moore, Richard D.; Christopher Mathews, W.; Nijhawan, Ank; Rutstein, Richard; Gaur, Aditya H.; Gebo, Kelly A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The HIV care continuum (diagnosis, linkage to care, retention in care, receipt of antiretroviral therapy (ART), viral suppression) has been used to identify opportunities for improving the delivery of HIV care. Continuum steps are typically calculated in a conditional manner, with the number of persons completing the prior step serving as the base population for the next step. This approach may underestimate the prevalence of viral suppression by excluding patients who are suppressed but do not meet standard definitions of retention in care. Understanding how retention in care and viral suppression interact and change over time may improve our ability to intervene on these steps in the continuum. Methods We followed 17,140 patients at 11 U.S. HIV clinics between 2010-2012. For each calendar year, patients were classified into one of five categories: (1) retained/suppressed, (2) retained/not-suppressed, (3) not-retained/suppressed, (4) not-retained/not-suppressed, and (5) lost to follow-up (for calendar years 2011 and 2012 only). Retained individuals were those completing ≥2 HIV medical visits separated by ≥90 days in the year. Persons not retained completed ≥1 HIV medical visit during the year, but did not meet the retention definition. Persons lost to follow-up had no HIV medical visits in the year. HIV viral suppression was defined as HIV-1 RNA ≤200 copies/mL at the last measure in the year. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the probability of patients’ transitioning between retention/suppression categories from 2010 to 2011 and 2010 to 2012, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, HIV risk factor, insurance status, CD4 count, and use of ART. Results Overall, 65.8% of patients were retained/suppressed, 17.4% retained/not-suppressed, 10.0% not-retained/suppressed, and 6.8% not-retained/not-suppressed in 2010. 59.5% of patients maintained the same status in 2011 (kappa=0.458) and 53.3% maintained the same status in 2012 (kappa=0.437). Conclusions Not counting patients not-retained/suppressed as virally suppressed, as is commonly done in the HIV care continuum, underestimated the proportion suppressed by 13%. Applying the care continuum in a longitudinal manner will enhance its utility. PMID:26086089

  4. 27 CFR 27.137 - Retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retention. 27.137 Section 27.137 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Filing and Retention of Records and Reports 27.137 Retention. All records required by this...

  5. 27 CFR 27.137 - Retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention. 27.137 Section 27.137 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Filing and Retention of Records and Reports 27.137 Retention. All records required by this...

  6. 32 CFR 240.6 - Retention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Retention program. 240.6 Section 240.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS DOD INFORMATION ASSURANCE SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM (IASP) § 240.6 Retention program. (a) The DoD IASP retention program is open to qualified...

  7. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.; Zucker, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Over 35 years of retention theory and literature have acknowledged the importance of institutional and student profiles in accounting for cross-sectional differences in retention and completion rates between types of colleges and universities. The first "P" within a 4 Ps framework of student retention--"profile"--recognizes that an institution's…

  8. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spittle, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Few words have dominated the vocabulary of college retention as has the word "persistence." Many institutions still struggle to engage faculty and administrators in building campuswide retention efforts, to find the organizational levers that translate the abstractions and complexities of retention theory into scalable and durable initiatives, and…

  9. Persistence-Retention. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Snapshot Report offers information on student persistence and retention rates for 2009-2013. It offers data on the following: (1) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates for Students Who Start College at Four-Year Private Nonprofit Institutions; (2) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates for Students Who Start College at Four-Year…

  10. Persistence-Retention. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This snapshot report provides information on student persistence and retention rates for Spring 2014. Data is presented in tabular format on the following: (1) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Starting Enrollment Intensity (all institutional sectors); (2) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Age at College Entry (all…

  11. Designing Online Courses to Promote Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz-Uhler, Beth; Fisher, Amy; Han, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Although the issue of student retention is a campus-wide one, it is of special interest in online distance learning courses, where retention rates are reported to be lower than in face-to-face classes. Among the explanations and theories of retention rates in online courses, one that struck us as most useful is a structural one, namely, course…

  12. Student Retention: An Interview with Vincent Tinto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spann, Nancy G.

    1990-01-01

    Educator and researcher specializing in student retention, Tinto discusses own experience leaving doctoral program to join Peace Corps, reviews internal and external causes of attrition, characteristics of successful retention programs, and role of teaching in retention. Favors establishing a sense of community on campuses to enhance students'

  13. Do We Have a Retention Problem ... Or Do We Have a Problem "about" Retention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the "problem" of student retention in higher education. But unlike most, this paper focuses not on the problem of retention "per se" but rather on how institutional leaders think about student retention, completion, and success--how the way they frame their concerns about retention can give rise to a different sort of…

  14. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening criteria (availability, environmental compatibility, mass competitiveness of energy storage, safety, and practicality for the application) were used to define concept applicability for each lunar and Mars application. A screening study resulted in 13 power systems for lunar applications and 15 for Mars applications. A commonality analysis showed several power systems with potentially high commonality (across both lunar and Mars applications). These high commonality systems include d PVA/RFC, dynamic isotope (1033 K Stirling, 1133 K Brayton, and 1300 K Brayton PCU's), SP-100 TE and dynamic derivatives (Mars systems required vacuum enclosure), in-core thermionic reactor, and liquid metal cooled reactor/Stirling cycle (1033 K). The generic commonality results were used to synthesize 3 high commonality power system architectures: (1) predominantly PV (limited nuclear and isotope), (2) predominantly in-core thermionic reactor/DIPS, and (3) predominantly SP-100 reactor/DIPS. The in-core thermionic reactor/DIPS power system architecture had the lowest total mass. Specific outputs from this study included lists of power system requirements, power system candidates, a power system application matrix, power system characteristics (mass), power system commonality ratings, example high commonality power system architectures, architecture masses, and issues/design solutions for lunar/Mars commonality.

  15. Soil Water Retention Curves and Their Impact on Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciocca, F.; Lunati, I.; Parlange, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    An accurate description of soil moisture dynamics in both the liquid and vapor phases is crucial to properly estimate soil evaporation. Soil moisture dynamics are largely dependent on the soil water retention. In the most commonly used models the water retention curve diverges at residual water content, the value below which liquid connectivity is lost and liquid flow stops. Not only this is physically unrealistic but results in incorrect evaporation modeling near dry conditions since the water vapor role is limited. We consider two of the main parametrizations that allow vapor flux below residual water content (modified models): one consists in a re-fit of the standard retention curve with zero residual water content, the other, supported by some laboratory measurements, considers a linear extension (on a semi-log plot) of the standard retention curve in the dry region. For a medium-textured sand and a loam we numerically investigate the effects of both the modified and the standard Van Genuchten models on the liquid and vapor transport during the simulated drying process, with and without surface radiative forcing. In the isothermal case, we show how all the models almost identically describe the capillary-dominated evaporative regime whereas when vapor diffusion is the dominant evaporative mechanism the modified models yield larger and longer sustained vapor fluxes, significantly increasing soil water removal. In the presence of diurnal radiative forcing at the soil surface, we focus on the effects of temperature fluctuations on soil water retention. The impact on liquid and vapor fluxes is analyzed in order to assess whether temperature-dependent and dry-extended retention curves may 'fill the gap' or not between theory and some still debated field experimental evidences (e.g. the midday moisture content rise) without the need of introducing any questionable and ad-hoc empirical terms such as vapor enhancement and/or liquid gain factors.

  16. A RETENTION INDEX SCHEME FOR USE WITH SULFUR SPECIFIC DETECTORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retention indices are very important for compound identification when using gas chromatography. Retention indices are important because they remain static under different conditions and instruments while retention times vary dramatically. Generally, a retention index is generated using a series of...

  17. Acute urinary retention and the difficult catheterization: current emergency management.

    PubMed

    Sliwinski, Ania; D'Arcy, Frank T; Sultana, Ron; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Acute urinary retention (AUR) is a common presentation to emergency departments. This article updates the reader on the appropriate management, investigations and guidelines for AUR. It looks at the mechanism of normal micturition and describes the theories of AUR. It outlines urethral catheterization techniques for difficult cases, reviews suprapubic catheterization procedures and describes the management of AUR in polytrauma. Although emergency management is by bladder drainage, key points in the history and examination may expose significant, latent pathologies. PMID:26479738

  18. Effects of Physical Tracing on Estimates of Loss to Follow-Up, Mortality and Retention in Low and Middle Income Country Antiretroviral Therapy Programs: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, James H.; Elliott, Julian H.; Hong, Steven Y.; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Jordan, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large proportion of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) have unknown treatment outcomes and are classified as lost to follow-up (LTFU). Physical tracing of patients classified as LTFU is common; however, effects of tracing on outcomes remains unclear. The objective of this systematic review is to compare estimates of LTFU, mortality and retention in LMIC in cohorts of patients with and without physical tracing. Methods and Findings We systematically identified studies in LMIC programmatic settings using MEDLINE (20032011) and HIV conference abstracts (20092011). Studies reporting the proportion LTFU 12-months after ART initiation were included. Tracing activities were determined from manuscripts or by contacting study authors. Studies were classified as tracing studies if physical tracing was available for the majority of patients. Summary estimates from the 2 groups of studies (tracing and non-tracing) for LTFU, mortality, stop of ART, transfers out, and retention on ART were determined. 261 papers and 616 abstracts were identified of which 39 studies comprising 54 separate cohorts (n?=?187,666) met inclusion criteria. Of those, physical tracing was available for 46% of cohorts. Treatment programs with physical tracing activities had lower estimated LTFU (7.6% vs. 15.1%; p<.001), higher estimated mortality (10.5% vs. 6.6%; p?=?.006), higher retention on ART (80.0 vs. 75.8%; p?=?.04) and higher retention at the original site (80.0% vs. 72.9%; p?=?.02). Conclusions Knowledge of patient tracing is critical when interpreting program outcomes of LTFU, mortality and retention. The reduction of the proportion LTFU in tracing studies was only partially explained by re-classification of unknown outcomes. These data suggest that tracing may lead to increased re-engagement of patients in care, rather than just improved classification of unknown outcomes. PMID:23424643

  19. Common Pyraloidea species of Dominica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-six adult crambid moths of the superfamily Pyraloidea from Dominica are illustrated and identified. These images are a tool for the identification of large, common species in the Caribbean. The Caribbean is a common entry and pathway of invasive species to southeastern United States....

  20. OSTA commonality analysis, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarik, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built using DRS on the Vax. It also shows commonality of parameter requirements by discipline and by application.

  1. Identifying gene clusters by discovering common intervals in indeterminate strings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Comparative analyses of chromosomal gene orders are successfully used to predict gene clusters in bacterial and fungal genomes. Present models for detecting sets of co-localized genes in chromosomal sequences require prior knowledge of gene family assignments of genes in the dataset of interest. These families are often computationally predicted on the basis of sequence similarity or higher order features of gene products. Errors introduced in this process amplify in subsequent gene order analyses and thus may deteriorate gene cluster prediction. Results In this work, we present a new dynamic model and efficient computational approaches for gene cluster prediction suitable in scenarios ranging from traditional gene family-based gene cluster prediction, via multiple conflicting gene family annotations, to gene family-free analysis, in which gene clusters are predicted solely on the basis of a pairwise similarity measure of the genes of different genomes. We evaluate our gene family-free model against a gene family-based model on a dataset of 93 bacterial genomes. Conclusions Our model is able to detect gene clusters that would be also detected with well-established gene family-based approaches. Moreover, we show that it is able to detect conserved regions which are missed by gene family-based methods due to wrong or deficient gene family assignments. PMID:25571793

  2. Payment and Pricing Plans: Survey Identifies Most Common Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, David M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 787 colleges and universities investigated institutions' payment and pricing practices designed to attract and retain students. Issues examined include acceptance of credit cards, cash discounts, prepayment options, differential pricing based on credits or programs, and the rationales for and results of the policies. Results reflect…

  3. Cucurbit leaf crumple virus Identified in Common Bean in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection of Cucurbit leaf crumple virus in green beans in Florida suggests that this virus may be more widely distributed than previously known in the state and that green bean (and potentially other legumes) are potential reservoirs for Cucurbit leaf crumple virus....

  4. Bioassay data and a retention-excretion model for systemic plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    The estimation of systemic burdens from urinalyses has been the most common and useful method of quantifying occupational exposures to plutonium. Problems arise in using this technique, however, because of inadequate modeling of human retention, translocation, and excretion of this element. Present methods for estimating the systemic burden from urinalyses were derived to a large extent from patterns observed in the first few months after exposure, but there is now evidence that these same patterns do not persist over long periods. In this report we collect and discuss data needed for the interpretation of bioassay results for Pu. These data are used to develop a model that describes the movement, retention, and excretion of systemic Pu in the human body in terms of explicitly identified anatomical compartments. This model may be used in conjunction with existing models and/or case-specific information concerning the translocation of Pu from the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract or from wounds to the bloodstream. Attention is restricted to the behavior of Pu after it has gained access to the bloodstream. There remain significant uncertainties concerning some aspects of the movement of Pu, particularly its translocation from the liver. An attempt has been made to construct the model in such a way as to elucidate those areas needing further attention. 98 references, 18 figures, 16 tables.

  5. Retention of African American Women in a Lifestyle Physical Activity Program

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Susan W.; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael E.; Fogg, Louis; Ingram, Diana M.; Miller, Arlene; Braun, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Using a cohort of African American women enrolled in a physical activity program, the purpose of the paper is to examine how well individual characteristics, neighborhood characteristics and intervention participation predict study retention and staff level of effort needed for retention. Secondary data analysis was conducted from a randomized clinical trial. Participants were 40–65 years without major signs/symptoms of cardiovascular disease. Assessments were conducted at community sites in/bordering African American communities. Study retention was 90%. Of those retained, 24% required moderate/high level of staff effort for retention. Retention was predicted by being older, having lower perceived neighborhood walkability, living in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage and crime, and having greater program participation. More staff effort was predicted by participants being younger, having more economic hardships, poorer health, or lower intervention participation. We may be able to identify people at baseline likely to require more staff effort to retain. PMID:26475680

  6. Retention of African American Women in a Lifestyle Physical Activity Program.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Susan W; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael E; Fogg, Louis; Ingram, Diana M; Miller, Arlene; Braun, Lynne

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the article is to examine how well individual characteristics, neighborhood characteristics, and intervention participation predict study retention and staff level of effort needed for retention, using a cohort of African American women enrolled in a physical activity program. Secondary data analysis was conducted from a randomized clinical trial. Participants were aged 40 to 65 years without major signs/symptoms of cardiovascular disease. Assessments were conducted at community sites in/bordering African American communities. Study retention was 90%. Of those retained, 24% required moderate/high level of staff effort for retention. Retention was predicted by being older, having lower perceived neighborhood walkability, living in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage and crime, and having greater program participation. More staff effort was predicted by participants being younger, having more economic hardships, poorer health, or lower intervention participation. We may be able to identify people at baseline likely to require more staff effort to retain. PMID:26475680

  7. Common pediatric foot dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Guenst, B J

    1999-01-01

    The pediatric foot dermatoses known as tinea pedis, shoe dermatitis, and juvenile plantar dermatosis are seen commonly in clinical practice. A knowledge of the clinical presentations and causes of these disorders can help pediatric and family nurse practitioners identify, diagnose, and treat childhood rashes of the feet. The conventional view in pediatrics is that small children rarely have tinea pedis. However, a 1992 study disputes this claim. Any child who has an atypical or persistent foot rash will need a referral or consultation. PMID:10382467

  8. Gastro retention using polymer cocoons.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Julien; Hunkeler, David

    2015-02-01

    A gastro-retentive capsule has been prepared which is retained in the stomach for a period of 24h, providing a vehicle for the controlled delivery to the upper intestines. These "gastro cocoons" can resist passage through the sphincter of the stomach, and can retain a high drug payload (30%). They are made from oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and can swell to twice their initial volume. They are strong and also can resist 550 N of compressive force. They are based on filled pharmaceutical capsules which are visible to X-rays. Using ambroxol hydrochloride as a model drug linear, zero-order, release curves were obtained. PMID:25078789

  9. Retention at Departments of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Rafael; Rosa, Luis

    2013-03-01

    A thriving physics department is the end result of many actions, taken over time, that results in the development of a sense of community between the faculty and the students. As part of this sense of community, gifted students must receive special attention and innovative ideas must be incorporated to successfully accommodate the needs of these students. We have found that the best retention strategy for gifted undergraduates is the total involvement of them in undergraduate research projects and also the development of leadership in extracurricular activities within the department. A careful employment strategy is needed to secure a faculty committed to the goals of the community.

  10. Chronic urinary retention in eunuchs

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Sujata; Sawant, Ajit; Nagabhushana, M.; Varma, Radheshyam; Ismail, Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Eunuchs seek medical attention only when extremely distressed by symptoms. No scientific publication has highlighted the medical problems of eunuchs in India till date, probably because of lack of access to this community and their reluctance in seeking medical help. We evaluated four eunuchs in the last three years with chronic retention of urine due to urethral stenosis, caused by an incorrect method of amputation of the penis and urethra. Though the management of the problem is simple, the article highlights the traditional method of castration and penectomy which is practiced in Indian eunuchs which leads to urethral stenosis. PMID:19718339

  11. QSAR in Chromatography: Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships (QSRRs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliszan, Roman; Bączek, Tomasz

    To predict a given physicochemical or biological property, the relationships can be identified between the chemical structure and the desired property. Ideally these relationships should be described in reliable quantitative terms. To obtain statistically significant relationships, one needs relatively large series of property parameters. Chromatography is a unique method which can provide a great amount of quantitatively precise, reproducible, and comparable retention data for large sets of structurally diversified compounds (analytes). On the other hand, chemometrics is recognized as a valuable tool for accomplishing a variety of tasks in a chromatography laboratory. Chemometrics facilitates the interpretation of large sets of complex chromatographic and structural data. Among various chemometric methods, multiple regression analysis is most often performed to process retention data and to extract chemical information on analytes. And the methodology of quantitative structure-(chromatographic) retention relationships (QSRRs) is mainly based on multiple regression analysis. QSRR can be a valuable source of knowledge on both the nature of analytes and of the macromolecules forming the stationary phases. Therefore, quantitative structure-retention relationships have been considered as a model approach to establish strategy and methods of property predictions.

  12. Retention of internal anchor tags by juvenile striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.; Wallin, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    We marked hatchery-reared striped bass Morone saxatilis (145-265 mm total length) with internal anchor tags and monitored retention for 28 months after stocking in the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina. Anchor tags (with an 18-mm, T-shaped anchor and 42-mm streamer) were surgically implanted ventrally, and coded wire tags (1 mm long and 0.25 mm in diameter) were placed into the cheek muscle to help identify subsequent recaptures. The estimated probability of retention (SD) of anchor tags was 0.94 (0.05) at 4 months, 0.64 (0.13) at 16 months, and 0.33 (0.19) at 28 months. Of 10 fish recaptured with only coded wire tags, 5 showed an externally visible wound or scar near the point of anchor tag insertion. The incidence of wounds or scars, which we interpreted as evidence of tag shedding, increased to 50% in recaptures taken at 28 months (three of six fish). Our estimates for retention of anchor tags were generally lower than those in other studies of striped bass, possibly because of differences in the style of anchor or sizes of fish used. Because of its low rate of retention, the type of anchor tag we used may not be suitable for long-term assessments of stock enhancement programs that use striped bass of the sizes we evaluated.

  13. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.

  14. Common Polymorphisms in Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Michael S.; DAmato, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of diseases have a significant genetic component, including major causes of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Many of these diseases are also angiogenesis dependent. In humans, common polymorphisms, although more subtle in effect than rare mutations that cause Mendelian disease, are expected to have greater overall effects on human disease. Thus, common polymorphisms in angiogenesis-regulating genes may affect the response to an angiogenic stimulus and thereby affect susceptibility to or progression of such diseases. Candidate gene studies have identified several associations between angiogenesis gene polymorphisms and disease. Similarly, emerging pharmacogenomic evidence indicates that several angiogenesis-regulating polymorphisms may predict response to therapy. In contrast, genome-wide association studies have identified only a few risk alleles in obvious angiogenesis genes. As in other traits, regulatory polymorphisms appear to dominate the landscape of angiogenic responsiveness. Rodent assays, including the mouse corneal micropocket assay, tumor models, and a macular degeneration model have allowed the identification and comparison of loci that directly affect the trait. Complementarity between human and animal approaches will allow increased understanding of the genetic basis for angiogenesis-dependent disease. PMID:23125197

  15. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  16. Effects of cement on crown retention.

    PubMed

    Worley, J L; Hamm, R C; von Fraunhofer, J A

    1982-09-01

    This study indicates that the frequent clinical technique of permanently cementing a crown without removing all traces of a temporary ZOE cement from the tooth has no adverse effect on retention. Circumferential grooving of the tooth preparation did not significantly increase retention. In contrast, cutting a shallow groove in the crown significantly improved retention. Therefore, it would appear that the grooving of the gold casting might be advantageous in conditions where the crown restoration has minimal retention. Significant improvement in retention with grooving of the restorations was accompanied by a change in the location of the cement film. The cement was retained in the crown coronal to the groove rather than on the tooth. This finding was interesting, since previous retention studies showed that adhesive failure occurred at the metal-cement interface. From this data it appears that a primary factor of crown retention is the adhesion or mechanical interlocking of the cement to the crown. This would explain why small variations in cement film thickness, such as those due to the use of die relief, have little effect on retention. In view of these findings, the current concepts on cement retention and cement adhesiveness should be reevaluated. PMID:6750093

  17. Organ retention and return: problems of consent.

    PubMed

    Brazier, M

    2003-02-01

    This paper explores difficulties around consent in the context of organ retention and return. It addresses the proposals of the Independent Review Group in Scotland on the Retention of Organs at Post Mortem to speak of authorisation rather than consent. Practical problems about whose consent determines disputes in relation to organ retention are explored. If a young child dies and his mother refuses consent but his father agrees what should ensue? Should the expressed wishes of a deceased adult override the objections of surviving relatives? The paper suggests much broader understanding of the issues embedded in organ retention is needed to provide solutions which truly meet families' and society's needs. PMID:12569192

  18. Factors affecting the retention of first-year female science and engineering students at the University of Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Juliet Webb

    Alarming to many academics is that while the numbers of female students (at the University of Michigan in particular) in SEM (Science, Engineering, and Mathematics) departments have shown increases in enrollment over the past decades, the number of female professionals in the field has decreased. The purpose of the study was to determine the environmental perceptions of female SEM students in the Women in Science and Engineering (WISE) Program at the University of Michigan. The WISE-RP (Residence Program) is an existing living and learning education program at the university that was designed to facilitate the successful retention and graduation of undergraduate female SEM students in the capacity that the admissions statistics should logically imply. The objectives of the study included identification of the perceptions of female students that contribute to, and foster retention of students participating in the WISE-RP program. The knowledge obtained from this evaluation will guide the University of Michigan in formulating specific interventions and retention approaches, both in and out of the classroom. This was achieved by identifying (among other things) commonality of experiences, and female student's perceptions of acceptance, integration and interactivity. The data used in this secondary analysis was collected over a 2 year period (1999--2001). The primary instrument used for data collection was a structured interview protocol utilizing focus groups. The population and samples studied were comprised of: a research project consisting of 36 focus groups from WISE-RP, University Research Opportunity Program, and the University Research Opportunity in Residence Programs; the sample size of the initial project was 180 first year SEM male and female students. The research project consisted of working with a senior research team at the University of Michigan to develop a structured interview instrument, pilot the instrument, and select focus groups. Content analysis was conducted on the open-ended focus group questions. Three themes emerged from the data set: (a) general contributing factors to retention, (b) support networks and programmatic features that contributed to retention, (c) individual/gender specific challenges that students faced. It found that the initial mission of the program has been accomplished, as evidenced by the findings of this study. The University is graduating and retaining female SEM students at a higher rate than at the program's inception. The challenges for the University at this point include: increasing numbers of female SEM faculty, enhancing and focusing the living learning community mission of the program, integrating student affairs components to the program features on an administrative level, committing to longitudinal analysis and assessment of individual incoming students toward identifying strengths and weaknesses, and finally---committing increased resources to these objectives.

  19. Developing a Hybrid Model to Predict Student First Year Retention in STEM Disciplines Using Machine Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhasawneh, Ruba; Hargraves, Rosalyn Hobson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a hybrid framework to model first year student retention for underrepresented minority (URM) students comprising African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans. Identifying inputs that best contribute to student retention provides significant information for institutions to learn about

  20. Developing a Hybrid Model to Predict Student First Year Retention in STEM Disciplines Using Machine Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhasawneh, Ruba; Hargraves, Rosalyn Hobson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a hybrid framework to model first year student retention for underrepresented minority (URM) students comprising African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans. Identifying inputs that best contribute to student retention provides significant information for institutions to learn about…

  1. 32 CFR 174.7 - Retention for DoD Component use and transfer to other Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retention for DoD Component use and transfer to... OF REALIGNMENT Real Property 174.7 Retention for DoD Component use and transfer to other Federal... Department of Defense will identify DoD and Federal interests in real property at closing and...

  2. 32 CFR 174.7 - Retention for DoD Component use and transfer to other Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retention for DoD Component use and transfer to... OF REALIGNMENT Real Property 174.7 Retention for DoD Component use and transfer to other Federal... Department of Defense will identify DoD and Federal interests in real property at closing and...

  3. 32 CFR 174.7 - Retention for DoD Component use and transfer to other Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Retention for DoD Component use and transfer to... OF REALIGNMENT Real Property 174.7 Retention for DoD Component use and transfer to other Federal... Department of Defense will identify DoD and Federal interests in real property at closing and...

  4. Workforce Issues--Rural Illinois Hospital Chief Executive Officers' Perceptions of Provider Shortages and Issues in Rural Recruitment and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Michael; Peters, Karen; MacDowell, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Background: It is important to assess rural health professions workforce needs and identify variables in recruitment and retention of rural health professionals. Purpose: This study examined the perspectives of rural hospital chief executive officers (CEOs) regarding workforce needs and their views of factors in the recruitment and retention

  5. Wildfire impacts on soil-water retention in the Colorado Front Range, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, Brian A.

    2012-12-01

    This work examined the plot-scale differences in soil-water retention caused by wildfire in the area of the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in the Colorado Front Range, United States. We measured soil-water retention curves on intact cores and repacked samples, soil particle-size distributions, and organic matter content. Estimates were also made of plant-available water based on the soil-water retention curves. Parameters for use in soil-hydraulic property models were estimated; these parameters can be used in unsaturated flow modeling for comparing burned and unburned watersheds. The primary driver for measured differences in soil-water retention in burned and unburned soils was organic matter content and not soil-particle size distribution. The tendency for unburned south-facing soils to have greater organic matter content than unburned north-facing soils in this field area may explain why unburned south-facing soils had greater soil-water retention than unburned north-facing soils. Our results suggest that high-severity wildfire can "homogenize" soil-water retention across the landscape by erasing soil-water retention differences resulting from organic matter content, which for this site may be affected by slope aspect. This homogenization could have important implications for ecohydrology and plant succession/recovery in burned areas, which could be a factor in dictating the window of vulnerability of the landscape to flash floods and erosion that are a common consequence of wildfire.

  6. Adult Student Retention: A Practical Approach to Retention Improvement through Learning Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Adult student retention is an issue of growing concern for many institutions. It differs from traditional retention much like traditional students differ from adult students. As the majority of student body growth comes from adult students, adult student retention management will become critical to the majority of colleges and universities. To…

  7. iMatch: A retention index tool for analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Fang, Aiqin; Wang, Bing; Kim, Seong Ho; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Zhou, Zhanxiang; McClain, Craig; Zhang, Xiang

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed to employ National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 2008 retention index database information for molecular retention matching via constructing a set of empirical distribution functions (DFs) of the absolute retention index deviation to its mean value. The effects of different experimental parameters on the molecules retention indices were first assessed. The results show that the column class, the column type, and the data type have significant effects on the retention index values acquired on capillary columns. However, the normal alkane retention index (Inorm) with the ramp condition is similar to the linear retention index (IT), while the Inorm with the isothermal condition is similar to the Kovts retention index (I). As for the Inorm with the complex condition, these data should be treated as an additional group, because the mean Inorm value of the polar column is significantly different from the IT. Based on this analysis, nine DFs were generated from the grouped retention index data. The DF information was further implemented into a software program called iMatch. The performance of iMatch was evaluated using experimental data of a mixture of standards and metabolite extract of rat plasma with spiked-in standards. About 19% of the molecules identified by ChromaTOF were filtered out by iMatch from the identification list of electron ionization (EI) mass spectral matching, while all of the spiked-in standards were preserved. The analysis results demonstrate that using the retention index values, via constructing a set of DFs, can improve the spectral matching-based identifications by reducing a significant portion of false-positives. PMID:21813131

  8. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  9. A study to evaluate the retentive ability of different denture adhesive materials: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Chowdhry, Puja; Phukela, Sumit Singh; Patil, Raghunath; Yadav, Harish

    2010-09-01

    Denture Adhesives are commonly used by denture wearers to enhance the retentive ability of their dentures however, little is known about the efficacy of these materials. To compare the retentive ability of three different commercially available denture adhesives. To find out the best available denture adhesive material. An in vitro investigation to evaluate the retentive ability of three commercially available denture adhesive powders and two adhesive pastes was conducted. The adhesion and cohesion that developed between the glass surface and acrylic resin samples when the various materials were interposed between them was evaluated by means of a testing apparatus. Denture adhesives increase the adhesion of resin samples to the glass surface. Fixon powder showed the highest resistance to dislodgement. The paste forms were found to be more retentive. Denture adhesives when used in combination with synthetic saliva showed the maximum value. PMID:21886410

  10. 7 CFR 1409.7 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records retention. 1409.7 Section 1409.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... CORPORATION § 1409.7 Records retention. (a) The Secretary of the Board will maintain the following records...

  11. 21 CFR 600.13 - Retention samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention samples. 600.13 Section 600.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.13 Retention samples. Manufacturers shall retain for a period of at least 6 months after...

  12. 21 CFR 600.13 - Retention samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retention samples. 600.13 Section 600.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.13 Retention samples. Manufacturers shall retain for a period of at least 6 months after...

  13. 21 CFR 600.13 - Retention samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retention samples. 600.13 Section 600.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.13 Retention samples. Manufacturers shall retain for a period of at least 6 months after...

  14. 21 CFR 600.13 - Retention samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retention samples. 600.13 Section 600.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.13 Retention samples. Manufacturers shall retain for a period of at least 6 months after...

  15. 21 CFR 600.13 - Retention samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Retention samples. 600.13 Section 600.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.13 Retention samples. Manufacturers shall retain for a period of at least 6 months after...

  16. Novel Word Retention in Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-01-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after…

  17. 5 CFR 351.404 - Retention register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention register. 351.404 Section 351.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Scope of Competition 351.404 Retention register. (a) When a competing employee is to be...

  18. 5 CFR 351.404 - Retention register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention register. 351.404 Section 351.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Scope of Competition 351.404 Retention register. (a) When a competing employee is to be...

  19. 5 CFR 351.404 - Retention register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention register. 351.404 Section 351.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Scope of Competition 351.404 Retention register. (a) When a competing employee is to be...

  20. 5 CFR 351.404 - Retention register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retention register. 351.404 Section 351.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Scope of Competition 351.404 Retention register. (a) When a competing employee is to be...

  1. 5 CFR 351.404 - Retention register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retention register. 351.404 Section 351.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Scope of Competition 351.404 Retention register. (a) When a competing employee is to be...

  2. Enrollment and Retention: A Private College Consortium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    A consortium program of eight private colleges in Southern California that focuses on student retention efforts is described. Each college has a retention task force consisting of faculty, administrators, student affairs staff, and students. A steering committee with one representative from each college, generally the dean of students, coordinates

  3. Retention Models for Minority College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiakor, Festus E.; Harris-Obiakor, Pauline

    This paper discusses retention techniques that can be used with minority students at predominantly white colleges, focusing on four phases that are critical to the retention and academic achievement of minority students: acceptance, acclimatization, responsibility, and productivity. In the acceptance phase, the college community should attempt to

  4. Light's Retention Scale [and] Recording Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, H. Wayne

    Light's Retention Scale, consisting of 19 evaluation categories, is designed for use by teachers and school psychologists to determine whether a student should be retained in grade or promoted. Another suggested use is for nonprofessionals to determine what educational and psychological research discloses about a specific retention candidate in…

  5. Factors Affecting Students' Retention at Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlKandari, Nabila

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the factors that affect students' retention at Kuwait University. Five hundred seventy students participated in the study. A survey of 22 retention factors was designed to measure student perceptions. Students presented their agreement on factors which included: achieving personal aspiration, getting jobs, free-of-charge

  6. Novel Word Retention in Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-01-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after

  7. Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or

  8. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate, accessible, and reproducible for later...

  9. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate,...

  10. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate, accessible, and reproducible for later...

  11. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate,...

  12. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate, accessible, and reproducible for later...

  13. 12 CFR 226.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention. 226.25 Section 226.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 226.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor...

  14. Black Student Retention in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Marvel, Ed.; Ford, Clinita A., Ed.

    This collection focuses on problems in the recruitment, enrollment and retention of Blacks in higher education in America. The following chapters are provided: "The Black Student Retention Problem in Higher Education: Some Introductory Perspectives" (Marvel Lang); "Early Acceptance and Institutional Linkages in a Model Program of Recruitment,

  15. Using Enrollment Data to Predict Retention Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Melissa A.; Solverson, Natalie Walleser

    2016-01-01

    First- to second-year retention rates are one metric reported by colleges and universities to convey institutional success to a variety of external constituents. But how much of a retention rate is institutional inputs, and how much can be understood by examining student inputs? The authors utilize multi-year, multi-institutional data to examine…

  16. Profile in Action: Linking Admission and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    A profile-oriented retention strategy embraces the admission process as a powerful lever in improving retention and completion rates and recognizes that the student profile can be shaped by changes in admission policies or priorities--even within the current market position of the institution. In addition, the student body can be oriented toward

  17. 50 CFR 401.15 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Record retention. 401.15 Section 401.15 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.15 Record retention. All records of accounts and reports with...

  18. 50 CFR 401.15 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Record retention. 401.15 Section 401.15 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.15 Record retention. All records of accounts and reports with...

  19. 50 CFR 401.15 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Record retention. 401.15 Section 401.15 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.15 Record retention. All records of accounts and reports with...

  20. 50 CFR 401.15 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Record retention. 401.15 Section 401.15 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.15 Record retention. All records of accounts and reports with...

  1. 50 CFR 401.15 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Record retention. 401.15 Section 401.15 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.15 Record retention. All records of accounts and reports with...

  2. Profile in Action: Linking Admission and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    A profile-oriented retention strategy embraces the admission process as a powerful lever in improving retention and completion rates and recognizes that the student profile can be shaped by changes in admission policies or priorities--even within the current market position of the institution. In addition, the student body can be oriented toward…

  3. 12 CFR 226.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 226.25 Section 226.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous 226.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor...

  4. 12 CFR 1026.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 1026.25 Section 1026.25 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous 1026.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor shall retain evidence of compliance with...

  5. 12 CFR 1026.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 1026.25 Section 1026.25 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous 1026.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor shall retain evidence of compliance with...

  6. 12 CFR 1026.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 1026.25 Section 1026.25 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous 1026.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor shall retain evidence of compliance with...

  7. Increasing Retention without Increasing Study Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Doug; Pashler, Hal

    2007-01-01

    Because people forget much of what they learn, students could benefit from learning strategies that provide long-lasting knowledge. Yet surprisingly little is known about how long-term retention is most efficiently achieved. Here we examine how retention is affected by two variables: the duration of a study session and the temporal distribution

  8. The Grade Retention/Social Promotion Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John

    1985-01-01

    This publication focuses on the retention/promotion debate regarding failing and low-achieving students. An introductory essay describes the inherent limitation in the research done on this issue--the impossibility of obtaining an appropriate control group--and suggests that the retention/promotion quandary can best be resolved by accommodating

  9. Retention modelling in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Euerby, Melvin R; Hulse, Jennifer; Petersson, Patrik; Vazhentsev, Andrey; Kassam, Karim

    2015-12-01

    The retention behaviour of acidic, basic and quaternary ammonium salts and polar neutral analytes has been evaluated on acidic, basic and neutral hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) stationary phases as a function of HILIC operating parameters such as MeCN content, buffer concentration, pH and temperature. Numerous empirical HILIC retention models (existing and newly developed ones) have been assessed for their ability to describe retention as a function of the HILIC operating parameters investigated. Retention models have been incorporated into a commercially available retention modelling programme (i.e. ACD/LC simulator) and their accuracy of retention prediction assessed. The applicability of HILIC modelling using these equations has been demonstrated in the two-dimensional isocratic (i.e. buffer concentration versus MeCN content modelling) and one-dimensional gradient separations for a range of analytes of differing physico-chemical properties on the three stationary phases. The accuracy of retention and peak width prediction was observed to be comparable to that reported in reversed-phase chromatography (RPC) retention modelling. Intriguingly, our results have confirmed that the use of gradient modelling to predict HILIC isocratic conditions and vice versa is not reliable. A relative ranking of the importance of the retention and selectivity of HILIC operating parameters has been determined using statistical approaches. For retention, the order of importance was observed to be organic content > stationary phase > temperature ≈ mobile phase pH (i.e. pH 3-6 which mainly effects the ionization of the analyte) ≈ buffer concentration. For selectivity, the nature of the stationary phase > mobile phase pH > buffer concentration > temperature > organic content. PMID:26563113

  10. Migraine and Common Morbidities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... headaches . Home > Migraine and Common Morbidities Print Email Migraine and Common Morbidities ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Migraine and Common Morbidities For many patients, migraine is ...

  11. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  12. Engagement and Retention in Outpatient Alcoholism Treatment for Women

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Fiona S.; Morgan, Thomas J.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; McCrady, Barbara S.; Cook, Sharon M.; Jensen, Noelle K.; Kelly, Shalonda

    2011-01-01

    Reviews of the dropout literature note significant attrition from addiction treatment. However, consistent predictors have not been identified and few studies have examined factors related to retention and engagement for women in gender-specific treatment. The current study consisted of 102 women and their partners randomized to individual or couples outpatient alcoholism treatment. Women attended more treatment sessions if they were assigned to individual treatment, older, had fewer symptoms of alcohol dependence, had more satisfying marital relationships, had spouses who drank, and had matched preference for treatment condition. Women were more engaged in treatment (i.e., completed more assigned homework) if they had fewer children at home, fewer alcohol dependence symptoms, later age of onset of alcohol diagnosis, more satisfying marital relationships, and spouses who accepted or encouraged their drinking. Results highlight important associations of treatment and relationship variables with treatment retention and engagement. PMID:19444731

  13. 40 CFR 160.195 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Records and Reports § 160.195 Retention of records. (a) Record retention requirements set forth in this section do not supersede the record retention requirements of any...

  14. 40 CFR 160.195 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Records and Reports § 160.195 Retention of records. (a) Record retention requirements set forth in this section do not supersede the record retention requirements of any...

  15. 40 CFR 160.195 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Records and Reports § 160.195 Retention of records. (a) Record retention requirements set forth in this section do not supersede the record retention requirements of any...

  16. 40 CFR 160.195 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Records and Reports § 160.195 Retention of records. (a) Record retention requirements set forth in this section do not supersede the record retention requirements of any...

  17. Do symptoms of voiding dysfunction predict urinary retention?

    PubMed Central

    ADELOWO, Amos O.; HACKER, Michele R.; MODEST, Anna MERPORT; ELKADRY, Eman A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the relationship between symptoms of voiding dysfunction and elevated post void urinary residual (PVR). Methods Cross-sectional study of women presenting for initial evaluation from February through July 2011. Charts were reviewed for demographics, voiding dysfunction symptoms, and examination findings. Urinary retention was defined as PVR ?100cc. Data are presented as median (interquartile range) or proportion; test characteristics are reported with 95% confidence intervals. Results Of 641 eligible women, 57 (8.9%) had urinary retention. Of these, 32 (56.1%) had at least one symptom of voiding dysfunction, most commonly sensation of incomplete emptying (30.1%). Sensitivity and positive predictive values of voiding dysfunction symptoms were low. Of 254 women reporting voiding symptoms, most (87.5%) had PVR<100 and were significantly more likely to have other pelvic floor symptoms and findings. Conclusions Patient symptoms do not predict urinary retention. PVR should be measured and other causes of voiding dysfunction symptoms should be considered. PMID:23143428

  18. Identifying the Emergency Management Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesa, Adele M.

    1987-01-01

    In building an emergency management library collection within a training institution, technical data become secondary to identifying common goals, methods, and systems found at the federal, state, and local levels for responding to and planning for disasters and crises. These goals help identify emergency management skills public officials should

  19. Removal of Invisalign retention attachments: a new minimally invasive method.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jose Luis; Finger, Werner J; Sasazaki, Hiromi; Komatsu, Masahi

    2009-01-01

    Removal of Invisalign resin retention buttons without damaging underlying enamel is a major challenge. To date, the use of tungsten carbide burs is the most common and fastest--yet a risky-ablation method. Stainbuster, a fiber-reinforced resin bur, has been introduced for removal of surface stains and resin remnants from tooth surfaces. This comparative in vitro and in vivo study proved that a combined technique, using multifluted tungsten carbide burs for fast removal of the bulk of resin followed by Stainbuster grinding for gentle removal of the final resin layer, is a safe and minimally invasive procedure for removing composite buttons from enamel. PMID:19998730

  20. Retention force measurement of telescopic crowns.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Stefan; Stark, Helmut; Mues, Sebastian; Keilig, Ludger; Schrader, Anja; Enkling, Norbert

    2010-10-01

    This study deals with the determination of the retentive force between primary and secondary telescopic crowns under clinical conditions. Forty-three combined fixed-removable prostheses with a total of 140 double crowns were used for retention force measurement of the telescopic crowns prior to cementation. The crowns had a preparation of 1-2. A specifically designed measuring device was used. The retentive forces were measured with and without lubrication by a saliva substitute. The measured values were analyzed according to the type of tooth (incisors, canines, premolars, and molars). Additionally, a comparison between lubricated and unlubricated telescopic crowns was done. As maximum retention force value 29.98 N was recorded with a telescopic crown on a molar, while the minimum of 0.08 N was found with a specimen on a canine. The median value of retention force of all telescopic crowns reached 1.93 N with an interquartile distance of 4.35 N. No statistically significant difference between lubricated and unlubricated specimens was found. The results indicate that retention force values of telescopic crowns, measured in clinical practice, are often much lower than those cited in the literature. The measurements also show a wide range. Whether this proves to be a problem for the patient's quality of life or not can however only be established by a comparison of the presented results with a follow-up study involving measurement of intraoral retention and determination by e.g. oral health impact profile. PMID:19609574

  1. Fractal processes in soil water retention

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, S.W.; Wheatcraft, S.W. )

    1990-05-01

    The authors propose a physical conceptual model for soil texture and pore structure that is based on the concept of fractal geometry. The motivation for a fractal model of soil texture is that some particle size distributions in granular soils have already been shown to display self-similar scaling that is typical of fractal objects. Hence it is reasonable to expect that pore size distributions may also display fractal scaling properties. The paradigm that they used for the soil pore size distribution is the Sierpinski carpet, which is a fractal that contains self similar holes (or pores) over a wide range of scales. The authors evaluate the water retention properties of regular and random Sierpinski carpets and relate these properties directly to the Brooks and Corey (or Campbell) empirical water retention model. They relate the water retention curves directly to the fractal dimension of the Sierpinski carpet and show that the fractal dimension strongly controls the water retention properties of the Sierpinski carpet soil. Higher fractal dimensions are shown to mimic clay-type soils, with very slow dewatering characteristics and relatively low fractal dimensions are shown to mimic a sandy soil with relatively rapid dewatering characteristics. Their fractal model of soil water retention removes the empirical fitting parameters from the soil water retention models and provides paramters which are intrinsic to the nature of the fractal porous structure. The relative permeability functions of Burdine and Mualem are also shown to be fractal directly from fractal water retention results.

  2. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,

  3. ORTHODONTIC RETENTION. Studies of retention capacity, cost-effectiveness and long-term stability.

    PubMed

    Tynelius, Gudrun Edman

    2014-01-01

    Retention strategies, cost-effectiveness and long-term stability of treatment outcome are essential aspects of orthodontic treatment planning. The overall aim of this thesis was to compare and evaluate three different retention strategies, with special reference to short- and long-term clinical stability and cost-effectiveness. The approach was evidence-based, hence randomized controlled methodology was used in order to generate high levels of evidence. This thesis is based on four studies: Papers I and II are based on randomized controlled trials, evaluating the stability of treatment outcome after one and two years of retention, using three different retention strategies: a maxillary vacuum-formed retainer combined with a mandibular canine-to-canine retainer; a maxillary vacuum-formed retainer combined with stripping of the mandibular anterior teeth and a prefabricated positioner. Paper III presents a cost-minimization analysis of two years of retention treatment. Paper IV is based on a randomized controlled trial documenting the results five years post-retention. The following conclusions were drawn: Papers I and II. From a clinical perspective, asssessment after one year of retention disclosed that the three retention methods were successful in retaining the orthodontic treatment results. After two years of retention, all three retention methods were equally effective in controlling relapse at a clinically acceptable level. Most of the relapse occurred during the first year of retention; only minor or negligible changes were found during the second year. The subjects were grouped according to the level of compliance (excellent or good). After two years of retention there was a negative correlation between growth in body height and relapse of mandibular LII in the group of subjects with excellent compliance. The group with good compliance showed a positive correlation (Paper II, Figure 3). After two years of retention, growth in body height, initial crowding and gender had no significant influence on mandibular LII (Paper II, Figure 4 and Table 4). Paper III. The cost minimization analysis disclosed that although the three retention methods achieved clinically similar results, the associated societal costs differed. After two years of retention, the vacuum-formed retainer (VFR) in combination with a canine-to-canine retainer (CTC) was the least cost-effective retention appliance. Paper IV. After five years or more out of retention, the three retention methods had achieved equally favourable clinical results. Key conclusion and clinical implications. This study compared the short- and long-term outcomes of orthodontic retention by three different methods: a maxillary vacuum-formed retainer combined with a mandibular canine-to-canine retainer; a maxillary vacuum-formed retainer combined with stripping of the mandibular anterior teeth and a prefabricated positioner. All methods gave equally positive clinical results in both the short-term, i.e. after one and two years of retention, and in the long-term, five years or more post-retention. After two years of retention, the level of compliance affected the retention treatment result. However, no such effect was shown for body height, the severity of initial crowding or gender. Today, there is increasing emphasis on the importance of economic aspects of healthcare. Of the three methods evaluated in this study, the least cost-effective, after two years of retention, was a vacuum-formed retainer combined with a bonded canine-to-canine retainer. The clinical implication of this finding is that in patients meeting the inclusion criteria, interproximal stripping of the mandibular anterior teeth, or the use of a prefabricated positioner, are highly appropriate alternatives to a mandibular bonded canine-to-canine retainer. The overall conclusions are that there are a number of effective retention methods available and the clinician is not limited to routine use of a bonded mandibular canine-to-canine retainer. The most appropriate retention method should be selected on an individua

  4. Rainwater runoff retention on an aged intensive green roof.

    PubMed

    Speak, A F; Rothwell, J J; Lindley, S J; Smith, C L

    2013-09-01

    Urban areas are characterised by large proportions of impervious surfaces which increases rainwater runoff and the potential for surface water flooding. Increased precipitation is predicted under current climate change projections, which will put further pressure on urban populations and infrastructure. Roof greening can be used within flood mitigation schemes to restore the urban hydrological balance of cities. Intensive green roofs, with their deeper substrates and higher plant biomass, are able to retain greater quantities of runoff, and there is a need for more studies on this less common type of green roof which also investigate the effect of factors such as age and vegetation composition. Runoff quantities from an aged intensive green roof in Manchester, UK, were analysed for 69 rainfall events, and compared to those on an adjacent paved roof. Average retention was 65.7% on the green roof and 33.6% on the bare roof. A comprehensive soil classification revealed the substrate, a mineral soil, to be in good general condition and also high in organic matter content which can increase the water holding capacity of soils. Large variation in the retention data made the use of predictive regression models unfeasible. This variation arose from complex interactions between Antecedant Dry Weather Period (ADWP), season, monthly weather trends, and rainfall duration, quantity and peak intensity. However, significantly lower retention was seen for high rainfall events, and in autumn, which had above average rainfall. The study period only covers one unusually wet year, so a longer study may uncover relationships to factors which can be applied to intensive roofs elsewhere. Annual rainfall retention for Manchester city centre could be increased by 2.3% by a 10% increase in intensive green roof construction. The results of this study will be of particular interest to practitioners implementing greenspace adaptation in temperate and cool maritime climates. PMID:23712113

  5. Retention of safe diving skills.

    PubMed

    Blitvich, J D; McElroy, G K; Blanksby, B A; Parler, H E

    2003-06-01

    This study investigated diving skill maintenance over an eight-month retention period following an intervention program. Thirty-four recreational swimmers with poor diving skills were measured before and immediately after a diving skills intervention program. Twenty-two returned for follow-up evaluation. Treadwater, Deck and Block dives were video-recorded, and maximum depth, distance, velocity, entry angle and flight distance were compared. Underwater hand and arm positions were examined. Pre-intervention, a breaststroke arm action before maximum depth occurred in 18% of all dives and 38% of Treadwater dives. This was eliminated post-intervention, improving head protection. The Treadwater dive elicited the greatest mean maximum depth, and ANOVA showed depth for this entry decreased (improved) following intervention and remained shallower at follow-up. Deck and Block dives also became shallower following intervention. As seven 10-minute skills sessions resulted in shallower dives with safer hand and arm positions, including safe diving skills in learn-to-swim programs can provide a diving spinal cord injury prevention strategy. PMID:12945622

  6. Common post-operative complications in children

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Dilip

    2012-01-01

    The exact incidence of common post-operative complications in children is not known. Most common one is post-operative nausea and vomiting followed by respiratory complications leading to hypoxia. Cardiac complications are less in children without associated congenital cardiac anomaly. Post-operative shivering, agitation and delirium are seen more often in children anaesthetised with newer inhalational agents like sevoflurane and desflurane. Urinary retention in the post-operative period could be influenced by anaesthetic drugs and regional blocks. The purpose of this article is to review the literature and present to the postgraduate students comprehensive information about the current understanding and practice pattern on various common complications in the post-operative period. Extensive literature was searched with key words of various complications from Pubmed, Google scholar and specific journal, namely paediatric anaesthesia. The relevant articles, review article meta-analysis and editorials were the primary source of information for this article. PMID:23293390

  7. Factors Influencing the Retention of Secondary Family and Consumer Sciences Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dainty, Julie D.; Sandford, Brian A.; Su, Sho-Hsien; Belcher, Gregory G.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of teacher retention on quality education has inspired a great deal of research. Although many factors have been identified as contributors, few have been specific to the career and technical education (CTE) area and the diversity of CTE programs demands a more specific approach. The purpose of this study was to identify specific

  8. Intervention Practices in the Retention of Competitive Employment among Individuals Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikka, Anjoo; Stephens, Barry C.

    This report discusses the results of a national study of 89 rehabilitation counselors that investigated the methods by which an individual could retain competitive employment after the onset of a significant vision loss. The purpose of the study was to identify and describe strategies that contribute to successful job retention and identify best

  9. New Directions in Education Research: Using Data Mining Techniques to Explore Predictors of Grade Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley-Winstead, Deanna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use classification trees and logistic regression to identify subgroups of students more likely to be retained. The National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) was used to identify the sociodemographic, family background and school related factors associated with grade retention. The sample size for

  10. A strategic approach to employee retention.

    PubMed

    Gering, John; Conner, John

    2002-11-01

    A sound retention strategy should incorporate a business plan, a value proposition, progress measures, and management influences. The business plan will indicate whether a healthcare organization will achieve a return on investment for its effort. A value proposition will showcase an organization's strengths and differentiate it from its competitors. Measuring progress toward meeting retention goals at regular intervals will help keep an organization on track. The best managers require accountability, rewarding employees for their successes and taking corrective action as necessary. Retention rate targets must be at a level that will achieve a competitive advantage in the served market. PMID:12656028

  11. Common Issues in Professional Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janosik, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Most conversations about ethics and professional behavior involve case studies and hypothetical situations. This study identifies and examines the most common concerns in professional behavior as reported by 303 student affairs practitioners in the field. Differences by gender, years of experience, organizational level, institutional type, and

  12. Modelling global nutrient retention by river damming: Phosphorus and silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maavara, Taylor; Drr, Hans; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    The phosphorus to silicon (P:Si) nutrient ratio is a key variable affecting ecosystem health in many aquatic environments. River damming represents a major anthropogenic perturbation of natural material flows along the aquatic continuum, with the potential to profoundly modify absolute and relative nutrient availabilities in surface waters. In this study, a multi-tiered approach for estimating global nutrient retention in man-made reservoirs is presented. We illustrate its application to the global riverine flux of reactive Si, using a database of dissolved reactive Si (DSi) budgets for 24 natural lakes and 22 artificial reservoirs. The database includes information on bedrock geology, surface water pH, water residence time, reservoir age and function, climate, and trophic status. Statistical analyses (ANOVA, t-test, PCA, linear plus non-linear regressions) are used to identify the best predictors of DSi retention and delineate how reservoir properties modulate nutrient dynamics. Results indicate that (1) reservoirs retain significantly less DSi than natural lakes, and (2) the water residence time, reservoir age and function (e.g., hydroelectrical production, irrigation, flood control) are the main system variables controlling DSi retention by dams. Next, a biogeochemical Si model is used to reproduce the previously derived statistical trends for DSi retention. Calibration of the model yields a relationship that enables one to predict annual in-reservoir siliceous productivity as a function of the external reactive Si supply. The model further accounts for the transition from reservoirs where reactive Si retention is primarily due to burial of allochtonous Si to those where in-reservoir DSi uptake by diatoms dominates. Finally, the statistical and mechanistic relationships are extrapolated to estimate that 25-28 Tg SiO2 yr-1 are retained worldwide by dams, or 7% of the annual reactive Si load to watersheds. We are currently applying the same multi-tiered approach to the global P cycle. Our goal is to predict not only the effect of dams on reactive P retention, but also to determine how they are changing the P:Si ratios in river systems. Our preliminary results indicate that reservoirs are more effective in retaining nutrient P than Si.

  13. Retention of colonoscopy skills after virtual reality simulator training by independent and proctored methods.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Christopher W; Vandromme, Marianne J; Tyra, Sharon L; Hawn, Mary T

    2010-07-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators may enhance surgical resident colonoscopy skills, but the duration of skill retention and the effects of different simulator training methods are unknown. Medical students participating in a randomized trial of independent (automated simulator feedback only) versus proctored (human expert feedback plus simulator feedback) simulator training performed a standardized VR colonoscopy scenario at baseline, at the end of training (posttraining), and after a median 4.5 months without practice (retention). Performances were scored on a 10-point scale based on expert proficiency criteria and compared for the independent and proctored groups. Thirteen trainees (8 proctored, 5 independent) were included. Performance at retention testing was significantly better than baseline (median score 10 vs. 5, P < 0.0001), and no different from posttraining (median score 10 vs. 10, P = 0.19). Score changes from baseline to retention and from posttraining to retention were no different for the proctored and independent groups. Overinsufflation and excessive force were the most common reasons for nonproficiency at retention. After proficiency-based VR simulator training, colonoscopy skills are retained for several months, regardless of whether an independent or proctored approach is used. Error avoidance skills may not be retained as well as speed and efficiency skills. PMID:20698383

  14. A Computer-Based Undergraduate Exercise Using Internet-Accessible Simulation Software for the Study of Retention Behavior and Optimization of Separation Conditions in Ion Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Paul R.; Shaw, Matthew J.; Madden, John E.; Dicinoski, Greg W.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to scan retention data over a wide range of eluent composition opens up the possibility of a computerized selection of the optimal separation conditions. The major characteristics of retention behavior, peak-shape effects and pH effects evident in ion chromatography (IC) using common stationary phases and eluents are illustrated.

  15. Is the Cure Worse than the Disease? A Longitudinal Study on the Effect of Grade Retention in Secondary Education on Achievement and Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamote, Carl; Pinxten, Maarten; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Van Damme, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Holding students back when they do not meet a specific attainment level is common practice in a lot of countries. However, this practice is not without controversy and recent studies point at the negative effects of grade retention, especially in the long-term. The majority of these studies focused on grade retention in primary education. In our…

  16. Is the Cure Worse than the Disease? A Longitudinal Study on the Effect of Grade Retention in Secondary Education on Achievement and Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamote, Carl; Pinxten, Maarten; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Van Damme, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Holding students back when they do not meet a specific attainment level is common practice in a lot of countries. However, this practice is not without controversy and recent studies point at the negative effects of grade retention, especially in the long-term. The majority of these studies focused on grade retention in primary education. In our

  17. Compensation and Teacher Retention: A Success Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morice, Linda C.; Murray, James E.

    2003-01-01

    Describes components of successful teacher-evaluation and compensation program at the Ladue School District in suburban St. Louis, Missouri. Reports that salary increases based on performance evaluations improve teacher satisfaction and retention. (Contains 13 references.) (PKP)

  18. 7 CFR 400.412 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Social Security Account Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers 400.412 Record retention. (a) FCIC... of claim. (b) The statute of limitations for FCIC contract claims may permit litigation to...

  19. 7 CFR 400.412 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Social Security Account Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers 400.412 Record retention. (a) FCIC... of claim. (b) The statute of limitations for FCIC contract claims may permit litigation to...

  20. Gage measures electrical connector pin retention force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The retention force of a female connector pin is measured by observing the action of a calibrated spring in a gage consisting of housing, a plunger terminating in a male subminiature connector pin, and the tension spring.

  1. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) My hands and feet were swollen ... different or is not regular l Have sudden swelling or swelling that is getting worse l Gain ...

  2. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer of an infant formula shall make and retain such records respecting the distribution of the infant... the shelf life of the infant formula....

  3. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer of an infant formula shall make and retain such records respecting the distribution of the infant... the shelf life of the infant formula....

  4. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer of an infant formula shall make and retain such records respecting the distribution of the infant... the shelf life of the infant formula....

  5. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer of an infant formula shall make and retain such records respecting the distribution of the infant... the shelf life of the infant formula....

  6. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer of an infant formula shall make and retain such records respecting the distribution of the infant... the shelf life of the infant formula....

  7. Educational strategies for targeted retention of nonphysician health care providers.

    PubMed Central

    Hafferty, F W; Goldberg, H I

    1986-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a community-based, totally decentralized training program on the likelihood that graduates would establish their first practice within predefined and limited geographic regions. We found that when students in a physician assistant/nurse practitioner program received their preclinical and terminal training (preceptorship) in a region geographically proximate to their home residence, the likelihood that they would establish their first practice in that region was greatly increased. Similar results were found for students who took their preclinical training away from their home region but returned there for terminal training. Three additional training pathways were identified as being associated with markedly lower rates of regionally based graduate retention. Discriminant analysis was used to compare the relative impact of training and personal variables on retention. The educational process itself was found to be the single most important predictor of graduate retention. When structural variables were controlled, personal variables such as marital status, age, or sex had no predictive capabilities. With appropriate attention to the structural components of training--particularly terminal training (preceptorship)--experiences, PAs and NPs can be targeted to specific and relatively focused areas of medical need. These data suggest that several decentralized training strategies exist for physician assistants and nurse practitioners that would contribute to meeting health care delivery needs in chronically underserved areas. PMID:2872189

  8. Nuclear Retention of mRNA in Mammalian Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bahar Halpern, Keren; Caspi, Inbal; Lemze, Doron; Levy, Maayan; Landen, Shanie; Elinav, Eran; Ulitsky, Igor; Itzkovitz, Shalev

    2015-01-01

    Summary mRNA is thought to predominantly reside in the cytoplasm, where it is translated and eventually degraded. Although nuclear retention of mRNA has a regulatory potential, it is considered extremely rare in mammals. Here, to explore the extent of mRNA retention in metabolic tissues, we combine deep sequencing of nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA fractions with single-molecule transcript imaging in mouse beta cells, liver, and gut. We identify a wide range of protein-coding genes for which the levels of spliced polyadenylated mRNA are higher in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm. These include genes such as the transcription factor ChREBP, Nlrp6, Glucokinase, and Glucagon receptor. We demonstrate that nuclear retention of mRNA can efficiently buffer cytoplasmic transcript levels from noise that emanates from transcriptional bursts. Our study challenges the view that transcripts predominantly reside in the cytoplasm and reveals a role of the nucleus in dampening gene expression noise. PMID:26711333

  9. ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

    2011-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

  10. Faculty ratings of retention strategies for minority nursing students.

    PubMed

    Baker, Barbara H

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a) the types of retention strategies used by undergraduate nursing programs for the purpose of retaining minority students, b) the rated effectiveness of the strategies, as identified by faculty in those programs, and c) whether there is a relationship between strategies rated as effective and the type of nursing program, baccalaureate (BSN) or associate (AD) degree. Administrator-selected faculty from randomly sampled BSN and AD nursing programs within a 16-state area of the southeastern United States were asked to respond to an online survey regarding the use and effectiveness of retention strategies selected from the literature. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests for association were used to analyze the data. Of the 14 strategies included in this analysis, faculty availability and timely feedback on tests and clinical performances were used by all undergraduate programs. Organized study groups and peer mentoring were the least used strategies. Faculty from both BSN and AD programs reported using many of the strategies and rated their use as effective overall for minority nursing student retention. The highest rated strategies were those that involved direct interaction of nurse faculty and students. PMID:20882860

  11. Nuclear Retention of mRNA in Mammalian Tissues.

    PubMed

    Bahar Halpern, Keren; Caspi, Inbal; Lemze, Doron; Levy, Maayan; Landen, Shanie; Elinav, Eran; Ulitsky, Igor; Itzkovitz, Shalev

    2015-12-29

    mRNA is thought to predominantly reside in the cytoplasm, where it is translated and eventually degraded. Although nuclear retention of mRNA has a regulatory potential, it is considered extremely rare in mammals. Here, to explore the extent of mRNA retention in metabolic tissues, we combine deep sequencing of nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA fractions with single-molecule transcript imaging in mouse beta cells, liver, and gut. We identify a wide range of protein-coding genes for which the levels of spliced polyadenylated mRNA are higher in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm. These include genes such as the transcription factor ChREBP, Nlrp6, Glucokinase, and Glucagon receptor. We demonstrate that nuclear retention of mRNA can efficiently buffer cytoplasmic transcript levels from noise that emanates from transcriptional bursts. Our study challenges the view that transcripts predominantly reside in the cytoplasm and reveals a role of the nucleus in dampening gene expression noise. PMID:26711333

  12. Chamber evaluation of a portable GC with tunable retention and microsensor-array detection for indoor air quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia Jung; Jin, Chunguang; Zellers, Edward T

    2006-02-01

    The evaluation of a novel prototype instrument designed for on-site determinations of VOC mixtures found in indoor working environments is described. The instrument contains a miniature multi-stage preconcentrator, a dual-column separation module with pressure-tunable retention capabilities, and an integrated array of three polymer-coated surface acoustic wave sensors. It was challenged with dynamic test-atmospheres of a set of 15 common indoor air contaminants at parts-per-billion concentrations within a stainless-steel chamber under a range of conditions. Vapours were reliably identified at a known level of confidence by combining column retention times with sensor-array response patterns and applying a multivariate statistical test of pattern fidelity for the chromatographically resolved vapours. Estimates of vapour concentrations fell within 7% on average of those determined by EPA Method TO-17, and limits of detection ranged from 0.2 to 28 ppb at 25 degrees C for 1 L samples collected and analyzed in <12 min. No significant humidity effects were observed (0-90% RH). Increasing the chamber temperature from 25 to 30 degrees C reduced the retention times of the more volatile analytes which, in turn, demanded alterations in the scheduling of column-junction-point pressure (flow) modulations performed during the analysis. Reductions in sensor sensitivities with increasing temperature were predictable and similar among the sensors in the array such that most response patterns were not altered significantly. Short-term fluctuations in concentration were accurately tracked by the instrument. Results indicate that this type of instrument could provide routine, semi-autonomous, near-real-time, multi-vapour monitoring in support of efforts to assess air quality in office environments. PMID:16470259

  13. Parental educational program: effectiveness and retention.

    PubMed

    Middlemiss, W

    1996-06-01

    55 parents of adolescent children were asked to rate the effectiveness of their communication with their adolescents before and after a 10-wk. parent educational program encouraging authoritative parent-adolescent interactions. Parents reported improved effectiveness of communication from the pre- to post-program assessment times. Retention was compared across groups receiving high and low support in attendance of meetings, but retention did not differ across the two groups. PMID:8816050

  14. Extensive Management Promotes Plant and Microbial Nitrogen Retention in Temperate Grassland

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Franciska T.; Bloem, Jaap; Quirk, Helen; Stevens, Carly J.; Bol, Roland; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Leaching losses of nitrogen (N) from soil and atmospheric N deposition have led to widespread changes in plant community and microbial community composition, but our knowledge of the factors that determine ecosystem N retention is limited. A common feature of extensively managed, species-rich grasslands is that they have fungal-dominated microbial communities, which might reduce soil N losses and increase ecosystem N retention, which is pivotal for pollution mitigation and sustainable food production. However, the mechanisms that underpin improved N retention in extensively managed, species-rich grasslands are unclear. We combined a landscape-scale field study and glasshouse experiment to test how grassland management affects plant and soil N retention. Specifically, we hypothesised that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands of high conservation value would have lower N loss and greater N retention than intensively managed, species-poor grasslands, and that this would be due to a greater immobilisation of N by a more fungal-dominated microbial community. In the field study, we found that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands had lower N leaching losses. Soil inorganic N availability decreased with increasing abundance of fungi relative to bacteria, although the best predictor of soil N leaching was the C/N ratio of aboveground plant biomass. In the associated glasshouse experiment we found that retention of added 15N was greater in extensively than in intensively managed grasslands, which was attributed to a combination of greater root uptake and microbial immobilisation of 15N in the former, and that microbial immobilisation increased with increasing biomass and abundance of fungi. These findings show that grassland management affects mechanisms of N retention in soil through changes in root and microbial uptake of N. Moreover, they support the notion that microbial communities might be the key to improved N retention through tightening linkages between plants and microbes and reducing N availability. PMID:23227252

  15. 32 CFR 552.121 - Possession or retention of prohibited weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Possession or retention of prohibited weapons... prohibited weapons. Prohibited weapons are defined as: (a) Any instrument or weapon of the kind usually known... and/or explosives. (c) Any weapons not legally obtained. (d) Any instrument commonly used in...

  16. 32 CFR 552.121 - Possession or retention of prohibited weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Possession or retention of prohibited weapons... prohibited weapons. Prohibited weapons are defined as: (a) Any instrument or weapon of the kind usually known... and/or explosives. (c) Any weapons not legally obtained. (d) Any instrument commonly used in...

  17. 32 CFR 552.121 - Possession or retention of prohibited weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Possession or retention of prohibited weapons... prohibited weapons. Prohibited weapons are defined as: (a) Any instrument or weapon of the kind usually known... and/or explosives. (c) Any weapons not legally obtained. (d) Any instrument commonly used in...

  18. 32 CFR 552.121 - Possession or retention of prohibited weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Possession or retention of prohibited weapons... prohibited weapons. Prohibited weapons are defined as: (a) Any instrument or weapon of the kind usually known... and/or explosives. (c) Any weapons not legally obtained. (d) Any instrument commonly used in...

  19. 32 CFR 552.121 - Possession or retention of prohibited weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Possession or retention of prohibited weapons... prohibited weapons. Prohibited weapons are defined as: (a) Any instrument or weapon of the kind usually known... and/or explosives. (c) Any weapons not legally obtained. (d) Any instrument commonly used in...

  20. Analysis of Institutionally Specific Retention Research: A Comparison between Survey and Institutional Database Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caison, Amy L.

    2007-01-01

    This study empirically explores the comparability of traditional survey-based retention research methodology with an alternative approach that relies on data commonly available in institutional student databases. Drawing on Tinto's [Tinto, V. (1993). "Leaving College: Rethinking the Causes and Cures of Student Attrition" (2nd Ed.), The University

  1. Children's Noun-Pair Retention: Assessment of Pictorial Elaboration and Bizarreness Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    Three experiments were conducted to assess the effects of nonbizarre vs. bizarre pictorial elaboration on the paired-associate retention of noun pairs. Five and seven year old children served as subjects in the first two experiments and learned a list of common noun pairs by the study-test paired-associate method. Experiment 1 provided a…

  2. Analysis of Institutionally Specific Retention Research: A Comparison between Survey and Institutional Database Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caison, Amy L.

    2007-01-01

    This study empirically explores the comparability of traditional survey-based retention research methodology with an alternative approach that relies on data commonly available in institutional student databases. Drawing on Tinto's [Tinto, V. (1993). "Leaving College: Rethinking the Causes and Cures of Student Attrition" (2nd Ed.), The University…

  3. Discovery Path: a retention strategy for mid-career nurses.

    PubMed

    Donner, G J; Wheeler, M M

    2001-01-01

    As health care administrators, policymakers, nursing organizations, and nurses begin to deal with the reality of a looming (and to an increasing extent, existing) serious shortage of nurses both in Canada and globally, recruitment and retention issues are again in the news. Much attention has been directed towards two responses: (a) attracting young people into the profession and helping them integrate into and identify with nursing as a lifelong career, and (b) developing sustainable retention strategies to ensure that nurses remain in nursing. One population that requires particular attention is the mid-career group of nurses. Those nurses, in their late 30s and 40s with 15 and more years of experience, have the professional memory that employers count on, the expertise that patients and clients require, and the experience and wisdom that young nurses depend on for coaching, mentoring, and support. Retention strategies targeted to these mid-career nurses require a diverse set of activities that are focused on those nurses' specific stage of personal and professional development and that recognize their unique needs. The purpose of this article is to describe a program that targets mid-career nurses, predominantly women who, having spent much of their careers and lives caring for others-children, parents, patients-are beginning to question their own futures. The goals of the program and the experiences of one group of nurses in the program, as well as the results of a two-year follow up with them, will be discussed. Recommendations for future retention strategies will also be offered. PMID:15487311

  4. Characteristics of urinary retention in female inpatients managed with medical treatments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Yong; Kim, Chul Sung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to analyze the characteristics of urinary retention (UR) in female inpatients managed with medical treatments. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of female inpatients referred to the department of urology for UR at our institution from January 2009, to December 2014. UR was defined as a difficulty in self-voiding despite a sufficient urine volume or >300-mL postvoid residual. The data included patients' age, body mass index (BMI), ambulatory status, medical and surgical history, classes of taking drugs, and urinary tract infection. Results A total of 182 women were included as retention group, mean age of 72.64±12.94 years and BMI of 22.94±3.10 kg/m2. In the chi-square analysis, cardiovascular disorders (p=0.000), diabetes mellitus (p=0.008), metastatic malignancy (p=0.008), chronic renal disorders (p=0.028) were found significantly. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, cardiovascular disorders (p=0.002; odds ratio [OR], 0.491), metastatic malignancy (p=0.013; OR, 2.616) were found to increase the risk of UR. The most common surgical history was anti-incontinence surgery (7.2%). In term of medication use, the most prescribed agents were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (53.8%). The patients taking multiple drugs with antimuscarinic effects except of NSAIDs, narcotics and diuretics were 48 (26.4%). Urinary tract infection was identified in 43 patients (23.6%). Conclusions UR in females managed with medical treatments could be occurred occasionally. We think that thorough attentions are needed for UR to patients with cardiovascular disorders including diabetes mellitus, metastatic malignancy, chronic renal disorders urinary tract infection, and more careful interests when managing with drugs with antimuscarinic effects. PMID:26682022

  5. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,

  6. Complete denture retention. Part I: Physical analysis of the mechanism. Hysteresis of the solid-liquid contact angle.

    PubMed

    Monsngo, P; Proust, J

    1989-08-01

    Analysis of physical forces involved in the mechanism of denture retention clearly shows that the hysteresis of the liquid-solid contact angle governs the viscoelastic response of the system dislodgment. This result is in contradiction to the most commonly admitted view according to which perfect wettability is necessary to obtain good retention and implies the existence of the high advancing contact angle of saliva on a prosthetic material. PMID:2668514

  7. 5 CFR 575.306 - Authorizing a retention incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorizing a retention incentive. 575... INCENTIVES Retention Incentives 575.306 Authorizing a retention incentive. (a) Authority of authorized... a retention incentive; (2) Determine when a group or category of employees has unusually high...

  8. Knowledge representation for commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1990-01-01

    Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the Commonality Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.

  9. Retention strategies and predictors of attrition in an urban pediatric asthma study

    PubMed Central

    Zook, Patricia M; Jordan, Carolina; Adams, Bernadette; Visness, Cynthia M; Walter, Michelle; Pollenz, Kathryn; Logan, Jennette; Tesson, Elizabeth; Smartt, Ernestine; Chen, Amy; D’Agostino, John; Gern, James E

    2012-01-01

    Background The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) study is a multicenter prospective birth cohort study designed to examine factors related to the development of childhood asthma and allergies in an inner-city population. The retention of these participants has been challenging due to high mobility, inconsistent phone service, custody issues, and stressful life situations. Purpose In this article, we describe the specific retention challenges we encountered during the first 2 years of follow-up in URECA and the strategies we utilized to address them. We also examine how selected maternal characteristics and other factors are related to retention and missed study visits. Methods Strategies implemented to engage participants included: collecting updated and alternative contact information, after-hours phone calls to participants, culturally competent staff, flexible study event scheduling, clinic visit transportation, quarterly newsletters, retention events, drop-in home visits, and cell phone reimbursements. An internally developed web-based data management system enabled close monitoring by site teams and the coordinating center. The rate of deactivations was calculated using survival analysis. Characteristics of active and deactivated participants were compared using the chi-squared test with a Cochran–Mantel – Haenszel adjustment for study site. The proportion of missed visits of the total expected in the first 2 years was calculated and compared by family characteristics using an ANOVA model or a trend test controlling for study site. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (Cary, NC). Results The 2-year retention rate was 89%. Participation in the first study event predicted subsequent engagement in study activities. Mothers who did not complete the first visit were more likely to miss future events (46.1% vs. 8.9%, p < 0.0001) and to be deactivated (38.5% vs. 4.5%, p < 0.0001). Mothers under 18 years of age were more likely to leave the study compared to older mothers (22.7% vs. 10.1%, p = 0.02). Also, mothers who were married missed fewer events than those not married (8.8% vs. 15.6%, p = 0.01). In addition, deactivations were more common when the child had entered daycare by 3 months of age (10.9% vs. 3.6%, p = 0.05). Limitations The URECA population is predominantly minority, thus our findings might not be generalizable to other populations. Furthermore, we may not be able to observe the effects that might exist in a more diverse population. For example, 86% of the mothers are unmarried, making it difficult to reliably examine the effect of marital status. Conclusion In research, successfully engaging and retaining participants is essential for achieving the study objectives. Identifying factors related to missed visits and deactivations are the initial step in recognizing the potential at-risk participants and can enable the design of targeted strategies to retain participants. PMID:20571137

  10. Application of a quantitative structure retention relationship approach for the prediction of the two-dimensional gas chromatography retention times of polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycle compounds.

    PubMed

    Gieleciak, Rafal; Hager, Darcy; Heshka, Nicole E

    2016-03-11

    Information on the sulfur classes present in petroleum is a key factor in determining the value of refined products and processing behavior in the refinery. A large part of the sulfur present is included in polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs), which in turn are difficult to desulfurize. Furthermore, some PASHs are potentially more mutagenic and carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs. All of this calls for improved methods for the identification and quantification of individual sulfur species. Recent advances in analytical techniques such as comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) have enabled the identification of many individual sulfur species. However, full identification of individual components, particularly in virgin oil fractions, is still out of reach as standards for numerous compounds are unavailable. In this work, a method for accurately predicting retention times in GC×GC using a QSRR (quantitative structure retention relationship) method was very helpful for the identification of individual sulfur compounds. Retention times for 89 saturated, aromatic, and polyaromatic sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds were determined using two-dimensional gas chromatography. These retention data were correlated with molecular descriptors generated with CODESSA software. Two independent QSRR relationships were derived for the primary as well as the secondary retention characteristics. The predictive ability of the relationships was tested by using both independent sets of compounds and a cross-validation technique. When the corresponding chemical standards are unavailable, the equations developed for predicting retention times can be used to identify unknown chromatographic peaks by matching their retention times with those of sulfur compounds of known molecular structure. PMID:26879453

  11. Colloid Transport and Retention in Fractured Media

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.

    2001-02-01

    The goal of this project was to identify the chemical and physical factors that control the transport of colloids in fractured materials, and develop a generalized capability to predict colloid attachment and detachment based on hydraulic factors (head, flow rate), physical processes and structure (fracture aperture, matrix porosity), and chemical properties (surface properties of colloids, solution chemistry, and mineralogy of fracture surfaces). Both aqueous chemistry and physical structure of geologic formations influenced transport. Results of studies at all spatial scales reached consensus on the importance of several key controlling variables: (1) colloid retention is dominated by chemical conditions favoring colloid-wall interactions; (2) even in the presence of conditions favorable to colloid collection, deposited colloids are remobilized over long times and this process contributes substantially to the overall extent of transport; (3) diffusive exchange between water-conducting fractures and finer fractures and pores acts to ''buffer'' the effects of the major fracture network structure, and reduces predictive uncertainties. Predictive tools were developed that account for fundamental mechanisms of colloid dynamics in fracture geometry, and linked to larger-scale processes in networks of fractures. The results of our study highlight the key role of physical and hydrologic factors, and processes of colloid remobilization that are potentially of even greater importance to colloid transport in the vadose zone than in saturated conditions. We propose that this work be extended to focus on understanding vadose zone transport processes so that they can eventually be linked to the understanding and tools developed in our previous project on transport in saturated groundwater systems.

  12. Considering Student Retention as a Complex System: A Possible Way forward for Enhancing Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsman, Jonas; van den Bogaard, Maartje; Linder, Cedric; Fraser, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    This study uses multilayer minimum spanning tree analysis to develop a model for student retention from a complex system perspective, using data obtained from first-year engineering students at a large well-regarded institution in the European Union. The results show that the elements of the system of student retention are related to one another

  13. Considering Student Retention as a Complex System: A Possible Way forward for Enhancing Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsman, Jonas; van den Bogaard, Maartje; Linder, Cedric; Fraser, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    This study uses multilayer minimum spanning tree analysis to develop a model for student retention from a complex system perspective, using data obtained from first-year engineering students at a large well-regarded institution in the European Union. The results show that the elements of the system of student retention are related to one another…

  14. Employee retention: a customer service approach.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Richard F

    2002-01-01

    Employee retention is a huge problem. There are staff shortages in radiology because not enough people are entering the profession; too many people are leaving the profession for retirement, higher-paying jobs or jobs with less stress; and there are not enough opportunities for career advancement. Staff shortages are exacerbated by difficulty in retaining people who enter the profession. While much work has been focused on recruitment and getting more people "in the front door," I suggest that the bulk of future efforts be focused on employee retention and "closing the back door." Employee retention must be an ongoing process, not a program. Approaches to employee retention that focus on external things, i.e., things that the company can do to or for the employee, generally are not successful. The truth is that employee retention processes must focus on what the employee gets out of the job. The process must be a benefits-based approach that helps employees answer the question, "What's in it for me?" The retention processes must be ongoing and integrated into the daily culture of the company. The best way to keep your employees is to treat them like customers. Customer service works for external customers. We treat them nicely. We work to satisfy them. We help them achieve their goals. Why not do the same for our employees? If positive customer service policies and practices can satisfy and keep external customers, why not adapt these policies and practices for employees? And, there is a service/satisfaction link between employee retention and higher levels of customer satisfaction. Customers prefer dealing with the same employees over and over again. Employee turnover destroys a customer's confidence in the company. Just like a customer does not want to have to "train and educate" a new provider, they do not want to do the same for your "revolving door" employees. So, the key is to keep employees so they in turn will help you keep your customers. Because the techniques of this process mirror the activities of customer service and customer relationship management, I call the combined process C/ERM for customer/employee relationship management. Both activities must be going on simultaneously to create a loyalty link that ensures customer satisfaction and retention through employee service, satisfaction and retention. PMID:12080928

  15. Common Control System Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

  16. Common principles of couple therapy.

    PubMed

    Benson, Lisa A; McGinn, Meghan M; Christensen, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    The similarity in efficacy of evidence-based couple therapies suggests that it may be useful to identify those treatment principles they hold in common. Expanding on the previous description of a unified protocol for couple therapy (Christensen, 2010), this article outlines five common principles: (a) altering the couple's view of the presenting problem to be more objective, contextualized, and dyadic; (b) decreasing emotion-driven, dysfunctional behavior; (c) eliciting emotion-based, avoided, private behavior; (d) increasing constructive communication patterns; and (e) emphasizing strengths and reinforcing gains. For each of these five elements of the unified protocol, the paper addresses how and to what extent the most common forms of evidence-based couple therapy carry out this principle. Implications for clinical practice, treatment research, and basic research on intimate relationships are discussed. PMID:22304876

  17. Retention mechanisms and binding states of deuterium implanted into beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinelt, M.; Allouche, A.; Oberkofler, M.; Linsmeier, Ch

    2009-04-01

    The retention of 1 keV D+ ions implanted into clean and oxidized single crystalline Be at room and elevated temperatures is investigated by a combination of in situ analytical techniques including temperature programmed desorption (TPD), nuclear reaction analysis, low-energy ion spectroscopy (LEIS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For the first time, the whole temperature regime for deuterium release and the influence of thin oxide films on the release processes are clarified. The cleaned and annealed Be sample has residual oxygen concentration equivalent to 0.2 monolayer (ML) BeO in the near-surface region as the only contamination. LEIS shows that Be from the volume covers thin BeO surface layers above an annealing temperature of 1000 K by segregation, forming a pure Be-terminated surface, which is stable at lower temperatures until again oxidized by residual gas. No deuterium is retained in the sample above 950 K. By analyzing TPD spectra, active retention mechanisms and six energetically different binding states are identified. Activation energies (EA) for the release of D from binding states in Be are obtained by modelling the experimental data. Two ion-induced trap sites with release temperatures between 770 and 840 K (EA= 1.88 and 2.05 eV, respectively) and two trap sites (release between 440 and 470 K) due to supersaturation of the bulk above the steady state fluence of 21017 cm-2 are identified. None of the release steps shows a surface recombination limit. A thin BeO surface layer introduces an additional binding state with a release temperature of 680 K. Implantation at elevated temperatures (up to 530 K) changes the retention mechanism above the saturation limit and populates a binding state with a release temperature of 570 K.

  18. Retention projection enables accurate calculation of liquid chromatographic retention times across labs and methods.

    PubMed

    Abate-Pella, Daniel; Freund, Dana M; Ma, Yan; Simn-Manso, Yamil; Hollender, Juliane; Broeckling, Corey D; Huhman, David V; Krokhin, Oleg V; Stoll, Dwight R; Hegeman, Adrian D; Kind, Tobias; Fiehn, Oliver; Schymanski, Emma L; Prenni, Jessica E; Sumner, Lloyd W; Boswell, Paul G

    2015-09-18

    Identification of small molecules by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be greatly improved if the chromatographic retention information is used along with mass spectral information to narrow down the lists of candidates. Linear retention indexing remains the standard for sharing retention data across labs, but it is unreliable because it cannot properly account for differences in the experimental conditions used by various labs, even when the differences are relatively small and unintentional. On the other hand, an approach called "retention projection" properly accounts for many intentional differences in experimental conditions, and when combined with a "back-calculation" methodology described recently, it also accounts for unintentional differences. In this study, the accuracy of this methodology is compared with linear retention indexing across eight different labs. When each lab ran a test mixture under a range of multi-segment gradients and flow rates they selected independently, retention projections averaged 22-fold more accurate for uncharged compounds because they properly accounted for these intentional differences, which were more pronounced in steep gradients. When each lab ran the test mixture under nominally the same conditions, which is the ideal situation to reproduce linear retention indices, retention projections still averaged 2-fold more accurate because they properly accounted for many unintentional differences between the LC systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most successful study to date aiming to calculate (or even just to reproduce) LC gradient retention across labs, and it is the only study in which retention was reliably calculated under various multi-segment gradients and flow rates chosen independently by labs. PMID:26292625

  19. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    MedlinePLUS

    ← Close All breastfeeding topics Breastfeeding benefits: Why breastfeeding is important Learning to breastfeed: Learning to breastfeed Making breastmilk Finding breastfeeding support and information Breastfeeding challenges: Common ...

  20. Lightweight acrylic resin facial prosthesis for maxillofacial defects: a fabrication and retention method.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takayoshi; Sato, Junichi; Matsuura, Masaro; Kawaguchi, Koji; Sekiguchi, Rei; Horie, Akihisa; Seto, Kanichi

    2013-10-01

    Extraoral maxillofacial rehabilitation for compromised or lost facial anatomy resulting from the surgical eradication of malignancy, trauma, or congenital anomalies is commonly accomplished with a silicone prosthesis. However, with increasing size and weight, a silicone prosthesis can lose retention. This report presents 2 patient treatments to introduce a fabrication and retention method for a lightweight acrylic resin facial prosthesis. The prosthesis was fabricated by bonding an acrylic resin facial shell to a computer-edited facial image printed with iron-on transfers. The completed prosthesis was attached to the skin with medical-grade double-sided adhesive tape, which maintained a tight marginal seal even when in contact with saliva and water. The strong prosthetic retention of the lightweight prosthesis enabled orofacial and speech rehabilitation, which makes it a promising alternative to the conventional silicone prosthesis, especially for the restoration of extensive maxillofacial defects. PMID:24079569

  1. Modelling of arsenic retention in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Esther; Obradors, Joshua; Alarcn-Herrera, Mara Teresa; Poch, Manel

    2013-11-01

    A new model was developed in order to simulate the most significant arsenic retention processes that take place in constructed wetlands (CWs) treating high arsenic waters. The present contribution presents the implementation phases related to plants (arsenic uptake and accumulation, root arsenic adsorption, and root oxygen release), showing the first simulation results of the complete model. Different approaches with diverse influent configurations were simulated. In terms of total arsenic concentrations in effluent, the simulated data closely matched the data measured in all evaluated cases. The iron and arsenic species relationships, and the arsenic retention percentages obtained from simulations, were in agreement with the experimental data and literature. The arsenic retention efficiency increased whenever a new phase was implemented, reaching a maximum efficiency range of 85-95%. According to the quality of the obtained results, it can be considered that the implementation of all steps of RCB-ARSENIC provided reasonably good response values. PMID:23994963

  2. Deuterium Retention in NSTX with Lithium Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner, J.P. Allain, W. Blanchard, H.W. Kugel, R. Maingi, L. Roquemore, V. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor

    2010-06-02

    High (≈ 90%) deuterium retention was observed in NSTX gas balance measurements both withand without lithiumization of the carbon plasma facing components. The gas retained in ohmic discharges was measured by comparing the vessel pressure rise after a discharge to that of a gasonly pulse with the pumping valves closed. For neutral beam heated discharges the gas input and gas pumped by the NB cryopanels were tracked. The discharges were followed by outgassing of deuterium that reduced the retention. The relationship between retention and surface chemistry was explored with a new plasma-material interface probe connected to an in-vacuo surface science station that exposed four material samples to the plasma. XPS and TDS analysis showed that the binding of D atoms is fundamentally changed by lithium - in particular atoms are weakly bonded in regions near lithium atoms bound to either oxygen or the carbon matrix.

  3. Safeguards Workforce Repatriation, Retention and Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Gallucci, Nicholas; Poe, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked by NA-241 to assess the transition of former IAEA employees back to the United States, investigating the rate of retention and overall smoothness of the repatriation process among returning safeguards professionals. Upon conducting several phone interviews, study authors found that the repatriation process went smoothly for the vast majority and that workforce retention was high. However, several respondents expressed irritation over the minimal extent to which their safeguards expertise had been leveraged in their current positions. This sentiment was pervasive enough to prompt a follow-on study focusing on questions relating to the utilization rather than the retention of safeguards professionals. A second, web-based survey was conducted, soliciting responses from a larger sample pool. Results suggest that the safeguards workforce may be oversaturated, and that young professionals returning to the United States from Agency positions may soon encounter difficulties finding jobs in the field.

  4. On identified predictive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    Self-tuning control algorithms are potential successors to manually tuned PID controllers traditionally used in process control applications. A very attractive design method for self-tuning controllers, which has been developed over recent years, is the long-range predictive control (LRPC). The success of LRPC is due to its effectiveness with plants of unknown order and dead-time which may be simultaneously nonminimum phase and unstable or have multiple lightly damped poles (as in the case of flexible structures or flexible robot arms). LRPC is a receding horizon strategy and can be, in general terms, summarized as follows. Using assumed long-range (or multi-step) cost function the optimal control law is found in terms of unknown parameters of the predictor model of the process, current input-output sequence, and future reference signal sequence. The common approach is to assume that the input-output process model is known or separately identified and then to find the parameters of the predictor model. Once these are known, the optimal control law determines control signal at the current time t which is applied at the process input and the whole procedure is repeated at the next time instant. Most of the recent research in this field is apparently centered around the LRPC formulation developed by Clarke et al., known as generalized predictive control (GPC). GPC uses ARIMAX/CARIMA model of the process in its input-output formulation. In this paper, the GPC formulation is used but the process predictor model is derived from the state space formulation of the ARIMAX model and is directly identified over the receding horizon, i.e., using current input-output sequence. The underlying technique in the design of identified predictive control (IPC) algorithm is the identification algorithm of observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters developed by Juang et al. at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully applied to identification of flexible structures.

  5. Identifying Plant Poisoning in Livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisonous plant intoxication is a common and often deadly problem that annually costs the livestock industry more than $340 million in the western United States alone. Despite the cost or frequency, definitively identifying or diagnosing poisoning by plants in livestock is challenging. The purpos...

  6. Critical role of surface roughness on colloid retention and release in porous media.

    PubMed

    Torkzaban, Saeed; Bradford, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the critical role of surface roughness (both nano- and micro-scale) on the processes of colloid retention and release in porous media under steady-state and transient chemical conditions. Nanoscale surface roughness (NSR) in the order of a few nanometers, which is common on natural solid surfaces, was incorporated into extended-DLVO calculations to quantify the magnitudes of interaction energy parameters (e.g. the energy barrier to attachment, ??a, and detachment, ??d, from a primary minimum). This information was subsequently used to explain the behavior of colloid retention and release in column and batch experiments under different ionic strength (IS) and pH conditions. Results demonstrated that the density and height of NSR significantly influenced the interaction energy parameters and consequently the extent and kinetics of colloid retention and release. In particular, values of ??aand ??dsignificantly decreased in the presence of NSR. Therefore, consistent with findings of column experiments, colloid retention in the primary minimum was predicted to occur at some specific locations on the sand surface, even at low IS conditions. However, NSR yielded a much weaker primary minimum interaction compared with that of smooth surfaces. Colloid release from primary minima upon decreasing IS and increasing pH was attributed to the impact of NSR on the values of ??d. Pronounced differences in the amount of colloid retention in batch and column experiments indicated that primary minimum interactions were weak even at high IS conditions. Negligible colloid retention in batch experiments was attributed to hydrodynamic torques overcoming adhesive torques, whereas significant colloid retention in column experiments was attributed to nano- and micro-scale roughness which would dramatically alter the lever arms associated with hydrodynamic and adhesive torques. PMID:26512805

  7. Appropriate training and retention of community doctors in rural areas: a case study from Mali

    PubMed Central

    Van Dormael, Monique; Dugas, Sylvie; Kone, Yacouba; Coulibaly, Seydou; Sy, Mansour; Marchal, Bruno; Desplats, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Background While attraction of doctors to rural settings is increasing in Mali, there is concern for their retention. An orientation course for young practicing rural doctors was set up in 2003 by a professional association and a NGO. The underlying assumption was that rurally relevant training would strengthen doctors' competences and self-confidence, improve job satisfaction, and consequently contribute to retention. Methods Programme evaluation distinguished trainees' opinions, competences and behaviour. Data were collected through participant observation, group discussions, satisfaction questionnaires, a monitoring tool of learning progress, and follow up visits. Retention was assessed for all 65 trainees between 2003 and 2007. Results and discussion The programme consisted of four classroom modules – clinical skills, community health, practice management and communication skills – and a practicum supervised by an experienced rural doctor. Out of the 65 trained doctors between 2003 and 2007, 55 were still engaged in rural practice end of 2007, suggesting high retention for the Malian context. Participants viewed the training as crucial to face technical and social problems related to rural practice. Discussing professional experience with senior rural doctors contributed to socialisation to novel professional roles. Mechanisms underlying training effects on retention include increased self confidence, self esteem as rural doctor, and sense of belonging to a professional group sharing a common professional identity. Retention can however not be attributed solely to the training intervention, as rural doctors benefit from other incentives and support mechanisms (follow up visits, continuing training, mentoring...) affecting job satisfaction. Conclusion Training increasing self confidence and self esteem of rural practitioners may contribute to retention of skilled professionals in rural areas. While reorientations of curricula in training institutions are necessary, other types of professional support are needed. This experience suggests that professional associations dedicated to strengthening quality of care can contribute significantly to rural practitioners' morale. PMID:19017381

  8. Heavy metal retention of different embankments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werkenthin, Moritz; Kluge, Bjoern; Wessolek, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    The accumulation and retention of heavy metals in roadside soils has been studied for at least over forty years, but it is still subject of major interest. The continuously increasing road traffic induces high heavy metal loadings in runoff and seepage water. Elevated concentrations of heavy metals are a potential environmental risk. Especially in the long term development there is an increasing problem of soil contamination and groundwater pollution. A significant rate of road runoff infiltrates into the hard and soft shoulder. They are usually built during road construction and located directly along the road edge. According to valid german law, newly constructed hard shoulders have to provide a specific bearing capacity to enable trafficability in emergency cases. Therefore the applicable materials consist of defined gravel-soil mixtures, which can fulfill this requirement. To determine and compare the concentration of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr in the road runoff and seepage water of different hard shoulder substrates, we installed 6 lysimeters along the edge of the german highway A115. Three lysimeters were filled with different materials wich are commonly used for road construction in Germany and compacted afterwards. Surface runoff is sampled, as is seepage water in two depths in the three lysimeters. Furthermore three lysimeters where installed and filled with plain gravel, to observe the distribution, quantity and quality of road runoff. Additionally soil column experiments were carried out with the same construction material. Both, the measured seepage water concentrations from field and column experiments of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr do not yet exceed the trigger values of the German Federal Soil Protection and Contamination Ordinance (BBodSchV). No significant differences in heavy metal concentrations of the three artificial hard shoulder lysimeters were determined so far. First analytical results of the road runoff show concentrations of up to 12.9 µg/l Pb, 0.1 µg/l Cd, 19.8 µg/l Cu, 3.9 µg/l Cr, and 49.6 µg/l Zn. They are in the same order of magnitude as literature values.

  9. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing anthropogenic sources of N that are not retained in the watershed and maintaining high rates of N retention will be of utmost concern for coastal managers.

  10. USAR Nurse Referral and Retention Program.

    PubMed

    Foley, J E; Foley, B J

    1992-09-01

    In 1987, the 804th Hospital Center made alleviating the shortfall of registered nurses in the Command a priority. The Command had only 79% of its registered nurse positions filled at the time. Using the recruitment strategies of an employee referral program and a mailing list, the Command reached 100% fill in 2 years and maintained those gains for an additional year. Retention strategies were also implemented which lowered the attrition rate. This paper describes the Army Nurse Referral and Retention Program developed and implemented at the 804th Hospital Center that relieved the shortfall of registered nurses in the United States Army Reserve in New England. PMID:1454199

  11. Conceptualizing an Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology-management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service-delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment. (Author)

  12. Campus Common Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Gordon Morris

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

  13. Radiomarked Common Loon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A juvenile common loon wearing a satellite transmitter antenna follows an adult. USGS scientists and partners captured and radiomarked juvenile common loons on lakes scattered across Minnesota and Wisconsin during the last two weeks of August 2014 to track their movements and wintering ground...

  14. Scientist Releases Common Loon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As part of a cooperative project, scientists with the USGS and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources tagged common loons in north central Wisconsin to study the distribution and migration movements, as well as foraging patterns and depth profiles of common loons equipped with archiv...

  15. Identification of recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals in Ontario, Canada: results from expert panels

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Diem; Hall, Linda McGillis; Davis, Aileen; Landry, Michel D; Burnett, Dawn; Berg, Katherine; Jaglal, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Background Demand for rehabilitation services is expected to increase due to factors such as an aging population, workforce pressures, rise in chronic and complex multi-system disorders, advances in technology, and changes in interprofessional health service delivery models. However, health human resource (HHR) strategies for Canadian rehabilitation professionals are lagging behind other professional groups such as physicians and nurses. The objectives of this study were: 1) to identify recruitment and retention strategies of rehabilitation professionals including occupational therapists, physical therapists and speech language pathologists from the literature; and 2) to investigate both the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies using expert panels amongst HHR and education experts. Methods A review of the literature was conducted to identify recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals. Two expert panels, one on Recruitment and Retention and the other on Education were convened to determine the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies. A modified-delphi process was used to gain consensus and to rate the identified strategies along these two dimensions. Results A total of 34 strategies were identified by the Recruitment and Retention and Education expert panels as being important and feasible for the development of a HHR plan for recruitment and retention of rehabilitation professionals. Seven were categorized under the Quality of Worklife and Work Environment theme, another seven in Financial Incentives and Marketing, two in Workload and Skill Mix, thirteen in Professional Development and five in Education and Training. Conclusion Based on the results from the expert panels, the three major areas of focus for HHR planning in the rehabilitation sector should include strategies addressing Quality of Worklife and Work Environment, Financial Incentives and Marketing and Professional Development. PMID:19068134

  16. Within High Schools--Influences on Retention among the Indigenous People of Northeast India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudussery, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative case study of three high schools was conducted to identify and profile school practices employed in educating a traditionally low-achieving subpopulation in northeast India. By the considerably higher than average retention and graduation rates among their students who come from indigenous tribal communities, these schools stand out

  17. Report of the Oklahoma Higher Education Task Force on Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    The Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education appointed the Oklahoma Higher Education Task Force on Student Retention and charged the Task Force to: (1) review Oklahoma and national data on student attrition; (2) identify factors that contribute to student persistence in college; and (3) recommend specific initiatives to increase student

  18. Generation Y Student-Teachers' Motivational Factors: Retention Implications for K-12 Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bontempo, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Generation Y represents a growing number of student-teachers who will impact the future of educational practice, yet little research has been conducted for this demographic group. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to identify motivational factors of neophyte teachers and the retention implications these findings had on Kindergarten

  19. Determining the Impact of Remediation on College Level Course Grades, Retention and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Thomas Kelvin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this causal-comparative study was to determine whether varying levels of prior remediation affected grades, success, and retention in online college level courses. Traditional and online sections completed a demographics survey to identify background characteristics along with the amount and type of developmental class. Instructors…

  20. Determining the Impact of Remediation on College Level Course Grades, Retention and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Thomas Kelvin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this causal-comparative study was to determine whether varying levels of prior remediation affected grades, success, and retention in online college level courses. Traditional and online sections completed a demographics survey to identify background characteristics along with the amount and type of developmental class. Instructors

  1. Predictive Modeling of Student Performances for Retention and Academic Support in a Diagnostic Medical Sonography Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghese, Peter; Lacey, Sandi

    2014-01-01

    As part of a retention and academic support program, data was collected to develop a predictive model of student performances in core classes in a Diagnostic Medical Sonography (DMS) program. The research goal was to identify students likely to have difficulty with coursework and provide supplemental tutorial support. The focus was on the…

  2. Within High Schools--Influences on Retention among the Indigenous People of Northeast India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudussery, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative case study of three high schools was conducted to identify and profile school practices employed in educating a traditionally low-achieving subpopulation in northeast India. By the considerably higher than average retention and graduation rates among their students who come from indigenous tribal communities, these schools stand out…

  3. The Relationship between High School Math Courses, High School GPA, and Retention of Honors Scholarships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megert, Diann Ackerman

    2005-01-01

    This research examined the high school transcripts of honors scholarship recipients to identify a better criterion for awarding scholarships than high school grade point average (GPA) alone. Specifically, this study compared the honors scholarship retention rate when the scholarship was awarded based on completed advanced high school math classes…

  4. Faculty Influences on Black Recruitment and Retention in Schools of Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, John J.; Feldbaum, Eleanor G.

    To determine why blacks are underrepresented in the field of nursing, a three-year nationwide study was undertaken to examine and evaluate the recruitment and retention strategies used in schools of nursing, and to identify the most successful ones. Forty schools in 16 states were selected by their geographic and program representativeness; they…

  5. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: Paths to Advancement for Single Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia; Deitch, Victoria; Hill, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2003, the Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project identified and implemented a diverse set of innovative models designed to promote employment stability and wage or earnings progression among low-income individuals, mostly current or former welfare recipients. The project's goal was to determine which strategies could

  6. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: Paths to Advancement for Single Parents. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia; Deitch, Victoria; Hill, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2003, the Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project identified and implemented a diverse set of innovative models designed to promote employment stability and wage or earnings progression among low-income individuals, mostly current or former welfare recipients. The project's goal was to determine which strategies could

  7. Beyond the Labor Market Paradigm: A Social Network Perspective on Teacher Recruitment and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies limits of the dominant labor market perspective (LMP) in research on teacher recruitment and retention and describes how research that incorporates a social network perspective (SNP) can contribute to the knowledge base and development of teacher education, staffing, and professional development approaches. A discussion of…

  8. A Critical Review of the Literature on Student Services and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutto, Claude P.

    This article presents a review of literature on topics and theoretical frameworks relevant to the interrelated concerns of student services and freshman retention. The first section identifies information related to the stages, processes, and perspectives from which student service personnel interact with students. A second section focuses on…

  9. What Works in Student Retention? Fourth National Survey. Report for All Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    Over the past three and one-half decades, ACT has dedicated itself to conducting research that collects information from colleges and universities that will help them identify and better understand the impact of various practices on college student retention and persistence to degree-completion. Conducted in the spring of 2009, ACT's most recent…

  10. The Drivers of Student Enrolment and Retention: A Stakeholder Perception Analysis in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelopulo, George

    2013-01-01

    This study identified the drivers of student participation in the academic programmes of a South African university department. First, it explored the determinants of student enrolment and retention from earlier research and literature. Second, it discussed the utility of Q methodology in the identification of subjective perception. Finally, it

  11. 42 CFR 403.813 - Marketing limitations and record retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Discount Card and Transitional Assistance Program 403.813 Marketing limitations and record retention... and Transitional Assistance Program, a drug card enrollee's individually identifiable health... Transitional Assistance Program as part of its operations of an endorsed program for at least 6 years...

  12. Predictive Modeling of Student Performances for Retention and Academic Support in a Diagnostic Medical Sonography Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghese, Peter; Lacey, Sandi

    2014-01-01

    As part of a retention and academic support program, data was collected to develop a predictive model of student performances in core classes in a Diagnostic Medical Sonography (DMS) program. The research goal was to identify students likely to have difficulty with coursework and provide supplemental tutorial support. The focus was on the

  13. Renal and Vascular Mechanisms of Thiazolidinedione-Induced Fluid Retention

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tianxin; Soodvilai, Sunhapas

    2008-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtype γ (PPARγ) activators that are clinically used as an insulin sensitizer for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Additionally, TZDs exhibit novel anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties, indicating therapeutic potential for a wide variety of diseases associated with diabetes and other conditions. The clinical applications of TZDs are limited by the common major side effect of fluid retention. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism of TZD-induced fluid retention is essential for the development of novel therapies with improved safety profiles. An important breakthrough in the field is the finding that the renal collecting duct is a major site for increased fluid reabsorption in response to rosiglitazone or pioglitazone. New evidence also indicates that increased vascular permeability in adipose tissues may contribute to edema formation and body weight gain. Future research should therefore be directed at achieving a better understanding of the detailed mechanisms of TZD-induced increases in renal sodium transport and in vascular permeability. PMID:18784848

  14. Performance comparison of partial least squares-related variable selection methods for quantitative structure retention relationships modelling of retention times in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Mohammad; Schuster, Georg; Shellie, Robert A; Szucs, Roman; Haddad, Paul R

    2015-12-11

    The relative performance of six multivariate data analysis methods derived from or combined with partial least squares (PLS) has been compared in the context of quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR). These methods include, GA (genetic algorithm)-PLS, Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), iteratively retaining informative variables (IRIV), variable iterative space shrinkage approach (VISSA) and PLS with automated backward selection of predictors (autoPLS). A set of 825 molecular descriptors was computed for 86 suspected sports doping compounds and used for predicting their gradient retention times in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC). The correlation between molecular descriptors selected by each technique and the retention time was established using the PLS method. All models derived from a selected subset of descriptors outperformed the reference PLS model derived from all descriptors, with very small demands of computational time and effort. A performance comparison indicated great diversity of these methods in selecting the most relevant molecular descriptors, ranging from 28 for CARS to 263 for MC-UVE. While VISSA provided the lowest degree of over-fitting for the training set, CARS demonstrated the best compromise between the prediction accuracy and the number of selected descriptors, with the prediction error of as low as 46s for the external test set. Only ten descriptors were found to be common for all models, with the characteristics of these descriptors being representative of the retention mechanism in RPLC. PMID:26592563

  15. Retention through Counseling: Counseling the ABE Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arruza, Andrew; Daniel, Marcia

    These materials are intended to help adult basic education (ABE) instructors in their role as counselors. Most are suitable for use in a workshop for ABE instructors. An introduction describes the ABE Retention through Counseling Program and highlights the skills an ABE instructor needs to work with adult learners. Chapter 1 provides pointers for

  16. 14 CFR 291.23 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS CARGO OPERATIONS IN INTERSTATE AIR TRANSPORTATION General Rules for All-Cargo Air Transportation § 291.23 Record retention. (a) The provisions of 14 CFR part 249, Preservation of air carrier accounts... transportation outside the geographic scope of interstate air transportation, need not be maintained...

  17. Personnel Recruitment and Retention in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helge, Doris; Marrs, Lawrence W.

    Recruitment and retention of special education teachers and related services staff have been persistent problems of rural school districts nationwide. High teacher attrition rates have serious ramifications for personnel development and program stability. Effective recruitment strategies for rural areas have four main components: (1) emphasis on…

  18. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.356 Pay retention. (a) Subject to...

  19. Grade Retention: Does It Hold Children Back?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottorff, Donald D.

    1991-01-01

    The academic benefits of grade retention are doubtful. Researchers have found that a low percentage of retained students achieve at a higher rate and that many regress. Parents should request a multidisciplinary evaluation before allowing a child to be retained. (JD)

  20. Retention of First Year Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Melissa H.

    2012-01-01

    Although close to half of all community college students leave before obtaining their stated goals, most retention studies are still being conducted at the four-year college and university level. There is still little research conducted at the community college level. In order to determine what student characteristics increase community college

  1. Lung retention of cerium in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Pairon, J C; Roos, F; Iwatsubo, Y; Janson, X; Billon-Galland, M A; Bignon, J; Brochard, P

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate lung retention of particles containing cerium in subjects with and without previous occupational exposure to mineral dusts. Analytical transmission electron microscopy was performed on 459 samples of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and 75 samples of lung tissue. Study of the distribution of mineralogical species in human samples showed that particles containing cerium were encountered in less than 10% of subjects. The proportion of subjects with particles containing cerium in their biological samples was not different between controls and subjects with previous occupational exposure to fibrous or nonfibrous mineral dusts. This was considered as the background level of lung retention of cerium in the general population. By contrast, determination of the absolute concentration of particles containing cerium in BAL fluid and lung tissue samples showed that 1.2% (from BAL fluid) and 1.5% (from lung tissue) of subjects with previous exposure to mineral particles had high lung retention of particles containing cerium. This study is believed to be the first one in which lung retention of cerium was estimated in the general population. PMID:8130849

  2. Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koroscik, Judith Smith

    The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…

  3. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  4. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  5. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  6. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  7. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  8. 76 FR 34010 - Credit Risk Retention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ..., 2011, at 76 FR 24090, is extended. Comments on the Credit Risk NPR must be received on or before August... 76 FR 24090. The Credit Risk NPR would specify credit risk retention requirements for securitizers of...-AA43 DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 267 RIN 2501-AD53 Credit Risk...

  9. 78 FR 57927 - Credit Risk Retention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... proposal, as described in more detail below. \\5\\ Credit Risk Retention; Proposed Rule, 76 FR 24090 (April... legislation.''). \\24\\ See 78 FR 6408 (January 30, 2013), as amended by 78 FR 35430 (June 12, 2013). These two... Federal Register. See 76 FR 27390 (May 11, 2011). The Board had initial responsibility for...

  10. Procurement and Retention of Black Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Clarence A., Jr.

    A study was made of the history of the black officer in the Army, the sources and procedures the Army uses to procure black officers and the retention of black officers in the Army. Data was gathered by interviews with Department of Army personnel and black junior officers; questionnaires were used to gather information from professors of Military

  11. 1978-79 Recruitment & Retention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCosmo, Richard

    The Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) 1978-79 Recruitment Program seeks to increase the pool of students who wish to attend college rather than compete more aggressively for those students who have already decided to participate in higher education. A special adjunct Retention Program has been developed to enhance the entire recruitment

  12. Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koroscik, Judith Smith

    The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction

  13. Measuring Learning Retention after Program Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckler, Terry Anne; Vogler, James D.

    The study investigated retention of gains in reading/language skills after one year by 378 eighth-grade students in 18 health studies classrooms. Six classrooms were assigned to each of three groups, two experimental and one control, taught by health science teachers who were: (1) trained in reading/language techniques; (2) not trained in

  14. Healthcare Learning Community and Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sherryl W.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching, learning, and retention processes have evolved historically to include multifaceted techniques beyond the traditional lecture. This article presents related results of a study using a healthcare learning community in a southwest Georgia university. The value of novel techniques and tools in promoting student learning and retention…

  15. 5 CFR 293.404 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL RECORDS Employee Performance File System Records 293.404 Retention schedule. (a)(1) Except as provided... prescribe and consistent with 293.405(a). (3) Appraisals of unacceptable performance, where a notice...

  16. 24 CFR 266.515 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record retention. 266.515 Section 266.515 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  17. 24 CFR 266.515 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Record retention. 266.515 Section 266.515 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  18. 24 CFR 266.515 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record retention. 266.515 Section 266.515 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  19. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    When institutions engage in discussions regarding improving retention and graduation rates, invariably the conversation focuses on entering student characteristics, especially ACT and SAT scores and high school grades. Clearly, attracting and enrolling well-prepared and motivated high-ability students will certainly improve institutional measures…

  20. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  1. 24 CFR 266.515 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record retention. 266.515 Section 266.515 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  2. 24 CFR 266.515 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record retention. 266.515 Section 266.515 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  3. Relationship of Personality Traits to Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    Carl Jung's theory of psychological types has been the basis for the development of personality categorization, including tests such as Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This study analyzed the extent of the relationship between MBTI and Tinto (1993) retention factors that influence Oriental medicine students' choice of staying or dropping out

  4. COMPARTMENTAL MODEL OF NITRATE RETENTION IN STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A compartmental modeling approach is presented to route nitrate retention along a cascade of stream reach sections. A process transfer function is used for transient storage equations with first order reaction terms to represent nitrate uptake in the free stream, and denitrifica...

  5. Making Student Retention an Institutional Priority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydow, Debbie L.; Sandel, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a study conducted to determine the reasons behind the high rate of student attrition at Mountain Empire Community College in Virginia. Work demands and family conflicts were found to be the primary causes of drop out, conclusions that led to the formation of a task force and a student retention plan to improve persistence. (KC)

  6. Tallahassee Community College Retention Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Archie B.

    A retention study was conducted at Tallahassee Community College (TCC) to determine reasons student withdrew from TCC prior to meeting their educational objectives. The survey population consisted of all students, apart from graduates and those who had been academically suspended, who were enrolled in winter 1981 but had not returned by winter

  7. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the

  8. An Interactive Model for Studying Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Robert H.; Wilcox, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    A descriptive study was done of a microcomputer-based modeling approach to retention analysis used at the University of Hartford (Connecticut) which relied on an information system which integrates multi-year admissions, financial aid, and academic data with surveys of college student adjustment, involvement, and reasons for leaving. Analyses were

  9. Predicting Retention in Online General Education Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Libby V.; Wu, Sz-Shyan; Finnegan, Catherine L.

    2005-01-01

    A classification rule was developed to predict undergraduate students' withdrawal from or completion of fully online general education courses. A multivariate technique, predictive discriminant analysis (PDA), was used. High school grade point average and SAT mathematics score were shown to be related to retention in the online university courses.

  10. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records retention. 133.21 Section 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS §...

  11. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Records retention. 133.21 Section 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS §...

  12. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Records retention. 133.21 Section 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS §...

  13. Retention of Electronic Fundamentals: Differences Among Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kirk A.

    Criterion-referenced tests were used to measure the learning and retention of a sample of material taught by means of programed instruction in the Avionics Fundamentals Course, Class A. It was found that the students knew about 30 percent of the material before reading the programs, that mastery rose to a very high level on the immediate posttest,

  14. Effects of Emotional Intelligence on Teacher Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerald, Grant Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods, explanatory design study focused on determining if the emotional intelligence of principals affects the retention of new teachers. In phase one, a non-random cluster sample of 138 public school principals in the state of Louisiana was surveyed using a quantitative instrument. A Factor Analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and

  15. Alternatives to Social Promotion and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Studies indicate that retention negatively impacts students' behavior, attitude, and attendance, but it is still practiced in schools around the country. Social promotion undermines students' futures when they fail to develop critical study and job-related skills; however, it too is still practiced in many schools throughout the United

  16. Retention of Teachers In Rural Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Nedra Skaggs

    2008-01-01

    Teacher retention has been of interest to educational researchers for over three decades. Various reasons for special education teacher attrition have been cited, including student discipline and motivation problems, working conditions, low salary, and a lack of administrator support. This descriptive survey research sought to determine the

  17. 5 CFR 293.511 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records 293.511 Retention schedule. (a) Temporary EMFS records must not be placed in a newly-created EMF for a separating employee and must be removed from an already existing EMF before its transfer to another agency or to the NPRC. Such records must be disposed of...

  18. 5 CFR 293.511 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records 293.511 Retention schedule. (a) Temporary EMFS records must not be placed in a newly-created EMF for a separating employee and must be removed from an already existing EMF before its transfer to another agency or to the NPRC. Such records must be disposed of...

  19. 5 CFR 293.511 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records 293.511 Retention schedule. (a) Temporary EMFS records must not be placed in a newly-created EMF for a separating employee and must be removed from an already existing EMF before its transfer to another agency or to the NPRC. Such records must be disposed of...

  20. 5 CFR 293.511 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records 293.511 Retention schedule. (a) Temporary EMFS records must not be placed in a newly-created EMF for a separating employee and must be removed from an already existing EMF before its transfer to another agency or to the NPRC. Such records must be disposed of...