Sample records for identify common retention

  1. IDENTIFYING RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruitment and Retention Issues for the National Children's Study Danelle T Lobdell1, Suzanne Gilboa2, Pauline Mendola1 (1US EPA, NHEERL; 2UNC Chapel Hill) A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, co...

  2. Key to Identifying Common Household Ants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A short lucid key to 8 common household ant species with control strategies. The information presented is accurate and the key easy to use; ancillary pages are also useful. The key may present difficulties if other ant species are encountered or in other parts of the U.S.

  3. Identifying Common Genetic Risk Factors of Diabetic Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, Ini-Isabée; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Khalaf, Kinda; Lee, Sungmun; Khandoker, Ahsan H.; Alsafar, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global public health problem of epidemic proportions, with 60–70% of affected individuals suffering from associated neurovascular complications that act on multiple organ systems. The most common and clinically significant neuropathies of T2DM include uremic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. These conditions seriously impact an individual’s quality of life and significantly increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. Although advances in gene sequencing technologies have identified several genetic variants that may regulate the development and progression of T2DM, little is known about whether or not the variants are involved in disease progression and how these genetic variants are associated with diabetic neuropathy specifically. Significant missing heritability data and complex disease etiologies remain to be explained. This article is the first to provide a review of the genetic risk variants implicated in the diabetic neuropathies and to highlight potential commonalities. We thereby aim to contribute to the creation of a genetic-metabolic model that will help to elucidate the cause of diabetic neuropathies, evaluate a patient’s risk profile, and ultimately facilitate preventative and targeted treatment for the individual. PMID:26074879

  4. Identifying Common Genetic Risk Factors of Diabetic Neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Ini-Isabée; Jelinek, Herbert F; Khalaf, Kinda; Lee, Sungmun; Khandoker, Ahsan H; Alsafar, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global public health problem of epidemic proportions, with 60-70% of affected individuals suffering from associated neurovascular complications that act on multiple organ systems. The most common and clinically significant neuropathies of T2DM include uremic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. These conditions seriously impact an individual's quality of life and significantly increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. Although advances in gene sequencing technologies have identified several genetic variants that may regulate the development and progression of T2DM, little is known about whether or not the variants are involved in disease progression and how these genetic variants are associated with diabetic neuropathy specifically. Significant missing heritability data and complex disease etiologies remain to be explained. This article is the first to provide a review of the genetic risk variants implicated in the diabetic neuropathies and to highlight potential commonalities. We thereby aim to contribute to the creation of a genetic-metabolic model that will help to elucidate the cause of diabetic neuropathies, evaluate a patient's risk profile, and ultimately facilitate preventative and targeted treatment for the individual. PMID:26074879

  5. Folate content and retention in commonly consumed vegetables in the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Prayna P P; Prasad, Surendra; Devi, Riteshma; Gopalan, Romila

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the effect of boiling and frying on the retention of folate in commonly consumed Fijian vegetables (drumstick leaves, taro leaves, bele leaves, amaranth leaves, fern/ota, okra and French bean). The folate content was determined by microbiological assay (Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus) and tri-enzyme (protease, ?-amylase and chicken pancreas conjugase) extraction treatment. The folate loss varied among the vegetables from 10-64% on boiling while 1-36% on frying. The higher folate loss was observed during boiling. The folate content in the water derived after boiling different vegetables ranged from 11.9 ± 0.5 to 61.6 ± 2.5 ?g/100mL. The folate loss on boiling was accounted for in the cooking water. The predominant way of folate loss on boiling was leaching rather than thermal degradation which makes boiling the better choice of cooking the studied vegetables for folate intake, provided the cooking water is consumed together with the vegetables. PMID:25842344

  6. Label Retention Identifies a Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Like Population in the Postnatal Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Masako; Singh, Varan J.; Wu, Kenmin; Sant’Angelo, Derek B.; Pezzano, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Thymic microenvironments are essential for the proper development and selection of T cells critical for a functional and self-tolerant adaptive immune response. While significant turnover occurs, it is unclear whether populations of adult stem cells contribute to the maintenance of postnatal thymic epithelial microenvironments. Here, the slow cycling characteristic of stem cells and their property of label-retention were used to identify a K5-expressing thymic stromal cell population capable of generating clonal cell lines that retain the capacity to differentiate into a number of mesenchymal lineages including adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts suggesting a mesenchymal stem cell-like phenotype. Using cell surface analysis both culture expanded LRCs and clonal thymic mesenchymal cell lines were found to express Sca1, PDGFR?, PDGFR?,CD29, CD44, CD49F, and CD90 similar to MSCs. Sorted GFP-expressing stroma, that give rise to TMSC lines, contribute to thymic architecture when reaggregated with fetal stroma and transplanted under the kidney capsule of nude mice. Together these results show that the postnatal thymus contains a population of mesenchymal stem cells that can be maintained in culture and suggests they may contribute to the maintenance of functional thymic microenvironments. PMID:24340075

  7. Learning Outcomes in Academic Disciplines: Identifying Common Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Marybeth Drechsler; Komives, Susan R.; Fincher, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Diverse entities, such as disciplinary-based accreditors, academic affairs associations, and student affairs professional organizations, promote student learning outcomes. This study identified eight themes among outcomes required by 25 disciplinary accreditors who are members of the Council for Higher Education Accreditation. The authors compared…

  8. Identifying strategies to maximise recruitment and retention of practices and patients in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of an intervention to optimise secondary prevention for coronary heart disease in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Recruitment and retention of patients and healthcare providers in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is important in order to determine the effectiveness of interventions. However, failure to achieve recruitment targets is common and reasons why a particular recruitment strategy works for one study and not another remain unclear. We sought to describe a strategy used in a multicentre RCT in primary care, to report researchers' and participants' experiences of its implementation and to inform future strategies to maximise recruitment and retention. Methods In total 48 general practices and 903 patients were recruited from three different areas of Ireland to a RCT of an intervention designed to optimise secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. The recruitment process involved telephoning practices, posting information, visiting practices, identifying potential participants, posting invitations and obtaining consent. Retention involved patients attending reviews and responding to questionnaires and practices facilitating data collection. Results We achieved high retention rates for practices (100%) and for patients (85%) over an 18-month intervention period. Pilot work, knowledge of the setting, awareness of change in staff and organisation amongst participant sites, rapid responses to queries and acknowledgement of practitioners' contributions were identified as being important. Minor variations in protocol and research support helped to meet varied, complex and changing individual needs of practitioners and patients and encouraged retention in the trial. A collaborative relationship between researcher and practice staff which required time to develop was perceived as vital for both recruitment and retention. Conclusion Recruiting and retaining the numbers of practices and patients estimated as required to provide findings with adequate power contributes to increased confidence in the validity and generalisability of RCT results. A continuous dynamic process of monitoring progress within trials and tailoring strategies to particular circumstances, whilst not compromising trial protocols, should allow maximal recruitment and retention. Trial registration ISRCTN24081411 PMID:19545366

  9. What Are They Thinking? The Development and Use of an Instrument that Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles R.; Larrabee, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for, and development of, an online instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. Science Beliefs is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. It utilizes a true or false, along with a written-explanation, format. The true or…

  10. Efforts to Improve Undergraduate Student Retention Rates at a Hispanic Serving Institution: Building Collaborative Relationships for the Common Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nancy K.; Meyer, Kristi

    2010-01-01

    This article describes efforts to improve retention and graduation rates at the University of Texas at San Antonio, a large Hispanic serving institution (HSI). One college within the university is focusing on increasing retention and graduation rates primarily by building relationships and capitalizing on university resources. In addition to…

  11. Identifying rarer genetic variants for common complex diseases: diseased versus neutral discovery panels

    PubMed Central

    CURTIN, K.; ILES, M. M.; CAMP, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The power of genetic association studies to identify disease susceptibility alleles fundamentally relies on the variants studied. The standard approach is to determine a set of tagging-SNPs (tSNPs) that capture the majority of genomic variation in regions of interest by exploiting local correlation structures. Typically, tSNPs are selected from neutral discovery panels, collections of individuals comprehensively genotyped across a region. We investigated the implications of discovery panel design on tSNP performance in association studies using realistically-simulated sequence data. We found that discovery panels of 24 sequenced ‘neutral’ individuals (similar to NIEHS or HapMap ENCODE data) were sufficient to select well-powered tSNPs to identify common susceptibility alleles. For less common alleles (0.01–0.05 frequency) we found neutral panels of this size inadequate, particularly if low-frequency variants were removed prior to tSNP selection; superior tSNPs were found using panels of diseased individuals. Only large neutral panels (200 individuals) matched diseased panel performance in selecting well-powered tSNPs to detect both common and rarer alleles. The 1000 Genomes Project initiative may provide larger neutral panels necessary to identify rarer susceptibility alleles in association studies. In the interim, our results suggest investigators can boost power to detect such alleles by sequencing diseased individuals for tSNP selection. PMID:19132978

  12. Ectopic spleen: An easily identifiable but commonly undiagnosed entity until manifestation of complications

    PubMed Central

    Blouhos, Konstantinos; Boulas, Konstantinos A.; Salpigktidis, Ilias; Barettas, Nikolaos; Hatzigeorgiadis, Anestis

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ectopic spleen is an uncommon clinical entity as splenectomy for treatment of ectopic spleens accounts for less than 0.25% of splenectomies. The most common age of presentation is childhood especially under 1 year of age followed by the third decade of life. PRESENTATION OF CASE The present report refers to a patient with torsion of a pelvic spleen treated with splenectomy. The patient exhibited a period of vague intermittent lower abdominal pain lasted 65 days followed by a period of constant left lower quadrant pain of increasing severity lasted 6 days. On the first 65 days, vague pain was attributed to progressive torsion of the spleen which resulted in venous congestion. On the last 6 days, exacerbation of pain was attributed to irreducible torsion, infraction of the arterial supply, acute ischemia, strangulation and rupture of the gangrenous spleen. Diagnosis was made by CT which revealed absence of the spleen in its normal position, a homogeneous pelvic mass with no contrast enhancement, free blood in the peritoneal cavity, and confirmed by laparotomy. DISCUSSION Clinical manifestations of ectopic spleen vary from asymptomatic to abdominal emergency. Symptoms are most commonly attributed to complications related to torsion. Operative management, including splenopexy or splenectomy, is the treatment of choice in uncomplicated and complicated cases because conservative treatment of an asymptomatic ectopic spleen is associated with a complication rate of 65%. CONCLUSION Although an ectopic spleen can be easily identified on clinical examination, it is commonly misdiagnosed until the manifestation of complications in adulthood. PMID:24973525

  13. Common Fusion Transcripts Identified in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines by High-Throughput RNA Sequencing12

    PubMed Central

    Nome, Torfinn; Thomassen, Gard OS; Bruun, Jarle; Ahlquist, Terje; Bakken, Anne C; Hoff, Andreas M; Rognum, Torleiv; Nesbakken, Arild; Lorenz, Susanne; Sun, Jinchang; Barros-Silva, João Diogo; Lind, Guro E; Myklebost, Ola; Teixeira, Manuel R; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer disease in the Western world, and about 40% of the patients die from this disease. The cancer cells are commonly genetically unstable, but only a few low-frequency recurrent fusion genes have so far been reported for this disease. In this study, we present a thorough search for novel fusion transcripts in CRC using high-throughput RNA sequencing. From altogether 220 million paired-end sequence reads from seven CRC cell lines, we identified 3391 candidate fused transcripts. By stringent requirements, we nominated 11 candidate fusion transcripts for further experimental validation, of which 10 were positive by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Six were intrachromosomal fusion transcripts, and interestingly, three of these, AKAP13-PDE8A, COMMD10-AP3S1, and CTB-35F21.1-PSD2, were present in, respectively, 18, 18, and 20 of 21 analyzed cell lines and in, respectively, 18, 61, and 48 (17%-58%) of 106 primary cancer tissues. These three fusion transcripts were also detected in 2 to 4 of 14 normal colonic mucosa samples (14%–28%). Whole-genome sequencing identified a specific genomic breakpoint in COMMD10-AP3S1 and further indicates that both the COMMD10-AP3S1 and AKAP13-PDE8A fusion transcripts are due to genomic duplications in specific cell lines. In conclusion, we have identified AKAP13-PDE8A, COMMD10-AP3S1, and CTB-35F21.1-PSD2 as novel intrachromosomal fusion transcripts and the most highly recurring chimeric transcripts described for CRC to date. The functional and clinical relevance of these chimeric RNA molecules remains to be elucidated. PMID:24151535

  14. Towards a common vocabulary for identifying management issues in health projects.

    PubMed

    De Geyndt, W

    1990-07-01

    Management issues are one of the most important constraints in achieving social sector development objectives. The practice of labeling a variety of operational weaknesses as management problems hinders diagnostic power and, hence induces a low probability of removing or reducing management constraints. Moreover terms related to management are used differently. The set of terms presented here disaggregates the concept of management into nine discrete measurable management tasks: planning systems, beneficiary analysis, provision of goods and services, procurement and logistics of materials, financing and budgeting, organizational design, personnel, leadership, and control systems. The nine functional management areas are applied to three stages of a project cycle, viz. sector analysis/project identification, project design/project appraisal, and project implementation/project supervision. The set of terms proposed is seen as a first step towards developing a common vocabulary for identifying management issues in health projects. PMID:10183859

  15. A Genome Wide Association Study Identifies Common Variants Associated with Lipid Levels in the Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chen; Yang, Handong; Yu, Dianke; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wang, Yiqin; Sun, Jielin; Gao, Yong; Tan, Aihua; He, Yunfeng; Zhang, Haiying; Qin, Xue; Zhu, Jingwen; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu; Zhu, Jiang; Min, Xinwen; Lang, Mingjian; Li, Dongfeng; Zhai, Kan; Chang, Jiang; Tan, Wen; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Weihong; Wang, Youjie; Wei, Sheng; Miao, Xiaoping; Wang, Feng; Fang, Weimin; Liang, Yuan; Deng, Qifei; Dai, Xiayun; Lin, Dafeng; Huang, Suli; Guo, Huan; Lilly Zheng, S.; Xu, Jianfeng; Lin, Dongxin; Hu, Frank B.; Wu, Tangchun

    2013-01-01

    Plasma lipid levels are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several lipid-associated loci, but these loci have been identified primarily in European populations. In order to identify genetic markers for lipid levels in a Chinese population and analyze the heterogeneity between Europeans and Asians, especially Chinese, we performed a meta-analysis of two genome wide association studies on four common lipid traits including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) in a Han Chinese population totaling 3,451 healthy subjects. Replication was performed in an additional 8,830 subjects of Han Chinese ethnicity. We replicated eight loci associated with lipid levels previously reported in a European population. The loci genome wide significantly associated with TC were near DOCK7, HMGCR and ABO; those genome wide significantly associated with TG were near APOA1/C3/A4/A5 and LPL; those genome wide significantly associated with LDL were near HMGCR, ABO and TOMM40; and those genome wide significantly associated with HDL were near LPL, LIPC and CETP. In addition, an additive genotype score of eight SNPs representing the eight loci that were found to be associated with lipid levels was associated with higher TC, TG and LDL levels (P = 5.52×10-16, 1.38×10-6 and 5.59×10-9, respectively). These findings suggest the cumulative effects of multiple genetic loci on plasma lipid levels. Comparisons with previous GWAS of lipids highlight heterogeneity in allele frequency and in effect size for some loci between Chinese and European populations. The results from our GWAS provided comprehensive and convincing evidence of the genetic determinants of plasma lipid levels in a Chinese population. PMID:24386095

  16. Sparse multitask regression for identifying common mechanism of response to therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Gray, Joe W.; Parvin, Bahram

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Molecular association of phenotypic responses is an important step in hypothesis generation and for initiating design of new experiments. Current practices for associating gene expression data with multidimensional phenotypic data are typically (i) performed one-to-one, i.e. each gene is examined independently with a phenotypic index and (ii) tested with one stress condition at a time, i.e. different perturbations are analyzed separately. As a result, the complex coordination among the genes responsible for a phenotypic profile is potentially lost. More importantly, univariate analysis can potentially hide new insights into common mechanism of response. Results: In this article, we propose a sparse, multitask regression model together with co-clustering analysis to explore the intrinsic grouping in associating the gene expression with phenotypic signatures. The global structure of association is captured by learning an intrinsic template that is shared among experimental conditions, with local perturbations introduced to integrate effects of therapeutic agents. We demonstrate the performance of our approach on both synthetic and experimental data. Synthetic data reveal that the multi-task regression has a superior reduction in the regression error when compared with traditional L1-and L2-regularized regression. On the other hand, experiments with cell cycle inhibitors over a panel of 14 breast cancer cell lines demonstrate the relevance of the computed molecular predictors with the cell cycle machinery, as well as the identification of hidden variables that are not captured by the baseline regression analysis. Accordingly, the system has identified CLCA2 as a hidden transcript and as a common mechanism of response for two therapeutic agents of CI-1040 and Iressa, which are currently in clinical use. Contact: b_parvin@lbl.gov PMID:20529943

  17. Faecal retention: a common cause in functional bowel disorders, appendicitis and haemorrhoids--with medical and surgical therapy.

    PubMed

    Raahave, Dennis

    2015-03-01

    The present studies explored whether faecal retention in the colon is a causative factor in functional bowel disease, appendicitis, and haemorrhoids. Faecal retention was characterized by colon transit time (CTT) after radio-opaque marker ingestion and estimation of faecal loading on abdominal radiographs at 48 h and 96 h. Specific hypotheses were tested in patients (n = 251 plus 281) and in healthy random controls (n = 44). A questionnaire was completed for each patient, covering abdominal and anorectal symptoms and without a priori grouping. Patients with functional bowel disorders, predominantly women, had a significantly increased CTT and faecal load compared to controls. The CTT was significantly and positively correlated with segmental and total faecal loading. The faecal load was equal at 48 h and 96 h, mirroring the presence of permanent faecal reservoirs. In these first clinical studies to correlate bowel symptoms with CTT and colon faecal loading, abdominal bloating was significantly correlated with faecal loading in the right colon, total faecal load, and CTT. Abdominal pain was significantly and positively correlated to distal faecal loading and significantly associated with bloating. A new phenomenon with a high faecal load and a normal CTT was observed in a subset of patients (n = 90), proving faecal retention as hidden constipation. The CTT and faecal load were significantly higher in the right-side compared to the left and distal segments. Within the control group of healthy persons, the right-sided faecal load was significantly greater than the left and distal load. The CTT and faecal load significantly positively correlated with a palpable mass in the left iliac fossa and meteorism. Cluster analysis revealed that CTT and faecal load positively correlated with a symptom factor consisting of bloating, proctalgia and infrequent defecation of solid faeces. On the other hand, CTT and faecal load negatively correlated with a symptom factor comprising frequent easy defecations, repetitiveness, and incompleteness with solid or liquid faeces. The majority of patients with a heavy faecal load but normal CTT had repetitive daily defecation, mostly with ease and with altering faecal consistence. Flue-like episodes co-existed in symptom factors with abdominal pain and meteorism, and these symptoms together with a palpable right iliac fossa mass and tenderness, and in other factors with seldom and difficult defecation, and with epigastric discomfort and halitosis. Patients with seldom and difficult defecation of solid faeces experienced abdominal pain significantly more often and presented a palpable mass in the right iliac fossa with tenderness and meteorism. The CTT was significantly prolonged and faecal load significantly increased. In patients with a normal CTT and increased faecal load, only patients with abdominal pain had a significant correlation between faecal loading and bloating. CTT and faecal load were shown for the first time to increase significantly with the number of colonic redundancies (colon length), which also resulted in significantly increased bloating and pain. Intervention with a bowel stimulation regimen combining a fibre-rich diet, fluid, physical activity, and a prokinetic drug was essential to proving that abdominal symptoms and defecation disorders are caused by faecal retention, with or without a prolonged CTT. The CTT was significantly reduced, as was faecal load. Bloating and pain were reduced significantly. The defecation became easy with solid faeces, towards one per day and with significant reductions in incompleteness and repetitiveness. Proctalgia and flue-like episodes were significantly reduced. The intervention significantly reduced the presence of a tender palpable mass in the right fossa and rectal constipation. In patients with a normal CTT but increased faecal load, the intervention did not significantly change the CTT or load, but bloating and pain were significantly reduced, just as defecation improved overall. The novel knowledge of faecal retention in the patients does

  18. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Shared Risk Loci Common to Two Malignancies in Golden Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    Tonomura, Noriko; Elvers, Ingegerd; Thomas, Rachael; Megquier, Kate; Turner-Maier, Jason; Howald, Cedric; Sarver, Aaron L.; Swofford, Ross; Frantz, Aric M.; Ito, Daisuke; Mauceli, Evan; Arendt, Maja; Noh, Hyun Ji; Koltookian, Michele; Biagi, Tara; Fryc, Sarah; Williams, Christina; Avery, Anne C.; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Barber, Lisa; Burgess, Kristine; Lander, Eric S.; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Azuma, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Dogs, with their breed-determined limited genetic background, are great models of human disease including cancer. Canine B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma are both malignancies of the hematologic system that are clinically and histologically similar to human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and angiosarcoma, respectively. Golden retrievers in the US show significantly elevated lifetime risk for both B-cell lymphoma (6%) and hemangiosarcoma (20%). We conducted genome-wide association studies for hemangiosarcoma and B-cell lymphoma, identifying two shared predisposing loci. The two associated loci are located on chromosome 5, and together contribute ~20% of the risk of developing these cancers. Genome-wide p-values for the top SNP of each locus are 4.6×10-7 and 2.7×10-6, respectively. Whole genome resequencing of nine cases and controls followed by genotyping and detailed analysis identified three shared and one B-cell lymphoma specific risk haplotypes within the two loci, but no coding changes were associated with the risk haplotypes. Gene expression analysis of B-cell lymphoma tumors revealed that carrying the risk haplotypes at the first locus is associated with down-regulation of several nearby genes including the proximal gene TRPC6, a transient receptor Ca2+-channel involved in T-cell activation, among other functions. The shared risk haplotype in the second locus overlaps the vesicle transport and release gene STX8. Carrying the shared risk haplotype is associated with gene expression changes of 100 genes enriched for pathways involved in immune cell activation. Thus, the predisposing germ-line mutations in B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma appear to be regulatory, and affect pathways involved in T-cell mediated immune response in the tumor. This suggests that the interaction between the immune system and malignant cells plays a common role in the tumorigenesis of these relatively different cancers. PMID:25642983

  19. Root cause analysis reports help identify common factors in delayed diagnosis and treatment of outpatients.

    PubMed

    Giardina, Traber Davis; King, Beth J; Ignaczak, Aartee P; Paull, Douglas E; Hoeksema, Laura; Mills, Peter D; Neily, Julia; Hemphill, Robin R; Singh, Hardeep

    2013-08-01

    Delays in diagnosis and treatment are widely considered to be threats to outpatient safety. However, few studies have identified and described what factors contribute to delays that might result in patient harm in the outpatient setting. We analyzed 111 root cause analysis reports that investigated such delays and were submitted to the Veterans Affairs National Center for Patient Safety in the period 2005-12. The most common contributing factors noted in the reports included coordination problems resulting from inadequate follow-up planning, delayed scheduling for unspecified reasons, inadequate tracking of test results, and the absence of a system to track patients in need of short-term follow-up. Other contributing factors were team-level decision-making problems resulting from miscommunication of urgency between providers and providers' lack of awareness of or knowledge about a patient's situation; and communication failures among providers, patients, and other health care team members. Our findings suggest that to support care goals in the Affordable Care Act and the National Quality Strategy, even relatively sophisticated electronic health record systems will require enhancements. At the same time, policy initiatives should support programs to implement, and perhaps reward the use of, more rigorous interprofessional teamwork principles to improve outpatient communication and coordination. PMID:23918480

  20. Root Cause Analysis Reports Help Identify Common Factors In Delayed Diagnosis And Treatment Of Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Giardina, Traber Davis; King, Beth J.; Ignaczak, Aartee; Paull, Douglas E.; Hoeksema, Laura; Mills, Peter D.; Neily, Julia; Hemphill, Robin R.; Singh, Hardeep

    2013-01-01

    Delays in diagnosis and treatment are widely considered to be threats to outpatient safety. However, few studies have identified and described what factors contribute to delays that might result in patient harm in the outpatient setting. We analyzed 111 root cause analysis reports that investigated such delays and were submitted to the Veterans Affairs National Center for Patient Safety in the period 2005–12. The most common contributing factors noted in the reports included coordination problems resulting from inadequate follow-up planning, delayed scheduling for unspecified reasons, inadequate tracking of test results, and the absence of a system to track patients in need of short-term follow-up. Other contributing factors were team-level decision making problems resulting from miscommunication of urgency between providers and providers' lack of awareness of or knowledge about a patient's situation; and communication failures among providers, patients, and other health care team members. Our findings suggest that to support care goals in the Affordable Care Act and the National Quality Strategy, even relatively sophisticated electronic health record systems will require enhancements. At the same time, policy initiatives should support programs to implement, and perhaps reward the use of, more rigorous interprofessional teamwork principles to improve outpatient communication and coordination. PMID:23918480

  1. Molecular profiling of experimental endometriosis identified gene expression patterns in common with human disease

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Idhaliz; Rivera, Elizabeth; Ruiz, Lynnette A.; Santiago, Olga I.; Vernon, Michael W.; Appleyard, Caroline B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To validate a rat model of endometriosis using cDNA microarrays by identifying common gene expression patterns beween experimental and natural disease. DESIGN Autotransplantation rat model. SETTING Medical school department. ANIMALS Female Sprague-Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS Endometriosis was surgically-induced by suturing uterine horn implants next to the small intestine’s mesentery. Control rats received sutures with no implants. After 60 days, endometriotic implants and uterine horn were obtained. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Gene expression levels determined by cDNA microarrays and QRT-PCR. METHODS Cy5-labeled cDNA was synthesized from total RNA obtained from endometriotic implants. Cy3-labeled cDNA was synthesized using uterine RNA from a control rat. Gene expression levels were analyzed after hybridizing experimental and control labeled cDNA to PIQOR™ Toxicology Rat Microarrays (Miltenyi Biotec) containing 1,252 known genes. Cy5/Cy3 ratios were determined and genes with >2-fold higher or <0.5-fold lower expression levels were selected. Microarray results were validated by QRT-PCR. RESULTS We observed differential expression of genes previously shown to be upregulated in patients, including growth factors, inflammatory cytokines/receptors, tumor invasion/metastasis factors, adhesion molecules, and anti-apoptotic factors. CONCLUSIONS This study presents evidence in support of using this rat model to study the natural history of endometriosis and test novel therapeutics for this incurable disease. PMID:17478174

  2. A common protein interaction domain links two recently identified epilepsy genes.

    PubMed

    Scheel, Hartmut; Tomiuk, Stefan; Hofmann, Kay

    2002-07-15

    Until recently, all genes found to be mutated in hereditary idiopathic epilepsies encoded subunits of ion channels, leading to the view of this class of diseases as channelopathies. Two apparent exceptions to this rule are the MASS1 gene, which is mutated in the Frings mouse model of audiogenic epilepsy, and the LGI1 gene, which is mutated in autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF). Careful sequence analysis of the two protein products encoded by those genes shows a common feature: both sequences harbour a novel homology domain consisting of a 7-fold repeated 44-residue motif. The architecture and structural features of this new domain make it a likely member of the growing class of protein interaction domains with a seven-bladed beta-propeller fold. In the MASS1 gene product, which has recently been shown to be a fragment of the very large G-protein-coupled receptor VLGR1, this EAR domain (for epilepsy-associated repeat) is part of the ligand-binding ectodomain. LGI1, as well as a number of newly identified LGI1 relatives, is predicted to be a secreted protein, and consists of an N-terminal leucine-rich repeat region and a C-terminal EAR region. The known portion of the human genome encodes six EAR proteins, some of which map to chromosome regions associated with seizure disorders. The EAR domain is likely to play an important role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, either by binding to an unknown anti-epileptic ligand, or more likely by interfering with axon guidance or synaptogenesis. PMID:12095917

  3. Identifying the Role of Common Interests in Online User Trust Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Lei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Hou, Lei; Guo, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Despite enormous recent efforts in detecting the mechanism of the social relation formation in online social systems, the underlying rules between the common interests and social relations are still under dispute. Do online users befriend others who have similar tastes, or do their tastes become more similar after they become friends? In this paper, we investigate the correlation between online user trust formation and their common interests, measured by the overlap rate ? and taste similarity ? respectively. The trust relation creation time is set as the zero timestamp. The statistical results before and after the trust formation for an online network, namely Epinions, show that, the overlap rate ? increases greatly before the trust formation, while it would increase smoothly after the creation of the trust relation. Comparing with the empirical results, two null models are presented by shuffling the temporal behaviors of online users, which suggests that the accumulation of the common interests can result in the trust formation. Furthermore, we investigate the taste similarity ? of the common interests, which can reflect the users’ preference on their common interests. The empirical results show that the taste similarity ? is rapidly increased around the day when users trust the others. That is, the similar tastes on the common interests among users lead to the trust formation. Finally, we report that the user degree can also influence the effect of the taste similarity ? on user trust formation. This work may shed some light for deeply understanding the evolution mechanism of the online social systems. PMID:26161853

  4. Systematic mapping of genetic interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans identifies common modifiers of diverse signaling pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Lehner; Catriona Crombie; Julia Tischler; Angelo Fortunato; Andrew G Fraser

    2006-01-01

    Most heritable traits, including disease susceptibility, are affected by interactions between multiple genes. However, we understand little about how genes interact because very few possible genetic interactions have been explored experimentally. We have used RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans to systematically test ?65,000 pairs of genes for their ability to interact genetically. We identify ?350 genetic interactions between genes functioning

  5. Global protein profiling studies of chikungunya virus infection identify different proteins but common biological processes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Duncan R

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) caused by the mosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus (CHIKV) swept into international prominence from late 2005 as an epidemic of CHIKF spread around countries surrounding the Indian Ocean. Although significant advances have been made in understanding the pathobiology of CHIKF, numerous questions still remain. In the absence of commercially available specific drugs to treat the disease, or a vaccine to prevent the diseases, the questions have particular significance. A number of studies have used global proteome analysis to increase our understanding of the process of CHIKV infection using a number of different experimental techniques and experimental systems. In all, over 700 proteins have been identified in nine different analyses by five different groups as being differentially regulated. Remarkably, only a single protein, eukaryotic elongation factor 2, has been identified by more than two different groups as being differentially regulated during CHIKV infection. This review provides a critical overview of the studies that have used global protein profiling to understand CHIKV infection and shows that while a broad consensus is emerging on which biological processes are altered during CHIKV infection, this consensus is poorly supported in terms of consistent identification of any key proteins mediating those biological processes. PMID:25066270

  6. Identifying strategies to maximise recruitment and retention of practices and patients in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of an intervention to optimise secondary prevention for coronary heart disease in primary care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire S Leathem; Margaret E Cupples; Mary C Byrne; Mary O'Malley; Ailish Houlihan; Andrew W Murphy; Susan M Smith

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recruitment and retention of patients and healthcare providers in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is important in order to determine the effectiveness of interventions. However, failure to achieve recruitment targets is common and reasons why a particular recruitment strategy works for one study and not another remain unclear. We sought to describe a strategy used in a multicentre RCT in

  7. An algorithm to identify medical practices common to both the General Practice Research Database and The Health Improvement Network database.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bing; Xu, Weifeng; Bortnichak, Edward; Watson, Douglas J

    2012-07-01

    PURPOSE: To identify practices common to both the General Practice Research Database and The Health Improvement Network database for purposes of combining the databases for analysis without duplicate records. METHODS: We developed two independent algorithms to identify practices common to the two databases. The first used the total number of patients in the therapy and clinical data sets and the total number of etoricoxib and celecoxib users each year during the study period. The second used the total number of patients stratified by gender and four different categories of birth year. Further checking of potential matched practice pairs identified by the two algorithms was performed by comparing the patient-level medical records by birth year, dates of clinical visits, and diagnosis codes. RESULTS: Three hundred twelve potential matched pairs of practices were found by both algorithms. Fifteen additional potential pairs were matched by only one algorithm: 13 by algorithm 1 (A1) only and 2 by algorithm 2 (A2) only. The examination of the patient-level visit dates and diagnosis codes for the matches revealed that all of the 327 potential pairs of duplicate practices were in fact the same practice in the two databases. CONCLUSIONS: The two algorithms successfully found the practices common to the two different databases without de-identifying the practices. The identification of the common practices allows for combining the two databases without duplicate records to create a larger data set for analysis, with 168 more practices than when using the General Practice Research Database alone, or with 268 more practices than when using The Health Improvement Network alone. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22544805

  8. Emergency imaging discrepancy rates at a level 1 trauma center: identifying the most common on-call resident "misses".

    PubMed

    Tomich, Jennifer; Retrouvey, Michele; Shaves, Sarah

    2013-12-01

    The focus of our research is to identify the most frequently reported on-call discrepancies at our hospital by modality and level of resident training. Our intent is to identify specific areas of concern that may be amenable to improvement through initiation of dedicated resident training in the field of emergency radiology. Our study included 648 significant discrepancies from 193,722 studies ordered through the emergency department over a 7-year period. The overall discrepancy rates were calculated for each resident level of training and modality type. Significance was determined using ?2 testing with ??=?0.05. The most common types of discrepancies were identified. The overall rate of reported discrepancies was low for all levels of training (0.23-0.42 %) with a small, but statistically significant, decrease in rate for the senior residents. Common categories of discrepancies for all residents included fractures on radiographs (XR) and computed tomography (CT), masses and hemorrhage on CT, and lung nodules and pulmonary infiltrates on radiographs. Specific discrepancies reported more frequently for new call-takers included phalangeal fractures on XR as well as white matter disease, hepatic lacerations, pyelonephritis, peritoneal fluid, lymphadenopathy, and pneumothoraces on CT. It is our recommendation that radiology resident training programs ensure that the common discrepancies illustrated herein are specifically addressed as part of a dedicated emergency radiology course. PMID:23887692

  9. Preserved Proteins from Extinct Bison latifrons Identified by Tandem Mass Spectrometry; Hydroxylysine Glycosides are a Common Feature of Ancient Collagen.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ryan C; Wither, Matthew J; Nemkov, Travis; Barrett, Alexander; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Hansen, Kirk C

    2015-07-01

    Bone samples from several vertebrates were collected from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, in Snowmass Village, Colorado, and processed for proteomics analysis. The specimens come from Pleistocene megafauna Bison latifrons, dating back ?120,000 years. Proteomics analysis using a simplified sample preparation procedure and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was applied to obtain protein identifications. Several bioinformatics resources were used to obtain peptide identifications based on sequence homology to extant species with annotated genomes. With the exception of soil sample controls, all samples resulted in confident peptide identifications that mapped to type I collagen. In addition, we analyzed a specimen from the extinct B. latifrons that yielded peptide identifications mapping to over 33 bovine proteins. Our analysis resulted in extensive fibrillar collagen sequence coverage, including the identification of posttranslational modifications. Hydroxylysine glucosylgalactosylation, a modification thought to be involved in collagen fiber formation and bone mineralization, was identified for the first time in an ancient protein dataset. Meta-analysis of data from other studies indicates that this modification may be common in well-preserved prehistoric samples. Additional peptide sequences from extracellular matrix (ECM) and non-ECM proteins have also been identified for the first time in ancient tissue samples. These data provide a framework for analyzing ancient protein signatures in well-preserved fossil specimens, while also contributing novel insights into the molecular basis of organic matter preservation. As such, this analysis has unearthed common posttranslational modifications of collagen that may assist in its preservation over time. The data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001827. PMID:25948757

  10. Gene co-expression analysis identifies common modules related to prognosis and drug resistance in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Li, Li; Li, Weidong

    2014-12-15

    To discover a common gene co-expression network in cancer cell, we applied weighted gene co-expression network analysis to transcriptional profiles of 917 cancer cell lines. Fourteen biologically meaningful modules were identified, including cytoskeleton, cell cycle, RNA splicing, signaling pathway, transcription, translation and others. These modules were robust in an independent human cancer microarray dataset. Furthermore, we collected 11 independent cancer microarray datasets, and correlated these modules with clinical outcome. Most of these modules could predict patient survival in one or more cancer types. Some modules were predictive of relapse, metastasis and drug resistance. Novel regulatory mechanisms were also implicated. In summary, our findings, for the first time, provide a modular map for cancer cell lines, new targets for therapy and modules for regulatory mechanism of cancer development and drug resistance. PMID:24771271

  11. The collection and retention of a range of common airborne spore types trapped directly into microtiter wells for enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison Wakeham; Roy Kennedy; Alastair McCartney

    2004-01-01

    The collection and retention of a range of fungal spores for a novel spore trap (Microtiter immunospore trap (MTIST)), designed for use with immunoassays, was investigated in wind tunnel experiments. Concentrations of spores of Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Lycopodium clavatum, Erysiphe cruciferarum and Penicillium roqueforti, were measured using the MTIST and miniature suction traps (same characteristics as a Burkard 7

  12. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common variants in CTNNA2 associated with excitement-seeking

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, A; Esko, T; Sutin, A R; de Moor, M H M; Meirelles, O; Zhu, G; Tanaka, T; Giegling, I; Nutile, T; Realo, A; Allik, J; Hansell, N K; Wright, M J; Montgomery, G W; Willemsen, G; Hottenga, J-J; Friedl, M; Ruggiero, D; Sorice, R; Sanna, S; Cannas, A; Räikkönen, K; Widen, E; Palotie, A; Eriksson, J G; Cucca, F; Krueger, R F; Lahti, J; Luciano, M; Smoller, J W; van Duijn, C M; Abecasis, G R; Boomsma, D I; Ciullo, M; Costa, P T; Ferrucci, L; Martin, N G; Metspalu, A; Rujescu, D; Schlessinger, D; Uda, M

    2011-01-01

    The tendency to seek stimulating activities and intense sensations define excitement-seeking, a personality trait akin to some aspects of sensation-seeking. This trait is a central feature of extraversion and is a component of the multifaceted impulsivity construct. Those who score high on measures of excitement-seeking are more likely to smoke, use other drugs, gamble, drive recklessly, have unsafe/unprotected sex and engage in other risky behaviors of clinical and social relevance. To identify common genetic variants associated with the Excitement-Seeking scale of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, we performed genome-wide association studies in six samples of European ancestry (N=7860), and combined the results in a meta-analysis. We identified a genome-wide significant association between the Excitement-Seeking scale and rs7600563 (P=2 × 10?8). This single-nucleotide polymorphism maps within the catenin cadherin-associated protein, alpha 2 (CTNNA2) gene, which encodes for a brain-expressed ?-catenin critical for synaptic contact. The effect of rs7600563 was in the same direction in all six samples, but did not replicate in additional samples (N=5105). The results provide insight into the genetics of excitement-seeking and risk-taking, and are relevant to hyperactivity, substance use, antisocial and bipolar disorders. PMID:22833195

  13. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common variants in CTNNA2 associated with excitement-seeking.

    PubMed

    Terracciano, A; Esko, T; Sutin, A R; de Moor, M H M; Meirelles, O; Zhu, G; Tanaka, T; Giegling, I; Nutile, T; Realo, A; Allik, J; Hansell, N K; Wright, M J; Montgomery, G W; Willemsen, G; Hottenga, J-J; Friedl, M; Ruggiero, D; Sorice, R; Sanna, S; Cannas, A; Räikkönen, K; Widen, E; Palotie, A; Eriksson, J G; Cucca, F; Krueger, R F; Lahti, J; Luciano, M; Smoller, J W; van Duijn, C M; Abecasis, G R; Boomsma, D I; Ciullo, M; Costa, P T; Ferrucci, L; Martin, N G; Metspalu, A; Rujescu, D; Schlessinger, D; Uda, M

    2011-01-01

    The tendency to seek stimulating activities and intense sensations define excitement-seeking, a personality trait akin to some aspects of sensation-seeking. This trait is a central feature of extraversion and is a component of the multifaceted impulsivity construct. Those who score high on measures of excitement-seeking are more likely to smoke, use other drugs, gamble, drive recklessly, have unsafe/unprotected sex and engage in other risky behaviors of clinical and social relevance. To identify common genetic variants associated with the Excitement-Seeking scale of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, we performed genome-wide association studies in six samples of European ancestry (N=7860), and combined the results in a meta-analysis. We identified a genome-wide significant association between the Excitement-Seeking scale and rs7600563 (P=2 × 10(-8)). This single-nucleotide polymorphism maps within the catenin cadherin-associated protein, alpha 2 (CTNNA2) gene, which encodes for a brain-expressed ?-catenin critical for synaptic contact. The effect of rs7600563 was in the same direction in all six samples, but did not replicate in additional samples (N=5105). The results provide insight into the genetics of excitement-seeking and risk-taking, and are relevant to hyperactivity, substance use, antisocial and bipolar disorders. PMID:22833195

  14. Types of inter-atomic interactions at the MHC-peptide interface: Identifying commonality from accumulated data

    PubMed Central

    Adrian, Png Eak Hock; Rajaseger, Ganapathy; Mathura, Venkatarajan Subramanian; Sakharkar, Meena Kishore; Kangueane, Pandjassarame

    2002-01-01

    Background Quantitative information on the types of inter-atomic interactions at the MHC-peptide interface will provide insights to backbone/sidechain atom preference during binding. Qualitative descriptions of such interactions in each complex have been documented by protein crystallographers. However, no comprehensive report is available to account for the common types of inter-atomic interactions in a set of MHC-peptide complexes characterized by variation in MHC allele and peptide sequence. The available x-ray crystallography data for these complexes in the Protein Databank (PDB) provides an opportunity to identify the prevalent types of such interactions at the binding interface. Results We calculated the percentage distributions of four types of interactions at varying inter-atomic distances. The mean percentage distribution for these interactions and their standard deviation about the mean distribution is presented. The prevalence of SS and SB interactions at the MHC-peptide interface is shown in this study. SB is clearly dominant at an inter-atomic distance of 3Å. Conclusion The prevalently dominant SB interactions at the interface suggest the importance of peptide backbone conformation during MHC-peptide binding. Currently, available algorithms are developed for protein sidechain prediction upon fixed backbone template. This study shows the preference of backbone atoms in MHC-peptide binding and hence emphasizes the need for accurate peptide backbone prediction in quantitative MHC-peptide binding calculations. PMID:12010576

  15. Short non-coding RNAs as bacteria species identifiers detected by surface plasmon resonance enhanced common path interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greef, Charles; Petropavlovskikh, Viatcheslav; Nilsen, Oyvind; Khattatov, Boris; Plam, Mikhail; Gardner, Patrick; Hall, John

    2008-04-01

    Small non-coding RNA sequences have recently been discovered as unique identifiers of certain bacterial species, raising the possibility that they can be used as highly specific Biowarfare Agent detection markers in automated field deployable integrated detection systems. Because they are present in high abundance they could allow genomic based bacterial species identification without the need for pre-assay amplification. Further, a direct detection method would obviate the need for chemical labeling, enabling a rapid, efficient, high sensitivity mechanism for bacterial detection. Surface Plasmon Resonance enhanced Common Path Interferometry (SPR-CPI) is a potentially market disruptive, high sensitivity dual technology that allows real-time direct multiplex measurement of biomolecule interactions, including small molecules, nucleic acids, proteins, and microbes. SPR-CPI measures differences in phase shift of reflected S and P polarized light under Total Internal Reflection (TIR) conditions at a surface, caused by changes in refractive index induced by biomolecular interactions within the evanescent field at the TIR interface. The measurement is performed on a microarray of discrete 2-dimensional areas functionalized with biomolecule capture reagents, allowing simultaneous measurement of up to 100 separate analytes. The optical beam encompasses the entire microarray, allowing a solid state detector system with no scanning requirement. Output consists of simultaneous voltage measurements proportional to the phase differences resulting from the refractive index changes from each microarray feature, and is automatically processed and displayed graphically or delivered to a decision making algorithm, enabling a fully automatic detection system capable of rapid detection and quantification of small nucleic acids at extremely sensitive levels. Proof-of-concept experiments on model systems and cell culture samples have demonstrated utility of the system, and efforts are in progress for full development and deployment of the device. The technology has broad applicability as a universal detection platform for BWA detection, medical diagnostics, and drug discovery research, and represents a new class of instrumentation as a rapid, high sensitivity, label-free methodology.

  16. INFORMATION NEEDED FOR COMMON COURSE NUMBERING The process for identifying a common course number for a new course is as follows

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Machine Shop 3 Gallatin College Gallatin College ·Identify and properly use hand and measuring tools cutting tools such as drills, taps, dies, reamers and basic hand tools. ·Measure properly using tapes, and assorted layout blocks. ·Demonstrate safe and proper use of hand tools such as files, hacksaws, chisels

  17. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  18. Urinary Retention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... indicates the bladder does not empty completely. A health care provider performs this test during an office visit. The patient often receives ... more urodynamic tests to diagnose urinary retention. The health care provider will perform these tests during an office visit. For tests that use ...

  19. Identifying Future Sacred Heart Administrators by Examining the Characteristics, Commonalities, and Personal Motivations of Current School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Julie Brill

    2012-01-01

    Since their inception, all schools of the Sacred Heart have been headed by nuns of the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Jesus [RSCJ]. As the years have passed, many RSCJ nuns have aged and retired leaving vacancies that have proven difficult to fill. In this qualitative study, the characteristics, commonalities, and personal motivations of Sacred…

  20. Types of inter-atomic interactions at the MHC-peptide interface: Identifying commonality from accumulated data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Png Eak Hock Adrian; Ganapathy Rajaseger; Venkatarajan Subramanian Mathura; Meena Kishore Sakharkar; Pandjassarame Kangueane

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantitative information on the types of inter-atomic interactions at the MHC-peptide interface will provide insights to backbone\\/sidechain atom preference during binding. Qualitative descriptions of such interactions in each complex have been documented by protein crystallographers. However, no comprehensive report is available to account for the common types of inter-atomic interactions in a set of MHC-peptide complexes characterized by variation

  1. Filtration and retention of mineral processing slurries with pumice and common clay: low-cost materials for environmental applications in the small-scale mining industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Kelm; V. Sanhueza; C. Guzman

    2003-01-01

    The sixth region of Chile hosts the giant El Teniente porphyry copper deposit and several polymetallic districts exploited in small mine works; the latter are situated and processed in a predominantly agricultural area. This mining activity has a potential for environmental damage caused by infiltration of mineral processing slurries. As possible low-cost material for environmental applications, a local common clay

  2. Identifiers Identifiers

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    , July 1998. . Tim Berners­Lee: Cool URIs don't change. [http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI] . Uniform://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url­primer.html] . T. Berners­Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC Names. RFC 1737, December 1994, 7 pages. . T. Berners­Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill: Uniform Resource

  3. Identifiers Identifiers

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    , July 1998. . Tim Berners­Lee: Cool URIs don't change. [http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI] Stefan://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url­primer.html] . T. Berners­Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC Names. RFC 1737, December 1994, 7 pages. . T. Berners­Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill: Uniform Resource

  4. Preparation and In Vivo Evaluation of Radioiodinated closo-Decaborate(2-) Derivatives to Identify Structural Components That Provide Low Retention in Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, D. Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K.; Perry, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In vivo deastatination of 211At-labeled biomolecules can severely limit their use in endoradiotherapy. Our studies have shown that the use of closo-decaborate(2-) moiety for 211At-labeling of biomolecules provides high in vivo stability towards deastatination. However, data from those studies have also been suggestive that some astatinated closo-decaborate(2-) catabolites may be retained in tissues. In this study, we investigated the in vivo distributions of several structurally simple closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives to gain information on the effects of functional groups if catabolites are released into the blood system from the carrier biomolecule. Methods Thirteen closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives were synthesized and radioiodinated for evaluation. Tissue concentrations of the radioiodinated compounds were obtained in groups of 5 mice at 1 and 4 h post injection (pi). Dual label (125I and 131I) experiments permitted evaluation of 2 compounds in each set of mice. Results All of the target compounds were readily synthesized. Radioiodination reactions were conducted with chloramine-T and Na[125/131I]I in water to give high yields (75-96%) of the desired compounds. Biodistribution data at 1 and 4 h pi (representing catabolites released into the blood system) showed small differences in tissue concentrations for some compounds, but large differences for others. The results indicate that formal (overall) charge on the compounds could not be used as a predictor of tissue localization or retention. However, derivatives containing carboxylate groups generally had lower tissue concentrations. Acid cleavable hydrazone functionalities appeared to be the best candidates for further study. Conclusions Further studies incorporating hydrazone functionalities into pendant groups for biomolecule radiohalogenation are warranted. PMID:20152716

  5. Low-resolution mass spectrometric relative response factors (RRFs) and relative retention times (RRTs) on two common gas chromatographic stationary phases for 87 polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Kjell; Rappe, Christoffer; Tysklind, Mats

    2004-05-01

    All 87 tetra- to octa-chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were analysed using high-resolution gas chromatography/low-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-LRMS). The mass spectrometer was operated in two different modes: electron ionisation (EI), and negative ion chemical ionisation (NCI) with methane as a reagent gas. Baseline separation and identification of all PCDF congeners was carried out using one non-polar (DB-5) and one polar (RT-2330) capillary GC column. Relative retention times (RRTs) on both columns, and relative response factors (RRFs) in both EI- and NCI-modes, were calculated for all 87 of the PCDFs. Comparison of the EI-RRFs and NCI-RRFs showed that the mass spectrometric NCI-responses varied to a higher degree than the EI-responses. The level of NCI-response was dependent on the substitution positions of the chlorine atoms on the dibenzofuran molecule skeleton. The ratio between the highest and lowest RRFs was 26 in the NCI-mode, but only 2.3 in the EI-mode. Thus, quantification of tetra- to octa-CDFs in environmental samples using the NCI-mode will result in incorrect estimates of PCDF concentrations unless 13C-labelled internal standards are used for each congener, or RRFs are taken into consideration. In contrast, the quantification of PCDFs in the EI-mode using a single internal 13C-labelled PCDF standard for each PCDF homologue is accurate according to the findings in this investigation. A flue gas sample from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) analysed in the NCI-mode was quantified with and without NCI-RRFs. When using NCI-RRFs the reported concentration of SigmaPCDFs in the flue gas sample increased by 40%. Furthermore, TCDF analysis was compared using two mass spectrometers (a VG 12-250 and a Finnigan 4500) operating in EI-mode. These quadrupole instruments performed equally well, giving similar EI-RRFs for the tested compounds. PMID:15051368

  6. Clonal analysis identifies hemogenic endothelium as the source of the blood-endothelial common lineage in the mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    Padrón-Barthe, Laura; Temiño, Susana; Villa del Campo, Cristina; Carramolino, Laura; Isern, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The first blood and endothelial cells of amniote embryos appear in close association in the blood islands of the yolk sac (YS). This association and in vitro lineage analyses have suggested a common origin from mesodermal precursors called hemangioblasts, specified in the primitive streak during gastrulation. Fate mapping and chimera studies, however, failed to provide strong evidence for a common origin in the early mouse YS. Additional in vitro studies suggest instead that mesodermal precursors first generate hemogenic endothelium, which then generate blood cells in a linear sequence. We conducted an in vivo clonal analysis to determine the potential of individual cells in the mouse epiblast, primitive streak, and early YS. We found that early YS blood and endothelial lineages mostly derive from independent epiblast populations, specified before gastrulation. Additionally, a subpopulation of the YS endothelium has hemogenic activity and displays characteristics similar to those found later in the embryonic hemogenic endothelium. Our results show that the earliest blood and endothelial cell populations in the mouse embryo are specified independently, and that hemogenic endothelium first appears in the YS and produces blood precursors with markers related to definitive hematopoiesis. PMID:25139355

  7. Genome-wide analysis identifies changes in histone retention and epigenetic modifications at developmental and imprinted gene loci in the sperm of infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Saher Sue; Nix, David A.; Hammoud, Ahmad O.; Gibson, Mark; Cairns, Bradley R.; Carrell, Douglas T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The sperm chromatin of fertile men retains a small number of nucleosomes that are enriched at developmental gene promoters and imprinted gene loci. This unique chromatin packaging at certain gene promoters provides these genomic loci the ability to convey instructive epigenetic information to the zygote, potentially expanding the role and significance of the sperm epigenome in embryogenesis. We hypothesize that changes in chromatin packaging may be associated with poor reproductive outcome. METHODS Seven patients with reproductive dysfunction were recruited: three had unexplained poor embryogenesis during IVF and four were diagnosed with male infertility and previously shown to have altered protamination. Genome-wide analysis of the location of histones and histone modifications was analyzed by isolation and purification of DNA bound to histones and protamines. The histone-bound fraction of DNA was analyzed using high-throughput sequencing, both initially and following chromatin immunoprecipitation. The protamine-bound fraction was hybridized to agilent arrays. DNA methylation was examined using bisulfite sequencing. RESULTS Unlike fertile men, five of seven infertile men had non-programmatic (randomly distributed) histone retention genome-wide. Interestingly, in contrast to the total histone pool, the localization of H3 Lysine 4 methylation (H3K4me) or H3 Lysine 27 methylation (H3K27me) was highly similar in the gametes of infertile men compared with fertile men. However, there was a reduction in the amount of H3K4me or H3K27me retained at developmental transcription factors and certain imprinted genes. Finally, the methylation status of candidate developmental promoters and imprinted loci were altered in a subset of the infertile men. CONCLUSIONS This initial genome-wide analysis of epigenetic markings in the sperm of infertile men demonstrates differences in composition and epigenetic markings compared with fertile men, especially at certain imprinted and developmental loci. Although no single locus displays a complete change in chromatin packaging or DNA modification, the data suggest that moderate changes throughout the genome exist and may have a cumulative detrimental effect on fecundity. PMID:21685136

  8. Molecular cloning of the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) identifies a type II integral membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Shipp, M A; Richardson, N E; Sayre, P H; Brown, N R; Masteller, E L; Clayton, L K; Ritz, J; Reinherz, E L

    1988-01-01

    Common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) is a 100-kDa cell-surface glycoprotein expressed on most acute lymphoblastic leukemias and certain other immature lymphoid malignancies and on normal lymphoid progenitors. The latter are either uncommitted to B- or T-cell lineage or committed to only the earliest stages of B- or T-lymphocyte maturation. To elucidate to homogeneity, obtained the NH2-terminal sequence from both the intact protein and derived tryptic and V8 protease peptides and isolated CALLA cDNAs from a Nalm-6 cell line lambda gt10 library using redundant oligonucleotide probes. The CALLA cDNA sequence predicts a 750-amino acid integral membrane protein with a single 24-amino acid hydrophobic segment that could function as both a transmembrane region and a signal peptide. The COOH-terminal 700 amino acids, including six potential N-linked glycosylation sites compose the extracellular protein segment, whereas the 25 NH2-terminal amino acids remaining after cleavage of the initiation methionine form the cytoplasmic tail. CALLA+ cells contain CALLA transcripts of 2.7 to 5.7 kilobases with the major 5.7- and 3.7-kilobase mRNAs being preferentially expressed in specific cell types. Images PMID:2968607

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of the Dihydrotestosterone-Exposed Fetal Rat Gubernaculum Identifies Common Androgen and Insulin-Like 3 Targets1

    PubMed Central

    Barthold, Julia S.; Wang, Yanping; Robbins, Alan; Pike, Jack; McDowell, Erin; Johnson, Kamin J.; McCahan, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Androgens and insulin-like 3 (INSL3) are required for development of the fetal gubernaculum and testicular descent. Previous studies suggested that the INSL3-exposed fetal gubernacular transcriptome is enriched for genes involved in neural pathways. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of fetal gubernaculum explants exposed to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and compared this response to that with INSL3. We exposed fetal (Embryonic Day 17) rat gubernacula to DHT for 24 h (10 and 30 nM) or 6 h (1 and 10 nM) in organ culture and analyzed gene expression relative to that of vehicle-treated controls using Affymetrix arrays. Results were annotated using functional, pathway, and promoter analyses and independently validated for selected transcripts using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Transcripts were differentially expressed after 24 h but not 6 h. Most highly overrepresented functional categories included those related to gene expression, skeletal and muscular development and function, and Wnt signaling. Promoter response elements enriched in the DHT-specific transcriptome included consensus sequences for c-ETS1, ELK1, CREB, CRE-BP1/c-June, NRF2, and USF. We observed that 55% of DHT probe sets were also differentially expressed after INSL3 exposure and that the direction of change was the same in 96%. The qRT-PCR results confirmed that DHT increased expression of the INSL3-responsive genes Crlf1 and Chrdl2 but reduced expression of Wnt4. We also validated reduced Tgfb2 and Cxcl12 and increased Slit3 expression following DHT exposure. These data suggest a robust overlap in the DHT- and INSL3-regulated transcriptome that may be mediated in part by CREB signaling and a common Wnt pathway response for both hormones in the fetal gubernaculum. PMID:24174575

  10. Key Principles of Community-Based Natural Resource Management: A Synthesis and Interpretation of Identified Effective Approaches for Managing the Commons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James S. Gruber

    2010-01-01

    This article examines recent research on approaches to community-based environmental and natural resource management and reviews\\u000a the commonalities and differences between these interdisciplinary and multistakeholder initiatives. To identify the most effective\\u000a characteristics of Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM), I collected a multiplicity of perspectives from research\\u000a teams and then grouped findings into a matrix of organizational principles and key characteristics.

  11. Targeting the Hydrophobic Pocket of Autotaxin with Virtual Screening of Inhibitors Identifies a Common Aromatic Sulfonamide Structural Motif

    PubMed Central

    Fells, James I.; Lee, Sue Chin; Norman, Derek D.; Tsukahara, Ryoko; Kirby, R. Jason; Nelson, Sandra; Seibel, William; Papoian, Ruben; Patil, Renukadevi; Miller, Duane D.; Parrill, Abby L.; Pham, Truc-Chi; Baker, Daniel L.; Bittman, Robert; Tigyi, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of autotaxin (ATX), the lysophospholipase D enzyme that produces lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), with small-molecule inhibitors is a promising strategy for blocking the ATX/LPA signaling axis. While discovery campaigns have been successful in identifying ATX inhibitors, many of the reported inhibitors target the catalytic cleft of ATX. A recent study provided evidence for an additional inhibitory surface in the hydrophobic binding pocket of ATX, confirming prior studies that relied on enzyme kinetics and differential inhibition of substrates varying in size. Multiple hits from a previous high-throughput screening (HTS) for ATX inhibitors were obtained with aromatic sulfonamide derivatives interacting with the hydrophobic pocket. Here we describe the development of a ligand-based strategy and its application in a virtual screening, which yielded novel high-potency inhibitors that target the hydrophobic pocket of ATX. Characterization of the structure-activity relationship of these new inhibitors forms the foundation of a new pharmacophore model of the hydrophobic pocket of ATX. PMID:24314137

  12. Fluid retention in cirrhosis: pathophysiology and management.

    PubMed

    Kashani, A; Landaverde, C; Medici, V; Rossaro, L

    2008-02-01

    Accumulation of fluid as ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis. This is occurring in about 50% of patients within 10 years of the diagnosis of cirrhosis. It is a prognostic sign with 1-year and 5-year survival of 85% and 56%, respectively. The most acceptable theory for ascites formation is peripheral arterial vasodilation leading to underfilling of circulatory volume. This triggers the baroreceptor-mediated activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system and nonosmotic release of vasopressin to restore circulatory integrity. The result is an avid sodium and water retention, identified as a preascitic state. This condition will evolve in overt fluid retention and ascites, as the liver disease progresses. Once ascites is present, most therapeutic modalities are directed on maintaining negative sodium balance, including salt restriction, bed rest and diuretics. Paracentesis and albumin infusion is applied to tense ascites. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is considered for refractory ascites. With worsening of liver disease, fluid retention is associated with other complications; such as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. This is a primary infection of ascitic fluid caused by organisms originating from large intestinal normal flora. Diagnostic paracentesis and antibiotic therapy plus prophylactic regimen are mandatory. Hepatorenal syndrome is a state of functional renal failure in the setting of low cardiac output and impaired renal perfusion. Its management is based on drugs that restore normal renal blood flow through peripheral arterial and splanchnic vasoconstriction, renal vasodilation and/or plasma volume expansion. However, the definitive treatment is liver transplantation. PMID:18184668

  13. Population sequencing of two endocannabinoid metabolic genes identifies rare and common regulatory variants associated with extreme obesity and metabolite level

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Targeted re-sequencing of candidate genes in individuals at the extremes of a quantitative phenotype distribution is a method of choice to gain information on the contribution of rare variants to disease susceptibility. The endocannabinoid system mediates signaling in the brain and peripheral tissues involved in the regulation of energy balance, is highly active in obese patients, and represents a strong candidate pathway to examine for genetic association with body mass index (BMI). Results We sequenced two intervals (covering 188 kb) encoding the endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) in 147 normal controls and 142 extremely obese cases. After applying quality filters, we called 1,393 high quality single nucleotide variants, 55% of which are rare, and 143 indels. Using single marker tests and collapsed marker tests, we identified four intervals associated with BMI: the FAAH promoter, the MGLL promoter, MGLL intron 2, and MGLL intron 3. Two of these intervals are composed of rare variants and the majority of the associated variants are located in promoter sequences or in predicted transcriptional enhancers, suggesting a regulatory role. The set of rare variants in the FAAH promoter associated with BMI is also associated with increased level of FAAH substrate anandamide, further implicating a functional role in obesity. Conclusions Our study, which is one of the first reports of a sequence-based association study using next-generation sequencing of candidate genes, provides insights into study design and analysis approaches and demonstrates the importance of examining regulatory elements rather than exclusively focusing on exon sequences. PMID:21118518

  14. Modelling the fate of six common pharmaceuticals in a small stream: quantification of attenuation and retention in different stream-specific environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riml, Joakim; Wörman, Anders; Kunkel, Uwe; Radke, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Detection of pharmaceutical residues in streaming waters is common in urbanized areas. Although the occurrence and source of these micropollutants is known, their behavior in these aquatic ecosystems is still only partly understood. Specifically, quantitative information of biogeochemical processes in stream-specific environments where predominant reactions occur is often missing. In an attempt to address this knowledge gap, we performed simultaneous tracer tests in Säva Brook, Sweden, with bezafibrate, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, metoprolol and naproxen, as well as with the more inert solutes uranine and Rhodamine WT. The breakthrough curves at five successive sampling stations along a 16 km long stream reach were evaluated using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model framework containing surface water transport together with a representation of transient storage in slow/immobile zones of the stream. The multi-tracer experiment opens for decoupling of hydrological and biogeochemical contribution to the fate, and by linking impact and sensitivity analyses to relative significance of model parameters the most important processes for each contaminant were elucidated. Specifically for Säva Brook, the proposed methodology revealed that the pharmaceutical-contaminated stream water remained in the storage zones for times corresponding to 5-25% of the flow time of the stream. Furthermore, the results indicate a great variability in terms of predominant biogeochemical processes between the different contaminants. Rapid reactions occurring in the transient storage zone attenuated both ibuprofen and clofibric acid, and we conclude that a major degradation pathway for these contaminants was biodegradation in the hyporheic zone. In contrast, bezafibrate, metoprolol, and naproxen were mainly affected by sorption both in the storage zone and the main channel, while diclofenac displayed negligible effects of biogeochemical reactions.

  15. Low power integrated scan-retention mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor V. Zyuban; Stephen V. Kosonocky

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for unifying the scan mechanism and data retention in latches which leads to scannable latches with the data retention capability achieved at a very low power overhead during the active mode. A detailed analysis of power and area overhead is presented, with layout examples for various common latch styles. Implications of using different power gating

  16. A Repurposing Approach Identifies Off-Patent Drugs with Fungicidal Cryptococcal Activity, a Common Structural Chemotype, and Pharmacological Properties Relevant to the Treatment of Cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Arielle; DiDone, Louis; Koselny, Kristy; Baxter, Bonnie K.; Chabrier-Rosello, Yeissa; Wellington, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    New, more accessible therapies for cryptococcosis represent an unmet clinical need of global importance. We took a repurposing approach to identify previously developed drugs with fungicidal activity toward Cryptococcus neoformans, using a high-throughput screening assay designed to detect drugs that directly kill fungi. From a set of 1,120 off-patent medications and bioactive molecules, we identified 31 drugs/molecules with fungicidal activity, including 15 drugs for which direct antifungal activity had not previously been reported. A significant portion of the drugs are orally bioavailable and cross the blood-brain barrier, features key to the development of a widely applicable anticryptococcal agent. Structural analysis of this set revealed a common chemotype consisting of a hydrophobic moiety linked to a basic amine, features that are common to drugs that cross the blood-brain barrier and access the phagolysosome, two important niches of C. neoformans. Consistent with their fungicidal activity, the set contains eight drugs that are either additive or synergistic in combination with fluconazole. Importantly, we identified two drugs, amiodarone and thioridazine, with activity against intraphagocytic C. neoformans. Finally, the set of drugs is also enriched for molecules that inhibit calmodulin, and we have confirmed that seven drugs directly bind C. neoformans calmodulin, providing a molecular target that may contribute to the mechanism of antifungal activity. Taken together, these studies provide a foundation for the optimization of the antifungal properties of a set of pharmacologically attractive scaffolds for the development of novel anticryptococcal therapies. PMID:23243064

  17. Trans-Ethnic Meta-Analysis Identifies Common and Rare Variants Associated with Hepatocyte Growth Factor Levels in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicholas B; Berardi, Cecilia; Decker, Paul A; Wassel, Christina L; Kirsch, Phillip S; Pankow, James S; Sale, Michele M; de Andrade, Mariza; Sicotte, Hugues; Tang, Weihong; Hanson, Naomi Q; Tsai, Michael Y; Taylor, Kent D; Bielinski, Suzette J

    2015-07-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a mesenchyme-derived pleiotropic factor that regulates cell growth, motility, mitogenesis, and morphogenesis in a variety of cells, and increased serum levels of HGF have been linked to a number of clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease phenotypes. However, little is currently known regarding which genetic factors influence HGF levels, despite evidence of substantial genetic contributions to HGF variation. Based upon ethnicity-stratified single-variant association analysis and trans-ethnic meta-analysis of 6201 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we discovered five statistically significant common and low-frequency variants: HGF missense polymorphism rs5745687 (p.E299K) as well as four variants (rs16844364, rs4690098, rs114303452, rs3748034) within or in proximity to HGFAC. We also identified two significant ethnicity-specific gene-level associations (A1BG in African Americans; FASN in Chinese Americans) based upon low-frequency/rare variants, while meta-analysis of gene-level results identified a significant association for HGFAC. However, identified single-variant associations explained modest proportions of the total trait variation and were not significantly associated with coronary artery calcium or coronary heart disease. Our findings indicate that genetic factors influencing circulating HGF levels may be complex and ethnically diverse. PMID:25998175

  18. Efficacy of the core DNA barcodes in identifying processed and poorly conserved plant materials commonly used in South African traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mankga, Ledile T.; Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Moteetee, Annah M.; Daru, Barnabas H.; van der Bank, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Medicinal plants cover a broad range of taxa, which may be phylogenetically less related but morphologically very similar. Such morphological similarity between species may lead to misidentification and inappropriate use. Also the substitution of a medicinal plant by a cheaper alternative (e.g. other non-medicinal plant species), either due to misidentification, or deliberately to cheat consumers, is an issue of growing concern. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to identify commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. Using the core plant barcodes, matK and rbcLa, obtained from processed and poorly conserved materials sold at the muthi traditional medicine market, we tested efficacy of the barcodes in species discrimination. Based on genetic divergence, PCR amplification efficiency and BLAST algorithm, we revealed varied discriminatory potentials for the DNA barcodes. In general, the barcodes exhibited high discriminatory power, indicating their effectiveness in verifying the identity of the most common plant species traded in South African medicinal markets. BLAST algorithm successfully matched 61% of the queries against a reference database, suggesting that most of the information supplied by sellers at traditional medicinal markets in South Africa is correct. Our findings reinforce the utility of DNA barcoding technique in limiting false identification that can harm public health. PMID:24453559

  19. The phytochemical and genetic survey of common and dwarf juniper (Juniperus communis and Juniperus nana) identifies chemical races and close taxonomic identity of the species.

    PubMed

    Filipowicz, Natalia; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Ochocka, J Renata; Asztemborska, Monika

    2006-07-01

    Juniperus communis L. (= J. communis var. communis) and Juniperus nana Willd. (= J. communis var. SAXATILIS) are subspecies of juniper. J. communis grows widely in both hemispheres, primarily in lower elevations while J. nana is mainly observed in high mountains. Although they can be distinguished by morphological features, it is not known whether they are genetically and phytochemically distinct entities. We aimed to check whether it is possible to distinguish these two plants (i) by pharmaceutically important chemical traits and (ii) on the basis of intraspecifically highly polymorphic fragment of chloroplast DNA. We used GC with achiral as well as with enantioselective stationary phase columns to identify the main monoterpenes of the essential oil. Sequence analysis of the TRNL (UAA)- TRNF (GAA) intergenic spacer of the chloroplast genome was used as a genetic marker of taxonomic identity between these two subspecies. The chromatographic analysis showed the existence of three chemical races - the alpha-pinene type, the sabinene type and one with intermediate contents of these terpenes among both J. communis and J. nana. Surprisingly, sequence analysis of TRNL (UAA)- TRNF (GAA) revealed 100 % similarity between the common and the dwarf juniper. Thus, the monoterpene pattern is related to geographical origin, and not to the species identity. We suggest that the three chemical races identified in the present study should be considered as separate sources of pharmaceutical raw material. Our results demonstrate that the contents of alpha-pinene and sabinene may be applied as a quick diagnostic test for preliminary evaluation of plant material. PMID:16783703

  20. Comparison of low molecular weight glutenin subunits identified by SDS-PAGE, 2-DE, MALDI-TOF-MS and PCR in common wheat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) play a crucial role in determining end-use quality of common wheat by influencing the viscoelastic properties of dough. Four different methods - sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, IEF × SDS-PAGE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were used to characterize the LMW-GS composition in 103 cultivars from 12 countries. Results At the Glu-A3 locus, all seven alleles could be reliably identified by 2-DE and PCR. However, the alleles Glu-A3e and Glu-A3d could not be routinely distinguished from Glu-A3f and Glu-A3g, respectively, based on SDS-PAGE, and the allele Glu-A3a could not be differentiated from Glu-A3c by MALDI-TOF-MS. At the Glu-B3 locus, alleles Glu-B3a, Glu-B3b, Glu-B3c, Glu-B3g, Glu-B3h and Glu-B3j could be clearly identified by all four methods, whereas Glu-B3ab, Glu-B3ac, Glu-B3ad could only be identified by the 2-DE method. At the Glu-D3 locus, allelic identification was problematic for the electrophoresis based methods and PCR. MALDI-TOF-MS has the potential to reliably identify the Glu-D3 alleles. Conclusions PCR is the simplest, most accurate, lowest cost, and therefore recommended method for identification of Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 alleles in breeding programs. A combination of methods was required to identify certain alleles, and would be especially useful when characterizing new alleles. A standard set of 30 cultivars for use in future studies was chosen to represent all LMW-GS allelic variants in the collection. Among them, Chinese Spring, Opata 85, Seri 82 and Pavon 76 were recommended as a core set for use in SDS-PAGE gels. Glu-D3c and Glu-D3e are the same allele. Two new alleles, namely, Glu-D3m in cultivar Darius, and Glu-D3n in Fengmai 27, were identified by 2-DE. Utilization of the suggested standard cultivar set, seed of which is available from the CIMMYT and INRA Clermont-Ferrand germplasm collections, should also promote information sharing in the identification of individual LMW-GS and thus provide useful information for quality improvement in common wheat. PMID:20573275

  1. Postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery: Assessment of risk factors in a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Cavkaytar, Sabri; Kokanal?, Mahmut Kuntay; Baylas, Ay?egül; Topçu, Hasan Onur; Laleli, Bergen; Ta?ç?, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the obstetrics risk factors for postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery. Material and Methods Of 234 women with a vaginal delivery, 19 (8.1%) women who had postpartum urinary retention were cases, and 215 (91.9%) women who did not were controls. Postpartum urinary retention was defined as the presence of postvoid residual bladder volume ?150 mL or the inability to void within 6 hours after vaginal delivery. Logistic regression analysis identified risk factors for urinary retention. Results Prolonged duration of the second stage of labor (OR=0.46, 95% CI for OR=0.06–3.67, p<0.001), presence of episiotomy (OR=0.07, 95% CI for OR=0.01–0.68, p=0.022) and perineal laceration (OR=97.09, 95% CI for OR=7.93–1188.93, p<0.001), and birth weight of >4000 g for the newborn (OR=0.04, 95% CI for OR=0.01–0.20, p<0.001) were found as independent risk factors for postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery. Conclusion Postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery is a relatively common condition. Awareness of risk factors, including prolonged second stage of labor, episiotomy, perineal lacerations, and macrosomic birth, may allow us to take the necessary precautions against this complication. PMID:25317040

  2. Spinal morphine anesthesia and urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Mahan, K T; Wang, J

    1993-11-01

    Spinal anesthetic is a common form of surgical anesthetic used in foot and ankle surgery. Spinal morphine anesthetic is less common, but has the advantage of providing postoperative analgesia for 12 to 24 hr. A number of complications can occur with spinal anesthesia, including urinary retention that may be a source of severe and often prolonged discomfort and pain for the patient. Management of this problem may require repeated bladder catheterization, which may lead to urinary tract infections or impairment of urethrovesicular function. This study reviews the incidence of urinary retention in 80 patients (40 after general anesthesia and 40 after spinal anesthesia) who underwent foot and ankle surgery at Saint Joseph's Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. Twenty-five percent of the patients who had spinal anesthesia experienced urinary retention, while only 7 1/2% of the group who had general anesthesia had this complication. Predisposing factors, treatment regimen, and recommendations for the prevention and management of urinary retention are presented. PMID:8258772

  3. Influence of the retention of PI calves identified in 2012 during the voluntary phase of the Irish national bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication programme on herd-level outcomes in 2013.

    PubMed

    Graham, D A; Clegg, T A; O'Sullivan, P; More, S J

    2015-07-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of the retention of calves born in one calving season and considered to be persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) on herd-level outcomes in the following calving season. A secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between retention and the number of BVD+ calves detected the following season. The study population included a subset of herds enrolled in the 2012 voluntary BVD eradication programme in Ireland, specifically those with a birth registered to more than 80% of the cows between 1st January and 15th July and BVDV test results available for at least 80% of these calves, during both 2012 and 2013. Calves were considered PI based on either an initial positive result without further testing (BVDPOS) or a positive result on confirmatory testing (BVDPI), collectively considered BVD+ calves. Herd-level outcomes included the BVD status of the herd, and the number of BVD+ calves born between 1st January and 15th July 2013 (the study period). There was a significant univariable association between herd BVD status in 2013 and a number of general herd factors, including location, herd type, size and number of introduced animals (overall and those pregnant at time of introduction), as well as with each of six different factors related to the retention of virus-positive calves: the number of BVD+ calves in 2012; the maximum time (days) any one BVD+ born in 2012 was retained up to September 2013; the mean time (days) BVD+ animal(s) born in 2012 were retained up to September 2013; the date (quarter/year) the last BVD+ left the herd; the presence/number of 2012-born BVD+ retained in the herd at 1st January 2013. Separate multivariable models were constructed for each retention variable. The best model fit (based on AIC) was obtained using the retention variable "date (quarter/year) last BVD+ calf left the herd", followed by "total time all BVD+ calves were retained in the herd", with (log) herd size also retained in the models. Significant differences were also found in the number of positive calves detected in positive herds in 2013 for all of the calf retention risk factors. These findings confirm an increased probability of finding a BVD+ animal in a herd following the retention of positive calves born in the previous calving season, highlighting the importance of their prompt removal. PMID:25975666

  4. Demographic Clusters Identified within the Northern Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncates) Unusual Mortality Event: January 2010 - June 2013

    PubMed Central

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Garrison, Lance; Litz, Jenny; Fougeres, Erin; Mase, Blair; Rappucci, Gina; Stratton, Elizabeth; Carmichael, Ruth; Odell, Daniel; Shannon, Delphine; Shippee, Steve; Smith, Suzanne; Staggs, Lydia; Tumlin, Mandy; Whitehead, Heidi; Rowles, Teri

    2015-01-01

    A multi-year unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates) was declared in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) with an initial start date of February 2010 and remains ongoing as of August 2014. To examine potential changing characteristics of the UME over time, we compared the number and demographics of dolphin strandings from January 2010 through June 2013 across the entire GoM as well as against baseline (1990-2009) GoM stranding patterns. Years 2010 and 2011 had the highest annual number of stranded dolphins since Louisiana’s record began, and 2011 was one of the years with the highest strandings for both Mississippi and Alabama. Statewide, annual numbers of stranded dolphins were not elevated for GoM coasts of Florida or Texas during the UME period. Demographic, spatial, and temporal clusters identified within this UME included increased strandings in northern coastal Louisiana and Mississippi (March-May 2010); Barataria Bay, Louisiana (August 2010-December 2011); Mississippi and Alabama (2011, including a high prevalence and number of stranded perinates); and multiple GoM states during early 2013. While the causes of the GoM UME have not been determined, the location and magnitude of dolphin strandings during and the year following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including the Barataria Bay cluster from August 2010 to December 2011, overlap in time and space with locations that received heavy and prolonged oiling. There are, however, multiple known causes of previous GoM dolphin UMEs, including brevetoxicosis and dolphin morbillivirus. Additionally, increased dolphin strandings occurred in northern Louisiana and Mississippi before the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Identification of spatial, temporal, and demographic clusters within the UME suggest that this mortality event may involve different contributing factors varying by location, time, and bottlenose dolphin populations that will be better discerned by incorporating diagnostic information, including histopathology. PMID:25671657

  5. 2012 Retention Review Guide Online Annual Retention Review

    E-print Network

    Tennessee, University of

    2012 Retention Review Guide Online Annual Retention Review Of TenureTrack Faculty The University of Tennessee Office of Information Technology 08/30/2012 Online Performance Review System Retention Review Steps...................................................4 How to access the Online

  6. Neurogenic urinary retention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Herbaut

    1993-01-01

    This review article on neurogenic urinary retention is divided into three main sections. The first covers the neuroanatomy of the bladder and urethral sphincters, developing the peripheral innervation as well as the spinal cord organization and the cortical and subcortical brain control of micturition. The second discusses the main central and peripheral neurological lesions and diseases causing urinary retention. The

  7. Failing Grades for Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natriello, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Although prevailing research indicates that holding back students carries negative effects, retention is becoming ever more popular. Administrators seeking secure funding for retention alternatives face considerable resistance, while the decision to add a full year of expenditures for a retained student is made without considering budgetary…

  8. Clinic Network Collaboration and Patient Tracing to Maximize Retention in HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, James H.; Moore, Richard; Eu, Beng; Tee, Ban-Kiem; Chen, Marcus; El-Hayek, Carol; Street, Alan; Woolley, Ian; Buggie, Andrew; Collins, Danielle; Medland, Nicholas; Hoy, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding retention and loss to follow up in HIV care, in particular the number of people with unknown outcomes, is critical to maximise the benefits of antiretroviral therapy. Individual-level data are not available for these outcomes in Australia, which has an HIV epidemic predominantly focused amongst men who have sex with men. Methods and Findings A network of the 6 main HIV clinical care sites was established in the state of Victoria, Australia. Individuals who had accessed care at these sites between February 2011 and June 2013 as assessed by HIV viral load testing but not accessed care between June 2013 and February 2014 were considered individuals with potentially unknown outcomes. For this group an intervention combining cross-referencing of clinical data between sites and phone tracing individuals with unknown outcomes was performed. 4966 people were in care in the network and before the intervention estimates of retention ranged from 85.9%–95.8% and the proportion with unknown outcomes ranged from 1.3-5.5%. After the intervention retention increased to 91.4–98.8% and unknown outcomes decreased to 0.1–2.4% (p<.01 for all sites for both outcomes). Most common reasons for disengagement from care were being too busy to attend or feeling well. For those with unknown outcomes prior to the intervention documented active psychiatric illness at last visit was associated with not re-entering care (p = 0.04) Conclusions The network demonstrated low numbers of people with unknown outcomes and high levels of retention in care. Increased levels of retention in care and reductions in unknown outcomes identified after the intervention largely reflected confirmation of clinic transfers while a smaller number were successfully re-engaged in care. Factors associated with disengagement from care were identified. Systems to monitor patient retention, care transfer and minimize disengagement will maximise individual and population-level outcomes for populations with HIV. PMID:26011034

  9. 29 CFR 4000.53 - May I use electronic media to satisfy PBGC's record retention requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...FILING, ISSUANCE, COMPUTATION OF TIME, AND RECORD RETENTION Electronic Means of Record Retention § 4000...The term “legibility” means the observer must be able to identify...The term “readability” means that the observer must be...

  10. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  11. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  12. Redox Proteomics of the Inflammatory Secretome Identifies a Common Set of Redoxins and Other Glutathionylated Proteins Released in Inflammation, Influenza Virus Infection and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Checconi, Paola; Salzano, Sonia; Bowler, Lucas; Mullen, Lisa; Mengozzi, Manuela; Hanschmann, Eva-Maria; Lillig, Christopher Horst; Sgarbanti, Rossella; Panella, Simona; Nencioni, Lucia; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Ghezzi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Protein cysteines can form transient disulfides with glutathione (GSH), resulting in the production of glutathionylated proteins, and this process is regarded as a mechanism by which the redox state of the cell can regulate protein function. Most studies on redox regulation of immunity have focused on intracellular proteins. In this study we have used redox proteomics to identify those proteins released in glutathionylated form by macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) after pre-loading the cells with biotinylated GSH. Of the several proteins identified in the redox secretome, we have selected a number for validation. Proteomic analysis indicated that LPS stimulated the release of peroxiredoxin (PRDX) 1, PRDX2, vimentin (VIM), profilin1 (PFN1) and thioredoxin 1 (TXN1). For PRDX1 and TXN1, we were able to confirm that the released protein is glutathionylated. PRDX1, PRDX2 and TXN1 were also released by the human pulmonary epithelial cell line, A549, infected with influenza virus. The release of the proteins identified was inhibited by the anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (DEX), which also inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? release, and by thiol antioxidants (N-butanoyl GSH derivative, GSH-C4, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which did not affect TNF-? production. The proteins identified could be useful as biomarkers of oxidative stress associated with inflammation, and further studies will be required to investigate if the extracellular forms of these proteins has immunoregulatory functions. PMID:25985305

  13. Scientists Identify Markers on Human Breast Cancer Cells Linked to Development of an Aggressive, But Less Common Form of Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists have identified a group of surface markers on cells linked to an aggressive type of breast cancer called estrogen receptor-negative cancer. The research, conducted by scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, appeared online May 18, 2010, and in print June 1, 2010, in Cancer Research.

  14. Come and stay a while: does financial aid effect retention conditioned on enrollment at a large public university?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry D. Singell Jr

    2004-01-01

    Few studies examine whether financial aid affects college retention. This paper uses University of Oregon data to examine financial aid’s affect on retention net of uniquely detailed enrollee attributes and conditioned on unobserved enrollee attributes identified by jointly modeling retention and enrollment. The results show that need- and merit-based aid significantly increase retention, but that these effects are biased by

  15. Nurse Retention in Home Health Care: Addressing the Revolving Door

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kasey Chapin

    1999-01-01

    An effective retention plan will be a critical component of a home health care agency's leap into the year 2000. Assessing current turnover and retention rates for your agency, surveying exiting and current staff, identifying the internal factors that lead to turnover, addressing these factors, and measuring the effects of your action plan at regular intervals are all key components

  16. Genome-Wide Association Identifies a Common Variant in the Reelin Gene That Increases the Risk of Schizophrenia Only in Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sagiv Shifman; Martina Johannesson; Michal Bronstein; Sam X Chen; David A Collier; Nicholas J Craddock; Kenneth S Kendler; Tao Li; Michael ODonovan; F. Anthony ONeill; Michael J Owen; Dermot Walsh; Daniel R Weinberger; Cuie Sun; Jonathan Flint; Ariel Darvasi

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences in schizophrenia are well known, but their genetic basis has not been identified. We performed a genome-wide association scan for schizophrenia in an Ashkenazi Jewish population using DNA pooling. We found a female-specific association with rs7341475, a SNP in the fourth intron of the reelin (RELN) gene (p = 2.9 × 10?5 in women), with a significant gene-sex

  17. Targeted NGS gene panel identifies mutations in RSPH1 causing primary ciliary dyskinesia and a common mechanism for ciliary central pair agenesis due to radial spoke defects.

    PubMed

    Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Shoemark, Amelia; Schmidts, Miriam; Patel, Mitali; Jimenez, Gina; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Biju; Dixon, Mellisa; Hirst, Robert A; Rutman, Andrew; Burgoyne, Thomas; Williams, Christopher; Scully, Juliet; Bolard, Florence; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Beales, Philip L; Hogg, Claire; Yang, Pinfen; Chung, Eddie M K; Emes, Richard D; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Mitchison, Hannah M

    2014-07-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited chronic respiratory obstructive disease with randomized body laterality and infertility, resulting from cilia and sperm dysmotility. PCD is characterized by clinical variability and extensive genetic heterogeneity, associated with different cilia ultrastructural defects and mutations identified in >20 genes. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies therefore present a promising approach for genetic diagnosis which is not yet in routine use. We developed a targeted panel-based NGS pipeline to identify mutations by sequencing of selected candidate genes in 70 genetically undefined PCD patients. This detected loss-of-function RSPH1 mutations in four individuals with isolated central pair (CP) agenesis and normal body laterality, from two unrelated families. Ultrastructural analysis in RSPH1-mutated cilia revealed transposition of peripheral outer microtubules into the 'empty' CP space, accompanied by a distinctive intermittent loss of the central pair microtubules. We find that mutations in RSPH1, RSPH4A and RSPH9, which all encode homologs of components of the 'head' structure of ciliary radial spoke complexes identified in Chlamydomonas, cause clinical phenotypes that appear to be indistinguishable except at the gene level. By high-resolution immunofluorescence we identified a loss of RSPH4A and RSPH9 along with RSPH1 from RSPH1-mutated cilia, suggesting RSPH1 mutations may result in loss of the entire spoke head structure. CP loss is seen in up to 28% of PCD cases, in whom laterality determination specified by CP-less embryonic node cilia remains undisturbed. We propose this defect could arise from instability or agenesis of the ciliary central microtubules due to loss of their normal radial spoke head tethering. PMID:24518672

  18. Targeted NGS gene panel identifies mutations in RSPH1 causing primary ciliary dyskinesia and a common mechanism for ciliary central pair agenesis due to radial spoke defects

    PubMed Central

    Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Shoemark, Amelia; Schmidts, Miriam; Patel, Mitali; Jimenez, Gina; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Biju; Dixon, Mellisa; Hirst, Robert A.; Rutman, Andrew; Burgoyne, Thomas; Williams, Christopher; Scully, Juliet; Bolard, Florence; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Beales, Philip L.; Hogg, Claire; Yang, Pinfen; Chung, Eddie M.K.; Emes, Richard D.; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Mitchison, Hannah M.

    2014-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited chronic respiratory obstructive disease with randomized body laterality and infertility, resulting from cilia and sperm dysmotility. PCD is characterized by clinical variability and extensive genetic heterogeneity, associated with different cilia ultrastructural defects and mutations identified in >20 genes. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies therefore present a promising approach for genetic diagnosis which is not yet in routine use. We developed a targeted panel-based NGS pipeline to identify mutations by sequencing of selected candidate genes in 70 genetically undefined PCD patients. This detected loss-of-function RSPH1 mutations in four individuals with isolated central pair (CP) agenesis and normal body laterality, from two unrelated families. Ultrastructural analysis in RSPH1-mutated cilia revealed transposition of peripheral outer microtubules into the ‘empty’ CP space, accompanied by a distinctive intermittent loss of the central pair microtubules. We find that mutations in RSPH1, RSPH4A and RSPH9, which all encode homologs of components of the ‘head’ structure of ciliary radial spoke complexes identified in Chlamydomonas, cause clinical phenotypes that appear to be indistinguishable except at the gene level. By high-resolution immunofluorescence we identified a loss of RSPH4A and RSPH9 along with RSPH1 from RSPH1-mutated cilia, suggesting RSPH1 mutations may result in loss of the entire spoke head structure. CP loss is seen in up to 28% of PCD cases, in whom laterality determination specified by CP-less embryonic node cilia remains undisturbed. We propose this defect could arise from instability or agenesis of the ciliary central microtubules due to loss of their normal radial spoke head tethering. PMID:24518672

  19. Common Mechanisms Underlying Refractive Error Identified in Functional Analysis of Gene Lists From Genome-Wide Association Study Results in 2 European British Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Hysi, Pirro G.; Mahroo, Omar A.; Cumberland, Phillippa; Wojciechowski, Robert; Williams, Katie M.; Young, Terri L.; Mackey, David A.; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Hammond, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE To date, relatively few genes responsible for a fraction of heritability have been identified by means of large genetic association studies of refractive error. OBJECTIVE To explore the genetic mechanisms that lead to refractive error in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Genome-wide association studies were carried out in 2 British population-based independent cohorts (N = 5928 participants) to identify genes moderately associated with refractive error. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Enrichment analyses were used to identify sets of genes overrepresented in both cohorts. Enriched groups of genes were compared between both participating cohorts as a further measure against random noise. RESULTS Groups of genes enriched at highly significant statistical levels were remarkably consistent in both cohorts. In particular, these results indicated that plasma membrane (P = 7.64 × 10?30), cell-cell adhesion (P = 2.42 × 10?18), synaptic transmission (P = 2.70 × 10?14), calcium ion binding (P = 3.55 × 10?15), and cation channel activity (P = 2.77 × 10?14) were significantly overrepresented in relation to refractive error. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings provide evidence that development of refractive error in the general population is related to the intensity of photosignal transduced from the retina, which may have implications for future interventions to minimize this disorder. Pathways connected to the procession of the nerve impulse are major mechanisms involved in the development of refractive error in populations of European origin. PMID:24264139

  20. RECORDS RETENTION POLICY Table of Contents

    E-print Network

    Shihadeh, Alan

    - Definitions Section 4 - General Section 5 - Program and Administrative Files Section 6 - Financial Accounting and Reporting Documents Section 7 - Human Resources Section 8 - Intellectual Property Appendix I - Inventory operating efficiency. 4. Minimizes the cost of records retention. 5. Identifies and preserves records

  1. Cytometric profiling of CD133+ cells in human colon ?carcinoma cell lines identifies a common core phenotype ?and cell type-specific mosaics.

    PubMed

    Gemei, Marica; Di Noto, Rosa; Mirabelli, Peppino; Del Vecchio, Luigi

    2013-05-14

    In colorectal cancer, CD133+ cells from fresh biopsies proved to be more tumorigenic than their CD133- counterparts. Nevertheless, the function of CD133 protein in tumorigenic cells seems only marginal. Moreover, CD133 expression alone is insufficient to isolate true cancer stem cells, since only 1 out of 262 CD133+ cells actually displays stem-cell capacity. Thus, new markers for colorectal cancer stem cells are needed. Here, we show the extensive characterization of CD133+ cells in 5 different colon carcinoma continuous cell lines (HT29, HCT116, Caco2, GEO and LS174T), each representing a different maturation level of colorectal cancer cells. Markers associated with stemness, tumorigenesis and metastatic potential were selected. We identified 6 molecules consistently present on CD133+ cells: CD9, CD29, CD49b, CD59, CD151, and CD326. By contrast, CD24, CD26, CD54, CD66c, CD81, CD90, CD99, CD112, CD164, CD166, and CD200 showed a discontinuous behavior, which led us to identify cell type-specific surface antigen mosaics. Finally, some antigens, e.g. CD227, indicated the possibility of classifying the CD133+ cells into 2 subsets likely exhibiting specific features. This study reports, for the first time, an extended characterization of the CD133+ cells in colon carcinoma cell lines and provides a "dictionary" of antigens to be used in colorectal cancer research. PMID:23709346

  2. Screening to Identify Commonly Used Chinese Herbs That Affect ERBB2 and ESR1 Gene Expression Using the Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Chang, Chun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Chong; Liu, Hui-Ju; Wen, Che-Sheng; Hsu, Chung-Hua; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Chen, Wei-Shone; Shyr, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Our aim the was to screen the commonly used Chinese herbs in order to detect changes in ERBB2 and ESR1 gene expression using MCF-7 cells. Methods. Using the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, cell cytotoxicity and proliferation were evaluated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays, respectively. A luciferase reporter assay was established by transient transfecting MCF-7 cells with plasmids containing either the ERBB2 or the ESR1 promoter region linked to the luciferase gene. Chinese herbal extracts were used to treat the cells at 24?h after transfection, followed by measurement of their luciferase activity. The screening results were verified by Western blotting to measure HER2 and ER ? protein expression. Results. At concentrations that induced little cytotoxicity, thirteen single herbal extracts and five compound recipes were found to increase either ERBB2 or ESR1 luciferase activity. By Western blotting, Si-Wu-Tang, Kuan-Shin-Yin, and Suan-Tsao-Ren-Tang were found to increase either HER2 or ER ? protein expression. In addition, Ligusticum chuanxiong was shown to have a great effect on ERBB2 gene expression and synergistically with estrogen to stimulate MCF-7 cell growth. Conclusion. Our results provide important information that should affect clinical treatment strategies among breast cancer patients who are receiving hormonal or targeted therapies. PMID:24987437

  3. A family inheriting different subtypes of acute myelogenous leukemia identifies a gene common to the differentation of multiple hematopoetic lineages and acting early in leukemogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, M.S.; Radich, J. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Sabath, D.E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The initial steps promoting carcinogenesis in the hematologic malignancies remain poorly understood. We report on a family with an incompletely penetrant, autosomal dominant syndrome of acute myelogenous leukemia, affecting at least eight adults from three generations. The affected individuals have developed leukemias differing in morphologic subtype, tumor cytogenetics, and abruptness of presentation. Within this family are found subtypes affecting the granulocytic, monocytic, and megakaryocytic lineages. At least one individual has a normal tumor karyotype while another has complex rearrangements including monsomy 7, trisomy 8 and translocation 1;7. Some have presented with acute onset and others with a protracted myelodysplasia syndrome. One person at fifty percent risk of inheriting this gene developed disseminated atypical mycobacterium infection in the absence of leukemia, but also without apparent causes for acquired deficiencies in cellular immunity. Features common to affected family members, including the individual with mycobacterium infection, are the early presence in bone marrow of red cell and platelet maturation defects. A search for mutations in diseased marrows fails to detect abnormalities of p53 exons 5, 6, 7 and 8 or N-ras codons 12, 13 and 61. We conclude that there is a gene in this family that probably acts early in hematopoetic differentiation and confers susceptibility to a wide range of leukemia subtypes spanning the maturation of the myeloid series.

  4. Water retention and gas relative permeability of two industrial concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wei; Liu Jian; Brue, Flore; Skoczylas, Frederic [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ECLille, LML, BP 48, F-59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); CNRS, UMR 8107, F-59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); Davy, C.A., E-mail: catherine.davy@ec-lille.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ECLille, LML, BP 48, F-59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); CNRS, UMR 8107, F-59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); Bourbon, Xavier; Talandier, Jean [Andra, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, F-92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France)

    2012-07-15

    This experimental study aims at identifying the water retention properties of two industrial concretes to be used for long term underground nuclear waste storage structures. Together with water retention, gas transfer properties are identified at varying water saturation level, i.e. relative gas permeability is assessed directly as a function of water saturation level S{sub w}. The influence of the initial de-sorption path and of the subsequent re-saturation are analysed both in terms of water retention and gas transfer properties. Also, the influence of concrete microstructure upon water retention and relative gas permeability is assessed, using porosity measurements, analysis of the BET theory from water retention properties, and MIP. Finally, a single relative gas permeability curve is proposed for each concrete, based on Van Genuchten-Mualem's statistical model, to be used for continuous modelling approaches of concrete structures, both during drying and imbibition.

  5. Use of Anisotropy, 3D Segmented Atlas, and Computational Analysis to Identify Gray Matter Subcortical Lesions Common to Concussive Injury from Different Sites on the Cortex.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Praveen; Kenkel, William; Finklestein, Seth P; Barchet, Thomas M; Ren, JingMei; Davenport, Mathew; Shenton, Martha E; Kikinis, Zora; Nedelman, Mark; Ferris, Craig F

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can occur anywhere along the cortical mantel. While the cortical contusions may be random and disparate in their locations, the clinical outcomes are often similar and difficult to explain. Thus a question that arises is, do concussions at different sites on the cortex affect similar subcortical brain regions? To address this question we used a fluid percussion model to concuss the right caudal or rostral cortices in rats. Five days later, diffusion tensor MRI data were acquired for indices of anisotropy (IA) for use in a novel method of analysis to detect changes in gray matter microarchitecture. IA values from over 20,000 voxels were registered into a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas covering 150 brain areas. Comparisons between left and right hemispheres revealed a small population of subcortical sites with altered IA values. Rostral and caudal concussions were of striking similarity in the impacted subcortical locations, particularly the central nucleus of the amygdala, laterodorsal thalamus, and hippocampal complex. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis of these sites showed significant neuroinflammation. This study presents three significant findings that advance our understanding and evaluation of TBI: 1) the introduction of a new method to identify highly localized disturbances in discrete gray matter, subcortical brain nuclei without postmortem histology, 2) the use of this method to demonstrate that separate injuries to the rostral and caudal cortex produce the same subcortical, disturbances, and 3) the central nucleus of the amygdala, critical in the regulation of emotion, is vulnerable to concussion. PMID:25955025

  6. Use of Anisotropy, 3D Segmented Atlas, and Computational Analysis to Identify Gray Matter Subcortical Lesions Common to Concussive Injury from Different Sites on the Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Praveen; Kenkel, William; Finklestein, Seth P.; Barchet, Thomas M.; Ren, JingMei; Davenport, Mathew; Shenton, Martha E.; Kikinis, Zora; Nedelman, Mark; Ferris, Craig F.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can occur anywhere along the cortical mantel. While the cortical contusions may be random and disparate in their locations, the clinical outcomes are often similar and difficult to explain. Thus a question that arises is, do concussions at different sites on the cortex affect similar subcortical brain regions? To address this question we used a fluid percussion model to concuss the right caudal or rostral cortices in rats. Five days later, diffusion tensor MRI data were acquired for indices of anisotropy (IA) for use in a novel method of analysis to detect changes in gray matter microarchitecture. IA values from over 20,000 voxels were registered into a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas covering 150 brain areas. Comparisons between left and right hemispheres revealed a small population of subcortical sites with altered IA values. Rostral and caudal concussions were of striking similarity in the impacted subcortical locations, particularly the central nucleus of the amygdala, laterodorsal thalamus, and hippocampal complex. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis of these sites showed significant neuroinflammation. This study presents three significant findings that advance our understanding and evaluation of TBI: 1) the introduction of a new method to identify highly localized disturbances in discrete gray matter, subcortical brain nuclei without postmortem histology, 2) the use of this method to demonstrate that separate injuries to the rostral and caudal cortex produce the same subcortical, disturbances, and 3) the central nucleus of the amygdala, critical in the regulation of emotion, is vulnerable to concussion. PMID:25955025

  7. Genomic analysis of LPS-stimulated myeloid cells identifies a common pro-inflammatory response but divergent IL-10 anti-inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Andrew Paul; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is an essential physiological response to infection and injury that must be kept within strict bounds. The IL-10/STAT3 anti-inflammatory response (AIR) is indispensable for controlling the extent of inflammation, although the complete mechanisms downstream of STAT3 have not yet been elucidated. The AIR is widely known to extend to other myeloid cells, but it has best been characterized in macrophages. Here we set out to characterize the LPS-mediated pro-inflammatory response and the AIR across a range of myeloid cells. We found that whereas the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response is broadly similar among macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, mast cells and eosinophils, the AIR is drastically different across all myeloid cell types that respond to IL-10 (all bar eosinophils). We propose a model whereby the IL-10/STAT3 AIR works by selectively inhibiting specific pathways in distinct cell types: in macrophages the AIR most likely works through the inhibition of NF-?B target genes; in DCs and mast cells through indirect IRF disruption; and in neutrophils through IRF disruption and possibly also indirect NF-?B inhibition. In summary, no conserved IL-10/STAT3 AIR effectors were identified; instead a cell type-specific model of the AIR is proposed. PMID:25765318

  8. Variability of Moisture Retention and Hydrophobicity Among Biochars

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research identifies factors and mechanisms that control changes in moisture retention when biochars produced from different feedstocks and under different heat treatment temperatures are mixed with fine sand. While substantial experimental research has been conducted on the ...

  9. 708 Common and 2010 rare DISC1 locus variants identified in 1542 subjects: analysis for association with psychiatric disorder and cognitive traits.

    PubMed

    Thomson, P A; Parla, J S; McRae, A F; Kramer, M; Ramakrishnan, K; Yao, J; Soares, D C; McCarthy, S; Morris, S W; Cardone, L; Cass, S; Ghiban, E; Hennah, W; Evans, K L; Rebolini, D; Millar, J K; Harris, S E; Starr, J M; MacIntyre, D J; McIntosh, A M; Watson, J D; Deary, I J; Visscher, P M; Blackwood, D H; McCombie, W R; Porteous, D J

    2014-06-01

    A balanced t(1;11) translocation that transects the Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene shows genome-wide significant linkage for schizophrenia and recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) in a single large Scottish family, but genome-wide and exome sequencing-based association studies have not supported a role for DISC1 in psychiatric illness. To explore DISC1 in more detail, we sequenced 528?kb of the DISC1 locus in 653 cases and 889 controls. We report 2718 validated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of which 2010 have a minor allele frequency of <1%. Only 38% of these variants are reported in the 1000 Genomes Project European subset. This suggests that many DISC1 SNPs remain undiscovered and are essentially private. Rare coding variants identified exclusively in patients were found in likely functional protein domains. Significant region-wide association was observed between rs16856199 and rMDD (P=0.026, unadjusted P=6.3 × 10(-5), OR=3.48). This was not replicated in additional recurrent major depression samples (replication P=0.11). Combined analysis of both the original and replication set supported the original association (P=0.0058, OR=1.46). Evidence for segregation of this variant with disease in families was limited to those of rMDD individuals referred from primary care. Burden analysis for coding and non-coding variants gave nominal associations with diagnosis and measures of mood and cognition. Together, these observations are likely to generalise to other candidate genes for major mental illness and may thus provide guidelines for the design of future studies. PMID:23732877

  10. "Assistants Retention in

    E-print Network

    Turner, Monica G.

    The Impact ofTeaching "Assistants on Student Retention in the Sciences Lessons for TA Training courses. A majority ofscience, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) bachelor's degrees have on underclass students' plans to major in or leave the sciences? Literature on student attrition

  11. Secrets of Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Recruiting students is one thing, but keeping them in a chorus, orchestra, or band is another. Although a music director has no control over some variables, there is much that can be done to help students to stay. Several experts share their advice on retention. One expert said a teacher's own attitude and classroom strategies may be two of the…

  12. Tritium retention in TFTR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Skinner; D. Mueller; R. T. Walters; R. Causey; S. Luckhardt; J. Hirooka

    1996-01-01

    The large tritium inventories projected for ITER pose an important constraint in the design of plasma facing components and the selection of first wall materials. Three years of deuterium-tritium operation in TFTR has provided a special opportunity to address the issues of tritium retention in a tokamak environment. More than 18 kCi of tritium has been injected into the torus

  13. Teacher Retention: Problems and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaurin, Sidney E.; Smith, Willis; Smillie, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    There is a teacher retention crisis in the United States. The purpose of this paper is to answer the following questions: What contributes to teachers leaving the field? How has "No Child Left Behind" affected teacher retention? What can be done to retain good teachers? What impact do school administrators have on teacher retention? After…

  14. Measuring safety climate: identifying the common features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Flin; K. Mearns; P. O'Connor; R. Bryden

    2000-01-01

    In UK industry, particularly in the energy sector, there has been a movement away from ‘lagging’ measures of safety based on retrospective data, such as lost time accidents and incidents, towards ‘leading’ or predictive assessments of the safety climate of the organisation or worksite. A number of different instruments have been developed by industrial psychologists for this purpose, resulting in

  15. Identifying common dynamic features in stock returns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Caiado; Nuno Crato

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes volatility and spectral based methods for the cluster analysis of stock returns. Using the information about both the estimated parameters in the threshold GARCH (or TGARCH) equation and the periodogram of the squared returns, we compute a distance matrix for the stock returns. Clusters are formed by looking to the hierarchical structure tree (or dendrogram) and the

  16. Sediment retention in rangeland riparian buffers.

    PubMed

    Hook, Paul B

    2003-01-01

    Controlling nonpoint-source sediment pollution is a common goal of riparian management, but there is little quantitative information about factors affecting performance of rangeland riparian buffers. This study evaluated the influence of vegetation characteristics, buffer width, slope, and stubble height on sediment retention in a Montana foothills meadow. Three vegetation types (sedge wetland, rush transition, bunchgrass upland) were compared using twenty-six 6- x 2-m plots spanning 2 to 20% slopes. Plots were clipped moderately (10-15 cm stubble) or severely (2-5 cm stubble). Sediment (silt + fine sand) was added to simulated overland runoff 6, 2, or 1 m above the bottom of each plot. Runoff was sampled at 15-s to > 5-min intervals until sediment concentrations approached background levels. Sediment retention was affected strongly by buffer width and moderately by vegetation type and slope, but was not affected by stubble height. Mean sediment retention ranged from 63 to > 99% for different combinations of buffer width and vegetation type, with 94 to 99% retention in 6-m-wide buffers regardless of vegetation type or slope. Results suggest that rangeland riparian buffers should be at least 6 m wide, with dense vegetation, to be effective and reliable. Narrower widths, steep slopes, and sparse vegetation increase risk of sediment delivery to streams. Vegetation characteristics such as biomass, cover, or density are more appropriate than stubble height for judging capacity to remove sediment from overland runoff, though stubble height may indirectly indicate livestock impacts that can affect buffer performance. PMID:12809315

  17. Retention: A Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, E. J.; Strand, D.; Wiggs, M.

    2004-12-01

    Bowie State University, one of six institutions, received a Model Institution for Excellence Award through the National Science Foundation and was funded by the National Aeronautic Space Administration - Goddard Space Flight Center. The primary goals for the Initiative are to increase Science Mathematics Engineering and Technology (SMET)student enrollment, retention and graduation rates and the number of minorities and women entering graduate school and SMET related workforces. Additionally, a satellite operations and control center was established at Bowie State University to provide training for students interested in space science. Thus far, the number of students entering the SMET domain has increase, the retention rate is up to 72-75%, graduation rate is up 80% and approximately 70 certifications have been awarded to students as Command Controllers, Spacecraft Analysts or Mission Planners as a result of their training in the Bowie State Satellite Operations and Control Center (BSOCC). The partnership between NASA and Bowie State University has been extremely beneficial to both and has established a model for the retention of science, mathematics, engineering and technology students.

  18. Understanding recruitment and retention in neurological research.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Alyssa; Sherwood, Paula; Hricik, Allison; Bradley, Sarah; Kuo, Jean; Crago, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Leslie A; Given, Barbara A

    2010-02-01

    Cognitive deficits in participants and the abrupt and traumatic way in which many neurological conditions present are two examples of the unique challenges in recruiting and retaining participants with neurological injury for research studies. The purpose of this investigation was to identify obstacles to recruitment and retention in three ongoing research studies. These studies involve persons with neurological disorders across the continuum of care, from those newly diagnosed and with emergent presentation to those with more established chronic neurological conditions. For this analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of the strategies employed to improve participation rates. The first study was a project funded by the National Institutes of Health designed to identify biomarkers of vasospasm in persons (n = 496) with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage who presented to the neurovascular intensive care unit (National Institute of Nursing Research, R01 NR004339). The purpose of the second study was to examine biobehavioral interactions in family caregivers (n = 59) of persons with a primary malignant brain tumor recruited in the community setting. The third project involved recruiting persons (n = 1,019) within an outpatient neurosurgical center to participate in a research registry. To determine differential effectiveness of strategies, consent and attrition rates were calculated at serial points over time in three studies, and recruitment and retention strategies were compared. Sentinel time points in participants' disease trajectories played a key role in determining whether those who were approached to participate gave consent and were retained, particularly in the studies involving persons with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (consent = 85%; retention = 89%) and persons with primary malignant brain tumors and their caregivers (consent = 68%; retention = 83%). In addition, several specific recruiter and interviewer training techniques were associated with higher recruitment and retention. Targeted strategies to improve participation rates are vital for neuroscience nurses involved in any aspect of clinical research, including those who conduct studies, assist with data collection, and recruit potential participants. PMID:20187349

  19. Reactive barriers for 137Cs retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumhansl, James L.; Brady, Patrick V.; Anderson, Howard L.

    2001-02-01

    137Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of 137Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half-life of 137Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if 137Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with 135Cs (half-life 2.3×10 6 years) in addition to 137Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention, Cs desorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO 3 and LiCl washes. Washed clays were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F-Ill were similar; 0.017% to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12% to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were Cs-doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt (˜0.33 wt.% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artifical reactive barriers.

  20. Recruitment, retention, and blinding in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Page, Stephen J; Persch, Andrew C

    2013-01-01

    The recruitment and retention of participants and the blinding of participants, health care providers, and data collectors present challenges for clinical trial investigators. This article reviews challenges and alternative strategies associated with these three important clinical trial activities. Common recruiting pitfalls, including low sample size, unfriendly study designs, suboptimal testing locations, and untimely recruitment are discussed together with strategies for overcoming these barriers. The use of active controls, technology-supported visit reminders, and up-front scheduling is recommended to prevent attrition and maximize retention of participants. Blinding is conceptualized as the process of concealing research design elements from key players in the research process. Strategies for blinding participants, health care providers, and data collectors are suggested. PMID:23433269

  1. Retention capacity of correlated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schrenk, K J; Araújo, N A M; Ziff, R M; Herrmann, H J

    2014-06-01

    We extend the water retention model [C. L. Knecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045703 (2012)] to correlated random surfaces. We find that the retention capacity of discrete random landscapes is strongly affected by spatial correlations among the heights. This phenomenon is related to the emergence of power-law scaling in the lake volume distribution. We also solve the uncorrelated case exactly for a small lattice and present bounds on the retention of uncorrelated landscapes. PMID:25019758

  2. [Acute urinary retention in children].

    PubMed

    Marans, Rachel; Mandel, Asaf; Gielchinsky, Ilan; Tenenbaum, Ariel

    2012-06-01

    Acute urinary retention is defined as failure to urinate in spite of an adequate amount of urine in the bladder. Acute urinary retention in children is rare, and may cause pain and distress. Diagnosis and urgent treatment are essential. Identification and treatment of underlying medical conditions such as constipation, neurological impairment or adverse reactions to medications may prevent recurrence of retention. We describe six cases of children who were hospitalized with acute urinary retention and review the medical literature on the subject. PMID:22991857

  3. [Retention or adhesion?].

    PubMed

    Sharon, E; Lipovezky-Adler, M; Haramaty, O; Smidt, A

    2013-04-01

    One of the reasons for immediate or late failure of restorations is the detachment of the restoration from the tooth. Retention for the restoration could be achieved from axial walls (macromechanical retention) or from adhesion of the restoration to the remaining tooth structure. Adhesion relies on bonding of resin cement to enamel or dentin on one side and to the restorative material on the other side. Bonding to enamel is predictable. Good bonding to dentin is more of a challenge especially with indirect restorations. In those cases the restoration is delivered usually a few days after the tooth was prepared during this time the exposed dentin might be contaminated or damaged. The question is whether you can rely on adhesion when cementing indirect restorations? In order to achieve the maximal bonding strength to dentin, the hybrid layer on the dentin must be built immediately after tooth preparation. This procedure is called Immediate Dentin Sealing. In vitro and clinical studies have shown better performance of restorations cemented following the IDS procedure. The article discusses the rational and the protocol of this procedure. A clinical case is presented as an example for the possibilities following this philosophy. PMID:24020243

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study among Four Horse Breeds Identifies a Common Haplotype Associated with In Vitro CD3+ T Cell Susceptibility/Resistance to Equine Arteritis Virus Infection ?

    PubMed Central

    Go, Yun Young; Bailey, Ernest; Cook, Deborah G.; Coleman, Stephen J.; MacLeod, James N.; Chen, Kuey-Chu; Timoney, Peter J.; Balasuriya, Udeni B. R.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that horses could be divided into susceptible and resistant groups based on an in vitro assay using dual-color flow cytometric analysis of CD3+ T cells infected with equine arteritis virus (EAV). Here, we demonstrate that the differences in in vitro susceptibility of equine CD3+ T lymphocytes to EAV infection have a genetic basis. To investigate the possible hereditary basis for this trait, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to compare susceptible and resistant phenotypes. Testing of 267 DNA samples from four horse breeds that had a susceptible or a resistant CD3+ T lymphocyte phenotype using both Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip and Sequenom's MassARRAY system identified a common, genetically dominant haplotype associated with the susceptible phenotype in a region of equine chromosome 11 (ECA11), positions 49572804 to 49643932. The presence of a common haplotype indicates that the trait occurred in a common ancestor of all four breeds, suggesting that it may be segregated among other modern horse breeds. Biological pathway analysis revealed several cellular genes within this region of ECA11 encoding proteins associated with virus attachment and entry, cytoskeletal organization, and NF-?B pathways that may be associated with the trait responsible for the in vitro susceptibility/resistance of CD3+ T lymphocytes to EAV infection. The data presented in this study demonstrated a strong association of genetic markers with the trait, representing de facto proof that the trait is under genetic control. To our knowledge, this is the first GWAS of an equine infectious disease and the first GWAS of equine viral arteritis. PMID:21994447

  5. Retention in Grade: Lethal Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Charles

    Despite a growing trend toward retention in grade of low-achieving students and apparent public support for the practice, many educators and psychologists disagree with the perception that flunking is an appropriate response to poor academic performance. Research reported in the past two decades indicates that grade-level retention produces little…

  6. Teacher Retention in Catholic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przygocki, Walter F.

    2004-01-01

    Teacher attrition is a concern in all educational sectors but is of special importance to Catholic schools because of the salary disparity between public and Catholic schools. This review examines the research on teacher retention in general with a view to understanding how this knowledge might inform teacher recruitment and retention strategies…

  7. Flavor Retention During Drying1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary A. Reineccius; S. T. Coulter

    1969-01-01

    The influence of spray dryer operating conditions (drying temperatures, extract solids content, nozzle orifice size, and in- feed spray pressure) and of variations in the proportions of individual skin~- milk components in the extract to be dried, upon flavor retention during drying, was investigated. The influence of those variables upon flavor retention was evalu- ated by adding either acetoin, acetone,

  8. Defining and analyzing retention-in-care among pregnant and breastfeeding HIV-infected women: unpacking the data to interpret and improve PMTCT outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Nigel C; Becquet, Renaud; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Phiri, Sam; Hayashi, Chika; Baller, April; Shaffer, Nathan

    2014-11-01

    The prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) "cascade" describes the programmatic steps for pregnant and breastfeeding women that influence HIV transmission rates. To this end, HIV-infected pregnant women and mothers need access to health services and adhere to antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis or lifetime treatment. Within the cascade, the concept of "retention-in-care" is commonly used as a proxy for adherence to ARV interventions and, even, viral suppression. Yet surprisingly, there is no standard definition of retention-in-care either for the purposes of HIV surveillance or implementation research. Implicit to the concept of retention-in-care is the sense of continuity and receipt of care at relevant time points. In the context of PMTCT, the main challenge for surveillance and implementation research is to estimate effective coverage of ARV interventions over a prolonged period of time. These data are used to inform program management and also to estimate postnatal MTCT rates. Attendance of HIV-infected mothers at clinic at 12-month postpartum is often equated with full retention in PMTCT programs over this period. Yet, measurement approaches that fail to register missed visits, or inconsistent attendance or other missing data in the interval period, fail to capture patterns of attendance and care received by mothers and children and risk introducing systematic errors and bias. More importantly, providing only an aggregated rate of attendance as a proxy for retention-in-care fails to identify specific gaps in health services where interventions to improve retention along the PMTCT cascade are most needed. In this article, we discuss how data on retention-in-care can be understood and analyzed, and what are the implications and opportunities for programs and implementation research. PMID:25310122

  9. Differential gene retention in plastids of common recent origin.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Yoon, Hwan Su; Moustafa, Ahmed; Yang, Eun Chan; Andersen, Robert A; Boo, Sung Min; Nakayama, Takuro; Ishida, Ken-ichiro; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2010-07-01

    The cyanobacterium-derived plastids of algae and plants have supported the diversification of much of extant eukaryotic life. Inferences about early events in plastid evolution must rely on reconstructing events that occurred over a billion years ago. In contrast, the photosynthetic amoeba Paulinella chromatophora provides an exceptional model to study organelle evolution in a prokaryote-eukaryote (primary) endosymbiosis that occurred approximately 60 mya. Here we sequenced the plastid genome (0.977 Mb) from the recently described Paulinella FK01 and compared the sequence with the existing data from the sister taxon Paulinella M0880/a. Alignment of the two plastid genomes shows significant conservation of gene order and only a handful of minor gene rearrangements. Analysis of gene content reveals 66 differential gene losses that appear to be outright gene deletions rather than endosymbiotic gene transfers to the host nuclear genome. Phylogenomic analysis validates the plastid ancestor as a member of the Synechococcus-Prochlorococcus group, and the cyanobacterial provenance of all plastid genes suggests that these organelles were not targets of interphylum gene transfers after endosymbiosis. Inspection of 681 DNA alignments of protein-encoding genes shows that the vast majority have dN/dS ratios <1, providing evidence for purifying selection. Our study demonstrates that plastid genomes in sister taxa are strongly constrained by selection but follow distinct trajectories during the earlier phases of organelle evolution. PMID:20123796

  10. Enhancing Minority Student Retention and Academic Performance: What We Can Learn from Program Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    In this important resource, Dr. Fleming (a noted expert in the field of minority retention) draws on educational evaluations she has developed in the course of her distinguished career. This book analyzes the common factors and the role institutional characteristics play in minority student retention to show what really works in increasing…

  11. Pond age and riparian zone proximity influence anuran occupancy of urban retention ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devynn A. Birx-Raybuck; Steven J. Price; Michael E. Dorcas

    2010-01-01

    Urbanization is widespread throughout the United States and negatively affects many wildlife populations. However, certain\\u000a urban features, such as retention ponds, may provide habitat for some species, such as amphibians. This study examines the\\u000a influence of riparian zone proximity and pond age on retention pond occupancy by anurans. We identified and estimated the\\u000a age of 25 retention ponds near Charlotte,

  12. Innovative techniques to address retention in a behavioral weight-loss trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer H. Goldberg; Michaela Kiernan

    2005-01-01

    Given that retention rates for weight-loss trials have not significantly improved in the past 20 years, identifying effective techniques to en- hance retention is critical. This paper describes a conceptual and practical advance that may have improved retention in a behavioral weight- loss trial—the novel application of motivational interviewing techniques to diffuse ambivalence during interactive group-based orientation ses- sions prior

  13. Maternal stress predicts postpartum weight retention.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-11-01

    Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

  14. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  15. Strategies to improve retention in randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Brueton, Valerie C; Tierney, Jayne; Stenning, Sally; Harding, Seeromanie; Meredith, Sarah; Nazareth, Irwin; Rait, Greta

    2013-01-01

    Background Loss to follow-up from randomised trials can introduce bias and reduce study power, affecting the generalisability, validity and reliability of results. Many strategies are used to reduce loss to follow-up and improve retention but few have been formally evaluated. Objectives To quantify the effect of strategies to improve retention on the proportion of participants retained in randomised trials and to investigate if the effect varied by trial strategy and trial setting. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, DARE, CINAHL, Campbell Collaboration's Social, Psychological, Educational and Criminological Trials Register, and ERIC. We handsearched conference proceedings and publication reference lists for eligible retention trials. We also surveyed all UK Clinical Trials Units to identify further studies. Selection criteria We included eligible retention trials of randomised or quasi-randomised evaluations of strategies to increase retention that were embedded in 'host' randomised trials from all disease areas and healthcare settings. We excluded studies aiming to increase treatment compliance. Data collection and analysis We contacted authors to supplement or confirm data that we had extracted. For retention trials, we recorded data on the method of randomisation, type of strategy evaluated, comparator, primary outcome, planned sample size, numbers randomised and numbers retained. We used risk ratios (RR) to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of strategies to improve retention. We assessed heterogeneity between trials using the Chi2 and I2 statistics. For main trials that hosted retention trials, we extracted data on disease area, intervention, population, healthcare setting, sequence generation and allocation concealment. Main results We identified 38 eligible retention trials. Included trials evaluated six broad types of strategies to improve retention. These were incentives, communication strategies, new questionnaire format, participant case management, behavioural and methodological interventions. For 34 of the included trials, retention was response to postal and electronic questionnaires with or without medical test kits. For four trials, retention was the number of participants remaining in the trial. Included trials were conducted across a spectrum of disease areas, countries, healthcare and community settings. Strategies that improved trial retention were addition of monetary incentives compared with no incentive for return of trial-related postal questionnaires (RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.28, P value < 0.0001), addition of an offer of monetary incentive compared with no offer for return of electronic questionnaires (RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.38, P value < 0.00001) and an offer of a GBP20 voucher compared with GBP10 for return of postal questionnaires and biomedical test kits (RR 1.12; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22, P value < 0.005). The evidence that shorter questionnaires are better than longer questionnaires was unclear (RR 1.04; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.08, P value = 0.07) and the evidence for questionnaires relevant to the disease/condition was also unclear (RR 1.07; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.14). Although each was based on the results of a single trial, recorded delivery of questionnaires seemed to be more effective than telephone reminders (RR 2.08; 95% CI 1.11 to 3.87, P value = 0.02) and a 'package' of postal communication strategies with reminder letters appeared to be better than standard procedures (RR 1.43; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.67, P value < 0.0001). An open trial design also appeared more effective than a blind trial design for return of questionnaires in one fracture prevention trial (RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.63, P value = 0.0003). There was no good evidence that the addition of a non-monetary incentive, an offer of a non-monetary incentive, 'enhanced' letters, letters delivered by priority post, additional reminders, or questionnaire question order either increased or decreased trial questionnaire response/reten

  16. Retention in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C D; Littlewood, S J

    2015-02-16

    Retention is necessary following orthodontic treatment to prevent relapse of the final occlusal outcome. Relapse can occur as a result of forces from the periodontal fibres around the teeth which tend to pull the teeth back towards their pre-treatment positions, and also from deflecting occlusal contacts if the final occlusion is less than ideal. Age changes, in the form of ongoing dentofacial growth, as well as changes in the surrounding soft tissues, can also affect the stability of the orthodontic outcome. It is therefore essential that orthodontists, patients and their general dental practitioners understand the importance of wearing retainers after orthodontic treatment. This article will update the reader on the different types of removable and fixed retainers, including their indications, duration of wear, and how they should be managed in order to minimise any unwanted effects on oral health and orthodontic outcomes. The key roles that the general dental practitioner can play in supporting their patients wearing orthodontic retainers are also emphasised. PMID:25686428

  17. Payload retention device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G., Jr. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A payload retention device for grappling and retaining a payload in docked position on a supporting structure in the cargo bay of a space vehicle is presented. The device comprises a two-fault tolerant electromagnetic grappling system comprising electromagnets for attracting and grappling a grapple strike plate affixed to the payload when in proximity thereto and an electromechanical latching assembly comprising a pair of independent latching subassemblies. Each subassembly comprises a set of latching pawls which are driven into latching and unlatching positions relative to a grappled payload by a pair of gearmotors, each equipped with a ratchet clutch drive mechanism which is two-fault tolerant with respect to latching such that only one gearmotor of the four needs to be operational to effect a latch of the payload but is single fault tolerant with respect to release of a latched payload. Sensors are included for automatically sensing the magnetic grappling of a payload and for automatically de-energizing the gearmotors of the latching subassemblies when a latch condition is achieved.

  18. Grade Retention and School Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann R. McCoy; Arthur J. Reynolds

    1999-01-01

    A follow-up study of the predictors and consequences of grade retention up to age 14 was conducted. This study investigated the effects of retention on school achievement, perceived school competence, and delinquency. The study sample included 1,164 low-income, minority (95% Black, 5% Hispanic) children from the Chicago Longitudinal Study. This was 93% of the original study by Reynolds (1992). Twenty-eight

  19. Turnover: strategies for staff retention.

    PubMed

    SnowAntle, S

    1990-01-01

    This discussion has focused on a number of areas where organizations may find opportunities for more effectively managing employee retention. Given the multitude of causes and consequences, there is no one quick fix. Effective management of employee retention requires assessment of the entire human resources process, that is, recruitment, selection, job design, compensation, supervision, work conditions, etc. Regular and systematic diagnosis of turnover and implementation of multiple strategies and evaluation are needed (Mobley, 1982). PMID:10106673

  20. Effects of hydraulic retention time on anaerobic digestion of domestic wastewater at low loading rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Y. J Tan; K. B. Ramachandran; M. A. Hashim

    The hydraulic retention time has been identified as the key operating parameter that affects the performance of the UASB reactor. For low-strength wastewaters such as the domestic wastewater, it is the limiting design parameter. Hydraulic retention times that are too long or too short would adversely affect the performance of the UASB reactor. The highly fluctuating flow rates of domestic

  1. Incidence of Urinary Retention in Patients with Thoracic Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia (TPCEA) Undergoing Thoracotomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salima S. J. Ladak; Rita Katznelson; Meredith Muscat; Monakshi Sawhney; William Scott Beattie; Gerald O'Leary

    2009-01-01

    Up to 100% of patients treated with epidural analgesia can experience urinary retention, which may be related to dermatomal level of the epidural block, epidural medication, and surgical procedure. This study was designed to identify the incidence of urinary retention in patients who receive thoracic patient-controlled epidural analgesia (TPCEA) after thoracotomy. Forty-nine patients were enrolled and received epidural infusion of

  2. Factors Affecting Student Retention in Online Courses: Overcoming This Critical Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaytan, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what a panel of 15 experts would identify as critical factors affecting student retention in online courses that will serve as implications for educational leaders to guide their student retention strategies, online organizational structures, institutional policies, and online instructional activities. A…

  3. Can retention forestry help conserve biodiversity? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fedrowitz, Katja; Koricheva, Julia; Baker, Susan C; Lindenmayer, David B; Palik, Brian; Rosenvald, Raul; Beese, William; Franklin, Jerry F; Kouki, Jari; Macdonald, Ellen; Messier, Christian; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Gustafsson, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Industrial forestry typically leads to a simplified forest structure and altered species composition. Retention of trees at harvest was introduced about 25 years ago to mitigate negative impacts on biodiversity, mainly from clearcutting, and is now widely practiced in boreal and temperate regions. Despite numerous studies on response of flora and fauna to retention, no comprehensive review has summarized its effects on biodiversity in comparison to clearcuts as well as un-harvested forests. Using a systematic review protocol, we completed a meta-analysis of 78 studies including 944 comparisons of biodiversity between retention cuts and either clearcuts or un-harvested forests, with the main objective of assessing whether retention forestry helps, at least in the short term, to moderate the negative effects of clearcutting on flora and fauna. Retention cuts supported higher richness and a greater abundance of forest species than clearcuts as well as higher richness and abundance of open-habitat species than un-harvested forests. For all species taken together (i.e. forest species, open-habitat species, generalist species and unclassified species), richness was higher in retention cuts than in clearcuts. Retention cuts had negative impacts on some species compared to un-harvested forest, indicating that certain forest-interior species may not survive in retention cuts. Similarly, retention cuts were less suitable for some open-habitat species compared with clearcuts. Positive effects of retention cuts on richness of forest species increased with proportion of retained trees and time since harvest, but there were not enough data to analyse possible threshold effects, that is, levels at which effects on biodiversity diminish. Spatial arrangement of the trees (aggregated vs. dispersed) had no effect on either forest species or open-habitat species, although limited data may have hindered our capacity to identify responses. Results for different comparisons were largely consistent among taxonomic groups for forest and open-habitat species, respectively. Synthesis and applications. Our meta-analysis provides support for wider use of retention forestry since it moderates negative harvesting impacts on biodiversity. Hence, it is a promising approach for integrating biodiversity conservation and production forestry, although identifying optimal solutions between these two goals may need further attention. Nevertheless, retention forestry will not substitute for conservation actions targeting certain highly specialized species associated with forest-interior or open-habitat conditions. Our meta-analysis provides support for wider use of retention forestry since it moderates negative harvesting impacts on biodiversity. Hence, it is a promising approach for integrating biodiversity conservation and production forestry, although identifying optimal solutions between these two goals may need further attention. Nevertheless, retention forestry will not substitute for conservation actions targeting certain highly specialized species associated with forest-interior or open-habitat conditions. PMID:25552747

  4. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  5. Promoting Hispanic Student Retention in Two Texas Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Karissa R.; Scott, Joyce A.

    2014-01-01

    Texas' Hispanic population has increased dramatically since 2000 as have Hispanic enrollments in higher education (+118%). Despite having the largest spike in college enrollment, Hispanic students' completion rates remain the lowest among all ethnic groups. To identify institutional practices that might encourage Hispanic student retention,…

  6. An Examination of Secondary Business Teachers' Retention Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.

    A study investigated from a national perspective factors that influence the attrition and retention of newly hired secondary business teachers in the public sector. It also identified factors important to determine a business teacher's interest in continuing or not continuing in the teaching profession. The survey developed for the study consisted…

  7. Social Promotion or Retention? Factors That Influence Committee Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groom, Ileetha Brooks

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented here is to identify which factors school level practitioners consider in deciding whether to retain or promote a student and to ascertain their knowledge of and training in retention research. This research illuminates the process of determining which students are promoted and which are retained, and the…

  8. Factors That Influence Transfer Student Academic Performance and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhai, Lijuan; Newcomb, L. H.

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to the academic performance and retention of students who transferred to a four-year university. The population for this study consisted of 232 transfer students. Data were collected via questionnaire surveys and from existing records. Descriptive and correlational statistics were used to…

  9. College Student Retention: A Self-Determination Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetreault, Jules

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to identify the relationship between a student's level of self-determination towards aspiring to receive a college degree and student retention from the first to second year. Deci & Ryan's (2000) self-determination theory served as the conceptual framework for this study. The fundamental assumption of…

  10. Etiology and management of urinary retention in women

    PubMed Central

    Mevcha, Amit; Drake, Marcus J.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary retention (UR) can be defined as inability to achieve complete bladder emptying by voluntary micturition, and categorized as acute UR, chronic UR or incomplete bladder emptying. UR is common in elderly men but symptomatic UR is unusual in women. The epidemiology of female UR is not well documented. There are numerous causes now recognized in women, broadly categorized as infective, pharmacological, neurological, anatomical, myopathic and functional; labeling symptoms as having a “psychogenic basis” should be avoided. Detrusor failure is often an underlying factor that complicates interpretation. Initial management includes bladder drainage (intermittent or indwelling catheterization) if the woman is symptomatic or at risk of complications, and correcting likely causes. Investigations should be focused on identifying the underlying etiology and any reversible factor. A detailed history, general and pelvic examination are needed; urine dipstick analysis, routine microscopy and culture, and pelvic and renal ultrasound are suitable baseline investigations. Urodynamic tests are required in specific situations. Urethral dilatation has a limited role, but it should be considered if there is urethral stenosis. Definitive management requires correction of cause where possible and symptom management where no correctable cause is detected. Follow-up is needed for monitoring response to treatment, detection of complications and symptom control. Fowler’s syndrome is a specific group diagnosed on urethral sphincter electromyogram, representing a very challenging clinical scenario. PMID:20877602

  11. Common Chemistry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

    A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

  12. A successful Minority Retention Project.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Janelle D

    2005-12-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented in the nursing profession. The high attrition rate of minority students from nursing schools contributes to this problem. Academic leaders are calling for change in nursing education and asking educators to work diligently to retain minority students. This article describes a Minority Retention Project that included interventions designed to enhance the integration of minority students into a supportive learning environment, assist them in using the available resources, and help them feel connected and supported by their peers and faculty. At the end of the first year of the project, the nursing school experienced 100% retention of minority nursing students. Increasing the retention and graduation of minority nursing students supports the continued effort to provide culturally competent health care. PMID:16402740

  13. The HIV Care Continuum: Changes over Time in Retention in Care and Viral Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Yehia, Baligh R.; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J.; Fleishman, John A.; Berry, Stephen A.; Agwu, Allison L.; Metlay, Joshua P.; Moore, Richard D.; Christopher Mathews, W.; Nijhawan, Ank; Rutstein, Richard; Gaur, Aditya H.; Gebo, Kelly A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The HIV care continuum (diagnosis, linkage to care, retention in care, receipt of antiretroviral therapy (ART), viral suppression) has been used to identify opportunities for improving the delivery of HIV care. Continuum steps are typically calculated in a conditional manner, with the number of persons completing the prior step serving as the base population for the next step. This approach may underestimate the prevalence of viral suppression by excluding patients who are suppressed but do not meet standard definitions of retention in care. Understanding how retention in care and viral suppression interact and change over time may improve our ability to intervene on these steps in the continuum. Methods We followed 17,140 patients at 11 U.S. HIV clinics between 2010-2012. For each calendar year, patients were classified into one of five categories: (1) retained/suppressed, (2) retained/not-suppressed, (3) not-retained/suppressed, (4) not-retained/not-suppressed, and (5) lost to follow-up (for calendar years 2011 and 2012 only). Retained individuals were those completing ?2 HIV medical visits separated by ?90 days in the year. Persons not retained completed ?1 HIV medical visit during the year, but did not meet the retention definition. Persons lost to follow-up had no HIV medical visits in the year. HIV viral suppression was defined as HIV-1 RNA ?200 copies/mL at the last measure in the year. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the probability of patients’ transitioning between retention/suppression categories from 2010 to 2011 and 2010 to 2012, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, HIV risk factor, insurance status, CD4 count, and use of ART. Results Overall, 65.8% of patients were retained/suppressed, 17.4% retained/not-suppressed, 10.0% not-retained/suppressed, and 6.8% not-retained/not-suppressed in 2010. 59.5% of patients maintained the same status in 2011 (kappa=0.458) and 53.3% maintained the same status in 2012 (kappa=0.437). Conclusions Not counting patients not-retained/suppressed as virally suppressed, as is commonly done in the HIV care continuum, underestimated the proportion suppressed by 13%. Applying the care continuum in a longitudinal manner will enhance its utility. PMID:26086089

  14. Practical solutions for staff recruitment & retention.

    PubMed

    Vander Hoek, N

    2001-01-01

    There are three essential topics for radiology managers to consider in light of persistent staffing shortages: support of the profession and educational programs, perks as recruitment tools and incentives as retention tools. Some activities that can help support departments and educational programs for radiologic technologists are job shadowing, training for volunteer services, advanced placement for school applicants, sponsoring an educational program or clinical training site, creating a positive work environment and supporting outreach projects geared to local high schools. Traditional perks used in recruitment efforts have included relocation assistance, travel and lodging expenses during the interview process, loan repayment, scholarships and sign-on bonuses. Some common incentives for retaining employees are tuition reimbursement, cross training, availability of educational resources, continuing education opportunities, professional development and incremental increases in salary. There are many other tools that can be used, such as career ladders, creating an environment conducive to teamwork or a more personal atmosphere and showcasing talents of various staff members. There is much overlap among these suggestions in support of the profession and educational programs, recruitment and retention of qualified staff radiologic technologists. Radiology managers can and should be creative in developing different programs to build loyalty and commitment to a radiology department. PMID:11499081

  15. A multicentre audit of GDPs knowledge of orthodontic retention.

    PubMed

    Kotecha, S; Gale, S; Khamashta-Ledezma, L; Scott, J; Seedat, M; Storey, M; Ulhaq, A; Scholey, J

    2015-06-12

    Objective To determine GDP knowledge and willingness to supervise orthodontic retention and provide replacements retainers.Design An audit sampling GDPs from six centres within England (Bradford, Cambridge, Burton-Upon-Trent, Croyden, Norwich and Plymouth). A gold standard of 100% of GDPs should be aware of commonly used retainers and be able to provide replacements was selected.Method Overall, 1,053 postal questionnaires were sent to local GDPs. The questions covered knowledge and provision of various retainers, practitioner background and education. GDP satisfaction with the information provided by the orthodontist at discharge was also explored.Results Five hundred and two questionnaires were received (response rate of 48%). The majority of GDPs (64%) were trained in the UK. Awareness of vacuum-formed, Hawley and fixed retainers was generally high. A significantly smaller number of GDPs were willing to prescribe, fit or review the retainers. The most common reasons for reluctance in provision were insufficient knowledge, financial and time constraints. Over two thirds (72%) of GDPs would like further training on retention.Conclusion This audit highlights a need for increased training at undergraduate and postgraduate levels to update practitioners about contemporary retention practice. Better communication is required from orthodontists to GDPs to ensure that on discharge the dentist is aware of the retainer type and retention regime. PMID:26068162

  16. Successful recruitment and retention of Latino study participants.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Mary Clare; Orpinas, Pamela; Davis, Marsha

    2012-11-01

    A high prevalence of risk behaviors among the rapidly growing Latino youth population in the United States adds urgency to the need to identify effective recruitment and retention strategies for research studies and prevention programs. The objectives of this study are to (a) describe the culturally responsive recruitment and retention strategies used in the Familias Fuertes-Georgia program and (b) discuss the evaluation of the relative importance of these strategies. Familias Fuertes (i.e., Strong Families) is a community-based, primary prevention program for families in Latin America with children between the ages of 10 and 14 years. The main program goal is to reduce high-risk behaviors among adolescents by strengthening family relationships and promoting self-regulation and positive conflict resolution strategies. A pilot feasibility study was conducted to determine the appropriateness of the Familias Fuertes program for Latino families living in the United States. To promote participation, 15 culturally responsive recruitment and retention strategies were developed using a three-step process. These strategies contributed to the successful recruitment and retention of Familias Fuertes-Georgia study participants. Participating parents, the community liaison, and the community leader evaluated the relative importance of the 15 culturally responsive recruitment and retention strategies. Three of the strategies emerged as more important than others: face-to-face recruitment by the community liaison; bilingual, bicultural, and experienced facilitators; and free on-site child care. Further research is needed to develop strategies promoting the participation of male caregivers/fathers. PMID:21540195

  17. TA705 Data Retention Chassis operating manual

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.D.

    1989-10-01

    The Data Retention Chassis (DRC) is a data acquisition component based on the Motorola 68000 microprocessor. The purpose of the DRC is to download the correct set-up parameters into sixteen Tektronix 7912 digitizers, to verify that the digitizers retain their settings, and (once the digitizers have triggered) to load that data into the DRC battery back-up CMOS memory. The DRC also has a circuit built into it called the COMMAND LINK. With the help of the TA698 Alternate Common Equipment (ACE), the user employs this link to communicate interactively with the digitizers and the DRC. Another circuit built into the DRC is the data stream multiplexer (DSM) for high-speed data transfers.

  18. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  19. Retention-Oriented Curricular Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanovic, Ivana; Eppes, Tom A.; Girouard, Janice; Townsend, Lee

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a retention-oriented approach to the educational value stream within the STEM undergraduate area. Faced with several strategic challenges and opportunities, a Flex Advantage Plan was developed to enhance the undergraduate engineering technology programs and better utilize the curricular flexibilities inherent in the current…

  20. JCC Recruitment, Retention, Attrition Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Ronald J.

    In an effort to reduce the class attrition rate of 40% at Jefferson Community College (JCC), and to investigate the entire process of recruitment, retention, and attrition (RRA), a series of four faculty workshops were held. The plan was to look at the RRA process from the student's point of view in terms of four phases: (1) the pre-enrollment…

  1. Educational Advising for Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Rita, Emilio

    Drawing from the literature and research on educational advising and student retention, this handbook provides practical guidelines on advising students, based on five propositions. The propositions are that: (1) educational advisement should be designed to provide accurate, consistent, accessible information for students concerning their progress…

  2. Award-Winning Approaches to Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Ben

    2003-01-01

    Describes retention programs for at-risk freshmen that have been recognized as successful in a study by the consulting firm Noel-Levitz. Provides details about the retention efforts at 10 colleges and universities. (SLD)

  3. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were swollen and ... at one time. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid retention) Weigh yourself. l Weigh yourself at the ...

  4. Pharmaceutical Retention Mechanisms by Nanofiltration Membranes 

    E-print Network

    Nghiem, Long D.; Schäfer, Andrea; Elimelech, Menachem

    2005-01-01

    by steric (size) exclusion, whereas both electrostatic repulsion and steric exclusion govern the retention of ionizable pharmaceuticals by a loose NF membrane. In the latter case, speciation of pharmaceuticals may lead to a dramatic change in retention as a...

  5. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.; Zucker, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Over 35 years of retention theory and literature have acknowledged the importance of institutional and student profiles in accounting for cross-sectional differences in retention and completion rates between types of colleges and universities. The first "P" within a 4 Ps framework of student retention--"profile"--recognizes that an institution's…

  6. 2014 Action Plan for Retention and

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Andrew

    best practices leading to incremental improvement of retention rates, graduation rates, and student2014 Action Plan for Retention and Graduation #12;1 Background Provost Jeffrey Hecker assembled the Advisory Group on Retention and Graduation in fall 2013 and charged it with collecting data and evaluating

  7. Knowledge retention in knowledge management system: Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akbar Dehghani Ghahfarokhi; Mohamad Shanudin Zakaria

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge retention is a topic that comes up in many discussions of knowledge management. The primary concern is how to tap the brains of employees who are retiring, moving on to new jobs or otherwise leaving the company. Of course, there is no one way to create good knowledge retention. This necessitates different approaches for knowledge sharing or knowledge retention.

  8. A RETENTION INDEX SCHEME FOR USE WITH SULFUR SPECIFIC DETECTORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retention indices are very important for compound identification when using gas chromatography. Retention indices are important because they remain static under different conditions and instruments while retention times vary dramatically. Generally, a retention index is generated using a series of...

  9. Station Identifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Stepan

    1968-01-01

    This paper describes an end office tributary identifier which sends to a toll center the calling subscriber's directory number. It is arranged to interface with the Bell System's centralized automatic message accounting (CAMA) centers. The electronic identifier operates on either a terminal per line, a terminal per station, or mixed basis. In operating, it feeds an ac signal on the

  10. Common Cold

    MedlinePLUS

    ... en español] National Library of Medicine, Medline Plus ? Common Cold Skip Content Marketing Share this: JavaScript is disabled in your browser. To view this content, please enable JavaScript and refresh the page. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. ...

  11. Common Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

  12. Common Chuckwalla

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

  13. Tag Retention of T-Bar Anchor Tags and Passive Integrated Transponder Tags in Shovelnose Sturgeon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin J. Hamel; Jeremy J. Hammen; Mark A. Pegg

    2012-01-01

    Capture–recapture methods are commonly used to estimate population parameters when the necessary assumptions are met. One of the broadest assumptions of capture–recapture models is that tags are not lost. Therefore, one must understand tag retention to be able to adjust estimates if tag loss occurs. Our objectives were to (1) determine retention rates of T-bar anchor tags and passive integrated

  14. In situ detection of hydrogen retention in TEXTOR by laser induced desorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweer, B.; Irrek, F.; Zlobinski, M.; Huber, A.; Sergienko, G.; Brezinsek, S.; Philipps, V.; Samm, U.

    2009-06-01

    Long term tritium retention is one of the most critical issues for ITER and future fusion devices. While a global analysis of the T retention can be made by T accountancy in the activated phase of ITER, fuel retention and control must be already addressed in the non- activated phase, to identify the mechanism, location and amount of retention, its dependence on plasma and wall conditions and to qualify T retention mitigation and control techniques. For this purpose a new diagnostic, laser induced desorption spectroscopy of retained fuel has been developed and applied in TEXTOR. Hydrogen isotopes are desorbed from re-deposited layers on graphite plates by rapid heating with laser radiation. The released particles have been quantified in situ by spectroscopic measurements of hydrogen lines in a tokamak plasma. The results were validated by ex situ analysis of the hydrogen content of deposited a-C:H layers.

  15. Dispersion in retentive pillar array columns.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaohong; Wang, Qiuwang; Bau, Haim H

    2010-02-19

    The method of volume averaging is applied to estimate the Taylor-Aris dispersion tensor of solute advected in columns consisting of ordered pillar arrays with wall retention of the type used in chromatographic separation. The appropriate closure equations are derived and solved in a unit cell with periodic boundary conditions to obtain the dispersion tensor (or the reduced plate height) as a function of the Peclet number (reduced velocity); pillar pattern, shape and size; partition coefficient; and resistance to mass transfer. The contributions of the velocity profile, the wall adsorption, and the mass transfer resistance to the dispersion tensor are identified and delineated. The model is verified by comparing its predictions and obtaining favorable agreement with results of direct numerical simulations and with experimental data for columns containing ordered pillars. The model is then used to study the effect of pillars' shape and pattern on the longitudinal dispersion coefficient (plate height). PMID:20079500

  16. Analysis of common bean expressed sequence tags identifies sulfur metabolic pathways active in seed and sulfur-rich proteins highly expressed in the absence of phaseolin and major lectins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuqiang Yin; Agnieszka Pajak; Ralph Chapman; Andrew Sharpe; Shangzhi Huang; Frédéric Marsolais

    2011-01-01

    Background  A deficiency in phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin is associated with a near doubling of sulfur amino acid content in genetically\\u000a related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), particularly cysteine, elevated by 70%, and methionine, elevated by 10%. This mostly takes place at the expense of an abundant\\u000a non-protein amino acid, S-methyl-cysteine. The deficiency in phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin is mainly compensated by

  17. Gas chromatographic retention of 180 polybrominated diphenyl ethers and prediction of relative retention under various operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hua; Yang, Ruiqiang; Li, An; Christensen, Erik R; Rockne, Karl J

    2010-04-23

    The gas chromatographic (GC) retention times of 180 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were obtained under different operational conditions on two types of commonly used capillary columns, Restek Rtx-1614 and J&W DB-5MS, of different dimensions. The relative retention times (RRTs) for PBDEs were calculated by normalizing the retention times of individual congeners to the sum of those of BDEs 47 and 183. In clear contrast to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the elution of PBDEs has few cross-homolog overlaps, and this observation is discussed in terms of molecular conformation with regard to co-planarity. Within a homolog, ortho substitution in PBDEs tends to decrease GC retention, and such an effect is stronger for higher homologs. With the RRT database established in this work, a simple approach is evaluated for the identification of all mono to hepta PBDEs from the RRTs of 39 congeners under various GC conditions to facilitate the identification of unknown PBDE peaks for which chemical standards are not available. PMID:20334866

  18. Factors affecting the retention of first-year female science and engineering students at the University of Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Juliet Webb

    Alarming to many academics is that while the numbers of female students (at the University of Michigan in particular) in SEM (Science, Engineering, and Mathematics) departments have shown increases in enrollment over the past decades, the number of female professionals in the field has decreased. The purpose of the study was to determine the environmental perceptions of female SEM students in the Women in Science and Engineering (WISE) Program at the University of Michigan. The WISE-RP (Residence Program) is an existing living and learning education program at the university that was designed to facilitate the successful retention and graduation of undergraduate female SEM students in the capacity that the admissions statistics should logically imply. The objectives of the study included identification of the perceptions of female students that contribute to, and foster retention of students participating in the WISE-RP program. The knowledge obtained from this evaluation will guide the University of Michigan in formulating specific interventions and retention approaches, both in and out of the classroom. This was achieved by identifying (among other things) commonality of experiences, and female student's perceptions of acceptance, integration and interactivity. The data used in this secondary analysis was collected over a 2 year period (1999--2001). The primary instrument used for data collection was a structured interview protocol utilizing focus groups. The population and samples studied were comprised of: a research project consisting of 36 focus groups from WISE-RP, University Research Opportunity Program, and the University Research Opportunity in Residence Programs; the sample size of the initial project was 180 first year SEM male and female students. The research project consisted of working with a senior research team at the University of Michigan to develop a structured interview instrument, pilot the instrument, and select focus groups. Content analysis was conducted on the open-ended focus group questions. Three themes emerged from the data set: (a) general contributing factors to retention, (b) support networks and programmatic features that contributed to retention, (c) individual/gender specific challenges that students faced. It found that the initial mission of the program has been accomplished, as evidenced by the findings of this study. The University is graduating and retaining female SEM students at a higher rate than at the program's inception. The challenges for the University at this point include: increasing numbers of female SEM faculty, enhancing and focusing the living learning community mission of the program, integrating student affairs components to the program features on an administrative level, committing to longitudinal analysis and assessment of individual incoming students toward identifying strengths and weaknesses, and finally---committing increased resources to these objectives.

  19. Analyzing Commonality In A System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacheco, Alfred; Pool, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    Cost decreased by use of fewer types of parts. System Commonality Analysis Tool (SCAT) computer program designed to aid managers and engineers in identifying common, potentially common, and unique components of system. Incorporates three major functions: program for creation and maintenance of data base, analysis of commonality, and such system utilities as host-operating-system commands and loading and unloading of data base. Produces reports tabulating maintenance, initial configurations, and expected total costs. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  20. METHODS TO IDENTIFY YEAST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeasts are commonly identified from either phenotype or, more recently, from diagnostic gene sequences. Methods based on phenotype include fermentation reactions on a select set of sugars and growth responses on various carbon and nitrogen sources or on other diagnostic compounds. Isolates are fur...

  1. Developing a Hybrid Model to Predict Student First Year Retention in STEM Disciplines Using Machine Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhasawneh, Ruba; Hargraves, Rosalyn Hobson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a hybrid framework to model first year student retention for underrepresented minority (URM) students comprising African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans. Identifying inputs that best contribute to student retention provides significant information for institutions to learn about…

  2. Workforce Issues--Rural Illinois Hospital Chief Executive Officers' Perceptions of Provider Shortages and Issues in Rural Recruitment and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Michael; Peters, Karen; MacDowell, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Background: It is important to assess rural health professions workforce needs and identify variables in recruitment and retention of rural health professionals. Purpose: This study examined the perspectives of rural hospital chief executive officers (CEOs) regarding workforce needs and their views of factors in the recruitment and retention

  3. Who Participates? Longitudinal Retention in the MIDUS National Study of Health and Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Radler, Barry T.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This article uses data from MIDUS (Midlife in the United States), a national study of Americans (N = 7,108), to investigate factors that predict longitudinal retention. With its extensive age range (25–75 at Time 1) and long-term design (9- to 10-year survey interval), MIDUS is useful for investigating common sociodemographic and health predictors of continuing participation. Method The authors conducted logistic regression analyses of baseline sociodemographic and health variables predicting retention. Select interaction terms examined the interplay between targeted variables. Results Consistent with prior research, higher retention rates were found among Whites, females, and married individuals as well as those with better health and more education. Interaction analyses further clarified that (a) health status better predicted retention among older compared to younger respondents and among women compared to men, (b) marital status better predicted retention among Whites compared to non-Whites and among women compared to men, and (c) economic status better predicted retention among those with poorer functional health status. Discussion The authors’ analyses clarify that longitudinal retention varied depending on respondents’ sociodemographic characteristics and their health status. The unique contribution of this article is that factors predicting nonparticipation can be offset by, or compensated for, other factors. PMID:20103686

  4. Wildfire impacts on soil-water retention in the Colorado Front Range, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, Brian A.

    2012-12-01

    This work examined the plot-scale differences in soil-water retention caused by wildfire in the area of the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in the Colorado Front Range, United States. We measured soil-water retention curves on intact cores and repacked samples, soil particle-size distributions, and organic matter content. Estimates were also made of plant-available water based on the soil-water retention curves. Parameters for use in soil-hydraulic property models were estimated; these parameters can be used in unsaturated flow modeling for comparing burned and unburned watersheds. The primary driver for measured differences in soil-water retention in burned and unburned soils was organic matter content and not soil-particle size distribution. The tendency for unburned south-facing soils to have greater organic matter content than unburned north-facing soils in this field area may explain why unburned south-facing soils had greater soil-water retention than unburned north-facing soils. Our results suggest that high-severity wildfire can "homogenize" soil-water retention across the landscape by erasing soil-water retention differences resulting from organic matter content, which for this site may be affected by slope aspect. This homogenization could have important implications for ecohydrology and plant succession/recovery in burned areas, which could be a factor in dictating the window of vulnerability of the landscape to flash floods and erosion that are a common consequence of wildfire.

  5. Identifying Erosion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COSI

    2009-01-01

    In this environmental science activity (page 3 of the PDF), leaners will identify and explain the causes of erosion. They will observe the effects of erosion on the surrounding area and further explore examples of erosion online. An extension activity allows learners to make a hands-on model of soil erosion. Though this was created as a pre-visit activity for a workshop about water flow and erosion, it makes a great stand-alone activity as well!

  6. Identify Symmetry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Neubert

    2011-03-03

    This unit will teach you how to identify symmetry in everyday objects and mathematical shapes in lines and rotational symmetry. What is line symmetry? Click on the link to find out: Line Symmetry Here is a line activity to see if you understand it: Line Symmetry Class Zone See if you understand the concepts by doing the following quiz: Line Symmetry Work Now for rotational symmetry: Rotational Symmetry See if you understand rotational symmetry by taking this quiz: Rotational Symmetry Work ...

  7. iMatch: a retention index tool for analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Fang, Aiqin; Wang, Bing; Kim, Seong Ho; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Zhou, Zhanxiang; McClain, Craig; Zhang, Xiang

    2011-09-16

    A method was developed to employ National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 2008 retention index database information for molecular retention matching via constructing a set of empirical distribution functions (DFs) of the absolute retention index deviation to its mean value. The effects of different experimental parameters on the molecules' retention indices were first assessed. The column class, the column type, and the data type have significant effects on the retention index values acquired on capillary columns. However, the normal alkane retention index (I(norm)) with the ramp condition is similar to the linear retention index (I(T)), while the I(norm) with the isothermal condition is similar to the Kováts retention index (I). As for the I(norm) with the complex condition, these data should be treated as an additional group, because the mean I(norm) value of the polar column is significantly different from the I(T). Based on this analysis, nine DFs were generated from the grouped retention index data. The DF information was further implemented into a software program called iMatch. The performance of iMatch was evaluated using experimental data of a mixture of standards and metabolite extract of rat plasma with spiked-in standards. About 19% of the molecules identified by ChromaTOF were filtered out by iMatch from the identification list of electron ionization (EI) mass spectral matching, while all of the spiked-in standards were preserved. The analysis results demonstrate that using the retention index values, via constructing a set of DFs, can improve the spectral matching-based identifications by reducing a significant portion of false-positives. PMID:21813131

  8. Common cold

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Each year, children suffer up to 5 colds and adults have two to three infections, leading to time off school or work, and considerable discomfort. Most symptoms resolve within 1 week, but coughs often persist for longer. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for common cold? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 21 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants for short-term and for long-term relief, decongestants plus antihistamines, echinacea, steam inhalation, vitamin C, and zinc (intranasal gel or lozenges). PMID:21406124

  9. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  10. Adult Student Retention: A Practical Approach to Retention Improvement through Learning Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Adult student retention is an issue of growing concern for many institutions. It differs from traditional retention much like traditional students differ from adult students. As the majority of student body growth comes from adult students, adult student retention management will become critical to the majority of colleges and universities. To…

  11. Identifying Species

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael DiSpezio

    This two part activity will allow students to investigate biological diversity in the area of their school. They will first prepare a taxonomic key to distinguish between the four insects or spiders that they have selected. All of the keys are combined and students then perform a transect study of a neighborhood field or school playing ground. Finally as a class students will compile a list of the animals and plants that are found within a mile of their school. They may need to use field guides, local resources, taxonomic keys, and species lists to help identify these organisms. Once they have compiled their list they will organize the species into the taxonomic groups they have studied.

  12. Factors Influencing the Retention of Secondary Family and Consumer Sciences Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dainty, Julie D.; Sandford, Brian A.; Su, Sho-Hsien; Belcher, Gregory G.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of teacher retention on quality education has inspired a great deal of research. Although many factors have been identified as contributors, few have been specific to the career and technical education (CTE) area and the diversity of CTE programs demands a more specific approach. The purpose of this study was to identify specific…

  13. New Directions in Education Research: Using Data Mining Techniques to Explore Predictors of Grade Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley-Winstead, Deanna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use classification trees and logistic regression to identify subgroups of students more likely to be retained. The National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) was used to identify the sociodemographic, family background and school related factors associated with grade retention. The sample size for…

  14. Engagement and Retention in Outpatient Alcoholism Treatment for Women

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Fiona S.; Morgan, Thomas J.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; McCrady, Barbara S.; Cook, Sharon M.; Jensen, Noelle K.; Kelly, Shalonda

    2011-01-01

    Reviews of the dropout literature note significant attrition from addiction treatment. However, consistent predictors have not been identified and few studies have examined factors related to retention and engagement for women in gender-specific treatment. The current study consisted of 102 women and their partners randomized to individual or couples outpatient alcoholism treatment. Women attended more treatment sessions if they were assigned to individual treatment, older, had fewer symptoms of alcohol dependence, had more satisfying marital relationships, had spouses who drank, and had matched preference for treatment condition. Women were more engaged in treatment (i.e., completed more assigned homework) if they had fewer children at home, fewer alcohol dependence symptoms, later age of onset of alcohol diagnosis, more satisfying marital relationships, and spouses who accepted or encouraged their drinking. Results highlight important associations of treatment and relationship variables with treatment retention and engagement. PMID:19444731

  15. Identifying Effective School Principals 

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Kandyce; Flores, Santa; Huang, Emily; Igwe, Carolyn; McDonald, Leslie; Stroud, Ryan; Willis, Rebecca; Dugat, Amber

    2007-01-01

    METHODOLOGY Evaluating geostatistical m p ir e p cases that occurs within a group of people in a geographic area over a defined period of time. The Centers for Disease first step because of a failure to identify a critically small p-value [2..., is usually a statistical evaluation of the likelihood of the disease distribution. Commonly the state health agency examines its health registry data and performs statistical testing comparing in- cidence rates among arbitrary geographic areas [1]. Once a...

  16. Academic Advising to Facilitate Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapraun, E. Daniel; Coldren, Doris W.

    Seven components of an academic advising program that emphasizes student retention are examined. These components are as follows: an institutional commitment to academic advising, a faculty-endorsed statement of adviser responsibilities (with retention as a major emphasis), the training of advisers, an adviser evaluation and recognition for…

  17. Retention Implementation Task Force Final Report

    E-print Network

    Cinabro, David

    in terms of student retention and graduation rates for some time, and when various sub-groups including before we see the effects of these improvements on graduation rates. Wayne State University cannot fulfill its mission without significantly improving the retention and graduation rates of its students

  18. Sulfonate retention and residual oil saturation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Presley

    1981-01-01

    An empirical relationship between sulfonate retention and final residual oil saturation achieved by a micellar-polymer oil recovery process was found. Using this relationship and certain assumptions, expressions were derived for predicting oil recovery performance in core flood experiments. The equations contain two experimental constants. One is sulfonate retention. The other is a factor related to the oil recovery efficiency of

  19. University Record Retention Policy Policy # FA-002

    E-print Network

    Xia, Yu "Brandon"

    University Record Retention Policy Policy # FA-002 Effective Date: June 1, 2009 Policy Statement Boston University requires that University records be retained for specific periods of time, and has that are outlined in this document. Reason for Policy Boston University is committed to effective records retention

  20. PROJECT LASER - LONGITUDINAL ADF STUDY EVALUATING RETENTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Barton

    Personnel retention and turnover behaviour have received much attention in both the civilian and military environments as employers contend with a competitive labour market and the challenges of skill shortages and changing population demographics. To improve current personnel research in the Australian Defence Force (ADF) and subsequently, the quality of retention initiatives, a longitudinal research program based on a customized

  1. The Psychology Underlying Successful Retention Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, John; Eaton, Shevawn Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    Describes the psychological processes that lead to academic and social integration based on a retention model proposed by the authors. Describes how successful retention programs such as learning communities, freshman interest groups, tutoring, and orientation rely on psychological processes. Four psychological theories form the basis for…

  2. Healthcare Learning Community and Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sherryl W.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching, learning, and retention processes have evolved historically to include multifaceted techniques beyond the traditional lecture. This article presents related results of a study using a healthcare learning community in a southwest Georgia university. The value of novel techniques and tools in promoting student learning and retention

  3. Profile in Action: Linking Admission and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    A profile-oriented retention strategy embraces the admission process as a powerful lever in improving retention and completion rates and recognizes that the student profile can be shaped by changes in admission policies or priorities--even within the current market position of the institution. In addition, the student body can be oriented toward…

  4. OSTA commonality analysis, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarik, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built using DRS on the Vax. It also shows commonality of parameter requirements by discipline and by application.

  5. 5 CFR 536.202 - Optional grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Optional grade retention. 536.202 Section 536.202 Administrative...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.202 Optional grade...

  6. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Period of grade retention. 536.204 Section 536.204 Administrative...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.204 Period of grade...

  7. 5 CFR 536.202 - Optional grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional grade retention. 536.202 Section 536.202 Administrative...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.202 Optional grade...

  8. 5 CFR 536.201 - Mandatory grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory grade retention. 536.201 Section 536.201 Administrative...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.201 Mandatory grade...

  9. 5 CFR 536.208 - Termination of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Termination of grade retention. 536.208 Section 536.208 Administrative...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.208 Termination of grade...

  10. 5 CFR 536.201 - Mandatory grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mandatory grade retention. 536.201 Section 536.201 Administrative...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.201 Mandatory grade...

  11. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Period of grade retention. 536.204 Section 536.204 Administrative...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.204 Period of grade...

  12. 5 CFR 536.208 - Termination of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of grade retention. 536.208 Section 536.208 Administrative...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.208 Termination of grade...

  13. 5 CFR 351.401 - Determining retention standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Determining retention standing. 351.401 Section 351.401 Administrative...Competition § 351.401 Determining retention standing. Each agency shall determine the retention standing of each competing employee on the basis...

  14. 5 CFR 351.506 - Effective date of retention standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Effective date of retention standing. 351.506 Section 351.506 Administrative...REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Retention Standing § 351.506 Effective date of retention standing. Except for applying the...

  15. THE UNIVERSITY OF UTAH UNDERGRADUATE RETENTION & GRADUATION REPORTS

    E-print Network

    Provancher, William

    1 GRADUATION RATES 2 SUMMED RETENTION AND GRADUATION RATES 3 NEW UNDERGRADUATE TRANSFER STUDENTS: RETENTION RATES 4 GRADUATION RATES 5 SUMMED RETENTION AND GRADUATION RATES 6 FIRSTTIME, FIRST YEAR STUDENT BY GENDER

  16. 5 CFR 317.801 - Retention of SES provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retention of SES provisions. 317.801 Section 317.801...IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Retention of SES Provisions § 317.801 Retention of SES provisions. (a) Coverage. This subpart...

  17. 5 CFR 317.801 - Retention of SES provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retention of SES provisions. 317.801 Section 317.801...IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Retention of SES Provisions § 317.801 Retention of SES provisions. (a) Coverage. This subpart...

  18. 5 CFR 317.801 - Retention of SES provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention of SES provisions. 317.801 Section 317.801...IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Retention of SES Provisions § 317.801 Retention of SES provisions. (a) Coverage. This subpart...

  19. 5 CFR 317.801 - Retention of SES provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention of SES provisions. 317.801 Section 317.801...IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Retention of SES Provisions § 317.801 Retention of SES provisions. (a) Coverage. This subpart...

  20. 5 CFR 317.801 - Retention of SES provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention of SES provisions. 317.801 Section 317.801...IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Retention of SES Provisions § 317.801 Retention of SES provisions. (a) Coverage. This subpart...

  1. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  2. Genome-wide association study identifies common loci influencing circulating glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in non-diabetic subjects: the Long Life Family Study (LLFS)

    PubMed Central

    An, Ping; Miljkovic, Iva; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Kraja, Aldi T.; Daw, E. Warwick; Pankow, James S.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Kao, W. H. Linda; Maruthur, Nisa M.; Nalls, Micahel A.; Liu, Yongmei; Harris, Tamara B.; Lee, Joseph H.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Christensen, Kaare; Eckfeldt, John H.; Mayeux, Richard; Perls, Thomas T.; Newman, Anne B.; Province, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a stable index of chronic glycemic status and hyperglycemia associated with progressive development of insulin resistance and frank diabetes. It is also associated with premature aging and increased mortality. To uncover novel loci for HbA1c that are associated with healthy aging, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using non-diabetic participants in the Long Life Family Study (LLFS), a study with familial clustering of exceptional longevity in the US and Denmark. Methods A total of 4,088 non-diabetic subjects from the LLFS were used for GWAS discoveries, and a total of 8,231 non-diabetic subjects from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC, in the MAGIC Consortium) and the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (HABC) were used for GWAS replications. HbA1c was adjusted for age, sex, centers, 20 principal components, without and with BMI. A linear mixed effects model was used for association testing. Results Two known loci at GCK rs730497 (or rs2908282) and HK1 rs17476364 were confirmed (p < 5e–8). Of 25 suggestive (5e–8 < p < 1e–5) loci, one known (G6PC2 rs560887, replication p = 5e–5) and one novel (OR10R3P/SPTA1- rs12041363, replication p = 1e–17) loci were replicated (p < 0.0019). Similar findings resulted when HbA1c was further adjusted for BMI. Further validations are crucial for the remaining suggestive loci including the emerged variant near OR10R3P/SPTA1. Conclusions The analysis reconfirmed two known GWAS loci (GCK, HK1) and identified 25 suggestive loci including one reconfirmed variant in G6PC2 and one replicated variant near OR10R3P/SPTA1. Future focused survey of sequence elements containing mainly functional and regulatory variants may yield additional findings. PMID:24405752

  3. Is the Cure Worse than the Disease? A Longitudinal Study on the Effect of Grade Retention in Secondary Education on Achievement and Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamote, Carl; Pinxten, Maarten; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Van Damme, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Holding students back when they do not meet a specific attainment level is common practice in a lot of countries. However, this practice is not without controversy and recent studies point at the negative effects of grade retention, especially in the long-term. The majority of these studies focused on grade retention in primary education. In our…

  4. In addition to general retention and graduation rates, NIU calculates retention and graduation rates by certain financial aid categories. For this purpose, retention and graduation rate calculations only

    E-print Network

    Karonis, Nicholas T.

    In addition to general retention and graduation rates, NIU calculates retention and graduation rates by certain financial aid categories. For this purpose, retention and graduation rate calculations a PELL Grant Total Number = 896 % % 1-year Retention Rate 70.8 4-year Graduation Rate 12.8 2-year

  5. Rainwater runoff retention on an aged intensive green roof.

    PubMed

    Speak, A F; Rothwell, J J; Lindley, S J; Smith, C L

    2013-09-01

    Urban areas are characterised by large proportions of impervious surfaces which increases rainwater runoff and the potential for surface water flooding. Increased precipitation is predicted under current climate change projections, which will put further pressure on urban populations and infrastructure. Roof greening can be used within flood mitigation schemes to restore the urban hydrological balance of cities. Intensive green roofs, with their deeper substrates and higher plant biomass, are able to retain greater quantities of runoff, and there is a need for more studies on this less common type of green roof which also investigate the effect of factors such as age and vegetation composition. Runoff quantities from an aged intensive green roof in Manchester, UK, were analysed for 69 rainfall events, and compared to those on an adjacent paved roof. Average retention was 65.7% on the green roof and 33.6% on the bare roof. A comprehensive soil classification revealed the substrate, a mineral soil, to be in good general condition and also high in organic matter content which can increase the water holding capacity of soils. Large variation in the retention data made the use of predictive regression models unfeasible. This variation arose from complex interactions between Antecedant Dry Weather Period (ADWP), season, monthly weather trends, and rainfall duration, quantity and peak intensity. However, significantly lower retention was seen for high rainfall events, and in autumn, which had above average rainfall. The study period only covers one unusually wet year, so a longer study may uncover relationships to factors which can be applied to intensive roofs elsewhere. Annual rainfall retention for Manchester city centre could be increased by 2.3% by a 10% increase in intensive green roof construction. The results of this study will be of particular interest to practitioners implementing greenspace adaptation in temperate and cool maritime climates. PMID:23712113

  6. Colloid retention mechanisms in single, saturated, variable-aperture fractures.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, S N; Dickson, S E; Qu, J

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of fractured aquifers is commonly limited to the methodologies developed for unconsolidated porous media aquifers, which results in many uncertainties. Recent work indicates that fractured rocks remove more particulates than they are conventionally credited for. This research was designed to quantify the number of Escherichia coli RS2-GFP retained in single, saturated, variable-aperture fractures extracted from the natural environment. Conservative solute and E. coli RS2-GFP tracer experiments were used to elucidate the relationships between dominant retention mechanisms, aperture field characteristics, and flow rate. A non-destructive method of determining a surrogate measure of a coefficient of variation (COV(S)) for each fracture was used to better understand the transport behaviour of E. coli RS2-GFP. The results from this research all point to the importance of aperture field characterization in understanding the fate and transport of contaminants in fractured aquifers. The mean aperture was a very important characteristic in determining particulate recovery, so were matrix properties, COV(s), and flow rate. It was also determined that attachment is a much more significant retention mechanism than straining under the conditions employed in this research. Finally, it was demonstrated that the dominant retention mechanism in a fracture varies depending on the specific discharge. An improved understanding of the mechanisms that influence the fate and transport of contaminants through fractures will lead to the development of better tools and methodologies for the characterization of fractured aquifers, as well as the ability to manipulate the relevant mechanisms to increase or decrease retention, depending on the application. PMID:23127622

  7. Modelling global nutrient retention by river damming: Phosphorus and silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maavara, Taylor; Dürr, Hans; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    The phosphorus to silicon (P:Si) nutrient ratio is a key variable affecting ecosystem health in many aquatic environments. River damming represents a major anthropogenic perturbation of natural material flows along the aquatic continuum, with the potential to profoundly modify absolute and relative nutrient availabilities in surface waters. In this study, a multi-tiered approach for estimating global nutrient retention in man-made reservoirs is presented. We illustrate its application to the global riverine flux of reactive Si, using a database of dissolved reactive Si (DSi) budgets for 24 natural lakes and 22 artificial reservoirs. The database includes information on bedrock geology, surface water pH, water residence time, reservoir age and function, climate, and trophic status. Statistical analyses (ANOVA, t-test, PCA, linear plus non-linear regressions) are used to identify the best predictors of DSi retention and delineate how reservoir properties modulate nutrient dynamics. Results indicate that (1) reservoirs retain significantly less DSi than natural lakes, and (2) the water residence time, reservoir age and function (e.g., hydroelectrical production, irrigation, flood control) are the main system variables controlling DSi retention by dams. Next, a biogeochemical Si model is used to reproduce the previously derived statistical trends for DSi retention. Calibration of the model yields a relationship that enables one to predict annual in-reservoir siliceous productivity as a function of the external reactive Si supply. The model further accounts for the transition from reservoirs where reactive Si retention is primarily due to burial of allochtonous Si to those where in-reservoir DSi uptake by diatoms dominates. Finally, the statistical and mechanistic relationships are extrapolated to estimate that 25-28 Tg SiO2 yr-1 are retained worldwide by dams, or 7% of the annual reactive Si load to watersheds. We are currently applying the same multi-tiered approach to the global P cycle. Our goal is to predict not only the effect of dams on reactive P retention, but also to determine how they are changing the P:Si ratios in river systems. Our preliminary results indicate that reservoirs are more effective in retaining nutrient P than Si.

  8. Comparison of Retention Rates Using Traditional, Drill Sandwich, and Incremental Rehearsal Flash Card Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacQuarrie, Lara L.; Tucker, James A.; Burns, Matthew K.; Hartman, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Research has demonstrated increased retention from drill, but the data regarding drill format are inconsistent. Two commonly used models, Drill Sandwich (DS) and Incremental Rehearsal (IR), were compared to each other and to a traditional flashcard method. The IR model consistently led to significantly more words retained than the traditional or…

  9. Edge-related gradients in microclimate in forest aggregates following structural retention harvests in western Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troy D. Heithecker; Charles B. Halpern

    2007-01-01

    Aggregated retention is now a common method of regeneration harvest in forest ecosystems managed for both timber and ecological objectives. If residual forest aggregates are to serve as temporary refugia for species sensitive to disturbance or environmental stress, microclimatic conditions must be sufficiently buffered to allow for their persistence. In 1-ha aggregates at three experimental sites in western Washington, we

  10. Correlation of bowel symptoms with colonic transit, length, and faecal load in functional faecal retention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Raahave; Elsebeth Christensen; Franck B. Loud; Lisbet L. Knudsen

    Introduction: Abdominal pain, bloating, and defecation disturbances are common complaints in gastrointestinal functional disorders. This study ex- plores whether bowel symptoms are correlated to colon transit time (CTT), faecal loading (coprostasis), and colon length; and whether prokinetic inter- vention can reduce CTT, faecal retention, and symptoms. Methods: This observational and interventional study includes 281 patients, and 44 asymptomatic controls. Evaluations

  11. Analysis of Institutionally Specific Retention Research: A Comparison between Survey and Institutional Database Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caison, Amy L.

    2007-01-01

    This study empirically explores the comparability of traditional survey-based retention research methodology with an alternative approach that relies on data commonly available in institutional student databases. Drawing on Tinto's [Tinto, V. (1993). "Leaving College: Rethinking the Causes and Cures of Student Attrition" (2nd Ed.), The University…

  12. Proliferation and Apoptosis in Fetal Membranes and Endometrium During Placental Retention in Heavy Draft Mares

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarzyna Pa?dzior; Anna Rapacz; Tadeusz Rotkiewicz; Andrzej Ra?

    Placental retention (retained placenta [RP]) is a serious and common peripartum disease in mares, but the etiology and pathogenesis of RP still remain unclear. The alteration of cell proliferation and apoptosis is considered to be an important factor in RP. Fetal membranes and endometrial biopsies were collected from mares with RP (n = 8) and from control mares (n =

  13. Aspect influences on soil water retention and storage I. J. Geroy,1

    E-print Network

    Marshall, Hans-Peter

    aspect retain as much as 25% more water at any given soil water pressure than samples from the south methods are commonly used to describe the distribution of soil moisture (Famiglietti et al., 1998; GraysonAspect influences on soil water retention and storage I. J. Geroy,1 M. M. Gribb,2 H. P. Marshall,3

  14. Identifying Effective School Principals

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Kandyce; Flores, Santa; Huang, Emily; Igwe, Carolyn; McDonald, Leslie; Stroud, Ryan; Willis, Rebecca; Dugat, Amber

    2007-01-01

    that teacher retention is also associated with principal effectiveness. Dissatisfaction with administrative support is frequently highly ranked as one of the reasons teachers leave a school (Graziano 2005; Ingersoll 2001; Darling-Hammond 1997). Results...

  15. Extensive Management Promotes Plant and Microbial Nitrogen Retention in Temperate Grassland

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Franciska T.; Bloem, Jaap; Quirk, Helen; Stevens, Carly J.; Bol, Roland; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Leaching losses of nitrogen (N) from soil and atmospheric N deposition have led to widespread changes in plant community and microbial community composition, but our knowledge of the factors that determine ecosystem N retention is limited. A common feature of extensively managed, species-rich grasslands is that they have fungal-dominated microbial communities, which might reduce soil N losses and increase ecosystem N retention, which is pivotal for pollution mitigation and sustainable food production. However, the mechanisms that underpin improved N retention in extensively managed, species-rich grasslands are unclear. We combined a landscape-scale field study and glasshouse experiment to test how grassland management affects plant and soil N retention. Specifically, we hypothesised that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands of high conservation value would have lower N loss and greater N retention than intensively managed, species-poor grasslands, and that this would be due to a greater immobilisation of N by a more fungal-dominated microbial community. In the field study, we found that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands had lower N leaching losses. Soil inorganic N availability decreased with increasing abundance of fungi relative to bacteria, although the best predictor of soil N leaching was the C/N ratio of aboveground plant biomass. In the associated glasshouse experiment we found that retention of added 15N was greater in extensively than in intensively managed grasslands, which was attributed to a combination of greater root uptake and microbial immobilisation of 15N in the former, and that microbial immobilisation increased with increasing biomass and abundance of fungi. These findings show that grassland management affects mechanisms of N retention in soil through changes in root and microbial uptake of N. Moreover, they support the notion that microbial communities might be the key to improved N retention through tightening linkages between plants and microbes and reducing N availability. PMID:23227252

  16. ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

    2011-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

  17. Influence of rainfall on the retention of sludge trace metals by the leaves of forage crops

    E-print Network

    Jones, Stephen Grady

    1977-01-01

    contaminated foliage by livestock, the influence of rainfall, leaf morphology, and sludge solids concentration on the retention of sludge trace metals by the foliage of grasses was evaluated. Liquid digested sludge obtained from Corpus Christi, Texas was ap...- plied to greenhouse flats of established common Bermudagrass (Cynodon daotyZon L. ) and Bell Rhodesgrass (ChZoris gautama). Common Bermudagrass, a stoloniferous grass with narrow leaves, and Bell Rhodesgrass, a bunch grass with long wide leaf blades...

  18. Identifying common spectral and asymmetric features in stock returns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Caiado; Nuno Crato

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes spectral and asymmetric-volatility based methods for cluster analysis of stock returns. Using the information about both the periodogram of the squared returns and the estimated parameters in the TARCH equation, we compute a distance matrix for the stock returns. Clusters are formed by looking to the hierarchical structure tree (or dendrogram) and the computed principal coordinates. We

  19. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.810 Record...

  20. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.810 Record...

  1. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.810 Record...

  2. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.810 Record...

  3. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.810 Record...

  4. 32 CFR 240.6 - Retention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...employees may apply for a master's or doctoral degree program; enlisted personnel...part-time. There are no part-time doctoral programs. All candidates must meet the...f) Retention students shall fulfill post-academic service obligations...

  5. 32 CFR 240.6 - Retention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...employees may apply for a master's or doctoral degree program; enlisted personnel...part-time. There are no part-time doctoral programs. All candidates must meet the...f) Retention students shall fulfill post-academic service obligations...

  6. 32 CFR 240.6 - Retention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...employees may apply for a master's or doctoral degree program; enlisted personnel...part-time. There are no part-time doctoral programs. All candidates must meet the...f) Retention students shall fulfill post-academic service obligations...

  7. 40 CFR 35.6705 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Agreement § 35.6705 Records retention. (a...requirement applies to all financial and programmatic records, supporting documents...must maintain all records for 10 years following...submission of the final Financial Status Report...

  8. 40 CFR 35.6705 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Agreement § 35.6705 Records retention. (a...requirement applies to all financial and programmatic records, supporting documents...must maintain all records for 10 years following...submission of the final Financial Status Report...

  9. 40 CFR 35.6705 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Agreement § 35.6705 Records retention. (a...requirement applies to all financial and programmatic records, supporting documents...must maintain all records for 10 years following...submission of the final Financial Status Report...

  10. 40 CFR 35.6705 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Agreement § 35.6705 Records retention. (a...requirement applies to all financial and programmatic records, supporting documents...must maintain all records for 10 years following...submission of the final Financial Status Report...

  11. 40 CFR 35.6705 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Agreement § 35.6705 Records retention. (a...requirement applies to all financial and programmatic records, supporting documents...must maintain all records for 10 years following...submission of the final Financial Status Report...

  12. Tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Doyle, B.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Tritium retention and removal are critical issues for the success of ITER or any DT fusion reactor. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, is the first fusion facility to afford the opportunity to study the tritium retention and removal over an extended period. In TFTR, tritium accumulates on all surfaces with line of sight to the plasma by codeposition of tritium with carbon. Measurements of both deuterium and tritium retention fractions have yielded retention between 0.2 and 0.6 of the injected fuel in the torus. Tritium has been successfully removed from TFTR by glow discharge cleaning and by air purges. The in-vessel inventory was reduced by a factor of 2, facilitating machine maintenance. In TFTR, the amount of dust recovered from the TFTR vacuum vessel has varied from several grams to a few kilograms.

  13. Tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Plasma Physics Lab.; Doyle, B.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    Tritium retention and removal are critical issues for the success of ITER or any DT fusion reactor. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, is the first fusion facility to afford the opportunity to study the tritium retention and removal over an extended period. In TFTR, tritium accumulates on all surfaces with line of sight to the plasma by codeposition of tritium with carbon. Measurements of both deuterium and tritium retention fractions have yielded retention between 0.2 and 0.6 of the injected fuel in the torus. Tritium has been successfully removed from TFTR by glow discharge cleaning and by air purges. The in-vessel inventory was reduced by a factor of 2, facilitating machine maintenance. In TFTR, the amount of dust recovered from the TFTR vacuum vessel has varied from several grams to a few kilograms.

  14. Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study

    E-print Network

    Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study Study ID Nos. 546B, 563 Prepared RECYCLING PROGRAMS Study ID Nos. 546B and 563 Prepared for Southern California Edison Rosemead, California

  15. 50 CFR 401.15 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A ANADROMOUS FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.15 Record retention. All records of accounts and reports with supporting documentation thereto, as set...

  16. 50 CFR 401.15 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A ANADROMOUS FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.15 Record retention. All records of accounts and reports with supporting documentation thereto, as set...

  17. 50 CFR 401.15 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A ANADROMOUS FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.15 Record retention. All records of accounts and reports with supporting documentation thereto, as set...

  18. 39 CFR 946.10 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION...retention. Records regarding property subject to this part will be...3 years following return of the property to its owner or a...

  19. 39 CFR 946.10 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION...retention. Records regarding property subject to this part will be...3 years following return of the property to its owner or a...

  20. 39 CFR 946.10 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION...retention. Records regarding property subject to this part will be...3 years following return of the property to its owner or a...

  1. 39 CFR 946.10 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION...retention. Records regarding property subject to this part will be...3 years following return of the property to its owner or a...

  2. Sulfonate Retention and Residual Oil Saturation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Presley

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes an empirical relationship between sulfonate retention and final residual oil saturation achieved by a micellar\\/polymer oil-recovery process. Using this relationship and certain assumptions, one can derive expressions for predicting oil recovery performance in coreflood experiments. The equations contain two experimental constants: sulfonate retention and a factor related to the oil-recovery efficiency of the sulfonate slug in cores,

  3. Recruitment and Retention of Minorities in Teacher Education: Performance Assessment. Proceedings of the National Conference (7th, Lexington, Kentucky, January 17 - 19, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, E., Ed.; And Others

    This conference proceedings monograph presents 20 papers describing initiatives that deal with the recruitment and retention of minorities in education. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Recruitment and Retention of Minority Scholarship and Grant Recipients: Identifying Successful Models" (Teresa Unseld); (2) "An Early…

  4. Study for now, but judge for later: delayed judgments of learning promote long-term retention.

    PubMed

    Sundqvist, Max Larsson; Todorov, Ivo; Kubik, Veit; Jönsson, Fredrik U

    2012-12-01

    Delayed judgments of learning (JOL) are assumed to be based on covert retrieval attempts. A common finding is that testing memory during learning improves later retention (i.e., the testing effect), and even more so than an equivalent amount of study, but only after a longer retention interval. To test the assertion that also delayed JOLs improve memory, the participants either studied Swahili-Swedish word pairs four times, or they both studied (two times) and performed delayed JOLs (two times) alternately. Final cued recall test were given after either five minutes or one week. Results showed a reliable learning-group by retention-interval interaction, with less forgetting in the group that alternated between studying and making JOLs. The results are discussed in relation to the self-fulfilling prophecy account of Spellman and Bjork (1992), and in terms of study advice, the results further underscore the importance of delaying JOLs when studying and evaluating one's ongoing learning. PMID:22897518

  5. Retention mechanisms in super/subcritical fluid chromatography on packed columns.

    PubMed

    Lesellier, E

    2009-03-01

    Whereas the retention rules of achiral compounds are well defined in high-performance liquid chromatography, on the basis of the nature of the stationary phase, some difficulties appear in super/subcritical fluid chromatography on packed columns. This is mainly due to the supposed effect of volatility on retention behaviours in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and to the nature of carbon dioxide, which is not polar, thus SFC is classified as a normal-phase separation technique. Moreover, additional effects are not well known and described. They are mainly related to density changes of the mobile phase or to adsorption of fluid on the stationary phase causing a modification of its surface. It is admitted that pressure or temperature modifications induce variation in the eluotropic strength of the mobile phase, but effects of flow rate or column length on retention factor changes are more surprising. Nevertheless, the retention behaviour in SFC first depends on the stationary phase nature. Working with polar stationary phases induces normal-phase retention behaviour, whereas using non-polar bonded phases induces reversed-phase retention behaviour. These rules are verified for most carbon dioxide-based mobile phases in common use (CO(2)/MeOH, CO(2)/acetonitrile or CO(2)/EtOH). Moreover, the absence of water in the mobile phase favours the interactions between the compounds and the stationary phase, compared to what occurs in hydro-organic liquids. Other stationary phases such as aromatic phases and polymers display intermediate behaviours. In this paper, all these behaviours are discussed, mainly by using log k-log k plots, which allow a simple comparison of stationary phase properties. Some examples are presented to illustrate these retention properties. PMID:18996534

  6. Appropriate training and retention of community doctors in rural areas: a case study from Mali

    PubMed Central

    Van Dormael, Monique; Dugas, Sylvie; Kone, Yacouba; Coulibaly, Seydou; Sy, Mansour; Marchal, Bruno; Desplats, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Background While attraction of doctors to rural settings is increasing in Mali, there is concern for their retention. An orientation course for young practicing rural doctors was set up in 2003 by a professional association and a NGO. The underlying assumption was that rurally relevant training would strengthen doctors' competences and self-confidence, improve job satisfaction, and consequently contribute to retention. Methods Programme evaluation distinguished trainees' opinions, competences and behaviour. Data were collected through participant observation, group discussions, satisfaction questionnaires, a monitoring tool of learning progress, and follow up visits. Retention was assessed for all 65 trainees between 2003 and 2007. Results and discussion The programme consisted of four classroom modules – clinical skills, community health, practice management and communication skills – and a practicum supervised by an experienced rural doctor. Out of the 65 trained doctors between 2003 and 2007, 55 were still engaged in rural practice end of 2007, suggesting high retention for the Malian context. Participants viewed the training as crucial to face technical and social problems related to rural practice. Discussing professional experience with senior rural doctors contributed to socialisation to novel professional roles. Mechanisms underlying training effects on retention include increased self confidence, self esteem as rural doctor, and sense of belonging to a professional group sharing a common professional identity. Retention can however not be attributed solely to the training intervention, as rural doctors benefit from other incentives and support mechanisms (follow up visits, continuing training, mentoring...) affecting job satisfaction. Conclusion Training increasing self confidence and self esteem of rural practitioners may contribute to retention of skilled professionals in rural areas. While reorientations of curricula in training institutions are necessary, other types of professional support are needed. This experience suggests that professional associations dedicated to strengthening quality of care can contribute significantly to rural practitioners' morale. PMID:19017381

  7. Considering Student Retention as a Complex System: A Possible Way forward for Enhancing Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsman, Jonas; van den Bogaard, Maartje; Linder, Cedric; Fraser, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    This study uses multilayer minimum spanning tree analysis to develop a model for student retention from a complex system perspective, using data obtained from first-year engineering students at a large well-regarded institution in the European Union. The results show that the elements of the system of student retention are related to one another…

  8. Record Retention Policy Page 1 of 3 10.7 Record Retention Policy

    E-print Network

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    Record Retention Policy Page 1 of 3 10.7 Record Retention Policy Policy Number & Name: 10.7 Record and destruction of records received or created in the course of University operations (as further defined below, "Records"). It is the intention of this Policy to ensure that the University: (a) Establishes the minimum

  9. Improving Minority Retention in Higher Education: A Search for Effective Institutional Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clewell, Beatriz C.; Ficklen, Myra S.

    Programs and policies at four-year majority white institutions with good minority retention rates are examined, and factors contributing to their success that are adaptable to other sites are identified. Identification of the institutions used in the study was based on an objective statistical procedure and expert nomination. The four institutions…

  10. Predictors of Retention in the ‘Voluntary’ and ‘Quasi-Compulsory’ Treatment of Substance Dependence in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Schaub; Alex Stevens; Severin Haug; Daniele Berto; Neil Hunt; Viktoria Kerschl; Tim McSweeney; Kerrie Oeuvray; Irene Puppo; Alberto Santa Maria; Barbara Trinkl; Wolfgang Werdenich; Ambros Uchtenhagen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Policies and practices related to the quasi-compulsory treatment (QCT) of substance-dependent offenders are currently implemented in many countries, despite the absence of reliable knowledge about significant predictors of treatment retention. This study aimed to identify such predictors in QCT and voluntary treatment. Methods: Participants were treated in one of 65 institutions in 5 European countries. They were interviewed at

  11. Determining the Impact of Remediation on College Level Course Grades, Retention and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Thomas Kelvin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this causal-comparative study was to determine whether varying levels of prior remediation affected grades, success, and retention in online college level courses. Traditional and online sections completed a demographics survey to identify background characteristics along with the amount and type of developmental class. Instructors…

  12. Retention of Passive Integrated Transponder, T-Bar Anchor, and Coded Wire Tags in Lepisosteids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Buckmeier; Kerry S. Reeves

    2012-01-01

    Increased interest in the management and conservation of gars (family Lepisosteidae) has resulted in the need to identify individual fish in wild and hatchery stocks; however, tagging methods have not been evaluated for these species. We estimated tag retention for passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, T-bar anchor tags (Floy), and coded wire tags in alligator gar Atractosteus spatula, longnose gar

  13. Increasing One-Year Retention Rates by Focusing on Academic Competence: An Empirical Odyssey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Michael P.; Glenn, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    Chronicles the 5-year effort of a comprehensive student development and advising center to identify the most effective support programs for increasing one-year retention rates for first-time freshmen. The progression from intrusive advising programs to integrated and systematic learning skills instruction resulted in substantial gains in…

  14. Generation Y Student-Teachers' Motivational Factors: Retention Implications for K-12 Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bontempo, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Generation Y represents a growing number of student-teachers who will impact the future of educational practice, yet little research has been conducted for this demographic group. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to identify motivational factors of neophyte teachers and the retention implications these findings had on Kindergarten…

  15. The Drivers of Student Enrolment and Retention: A Stakeholder Perception Analysis in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelopulo, George

    2013-01-01

    This study identified the drivers of student participation in the academic programmes of a South African university department. First, it explored the determinants of student enrolment and retention from earlier research and literature. Second, it discussed the utility of Q methodology in the identification of subjective perception. Finally, it…

  16. Beyond the Labor Market Paradigm: A Social Network Perspective on Teacher Recruitment and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies limits of the dominant labor market perspective (LMP) in research on teacher recruitment and retention and describes how research that incorporates a social network perspective (SNP) can contribute to the knowledge base and development of teacher education, staffing, and professional development approaches. A discussion of…

  17. Pre-Entry Variables Related to Retention in Online Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupin-Bryant, Pamela A.

    2004-01-01

    This study identified pre-entry variables related to course completion and noncompletion in university online distance education courses. Four hundred and sixty-four students who were enrolled in online distance education courses participated in the study. Discriminant analysis revealed six pre-entry variables were related to retention, including…

  18. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  19. REVISITING COMMONS – ARE COMMON PROPERTY REGIMES IRRATIONAL?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lubna Hasan

    2002-01-01

    This paper revisits the debate about communal management of natural resources and brings together various issues confronting it. Much of the criticism against common property regimes stems from an incorrect modeling of a common property situation, and misunderstandings about the terms and their wrong usage. Models of collective action (Hardin’s tragedy of the Commons, Olson’s Logic of Collective Action, and

  20. Experimental analysis of retention forces of different magnetic devices for bone-anchored auricular facial prostheses.

    PubMed

    Voigt, A; Christ, S; Klein, M

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which combination of differently designed magnetic abutments provides the best retention for an auricular prosthesis. The withdrawal forces of eight combinations of abutments were measured and results compared. There was a significantly higher withdrawal force in arrangements containing three magnets over only two. The highest withdrawal force was found in the combination of one telescopic magnet and two large spherical magnets (median: 7.69 N), whereas two telescopic magnets alone showed the lowest withdrawal force (3.41 N). The use of two conical magnets increased retention slightly, but the median retention force remained the same (3.41 N). The commonly used combination of two small spherical magnets and one telescopic magnet showed the lowest retention of combinations consisting of three magnets (4.94 N). There seems to be no difference in median withdrawal force if a conical magnet instead of a telescopic magnet is used. The withdrawal force at a 45 degrees angle was about 10% higher than the vertical force but the difference was not significant. The rupture force needed to tear the magnet completely out of the silicone was 240.6-519.7 N (mean 331.74 N) and therefore over 10 times higher than magnetic retention. PMID:18440779

  1. In-Vessel Retention of Molten Corium: Lessons Learned and Outstanding Issues

    SciTech Connect

    J.L. Rempe; K.Y. Suh; F. B. Cheung; S. B. Kim

    2008-03-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Advanced 600 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designed by Westinghouse (AP600), which relied upon External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) for IVR, resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing Light Water Reactors (LWRs). However, it is not clear that the ERVC proposed for the AP600 could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe) without additional enhancements. This paper reviews efforts made and results reported regarding the enhancement of IVR in LWRs. Where appropriate, the paper identifies what additional data or analyses are needed to demonstrate that there is sufficient margin for successful IVR in high power thermal reactors.

  2. Common metrics for human-robot interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Steinfeld; Terrence Fong; David B. Kaber; Michael Lewis; Jean Scholtz; Alan C. Schultz; Michael A. Goodrich

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a

  3. Common post-operative complications in children

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Dilip

    2012-01-01

    The exact incidence of common post-operative complications in children is not known. Most common one is post-operative nausea and vomiting followed by respiratory complications leading to hypoxia. Cardiac complications are less in children without associated congenital cardiac anomaly. Post-operative shivering, agitation and delirium are seen more often in children anaesthetised with newer inhalational agents like sevoflurane and desflurane. Urinary retention in the post-operative period could be influenced by anaesthetic drugs and regional blocks. The purpose of this article is to review the literature and present to the postgraduate students comprehensive information about the current understanding and practice pattern on various common complications in the post-operative period. Extensive literature was searched with key words of various complications from Pubmed, Google scholar and specific journal, namely paediatric anaesthesia. The relevant articles, review article meta-analysis and editorials were the primary source of information for this article. PMID:23293390

  4. Common post-operative complications in children.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Dilip

    2012-09-01

    The exact incidence of common post-operative complications in children is not known. Most common one is post-operative nausea and vomiting followed by respiratory complications leading to hypoxia. Cardiac complications are less in children without associated congenital cardiac anomaly. Post-operative shivering, agitation and delirium are seen more often in children anaesthetised with newer inhalational agents like sevoflurane and desflurane. Urinary retention in the post-operative period could be influenced by anaesthetic drugs and regional blocks. The purpose of this article is to review the literature and present to the postgraduate students comprehensive information about the current understanding and practice pattern on various common complications in the post-operative period. Extensive literature was searched with key words of various complications from Pubmed, Google scholar and specific journal, namely paediatric anaesthesia. The relevant articles, review article meta-analysis and editorials were the primary source of information for this article. PMID:23293390

  5. Nuclear retention of the transcription factor NLP7 orchestrates the early response to nitrate in plants.

    PubMed

    Marchive, Chloé; Roudier, François; Castaings, Loren; Bréhaut, Virginie; Blondet, Eddy; Colot, Vincent; Meyer, Christian; Krapp, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate is both an important nutrient and a signalling molecule for plants. Although several components of the nitrate signalling pathway have been identified, their hierarchical organization remains unclear. Here we show that the localization of NLP7, a member of the RWP-RK transcription factor family, is regulated by nitrate via a nuclear retention mechanism. Genome-wide analyses revealed that NLP7 binds and modulates a majority of known nitrate signalling and assimilation genes. Our findings indicate that plants, like fungi and mammals, rely on similar nuclear retention mechanisms to instantaneously respond to the availability of key nutrients. PMID:23591880

  6. Variables affecting athletes' retention of coaches' feedback.

    PubMed

    Januário, Nuno M S; Rosado, Antonio F; Mesquita, Isabel

    2013-10-01

    Athletes' retention of information conveyed in coaches' feedback during training was examined, considering the nature of the information transmitted by each coach (extensions, total number of ideas transmitted, and total number of repeated ideas), athletes' characteristics, (ages, genders, school levels, and practice levels), and athletes' perceptions (relevance and acceptance of coaches' information, task motivational levels, and athletes' attention levels). Participants were 193 athletes (79 boys, 114 girls; 9 to 13 years of age) and 6 coaches. Feedback was both audio and video recorded and all athletes were interviewed. All coaches' feedback and athletes' recollections were subjected to content analysis. Information was completely retained in 31.60% of feedback episodes. Athletes' mean per-episode information retention was 63.0%. Three variables appeared to b e predictiveathletes' retention: athletes' practice levels (p = -.25), attention to coaches' provision of feedback (P = .17), and the number of different ideas transmitted by each coach (P = -.90). PMID:24611244

  7. Deuterium Retention in NSTX with Lithium Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner, J.P. Allain, W. Blanchard, H.W. Kugel, R. Maingi, L. Roquemore, V. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor

    2010-06-02

    High (? 90%) deuterium retention was observed in NSTX gas balance measurements both withand without lithiumization of the carbon plasma facing components. The gas retained in ohmic discharges was measured by comparing the vessel pressure rise after a discharge to that of a gasonly pulse with the pumping valves closed. For neutral beam heated discharges the gas input and gas pumped by the NB cryopanels were tracked. The discharges were followed by outgassing of deuterium that reduced the retention. The relationship between retention and surface chemistry was explored with a new plasma-material interface probe connected to an in-vacuo surface science station that exposed four material samples to the plasma. XPS and TDS analysis showed that the binding of D atoms is fundamentally changed by lithium - in particular atoms are weakly bonded in regions near lithium atoms bound to either oxygen or the carbon matrix.

  8. Renal and Vascular Mechanisms of Thiazolidinedione-Induced Fluid Retention

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tianxin; Soodvilai, Sunhapas

    2008-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtype ? (PPAR?) activators that are clinically used as an insulin sensitizer for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Additionally, TZDs exhibit novel anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties, indicating therapeutic potential for a wide variety of diseases associated with diabetes and other conditions. The clinical applications of TZDs are limited by the common major side effect of fluid retention. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism of TZD-induced fluid retention is essential for the development of novel therapies with improved safety profiles. An important breakthrough in the field is the finding that the renal collecting duct is a major site for increased fluid reabsorption in response to rosiglitazone or pioglitazone. New evidence also indicates that increased vascular permeability in adipose tissues may contribute to edema formation and body weight gain. Future research should therefore be directed at achieving a better understanding of the detailed mechanisms of TZD-induced increases in renal sodium transport and in vascular permeability. PMID:18784848

  9. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing anthropogenic sources of N that are not retained in the watershed and maintaining high rates of N retention will be of utmost concern for coastal managers.

  10. Different approaches to quantitative structure-retention relationships in the prediction of oligonucleotide retention.

    PubMed

    Studzi?ska, Sylwia; Buszewski, Bogus?aw

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative structure-retention relationships studies were performed for cholesterol and alkylamide stationary phases, which were previously applied in the analysis of nucleotides and oligonucleotides. An octadecyl column was also tested. Twenty-four oligonucleotides of various sequences and length were chosen; next, their structural descriptors were determined with the use of quantum-mechanics method. The sequence features were related mainly to their surface area, hydrophobicity, and the nature of nucleobases. Moreover, for the first time models employing experimentally derived descriptors (the sum of retention factor for individual nucleotides) were developed in the quantitative structure-retention relationship studies of these compounds. The retention of oligonucleotides for alkylamide and cholesterol stationary phases may be effectively predicted with the use of quantitative structure-retention relationship models based only on molecularly modeled descriptors, as well as with models employing experimentally derived descriptors. Therefore, we recommend the first approach, since descriptors may be easily and quickly calculated. However, oligonucleotide retention prediction for octadecyl phases gives better results, when individual nucleotide retention factors are known and utilized for the creation of a mathematical model. PMID:25866200

  11. Successful practices in teacher recruitment, preparation and retention as perceived by the Texas A&M University System Regents' Initiative project directors 

    E-print Network

    Holt, Michael Lee

    2006-10-30

    The purpose of the study is to identify the perceived successful practices that led to improved teacher recruitment, preparation and retention efforts within the nine universities of The Texas A&M University System brought ...

  12. Mapping soil water retention curves via spatial Bayesian hierarchical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen-Hsi; Clifford, David; Minasny, Budiman

    2015-05-01

    Soil water retention curves are an important parameter in soil hydrological modeling. These curves are usually represented by the van Genuchten model. Two approaches have previously been taken to predict curves across a field - interpolation of field measurements followed by estimation of the van Genuchten model parameters, or estimation of the parameters according to field measurements followed by interpolation of the estimated parameters. Neither approach is ideal as, due to their two-stage nature, they fail to properly track uncertainty from one stage to the next. In this paper we address this shortcoming through a spatial Bayesian hierarchical model that fits the van Genuchten model and predicts the fields of hydraulic parameters of the van Genuchten model as well as fields of the corresponding soil water retention curves. This approach expands the van Genuchten model to a hierarchical modeling framework. In this framework, soil properties and physical or environmental factors can be treated as covariates to add into the van Genuchten model hierarchically. Consequently, the effects of covariates on the hydraulic parameters of the van Genuchten model can be identified. In addition, our approach takes advantage of Bayesian analysis to account for uncertainty and overcome the shortcomings of other existing methods. The code used to fit these models are available as an appendix to this paper. We apply this approach to data surveyed from part of the alluvial plain of the river Rhône near Yenne in Savoie, France. In this data analysis, we demonstrate how the inclusion of soil type or spatial effects can improve the van Genuchten model's predictions of soil water retention curves.

  13. Predictors of retention in community-based methadone maintenance treatment program in Pearl River Delta, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims were to identify predictors of treatment retention in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in Pearl River Delta, China. Methods Retrospective longitudinal study. Participants: 6 MMT clinics in rural and urban area were selected. Statistical analysis: Stratified random sampling was employed, and the data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and life table method. Protective or risk factors were explored using Cox’s proportional hazards model. Independent variables were enrolled in univariate analysis and among which significant variables were analyzed by multivariate analysis. Results A total of 2728 patients were enrolled. The median of the retention duration was 13.63 months, and the cumulative retention rates at 1,2,3 years were 53.0%, 35.0%, 20.0%, respectively. Multivariate Cox analysis showed: age, relationship with family, live on support from family or friends, income, considering treatment cost suitable, considering treatment open time suitable, addiction severity (daily expense for drug), communication with former drug taking peer, living in rural area, daily treatment dosage, sharing needles, re-admission and history of being arrested were predictors for MMT retention. Conclusions MMT retention rate in Guangdong was low and treatment skills and quality should be improved. Meanwhile, participation of family and society should be encouraged. PMID:23497263

  14. Predictors of Retention in Dual-Focus Self-Help Groups

    PubMed Central

    Laudet, Alexandre B.; Magura, Stephen; Cleland, Charles M.; Vogel, Howard S.; Knight, Edward L.

    2007-01-01

    Attendance at 12-step groups has been found useful in maintaining abstinence from substance use; many members disengage early, missing out on potential benefits. New 12-step based groups have emerged to address the recovery needs of the many substance users with psychiatric comorbidity. Little is known about factors associated with retention in 12-step, especially in this population. This study sought to identify predictors of retention over a one-year period among members of a dual-focus 12-Step fellowship (N = 276). Using multivariate analysis, the following baseline characteristics were associated with greater retention one year later: older age, more lifetime arrests, abstinence in the pre-baseline year, more psychiatric symptoms in the pre-baseline year, not taking psychiatric medication, being more troubled by substance abuse than by mental health, and greater level of self-efficacy for recovery; residing in supported housing and being enrolled in outpatient treatment at follow-up were also significantly associated with better retention. Clinical implications to enhance retention in specialized 12-step groups are discussed. PMID:12908643

  15. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    MedlinePLUS

    Home > Breastfeeding > Common breastfeeding challenges Breastfeeding This information in Spanish ( en español ) Common breastfeeding challenges Sore nipples Low milk supply Oversupply of milk Engorgement Plugged ducts Breast ...

  16. Water retention of arctic zone soils (Spitsbergen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melke, J.; Witkowska-Walczak, B.; Bartmi?ski, P.

    2013-12-01

    The water retention characteristics of the arctic zone soils ((TurbicCryosol (Skeletic), TurbicCryosols (Siltic, Skeletic) and BrunicTurbicCryosol (Arenic)) derived in different micro-relief forms were determined. Water retention curves were similar in their course for the mud boils, cell forms, and sorted circles ie for TurbicCryosols. For these forms, the mud boils showed the highest water retention ability, whereas the sorted circles - the lowest one. Water retention curves for the tundra polygons (Brunic TurbicCryosol, Arenic) were substantially different from these mentioned above. The tundra polygons were characterized by the lowest bulk density of 1.26 g cm-3, whereas the sorted circles (TurbicCryosol, Skeletic) - the highest: 1.88 g cm-3. Total porosity was the highest for the tundra polygons (52.4 and 55.5%) and the lowest - for the sorted circles (28.8 and 26.2%). Pore size distribution of the investigated soils showed that independently of depths, the highest content of large and medium pores was noticed for the tundra polygons ie 21.2-24.2 and 19.9-18.7%, respectively. The lowest content of large pores was observed for the cell forms (6.4-5.9%) whereas the mud boils exhibited the lowest amount of medium sized pores (12.2-10.4%) (both TurbicCryosols Siltic, Skeletic). The highest content of small pores was detected in the mud boils - 20.4 and 19.0%.

  17. COMPARTMENTAL MODEL OF NITRATE RETENTION IN STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A compartmental modeling approach is presented to route nitrate retention along a cascade of stream reach sections. A process transfer function is used for transient storage equations with first order reaction terms to represent nitrate uptake in the free stream, and denitrifica...

  18. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  19. Factors affecting career retention among naval aviators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald D. Gibb; Daniel L. Dolgin

    1988-01-01

    Typically, retention studies have emphasized those who separate rather than those who choose a naval career. The present study examined factors that contribute to career satisfaction and aviators' decisions to remain in naval aviation. Primary reasons for remaining in naval aviation were the enjoyment of flying, coupled with the self-esteem associated with being a naval aviator. Career satisfaction for aviators

  20. Retention of First Year Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Melissa H.

    2012-01-01

    Although close to half of all community college students leave before obtaining their stated goals, most retention studies are still being conducted at the four-year college and university level. There is still little research conducted at the community college level. In order to determine what student characteristics increase community college…

  1. Entering Fall One Year Retention 2006 Cohort

    E-print Network

    Years 77% Graduation Rates by Gender: Female 79% Male 74% Graduation Rates by Ethnicity: Native amer 75% Graduation Rates by Financial Aid Status: Pell Grants 73% Non-Pell Subsidized Loan 74% Other-Year Graduation Rate by Gender, by Ethnicity and by Financial Aid Status Retention and Graduation Rates Six

  2. Student Retention: Catalyst for Institutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meha, Arapata T.

    The conceptual model for institutional change presented in this report was developed within the context of the University of Hawaii's Native Hawaiian Vocational Education Project (NHVEP), a systemwide initiative for increasing minority student persistence at community colleges. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of low retention among Native Hawaiian…

  3. Copper Retention Kinetics in Acid Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Eugenio López-Periago; Manuel Arias-Estévez; Juan Carlos Nóvoa-Muñoz; David Fernández-Calviño; Benedicto Soto; Cristina Pèrez-Novo; Jesus Simal-Gándara

    2008-01-01

    Retention and release kinetics of Cu on four acid Typic haplumbrepts developed on two dif- ferent types of parent rock material (granite and amphibolite) were studied with a stirred-fl ow chamber (SFC) method. The granitic soils were lower in organic material and lower in Fe and Al oxides than the soils formed in amphibolite. The kinetic parameters were assessed in

  4. Measuring Learning Retention after Program Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckler, Terry Anne; Vogler, James D.

    The study investigated retention of gains in reading/language skills after one year by 378 eighth-grade students in 18 health studies classrooms. Six classrooms were assigned to each of three groups, two experimental and one control, taught by health science teachers who were: (1) trained in reading/language techniques; (2) not trained in…

  5. Return on Investment: Libraries and Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezick, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    Using data on libraries collected by the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), as well as fall-to-fall retention rates obtained from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), this study employs statistical…

  6. An Examination of Master's Student Retention & Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Melissa; Mathies, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted at a research-extensive public university in the southeastern United States. It examined the retention and completion of master's degree students across numerous disciplines. Results were derived from a series of descriptive statistics, T-tests, and a series of binary logistic regression models. The findings from binary…

  7. Relationship of Personality Traits to Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    Carl Jung's theory of psychological types has been the basis for the development of personality categorization, including tests such as Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This study analyzed the extent of the relationship between MBTI and Tinto (1993) retention factors that influence Oriental medicine students' choice of staying or dropping out…

  8. Involving Graduate Assistants in Student Retention Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boger, Ruth E.

    1994-01-01

    The efforts of five Bowling Green State University (Ohio) graduate students to design, develop, and implement a student retention training program using graduate assistants are described. Special techniques used to train participants and lessons learned in the process are noted. (MSE)

  9. Recruitment and Retention in Clinical Research

    E-print Network

    Carmichael, Owen

    Recruitment and Retention in Clinical Research June 24, 2011 Linda Ziegahn, Ph.D. Sergio Aguilar the community in clinical research? It takes an average of 17 years for only 14% of new scientific. #12;NIH Policy on Inclusion in Clinical Research Mandated by Congress, 1993 PL 10343 Women

  10. Water retention capacity of tissue cultured plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klerk de G. J. M; F. Wijnhoven

    2005-01-01

    Leaves rapidly close their stomata after detachment resulting in a strong reduction of water loss. It has been reported that detached leaves of in vitro produced plants show continuous water loss indicating that they are unable to close the stomata properly and\\/or that their cuticle is malfunctioning. We examined the water retention capacity (WRC) of detached primary leaves of in

  11. 49 CFR 219.903 - Retention of drug testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Retention of drug testing records. 219.903 Section...Requirements § 219.903 Retention of drug testing records. (a) General requirement...Records related to employee training: (i) Materials...

  12. 5 CFR 575.306 - Authorizing a retention incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...who, with minimal training, cost, or disruption...in addition to a retention incentive, such as special training and work scheduling...for authorizing a retention incentive for a group...required rating of record. (While a...

  13. 5 CFR 575.306 - Authorizing a retention incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...who, with minimal training, cost, or disruption...in addition to a retention incentive, such as special training and work scheduling...for authorizing a retention incentive for a group...required rating of record. (While a...

  14. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901 Section...Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement...Records related to employee training: (i) Materials...

  15. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901 Section...Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement...Records related to employee training: (i) Materials...

  16. 49 CFR 219.903 - Retention of drug testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Retention of drug testing records. 219.903 Section...Requirements § 219.903 Retention of drug testing records. (a) General requirement...Records related to employee training: (i) Materials...

  17. 49 CFR 219.903 - Retention of drug testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Retention of drug testing records. 219.903 Section...Requirements § 219.903 Retention of drug testing records. (a) General requirement...Records related to employee training: (i) Materials...

  18. 5 CFR 575.306 - Authorizing a retention incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...who, with minimal training, cost, and disruption...in addition to a retention incentive, such as special training and work scheduling...for authorizing a retention incentive for a group...required rating of record. (While a...

  19. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901 Section...Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement...Records related to employee training: (i) Materials...

  20. 20 CFR 655.167 - Document retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Document retention requirements. 655.167 Section 655.167 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...H-2A Workers) Labor Certification Determinations § 655.167 Document retention requirements. (a)...

  1. 20 CFR 655.1319 - Document retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Document retention requirements. 655.1319 Section 655.1319 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1319 Document retention requirements....

  2. 20 CFR 655.167 - Document retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Document retention requirements. 655.167 Section 655.167 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...H-2A Workers) Labor Certification Determinations § 655.167 Document retention requirements. (a)...

  3. 20 CFR 655.167 - Document retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Document retention requirements. 655.167 Section 655.167 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...H-2A Workers) Labor Certification Determinations § 655.167 Document retention requirements. (a)...

  4. 20 CFR 655.1319 - Document retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Document retention requirements. 655.1319 Section 655.1319 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1319 Document retention requirements....

  5. 20 CFR 655.1319 - Document retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Document retention requirements. 655.1319 Section 655.1319 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1319 Document retention requirements....

  6. 20 CFR 655.1319 - Document retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Document retention requirements. 655.1319 Section 655.1319 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1319 Document retention requirements....

  7. 20 CFR 655.167 - Document retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Document retention requirements. 655.167 Section 655.167 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...H-2A Workers) Labor Certification Determinations § 655.167 Document retention requirements. (a)...

  8. 20 CFR 655.167 - Document retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Document retention requirements. 655.167 Section 655.167 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...H-2A Workers) Labor Certification Determinations § 655.167 Document retention requirements. (a)...

  9. 20 CFR 655.1319 - Document retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Document retention requirements. 655.1319 Section 655.1319 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1319 Document retention requirements....

  10. 49 CFR 655.71 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Retention of records. 655.71 Section 655.71 Transportation Other Regulations... Administrative Requirements § 655.71 Retention of records. ...provide an adequate urine or breathe sample. (2) Records related to...

  11. 49 CFR 655.71 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Retention of records. 655.71 Section 655.71 Transportation Other Regulations... Administrative Requirements § 655.71 Retention of records. ...provide an adequate urine or breathe sample. (2) Records related to...

  12. 49 CFR 655.71 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Retention of records. 655.71 Section 655.71 Transportation Other Regulations... Administrative Requirements § 655.71 Retention of records. ...provide an adequate urine or breathe sample. (2) Records related to...

  13. 49 CFR 655.71 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Retention of records. 655.71 Section 655.71 Transportation Other Regulations... Administrative Requirements § 655.71 Retention of records. ...provide an adequate urine or breathe sample. (2) Records related to...

  14. 49 CFR 655.71 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Retention of records. 655.71 Section 655.71 Transportation Other Regulations... Administrative Requirements § 655.71 Retention of records. ...provide an adequate urine or breathe sample. (2) Records related to...

  15. ORIGINAL PAPER Digesta retention time in roe deer Capreolus

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Digesta retention time in roe deer Capreolus capreolus, as measured with cerium assessing the passage kinetics of different-sized particles, we measured the mean retention time in roe deer

  16. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General...

  17. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General...

  18. 39 CFR 262.6 - Retention and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Retention and disposal. 262.6 Section 262.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES...INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.6 Retention and disposal. (a... A directive describing records series that are maintained by...

  19. 27 CFR 40.185 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Retention of records. 40.185 Section 40.185 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Records § 40.185 Retention of records. All records...

  20. 47 CFR 42.6 - Retention of telephone toll records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Retention of telephone toll records. 42.6 Section 42...Instructions § 42.6 Retention of telephone toll records. Each carrier that offers or bills toll telephone service shall retain for a...

  1. 47 CFR 42.6 - Retention of telephone toll records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Retention of telephone toll records. 42.6 Section 42...Instructions § 42.6 Retention of telephone toll records. Each carrier that offers or bills toll telephone service shall retain for a...

  2. 47 CFR 42.6 - Retention of telephone toll records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Retention of telephone toll records. 42.6 Section 42...Instructions § 42.6 Retention of telephone toll records. Each carrier that offers or bills toll telephone service shall retain for a...

  3. 47 CFR 42.6 - Retention of telephone toll records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Retention of telephone toll records. 42.6 Section 42...Instructions § 42.6 Retention of telephone toll records. Each carrier that offers or bills toll telephone service shall retain for a...

  4. 47 CFR 42.6 - Retention of telephone toll records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Retention of telephone toll records. 42.6 Section 42...Instructions § 42.6 Retention of telephone toll records. Each carrier that offers or bills toll telephone service shall retain for a...

  5. 24 CFR 792.202 - PHA retention of proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false PHA retention of proceeds. 792.202 Section... Recovery of Section 8 Funds § 792.202 PHA retention of proceeds. (a) Where the PHA is the principal party initiating or...

  6. 24 CFR 792.202 - PHA retention of proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false PHA retention of proceeds. 792.202 Section... Recovery of Section 8 Funds § 792.202 PHA retention of proceeds. (a) Where the PHA is the principal party initiating or...

  7. 24 CFR 792.202 - PHA retention of proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PHA retention of proceeds. 792.202 Section... Recovery of Section 8 Funds § 792.202 PHA retention of proceeds. (a) Where the PHA is the principal party initiating or...

  8. 24 CFR 792.202 - PHA retention of proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false PHA retention of proceeds. 792.202 Section... Recovery of Section 8 Funds § 792.202 PHA retention of proceeds. (a) Where the PHA is the principal party initiating or...

  9. 24 CFR 792.202 - PHA retention of proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false PHA retention of proceeds. 792.202 Section... Recovery of Section 8 Funds § 792.202 PHA retention of proceeds. (a) Where the PHA is the principal party initiating or...

  10. PAS Domains COMMON STRUCTURE AND COMMON FLEXIBILITY*

    E-print Network

    van Aalten, Daan

    ligand binding/activation to downstream transducer proteins. PAS1 domains are structural modules that can sequences of the different PAS domains show little similarity, their three-dimensional structures appearPAS Domains COMMON STRUCTURE AND COMMON FLEXIBILITY* Received for publication, February 19, 2003

  11. Causes and Recommendations for Unanticipated Ink Retention Following Tattoo Removal Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cynthia L.; Desai, Alpesh; Desai, Tejas

    2013-01-01

    While placement of ink into the skin is a long-standing tradition, patients are now seeking tattoo removal on a more frequent basis. Once considered acceptable removal options, tattoo ink removal via physical destruction included dermabrasion, chemical destruction, salabrasion, thermal destruction, and cryotherapy. Now these options are used extremely infrequently. These modalities provided unpredictable results and often required prolonged healing times and left patients with skin discoloration, pain, scarring, and ink retention. Even the widely adopted use of lasers, now considered the gold standard method, offers some level of unpredictability surrounding the natural progression of ink resolution. Multiple factors need to be taken into consideration when successfully removing tattoo pigment including the modalities used, number and frequency of treatments, proper device technique, and physiological barriers to tattoo removal. This paper serves to elucidate the common causes of ink retention following tattoo removal treatment with recommendations on how best to address this relatively common occurrence. PMID:23882312

  12. Fostering Resilience: A Necessary Skill for Teacher Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doney, Patricia A.

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this qualitative 2-year study was to examine the resilience building process in four novice secondary science teachers and its link to teacher retention. To achieve the research goal, a resilience framework was established. Three factors were instrumental in creating the framework. The first focused on stressors and protective factors in the lives of novice secondary science teachers and provided direction and goals for the research. Second, a case study was developed for each of the four teachers participating in the research in order to emphasize the detailed analysis of factors linked to resilience. Finally, cross-case analysis was employed to identify similarities and differences and provide insight into issues concerning the resilience process. Results of this study suggest that the interaction between stressors and protective factors acts as a primary force in the resilience process and stimulate responses to help counteract negative effects of resulting stress. Therefore, it can be reasoned that resilience can be fostered in novice teachers as a means to encourage teacher retention.

  13. Tritium Retention in Carbon First-Wall Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, D.; Hosea, J.; Skinner, C. J.; Gentile, C.

    1998-11-01

    Interaction of the plasma with first wall materials has long been an important issue for the operation of fusion experiments. Retention of tritium in first-wall components was recently identified by the engineering design effort for the International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER) as a major concern. In fifty to one hundred 1000 s duration DT pulses, it is expected that 1 kg of tritium would be retained in the first wall of ITER. Techniques to remove this tritium must be demonstrated. During the DT phase of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) about 5g of tritium were injected into the vacuum vessel by NBI and gas puffing. The tritium fraction retained (0.5) is consistent with that found for deuterium retention. The deuterium was found to reside primarily in codeposited carbon layers on the limiter and walls. The techniques used to remove tritium from TFTR will be compared. R. Causey and A.A. Haasz found that baking graphite tiles used during the deuterium phase of TFTR to >250^oC in an oxygen atmosphere was effective in removing deuterium from codeposited layers. Eleven graphite tiles used in the tritium phase of TFTR have been removed for analysis. An oven, prepared for use in baking these tiles in oxygen or other gasses, will be used to investigate tritium removal from the tiles.

  14. West Virginia University -Main Campus Student Retention and Graduation Rates

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    West Virginia University - Main Campus Student Retention and Graduation Rates First-Time, Full ---------------------------------------------------------------------Continuation Rates and Cumulative Graduation Rates

  15. Need probability affects retention: a direct demonstration.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R B; Tweney, R D; Rivardo, M; Duncan, S

    1997-11-01

    Recent memory theory has emphasized the concept of need probability--that is, the probability that a given piece of learned information will be tested at some point in the future. It has been proposed that, in real-world situations, need probability declines over time and that the memory-loss rate is calibrated to match the progressive reduction in need probability (J.R. Anderson & Schooler, 1991). The present experiments were designed to examine the influence of the slope of the need-probability curve on the slope of the retention curve. On each of several trials, subjects memorized a list of digits, then retained the digits in memory for 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 sec. Some trials ended with a recall test; other trials ended with the message, "no test." In Experiment 1, the likelihood of encountering a memory test (i.e., the need probability) was made to either increase or decrease as the retention interval increased; in Experiment 2, need probability either was flat (invariant across retention intervals) or decreased as the retention interval increased. The results indicated that the shape of the need-probability curve influenced the slope of the retention curve (Experiment 1) and that the effect became larger as the experimental session progressed (Experiment 2). The findings support the notion that memory adapts to need probabilities and that the rate of forgetting is influenced by the slope of the need-probability curve. In addition, all of the forgetting curves approximated a power function, suggesting that need probability influences the slope but not the form of forgetting. PMID:9421573

  16. Do Alpha-Blockers Prevent the Occurrence of Acute Urinary Retention?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hartung

    2001-01-01

    Acute urinary retention (AUR) is a common complication of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and the incidence varies widely from 0.4 to 25% per year in men seen in urology practices. It has been estimated that AUR is the indication for surgery in around 25–30% of patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and that emergency TURP for AUR is

  17. Retention of Cobalt by Pure and Foreign-Element Associated Goethites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Bibak; JOACHIM GERTH; OLE K. BORGGAARD

    1995-01-01

    Retention studies of the cobalt-goethite system were carried out using synthetic, star-shaped and lath-shaped pure, AI-, Cd-, Cu- and Si-associated goethites. Aluminium and Si are commonly oc- curring foreign elements in natural goethites. The goethites were prepared by coprecipitating Fe and the foreign element under controlled conditions and characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area determination and

  18. Shared project studies, revises hospital record retention policies.

    PubMed

    Domanico, L; Leverette, T J

    1978-05-16

    Through their shared service organization, six hospitals conducted a study that showed that they had similar practical needs and legal requirements for medical record retention but widely varying retention policies. Written policies that were developed for and jointly adopted by the hospitals have ensured consistent, cost-effective retention practices. PMID:640605

  19. Oregon State University Retention and Graduation Rate Report

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    Oregon State University Retention and Graduation Rate Report Cohort Classes: Fall Term 1994 ­ Fall-737-9600 March 31, 2011 #12;2 Oregon State University Retention and Graduation Rate Report Cohort Classes: Fall Term 1994 ­ Fall Term 2009 This retention and graduation rate document contains the following sections

  20. Education for Sustainable Development and Retention: Unravelling a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the question of what education for sustainable development (ESD) research might signify when linked to the concept of "retention", and how this relation (ESD and retention) might be researched. It considers two different perspectives on retention, as revealed through educational research trajectories, drawing on existing…

  1. Chronic in vitro shear stress stimulates endothelial cell retention on prosthetic vascular grafts and reduces subsequent in vivo neointimal thickness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Dardik; Ailian Liu; Barbara J. Ballermann

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The absence of endothelial cells at the luminal surface of a prosthetic vascular graft potentiates thrombosis and neointimal hyperplasia, which are common causes of graft failure in humans. This study tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with chronic in vitro shear stress enhances subsequent endothelial cell retention on vascular grafts implanted in vivo. Methods: Cultured endothelial cells derived from Fischer

  2. Facilitating job retention for chronically ill employees: perspectives of line managers and human resource managers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are a leading contributor to work disability and job loss in Europe. Recent EU policies aim to improve job retention among chronically ill employees. Disability and occupational health researchers argue that this requires a coordinated and pro-active approach at the workplace by occupational health professionals, line managers (LMs) and human resource managers (HRM). Little is known about the perspectives of LMs an HRM on what is needed to facilitate job retention among chronically ill employees. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and compare the perspectives of Dutch LMs and HRM on this issue. Methods Concept mapping methodology was used to elicit and map statements (ideas) from 10 LMs and 17 HRM about what is needed to ensure continued employment for chronically ill employees. Study participants were recruited through a higher education and an occupational health services organization. Results Participants generated 35 statements. Each group (LMs and HRM) sorted these statements into six thematic clusters. LMs and HRM identified four similar clusters: LMs and HRM must be knowledgeable about the impact of chronic disease on the employee; employees must accept responsibility for work retention; work adaptations must be implemented; and clear company policy. Thematic clusters identified only by LMs were: good manager/employee cooperation and knowledge transfer within the company. Unique clusters identified by HRM were: company culture and organizational support. Conclusions There were both similarities and differences between the views of LMs and HRM on what may facilitate job retention for chronically ill employees. LMs perceived manager/employee cooperation as the most important mechanism for enabling continued employment for these employees. HRM perceived organizational policy and culture as the most important mechanism. The findings provide information about topics that occupational health researchers and planners should address in developing job retention programs for chronically ill workers. PMID:21586139

  3. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  4. Is prosthesis retention effective for chronic infections in hip arthroplasties? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Maillet, M; Pavese, P; Bruley, D; Seigneurin, A; François, P

    2015-08-01

    The success rate of prosthesis removal as the standard approach to manage chronic infection in hip arthroplasties (HA) is 80-90 %. The effectiveness of prosthesis retention, with or without surgical debridement, to treat patients with chronic HA infection (symptom duration of more than 4 weeks) has not been well established, whereas this strategy is sometimes used in clinical practice. This study aimed to explore the cumulative incidence of failure of chronic HA infections treated with prosthesis retention, with or without debridement. A systematic literature review was conducted in accordance with the methods described in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Studies concerning patients with chronically infected HA treated with prosthesis retention were included. The primary outcome was the cumulative risk of failure. We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases up to April 2014. The database searches provided a total of 1,213 studies for potential inclusion in the review. Six relevant studies were finally identified, corresponding to 29 patients included. Their treatments consisted of prosthesis retention with debridement. This strategy failed for 14 out of these 29 patients after a 1-year follow-up. The failure rate of the prosthesis retention approach associated to debridement for chronic infection in HA is 48.3 % in this review. Debridement and prosthesis retention in association with prolonged antimicrobial treatment may be an advantageous alternative to arthroplasty exchange for frail patients. The difficulty in finding relevant studies illustrates the challenges of interpreting the existing literature for the management of chronic prosthetic joint infection (PJI). PMID:25926304

  5. Predictors of Workforce Retention Among Malawian Nurse Graduates of a Scholarship Program: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Schmiedeknecht, Kelly; Perera, Melanie; Schell, Ellen; Jere, Joyce; Geoffroy, Elizabeth; Rankin, Sally

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Malawi faces critical health care worker shortages of both physicians and nurses. The Global AIDS Interfaith Alliance (GAIA) began a nursing scholarship program in Malawi that requires graduates to work in the public sector for 4–5 years following graduation. The main objective of this study was to identify job satisfaction and retention factors of scholarship recipients after graduation. Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods study consisting of 30 individual qualitative interviews and 56 quantitative surveys that evaluated job satisfaction, factors associated with retention, and impact of the GAIA Nursing Scholarship Program. Participants included GAIA scholarship recipients who had graduated. We used thematic analysis to analyze qualitative interviews. Kruskal-Wallis, Spearman correlation, and chi-squared tests were used to analyze survey data. Results: The majority of survey and interview participants indicated it was unlikely that they would leave the public sector (70% and 90%, respectively). Most interview and survey participants cited a lack of supplies, inadequate human resources, and high workload as major challenges to their work. Poor working relationships with management or coworkers was significantly correlated with consideration of changing jobs in the next 6 months (correlation coefficient ?0.28, P < .05 and ?0.36, P < .01, respectively). Low salaries, high workload, poor accommodations, and a lack of appreciation were the most common reasons given for considering leaving the public sector while job security, desire to pursue further education, and public service agreement were primary motivations for continuing to work in the public system. Participants felt supported by GAIA staff and expressed a desire to serve their communities in return by working in government-supported health facilities. Conclusions: Despite the many challenges faced by public-sector nurses, low-income countries such as Malawi can employ non-remuneration strategies to retain nurses in the public sector, including adequate housing, availability of supplies, advancement opportunities, and positive work environments. Scholarship programs with close follow-up of graduates may also help increase retention. PMID:25745122

  6. From vigilance to violence: mate retention tactics in married couples.

    PubMed

    Buss, D M; Shackelford, T K

    1997-02-01

    Although much research has explored the adaptive problems of mate selection and mate attraction, little research has investigated the adaptive problem of mate retention. We tested several evolutionary psychological hypotheses about the determinants of mate retention in 214 married people. We assessed the usage of 19 mate retention tactics ranging from vigilance to violence. Key hypothesized findings include the following: Men's, but not women's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's youth and physical attractiveness. Women's, but not men's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's income and status striving. Men's mate retention positively covaried with perceived probability of partner's infidelity. Men, more than women, reported using resource display, submission and debasement, and intrasexual threats to retain their mates. Women, more than men, reported using appearance enhancement and verbal signals of possession. Discussion includes an evolutionary psychological analysis of mate retention in married couples. PMID:9107005

  7. Improving student retention in computer engineering technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierozinski, Russell Ivan

    The purpose of this research project was to improve student retention in the Computer Engineering Technology program at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology by reducing the number of dropouts and increasing the graduation rate. This action research project utilized a mixed methods approach of a survey and face-to-face interviews. The participants were male and female, with a large majority ranging from 18 to 21 years of age. The research found that participants recognized their skills and capability, but their capacity to remain in the program was dependent on understanding and meeting the demanding pace and rigour of the program. The participants recognized that curriculum delivery along with instructor-student interaction had an impact on student retention. To be successful in the program, students required support in four domains: academic, learning management, career, and social.

  8. Science Teacher Retention: Mentoring and Renewal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    "Some forty percent of all new science teachers leave the profession within five years, and too many science teachers are wedded to their textbooks and the routines they acquired during their collegiate years." What can be done to retain new science teachers and reinvigorate more experienced science teachers? Allow Science Teacher Retention: Mentoring and Renewal to "mentor" you as you reach toward this lofty but attainable goal. For this book, Jack Rhoton and Patricia Bowers assembled some of the country's most noted science educators and asked them to offer ideas to resolve the problems of science teacher retention and renewal. Their suggestions are designed to keep the brightest and most motivated new teachers in the profession and help all science teachers to continue to learn and to treat their own profession like science itself--that is, by basing it on questions, suggesting answers, and using their interests and abilities to test the validity of these answers.

  9. Postmenopausal Estrogen Replacement and Tooth Retention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine if estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is associated with improved tooth retention and lower risk of edentulism (no natural teeth remaining) in a cohort of elderly women.PATIENTS AND METHODS Subjects were 488 women, aged 72 to 95, who participated in the 23rd examination cycle (1994 to 1995) of the Framingham Heart Study, a population-based study begun in 1948.

  10. 300 Area Building Retention Evaluation Mitigation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    D. J. McBride

    2007-07-03

    Evaluate the long-term retention of several facilities associated with the PNNL Capability Replacement Laboratory and other Hanfor mission needs. WCH prepared a mitigation plan for three scenarios with different release dates for specific buildings. The evaluations present a proposed plan for providing utility services to retained facilities in support of a long-term (+20 year) lifespan in addition to temporary services to buildings with specified delayed release dates.

  11. Measuring the value of customer retention

    SciTech Connect

    Monts, K.; Bonevac, B.; Lauer, J.; Tessema, D.

    1997-05-01

    Competition will require changes in how market research is conducted and how customers are pursued. The question remains: How does one approach customer retention in a way that provides meaningful guidelines? The conventional wisdom is that {open_quotes}the business of business is selling.{close_quotes} There is some truth to this, but the key question today is: What bearing does this have on how to run a business in a competitive environment? A recent article in the Harvard Business Review noted that, {open_quotes}Increasingly, companies are less focused on selling products and more interested in keeping customers.{close_quotes} Indeed, some observers have posited a natural societal evolutionary trend toward a shift of emphasis toward customer retention vis-a-vis customer acquisition, as a consequence of the primary marketing communication technology shifting from {open_quotes}broadcast{close_quotes} (where messages are sent out to inchoate masses) to {open_quotes}interactive{close_quotes} (where relationships are cultivated with precisely defined market niches or individual customers). The business of growing a business, then, can be framed as a matter of getting customers and keeping them so as to grow the value of the customer base to its fullest potential. In these terms, setting a marketing budget becomes the task of balancing what is spent on customer acquisition with what is spent on retention.

  12. Testing to enhance retention in human anatomy.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jessica M; Thompson, Andrew J; Marshak, David W

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the nervous system, were developed. The quizzes were optional, and no credit was awarded. They were posted online using Blackboard, which provided feedback, and they were very popular. To determine whether the quizzes had any effect on retention, they were given in a controlled setting to 21 future medical and dental students. The weekly quizzes included questions on regional anatomy and an expanded set of questions on the nervous system. Each question about the nervous system was given three times, in a slightly different form each time. The second quiz was given approximately half an hour after the first one, and the third was given one week after the second to assess retention. The quizzes were unpopular, but students showed robust improvement on the questions about the nervous system. The scores increased by almost 9% on the second quiz, with no intervention except viewing the correct answers. The scores were 29% higher on the third quiz than on the first, and there was also a positive correlation between the grades on the quizzes and the final examination. Thus, repeated testing is an effective strategy for learning and retaining information about human anatomy. PMID:21805688

  13. High Efficiency Diffusion Molecular Retention Tumor Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanyan; Yuan, Hushan; Cho, Hoonsung; Kuruppu, Darshini; Jokivarsi, Kimmo; Agarwal, Aayush; Shah, Khalid; Josephson, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR) tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT) injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding) and RAD (control) probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for 111 In3+), a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or IV methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [111In] RGD and [111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by IV). The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide), which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters) for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light. PMID:23505478

  14. Science Center Cambridge Common

    E-print Network

    Johnston Gate Science Center Fire HQ Cambridge LAW SCHOOL Cambridge Common HARVARD YARD HA HAMMOND STREETLibrary Center Holyoke Science Center Widener Fire HQ Cambridge LAW SCHOOL Cambridge Common HARVARD BROADW AY PRESCOTTS QUINCYSTREET EVERETT STREET STREET MASSACHUSETTSAVENUE CAMBRIDGE MASSACHUSETTSAVENUE

  15. Comparing the Effects of Hot Pack and Lukewarm-Water-Soaked Gauze on Postoperative Urinary Retention; A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Afazel, Mohammad Reza; Jalali, Ehsan; Sadat, Zohre; Mahmoodi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Urinary retention is a common postoperative complication that mandates urinary catheterization. Urinary catheterization is associated with different physical, mental, and financial problems for both patients and healthcare systems. The patient inconvenience, urinary tract infections, and increase in hospital stay and expenses are common problems of urinary retention and urinary catheterization. Therefore, alternative ways of relieving urinary retention, preferably noninvasive interventions, are of great interest. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of placing hot pack and lukewarm-water-soaked gauze on the suprapubic region on male patients with postoperative urinary retention. Patients and Methods: This was a three-group, randomized, controlled trial. A convenience sample of 126 male patients who had undergone general, orthopedic, or urologic surgeries were recruited. The block randomization method was used for allocating patients to either the two experimental groups (the hot pack and the lukewarm-water-soaked gauze groups) or the control one. Patients in the experimental groups were treated by placing either hot pack or lukewarm-water-soaked gauze on the suprapubic region. All patients were monitored for 20 minutes for urinary retention relief. If they did not experience urinary retention relief (starting urine flow and bladder evacuate), urinary catheterization would be performed. The data was collected using information sheet. Elimination of urinary retention was compared among study groups. The one-way analysis of variance and the Chi-square tests were used for analyzing data. Results: Respectively, 59.5%, 71.4%, and 7.1% of patients in the hot pack, the soaked gauze, and the control groups experienced relief from urinary retention and the bladder was emptied. There was a significant difference among study groups in percentage of patients who experienced urinary retention relief. However, the difference between the two experimental groups was not significant. The time to urinary retention relief in hot pack, soaked gauze, and control groups was 15.45 ± 3.15, 13.83 ± 3.80, and 14.59 ± 3.29 minutes, respectively. The difference among the study groups in time to urinary retention relief was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Both the lukewarm-water-soaked gauze and the hot pack techniques had significant effects on postoperative urinary retention and significantly reduced the need for urinary catheterization. Using these two simple and cost-effective techniques for managing postoperative urinary retention is recommended. PMID:25741518

  16. Power system commonality study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franklin D. Littman

    1992-01-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system\\/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this

  17. Competing retention pathways of uranium upon reaction with Fe(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Michael S.; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Jones, Morris E.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Cerrato, José M.; Bargar, John R.; Fendorf, Scott

    2014-10-01

    Biogeochemical retention processes, including adsorption, reductive precipitation, and incorporation into host minerals, are important in contaminant transport, remediation, and geologic deposition of uranium. Recent work has shown that U can become incorporated into iron (hydr)oxide minerals, with a key pathway arising from Fe(II)-induced transformation of ferrihydrite, (Fe(OH)3·nH2O) to goethite (?-FeO(OH)); this is a possible U retention mechanism in soils and sediments. Several key questions, however, remain unanswered regarding U incorporation into iron (hydr)oxides and this pathway’s contribution to U retention, including: (i) the competitiveness of U incorporation versus reduction to U(IV) and subsequent precipitation of UO2; (ii) the oxidation state of incorporated U; (iii) the effects of uranyl aqueous speciation on U incorporation; and, (iv) the mechanism of U incorporation. Here we use a series of batch reactions conducted at pH ?7, [U(VI)] from 1 to 170 ?M, [Fe(II)] from 0 to 3 mM, and [Ca] at 0 or 4 mM coupled with spectroscopic examination of reaction products of Fe(II)-induced ferrihydrite transformation to address these outstanding questions. Uranium retention pathways were identified and quantified using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of EXAFS spectra showed that 14-89% of total U was incorporated into goethite, upon reaction with Fe(II) and ferrihydrite. Uranium incorporation was a particularly dominant retention pathway at U concentrations ?50 ?M when either uranyl-carbonato or calcium-uranyl-carbonato complexes were dominant, accounting for 64-89% of total U. With increasing U(VI) and Fe(II) concentrations, U(VI) reduction to U(IV) became more prevalent, but U incorporation remained a functioning retention pathway. These findings highlight the potential importance of U(V) incorporation within iron oxides as a retention process of U across a wide range of biogeochemical environments and the sensitivity of uranium retention processes to operative (bio)geochemical conditions.

  18. Competing retention pathways of uranium upon reaction with Fe(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, Michael S.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Jones, Morris; Ilton, Eugene S.; Cerrato, Jose M.; Bargar, John R.; Fendorf, Scott

    2014-10-01

    Biogeochemical retention processes, including adsorption, reductive precipitation, and incorporation into host minerals, are important in contaminant transport, remediation, and geologic deposition of uranium. Recent work has shown that U can become incorporated into iron (hydr)oxide minerals, with a key pathway arising from Fe(II)-induced transformation of ferrihydrite, (Fe(OH)3•nH2O) to goethite (?-FeO(OH)); this is a possible U retention mechanism in soils and sediments. Several key questions, however, remain unanswered regarding U incorporation into iron (hydr)oxides and this pathway’s contribution to U retention, including: (i) the competitiveness of U incorporation versus reduction to U(IV) and subsequent precipitation of UO2; (ii) the oxidation state of incorporated U; (iii) the effects of uranyl aqueous speciation on U incorporation; and, (iv) the mechanism of U incorporation. Here we use a series of batch reactions conducted at pH ~7, [U(VI)] from 1 to 170 ?M, [Fe(II)] from 0 to 3 mM, and [Ca] at 0 or 4 mM) coupled with spectroscopic examination of reaction products of Fe(II)-induced ferrihydrite transformation to address these outstanding questions. Uranium retention pathways were identified and quantified using extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, x-ray powder diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of EXAFS spectra showed that 14 to 89% of total U was incorporated into goethite, upon reaction with Fe(II) and ferrihydrite. Uranium incorporation was a particularly dominant retention pathway at U concentrations ? 50 ?M when either uranyl-carbonato or calcium-uranyl-carbonato complexes were dominant, accounting for 64 to 89% of total U. With increasing U(VI) and Fe(II) concentrations, U(VI) reduction to U(IV) became more prevalent, but U incorporation remained a functioning retention pathway. These findings highlight the potential importance of U(V) incorporation within iron oxides as a retention process of U across a wide range of biogeochemical environments and the sensitivity of uranium retention processes to operative (bio)geochemical conditions.

  19. Identifying Microlensing by Binaries

    E-print Network

    Rosanne Di Stefano; Rosalba Perna

    1997-02-11

    The microlensing monitoring programs have studied large numbers of standard light curves which seem to be due to lensing by a dark point mass. Theory predicts that many microlensing events should display significant deviations from the standard form. Lens binarity in particular is expected to be common. So far, however, only a handful of light curves exhibit evidence that the lens is a binary; all of these display dramatic deviations from the standard light curve, exhibiting pronounced multiple peaks and/or caustic crossings. Binary-lens events in which the light curve is less dramatically perturbed should also exist in the data set. Why, then, have we not detected them? The answer may lie in the fact that the perturbations, though often significant, tend to be less distinctive than those associated with caustic crossings. We present a method to determine whether a light curve is due to lensing by a binary. The method works for both gently and dramatically perturbed binary-lens light curves. Our method identifies all degenerate solutions-- i.e., all possible lensing events that might have given rise to the observed light curve. It also enables us to eliminate from consideration large ranges of possible false positive identifications associated with light curves that might mimic microlensing by a binary. This method, or a generalization of it, can also be applied to the analysis of light curves that deviate from the standard point-mass lens form because of astronomical effects other than lens binarity.

  20. Common Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinfeld, Aaron; Lewis, Michael; Fong, Terrence; Scholtz, Jean; Schultz, Alan; Kaber, David; Goodrich, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a larger, more detailed toolkit is in progress.

  1. The Impact of Financial Aid on the Enrollment and Retention of Student Athletes at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III Colleges and Universities: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandre, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to review current literature on the enrollment and retention of student athletes at NCAA Division III institutions. However, the review identifies very few studies that specifically focused on Division III programs and none that looks at the influence of financial aid on the enrollment and retention of student athletes at…

  2. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  3. Decreased renal corin expression contributes to sodium retention in proteinuric kidney diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danny Polzin; Henriette J Kaminski; Christian Kastner; Wei Wang; Stephanie Krämer; Stepan Gambaryan; Michael Russwurm; Harm Peters; Qingyu Wu; Alain Vandewalle; Sebastian Bachmann; Franziska Theilig

    2010-01-01

    Patients with proteinuric kidney diseases often have symptoms of salt and water retention. It has been hypothesized that dysregulated sodium absorption is due to increased proteolytic cleavage of epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) and increased Na,K-ATPase expression. Microarray analysis identified a reduction in kidney corin mRNA expression in rat models of puromycin aminonucleoside-induced nephrotic syndrome and acute anti-Thy1 glomerulonephritis (GN). As

  4. Building a peer mentor home health aide program: implications for home health aide retention.

    PubMed

    Kreiser, Athena Lu; Adamski, Tom; Gallagher, Bridget

    2010-09-01

    The Home Health Aide (HHA) industry is challenged with low wages, little possibility of career advancement, and high turnover rates. Jewish Home Lifecare, Home Assistance Personnel Inc. (HAPI) is a home care aide agency that has developed a Peer Mentor HHA program. Peer Mentor HHAs mentor newly hired/trained HHAs within our agency. This career path leads to higher paying work that allows for growth of our workforce for the identified growing care need and positively impacts HHA retention. PMID:20811183

  5. Modeling colloid transport and retention in saturated porous media under unfavorable attachment conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Scott A.; Torkzaban, Saeed; Simunek, Jiri

    2011-10-01

    A mathematical model is presented for colloid transport and retention in saturated porous media under unfavorable attachment conditions. The model accounts for colloid transport in the bulk aqueous phase and adjacent to the solid surface, and rates of colloid collision, interaction, release, and immobilization on the solid phase. Model parameters were estimated using (1) filtration theory; (2) calculated interaction energies in conjunction with the Maxwellian kinetic energy model of diffusion; (3) information about the velocity magnitude and distribution adjacent to the solid phase that was obtained from pore scale water flow simulations; (4) colloid and collector sizes; (5) the balance of applied hydrodynamic and resisting adhesive torques; and (6) time dependent filling of retention locations using a Langmuirian approach. The presented theory constrains the model parameters and output to physically realistic values in many instances, and minimizes the need for parameter optimization. Example simulations demonstrate that our modeling formulation is qualitatively consistent with observed trends for retention with colloid size and concentration, grain size, and velocity for many systems. The model provides a clear conceptual explanation for the causes of hyperexponential, exponential, uniform, and nonmonotonic retention profiles without invoking hypotheses with regard to colloid heterogeneity, aggregation, or multiple deposition rates. Furthermore, the model formulation and research presented herein helps to identify areas where additional research and theory development are still needed.

  6. Modeling Colloid Transport and Retention in Saturated Porous Media Under Unfavorable Attachment Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, S. A.; Torkzaban, S.; Simunek, J.

    2011-12-01

    A mathematical model is presented for colloid transport and retention in saturated porous media under unfavorable attachment conditions. The model accounts for colloid transport in the bulk aqueous phase and adjacent to the solid surface, and rates of colloid collision, interaction, release and immobilization on the solid phase. Model parameters were estimated using: (i) filtration theory; (ii) calculated interaction energies in conjunction with the Maxwellian kinetic energy model of diffusion; (iii) information about the velocity magnitude and distribution adjacent to the solid phase that was obtained from pore-scale water flow simulations; (iv) colloid and collector sizes; (v) the balance of applied hydrodynamic and resisting adhesive torques; and (vi) time dependent filling of retention locations using a Langmuirian approach. The presented theory constrains the model parameters and output to physically realistic values in many instances, and minimizes the need for parameter optimization. Example simulations demonstrate that our modeling formulation is qualitatively consistent with observed trends for retention with colloid size and concentration, grain size, and velocity for many systems. The model provides a clear conceptual explanation for the causes of hyperexponential, exponential, uniform, and nonmonotonic retention profiles without invoking hypotheses with regard to colloid heterogeneity, aggregation, or multiple deposition rates. Furthermore, the model formulation and research presented herein helps to identify areas where additional research and theory development are still needed.

  7. Predictors of retention in a drug-free unit/substance abuse treatment in prison.

    PubMed

    Casares-López, María José; González-Menéndez, Ana; Festinger, David S; Fernández-García, Paula; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón; Secades, Roberto; Matejkowski, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The high rate of dropout from treatment programs is a recurring problem in the field of drug dependence. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of retention in a prison-based drug-free unit (DFU). The relationships among subscales of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) as well as motivation and personality profiles and length of stay in a DFU, of 57 prisoners admitted for the first time to the program were analyzed. The mean dropout rates were 52.9% at six months and 67.8% at one year. The mean length of stay was 195.05 days. Predictors of retention at six months included the ASI Family Composite Score, the motivation subscale Taking Steps, and Narcissistic personality trait score. Predictors of retention at one year included lower ASI Psychological Composite Score, higher scores on the motivation subscale Ambivalence, and higher number of charges pending at the time of admission to the program. Identification of these predictor variables may be useful for developing strategies to increase retention in the context of in-prison substance abuse treatment. PMID:23706657

  8. Factor XIII activity mediates red blood cell retention in venous thrombi

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Maria M.; Byrnes, James R.; Wang, Jian-Guo; Tran, Reginald; Lam, Wilbur A.; Di Paola, Jorge; Mackman, Nigel; Degen, Jay L.; Flick, Matthew J.; Wolberg, Alisa S.

    2014-01-01

    Venous thrombi, fibrin- and rbc-rich clots triggered by inflammation and blood stasis, underlie devastating, and sometimes fatal, occlusive events. During intravascular fibrin deposition, rbc are thought to become passively trapped in thrombi and therefore have not been considered a modifiable thrombus component. In the present study, we determined that activity of the transglutaminase factor XIII (FXIII) is critical for rbc retention within clots and directly affects thrombus size. Compared with WT mice, mice carrying a homozygous mutation in the fibrinogen ? chain (Fib?390–396A) had a striking 50% reduction in thrombus weight due to reduced rbc content. Fibrinogen from mice harboring the Fib?390–396A mutation exhibited reduced binding to FXIII, and plasma from these mice exhibited delayed FXIII activation and fibrin crosslinking, indicating these residues mediate FXIII binding and activation. FXIII-deficient mice phenocopied mice carrying Fib?390–396A and produced smaller thrombi with fewer rbc than WT mice. Importantly, FXIII-deficient human clots also exhibited reduced rbc retention. The addition of FXIII to FXIII-deficient clots increased rbc retention, while inhibition of FXIII activity in normal blood reduced rbc retention and produced smaller clots. These findings establish the FXIII-fibrinogen axis as a central determinant in venous thrombogenesis and identify FXIII as a potential therapeutic target for limiting venous thrombosis. PMID:24983320

  9. Why Study Geoscience? Identifying Effective Recruitment and Retention Strategies for an Undergraduate Earth & Environmental Sciences Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajoczki, S.; Eyles, C. H.; Stewart, J.; Dasilva, L.

    2005-12-01

    McMaster University is a `research intensive' university with 17,000+ full time undergraduate students. The School of Geography and Earth Sciences (SGES) is located within the Faculty of Science, offers B.Sc., B.A., M.Sc., M.A. and PhD degree programs and teaches more than 70 undergraduate courses on an annual basis. The Honours B.Sc program in Earth and Environmental Sciences (EES) graduates approximately 25 students per year. Students enroll in undergraduate SGES programs in their second year, after completion of an introductory first year in the Faculty of Science in which they take compulsory science courses including math, physics, chemistry, and biology. First year students, as well as those in upper years, may also elect to take one or more of three introductory courses offered by SGES (Earth & the Environment, The Living Environment, Atmosphere & Hydrosphere) to complete their science requirements. Most students entering the Faculty of Science know little about geoscience as it does not form an important part of the Ontario secondary school curriculum. Hence, recruitment into the EES program is primarily via the first year courses. In order to establish reasons why students elected to take the introductory courses offered by SGES, and their reasons for considering subsequent entry to the B.Sc program, a survey of students taking one of the courses was conducted in the fall of 2003. Results from the survey indicate that students enroll in the course, and subsequently the EES program, for a variety of reasons including: general interest in how the planet works, concern for the environment, interesting title of the course and reputation of the instructor. Student concern over lack of potential jobs is cited as the main reason for not pursuing a degree in geoscience. This survey has helped to direct the multifaceted recruitment strategies used by SGES to continue to develop its undergraduate program through delivery of high quality first year courses. Additional recruitment strategies used to recruit and retain high quality students include an active undergraduate society and departmental events that contribute towards a culture of learning and sense of belonging that is sought by students.

  10. Why Study Geoscience? Identifying Effective Recruitment and Retention Strategies for an Undergraduate Earth & Environmental Sciences Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Vajoczki; C. H. Eyles; J. Stewart; L. Dasilva

    2005-01-01

    McMaster University is a `research intensive' university with 17,000+ full time undergraduate students. The School of Geography and Earth Sciences (SGES) is located within the Faculty of Science, offers B.Sc., B.A., M.Sc., M.A. and PhD degree programs and teaches more than 70 undergraduate courses on an annual basis. The Honours B.Sc program in Earth and Environmental Sciences (EES) graduates approximately

  11. [Survey of treatment-seeking complete denture wearers concerning tooth loss, retention behavior and treatment expectations].

    PubMed

    Zitzmann, Nicola U; Marinello, Carlo P

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to gather information about time and etiology of tooth loss, and to analyze the reasons for treatment needs with a questionnaire used among edentulous patients. 60 patients (age 44-98 years) who requested dental treatment were included. More than half of the patients were edentulous before the age of 60, in almost all cases the maxilla was affected first. This difference was more pronounced in women, who experienced tooth loss in the maxilla 17 years prior to the mandible. At the time of edentulism women were about ten years younger than men. According to patients'report, periodontal disease was the most common reason for tooth loss. In the mandible, prosthesis retention was influenced by alveolar ridge resorption, while in the maxilla there was no relation between the amount of resorption and perceived retention. This indicates that maxillary prostheses retention is influenced by other factors besides the alveolar ridge morphology. So, permanent intake of drugs potentially causing xerostomia was related to poorer assessment of prostheses retention in the upper jaw. The results of the questionnaire "Patient satisfaction related to prosthetic restoration" before treatment indicated that the general satisfaction with the existing complete denture in the mandible was influenced by functional problems and the impairment of patients'self-confidence (R-squared = 0.754). The main reason for requesting treatment was the poor retention of the lower denture. More than half of the participants stated that they refrained from eating certain foods due to a reduced chewing ability. PMID:16610458

  12. Common Control System Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

  13. Transport, retention, and ecological significance of woody debris within a large ephemeral river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, P.J.; Jacobson, K.M.; Angermeier, P.L.; Cherry, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    The spatiotemporal patterns and ecological significance of the retention of coarse particulate organic matter and large woody debris have been intensively studied in perennial rivers and streams but are virtually unknown in ephemeral systems. We examined the influence of 2 features characteristic of ephemeral systems, downstream hydrologic decay and in-channel tree growth, on the distribution, transport, and retention of woody debris following a flood having a ~2.6-y recurrence interval in the ephemeral Kuiseb River in southwestern Africa. A total of 2105 pieces of wood were painted at 8 sites along the river channel to measure retention patterns. The flood had a peak discharge of 159 m3/s at the upper end of the study area, decaying to <1 m3/s by 200 km downstream. Downstream export of wood from marking sites totaled 59.5% (n = 1253). Transport distances ranged from 1 to 124 km, and 34.8% (n = 436) of the exported wood was recovered. Marked wood retained within marking sites was significantly longer than exported wood (p < 0.001, t-test). Once in transport, there was little correlation between wood length and distance traveled (r = 0.11, correlation analysis, n = 369). Length influenced the site of retention; material retained on debris piles was significantly longer than that stranded on channel sediments (p < 0.001, t-test). In-channel growth of Faidherbia trees significantly influenced wood retention; 83.7% of marked wood not moved by the flood was associated with debris piles on Faidherbia trees. Similarly, 65% of the exported wood retained within downstream debris piles was associated with Faidherbia trees. In contrast to many perennial systems, we observed a general increase in wood retention downstream, peaking in the river's lower reaches in response to hydrologic decay. Debris piles induced sediment deposition and the formation of in-channel islands. Following flood recession, debris piles and their associated sediments provided moist, organic-rich microhabitats, which were focal points for decomposition and secondary production, mimicking patterns reported from the channels of perennial streams and rivers. The ecological significance of retentive obstacles and associated organic debris is a feature common to all fluvial ecosystems, irrespective of their hydrologic regime.

  14. Sortase-deficient lactobacilli: effect on immunomodulation and gut retention.

    PubMed

    Call, Emma K; Goh, Yong Jun; Selle, Kurt; Klaenhammer, Todd R; O'Flaherty, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    Surface proteins of probiotic microbes, including Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus gasseri, are believed to promote retention in the gut and mediate host-bacterial communications. Sortase, an enzyme that covalently couples a subset of extracellular proteins containing an LPXTG motif to the cell surface, is of particular interest in characterizing bacterial adherence and communication with the mucosal immune system. A sortase gene, srtA, was identified in L. acidophilus NCFM (LBA1244) and L. gasseri ATCC 33323 (LGAS_0825). Additionally, eight and six intact sortase-dependent proteins were predicted in L. acidophilus and L. gasseri, respectively. Due to the role of sortase in coupling these proteins to the cell wall, ?srtA deletion mutants of L. acidophilus and L. gasseri were created using the upp-based counterselective gene replacement system. Inactivation of sortase did not cause significant alteration in growth or survival in simulated gastrointestinal juices. Meanwhile, both ?srtA mutants showed decreased adhesion to porcine mucin in vitro. Murine dendritic cells exposed to the ?srtA mutant of L. acidophilus or L. gasseri induced lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-12, respectively, compared with the parent strains. In vivo co-colonization of the L. acidophilus ?srtA mutant and its parent strain in germ-free 129S6/SvEv mice resulted in a significant one-log reduction of the ?srtA mutant population. Additionally, a similar reduction of the ?srtA mutant was observed in the caecum. This study shows for the first time that sortase-dependent proteins contribute to gut retention of probiotic microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25500495

  15. New Strategies To Promote Stable Employment and Career Progression: An Introduction to the Employment Retention and Advancement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan; Anderson, Jacquelyn; Wavelet, Melissa; Gardiner, Karen N.; Fishman, Michael E.

    The Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project was undertaken to identify effective strategies for helping low-income parents work more steadily and advance in the labor market. The 15 ERA demonstration projects that were operating in nine states (California, Florida, Illinois, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, South Carolina; Tennessee, and…

  16. Predictors of 4-Year Retention among African American and White Community-Dwelling Participants in the UAB Study of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allman, Richard M.; Sawyer, Patricia; Crowther, Martha; Strothers, Harry S., III; Turner, Timothy; Fouad, Mona N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To identify racial/ethnic differences in retention of older adults at 3 levels of participation in a prospective observational study: telephone, in-home assessments, and home visits followed by blood draws. Design and Methods: A prospective study of 1,000 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older included a…

  17. Poor retention of passive induced transponder (PIT) tags for mark-recapture studies on tropical sea cucumbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven W. Purcell; Natacha S. Agudo; Hugues Gossuin

    2008-01-01

    We tested the short-term retention of passive induced transponder (PIT) tags on 20 adult sea cucumbers of both Holothuria whitmaei and Actinopyga miliaris in New Caledonia. One PIT tag was injected into the coelomic cavity of each individual. One double T-bar tag was inserted into the same hole in the body wall as a means of later identifying the individuals

  18. Intake, ingesta retention, particle size distribution and digestibility in the hippopotamidae.

    PubMed

    Clauss, M; Schwarm, A; Ortmann, S; Alber, D; Flach, E J; Kühne, R; Hummel, J; Streich, W J; Hofer, H

    2004-12-01

    Although several aspects of the digestive physiology of the hippopotamidae-non-ruminating foregut fermenters-have been described, ingesta kinetics and passage characteristics of these species are not well understood. The most outstanding feature of the hippo digestive physiology reported so far is the very long mean ingesta retention times (MRTs) measured by Foose [Foose, T., 1982. Trophic strategies of ruminant versus nonruminant ungulates. PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, Chicago.]. Since those data had been investigated with animals without water access, we intended to measure MRT in hippos which were allowed to enter water pools during the night. MRT parameters as well as dry matter (DM) digestibility were determined in four common (Hippopotamus amphibius) and four pygmy hippos (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) on two different diets each using cobalt ethylendiamintetraacetate (Co-EDTA) as a fluid, chromium (Cr)-mordanted fibre (<2 mm) as a particle and acid detergent lignin (ADL) as an internal digestibility marker. Four of the animals additionally received cerium (Ce)-mordanted fibres (2-10 mm) as particle markers. Total MRTs for fluids and particles ranged between 20-35 and 48-106 h in the common and between 13-39 and 32-107 h in the pygmy hippos. The difference between fluid and particle retention was greater than usually reported in ruminants. Excretion patterns of the markers differed from those usually observed in ruminants but resembled those reported for macropods (kangaroos), indicating a plug-flow reactor-like physiology in the hippo forestomach (FRST). This finding complements other described similarities between the macropod and the hippo forestomach. The measurements of larger particle retention profiles suggest that in the hippo, larger particles might be excreted either faster or at the same rate as smaller particles, indicating a general difference between ruminants and hippos with respect to differential particle retention. The digestive physiology of hippos is characterised by a generally low food intake, long ingesta retention times and dry matter digestibilities lower than reported in ruminants. Moderate digestibilities in spite of long retention times might be the result of the generally high average ingesta particle size in hippos. The comparatively easy management of pygmy hippos, together with the significant correlations between food intake, MRT and digestibility in the pygmy hippos of this study, recommends this species for further studies on the interplay of these parameters in herbivore digestive physiology. PMID:15596390

  19. Workforce Challenges and Retention Success Stories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, John T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document discusses the current and future challenges in building and retaining the required workforce of scientist and engineers for NASA. Specifically, the talk reviews the current situation at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Several programs at NASA for high school and college students to assist in inspiring the next generation of scientist and engineers are reviewed. The issue of retention of the best of the young scientists and engineers is also reviewed, with a brief review of several young engineers and their success with and for NASA.

  20. Saturation to Improve Pollutant Retention in a Rain Garden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL E. D IETZ; JOHN C. C LAUSEN

    2006-01-01

    Retention of NO3-N and NH3-N in a laboratory, pilot-scale rain garden was 24% and 79%, respectively (3). Retention of NO3-N by rain gardens in Haddam, CT was a similar 35% (14). The creation of a saturated zone at the bottom of the rain garden has been recommended to promote denitrifi- cation and increase the poor retention of NO3-N by rain

  1. Factors influencing student performance on the carpal bone test as a preliminary evaluation of anatomical knowledge retention.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Amanda J; Armson, Anthony; Losco, C Dominique; Losco, Barrett; Walker, Bruce F

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a positive correlation exists between clinical knowledge and retained concepts in basic sciences. Studies have demonstrated a modest attrition of anatomy knowledge over time, which may be influenced by students' perceived importance of the basic sciences and the learning styles adopted. The aims of this study were to: (1) conduct a cross-sectional evaluation of the retention of anatomical knowledge in preclinical (second-year) and clinical (fifth-year) chiropractic students at Murdoch University; and (2) examine students' perceptions of factors that may influence their anatomy knowledge retention. Second- and fifth-year chiropractic students at Murdoch University were invited to participate in the study. Ninety-one students voluntarily participated. The Carpal Bone Test, previously utilized to determine the retention of anatomical knowledge, was utilized to determine the extent to which participants retained gross anatomy knowledge. Participants also completed a questionnaire specifically designed to identify the factors that may have influenced their retention of gross anatomy knowledge. A two-sided Pearson chi-square test of association was used to ascertain statistically significant differences in carpal bone retention and students' responses between the two cohorts. Seventy percent of the fifth-year (clinical) chiropractic students correctly identified all eight carpal bones compared to only six percent of second-year chiropractic students. The majority of participants in both cohorts believed that gross anatomy knowledge is of clinical importance. The use of mnemonics and the clinical application of anatomy knowledge were identified as factors that significantly influenced participants' gross anatomy knowledge retention within this study. PMID:24838440

  2. Retention and Graduation InitiativeRetention and Graduation Initiative 4 May 2011y

    E-print Network

    Bieber, Michael

    retention and graduation and to recommend tactics for implementation that will yield improvements on both intervention forthere should be no more than one 3-credit intervention for underprepared students. #12 intervention­ More proactive advising and more active intervention ­ e. g. Reconsideration of major when

  3. Mate retention in marriage: Further evidence of the reliability of the Mate Retention Inventory

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    Todd K. Shackelford a,*, Aaron T. Goetz a , David M. Buss b a Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University, 2912 College Avenue, Davie, FL 33314, USA b Department of Psychology, The University rights reserved. Keywords: Mate retention; Marriage; Evolutionary psychology 1. Introduction Maintaining

  4. Mechanisms involved in postdeglutition retention in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dejaeger, E; Pelemans, W; Ponette, E; Joosten, E

    1997-01-01

    This study examines possible quantifiable causes of postdeglutition pharyngeal retention in the elderly. Manofluorography and computer processing of video images are performed. Retention in the valleculae and in the piriform sinuses is associated with a markedly reduced pharyngeal shortening, a low tongue driving force (TDF), and a diminished amplitude of the pharyngeal contraction. There is no relationship with the hypopharyngeal suction pump (HSP). Retention limited to the valleculae is associated with a low TDF, and retention restricted to the piriform sinuses is accompanied by a reduced pharyngeal shortening. PMID:9071804

  5. What the Regulations Say about Record Retention and Imaged Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conard, Linda, Comp.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the federal government's general provisions on student financial aid record retention and the Federal Perkins Loan program's procedures for maintaining promissory notes and repayment schedules. (EV)

  6. The Impact of Acculturation, Motivation and the Therapeutic Alliance on Treatment Retention and Outcomes for Hispanic Drug Involved Probationers

    PubMed Central

    Brocato, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Factors associated with retention and outcomes for Hispanic offenders mandated to treatment for substance use disorders have been overlooked in the literature resulting in an impediment to providing evidence-based, culturally relevant treatment services. This project examined the roles of motivational factors, the therapeutic relationship, and acculturation in predicting treatment retention and recidivism among Hispanic male probationers mandated to residential treatment. By following a treatment cohort over one hundred and twenty days, this research identifies factors that may be targeted to improve interventions and policies. The following conclusions are supported: among Hispanic offenders, the number of days in treatment is positively related to motivation to change and level of acculturation. PMID:23976877

  7. Radiomarked Common Loon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A juvenile common loon wearing a satellite transmitter antenna follows an adult. USGS scientists and partners captured and radiomarked juvenile common loons on lakes scattered across Minnesota and Wisconsin during the last two weeks of August 2014 to track their movements and wintering ground...

  8. Common Platform Enumeration: Dictionary

    E-print Network

    who reviewed drafts of this document and contributed to its technical content. The authors would like the development of the document. Abstract This report defines the Common Platform Enumeration (CPE) DictionaryCommon Platform Enumeration: Dictionary Specification Version 2.3 Paul Cichonski David Waltermire

  9. A quantitative structure–retention relationship study for prediction of chromatographic relative retention time of chlorinated monoterpenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jahan B. GhasemiSh; Sh. Ahmadi; S. D. Brown

    2011-01-01

    A novel quantitative structure–retention relationship model has been developed for the gas chromatographic relative retention\\u000a times (t\\u000a R) of 67 polychlorinated monoterpene congeners in a non-polar column. Modeling of the relative retention time of these compounds\\u000a as a function of the theoretically derived descriptors was established by principal component and partial least squares regressions.\\u000a The choice of optimal training sets

  10. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOEpatents

    Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.; Burch, S.D.

    1997-07-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber there between. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food. 26 figs.

  11. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Burch, Steven D. (Golden, CO)

    1997-01-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber therebetween. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food.

  12. Hydrogen peroxide retention in rime ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snider, Jefferson R.; Montague, Derek C.; Vali, Gabor

    1992-05-01

    The extent to which H2O2 dissolved in cloud droplets is trapped in rime ice affects the composition of precipitation and the rate of H2O2 removal from the atmosphere. Measurements were conducted in winter stratiform clouds at a remote mountain-top site in southeastern Wyoming, thus avoiding the difficulties of preparing laboratory clouds whose chemical and physical properties are similar to natural clouds. Quantities directly observed were H2O2 concentrations in cloud water collected as rime, air temperature, gaseous H2O2, O3, and SO2, and cloud liquid water concentration. Values of the retention coefficient, ?, defined as the ratio of the H2O2 concentration in the melted rime sample divided by the equilibrium concentration in the supercooled droplets, were always less than unity (?¯=0.24±0.07). Corrections to account for the rapid reaction between dissolved H2O2 and sulfur(IV) increase the average value of the retention coefficient to only 0.30. An observed correlation between ? and riming rate suggests that H2O2 is released to the gas phase during riming. These field measurements do not agree with laboratory determinations of ?.

  13. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  14. Hydrogen retention and diffusion in tungsten beryllide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouche, A.; Fernandez, N.; Ferro, Y.

    2014-08-01

    Beryllide compounds are often used in various domains because they are more resilient to oxidation than pure beryllium and at the same time they keep some of the properties of this metal. Nevertheless, the data about their properties during atomic hydrogen exposure are very scarce: numerous experiments have been conducted in the past few years on solid hydride deposition under beryllium-seeded plasma action or on energetic hydrogen implantation into metallic beryllium; many others have been devoted to hydrogen retention and diffusion in tungsten. There have been fewer studies about hydrogen interaction with the alloys of these metals, although the beryllium-tungsten mixed compounds have been experimentally detected in laboratory experiments. This article reports on calculations carried out using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) on tungsten beryllide crystal (Be12W) taken as a model alloy. The formation and reactivity of atomic vacancies are investigated in the domain of temperature ranging from 0 to 500?K, together with atomic hydrogen retention and diffusivity in the bulk and in/out vacancies.

  15. High retention membrane bioreactors: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenhai; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-09-01

    Extensive research has focussed on the development of novel high retention membrane bioreactor (HR-MBR) systems for wastewater reclamation in recent years. HR-MBR integrates high rejection membrane separation with conventional biological treatment in a single step. High rejection membrane separation processes currently used in HR-MBR applications include nanofiltration, forward osmosis, and membrane distillation. In these HR-MBR systems, organic contaminants can be effectively retained, prolonging their retention time in the bioreactor and thus enhancing their biodegradation. Therefore, HR-MBR can offer a reliable and elegant solution to produce high quality effluent. However, there are several technological challenges associated with the development of HR-MBR, including salinity build-up, low permeate flux, and membrane degradation. This paper provides a critical review on these challenges and potential opportunities of HR-MBR for wastewater treatment and water reclamation, and aims to guide and inform future research on HR-MBR for fast commercialisation of this innovative technology. PMID:24996563

  16. Quantitative structure-retention relationships models for prediction of high performance liquid chromatography retention time of small molecules: endogenous metabolites and banned compounds.

    PubMed

    Gory?ski, Krzysztof; Bojko, Barbara; Nowaczyk, Alicja; Buci?ski, Adam; Pawliszyn, Janusz; Kaliszan, Roman

    2013-10-01

    Quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) is a technique capable of improving the identification of analytes by predicting their retention time on a liquid chromatography column (LC) and/or their properties. This approach is particularly useful when LC is coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) platform. The main aim of the present study was to develop and describe appropriate QSRR models that provide usable predictive capability, allowing false positive identification to be removed during the interpretation of metabolomics data, while additionally increasing confidence of experimental results in doping control area. For this purpose, a dataset consisting of 146 drugs, metabolites and banned compounds from World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) lists, was used. A QSRR study was carried out separately on high quality retention data determined by reversed-phase (RP-LC-HRMS) and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC-LC-HRMS) systems, employing a single protocol for each system. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was applied to construct the linear QSRR models based on a variety of theoretical molecular descriptors. The regression equations included a set of three descriptors for each model: ALogP, BELe6, R2p and ALogP(2), FDI, BLTA96, were used in the analysis of reversed-phase and HILIC column models, respectively. Statistically significant QSRR models (squared correlation coefficient for model fitting, R(2)=0.95 for RP and R(2)=0.84 for HILIC) indicate a strong correlation between retention time and the molecular descriptors. An evaluation of the best correlation models, performed by validation of each model using three tests (leave-one-out, leave-many-out, external tests), demonstrated the reliability of the models. This paper provides a practical and effective method for analytical chemists working with LC/HRMS platforms to improve predictive confidence of studies that seek to identify small molecules. PMID:24050665

  17. Geoecological controls on net mercury retention in northern peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindler, R.; Rydberg, J.

    2010-12-01

    Peatlands, which receive much or all of their element inputs (e.g. nutrients or trace metals) via the atmosphere, are considered an ideal archive for studying past changes in mercury (Hg) deposition. These archives potentially contain information not only on important anthropogenic contributions to the environment over the past few centuries, but also on the natural antecedent conditions over the past several millennia. However, the assumption that Hg accumulation rates in peat represent an absolute record of past atmospheric deposition has proved problematic. In on-going studies of Hg retention in northern peatlands (bogs and oligotrophic fens) we find that net Hg accumulation is influenced by a range of geoecological factors in addition to actual changes in atmospheric deposition. Factors that influence the interception and net retention of Hg include differences in vegetation and microtopography - both of which may enhance dry deposition, and properties and processes within the peat such as decomposition that might influence long-term retention. Wetness, too, may play an important role in net retention in the surface peat through increased evasive losses of Hg. Differences between Hg concentrations in vascular plants and mosses are well established (at our site: 5-15 ng/g for leaves/needles of cottongrass, heather, Labrador tea and pine; 15-45 ng/g for mosses Sphagnum centrale and S. rubellum), but we also measured significant differences between different mosses within the same plots (S. rubellum, 24±3 ng/g; S. centrale, 18±2 ng/g). Further differences in Hg concentrations occur for single moss species in different settings; for example, Hg concentrations in S. centrale in open Sphagnum-only plots relative to plots including a mixture of vascular plants that form a field-layer canopy are 18±2 and 32±6 ng/g, respectively. As a result, sampling sites consisting of both Sphagnum and vascular plants have long-term cumulative inventories of mercury in the peat that are >60% greater than in areas characterized only by a mixture of Sphagnum species (where the water table is also relatively highest). However, comparisons of Pb-210 inventories, an independent proxy for atmospheric deposition, indicate that this increase in interception should be ?40%. Based on data also from other sites, where Hg inventories may vary between cores by 2-4 times, we have observed that wetter sites invariably have the lowest cumulative Hg inventories and hypothesize greater evasive loss from wetter sites, which has been shown for soils. We will investigate this during fall 2010. Although we have identified a number of factors that complicate the use of peat records as absolute records of mercury deposition, these problems can be circumvented by multi-core studies that provide a more robust estimate of mean net accumulation rates in peatlands.

  18. Carbon dioxide retention and carbon exchange on unsaturated Quaternary sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, R.G.; Armstrong, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Retention of CO2 on three air-dried and partly water-saturated glacial and eolian sediments was measured at 20??C for a range in, PCO2 that commonly occurs in unsaturated zones. Ratios of the relative losses of CO2 and 14CO2 from a surrogate atmosphere overlying the sediments were 1:1 for the dry condition. For the wet condition, those relative losses were generally {precedes above single-line equals sign} 1:2, indicating bicarbonateion formation and C-isotope exchange. Mass losses of CO2 per surface area of sediment were similar for dry and wet conditions; however, CO2 losses for the wet condition were 8 to 17 times greater than losses predicted by calcite equilibria. Occurrence of this comparatively large reservoir of immobile, exchangeable C in unsaturated zones can cause alteration of the C-isotope composition of soil CO2 and of dissolved inorganic C in interstitial water, and needs to be considered when modeling 14CO2 movement in the unsaturated zone or when interpreting radiocarbon ages of infiltrating water. ?? 1990.

  19. Retention in HIV care among female sex workers in the Dominican Republic: implications for research, policy and programming.

    PubMed

    Zulliger, Rose; Maulsby, Cathy; Barrington, Clare; Holtgrave, David; Donastorg, Yeycy; Perez, Martha; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2015-04-01

    There are clear benefits of retention in HIV care, yet millions of people living with HIV are sub-optimally retained. This study described factors from Andersen's behavioral model that were associated with retention in HIV care among 268 female sex workers (FSWs) living with HIV in the Dominican Republic using two measures of retention: a 6-month measure of HIV clinic attendance and a measure that combined clinic attendance and missed visits. FSWs who ever attended HIV care reported high rates (92 %) of 6-month attendance, but 37 % reported missed visits. Using the combined retention measure, the odds of being retained in HIV care were higher among FSWs with more positive perceptions of HIV service providers [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.17; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 01.09, 1.25] and lower among women who reported recent alcohol consumption (AOR 0.50; 95 % CI 0.28, 0.92) and self-stigmatizing beliefs related to sex work (AOR 0.93; 95 % CI 0.88, 0.98). These findings support the hypothesis that retention in HIV care may be best determined through a combined measure as missed visits are an important mechanism to identify in-care patients who require additional support. PMID:25566761

  20. Scoring Dawg Core Breakoff and Retention Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Backes, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    This novel core break-off and retention mechanism consists of a scoring dawg controlled by a set of two tubes (a drill tube and an inner tube). The drill tube and the inner tube have longitudinal concentric holes. The solution can be implemented in an eccentric tube configuration as well where the tubes have eccentric longitudinal holes. The inner tube presents at the bottom two control surfaces for controlling the orientation of the scoring dawg. The drill tube presents a sunk-in profile on the inside of the wall for housing the scoring dawg. The inner tube rotation relative to the drill tube actively controls the orientation of the scoring dawg and hence its penetration and retrieval from the core. The scoring dawg presents a shaft, two axially spaced arms, and a tooth. The two arms slide on the control surfaces of the inner tube. The tooth, when rotated, can penetrate or be extracted from the core. During drilling, the two tubes move together maintaining the scoring dawg completely outside the core. After the desired drilling depth has been reached the inner tube is rotated relative to the drill tube such that the tooth of the scoring dawg moves toward the central axis. By rotating the drill tube, the scoring dawg can score the core and so reduce its cross sectional area. The scoring dawg can also act as a stress concentrator for breaking the core in torsion or tension. After breaking the core, the scoring dawg can act as a core retention mechanism. For scoring, it requires the core to be attached to the rock. If the core is broken, the dawg can be used as a retention mechanism. The scoring dawg requires a hard-tip insert like tungsten carbide for scoring hard rocks. The relative rotation of the two tubes can be controlled manually or by an additional actuator. In the implemented design solution the bit rotation for scoring was in the same direction as the drilling. The device was tested for limestone cores and basalt cores. The torque required for breaking the 10-mm diameter limestone cores was 5 to 5.8 lb-in. (0.56 to 0.66 N-m).

  1. Predictors of Early Retention in Rural Baccalaureate Nursing Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Dokagari

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine predictors of student retention in generic baccalaureate nursing programs. The following question was addressed: How well do the independent variables of Self-Directed Learning Readiness (SDLR), nursing self-efficacy (NSE), and program admission predict retention of students enrolled in the first two…

  2. Effect of texture and microstructure on flavour retention and release

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kris B. de Roos

    2003-01-01

    A review is given of the effects of texture and (micro)structure on the retention of aroma compounds during processing and storage and on the aroma release and perception during consumption. Examples are given of the effect of viscosity on flavour retention in model systems and during fluid bed drying. Further, there are examples of the effect of product inhomogeneity on

  3. Maxillary Sinus Retention Cysts Protruding Into the Inferior Meatus

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyu-Sup; Roh, Hwan-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Although most of the maxillary sinus retention cysts are asymptomatic, a few of them increase in size and cause symptoms. However, they rarely erode bony walls nor protrude into the inferior meatus. I present 2 cases with maxillary sinus retention cysts protruding into the inferior meatus by making a large defect on the medial wall of the maxillary sinus. PMID:25177441

  4. Biofilm and granular systems to improve Anammox biomass retention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Fernández; J. R. Vázquez-Padín; A. Mosquera-Corral; J. L. Campos; R. Méndez

    2008-01-01

    Appropriate biomass retention in reactors is a crucial factor for the accurate operation of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process due to the slow growth rate of this bacterial population. In the present work two different approaches were studied and compared to improve Anammox biomass retention minimizing wash-out events: (1) formation of granular biomass using influents with high inorganic salts

  5. Modeling Coast Redwood Variable Retention Management Regimes1

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Modeling Coast Redwood Variable Retention Management Regimes1 John-Pascal Berrill2 and Kevin O of overstory and understory cohorts within pure coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) stands managed under comparison of aggregated and dispersed variable retention. Key words: coast redwood, growth and yield, leaf

  6. Gas balance and fuel retention in fusion devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Loarer; C. Brosset; J. Bucalossi; P. Coad; G. Esser; J. Hogan; J. Likonen; M. Mayer; Ph. Morgan; V. Philipps; V. Rohde; J. Roth; M. Rubel; E. Tsitrone; A. Widdowson

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of hydrogenic retention in present tokamaks is of crucial importance to estimate the expected tritium (T) vessel inventory in ITER, limited from safety considerations to 350 g. In the framework of the European Task Force on Plasma Wall Interaction (EU TF on PWI) efforts are underway to investigate gas balance and fuel retention during discharges, and to compare

  7. Effect of friction coefficient on Akers clasp retention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuuji Sato; Yasuhiko Abe; Yoshitaka Yuasa; Yasumasa Akagawa

    1997-01-01

    Statement of problem. Retentive force control of clasp retainers is one of the most essential factors for the successful function of removable partial dentures. However, it is not yet known how the friction coefficients differ among restored abutments and clasp materials, and how the friction coefficients affect the retention of clasps.Purpose. The purposes of this study were to clarify the

  8. Retention of fluid and particles in captive tapirs ( Tapirus sp.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus Clauss; Stefanie Lang-Deuerling; Dennis W. H. Müller; Ellen Kienzle; Patrick Steuer; Jürgen Hummel

    2010-01-01

    The retention of ingesta in the digestive tract is a major characteristic of herbivorous animals. We measured particle and fluid mean retention times (MRT) in 13 lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) and 5 Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) from five zoological institutions on their usual zoo diet and 2 lowland and 4 Malayan tapirs additionally on roughage-only diets (total n of trials=24)

  9. Retention of sealants placed by dental technicians without assistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J. Foreman; Bruce A. Matis

    1991-01-01

    The retention rate of sealants placed by dental auxiliaries has not been studied extensively. This study recorded and compiled the retention rate of sealants placed by Air Force dental technicians over a two-year period. The technicians, who were equivalent to dental assistants, were trained to place the sealants without assistance using the Vac-Ejector TM (Whaledent International, New York, NY) system

  10. Recruitment and Retention of Latino Children in a Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman, Angelica; Richardson, Irma M.; Gesell, Sabina; Barkin, Shari L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe promising recruitment and retention strategies for transient Latino populations, assisting investigators who work with this population in their research design and implementation. Methods: Strategies in recruitment and retention from a year-long intervention in children and their families are described. Results: Of the 159…

  11. Retention and Graduation Rates: Insights from an Extended Longitudinal View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Gary T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines a 118-year continuous record of retention and graduation rates at a public university for long-term trends not observable in shorter studies. While the first year retention rates stayed level over much of this period, second year rates increased steadily by 1.2% per decade. In contrast, graduation rates at 4 years compared to 6…

  12. Knowledge Retention as a Latent Outcome Measure in Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisher, Robert A.; Curnow, Christina K.; Seidel, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes two experiments that investigated the retention of knowledge as a latent measure of learning outcome in video teletraining courses, one for air traffic controllers and one for military training. Discusses the merits of knowledge retention as a construct for examining initial evidence of learning, especially for training related to the…

  13. Retention Issues: A Study of Alabama Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plash, Shawn; Piotrowski, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated issues that impact attrition, migration and retention of special education teachers in Alabama. The sample comprised 70 teachers designated as "highly-qualified" who responded to a job satisfaction instrument, with a focus on retention issues, developed by Levine (2001). The results indicated that the major reasons for…

  14. What Works in Student Retention? Four-Year Public Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habley, Wesley R.; McClanahan, Randy

    2004-01-01

    This report reflects ACT's three-decade commitment to assist colleges and universities to better understand the impact of campus practices on college student retention and degree completion. This report focuses only on the data provided by four-year public colleges. (Contains 14 tables.) [For the main report, "What Works in Student Retention? All…

  15. Know when to Hold 'Em: Data Retention Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jason

    2007-01-01

    While the need for a data retention policy is rapidly becoming clear to schools, little guidance is available for crafting one. Most schools depend on backup and recovery plans that generally focus on individual servers or devices. However, retention policies also need to focus on the type of data contained on those servers and how it will be…

  16. Decision making of customer retention based on customer identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Luo

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the theoretical framework and model of decision making of customer retention based on customer identification. First, it proposes the 3-dimentional framework model of customer identification, which incorporates the dimensions of Customer Lifetime Value, Customer Perceived Value, and Accessibility under Competition. Second, it analyses the significance of customer identification to customer retention theoretically through establishing customer identification model.

  17. Concept Attainment, Transfer, and Retention Through Observation and Rule Provision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Barry J.; Rosenthal, Ted L.

    The effects of observing a model and of providing a response rule on the learning, transfer, and retention of a dial-reading, numerical concept were studied in 144 third-graders. Different experimenters conducted the immediate learning procedures versus the measurements of retention. No extrinsic reinforcers were promised or dispensed. The…

  18. Increasing Retention through Student Success. Research to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malitz, Kari; Nixon-Ponder, Sarah

    Improving retention in adult literacy programs is of great concern for both instructors and administrators. A learner-centered program is a must for improving retention. In such a program, a support system for learners should be readily accessible. Instruction should be based on students' goals, and program staff should be available to help…

  19. Retention of crowns cemented on implant abutments with temporary cements.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Yuko; Hibino, Yasushi; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    This study was to examine the retentive force of crowns to implant abutments with commercial temporary cements. Six different temporary cements were investigated. Cast crowns were cemented to the abutments using each cement and their retentive forces to abutments were determined 7 or 28 days after cementing (n=10). The retentive force of the cements to abutments varied widely among the products [27-109 N (7-day), 18-80 N (28-days)]. The retentive force of all the cements was not reduced as the time elapsed, except for two products tested. The polycarboxylate cements and paste-mixing type eugenol-free cements revealed comparable retentive force after 28 days of storage. The powder-liquid type cements showed a positive correlation (p<0.05) between the retentive force and the shear strength, while a negative correlation (p<0.05) was obtained for paste-mixing type cement between the retentive force and compressive strength. Mechanical strength of temporary cements could not be a prominent predicting factor for retention of the crowns on the abutments. PMID:25483383

  20. Please, Not Another Push to Get Tough on Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, M. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized academic testing, under-performing schools, demands for high standards in America's schools and current levels of student dropouts have resulted in renewed calls for "getting tough on student retention." The push for student retention is demanded by school boards and others in spite of the overwhelming research evidence that student…

  1. Teacher Induction, Mentoring, and Retention: A Summary of the Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Strong

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the research literature on new teacher mentoring, focusing on issues of definition, why teachers quit, and the effects of mentoring on retention. Conclusions call for more scientific studies on the relationship between mentoring and retention, more research on the relation between mentoring and other educational outcomes, and a suggestion that we might rethink career goals for teachers

  2. Retention of soluble microbial products in submerged membrane bioreactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Mao Wang; T. David Waite

    2009-01-01

    The retention of soluble microbial products (SMP) is significant for the operation of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) from the aspect of both effluent quality and membrane fouling. Constant flux stirred dead-end filtration of a MBR sludge supernatant was conducted. The SMP retention by the membrane is dynamic rather than consistent during filtration. Polysaccharides and proteins are the major components of SMP

  3. Retention of Community College Students: Related Student and Institutional Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Alfred J.; Ward, Cynthia V. L.

    2008-01-01

    Public community colleges were established to improve access to higher education. However, access for all often results in low student retention and in the loss of effort, time, and money for students and institutions. This institutional specific retention study, which examined student factors, both demographic and academic, and institutional…

  4. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  5. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

  6. Ten Common NWP Misconceptions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2002-05-02

    This module introduces forecasters to ten of the most commonly encountered or significant misconceptions about NWP models. This list of ten misconceptions includes issues surrounding data assimilation, model resolution, physical parameterizations, and post-processing of model forecast output.

  7. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pain. Toe Walking Toe walking is common among toddlers as they learn to walk, especially during the ... Z: Genu Varum In-toeing & Out-toeing in Toddlers Blount Disease Bones, Muscles, and Joints Should I ...

  8. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  9. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  10. Common Knowledge and Convention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giacomo Sillari

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the epistemic assumptions that David Lewis makes in his account of social conventions. In particular,\\u000a I focus on the assumption that the agents have common knowledge of the convention to which they are parties. While evolutionary\\u000a analyses show that the common knowledge assumption is unnecessary in certain classes of games, Lewis’ original account (and,\\u000a more recently, Cubitt

  11. 5 CFR 536.203 - Additional eligibility requirements for grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Additional eligibility requirements for grade retention. 536.203 Section 536.203 Administrative...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.203 Additional...

  12. 5 CFR 536.207 - Loss of eligibility for grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Loss of eligibility for grade retention. 536.207 Section 536.207 Administrative...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.207 Loss of eligibility...

  13. 5 CFR 536.206 - Determining an employee's rate of basic pay under grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Determining an employee's rate of basic pay under grade retention. 536.206 Section 536.206 Administrative...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.206 Determining an...

  14. 5 CFR 536.203 - Additional eligibility requirements for grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Additional eligibility requirements for grade retention. 536.203 Section 536.203 Administrative...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.203 Additional...

  15. 5 CFR 536.207 - Loss of eligibility for grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Loss of eligibility for grade retention. 536.207 Section 536.207 Administrative...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.207 Loss of eligibility...

  16. 5 CFR 536.206 - Determining an employee's rate of basic pay under grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Determining an employee's rate of basic pay under grade retention. 536.206 Section 536.206 Administrative...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.206 Determining an...

  17. 20 CFR 435.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...requirements for record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. SSA may not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Retention periods. Financial records, supporting documents,...

  18. 20 CFR 435.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...requirements for record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. SSA may not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Retention periods. Financial records, supporting documents,...

  19. 20 CFR 435.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...requirements for record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. SSA may not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Retention periods. Financial records, supporting documents,...

  20. 41 CFR 101-27.304-1 - Establishment of economic retention limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Establishment of economic retention limit. 101-27.304-1 Section...Inventories § 101-27.304-1 Establishment of economic retention limit. An economic retention limit must be established...

  1. 41 CFR 101-27.304-1 - Establishment of economic retention limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Establishment of economic retention limit. 101-27.304-1 Section...Inventories § 101-27.304-1 Establishment of economic retention limit. An economic retention limit must be established...

  2. 41 CFR 101-27.304-1 - Establishment of economic retention limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Establishment of economic retention limit. 101-27.304-1 Section...Inventories § 101-27.304-1 Establishment of economic retention limit. An economic retention limit must be established...

  3. 41 CFR 101-27.304-1 - Establishment of economic retention limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Establishment of economic retention limit. 101-27.304-1 Section...Inventories § 101-27.304-1 Establishment of economic retention limit. An economic retention limit must be established...

  4. 49 CFR 172.201 - Preparation and retention of shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Preparation and retention of shipping papers...RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND... Preparation and retention of shipping papers...shipping paper (record) for a loaded...this part. (e) Retention and Recordkeeping...carrier also retains a record of each...

  5. Retentiveness of various luting agents used with implant-supported prosthesis: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pooja; Pujari, Malesh; Prithviraj, D R; Khare, Sumit

    2014-12-01

    Desired retrievability of cemented implant-supported fixed prosthesis makes the retentive strength of cementing agents an important consideration. The aim of the study was to evaluate the retentiveness of purposely designed implant cement and compare its retentiveness with dental cements that are commonly used with implant systems. Ten implant analogs were embedded in auto-polymerizing acrylic resin blocks and titanium abutments were attached to them. Fifty standardized copings were waxed directly on the abutment and casted. The cements used were: (1) resin-bonded zinc oxide eugenol cement, (2) purposely designed implant cement, (3) zinc phosphate cement, (4) zinc polycarboxylate cement, and (5) glass ionomer cement. After cementation, each sample was subjected to a pull-out test using universal testing machine and loads required to remove the crowns were recorded. The mean values and standard deviations of cement failure loads were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni test. The mean values (± SD) of loads at failure (n = 10) for various cements were as follows (N): resin-bonded zinc oxide eugenol cement 394.62 (± 9.76), Premier implant cement 333.86 (± 18.91), zinc phosphate cement 629.30 (± 20.65), zinc polycarboxylate cement 810.08 (± 11.52), and glass ionomer cement 750.17 (± 13.78). The results do not suggest that one cement type is better than another, but they do provide a ranking order of the cements regarding their ability to retain the prosthesis and facilitate easy retrievability. PMID:25506659

  6. Volatile Species Retention During Metallic Fuel Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Fielding; Douglas L. Proter

    2013-10-01

    Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Bases on these results it is very probably that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

  7. Volatile species retention during metallic fuel casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, Randall S.; Porter, Douglas L.

    2013-10-01

    Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, and although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Based on these results it is very probable that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

  8. Effect of Abutment Modification and Cement Type on Retention of Cement-Retained Implant Supported Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Farzin, Mitra; Torabi, Kianoosh; Ahangari, Ahmad Hasan; Derafshi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Provisional cements are commonly used to facilitate retrievability of cement-retained fixed implant restorations; but compromised abutment preparation may affect the retention of implant-retained crowns.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of abutment design and type of luting agent on the retentive strength of cement-retained implant restorations. Materials and Method: Two prefabricated abutments were attached to their corresponding analogs and embedded in an acrylic resin block. The first abutment (control group) was left intact without any modifications. The screw access channel for the first abutment was completely filled with composite resin. In the second abutment, (test group) the axial wall was partially removed to form an abutment with 3 walls. Wax models were made by CAD/CAM. Ten cast copings were fabricated for each abutment. The prepared copings were cemented on the abutments by Temp Bond luting agent under standardized conditions (n=20). The assemblies were stored in 100% humidity for one day at 37°C prior to testing. The cast crown was removed from the abutment using an Instron machine, and the peak removal force was recorded. Coping/abutment specimens were cleaned after testing, and the testing procedure was repeated for Dycal luting agent (n=20). Data were analyzed with two- way ANOVA (?=0.05). Results: There was no significant difference in the mean transformed retention (Ln-R) between intact abutments (4.90±0.37) and the abutments with 3 walls (4.83±0.25) using Dycal luting agent. However, in TempBond group, the mean transformed retention (Ln-R) was significantly lower in the intact abutment (3.9±0.23) compared to the abutment with 3 walls (4.13±0.33, P=0.027). Conclusion: The retention of cement-retained implant restoration can be improved by the type of temporary cement used. The retention of cast crowns cemented to implant abutments with TempBond is influenced by the wall removal. PMID:25628660

  9. NASA records retention schedules: Procedures governing the retention, retirement, and destruction of agency records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This handbook sets forth the minimum retention periods of official records of NASA. Its provisions are applicable to NASA Headquarters and all field installations. This revised edition has been correlated to the 'NASA Uniform Files Index (UFI) (NHB 1442.1B), the General Records Schedules' produced by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), and has been enlarged in scope to cover Privacy Act Systems of Records and record series previously omitted. Guidance is provided in the areas of record retirement, transfer, and retrieval from Federal Record Centers (FRC) and disposal actions. Included are provisions for making changes to these schedules by addition of new items or revision of current items. The NASA Records Retention Schedules (NRRS) were approved for NASA use by NARA, the General Services Administration, and the General Accounting Office.

  10. Transport and Retention of Emulsion Droplets in Sandy Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esahani, S. G.; Muller, K.; Chapra, S. C.; Ramsburg, A.

    2014-12-01

    Emulsions are commonly used as amendments during remediation; yet, the processes controlling the distribution of droplets within the subsurface are not well understood. Given that inadequate spatial and/or temporal delivery of amendments often leads to ineffective treatment, there is a need to better understand emulsion transport. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the transport and retention of emulsion droplets in columns containing Ottawa sands. Breakthrough curves and deposition profiles from these experiments were interrogated using a mathematical model capable of describing attachment, detachment, and straining to begin to elucidate the physical processes controlling delivery. Emulsions were constructed by stabilizing soybean oil droplets within a continuous aqueous phase. Physical properties of the resulting oil-in-water emulsions were favorable for subsurface delivery (nominal properties: 1 g/mL density; 10 cP viscosity; and 1.5 ?m droplet d50). Emulsions were introduced to the columns for approximately two pore volumes and followed by an extended flush of background solution. Effluent droplet size distributions did not vary significantly over the course of the experiment and remained similar to those measured for the influent emulsion. Emulsion breakthrough curves exhibited tailing, and deposition profiles were found to be hyper-exponential and unaffected by extended periods of background flow. Depending on emulsion composition and flow characteristics, 10-30% of the injected emulsion was retained on the sand suggesting a non-negligible influence on accessible porosity over the course of the experiment. Experimental results were further interpreted using a droplet transport model that accounts for temporal and spatial variation in porosity due to the retention of the emulsion droplets. At present the model assumes a uniform size distribution of inelastic emulsion droplets which are transported by advection and dispersion, and exchanged with the solid phase through attachment, detachment, and straining processes. Results examine the relative roles of attachment-detachment and straining in reducing the accessible porosity. Evaluation of how the porosity change influences the flow regime for moderately and slightly clogged media is currently under investigation.

  11. Retention of Graduate Students through Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraska, Marie

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript addresses learning communities (LCs) as a strategy to retain graduate students until program completion. Definitions of LCs and their early development are presented. The benefits of LCs to groups of students with common interests are discussed. In addition, reasons for early graduate student attrition are included. Common models…

  12. Regularities of Anthocyanins Retention in RP HPLC for “Water–Acetonitrile–Phosphoric Acid” Mobile Phases

    PubMed Central

    Deineka, V. I.; Deineka, L. A.; Saenko, I. I.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of exchange of HCOOH (System 2) by phosphoric acid (System 1) for acidification of the “acetonitrile–water” mobile phases for reversed-phase HPLC of anthocyanins was investigated in the framework of relative retention analysis. The differences and similarities of anthocyanins separation were revealed. It has been shown that some common features of the quantitative relationships may be used for preliminary anthocyanins structure differentiation, according to the number of OH-groups in anthocyanidin backbone as well as to a number of saccharide molecules in glycoside radicals in position 3 of the anthocyanin without MS detection. PMID:25692073

  13. Functional Fecal Retention Visualized by 111In-DTPA Colon Transit Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Infante, Jose Rafael; Rayo, Juan I; Serrano, Justo; Dominguez, Maria L; Garcia, Lucia; Moreno, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Constipation is an extremely common problem in children, varying from mild and short-lived to severe and chronic. Chronic constipation is a serious childhood condition and requires further investigation, including blood test, colonoscopy, radio-opaque marker study, and/or scintigraphy. We present small bowel and colon transit scintigraphy of a 14-year-old girl with history of chronic constipation, abdominal pain, weight loss, and poor response to medical treatment. After oral administration of In-DTPA in water, planar and SPECT/CT images showed normal small bowel transit time and functional fecal retention in colon transit study. PMID:25706788

  14. Retention studies of recoiling daughter nuclides of 225Ac in polymer vesicles.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; de Kruijff, R M; Rol, A; Thijssen, L; Mendes, E; Morgenstern, A; Bruchertseifer, F; Stuart, M C A; Wolterbeek, H T; Denkova, A G

    2014-02-01

    Alpha radionuclide therapy is steadily gaining importance and a large number of pre-clinical and clinical studies have been carried out. However, due to the recoil effects the daughter recoil atoms, most of which are alpha emitters as well, receive energies that are much higher than the energies of chemical bonds resulting in decoupling of the radionuclide from common targeting agents. Here, we demonstrate that polymer vesicles (i.e. polymersomes) can retain recoiling daughter nuclei based on an experimental study examining the retention of (221)Fr and (213)Bi when encapsulating (225)Ac. PMID:24374072

  15. Clinical and SEM characterization of prolonged retention of a primary tooth with pulpectomy.

    PubMed

    Correa-Faria, Patricia; Alcantara, Carlos Eduardo Pinto; Mesquita, Ana Terezinha; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Root canal filling with zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) paste following primary tooth pulpectomy is a common practice in pediatric dentistry. This material offers high clinical and radiographic success rates. In some cases, however, it is not resorbed along with the root of the primary tooth. The aim of this study was to describe a case of prolonged retention of a primary maxillary incisor that was subjected to pulpectomy and filled with ZOE paste in order to characterize the aspects of root resorption using scanning electron microscopy. PMID:23649574

  16. Running heading: Water retention properties of the clay in clayey soils Water retention properties of the clay in soils developed

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Running heading: Water retention properties of the clay in clayey soils Water retention properties of the clay in soils developed on clayey sediments: Significance of parent material and soil of clayey subsoils horizons according to the variation of clay characteristics. The horizons studied

  17. On the form of the retention function: Comment on Rubin and Wenzel (1996): A quantitative description of retention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Wickens

    1998-01-01

    D. C. Rubin and A. E. Wenzel (1996) fitted many simple functions to a large collection of retention data sets. Their search for the mathematical form of the retention function can be simplified by (a) attending to the failures of simple functions, (b) considering the constraints and process assumptions that any psychological theory must obey, and (c) drawing on results

  18. Key skills retention and motivation: the war for talent still rages and retention is the high ground

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clayton Glen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The paper sets out to examine effective, practical and holistic people strategies that address key skills retention, employee engagement, employee motivation and attendance gaps, with a view to positively impacting on organization costs, productivity and business performance. The paper also seeks to examine the value of assessment and feedback in talent engagement and retention, and to look at

  19. STARR (Student Tutoring, Tournament, Attendance Monitoring, Relaxation Training, Retention Goals): A Student Oriented Curriculum Designed with Retention in Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, J. E.

    A student-oriented curriculum approach was developed at Edison Community College to encourage retention and sustain students' interest in classes. The five elements of the program are student tutoring, a tournament, attendance monitoring, relaxation training, and retention goals (STARR). The tutorial component involves study teams of four or five…

  20. Quantitative structure-retention relationship modeling of gas chromatographic retention times based on thermodynamic data.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, Heshmatollah; McGinitie, Teague M; Harynuk, James J

    2014-09-01

    Thermodynamic parameters of ?H(T0), ?S(T0), and ?CP for 156 compounds comprising alkanes, alkyl halides and alcohols were determined for a 5% phenyl 95% methyl stationary phase. The determination of thermodynamic parameters relies on a Nelder-Mead simplex optimization to rapidly obtain the parameters. Two methodologies of external and leave one out cross validations were applied to assess the robustness of the estimations of thermodynamic parameters. The largest absolute errors in predicted retention time across all temperature ramps and all compounds were 1.5 and 0.3s for external and internal sets, respectively. The possibility of an in silico extension of the thermodynamic library was tested using a quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) methodology. The estimated thermodynamic parameters were utilized to develop QSRR models. Individual partial least squares (PLS) models were developed for each of the three classes of the molecules. R(2) values for the test sets of all models across all temperature ramps were larger than 0.99 and the average of relative errors in retention time predictions of the test sets for alkanes, alcohols, and alkyl halides were 1.8%, 2.4%, and 2.5%, respectively. PMID:25035236

  1. Individual, facility, and program factors affecting retention in a national weight management program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High attrition is a common problem for weight loss programs and directly affects program effectiveness. Since 2006, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has offered obesity treatment to its beneficiaries through the MOVE! Weight Management Program for Veterans (MOVE!). An early evaluation of this program showed that attrition rate was high. The present study examines how individual, facility, and program factors relate to retention for participants in the on-site MOVE! group program. Methods Data for all visits to MOVE! group treatment sessions were extracted from the VHA outpatient database. Participants were classified into three groups by their frequency of visits to the group program during a six month period after enrollment: early dropouts (1 – 3 visits), late dropouts (4 – 5 visits), and completers (6 or more visits). A generalized ordered logit model was used to examine individual, facility, and program factors associated with retention. Results More than 60% of participants were early dropouts and 11% were late dropouts. Factors associated with retention were older age, presence of one or more comorbidities, higher body mass index at baseline, lack of co-payment requirement, geographic proximity to VA facility, addition of individual consultation to group treatment, greater program staffing, and regular, on-site physical activity programming. A non-completion rate of 74% for on-site group obesity treatment poses a major challenge to reducing the population prevalence of obesity within the VHA. Conclusions Greater attention to individualized consultation, accessibility to the program, and facility factors including staffing and physical activity resources may improve retention. PMID:24735508

  2. A national study on nurses’ retention in healthcare facilities in underserved areas in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nursing shortages and maldistribution are priority issues for healthcare systems around the globe. Such imbalances are often aggravated in underserved areas, especially in developing countries. Despite the centrality of this issue, there is a dearth of studies that examine the retention of nurses in underserved areas in the Middle East Region. This study investigates the characteristic and the factors associated with the retention of nurses working in rural areas in Lebanon. Methods This study uses a non-experimental cross-sectional design to survey nurses working in underserved areas of Lebanon. Underserved areas in Lebanon were identified using WHO definition. A total of 103 health facilities (hospitals and primary healthcare centers) located in these areas were identified and all nurses working at these facilities received a copy of the survey questionnaire. The questionnaire included five sections: demographic, work-life, career plan, job satisfaction, and assessment of work environment. Analysis included univariate and bivariate (chi-square, Student’s t-test and ANOVA) tests to describe the respondents and examine the significance between nurses’ characteristics and their intent to stay. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with nurses’ intent to stay in underserved areas. Results A total of 857 nurses from 63 Primary Healthcare (PHC) centers and hospitals responded to the questionnaire (75.5% response rate). Only 35.1% of nurses indicated their intent to stay in their current job over the coming one to three years. Surveyed nurses were most satisfied with relationship with co-workers and least satisfied with extrinsic rewards. Rural nurses working in PHC centers were more satisfied than their hospital counterparts on all aspects of work and had significantly higher intention to stay (62.5% compared to 31.5% in hospitals, P < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed that nurses less likely to report intent to stay were younger, unmarried, with less years of work experience and were not working towards a higher degree. Analysis reveals a directly proportional relationship between nurses’ reported job satisfaction and their intent to stay. Conclusion This study reveals poor retention of nurses in rural and underserved areas in Lebanon, especially in the hospital sector. The status quo is disquieting as it reflects an unstable and dissatisfied nursing workforce. Developing targeted retention strategies for younger nurses and those working in hospitals as well as the offering of professional development opportunities and devising an incentive scheme targeting rural nurses is pivotal to enhance nurses’ job satisfaction and retention in rural settings. PMID:24079458

  3. 40 CFR 30.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. EPA shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  4. 14 CFR 1260.153 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. NASA shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  5. 14 CFR 1260.153 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. NASA shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  6. 22 CFR 226.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. USAID shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  7. 24 CFR 84.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. HUD shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  8. 24 CFR 84.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. HUD shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  9. 22 CFR 226.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. USAID shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  10. 29 CFR 95.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. DOL shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  11. 24 CFR 84.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. HUD shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  12. 29 CFR 95.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. DOL shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  13. 40 CFR 30.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. EPA shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  14. 14 CFR 1260.153 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. NASA shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  15. 24 CFR 84.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. HUD shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  16. 29 CFR 95.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. DOL shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  17. 40 CFR 30.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. EPA shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  18. 14 CFR 1260.153 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. NASA shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  19. 24 CFR 84.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. HUD shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  20. 14 CFR 1260.153 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. NASA shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  1. 40 CFR 30.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. EPA shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  2. 22 CFR 226.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. USAID shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  3. 22 CFR 226.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. USAID shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  4. 40 CFR 30.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. EPA shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  5. 29 CFR 95.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. DOL shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  6. 22 CFR 226.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. USAID shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  7. 29 CFR 95.53 - Retention and access requirements for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...record retention and access to records for awards to recipients. DOL shall not impose any other record retention or access requirements upon recipients. (b) Financial records, supporting documents,...

  8. A soil-water retention function that includes the hyper-dry region through the BET adsorption isotherm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orlando Silva; Jordi Grifoll

    2007-01-01

    Most existing full-range soil-water retention functions extend standard capillary pressure curves into the dry region to zero water content at a finite matric pressure. A description of dryness is commonly taken as oven-dry conditions given by a matric suction of about 109 Pa at zero liquid saturation. However, no finite pressure can be exerted by a zero amount of water,

  9. An Unexpected Observation Concerning the Effect of Anionic Additives on the Retention Behavior of Basic Drugs and Peptides in Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Carr, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    Anionic species with ion pair forming ability are commonly used to enhance the retention and efficiency of basic analytes in RPLC separations. However, little is known about the interactions between organic mobile phase modifiers and such ion pairing anions. In this work, we measured the magnitude of the retention increase of basic drugs and peptides upon addition of strong inorganic ion pairing anions (e.g. perchlorate) as a function of the volume fraction of modifier in acidic water-acetonitrile mobile phases on two different stationary phases. We found that the increase in retention upon addition of various salts depended strongly on the eluent strength. In general, larger retention increases upon addition of the anion were observed at higher organic fractions. Regression of retention against the volume fraction of organic modifier indicated that the ion pair forming anions substantially decreased S values while only slightly changing ln k’w values. The decrease in S is the major cause of the retention increase of basic drugs and peptides when such anions are added to the mobile phase. PMID:17448482

  10. Recruitment and Retention for Pelvic Floor Disorders Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Linda; Richter, Holly E.; Barber, Matthew D.; Hsu, Yvonne; Rahn, David D.; Menefee, Shawn; Visco, Anthony; Spino, Cathie; Martin, Susan; Meikle, Susan F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Utilize focus group methodology to gather information about women’s knowledge and attitudes regarding research participation. Methods Two in-person focus groups at 7 clinical sites were conducted, one composed of women with pelvic floor disorder (PFD) clinical trial study-experience; the other was composed of PFD clinical trial study-naïve participants. One web-based focus group that combined groups was also conducted. Results 105 women (average age 58.6 years) participated. Participants in both groups believed that their physicians were the best source of information about clinical trials, yet felt that other sources of trial information were important. Financial compensation was not a primary motivating factor for PFD trial enrollment, however was cited as an important consideration. Internet- collection of data was feasible and provided information comparable to in-person focus groups. Conclusions This study identified central themes guiding successful recruitment to and retention in PFD-related trials providing insight regarding strategies that may guide future trials. PMID:22669424

  11. Recruitment and retention of participants in a pragmatic randomized intervention trial at three community health clinics: Results and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity and hypertension and their associated health complications disproportionately affect communities of color and people of lower socioeconomic status. Recruitment and retention of these populations in research trials, and retention in weight loss trials has been an ongoing challenge. Methods Be Fit, Be Well was a pragmatic randomized weight loss and hypertension management trial of patients attending one of three community health centers in Boston, Massachusetts. Participants were asked to complete follow-up assessments every 6-months for two years. We describe challenges encountered and strategies implemented to recruit and retain trial participants over the 24-month intervention. We also identify baseline participant characteristics associated with retention status. Retention strategies included financial incentives, contact between assessment visits, building relationships with health center primary care providers (PCPs) and staff, and putting participant convenience first. Results Active refusal rates were low with 130 of 2,631 patients refusing participation (4.9%). Of 474 eligible persons completing telephone screening, 365 (77.0%) completed their baseline visit and were randomized into the study. The study population was predominantly non-Hispanic Black (71.2%), female (68.5%) and reported annual household income of less than $35,000 (70.1%). Recruitment strategies included use of passive approval of potential participants by PCPs, use of part-time staff, and outsourcing calls to a call center. A total of 314 (86.0%) people completed the 24-month visit. Retention levels varied across study visits and intervention condition. Most participants completed three or more visits (69.6%), with 205 (56.2%) completing all four. At 24-months, lower retention was observed for males and the intervention condition. Retention strategies included building strong relationships with clinic staff, flexibility in overcoming participant barriers through use of taxi vouchers, night and weekend appointments, and keeping participants engaged via newsletters and social gatherings. Conclusion We were able to retain 86.0% of participants at 24-months. Recruitment and retention of high percentages of racial/ethnic minorities and lower income samples is possible with planning, coordination with a trusted community setting and staff (e.g. community health centers and RAs), adaptability and building strong relationships. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00661817 PMID:23496916

  12. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  13. Common-place

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This promising new quarterly online publication situates itself somewhere between a popular magazine and scholarly journal, offering a common place for a variety of readers "to explore and exchange ideas about American history." Similar in some ways to the UK-based popular history magazine History Today, Common-place offers a mix of articles, short features, and reviews aimed at an interested and informed, but not necessarily academic, audience. A discussion board is planned for the near future, and users may subscribe for email notification of new issues.

  14. Gang Identifiers and Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Mary Lynn

    1992-01-01

    Provides lists of gang identifiers and terminology. Suggests that, to find out names and associated identifiers of local gangs, readers should talk to their local police. Included in listing are descriptions of gang-related symbols, physical signals, graffiti, slogans, right-left rules, colors, clothing, jewelry, hair styles, and fingernails. Also…

  15. A modelling study of long term green roof retention performance.

    PubMed

    Stovin, Virginia; Poë, Simon; Berretta, Christian

    2013-12-15

    This paper outlines the development of a conceptual hydrological flux model for the long term continuous simulation of runoff and drought risk for green roof systems. A green roof's retention capacity depends upon its physical configuration, but it is also strongly influenced by local climatic controls, including the rainfall characteristics and the restoration of retention capacity associated with evapotranspiration during dry weather periods. The model includes a function that links evapotranspiration rates to substrate moisture content, and is validated against observed runoff data. The model's application to typical extensive green roof configurations is demonstrated with reference to four UK locations characterised by contrasting climatic regimes, using 30-year rainfall time-series inputs at hourly simulation time steps. It is shown that retention performance is dependent upon local climatic conditions. Volumetric retention ranges from 0.19 (cool, wet climate) to 0.59 (warm, dry climate). Per event retention is also considered, and it is demonstrated that retention performance decreases significantly when high return period events are considered in isolation. For example, in Sheffield the median per-event retention is 1.00 (many small events), but the median retention for events exceeding a 1 in 1 yr return period threshold is only 0.10. The simulation tool also provides useful information about the likelihood of drought periods, for which irrigation may be required. A sensitivity study suggests that green roofs with reduced moisture-holding capacity and/or low evapotranspiration rates will tend to offer reduced levels of retention, whilst high moisture-holding capacity and low evapotranspiration rates offer the strongest drought resistance. PMID:24178313

  16. A Dataset for Evaluating Identifier Splitters Dave Binkley

    E-print Network

    Binkley, David W.

    of identifier splitting techniques. A gold set of 2,663 split identifiers was constructed from 8,522 indi- vidual human splitting judgements and can be obtained from www.cs.loyola.edu/binkley/ludiso. This set, specifically, a well crafted common test set of identifiers with human annotations identifying correct split

  17. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  18. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  19. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  20. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.