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1

IDENTIFYING RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Recruitment and Retention Issues for the National Children's Study Danelle T Lobdell1, Suzanne Gilboa2, Pauline Mendola1 (1US EPA, NHEERL; 2UNC Chapel Hill) A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, co...

2

Partners in Research Identifying Common Interests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) undertook this project to develop a methodology for systematically matching research interests of private sector organizations with its own in order to identify potential research partners. The method...

1997-01-01

3

Identifiability of diffusion and retention parameters of anionic tracers from the diffusion and retention (DR) experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryIn situ diffusion experiments in low-permeability rocks are performed to study radionuclide diffusion and sorption and investigate scale effects. They are carried out in a packed-off interval of a borehole having a circulation system in which tracers are injected and allowed to diffuse into the rock. Tracer concentrations are monitored at the tracer interval during the experiment (dilution data) and measured at the end of the experiment in rock cores (overcoring data). The interpretation of in situ diffusion experiments in clay formations is challenging due to the influence of the filter, the gap between the filter and the borehole wall and the borehole disturbed zone (BDZ). The impact of the filter, the gap and the BDZ on the estimates of the accessible porosity and the effective diffusion, De, of the rock in the presence of random noise has been evaluated for the anionic tracers with synthetic experiments having the geometry and parameters of the in situ diffusion and retention (DR) experiment performed on Opalinus clay. The component of De of the clay parallel to the bedding can be estimated properly from dilution data when the standard deviation of the noise of the data is smaller than 0.05, but the component of De normal to the bedding cannot be estimated from dilution data. On the other hand, both components of De can be estimated properly from noisy overcoring data. Although the parameters of the BDZ and the undisturbed clay cannot be estimated simultaneously from noisy dilution data, they can be estimated from noisy overcoring data when the standard deviation of the noise is smaller than 0.05. Parameter estimation errors are large when the assumption about the BDZ is incorrect. The uncertainties in the De of the filter and in the volume of the circulation system have a noticeable impact on the estimates of the diffusion and porosity of the clay derived from dilution data. On the other hand, acceptable parameter estimates are obtained from overcoring data. The estimation errors of the parameters of the anionic tracers are generally larger than those of the neutral and weakly-sorbing tracers.

Yi, Shuping; Samper, Javier; Naves, Acacia; Soler, Josep M.

2012-06-01

4

Evidence for Common Coding in Many-to-One Matching: Retention, Intertrial Interference, and Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments indicated that pigeons commonly code samples associated with same comparison in many-to-one matching. Experiment 1 showed that retention was similar for pigeons matching four sample stimuli (two hues and two lines) to a different pair of comparisons (hues or lines). Accuracy was slightly higher with hue than with line samples, but this did not interact with delay. Alternative

Peter J. Urcuioli; Thomas R. Zentall; Pamela Jackson-Smith; Janice N. Steirn

1989-01-01

5

Iron and zinc retention in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) after home cooking  

PubMed Central

Background According to the World Health Organization (WHO), iron, iodine, and Vitamin A deficiencies are the most common forms of malnutrition, leading to severe public health consequences. The importance of iron and zinc in human nutrition and the number of children found to be deficient in these nutrients make further studies on retention in cooked grains and cooked bean broth important. Objectives This work aimed to evaluate iron and zinc retention in six common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars under the following conditions: raw beans, regular pot cooking, pressure cooking, with and without previous water soaking, and broth. Design Determination of iron and zinc content in the raw, cooked bean grains and broth samples was carried out by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Optical Emission Spectrometry (Spectro Analytical Instrument – Spectroflame P). All experiments and analyses were carried out in triplicate. Results Overall, regardless of the cooking method, with or without previous water soaking, the highest zinc concentration was found in the cooked bean grains. However, pressure cooking and previous water soaking diminished iron retention in the cooked grains, while increasing it in the bean broth. Conclusion The common bean was confirmed to be an excellent source of iron and zinc for human consumption, and it was suggested that beans should be consumed in a combined form, i.e. grain with bean broth.

Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Correa, Mariana M.; Pereira, Elenilda J.; Nutti, Marilia R.; Carvalho, Jose L. V.; Ribeiro, Ediane M. G.; Freitas, Sidinea C.

2012-01-01

6

Identifying Psychological Contract Breaches to Guide Improvements in Faculty Recruitment, Retention, and Development  

PubMed Central

Objective. To identify pharmacy faculty members’ perceptions of psychological contract breaches that can be used to guide improvements in faculty recruitment, retention, and development. Methods. A list of psychological contract breaches was developed using a Delphi procedure involving a panel of experts assembled through purposive sampling. The Delphi consisted of 4 rounds, the first of which elicited examples of psychological contract breaches in an open-ended format. The ensuing 3 rounds consisting of a survey and anonymous feedback on aggregated group responses. Results. Usable responses were obtained from 11 of 12 faculty members who completed the Delphi procedure. The final list of psychological contract breaches included 27 items, after modifications based on participant feedback in subsequent rounds. Conclusion. The psychological contract breach items generated in this study provide guidance for colleges and schools of pharmacy regarding important aspects of faculty recruitment, retention, and development.

Desselle, Shane P.; Draugalis, JoLaine R.; Spies, Alan R.; Davis, Tamra S.; Bolino, Mark

2012-01-01

7

DRIS analysis identifies a common potassium imbalance in sweetgum plantations.  

SciTech Connect

DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System) analysis was applied to fast-growing sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations in the southeast United States as a tool for nutrient diagnosis and fertilizer recommendations. First, standard foliar nutrient ratios for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) were established using high-yield stands from a region wide sweetgum fertilization study. DRIS indices were then calculated for the low-yield stands in the same study and stands from four other studies to evaluate foliar nutritional characteristics. Low-yield stands showed strong negative K imbalance, indicating insufficient K, but also showed strong positive Mg imbalance. Potassium imbalance was also observed in the other four data sets tested. DRIS analysis successfully identified the tendency for K insufficiency to increase from early to late in the growing season, probably due to K foliar leaching and low soil K supply. While insufficient N was common in all the stands tested, the DRIS analysis failed to identify any P imbalance. We recommend that K be applied in N:K ratios less than one to correct K imbalance problems in the studied sweetgum plantations. Supra-optimal Ca and Mg levels are expected to decline once insufficient N and K are corrected. DRIS analysis provides the means for diagnosing nutrient imbalance and a potential basis for prescribing corrective amendments in sweetgum plantations.

Coleman, M., D.; Chang, S., X.; Robison, D.J.

2003-01-01

8

Learning Outcomes in Academic Disciplines: Identifying Common Ground  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diverse entities, such as disciplinary-based accreditors, academic affairs associations, and student affairs professional organizations, promote student learning outcomes. This study identified eight themes among outcomes required by 25 disciplinary accreditors who are members of the Council for Higher Education Accreditation. The authors compared…

Sharp, Marybeth Drechsler; Komives, Susan R.; Fincher, Justin

2011-01-01

9

Modeling Retention at a Large Public University: Can At-Risk Students Be Identified Early Enough to Treat?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the extent to which readily available data at a large public university can be used to a priori identify at-risk students who may benefit from targeted retention efforts. Although it is possible to identify such students, there remains an inevitable tradeoff in any resource allocation between not treating the students who are likely to…

Singell, Larry D.; Waddell, Glen R.

2010-01-01

10

IDENTIFYING RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES AMONG NON-WHITE PARTICIPANTS FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding potential stakeholders perspectives prior to recruitment may improve the effectiveness of a recruitment campaign as well as sustain participant retention. In early 2003, eighteen focus groups were conducted across the United States to address these issues, but non-...

11

Identifying Factors Influencing Engineering Student Graduation and Retention: A Longitudinal and Cross-Institutional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, pre-existing factors are quantitatively evaluated as to their influence on student success. This study uses a database of all engineering students in the time period 1987 through 2000 and considers two definitions of success. The first, graduation, is defined as graduation in an engineering degree program as of the latest year in the study. The second, retention,

Guili Zhang; Tim Anderson; Matthew Ohland; Rufus Carter; Brian Thorndyke

12

A Brief Survey to Identify Priorities for Improving Clinician Recruitment and Retention: Results from Hawai'i Island Physicians  

PubMed Central

Background In light of the documented physician shortage on Hawai‘i Island, the Hawai‘i Clinician Recruitment and Retention survey was designed and implemented to assess perceptions of quality of life and the work environment among clinicians on Hawai‘i Island and to identify aspects of the environment on Hawai‘i Island that predict responses to questions regarding recruitment and retention. Methods The respondents were 127 Hawai‘i Island clinicians, specifically 96 physicians, 15 nurses, five pharmacists, four physician assistants, two social workers, and five “other” healthcare workers. The internal reliability of the survey was high (alpha=.91) and its convergent validity was supported by the significant correlation of item total scores with anchor items that measured overall ratings of the environment and likelihood of recruitment and retention. Given the small number of non-physician clinicians responding, descriptive analyses included only physicians. Physicians who indicated they plan to retire within 5 years were excluded from the correlation analyses to focus on patterns within the target group for retention. Results Overall, results indicate that, while the majority of physicians who relocated to Hawai‘i Island did so primarily for the quality of life, the best predictors of retention are financial sustainability, professional opportunities, community support, and access to good K-12 schools. Survey results also indicate that Hawai‘i Island will lose 32% of its current physicians within the next five years due to retirement or other causes. Discussion These findings indicate that increased urgency to find solutions is warranted.

2012-01-01

13

Keeping Our Students: Identifying Factors that Influence Student Withdrawal and Strategies to Enhance the Experience and Retention of First-Year Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article derives from local research at two UK universities as part of their institutional strategies to address retention and progression and enhance their students' experiences of higher education. In both Middlesex University and the University of Salford, research has been undertaken to identify factors which influence the retention and…

Parmar, Deeba; Trotter, Eileen

2004-01-01

14

Identifying vulnerable websites by analysis of common strings in phishing URLs  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that most phishing sites are created by means of a vulnerable Web server being re-purposed by a phisher to host a counterfeit Website without the knowledge of the server's owner. In this paper, we examine common vulnerabilities which allow these phishing sites to be created and suggest a method for identifying common attack methods, as well

Brad Wardman; Gaurang Shukla; Gary Warner

2009-01-01

15

Newly Identified Genetic Variations in Common Escherichia coli MG1655 Stock Cultures  

PubMed Central

We have recently identified seven mutations in commonly used stocks of the sequenced Escherichia coli strain MG1655 which do not appear in the reference sequence. The mutations are likely to cause loss of function of the glpR and crl genes, which may have serious implications for physiological experiments using the affected strains.

Freddolino, Peter L.; Amini, Sasan

2012-01-01

16

Identifying Common Elements of Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Children's Disruptive Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reviews a new method to identify common core elements of evidence-based practice (EBP) for children with disruptive behavior problems and their parents. This will not only help in characterizing practice, but also will enhance the skills and attitudes of therapists and be useful in implementing EBP in community-based service settings.

Garland, Ann F.; Hawley, Kristin M.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Hurlburt, Michael S.

2008-01-01

17

Efforts to Improve Undergraduate Student Retention Rates at a Hispanic Serving Institution: Building Collaborative Relationships for the Common Good  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes efforts to improve retention and graduation rates at the University of Texas at San Antonio, a large Hispanic serving institution (HSI). One college within the university is focusing on increasing retention and graduation rates primarily by building relationships and capitalizing on university resources. In addition to…

Martin, Nancy K.; Meyer, Kristi

2010-01-01

18

High-resolution array CGH identifies common mechanisms that drive embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma occurs as two biologically distinct histological variants, embryonal (ERMS) and alveolar (ARMS). To identify genomic changes that drive ERMS pathogenesis, we used a new array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) platform to examine a specific subset of ERMS tumors, those occurring in children with clinically defined intermediate-risk disease. The aCGH platform used has an average probe spacing ?1 kb, and can identify genomic changes with single gene resolution. Our data suggest that these tumors share a common genomic program that includes inactivation of a master regulator of the p53 and Rb pathways, CDKN2A/B, and activation of FGFR4, Ras, and Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. The CDKN2A/B tumor suppressor is deleted in most patient samples. FGFR4, which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, is activated in 20% of tumors, predominantly by amplification of mutant, activating FGFR4 alleles. Over 50% of patients had low-level gains of a region containing the Hh-pathway transcription factor GLI1, and a gene expression pattern consistent with Hh-pathway activation. We also identified intragenic deletions affecting NF1, a tumor suppressor and inhibitor of Ras, in 15% of tumor samples. Deletion of NF1 and the presence of activating Ras mutations (in 42% of patients) were mutually exclusive, suggesting NF1 loss is an alternative and potentially common mechanism of Ras activation in ERMS. Our data suggest that intermediate-risk ERMS is driven by a common set of genomic defects, a finding that has important implications for the application of targeted therapies to improve the treatment of children diagnosed with this disease. PMID:21412928

Paulson, Vera; Chandler, Garvin; Rakheja, Dinesh; Galindo, Rene L; Wilson, Kathleen; Amatruda, James F; Cameron, Scott

2011-06-01

19

Genome-wide association study identifies a common variant associated with risk of endometrial cancer  

PubMed Central

Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract in developed countries. To identify genetic variants associated with endometrial cancer risk, we undertook a genome-wide association study involving 1,265 endometrial cancer cases from Australia and the UK and 5,190 controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Genotype frequencies in cases and controls were compared for 519,655 SNPs. Forty-seven SNPs that showed evidence of association with endometrial cancer in stage 1 were genotyped in 3,957 additional cases and 6,886 controls. We identified an endometrial cancer susceptibility locus close to HNF1B on chromosome 17q (SNP rs4430796: P=7.1×10?10), that is also associated with risk of prostate cancer and is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes.

Spurdle, Amanda B.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Ahmed, Shahana; Ferguson, Kaltin; Healey, Catherine S.; O'Mara, Tracy; Walker, Logan C.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Fahey, Paul; Montgomery, Grant; Webb, Penelope M.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Hein, Alexander; Lambrechts, Diether; Coenegrachts, Lieve; Vergote, Ignace; Amant, Frederic; Salvesen, Helga B.; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Helland, Harald; Scott, Rodney; Ashton, Katie; Proietto, Tony; Otton, Geoffrey; Tomlinson, Ian; Gorman, Maggie; Howarth, Kimberley; Hodgson, Shirley; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Yang, Hannah; Chanock, Stephen; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Jingmei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei; Long, Jirong; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shah, Mitul; Morrison, Jonathan; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Pharoah, Paul P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.

2013-01-01

20

Genetic screens to identify pathogenic gene variants in the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome  

PubMed Central

In many individuals suspected of the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome, variants of unclear significance (VUS), rather than an obviously pathogenic mutations, are identified in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. The uncertainty of whether such VUS inactivate MMR, and therefore are pathogenic, precludes targeted healthcare for both carriers and their relatives. To facilitate the identification of pathogenic VUS, we have developed an in cellulo genetic screen-based procedure for the large-scale mutagenization, identification, and cataloging of residues of MMR genes critical for MMR gene function. When a residue identified as mutated in an individual suspected of Lynch syndrome is listed as critical in such a reverse diagnosis catalog, there is a high probability that the corresponding human VUS is pathogenic. To investigate the applicability of this approach, we have generated and validated a prototypic reverse diagnosis catalog for the MMR gene MutS Homolog 2 (Msh2) by mutagenizing, identifying, and cataloging 26 deleterious mutations in 23 amino acids. Extensive in vivo and in vitro analysis of mutants listed in the catalog revealed both recessive and dominant-negative phenotypes. Nearly half of these critical residues match with VUS previously identified in individuals suspected of Lynch syndrome. This aids in the assignment of pathogenicity to these human VUS and validates the approach described here as a diagnostic tool. In a wider perspective, this work provides a model for the translation of personalized genomics into targeted healthcare.

Drost, Mark; Lutzen, Anne; van Hees, Sandrine; Ferreira, Daniel; Calleja, Fabienne; Zonneveld, Jose B. M.; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; de Wind, Niels

2013-01-01

21

Genetic screens to identify pathogenic gene variants in the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome.  

PubMed

In many individuals suspected of the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome, variants of unclear significance (VUS), rather than an obviously pathogenic mutations, are identified in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. The uncertainty of whether such VUS inactivate MMR, and therefore are pathogenic, precludes targeted healthcare for both carriers and their relatives. To facilitate the identification of pathogenic VUS, we have developed an in cellulo genetic screen-based procedure for the large-scale mutagenization, identification, and cataloging of residues of MMR genes critical for MMR gene function. When a residue identified as mutated in an individual suspected of Lynch syndrome is listed as critical in such a reverse diagnosis catalog, there is a high probability that the corresponding human VUS is pathogenic. To investigate the applicability of this approach, we have generated and validated a prototypic reverse diagnosis catalog for the MMR gene MutS Homolog 2 (Msh2) by mutagenizing, identifying, and cataloging 26 deleterious mutations in 23 amino acids. Extensive in vivo and in vitro analysis of mutants listed in the catalog revealed both recessive and dominant-negative phenotypes. Nearly half of these critical residues match with VUS previously identified in individuals suspected of Lynch syndrome. This aids in the assignment of pathogenicity to these human VUS and validates the approach described here as a diagnostic tool. In a wider perspective, this work provides a model for the translation of personalized genomics into targeted healthcare. PMID:23690608

Drost, Mark; Lützen, Anne; van Hees, Sandrine; Ferreira, Daniel; Calléja, Fabienne; Zonneveld, José B M; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; de Wind, Niels

2013-06-01

22

Identifying Patients Most Likely to Have a Common Bile Duct Stone After a Positive Intraoperative Cholangiogram  

PubMed Central

The false-positive rates of a positive intraoperative cholangiogram (IOC) are as high as 60%. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for stone removal is required after a positive IOC. It is unclear which clinical factors identify patients most likely to have a stone after a positive IOC. This study was conducted to identify factors predictive of common bile duct (CBD) stone(s) on ERCP after a positive IOC. A retrospective review of our endoscopic database identified all ERCP and/or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) procedures performed for a positive IOC between August 2003 and August 2009. Collected data included patient demographics; indication for cholecystectomy; IOC findings; blood tests before and after cholecystectomy, including liver function tests, complete blood count, and amylase and lipase measurements; and ERCP and/or EUS results. Patients who had a negative EUS for CBD stones and no subsequent ERCP were contacted by phone to see if they eventually required an ERCP. Univariate and multi-variable analyses were performed. A total of 114 patients were included in the study. IOC findings included a single stone, multiple stones, nonpassage of contrast into the duodenum, dilated CBD, and poor visualization of the bile duct. Eighty-four percent of patients had ERCP only, 9% had EUS only, and 7% had EUS followed by ERCP. Sixty-five patients (57%) had CBD stones on ERCP or EUS. Older age, multiple stones, dilated CBD on IOC, and elevated postcholecystectomy bilirubin levels were the clinical variables with statistically significant differences on univariate analysis. On multivariable analysis, older age and elevated postcholecystectomy total bilirubin levels correlated with the presence of CBD stones on ERCP. Fifty-seven percent of patients referred for endoscopic evaluation after a positive IOC had CBD stones on ERCP. Patients with CBD stones after a positive IOC were more likely to be older with elevated post-cholecystectomy total serum bilirubin levels.

Conway, Jason; Mishra, Girish; Baillie, John; Gilliam, John; Fernandez, Adolfo; Evans, John

2014-01-01

23

Dense genotyping identifies and localizes multiple common and rare variant association signals in celiac disease  

PubMed Central

We densely genotyped, using 1000 Genomes Project pilot CEU and additional re-sequencing study variants, 183 reported immune-mediated disease non-HLA risk loci in 12,041 celiac disease cases and 12,228 controls. We identified 13 new celiac disease risk loci at genome wide significance, bringing the total number of known loci (including HLA) to 40. Multiple independent association signals are found at over a third of these loci, attributable to a combination of common, low frequency, and rare genetic variants. In comparison with previously available data such as HapMap3, our dense genotyping in a large sample size provided increased resolution of the pattern of linkage disequilibrium, and suggested localization of many signals to finer scale regions. In particular, 29 of 54 fine-mapped signals appeared localized to specific single genes - and in some instances to gene regulatory elements. We define a complex genetic architecture of risk regions, and refine risk signals, providing a next step towards elucidating causal disease mechanisms.

Trynka, Gosia; Hunt, Karen A; Bockett, Nicholas A; Romanos, Jihane; Mistry, Vanisha; Szperl, Agata; Bakker, Sjoerd F; Bardella, Maria Teresa; Bhaw-Rosun, Leena; Castillejo, Gemma; de la Concha, Emilio G.; de Almeida, Rodrigo Coutinho; Dias, Kerith-Rae M; van Diemen, Cleo C.; Dubois, Patrick CA; Duerr, Richard H.; Edkins, Sarah; Franke, Lude; Fransen, Karin; Gutierrez, Javier; Heap, Graham AR; Hrdlickova, Barbara; Hunt, Sarah; Izurieta, Leticia Plaza; Izzo, Valentina; Joosten, Leo AB; Langford, Cordelia; Mazzilli, Maria Cristina; Mein, Charles A; Midah, Vandana; Mitrovic, Mitja; Mora, Barbara; Morelli, Marinita; Nutland, Sarah; Nunez, Concepcion; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Pearce, Kerra; Platteel, Mathieu; Polanco, Isabel; Potter, Simon; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Ricano-Ponce, Isis; Rich, Stephen S.; Rybak, Anna; Santiago, Jose Luis; Senapati, Sabyasachi; Sood, Ajit; Szajewska, Hania; Troncone, Riccardo; Varade, Jezabel; Wallace, Chris; Wolters, Victorien M; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Thelma, B.K.; Cukrowska, Bozena; Urcelay, Elena; Bilbao, Jose Ramon; Mearin, M Luisa; Barisani, Donatella; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Plagnol, Vincent; Deloukas, Panos; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Heel, David A

2011-01-01

24

Root cause analysis reports help identify common factors in delayed diagnosis and treatment of outpatients.  

PubMed

Delays in diagnosis and treatment are widely considered to be threats to outpatient safety. However, few studies have identified and described what factors contribute to delays that might result in patient harm in the outpatient setting. We analyzed 111 root cause analysis reports that investigated such delays and were submitted to the Veterans Affairs National Center for Patient Safety in the period 2005-12. The most common contributing factors noted in the reports included coordination problems resulting from inadequate follow-up planning, delayed scheduling for unspecified reasons, inadequate tracking of test results, and the absence of a system to track patients in need of short-term follow-up. Other contributing factors were team-level decision-making problems resulting from miscommunication of urgency between providers and providers' lack of awareness of or knowledge about a patient's situation; and communication failures among providers, patients, and other health care team members. Our findings suggest that to support care goals in the Affordable Care Act and the National Quality Strategy, even relatively sophisticated electronic health record systems will require enhancements. At the same time, policy initiatives should support programs to implement, and perhaps reward the use of, more rigorous interprofessional teamwork principles to improve outpatient communication and coordination. PMID:23918480

Giardina, Traber Davis; King, Beth J; Ignaczak, Aartee P; Paull, Douglas E; Hoeksema, Laura; Mills, Peter D; Neily, Julia; Hemphill, Robin R; Singh, Hardeep

2013-08-01

25

Root Cause Analysis Reports Help Identify Common Factors In Delayed Diagnosis And Treatment Of Outpatients  

PubMed Central

Delays in diagnosis and treatment are widely considered to be threats to outpatient safety. However, few studies have identified and described what factors contribute to delays that might result in patient harm in the outpatient setting. We analyzed 111 root cause analysis reports that investigated such delays and were submitted to the Veterans Affairs National Center for Patient Safety in the period 2005–12. The most common contributing factors noted in the reports included coordination problems resulting from inadequate follow-up planning, delayed scheduling for unspecified reasons, inadequate tracking of test results, and the absence of a system to track patients in need of short-term follow-up. Other contributing factors were team-level decision making problems resulting from miscommunication of urgency between providers and providers' lack of awareness of or knowledge about a patient's situation; and communication failures among providers, patients, and other health care team members. Our findings suggest that to support care goals in the Affordable Care Act and the National Quality Strategy, even relatively sophisticated electronic health record systems will require enhancements. At the same time, policy initiatives should support programs to implement, and perhaps reward the use of, more rigorous interprofessional teamwork principles to improve outpatient communication and coordination.

Giardina, Traber Davis; King, Beth J.; Ignaczak, Aartee; Paull, Douglas E.; Hoeksema, Laura; Mills, Peter D.; Neily, Julia; Hemphill, Robin R.; Singh, Hardeep

2013-01-01

26

Study Identifies Novel Genomic Changes in the Most Common Type of Lung Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... genomic changes in the most common type of lung cancer TCGA finds mutations in a key cancer- ... in a well-known cancer-causing pathway in lung adenocarcinoma, the most common subtype of lung cancer. ...

27

Probabilistic latent semantic analysis applied to whole bacterial genomes identifies common genomic features.  

PubMed

The spread of drug resistance amongst clinically-important bacteria is a serious, and growing, problem [1]. However, the analysis of entire genomes requires considerable computational effort, usually including the assembly of the genome and subsequent identification of genes known to be important in pathology. An alternative approach is to use computational algorithms to identify genomic differences between pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria, even without knowing the biological meaning of those differences. To overcome this problem, a range of techniques for dimensionality reduction have been developed. One such approach is known as latent-variable models [2]. In latent-variable models dimensionality reduction is achieved by representing a high-dimensional data by a few hidden or latent variables, which are not directly observed but inferred from the observed variables present in the model. Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing (PLSA) is an extention of LSA [3]. PLSA is based on a mixture decomposition derived from a latent class model. The main objective of the algorithm, as in LSA, is to represent high-dimensional co-occurrence information in a lower-dimensional way in order to discover the hidden semantic structure of the data using a probabilistic framework. In this work we applied the PLSA approach to analyse the common genomic features in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, using tokens derived from amino acid sequences rather than DNA. We characterised genome-scale amino acid sequences in terms of their components, and then investigated the relationships between genomes and tokens and the phenotypes they generated. As a control we used the non-pathogenic model Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. PMID:24980693

Rusakovica, Julija; Hallinan, Jennifer; Wipat, Anil; Zuliani, Paolo

2014-01-01

28

Impaired long-term memory retention: common denominator for acutely or genetically reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice.  

PubMed

In adult rodents, decreasing hippocampal neurogenesis experimentally using different approaches often impairs performance in hippocampus-dependent processes. Nonetheless, functional relevance of adult neurogenesis is far from being unraveled, and deficits so far described in animal models often lack reproducibility. One hypothesis is that such differences might be the consequence of the extent of the methodological specificity used to alter neurogenesis rather than the extent to which adult neurogenesis is altered. To address this, we focused on cranial irradiation, the most widely used technique to impair hippocampal neurogenesis and consequentially induce hippocampus-dependent behavioral deficits. To investigate the specificity of the technique, we thus exposed 4-5 months old female cyclin D2 knockout mice, a model lacking physiological levels of olfactory and hippocampal neurogenesis, to an X-ray dose of 10 Gy, reported to specifically affect transiently amplifying precursors. After a recovery period of 1.5 months, behavioral tests were performed and probed for locomotor activity, habituation, anxiety, and spatial learning and memory. Spatial learning in the Morris water maze was intact in all experimental groups. Although spatial memory retention assessed 24h following acquisition was also intact in all mice, irradiated wild type and cyclin D2 knockout mice displayed memory deficits one week after acquisition. In addition, we observed significant differences in tests addressing anxiety and locomotor activity dependent on the technique used to alter neurogenesis. Whereas irradiated mice were hyperactive regardless of their genotype, cyclin D2 knockout mice were hypoactive in most of the tests and displayed altered habituation. The present study emphasizes that different approaches aimed at decreasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis may result in distinct behavioral impairments related to locomotion and anxiety. In contrast, spatial long-term memory retention is consistently altered after both approaches suggesting a plausible implication of hippocampal neurogenesis in this cognitive process. PMID:23714078

Ben Abdallah, Nada M-B; Filipkowski, Robert K; Pruschy, Martin; Jaholkowski, Piotr; Winkler, Juergen; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Lipp, Hans-Peter

2013-09-01

29

Identifying and Reconstructing Common Cold Misconceptions among Developing K-12 Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Common cold misconceptions may contribute to ill-informed decisions and recommendations made by K-12 educators who often encounter infected students. Understanding the structure of educators' misconceptions can be used to improve health instruction in teacher professional preparation programs. Purpose: The purposes of this project were…

Johnson, Marcus Lee; Bungum, Timothy

2013-01-01

30

A modified FMEA tool for use in identifying and addressing common cause failure risks in industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of common cause failures (CCFs) is explored in the context of existing analytical techniques. Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is described as a means for accomplishing early risk assessment in the context of an existing analysis framework. Cause and coupling factor taxonomies are refined to fit the FMEA methodology. This modification allows consideration of CCF risks. Blending

Joseph A. Childs; Ali Mosleh

1999-01-01

31

Use of Optical Rotation and NMR Signal Counting to Identify Common Aldoses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment that relies entirely on NMR signal counting and polarimetric properties to identify an unknown aldohexose, aldopentose, or ketohexose, is developed. The experiment is adaptable to instructional approaches that allow students to develop identification strategies on their own.

Almy, John

2004-01-01

32

Identifying strategies to maximise recruitment and retention of practices and patients in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of an intervention to optimise secondary prevention for coronary heart disease in primary care. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Identifying strategies to maximise recruitment and retention of practices and patients in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of an intervention to optimise secondary prevention for coronary heart disease in primary care.

33

Dense genotyping identifies and localizes multiple common and rare variant association signals in celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using variants from the 1000 Genomes Project pilot European CEU dataset and data from additional resequencing studies, we densely genotyped 183 non-HLA risk loci previously associated with immune-mediated diseases in 12,041 individuals with celiac disease (cases) and 12,228 controls. We identified 13 new celiac disease risk loci reaching genome-wide significance, bringing the number of known loci (including the HLA locus)

Gosia Trynka; Karen A Hunt; Nicholas A Bockett; Jihane Romanos; Vanisha Mistry; Agata Szperl; Sjoerd F Bakker; Maria Teresa Bardella; Leena Bhaw-Rosun; Gemma Castillejo; Emilio G de la Concha; Rodrigo Coutinho de Almeida; Kerith-Rae M Dias; Cleo C van Diemen; Patrick C A Dubois; Richard H Duerr; Sarah Edkins; Lude Franke; Karin Fransen; Javier Gutierrez; Graham A R Heap; Barbara Hrdlickova; Sarah Hunt; Leticia Plaza Izurieta; Valentina Izzo; Leo A B Joosten; Cordelia Langford; Maria Cristina Mazzilli; Charles A Mein; Vandana Midah; Mitja Mitrovic; Barbara Mora; Marinita Morelli; Sarah Nutland; Concepción Núñez; Suna Onengut-Gumuscu; Kerra Pearce; Mathieu Platteel; Isabel Polanco; Simon Potter; Carmen Ribes-Koninckx; Isis Ricaño-Ponce; Stephen S Rich; Anna Rybak; José Luis Santiago; Sabyasachi Senapati; Ajit Sood; Hania Szajewska; Riccardo Troncone; Jezabel Varadé; Chris Wallace; Victorien M Wolters; Alexandra Zhernakova; B. K. Thelma; Bozena Cukrowska; Elena Urcelay; Jose Ramon Bilbao; M Luisa Mearin; Donatella Barisani; Jeffrey C Barrett; Vincent Plagnol; Panos Deloukas; Cisca Wijmenga; David A van Heel

2011-01-01

34

Large-scale integrative network-based analysis identifies common pathways disrupted by copy number alterations across cancers  

PubMed Central

Background Many large-scale studies analyzed high-throughput genomic data to identify altered pathways essential to the development and progression of specific types of cancer. However, no previous study has been extended to provide a comprehensive analysis of pathways disrupted by copy number alterations across different human cancers. Towards this goal, we propose a network-based method to integrate copy number alteration data with human protein-protein interaction networks and pathway databases to identify pathways that are commonly disrupted in many different types of cancer. Results We applied our approach to a data set of 2,172 cancer patients across 16 different types of cancers, and discovered a set of commonly disrupted pathways, which are likely essential for tumor formation in majority of the cancers. We also identified pathways that are only disrupted in specific cancer types, providing molecular markers for different human cancers. Analysis with independent microarray gene expression datasets confirms that the commonly disrupted pathways can be used to identify patient subgroups with significantly different survival outcomes. We also provide a network view of disrupted pathways to explain how copy number alterations affect pathways that regulate cell growth, cycle, and differentiation for tumorigenesis. Conclusions In this work, we demonstrated that the network-based integrative analysis can help to identify pathways disrupted by copy number alterations across 16 types of human cancers, which are not readily identifiable by conventional overrepresentation-based and other pathway-based methods. All the results and source code are available at http://compbio.cs.umn.edu/NetPathID/.

2013-01-01

35

Genome Wide Association Identifies Common Variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 Locus Influencing Plasma Cortisol and Corticosteroid Binding Globulin.  

PubMed

Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30-60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma), and SERPINA1, encoding ?1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG). Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136) influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases. PMID:25010111

Bolton, Jennifer L; Hayward, Caroline; Direk, Nese; Lewis, John G; Hammond, Geoffrey L; Hill, Lesley A; Anderson, Anna; Huffman, Jennifer; Wilson, James F; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan; Hastie, Nicholas; Wild, Sarah H; Velders, Fleur P; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G; Kaakinen, Marika; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J; Davey Smith, George; Ring, Susan M; Evans, David M; St Pourcain, Beate; Tanaka, Toshiko; Milaneschi, Yuri; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; van der Harst, Pim; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Bakker, Stephen J L; Verweij, Niek; Dullaart, Robin P F; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Morris, Andrew; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Anderson, Laura N; Pennell, Craig E; Lye, Stephen J; Matthews, Stephen G; Eriksson, Joel; Mellstrom, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes; Price, Jackie F; Strachan, Mark W J; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Tiemeier, Henning; Walker, Brian R

2014-07-01

36

Genome Wide Association Identifies Common Variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 Locus Influencing Plasma Cortisol and Corticosteroid Binding Globulin  

PubMed Central

Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30–60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma), and SERPINA1, encoding ?1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG). Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136) influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases.

Direk, Nese; Lewis, John G.; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Hill, Lesley A.; Anderson, Anna; Huffman, Jennifer; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan; Hastie, Nicholas; Wild, Sarah H.; Velders, Fleur P.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Lahti, Jari; Raikkonen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kaakinen, Marika; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Davey Smith, George; Ring, Susan M.; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Tanaka, Toshiko; Milaneschi, Yuri; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; van der Harst, Pim; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Bakker, Stephen J. L.; Verweij, Niek; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Morris, Andrew; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Anderson, Laura N.; Pennell, Craig E.; Lye, Stephen J.; Matthews, Stephen G.; Eriksson, Joel; Mellstrom, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes; Price, Jackie F.; Strachan, Mark W. J.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Tiemeier, Henning; Walker, Brian R.

2014-01-01

37

Identifying common pressure pathways from a complex network of human activities to support ecosystem-based management.  

PubMed

The marine environment is heavily exploited, but unintentional consequences cause wide-ranging negative effects to its characteristics. Linkage frameworks (e.g., DPSIR [driver-pressure-state-impact-response]) are commonly used to describe an interaction between human activities and ecological characteristics of the ecosystem, but as each linkage is viewed independently, the diversity of pressures that affect those characteristics may not be identified or managed effectively. Here we demonstrate an approach for using linkages to build a simple network to capture the complex relationships arising from multiple sectors and their activities. Using data-analysis tools common to ecology, we show how linkages can be placed into mechanistically similar groups. Management measures can be combined into fewer and more simplified measures that target groups of pressures rather than individual pressures, which is likely to increase compliance and the success of the measure while reducing the cost of enforcement. Given that conservation objectives (regional priorities) can vary, we also demonstrate by way of a case study example from the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, how management priorities might change, and illustrate how the approach can be used to identify sectors for control that best support the conservation objectives. PMID:23865227

Knights, Antony M; Koss, Rebecca S; Robinson, Leonie A

2013-06-01

38

Development of a high-throughput microsphere-based molecular assay to identify fifteen common bloodmeal hosts of Culex mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

For vectorborne infections, host selection by bloodfeeding arthropods dictates the interaction between host and pathogen. Because Culex mosquitoes that transmit West Nile virus (WNV) feed both on mammalian and avian hosts with varying competence, understanding the bloodfeeding patterns of these mosquitoes is important for understanding the transmission dynamics of WNV. Herein, we describe a new microsphere-based assay using Luminex xMAP® technology to rapidly identify 15 common hosts of Culex mosquitoes at our California study sites. The assay was verified with over 100 known vertebrate species samples and was used in conjunction with DNA sequencing to identify over 125 avian and mammalian host species from unknown Culex bloodmeals, more quickly and with less expense than sequencing alone. In addition, with multiplexed labeled probes, this microsphere array identified mixed bloodmeals that were difficult to discern with traditional sequencing. The microsphere set was easily expanded or reduced according to host range in a specific area, and this assay has made it possible to rapidly screen thousands of Culex spp. bloodmeals to extend our understanding of WNV transmission patterns.

Thiemann, TC; Brault, AC; Ernest, HB; Reisen, WK

2011-01-01

39

RETRACTED ARTICLE: What Are They Thinking? The Development and Use of an Instrument That Identifies Common Science Misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the rationale for, and development of, an online instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. Science Beliefs is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. It utilizes a true or false, along with a written-explanation, format. The true or false responses provide a cursory view of the extent to which specific beliefs are prevalent, while the accompanying explanations reveal underlying reasons for those beliefs. The stages of instrument development, reliability and validity information, along with the original sources of the items are discussed. The developed instrument has the potential to help science educators understand some specific barriers to deepening understanding across a range of science topics.

Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles R.; Larrabee, Timothy

2007-04-01

40

Use of high-resolution melting curve analysis to identify Mycoplasma species commonly isolated from ruminant, avian, and canine samples.  

PubMed

A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay coupled with high resolution melting curve analysis (PCR-HRM) was developed for identifying and distinguishing Mycoplasma species commonly isolated from ruminant, avian, and canine samples. The real-time PCR used 1 set of universal primers specific for the spacer region between the 16S ribosomal RNA and the 23S ribosomal RNA genes; the melting curve analysis of the PCR product used a high-resolution melt fluorescent dye. The real-time PCR-HRM assay was able to distinguish M. arginini, M. bovigenitalium, M. bovis, M. bovirhinis, M. canadense, M. cynos, M. spumans, M. iowae, M. meleagridis, and M. agalactiae reference strains. The real-time PCR-HRM assay developed was evaluated by testing field isolates of M. bovis, M. arginini, M. bovirhinis, M. bovigenitalium, M. iowae, and M. spumans with results consistent with those of the fluorescent antibody test. PMID:21908349

Rebelo, Ana Rita; Parker, Lois; Cai, Hugh Y

2011-09-01

41

Comparative genomic analyses identify common molecular pathways modulated upon exposure to low doses of arsenic and cadmium  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to the toxic metals arsenic and cadmium is associated with detrimental health effects including cancers of various organs. While arsenic and cadmium are well known to cause adverse health effects at high doses, the molecular impact resulting from exposure to environmentally relevant doses of these metals remains largely unexplored. Results In this study, we examined the effects of in vitro exposure to either arsenic or cadmium in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells using genomics and systems level pathway mapping approaches. A total of 167 genes with differential expression were identified following exposure to either metal with surprisingly no overlap between the two. Real-time PCR was used to confirm target gene expression changes. The gene sets were overlaid onto protein-protein interaction maps to identify metal-induced transcriptional networks. Interestingly, both metal-induced networks were significantly enriched for proteins involved in common biological processes such as tumorigenesis, inflammation, and cell signaling. These findings were further supported by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusions This study is the first to compare the transcriptional responses induced by low dose exposure to cadmium and arsenic in human lymphoblastoid cells. These results highlight that even at low levels of exposure both metals can dramatically influence the expression of important cellular pathways.

2011-01-01

42

A common rejection module (CRM) for acute rejection across multiple organs identifies novel therapeutics for organ transplantation  

PubMed Central

Using meta-analysis of eight independent transplant datasets (236 graft biopsy samples) from four organs, we identified a common rejection module (CRM) consisting of 11 genes that were significantly overexpressed in acute rejection (AR) across all transplanted organs. The CRM genes could diagnose AR with high specificity and sensitivity in three additional independent cohorts (794 samples). In another two independent cohorts (151 renal transplant biopsies), the CRM genes correlated with the extent of graft injury and predicted future injury to a graft using protocol biopsies. Inferred drug mechanisms from the literature suggested that two FDA-approved drugs (atorvastatin and dasatinib), approved for nontransplant indications, could regulate specific CRM genes and reduce the number of graft-infiltrating cells during AR. We treated mice with HLA-mismatched mouse cardiac transplant with atorvastatin and dasatinib and showed reduction of the CRM genes, significant reduction of graft-infiltrating cells, and extended graft survival. We further validated the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on graft survival by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a single-center cohort of 2,515 renal transplant patients followed for up to 22 yr. In conclusion, we identified a CRM in transplantation that provides new opportunities for diagnosis, drug repositioning, and rational drug design.

Khatri, Purvesh; Roedder, Silke; Kimura, Naoyuki; De Vusser, Katrien; Morgan, Alexander A.; Gong, Yongquan; Fischbein, Michael P.; Robbins, Robert C.; Naesens, Maarten

2013-01-01

43

Network-based SNP meta-analysis identifies joint and disjoint genetic features across common human diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided a large set of genetic loci influencing the risk for many common diseases. Association studies typically analyze one specific trait in single populations in an isolated fashion without taking into account the potential phenotypic and genetic correlation between traits. However, GWA data can be efficiently used to identify overlapping loci with analogous or contrasting effects on different diseases. Results Here, we describe a new approach to systematically prioritize and interpret available GWA data. We focus on the analysis of joint and disjoint genetic determinants across diseases. Using network analysis, we show that variant-based approaches are superior to locus-based analyses. In addition, we provide a prioritization of disease loci based on network properties and discuss the roles of hub loci across several diseases. We demonstrate that, in general, agonistic associations appear to reflect current disease classifications, and present the potential use of effect sizes in refining and revising these agonistic signals. We further identify potential branching points in disease etiologies based on antagonistic variants and describe plausible small-scale models of the underlying molecular switches. Conclusions The observation that a surprisingly high fraction (>15%) of the SNPs considered in our study are associated both agonistically and antagonistically with related as well as unrelated disorders indicates that the molecular mechanisms influencing causes and progress of human diseases are in part interrelated. Genetic overlaps between two diseases also suggest the importance of the affected entities in the specific pathogenic pathways and should be investigated further.

2012-01-01

44

Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common variants in CTNNA2 associated with excitement-seeking.  

PubMed

The tendency to seek stimulating activities and intense sensations define excitement-seeking, a personality trait akin to some aspects of sensation-seeking. This trait is a central feature of extraversion and is a component of the multifaceted impulsivity construct. Those who score high on measures of excitement-seeking are more likely to smoke, use other drugs, gamble, drive recklessly, have unsafe/unprotected sex and engage in other risky behaviors of clinical and social relevance. To identify common genetic variants associated with the Excitement-Seeking scale of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, we performed genome-wide association studies in six samples of European ancestry (N=7860), and combined the results in a meta-analysis. We identified a genome-wide significant association between the Excitement-Seeking scale and rs7600563 (P=2 × 10(-8)). This single-nucleotide polymorphism maps within the catenin cadherin-associated protein, alpha 2 (CTNNA2) gene, which encodes for a brain-expressed ?-catenin critical for synaptic contact. The effect of rs7600563 was in the same direction in all six samples, but did not replicate in additional samples (N=5105). The results provide insight into the genetics of excitement-seeking and risk-taking, and are relevant to hyperactivity, substance use, antisocial and bipolar disorders. PMID:22833195

Terracciano, A; Esko, T; Sutin, A R; de Moor, M H M; Meirelles, O; Zhu, G; Tanaka, T; Giegling, I; Nutile, T; Realo, A; Allik, J; Hansell, N K; Wright, M J; Montgomery, G W; Willemsen, G; Hottenga, J-J; Friedl, M; Ruggiero, D; Sorice, R; Sanna, S; Cannas, A; Räikkönen, K; Widen, E; Palotie, A; Eriksson, J G; Cucca, F; Krueger, R F; Lahti, J; Luciano, M; Smoller, J W; van Duijn, C M; Abecasis, G R; Boomsma, D I; Ciullo, M; Costa, P T; Ferrucci, L; Martin, N G; Metspalu, A; Rujescu, D; Schlessinger, D; Uda, M

2011-01-01

45

Mentoring--a staff retention tool.  

PubMed

Staff retention presents a common challenge for hospitals nationwide. Mentorship programs have been explored as one method of creating environments that promote staff retention. Successful achievement of nurse competencies identified in the Synergy Model for Patient Care can best be achieved in an environment that encourages and facilitates mentoring. Mentoring relationships in critical care provide the ongoing interactions, coaching, teaching, and role modeling to facilitate nurses' progression along this continuum. Mentoring relationships offer support and professional development for nurses at all levels within an organization as well as an optimistic outlook for the nursing profession. PMID:16862027

Kanaskie, Mary Louise

2006-01-01

46

Postoperative urinary retention.  

PubMed

Postoperative urinary retention (PUR) is a common complication of surgery and anesthesia. The risk of retention is especially high after anorectal surgery, hernia repair, and orthopedic surgery and increases with advancing age. Certain anesthetic and analgesic modalities, particularly spinal anesthesia with long-acting local anesthetics and epidural analgesia, promote the development of urinary retention. Portable ultrasound provides rapid and accurate assessment of bladder volume and aids in the diagnosis and management of PUR. Catheterization is recommended when bladder volume exceeds 600 mL to prevent the negative sequelae of prolonged bladder overdistention. PMID:19825487

Darrah, Daniela M; Griebling, Tomas L; Silverstein, Jeffrey H

2009-09-01

47

Development of monoclonal antibodies that identify Vibrio species commonly isolated from infections of humans, fish, and shellfish.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Vibrio species that infect humans, fish, and shellfish were developed for application in rapid identifications. The pathogens included Vibrio alginolyticus, V. anguillarum, V. carchariae, V. cholerae, V. damsela, V. furnissii, V. harveyi, V. ordalii, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus. Three types of MAbs were selected. The first important group included MAbs that reacted with only a single species. A second group comprised a number of MAbs that reacted with two, taxonomically closely related Vibrio species. For example, of 22 MAbs raised against V. alginolyticus, 6 recognized a 52-kDa flagellar H antigen common to both V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus; V. anguillarum and V. ordalii also shared antigens. A third group included three genus-specific MAbs that reacted with almost all Vibrio species but did not react with other members of the family Vibrionaceae (e.g., members of the Aeromonas, Photobacterium, and Plesiomonas genera) or a wide range of gram-negative bacteria representing many genera. This last group indicated the possible existence of an antigenic determinant common to Vibrio species. Two of these three genus-specific MAbs reacted with heat-stable antigenic determinants of Vibrio species as well as lipopolysaccharide extracted from Vibrio species. The use of the MAbs in blind tests and diagnosis of clinical isolates indicated that three different types of bacteria, viz., live, formalin-fixed, and sodium azide-killed bacteria, were detected consistently. Overall, it was found that the genus-specific MAbs were very useful for rapidly identifying vibrios in the screening of acute infections, while the species-specific MAbs and others were useful for completing the diagnosis. Images

Chen, D; Hanna, P J; Altmann, K; Smith, A; Moon, P; Hammond, L S

1992-01-01

48

The probability of being identified as an outlier with commonly used funnel plot control limits for the standardised mortality ratio  

PubMed Central

Background Emphasis is increasingly being placed on the monitoring of clinical outcomes for health care providers. Funnel plots have become an increasingly popular graphical methodology used to identify potential outliers. It is assumed that a provider only displaying expected random variation (i.e. ‘in-control’) will fall outside a control limit with a known probability. In reality, the discrete count nature of these data, and the differing methods, can lead to true probabilities quite different from the nominal value. This paper investigates the true probability of an ‘in control’ provider falling outside control limits for the Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR). Methods The true probabilities of an ‘in control’ provider falling outside control limits for the SMR were calculated and compared for three commonly used limits: Wald confidence interval; ‘exact’ confidence interval; probability-based prediction interval. Results The probability of falling above the upper limit, or below the lower limit, often varied greatly from the nominal value. This was particularly apparent when there were a small number of expected events: for expected events ?50 the median probability of an ‘in-control’ provider falling above the upper 95% limit was 0.0301 (Wald), 0.0121 (‘exact’), 0.0201 (prediction). Conclusions It is important to understand the properties and probability of being identified as an outlier by each of these different methods to aid the correct identification of poorly performing health care providers. The limits obtained using probability-based prediction limits have the most intuitive interpretation and their properties can be defined a priori. Funnel plot control limits for the SMR should not be based on confidence intervals.

2012-01-01

49

Pimecrolimus identifies a common genomic anti-inflammatory profile, is clinically highly effective in psoriasis and is well tolerated.  

PubMed

The ascomycin macrolactam pimecrolimus is a novel inflammatory cytokine release inhibitor that so far has not been administered systemically to humans. In this phase I/II randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple rising dose proof of concept study psoriasis patients were treated with oral pimecrolimus or placebo. Gene profiling identified a common genomic profile with a downregulation of genes associated with inflammation but no changes in gene expression linked to drug-related side-effects. A steady state of pimecrolimus was reached after 5-10 d, Cmax, and area under the curve (0-24) was 54.5 ng per ml and 589.9 ng h per ml, respectively, at steady state at the highest dose. There was clear clinical efficacy in patients receiving 20 mg pimecrolimus twice daily and 30 mg twice daily with a reduction of Psoriasis Area and Severity Index by 60% and 75%, respectively. Histopatho logically and immunopathologically there was a reversion of the psoriatic phenotype towards normal. There were no notable clinical, laboratory, kidney function, or immunologic side-effects. We conclude that pimecrolimus taken orally is highly effective in a concentration-dependent manner in patients with psoriasis and on a short-term basis it is well tolerated and this is confirmed by its pharmacogenomic profile. The latter also indicates that pimecrolimus should be equally effective in other inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:12406334

Rappersberger, Klemens; Komar, Michael; Ebelin, Marie-Eve; Scott, Graham; Burtin, Pascale; Greig, Gerard; Kehren, Jeanne; Chibout, Salah-Dine; Cordier, Andre; Holter, Wolfgang; Richter, Leo; Oberbauer, Rainer; Stuetz, Anton; Wolff, Klaus

2002-10-01

50

Meta-Analysis of 28,141 Individuals Identifies Common Variants within Five New Loci That Influence Uric Acid Concentrations  

PubMed Central

Elevated serum uric acid levels cause gout and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To investigate the polygenetic basis of serum uric acid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans from 14 studies totalling 28,141 participants of European descent, resulting in identification of 954 SNPs distributed across nine loci that exceeded the threshold of genome-wide significance, five of which are novel. Overall, the common variants associated with serum uric acid levels fall in the following nine regions: SLC2A9 (p?=?5.2×10?201), ABCG2 (p?=?3.1×10?26), SLC17A1 (p?=?3.0×10?14), SLC22A11 (p?=?6.7×10?14), SLC22A12 (p?=?2.0×10?9), SLC16A9 (p?=?1.1×10?8), GCKR (p?=?1.4×10?9), LRRC16A (p?=?8.5×10?9), and near PDZK1 (p?=?2.7×10?9). Identified variants were analyzed for gender differences. We found that the minor allele for rs734553 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in lowering uric acid levels in women and the minor allele of rs2231142 in ABCG2 elevates uric acid levels more strongly in men compared to women. To further characterize the identified variants, we analyzed their association with a panel of metabolites. rs12356193 within SLC16A9 was associated with DL-carnitine (p?=?4.0×10?26) and propionyl-L-carnitine (p?=?5.0×10?8) concentrations, which in turn were associated with serum UA levels (p?=?1.4×10?57 and p?=?8.1×10?54, respectively), forming a triangle between SNP, metabolites, and UA levels. Taken together, these associations highlight additional pathways that are important in the regulation of serum uric acid levels and point toward novel potential targets for pharmacological intervention to prevent or treat hyperuricemia. In addition, these findings strongly support the hypothesis that transport proteins are key in regulating serum uric acid levels.

Sanna, Serena; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Perola, Markus; Mangino, Massimo; Albrecht, Eva; Wallace, Chris; Farrall, Martin; Johansson, Asa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Aulchenko, Yurii; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Campbell, Harry; Connell, John; Dominiczak, Anna; Homuth, Georg; Lamina, Claudia; McCarthy, Mark I.; Meitinger, Thomas; Mooser, Vincent; Munroe, Patricia; Nauck, Matthias; Peden, John; Prokisch, Holger; Salo, Perttu; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Volker, Uwe; Waeber, Gerard; Waterworth, Dawn; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Wright, Alan F.; Adamski, Jerzy; Whitfield, John B.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Pramstaller, Peter; Watkins, Hugh; Doering, Angela; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Spector, Tim D.; Peltonen, Leena; Volzke, Henry; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Vollenweider, Peter; Caulfield, Mark; Illig, Thomas; Gieger, Christian

2009-01-01

51

Chimeric exchange of coronavirus nsp5 proteases (3CLpro) identifies common and divergent regulatory determinants of protease activity.  

PubMed

Human coronaviruses (CoVs) such as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) cause epidemics of severe human respiratory disease. A conserved step of CoV replication is the translation and processing of replicase polyproteins containing 16 nonstructural protein domains (nsp's 1 to 16). The CoV nsp5 protease (3CLpro; Mpro) processes nsp's at 11 cleavage sites and is essential for virus replication. CoV nsp5 has a conserved 3-domain structure and catalytic residues. However, the intra- and intermolecular determinants of nsp5 activity and their conservation across divergent CoVs are unknown, in part due to challenges in cultivating many human and zoonotic CoVs. To test for conservation of nsp5 structure-function determinants, we engineered chimeric betacoronavirus murine hepatitis virus (MHV) genomes encoding nsp5 proteases of human and bat alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Exchange of nsp5 proteases from HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43, which share the same genogroup, genogroup 2a, with MHV, allowed for immediate viral recovery with efficient replication albeit with impaired fitness in direct competition with wild-type MHV. Introduction of MHV nsp5 temperature-sensitive mutations into chimeric HKU1 and OC43 nsp5 proteases resulted in clear differences in viability and temperature-sensitive phenotypes compared with MHV nsp5. These data indicate tight genetic linkage and coevolution between nsp5 protease and the genomic background and identify differences in intramolecular networks regulating nsp5 function. Our results also provide evidence that chimeric viruses within coronavirus genogroups can be used to test nsp5 determinants of function and inhibition in common isogenic backgrounds and cell types. PMID:24027335

Stobart, Christopher C; Sexton, Nicole R; Munjal, Havisha; Lu, Xiaotao; Molland, Katrina L; Tomar, Sakshi; Mesecar, Andrew D; Denison, Mark R

2013-12-01

52

Chimeric Exchange of Coronavirus nsp5 Proteases (3CLpro) Identifies Common and Divergent Regulatory Determinants of Protease Activity  

PubMed Central

Human coronaviruses (CoVs) such as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) cause epidemics of severe human respiratory disease. A conserved step of CoV replication is the translation and processing of replicase polyproteins containing 16 nonstructural protein domains (nsp's 1 to 16). The CoV nsp5 protease (3CLpro; Mpro) processes nsp's at 11 cleavage sites and is essential for virus replication. CoV nsp5 has a conserved 3-domain structure and catalytic residues. However, the intra- and intermolecular determinants of nsp5 activity and their conservation across divergent CoVs are unknown, in part due to challenges in cultivating many human and zoonotic CoVs. To test for conservation of nsp5 structure-function determinants, we engineered chimeric betacoronavirus murine hepatitis virus (MHV) genomes encoding nsp5 proteases of human and bat alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Exchange of nsp5 proteases from HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43, which share the same genogroup, genogroup 2a, with MHV, allowed for immediate viral recovery with efficient replication albeit with impaired fitness in direct competition with wild-type MHV. Introduction of MHV nsp5 temperature-sensitive mutations into chimeric HKU1 and OC43 nsp5 proteases resulted in clear differences in viability and temperature-sensitive phenotypes compared with MHV nsp5. These data indicate tight genetic linkage and coevolution between nsp5 protease and the genomic background and identify differences in intramolecular networks regulating nsp5 function. Our results also provide evidence that chimeric viruses within coronavirus genogroups can be used to test nsp5 determinants of function and inhibition in common isogenic backgrounds and cell types.

Stobart, Christopher C.; Sexton, Nicole R.; Munjal, Havisha; Lu, Xiaotao; Molland, Katrina L.; Tomar, Sakshi; Mesecar, Andrew D.

2013-01-01

53

Multiple inguinal and pelvic lymph node metastases of malignant melanoma of the heel identified by common iliac lymphadenopathy.  

PubMed

It is extremely rare that swelling of pelvic lymph nodes is found when inguinal lymph nodes contain only a microscopic amount of disease without enlargement. A 69-year-old woman with malignant melanoma of the heel was treated with a wide, local excision. About four years after the initial operation, a left common iliac node was enlarged although all lymph nodes in the obturator, external iliac and inguinal regions were not enlarged. Rapid pathological examination of the resected swollen lymph nodes revealed involvement of malignant melanoma, and left pelvic and groin dissection was undertaken. Histologically, multiple lymph node metastases were found in the common iliac, obturator, external iliac and inguinal regions. This case indicates that sentinel lymph node biopsy may be worth considering even for stage IA malignant melanoma of the lower extremity. PMID:22984908

Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Fujisawa, Yasuhiro; Obara, Saeko; Furuta, Junichi; Kawachi, Yasuhiro; Otsuka, Fujio

2012-09-01

54

Association scan of 14,500 nsSNPs in four common diseases identifies variants involved in autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

We have genotyped 14,436 nsSNPs and 897 MHC tagSNPs in 1000 independent cases of Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD), Multiple Sclerosis and Breast Cancer. Comparing each of these diseases against a common control set of 1500 unselected healthy British individuals, we report initial association and independent replication of two new loci for AS, ARTS1 and IL23R, and confirmation of the previously reported AITD association with TSHR and FCRL3. These findings, enabled in part by expanding the control reference group with individuals from the other disease groups to increase statistical power, highlight important new possibilities for autoimmune regulation and suggest that IL23R may be a common susceptibility factor for the major ‘seronegative’ diseases.

2009-01-01

55

Molecular characterization and genetic relationships among most common identified morphotypes of critically endangered rare Moroccan species Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae) using RAPD and SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

– \\u000a \\u000a • The objective of this work is the molecular characterization of most common identified morphotypes of critically endangered\\u000a rare Moroccan species Argania spinosa.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • Eighteen RAPD markers and twenty SSR markers have been assayed in 38 argan tree accessions from the three most commonly\\u000a identified morphotypes: oval, spherical and spindle fruit types.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • A total of 140

Khalid Majourhat; Youssef Jabbar; Abdellatif Hafidi; Pedro Martínez-Gómez

2008-01-01

56

Comparison of Sepsis-Induced Transcriptomic Changes in a Murine Model to Clinical Blood Samples Identifies Common Response Patterns  

PubMed Central

Experimental models, mimicking physiology, and molecular dynamics of diseases in human, harbor the possibility to study the effect of interventions and transfer results from bench to bedside. Recent advances in high-throughput technologies, standardized protocols, and integration of knowledge from databases yielded rising consistency and usability of results for inter-species comparisons. Here, we explored similarities and dissimilarities in gene expression from blood samples of a murine sepsis model (peritoneal contamination and infection, PCI) and patients from the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) measured by microarrays. Applying a consistent pre-processing and analysis workflow, differentially expressed genes (DEG) from PCI and PICU data significantly overlapped. A major fraction of DEG was commonly expressed and mapped to adaptive and innate immune response related pathways, whereas the minor fraction, including the chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 4, exhibited constant inter-species disparities. Reproducibility of transcriptomic observations was validated experimentally in PCI. These data underline, that inter-species comparison can obtain commonly expressed transcriptomic features despite missing homologs and different protocols. Our findings point toward a high suitability of an animal sepsis model and further experimental efforts in order to transfer results from animal experiments to the bedside.

Lambeck, Sandro; Weber, Martina; Gonnert, Falk A.; Mrowka, Ralf; Bauer, Michael

2012-01-01

57

Principals Retention. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many districts are struggling with the problem of administrator retention. Hoffman (2004) identifies some of the reasons for this: (1) Increased accountability expectations; (2) Diminished or static levels of resources to support reform efforts; (3) Greater administrator vulnerability to sanctions; (4) The complex demands of government and the…

Muir, Mike

2005-01-01

58

Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Common Variants Associated with Brachial Circumference: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Brachial circumference (BC), also known as upper arm or mid arm circumference, can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and fat tissue, which are distributed differently in men and women. Analysis of anthropometric measures of peripheral fat distribution such as BC could help in understanding the complex pathophysiology behind overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic variants associated with BC through a large-scale genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis. We used fixed-effects meta-analysis to synthesise summary results across 14 GWAS discovery and 4 replication cohorts comprising overall 22,376 individuals (12,031 women and 10,345 men) of European ancestry. Individual analyses were carried out for men, women, and combined across sexes using linear regression and an additive genetic model: adjusted for age and adjusted for age and BMI. We prioritised signals for follow-up in two-stages. We did not detect any signals reaching genome-wide significance. The FTO rs9939609 SNP showed nominal evidence for association (p<0.05) in the age-adjusted strata for men and across both sexes. In this first GWAS meta-analysis for BC to date, we have not identified any genome-wide significant signals and do not observe robust association of previously established obesity loci with BC. Large-scale collaborations will be necessary to achieve higher power to detect loci underlying BC.

Boraska, Vesna; Day-Williams, Aaron; Franklin, Christopher S.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Albrecht, Eva; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Bochud, Murielle; Cadby, Gemma; Ernst, Florian; Evans, David M.; Hayward, Caroline; Hicks, Andrew A.; Huffman, Jennifer; Huth, Cornelia; James, Alan L.; Klopp, Norman; Kolcic, Ivana; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Musk, Arthur W.; Pehlic, Marina; Pennell, Craig E.; Perry, John R. B.; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pourcain, Beate St; Ring, Susan M.; Salvi, Erika; Schipf, Sabine; Staessen, Jan A.; Teumer, Alexander; Timpson, Nicholas; Vitart, Veronique; Warrington, Nicole M.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; An, Ping; Anttila, Verneri; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Holmen, Jostein; Ntalla, Ioanna; Palotie, Aarno; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Wedenoja, Juho; Winsvold, Bendik S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Province, Michael A.; Zwart, John-Anker; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Cusi, Daniele; Davey Smith, George; Frayling, Timothy M.; Gieger, Christian; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rudan, Igor; Volzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Wright, Alan F.; Zeggini, Eleftheria

2012-01-01

59

The Effects of Small Sample Size on Identifying Polytomous DIF Using the Liu-Agresti Estimator of the Cumulative Common Odds Ratio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an evaluation of the behavior of the Liu-Agresti estimator of the cumulative common odds ratio when identifying differential item functioning (DIF) with polytomously scored test items using small samples. The Liu-Agresti estimator has been proposed by Penfield and Algina as a promising approach for the study of polytomous DIF but no…

Carvajal, Jorge; Skorupski, William P.

2010-01-01

60

A genome-wide association study identifies common variants influencing serum uric acid concentrations in a Chinese population  

PubMed Central

Background Uric acid (UA) is a complex phenotype influenced by both genetic and environmental factors as well as their interactions. Current genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a variety of genetic determinants of UA in Europeans; however, such studies in Asians, especially in Chinese populations remain limited. Methods A two-stage GWAS was performed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were associated with serum uric acid (UA) in a Chinese population of 12,281 participants (GWAS discovery stage included 1452 participants from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort (DFTJ-cohort) and 1999 participants from the Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey (FAMHES). The validation stage included another independent 8830 individuals from the DFTJ-cohort). Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 chips and Illumina Omni-Express platform were used for genotyping for DFTJ-cohort and FAMHES, respectively. Gene-environment interactions on serum UA levels were further explored in 10,282 participants from the DFTJ-cohort. Results Briefly, we identified two previously reported UA loci of SLC2A9 (rs11722228, combined P = 8.98 × 10-31) and ABCG2 (rs2231142, combined P = 3.34 × 10-42). The two independent SNPs rs11722228 and rs2231142 explained 1.03% and 1.09% of the total variation of UA levels, respectively. Heterogeneity was observed across different populations. More importantly, both independent SNPs rs11722228 and rs2231142 were nominally significantly interacted with gender on serum UA levels (P for interaction = 4.0 × 10-2 and 2.0 × 10-2, respectively). The minor allele (T) for rs11722228 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in elevating serum UA levels in females compared to males and the minor allele (T) of rs2231142 in ABCG2 had stronger effects on serum UA levels in males than that in females. Conclusions Two genetic loci (SLC2A9 and ABCG2) were confirmed to be associated with serum UA concentration. These findings strongly support the evidence that SLC2A9 and ABCG2 function in UA metabolism across human populations. Furthermore, we observed these associations are modified by gender.

2014-01-01

61

Molecular cloning of the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) identifies a type II integral membrane protein.  

PubMed Central

Common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) is a 100-kDa cell-surface glycoprotein expressed on most acute lymphoblastic leukemias and certain other immature lymphoid malignancies and on normal lymphoid progenitors. The latter are either uncommitted to B- or T-cell lineage or committed to only the earliest stages of B- or T-lymphocyte maturation. To elucidate to homogeneity, obtained the NH2-terminal sequence from both the intact protein and derived tryptic and V8 protease peptides and isolated CALLA cDNAs from a Nalm-6 cell line lambda gt10 library using redundant oligonucleotide probes. The CALLA cDNA sequence predicts a 750-amino acid integral membrane protein with a single 24-amino acid hydrophobic segment that could function as both a transmembrane region and a signal peptide. The COOH-terminal 700 amino acids, including six potential N-linked glycosylation sites compose the extracellular protein segment, whereas the 25 NH2-terminal amino acids remaining after cleavage of the initiation methionine form the cytoplasmic tail. CALLA+ cells contain CALLA transcripts of 2.7 to 5.7 kilobases with the major 5.7- and 3.7-kilobase mRNAs being preferentially expressed in specific cell types. Images

Shipp, M A; Richardson, N E; Sayre, P H; Brown, N R; Masteller, E L; Clayton, L K; Ritz, J; Reinherz, E L

1988-01-01

62

Evaluation of common genetic variants identified by GWAS for early onset and morbid obesity in population-based samples  

PubMed Central

Background Meta-analysis of case-control genome wide association studies (GWAS) for early onset and morbid obesity identified four variants in/near the PRL, PTER, MAF and NPC1 genes. Objective We aimed to validate association of these variants with obesity-related traits in population-based samples. Design Genotypes and anthropometric traits were available in up to 31 083 adults from the Fenland, EPIC-Norfolk, Whitehall II, Ely and Hertfordshire studies and in 2 042 children and adolescents from the European Youth Heart Study. In each study, we tested associations of rs4712652 (near-PRL), rs10508503 (near-PTER), rs1424233 (near-MAF) and rs1805081 (NPC1), or proxy variants (r2>0.8), with the odds of being overweight and obese, as well as with BMI, percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). Associations were adjusted for sex, age and age2 in adults and for sex, age, age-group, country and maturity in children and adolescents. Summary statistics were combined using fixed effects meta-analysis methods. Results We had 80% power to detect ORs of 1.046 to 1.092 for overweight and 1.067 to 1.136 for obesity. Variants near PRL, PTER and MAF were not associated with the odds of being overweight or obese, or with BMI, %BF or WC after meta-analysis (P > 0.15). The NPC1 variant rs1805081 showed some evidence of association with %BF (beta=0.013 SD/allele, P =0.040), but not with any of the remaining obesity-related traits (P >0.3). Conclusion Overall, these variants, which were identified in a GWAS for early onset and morbid obesity, do not seem to influence obesity-related traits in the general population.

den Hoed, Marcel; Luan, Jian'an; Langenberg, Claudia; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Jameson, Karen; Kumari, Meena; Kivimaki, Mika; Hingorani, Aroon D; Gr?ntved, Anders; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ekelund, Ulf; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth JF

2013-01-01

63

TM4SF10 gene sequencing in XLMR patients identifies common polymorphisms but no disease-associated mutation  

PubMed Central

Background The TM4SF10 gene encodes a putative four-transmembrane domains protein of unknown function termed Brain Cell Membrane Protein 1 (BCMP1), and is abundantly expressed in the brain. This gene is located on the short arm of human chromosome X at p21.1. The hypothesis that mutations in the TM4SF10 gene are associated with impaired brain function was investigated by sequencing the gene in individuals with hereditary X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Methods The coding region (543 bp) of TM4SF10, including intronic junctions, and the long 3' untranslated region (3 233 bp), that has been conserved during evolution, were sequenced in 16 male XLMR patients from 14 unrelated families with definite, or suggestive, linkage to the TM4SF10 gene locus, and in 5 normal males. Results Five sequence changes were identified but none was found to be associated with the disease. Two of these changes correspond to previously known SNPs, while three other were novel SNPs in the TM4SF10 gene. Conclusion We have investigated the majority of the known MRX families linked to the TM4SF10 gene region. In the absence of mutations detected, our study indicates that alterations of TM4SF10 are not a frequent cause of XLMR.

Christophe-Hobertus, Christiane; Kooy, Frank; Gecz, Jozef; Abramowicz, Marc J; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Schwartz, Charles; Christophe, Daniel

2004-01-01

64

EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

Wagner, Howard A.

2010-01-01

65

The Perceptions of Kindergarten Teachers on Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perceptions of 37 kindergarten teachers on kindergarten student retention as an intervention were examined. The major goals of the study were to: 1) identify kindergarten teachers' perceptions of retention, 2) examine differences in reported perceptions of kindergarten student retention as an intervention by certified versus noncertified…

Okpala, Comfort O.

2007-01-01

66

Modelling the fate of six common pharmaceuticals in a small stream: quantification of attenuation and retention in different stream-specific environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of pharmaceutical residues in streaming waters is common in urbanized areas. Although the occurrence and source of these micropollutants is known, their behavior in these aquatic ecosystems is still only partly understood. Specifically, quantitative information of biogeochemical processes in stream-specific environments where predominant reactions occur is often missing. In an attempt to address this knowledge gap, we performed simultaneous tracer tests in Säva Brook, Sweden, with bezafibrate, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, metoprolol and naproxen, as well as with the more inert solutes uranine and Rhodamine WT. The breakthrough curves at five successive sampling stations along a 16 km long stream reach were evaluated using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model framework containing surface water transport together with a representation of transient storage in slow/immobile zones of the stream. The multi-tracer experiment opens for decoupling of hydrological and biogeochemical contribution to the fate, and by linking impact and sensitivity analyses to relative significance of model parameters the most important processes for each contaminant were elucidated. Specifically for Säva Brook, the proposed methodology revealed that the pharmaceutical-contaminated stream water remained in the storage zones for times corresponding to 5-25% of the flow time of the stream. Furthermore, the results indicate a great variability in terms of predominant biogeochemical processes between the different contaminants. Rapid reactions occurring in the transient storage zone attenuated both ibuprofen and clofibric acid, and we conclude that a major degradation pathway for these contaminants was biodegradation in the hyporheic zone. In contrast, bezafibrate, metoprolol, and naproxen were mainly affected by sorption both in the storage zone and the main channel, while diclofenac displayed negligible effects of biogeochemical reactions.

Riml, Joakim; Wörman, Anders; Kunkel, Uwe; Radke, Michael

2013-04-01

67

Influence of acidic eluent for retention behaviors of common anions and cations by ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H+ -form.  

PubMed

Influence of acidic eluent on retention behaviors of common anions and cations by ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography (ion-exclusion/CEC) were investigated on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H(+)-form with conductivity. Sensitivities of analyte ions, especially weak acid anions (F(-) and HCOO(-)), were affected with degree of background conductivity level with pK(a1) (first dissociation constant) of acid in eluent. The retention behaviors of anions and cations were related to that of elution dip induced after eluting acid to separation column and injecting analyte sample. These results were largely dependent on the natures of acid as eluent. Through this study, succinic acid as the eluent was suitable for simultaneous separation of strong acid anions (SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), NO(3)(-) and I(-)), weak acid anions (F(-), HCOO(-) and CH(3)COO(-)), and cations (Na(+), K(+), NH(4)(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)). The separation was achieved in 20 min under the optimum eluent condition, 20 mM succinic acid/2 mM 18-crown-6. Detection limits at S/N=3 ranged from 0.10 to 0.51 microM for strong acid anions, 0.20 to 5.04 microM for weak acid anions and 0.75 to 1.72 microM for cations. The relative standard deviations of peak areas in the repeated chromatographic runs (n=10) were in the range of 1.1-2.9% for anions and 1.8-4.5% for cations. This method was successfully applied to hot spring water containing strong acid anions, weak acid anions and cations, with satisfactory results. PMID:16546200

Mori, Masanobu; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Satori, Tatsuya; Ikedo, Mikaru; Hu, Wenzhi; Itabashi, Hideyuki

2006-06-16

68

A repurposing approach identifies off-patent drugs with fungicidal cryptococcal activity, a common structural chemotype, and pharmacological properties relevant to the treatment of cryptococcosis.  

PubMed

New, more accessible therapies for cryptococcosis represent an unmet clinical need of global importance. We took a repurposing approach to identify previously developed drugs with fungicidal activity toward Cryptococcus neoformans, using a high-throughput screening assay designed to detect drugs that directly kill fungi. From a set of 1,120 off-patent medications and bioactive molecules, we identified 31 drugs/molecules with fungicidal activity, including 15 drugs for which direct antifungal activity had not previously been reported. A significant portion of the drugs are orally bioavailable and cross the blood-brain barrier, features key to the development of a widely applicable anticryptococcal agent. Structural analysis of this set revealed a common chemotype consisting of a hydrophobic moiety linked to a basic amine, features that are common to drugs that cross the blood-brain barrier and access the phagolysosome, two important niches of C. neoformans. Consistent with their fungicidal activity, the set contains eight drugs that are either additive or synergistic in combination with fluconazole. Importantly, we identified two drugs, amiodarone and thioridazine, with activity against intraphagocytic C. neoformans. Finally, the set of drugs is also enriched for molecules that inhibit calmodulin, and we have confirmed that seven drugs directly bind C. neoformans calmodulin, providing a molecular target that may contribute to the mechanism of antifungal activity. Taken together, these studies provide a foundation for the optimization of the antifungal properties of a set of pharmacologically attractive scaffolds for the development of novel anticryptococcal therapies. PMID:23243064

Butts, Arielle; DiDone, Louis; Koselny, Kristy; Baxter, Bonnie K; Chabrier-Rosello, Yeissa; Wellington, Melanie; Krysan, Damian J

2013-02-01

69

High throughput RNAi screening identifies ID1 as a synthetic sick/lethal gene interacting with the common TP53 mutation R175H  

PubMed Central

The TP53 mutation (R175H) is one of the most common mutations in human cancer. It is a highly attractive strategy for cancer therapy to find the genes that lead the R175H-expressing cancer cells. The aim of this study was to identify the synthetic sick/lethal gene interacting with R175H. Using lentiviral bar-coded comprehensive shRNA library and a tetracycline-inducible R175H expressed in the SF126 human glioblastoma cell line (SF126-tet-R175H), we conducted high-throughput screening to identify the candidate genes that induce synthetic sickness/lethality in R175H-expressing cells. We identified 906 candidate gene suppressions that may lead to accelerated cell growth inhibition in the presence of R175H. Inhibitor of differentiation 1 (ID1) was one of the candidate genes, and its suppression by siRNA resulted in the acceleration of growth inhibition in cell lines both transiently and endogenously expressing R175H but not in TP53-null cell lines or other common p53 mutants (such as R273H). Flow cytometry analysis showed that ID1 suppression resulted in G1 arrest, and the arrest was accelerated by the expression of R175H. ID1 is a synthetic sick/lethal gene that interacts with R175H and is considered to be a novel molecular target for cancer therapy in R175H-expressing cells.

IMAI, HIROO; KATO, SHUNSUKE; SAKAMOTO, YASUHIRO; KAKUDO, YUICHI; SHIMODAIRA, HIDEKI; ISHIOKA, CHIKASHI

2014-01-01

70

Genome-wide association study: a useful tool to identify common genetic variants associated with drug toxicity and efficacy in cancer pharmacogenomics.  

PubMed

In recent years, the utilization of genome-wide association study (GWAS) has proved to be a beneficial method to identify novel common genetic variations not only for disease susceptibility but also for drug efficacy and drug-induced toxicity, creating a field of pharmacogenomics studies. In addition, the findings from GWAS also generate new biologic hypotheses that could improve the understanding of pathophysiology for disease or the mechanism of drug-induced toxicity. This review highlights the implications of GWAS that have been published to date and discusses the successes as well as challenges of using GWAS in cancer pharmacogenomics. The aim of pharmacogenomics is to realize the vision of personalized medicine; it is hoped that through GWAS, novel common genetic variations could be identified to predict clinical outcome and/or toxicity in cancer therapies that subsequently could be implemented to improve the quality of lives of patients with cancer. Nevertheless, given the complexity of cancer therapies, underpowered studies, and large heterogeneity of study designs, collaborative efforts are needed to validate these findings and overcome the limitations of GWA studies before clinical implementation. SEE ALL ARTICLES IN THIS CCR FOCUS SECTION, "PROGRESS IN PHARMACODYNAMIC ENDPOINTS": Clin Cancer Res; 20(10); 2541-52. ©2014 AACR. PMID:24831277

Low, Siew-Kee; Takahashi, Atsushi; Mushiroda, Taisei; Kubo, Michiaki

2014-05-15

71

Genome-wide Ancestry Association Testing Identifies a Common European Variant on 6q14.1 as a Risk Factor for Asthma in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic variants that contribute to asthma susceptibility may be present at varying frequencies in different populations, which is an important consideration and advantage for performing genetic association studies in admixed populations. Objective To identify asthma-associated loci in African Americans. Methods We compared local African and European ancestry estimated from dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data in African American adults with asthma and non-asthmatic controls. Allelic tests of association were performed within the candidate regions identified, correcting for local European admixture. Results We identified a significant ancestry association peak on chromosomes 6q. Allelic tests for association within this region identified a SNP (rs1361549) on 6q14.1 that was associated with asthma exclusively in African Americans with local European admixture (OR=2.2). The risk allele is common in Europe (42% in the HapMap CEU) but absent in West Africa (0% in the HapMap YRI), suggesting the allele is present in African Americans due to recent European admixture. We replicated our findings in Puerto Ricans and similarly found that the signal of association is largely specific to individuals who are heterozygous for African and non-African ancestry at 6q14.1. However, we found no evidence for association in European Americans or in Puerto Ricans in the absence of local African ancestry, suggesting that the association with asthma at rs1361549 is due to an environmental or genetic interaction. Conclusion We identified a novel asthma-associated locus that is relevant to admixed populations with African ancestry, and highlight the importance of considering local ancestry in genetic association studies of admixed populations.

Torgerson, Dara G.; Capurso, Daniel; Ampleford, Elizabeth J.; Li, Xingnan; Moore, Wendy C.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Hu, Donglei; Eng, Celeste; Mathias, Rasika A.; Busse, William W.; Castro, Mario; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Gaston, Benjamin; Israel, Elliot; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Teague, W. Gerald; Wenzel, Sally E.; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Avila, Pedro C.; Ford, Jean G.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan L.

2012-01-01

72

Mapping of the IRF8 gene identifies a 3' UTR variant associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia but not other common non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes  

PubMed Central

Background Our genome-wide association study (GWAS) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) identified 4 highly-correlated intronic variants within the IRF8 gene that were associated with CLL. These results were further supported by a recent meta-analysis of our GWAS with two other GWAS of CLL, supporting the IRF8 gene as a strong candidate for CLL risk. Methods To refine the genetic association of CLL risk, we performed Sanger sequencing of IRF8 in 94 CLL cases and 96 controls. We then performed fine-mapping by genotyping 39 variants (of which 10 were identified from sequencing) in 745 CLL cases and 1521 controls. We also assessed these associations with risk of other non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes. Results The strongest association with CLL risk was observed with a common SNP located within the 3’ UTR of IRF8 (rs1044873, log additive odds ratio = 0.7, P=1.81×10?6). This SNP was not associated with the other NHL subtypes (all P>0.05). Conclusions We provide evidence that rs1044873 in the IRF8 gene accounts for the initial GWAS signal for CLL risk. This association appears to be unique to CLL with little support for association with other common NHL subtypes. Future work is needed to assess functional role of IRF8 in CLL etiology. Impact These data provide support that a functional variant within the 3’ UTR of IRF8 may be driving the GWAS signal seen on 16q24.1 for CLL risk.

Slager, Susan L.; Achenbach, Sara J.; Asmann, Yan W.; Camp, Nicola J.; Rabe, Kari G.; Goldin, Lynn R.; Call, Timothy G.; Shanafelt, Tait D.; Kay, Neil E.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Wang, Alice H.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Norman, Aaron D.; Link, Brian K.; Leis, Jose F.; Vachon, Celine M.; Lanasa, Mark C.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Novak, Anne J.; Cerhan, James R.

2013-01-01

73

Key Principles of Community-Based Natural Resource Management: A Synthesis and Interpretation of Identified Effective Approaches for Managing the Commons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines recent research on approaches to community-based environmental and natural resource management and reviews the commonalities and differences between these interdisciplinary and multistakeholder initiatives. To identify the most effective characteristics of Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM), I collected a multiplicity of perspectives from research teams and then grouped findings into a matrix of organizational principles and key characteristics. The matrix was initially vetted (or “field tested”) by applying numerous case studies that were previously submitted to the World Bank International Workshop on CBNRM. These practitioner case studies were then compared and contrasted with the findings of the research teams. It is hoped that the developed matrix may be useful to researchers in further focusing research, understanding core characteristics of effective and sustainable CBNRM, providing practitioners with a framework for developing new CBNRM initiatives for managing the commons, and providing a potential resource for academic institutions during their evaluation of their practitioner-focused environmental management and leadership curriculum.

Gruber, James S.

2010-01-01

74

An Orientation Course and Community College Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Orientation and retention programs are common in institutions of higher education. The potential association between orientation programs and student retention, particularly within the community college sector, has long been neglected. This study presents an institutional view of a potential associative relationship between an orientation course…

Derby, Dustin; Smith, Thomas

2004-01-01

75

The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor and alpha-L-fucosidase are located near a newly identified common virus integration site, Evi11.  

PubMed Central

A new common region of virus integration, Evi11, has been identified in two retrovirally induced murine myeloid leukemia cell lines, NFS107 and NFS78. By interspecific backcross analysis, it was shown that Evi11 is located at the distal end of mouse chromosome 4, in a region that shows homology with human 1p36. The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor (Cnr2) and alpha-L-fucosidase (Fuca1) were identified near the integration site by using a novel exon trapping system. Cnr2 is suggested to be the target gene for viral interference in Evi11, since proviruses are integrated in the first intron of Cnr2 and retroviral integrations alter mRNA expression of Cnr2 in NFS107 and NFS78. In addition, proviral integrations were demonstrated within the 3' untranslated region of Cnr2 in five independent newly derived CasBrM-MuLV (mouse murine leukemia virus) tumors, CSL13, CSL14, CSL16, CSL27, and CSL97. The Cnr2 gene encodes a seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor which is normally expressed in hematopoietic tissues. Our data suggest that the peripheral cannabinoid receptor gene might be involved in leukemogenesis as a result of aberrant expression of Cnr2 due to retroviral integration in Evi11.

Valk, P J; Hol, S; Vankan, Y; Ihle, J N; Askew, D; Jenkins, N A; Gilbert, D J; Copeland, N G; de Both, N J; Lowenberg, B; Delwel, R

1997-01-01

76

Comparison of low molecular weight glutenin subunits identified by SDS-PAGE, 2-DE, MALDI-TOF-MS and PCR in common wheat  

PubMed Central

Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) play a crucial role in determining end-use quality of common wheat by influencing the viscoelastic properties of dough. Four different methods - sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, IEF × SDS-PAGE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were used to characterize the LMW-GS composition in 103 cultivars from 12 countries. Results At the Glu-A3 locus, all seven alleles could be reliably identified by 2-DE and PCR. However, the alleles Glu-A3e and Glu-A3d could not be routinely distinguished from Glu-A3f and Glu-A3g, respectively, based on SDS-PAGE, and the allele Glu-A3a could not be differentiated from Glu-A3c by MALDI-TOF-MS. At the Glu-B3 locus, alleles Glu-B3a, Glu-B3b, Glu-B3c, Glu-B3g, Glu-B3h and Glu-B3j could be clearly identified by all four methods, whereas Glu-B3ab, Glu-B3ac, Glu-B3ad could only be identified by the 2-DE method. At the Glu-D3 locus, allelic identification was problematic for the electrophoresis based methods and PCR. MALDI-TOF-MS has the potential to reliably identify the Glu-D3 alleles. Conclusions PCR is the simplest, most accurate, lowest cost, and therefore recommended method for identification of Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 alleles in breeding programs. A combination of methods was required to identify certain alleles, and would be especially useful when characterizing new alleles. A standard set of 30 cultivars for use in future studies was chosen to represent all LMW-GS allelic variants in the collection. Among them, Chinese Spring, Opata 85, Seri 82 and Pavon 76 were recommended as a core set for use in SDS-PAGE gels. Glu-D3c and Glu-D3e are the same allele. Two new alleles, namely, Glu-D3m in cultivar Darius, and Glu-D3n in Fengmai 27, were identified by 2-DE. Utilization of the suggested standard cultivar set, seed of which is available from the CIMMYT and INRA Clermont-Ferrand germplasm collections, should also promote information sharing in the identification of individual LMW-GS and thus provide useful information for quality improvement in common wheat.

2010-01-01

77

Common Variants in CDKN2B-AS1 Associated with Optic-Nerve Vulnerability of Glaucoma Identified by Genome-Wide Association Studies in Japanese  

PubMed Central

Background To date, only a small portion of the genetic variation for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the major type of glaucoma, has been elucidated. Methods and Principal Findings We examined our two data sets of the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) derived from a total of 2,219 Japanese subjects. First, we performed a GWAS by analyzing 653,519 autosomal common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 833 POAG patients and 686 controls. As a result, five variants that passed the Bonferroni correction were identified in CDKN2B-AS1 on chromosome 9p21.3, which was already reported to be a significant locus in the Caucasian population. Moreover, we combined the data set with our previous GWAS data set derived from 411 POAG patients and 289 controls by the Mantel-Haenszel test, and all of the combined variants showed stronger association with POAG (P<5.8×10?10). We then subdivided the case groups into two subtypes based on the value of intraocular pressure (IOP)—POAG with high IOP (high pressure glaucoma, HPG) and that with normal IOP (normal pressure glaucoma, NPG)—and performed the GWAS using the two data sets, as the prevalence of NPG in Japanese is much higher than in Caucasians. The results suggested that the variants from the same CDKN2B-AS1 locus were likely to be significant for NPG patients. Conclusions and Significance In this study, we successfully identified POAG-associated variants in the CDKN2B-AS1 locus using a Japanese population, i.e., variants originally reported as being associated with the Caucasian population. Although we cannot rule out that the significance could be due to the differences in sample size between HPG and NPG, the variants could be associated specifically with the vulnerability of the optic nerve to IOP, which is useful for investigating the etiology of glaucoma.

Fuwa, Masahiro; Omi, Natsue; Ueno, Morio; Imai, Kojiro; Adachi, Hiroko; Kageyama, Masaaki; Mori, Kazuhiko; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Tashiro, Kei

2012-01-01

78

Combining in silico mapping and arraying: an approach to identifying common candidate genes for submergence tolerance and resistance to bacterial leaf blight in rice.  

PubMed

Several genes/QTLs governing resistance/tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses have been reported and mapped in rice. A QTL for submergence tolerance was found to be co-located with a major QTL for broad-spectrum bacterial leaf blight (bs-blb) resistance on the long arm of chromosome 5 in indica cultivars FR13A and IET8585. Using the Nipponbare (japonica) and 93-11 (indica) genome sequences, we identified, in silico, candidate genes in the chromosomal region [Kottapalli et al. (2006)]. Transcriptional profiling of FR13A and IET8585 using a rice 22K oligo array validated the above findings. Based on in silico analysis and arraying we observed that both cultivars respond to the above stresses through a common signaling system involving protein kinases, adenosine mono phosphate kinase, leucine rich repeat, PDZ/DHR/GLGF, and response regulator receiver protein. The combined approaches suggest that transcription factor EREBP on long arm of chromosome 5 regulates both submergence tolerance and blb resistance. Pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase, co-located in the same region, are candidate downstream genes for submergence tolerance at the seedling stage, and t-snare for bs-blb resistance. We also detected up-regulation of novel defense/stress-related genes including those encoding fumaryl aceto acetate (FAA) hydrolase, scramblase, and galactose oxidase, in response to the imposed stresses. PMID:18182856

Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Satoh, Kouji; Rakwal, Randeep; Shibato, Junko; Doi, Koji; Nagata, Toshifumi; Kikuchi, Shoshi

2007-12-31

79

Neckband retention for lesser snow geese in the western Arctic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Neckbands are commonly used in waterfowl studies (especially geese) to identify individuals for determination of movement and behavior and to estimate population parameters. Substantial neckband loss can adversely affect these research objectives and produce biased survival estimates. We used capture, recovery, and observation histories for lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) banded in the western Arctic, 1993-1996, to estimate neckband retention. We found that neckband retention differed between snow goose breeding colonies at Wrangel Island, Russia, and Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Male snow geese had higher neckband loss than females, a pattern similar to that found for Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and lesser snow geese in Alaska. We found that the rate of neckband loss increased with time, suggesting that neckbands are lost as the plastic deteriorates. Survival estimates for geese based on resighting neckbands will be biased unless estimates are corrected for neckband loss. We recommend that neckband loss be estimated using survival estimators that incorporate recaptures, recoveries, and observations of marked birds. Research and management studies using neckbands should be designed to improve neckband retention and to include the assessment of neckband retention.

Samuel, M. D.; Goldberg, D. R.; Smith, A. E.; Baranyuk, W.; Cooch, E. G.

2001-01-01

80

Retention of Junior Naval Special Warfare Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Commander of the Naval Special Warfare Command (NSWC) has identified junior officer retention within the Naval Special Warfare community as a significant problem. In 1997, the community experienced the highest number of resignations on record, and thi...

K. B. Davids

1998-01-01

81

Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS): Retention strategy and results at 24 months  

PubMed Central

Background Retaining participants in observational longitudinal studies following bariatric surgery is difficult yet critical because the retention rate affects interpretation and generalizability of results. Strategies for keeping participants involved in such studies are not commonly published. Objective To review LABS retention strategies and present the 24-month retention data Methods The LABS Consortium monitors an observational cohort study of 2458 adults enrolled prior to bariatric surgery at 10 centers within the United States (LABS-2). To maximize data completeness, the investigators developed retention strategies including flexible scheduling, a call protocol, reminder letters, abbreviated visit options, honoraria, travel reimbursement, providing research progress reports, laboratory results, newsletters, study website, and retention surveys. Strategies for locating participants included frequent updates of contact information, sending registered letters, and searching medical and public records. Results At 12 and 24 months, 2426 and 2405 participants remained active, with vital status known for 98.7% and 97.3% and weight obtained for 95.2% and 92.2% respectively. There were 148 missed visits (6.2%) at 24 months primarily because of inability to contact the participant. Only 15 (0.6%) active participants at 24-months missed all follow-up visits. Though 42 participants could not be located or contacted at 6 months, data were obtained for 23 (54.7%) of them at 12 months, and of the 52 participants who could not be located or contacted at 12 months; data were obtained for 18 (34.6%) at 24 months. Conclusion Longitudinal studies provide the ability to evaluate long-term effects of bariatric surgical procedures. The retention achieved in LABS is superior to many published reports but requires extensive effort and resources. This report identifies useful retention strategies. Further research is needed to identify the efficacy and cost effectiveness of specific retention strategies.

Gourash, William F.; Ebel, Faith; Lancaster, Kathy; Adeniji, Abidemi; Iacono, Laurie Koozer; Eagleton, Jessie K.; MacDougall, Anne; Cassady, Chelsea; Ericson, Hallie; Pories, Walter; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Belle, Steven H.

2013-01-01

82

Common pressure vessel battery performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance tests run on two common pressure vessel type nickel hydrogen batteries are described and the results presented. The study included: (1) charge retention tests, (2) synchronous eclipse season cycling tests, and (3) temperature differential tests.

Otzinger, B.

1978-01-01

83

Differences in the susceptibility of Japanese indigenous and domesticated Eurasian common carp (Cyprinus carpio), identified by mitochondrial DNA typing, to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3).  

PubMed

In 2004, a massive mortality of wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) due to CyHV-3 infection occurred in Lake Biwa. Although common carp of two different mitochondrial types (Japanese indigenous and domesticated Eurasian) occur in the lake, the majority of the dead fish seemed to be the indigenous type. The apparent high mortality in the indigenous type implies a higher susceptibility of this type to CyHV-3. To test the hypothesis that the susceptibility of indigenous and Eurasian types differ, we performed experimental infections with CyHV-3 among 2 groups of the indigenous type, and for the Eurasian type 4 groups of domesticated common carp and 4 groups of koi carp. Fish were immersed in CyHV-3 isolate and kept at 24°C. Both groups of the indigenous type died more rapidly compared with the 8 groups of the Eurasian type. Cumulative mortality in both indigenous groups reached 95-100%, whereas the cumulative mortalities of domesticated common carp (30-95%) and koi carp (35-100%) were more varied. CyHV-3 genome in the organs of the indigenous type increased more rapidly after the viral exposure and reached higher peak levels than those of the domesticated strain. These findings revealed that susceptibility of the indigenous type of carp to CyHV-3 can be considered especially high. PMID:24690375

Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Yuasa, Kei

2014-06-25

84

MONOGRAPH - Recruitment & Retention of Engineering Technology Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identifying strategies to assist with recruitment and retention of engineering technology students particularly women and minorities was the focus of a 1998 Retention Forum, held in Columbia, SC, and sponsored by the South Carolina Advanced Technological Education (SC ATE) Center of Excellence. The Center is funded by the National Science Foundation and the South Carolina State Board for Technical and Comprehensive Education. Approximately 90 Retention Forum participants discussed results from research on enrollment and retention of engineering technology (ET) students in South Carolinas technical college system. The SC ATE Center of Excellence commissioned the research report, Determinants of Enrollment and Retention in South Carolina Engineering Technology Programs, by Dr. W. Douglas Evans. Forum participants also heard a report on what SC technical colleges are doing well to recruit and retain women and minorities in ET fields. During the forum, a panel of women and minority ET students from South Carolina technical colleges shared their perspectives and experiences. In conclusion, participants met in focus groups to discuss new ways of enhancing recruitment and retention of engineering technology students. These research activities reveal some significant findings, which are being used to develop new retention strategies. In addition to an in-depth examination of opinions and attitudes of first- and second-year engineering technology students and engineering technology faculty and administrators, the research takes a closer look at recruitment and retention of women and minority students. The various components of this research activity by the SC ATE Center of Excellence are presented in this monograph.

Craft, Elaine; Mack, Lynn G.; Wood, James C.

2009-07-17

85

Scientists Identify Markers on Human Breast Cancer Cells Linked to Development of an Aggressive, But Less Common Form of Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Scientists have identified a group of surface markers on cells linked to an aggressive type of breast cancer called estrogen receptor-negative cancer. The research, conducted by scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, appeared online May 18, 2010, and in print June 1, 2010, in Cancer Research.

86

Targeted NGS gene panel identifies mutations in RSPH1 causing primary ciliary dyskinesia and a common mechanism for ciliary central pair agenesis due to radial spoke defects.  

PubMed

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited chronic respiratory obstructive disease with randomized body laterality and infertility, resulting from cilia and sperm dysmotility. PCD is characterized by clinical variability and extensive genetic heterogeneity, associated with different cilia ultrastructural defects and mutations identified in >20 genes. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies therefore present a promising approach for genetic diagnosis which is not yet in routine use. We developed a targeted panel-based NGS pipeline to identify mutations by sequencing of selected candidate genes in 70 genetically undefined PCD patients. This detected loss-of-function RSPH1 mutations in four individuals with isolated central pair (CP) agenesis and normal body laterality, from two unrelated families. Ultrastructural analysis in RSPH1-mutated cilia revealed transposition of peripheral outer microtubules into the 'empty' CP space, accompanied by a distinctive intermittent loss of the central pair microtubules. We find that mutations in RSPH1, RSPH4A and RSPH9, which all encode homologs of components of the 'head' structure of ciliary radial spoke complexes identified in Chlamydomonas, cause clinical phenotypes that appear to be indistinguishable except at the gene level. By high-resolution immunofluorescence we identified a loss of RSPH4A and RSPH9 along with RSPH1 from RSPH1-mutated cilia, suggesting RSPH1 mutations may result in loss of the entire spoke head structure. CP loss is seen in up to 28% of PCD cases, in whom laterality determination specified by CP-less embryonic node cilia remains undisturbed. We propose this defect could arise from instability or agenesis of the ciliary central microtubules due to loss of their normal radial spoke head tethering. PMID:24518672

Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Shoemark, Amelia; Schmidts, Miriam; Patel, Mitali; Jimenez, Gina; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Biju; Dixon, Mellisa; Hirst, Robert A; Rutman, Andrew; Burgoyne, Thomas; Williams, Christopher; Scully, Juliet; Bolard, Florence; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Beales, Philip L; Hogg, Claire; Yang, Pinfen; Chung, Eddie M K; Emes, Richard D; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Mitchison, Hannah M

2014-07-01

87

Targeted NGS gene panel identifies mutations in RSPH1 causing primary ciliary dyskinesia and a common mechanism for ciliary central pair agenesis due to radial spoke defects  

PubMed Central

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited chronic respiratory obstructive disease with randomized body laterality and infertility, resulting from cilia and sperm dysmotility. PCD is characterized by clinical variability and extensive genetic heterogeneity, associated with different cilia ultrastructural defects and mutations identified in >20 genes. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies therefore present a promising approach for genetic diagnosis which is not yet in routine use. We developed a targeted panel-based NGS pipeline to identify mutations by sequencing of selected candidate genes in 70 genetically undefined PCD patients. This detected loss-of-function RSPH1 mutations in four individuals with isolated central pair (CP) agenesis and normal body laterality, from two unrelated families. Ultrastructural analysis in RSPH1-mutated cilia revealed transposition of peripheral outer microtubules into the ‘empty’ CP space, accompanied by a distinctive intermittent loss of the central pair microtubules. We find that mutations in RSPH1, RSPH4A and RSPH9, which all encode homologs of components of the ‘head’ structure of ciliary radial spoke complexes identified in Chlamydomonas, cause clinical phenotypes that appear to be indistinguishable except at the gene level. By high-resolution immunofluorescence we identified a loss of RSPH4A and RSPH9 along with RSPH1 from RSPH1-mutated cilia, suggesting RSPH1 mutations may result in loss of the entire spoke head structure. CP loss is seen in up to 28% of PCD cases, in whom laterality determination specified by CP-less embryonic node cilia remains undisturbed. We propose this defect could arise from instability or agenesis of the ciliary central microtubules due to loss of their normal radial spoke head tethering.

Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Shoemark, Amelia; Schmidts, Miriam; Patel, Mitali; Jimenez, Gina; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Biju; Dixon, Mellisa; Hirst, Robert A.; Rutman, Andrew; Burgoyne, Thomas; Williams, Christopher; Scully, Juliet; Bolard, Florence; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Beales, Philip L.; Hogg, Claire; Yang, Pinfen; Chung, Eddie M.K.; Emes, Richard D.; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Mitchison, Hannah M.

2014-01-01

88

Genome-Wide Association Identifies a Common Variant in the Reelin Gene That Increases the Risk of Schizophrenia Only in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex differences in schizophrenia are well known, but their genetic basis has not been identified. We performed a genome-wide association scan for schizophrenia in an Ashkenazi Jewish population using DNA pooling. We found a female-specific association with rs7341475, a SNP in the fourth intron of the reelin (RELN) gene (p = 2.9 × 10?5 in women), with a significant gene-sex

Sagiv Shifman; Martina Johannesson; Michal Bronstein; Sam X Chen; David A Collier; Nicholas J Craddock; Kenneth S Kendler; Tao Li; Michael ODonovan; F. Anthony ONeill; Michael J Owen; Dermot Walsh; Daniel R Weinberger; Cuie Sun; Jonathan Flint; Ariel Darvasi

2008-01-01

89

Common Mechanisms Underlying Refractive Error Identified in Functional Analysis of Gene Lists From Genome-Wide Association Study Results in 2 European British Cohorts  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE To date, relatively few genes responsible for a fraction of heritability have been identified by means of large genetic association studies of refractive error. OBJECTIVE To explore the genetic mechanisms that lead to refractive error in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Genome-wide association studies were carried out in 2 British population-based independent cohorts (N = 5928 participants) to identify genes moderately associated with refractive error. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Enrichment analyses were used to identify sets of genes overrepresented in both cohorts. Enriched groups of genes were compared between both participating cohorts as a further measure against random noise. RESULTS Groups of genes enriched at highly significant statistical levels were remarkably consistent in both cohorts. In particular, these results indicated that plasma membrane (P = 7.64 × 10?30), cell-cell adhesion (P = 2.42 × 10?18), synaptic transmission (P = 2.70 × 10?14), calcium ion binding (P = 3.55 × 10?15), and cation channel activity (P = 2.77 × 10?14) were significantly overrepresented in relation to refractive error. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings provide evidence that development of refractive error in the general population is related to the intensity of photosignal transduced from the retina, which may have implications for future interventions to minimize this disorder. Pathways connected to the procession of the nerve impulse are major mechanisms involved in the development of refractive error in populations of European origin.

Hysi, Pirro G.; Mahroo, Omar A.; Cumberland, Phillippa; Wojciechowski, Robert; Williams, Katie M.; Young, Terri L.; Mackey, David A.; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Hammond, Christopher J.

2014-01-01

90

An SNP-guided microRNA map of fifteen common human disorders identifies a consensus disease phenocode aiming at principal components of the nuclear import pathway.  

PubMed

Recent large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) studies of SNP variations captured many thousands individual genetic profiles of H. sapiens and facilitated identification of significant genetic traits which are highly likely to influence the pathogenesis of several major human diseases. Here we apply the integrative genomics principles to interrogate relationships between structural features and gene expression patterns of disease-linked SNPs, microRNAs and mRNAs of protein-coding genes in association to phenotypes of 15 major human disorders, namely bipolar disease (BD); rheumatoid arthritis (RA); coronary artery disease (CAD); Crohn's disease (CD); type 1 diabetes (T1D); type 2 diabetes (T2D); hypertension (HT); ankylosing spondylitis (AS); Graves' disease (autoimmune thyroid disease; AITD); multiple sclerosis (MS); breast cancer (BC); prostate cancer (PC); systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); vitiligo-associated multiple autoimmune disease (VIT); and ulcerative colitis (UC). We selected for sequence homology profiling a set of approximately 250 SNPs which were unequivocally associated with common human disorders based on multiple independent studies of 220,124 individual samples comprising 85,077 disease cases and 129,506 controls. Our analysis reveals a systematic primary sequence homology/complementarity-driven pattern of associations between disease-linked SNPs, microRNAs and protein-coding mRNAs defined here as a human disease phenocode. We utilize this approach to draw SNP-guided microRNA maps of major human diseases and define a consensus disease phenocode for fifteen major human disorders. A consensus disease phenocode comprises 72 SNPs and 18 microRNAs with an apparent propensity to target mRNA sequences derived from a single protein-coding gene, KPNA1. Each of microRNAs in this elite set appears linked to at least three common human diseases and has potential protein-coding mRNA targets among the principal components of the nuclear import pathway. We confirmed the validity of our findings by analyzing independent sets of most significant disease-linked SNPs and demonstrating statistically significant KPNA1-gene expression phenotypes associated with human genotypes of CD, BD, T2D and RA populations. Our analysis supports the idea that variations in DNA sequences associated with multiple human diseases may affect phenotypes in trans via non-protein-coding RNA intermediaries interfering with functions of microRNAs and defines the nuclear import pathway as a potential major target in 15 common human disorders. PMID:18719369

Glinsky, Gennadi V

2008-08-15

91

Neurogenic urinary retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article on neurogenic urinary retention is divided into three main sections. The first covers the neuroanatomy of the bladder and urethral sphincters, developing the peripheral innervation as well as the spinal cord organization and the cortical and subcortical brain control of micturition. The second discusses the main central and peripheral neurological lesions and diseases causing urinary retention. The

A. G. Herbaut

1993-01-01

92

Screening to Identify Commonly Used Chinese Herbs That Affect ERBB2 and ESR1 Gene Expression Using the Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Aim. Our aim the was to screen the commonly used Chinese herbs in order to detect changes in ERBB2 and ESR1 gene expression using MCF-7 cells. Methods. Using the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, cell cytotoxicity and proliferation were evaluated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays, respectively. A luciferase reporter assay was established by transient transfecting MCF-7 cells with plasmids containing either the ERBB2 or the ESR1 promoter region linked to the luciferase gene. Chinese herbal extracts were used to treat the cells at 24?h after transfection, followed by measurement of their luciferase activity. The screening results were verified by Western blotting to measure HER2 and ER? protein expression. Results. At concentrations that induced little cytotoxicity, thirteen single herbal extracts and five compound recipes were found to increase either ERBB2 or ESR1 luciferase activity. By Western blotting, Si-Wu-Tang, Kuan-Shin-Yin, and Suan-Tsao-Ren-Tang were found to increase either HER2 or ER? protein expression. In addition, Ligusticum chuanxiong was shown to have a great effect on ERBB2 gene expression and synergistically with estrogen to stimulate MCF-7 cell growth. Conclusion. Our results provide important information that should affect clinical treatment strategies among breast cancer patients who are receiving hormonal or targeted therapies.

Chang, Chun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Chong; Wen, Che-Sheng; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Wei-Shone; Shyr, Yi-Ming

2014-01-01

93

Mutation Detection of PKD1 Identifies a Novel Mutation Common to Three Families with Aneurysms and/or Very-Early-Onset Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary It is known that several of the most severe complications of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease, such as intracranial aneurysms, cluster in families. There have been no studies reported to date, however, that have attempted to correlate severely affected pedigrees with a particular genotype. Until recently, in fact, mutation detection for most of the PKD1 gene was virtually impossible because of the presence of several highly homologous loci also located on chromosome 16. In this report we describe a cluster of 4 bp in exon 15 that are unique to PKD1. Forward and reverse PKD1-specific primers were designed in this location to amplify regions of the gene from exons 11–21 by use of long-range PCR. The two templates described were used to analyze 35 pedigrees selected for study because they included individuals with either intracranial aneurysms and/or very-early-onset disease. We identified eight novel truncating mutations, two missense mutations not found in a panel of controls, and several informative polymorphisms. Many of the polymorphisms were also present in the homologous loci, supporting the idea that they may serve as a reservoir for genetic variability in the PKD1 gene. Surprisingly, we found that three independently ascertained pedigrees had an identical 2-bp deletion in exon 15. This raises the possibility that particular genotypes may be associated with more-severe disease.

Watnick, Terry; Phakdeekitcharoen, Bunyong; Johnson, Ann; Gandolph, Michael; Wang, Mei; Briefel, Gary; Klinger, Katherine W.; Kimberling, William; Gabow, Patricia; Germino, Gregory G.

1999-01-01

94

Recruitment and retention of emergency medical technicians: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are critical to out-of-hospital care, but maintaining staff can be difficult. The study objective was to identify factors that contribute to recruitment and retention of EMTs and paramedics. Information was drawn from three focus groups of EMT-Basic, EMT-Intermediate, and EMT-Paramedic personnel recruited from participants at an annual conference. Thoughts and feelings of EMTs and paramedics were investigated using eight questions designed to explore entry into emergency medical services, what it is like to be an EMT or paramedic, and the EMT educational process. Data were analyzed at the group level for common themes using NVivo. For a majority of respondents, emergency medical services was not a primary career path. Most respondents entered the industry as an alternate or replacement for a nursing career or as a second career following military medic service. The majority of respondents believed the job was stressful yet rewarding, and although it negatively affected their personal lives, the occupation gave them a sense of accomplishment and belonging. Respondents expressed a preference for EMT education resulting in college credit or licensure versus professional certification. Job-related stress produced by numerous factors appears to be a likely contributor to low employee retention. Recruitment and retention efforts should address study findings, incorporating key findings into educational, evaluation, and job enhancement programs. PMID:16252678

Patterson, P Daniel; Probst, Janice C; Leith, Katherine H; Corwin, Sara J; Powell, M Paige

2005-01-01

95

708 Common and 2010 rare DISC1 locus variants identified in 1542 subjects: analysis for association with psychiatric disorder and cognitive traits  

PubMed Central

A balanced t(1;11) translocation that transects the Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene shows genome-wide significant linkage for schizophrenia and recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) in a single large Scottish family, but genome-wide and exome sequencing-based association studies have not supported a role for DISC1 in psychiatric illness. To explore DISC1 in more detail, we sequenced 528?kb of the DISC1 locus in 653 cases and 889 controls. We report 2718 validated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of which 2010 have a minor allele frequency of <1%. Only 38% of these variants are reported in the 1000 Genomes Project European subset. This suggests that many DISC1 SNPs remain undiscovered and are essentially private. Rare coding variants identified exclusively in patients were found in likely functional protein domains. Significant region-wide association was observed between rs16856199 and rMDD (P=0.026, unadjusted P=6.3 × 10?5, OR=3.48). This was not replicated in additional recurrent major depression samples (replication P=0.11). Combined analysis of both the original and replication set supported the original association (P=0.0058, OR=1.46). Evidence for segregation of this variant with disease in families was limited to those of rMDD individuals referred from primary care. Burden analysis for coding and non-coding variants gave nominal associations with diagnosis and measures of mood and cognition. Together, these observations are likely to generalise to other candidate genes for major mental illness and may thus provide guidelines for the design of future studies.

Thomson, P A; Parla, J S; McRae, A F; Kramer, M; Ramakrishnan, K; Yao, J; Soares, D C; McCarthy, S; Morris, S W; Cardone, L; Cass, S; Ghiban, E; Hennah, W; Evans, K L; Rebolini, D; Millar, J K; Harris, S E; Starr, J M; MacIntyre, D J; McIntosh, A M; Watson, J D; Deary, I J; Visscher, P M; Blackwood, D H; McCombie, W R; Porteous, D J

2014-01-01

96

The C-terminus of factor H: monoclonal antibodies inhibit heparin binding and identify epitopes common to factor H and factor H-related proteins.  

PubMed Central

We have generated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the C-terminus of factor H that can be used as inhibitory antibodies for heparin binding and for the specific detection of factor H and factor H-related proteins (FHRs) in plasma and triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Four distinct mAbs were established: IXF9 (IgG1), VD3 (IgG2a), VIG8 (IgG1) and IIC5 (IgG1). Each reacts specifically with FHR-1 and factor H (and also with FHR-2 in the case of VIG8), but none binds to the related FHR-3 and FHR-4 proteins nor to factor H-like protein 1. By the use of deletion mutants of factor H and by comparing the reactivity with FHR-1 and FHR-2, the binding epitopes of the mAbs were identified and localized to different short consensus repeats (SCRs): mAbs IXF9 and VD3 bind to related or even identical sites within SCR18 (factor H) and SCR3 (FHR-1) respectively. mAbs VIG8 and IIC5 bind to different epitopes located within SCRs 19 to 20 of factor H and SCRs 4 to 5 of FHR-1 respectively. Only mAb VIG8 reacts with the corresponding SCRs 3 to 4 of FHR-2. These antibodies are useful for the detection of the corresponding proteins in biological specimens such as fractions of lipoproteins. In addition, mAb VIG8 has the unique feature of inhibiting binding of factor H to heparin. Given the recent identification of a heparin- and a C3b-binding domain within the C-terminus of factor H, these mAbs should provide useful tools for functional analysis and for the precise localization of the domain(s) required for this interaction.

Prodinger, W M; Hellwage, J; Spruth, M; Dierich, M P; Zipfel, P F

1998-01-01

97

Molecular and Genetic Analyses of Four Nonfunctional S Haplotype Variants Derived from a Common Ancestral S Haplotype Identified in Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.)  

PubMed Central

Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) has an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system; however, individuals can be either self-incompatible (SI) or self-compatible (SC). Unlike the situation in the Solanaceae, where self-compatibility accompanying polyploidization is often due to the compatibility of heteroallelic pollen, the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the compatibility of pollen containing two nonfunctional S haplotypes. Sour cherry individuals with the S4S6S36aS36b genotype are predicted to be SC, as only pollen containing both nonfunctional S36a and S36b haplotypes would be SC. However, we previously found that individuals of this genotype were SI. Here we describe four nonfunctional S36 variants. Our molecular analyses identified a mutation that would confer loss of stylar S function for one of the variants, and two alterations that might cause loss of pollen S function for all four variants. Genetic crosses showed that individuals possessing two nonfunctional S36 haplotypes and two functional S haplotypes have reduced self-fertilization due to a very low frequency of transmission of the one pollen type that would be SC. Our finding that the underlying mechanism limiting successful transmission of genetically compatible gametes does not involve GSI is consistent with our previous genetic model for Prunus in which heteroallelic pollen is incompatible. This provides a unique case in which breakdown of SI does not occur despite the potential to generate SC pollen genotypes.

Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Hauck, Nathanael R.; Tao, Ryutaro; Jiang, Ning; Iezzoni, Amy F.

2010-01-01

98

708 Common and 2010 rare DISC1 locus variants identified in 1542 subjects: analysis for association with psychiatric disorder and cognitive traits.  

PubMed

A balanced t(1;11) translocation that transects the Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene shows genome-wide significant linkage for schizophrenia and recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) in a single large Scottish family, but genome-wide and exome sequencing-based association studies have not supported a role for DISC1 in psychiatric illness. To explore DISC1 in more detail, we sequenced 528?kb of the DISC1 locus in 653 cases and 889 controls. We report 2718 validated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of which 2010 have a minor allele frequency of <1%. Only 38% of these variants are reported in the 1000 Genomes Project European subset. This suggests that many DISC1 SNPs remain undiscovered and are essentially private. Rare coding variants identified exclusively in patients were found in likely functional protein domains. Significant region-wide association was observed between rs16856199 and rMDD (P=0.026, unadjusted P=6.3 × 10(-5), OR=3.48). This was not replicated in additional recurrent major depression samples (replication P=0.11). Combined analysis of both the original and replication set supported the original association (P=0.0058, OR=1.46). Evidence for segregation of this variant with disease in families was limited to those of rMDD individuals referred from primary care. Burden analysis for coding and non-coding variants gave nominal associations with diagnosis and measures of mood and cognition. Together, these observations are likely to generalise to other candidate genes for major mental illness and may thus provide guidelines for the design of future studies. PMID:23732877

Thomson, P A; Parla, J S; McRae, A F; Kramer, M; Ramakrishnan, K; Yao, J; Soares, D C; McCarthy, S; Morris, S W; Cardone, L; Cass, S; Ghiban, E; Hennah, W; Evans, K L; Rebolini, D; Millar, J K; Harris, S E; Starr, J M; MacIntyre, D J; McIntosh, A M; Watson, J D; Deary, I J; Visscher, P M; Blackwood, D H; McCombie, W R; Porteous, D J

2014-06-01

99

Recruitment and Retention with a Spin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strategic planning and innovation at Bismarck State College (BSC) found common ground in the college's goal to recruit and retain employees in an environment of low unemployment and strong competition for skilled employees. BSC's strategic plan for 2007-09 included the objective "to increase retention of employees." One of the strategies connected…

Lindgren, Rita; Hixson, Carla Braun

2010-01-01

100

Urinary retention in females: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female urinary retention is a common urological problem with many possible etiologies. Prior treatments attempted to decrease urethral resistance, but current neurourologic investigation has shown that this is rarely needed. Intermittent catheterization, along with diagnosing appropriate etiologic factors is the best management. If the workup reveals no organic etiology, psychological investigation may be needed because many of the patients have

J. S. Wheeler; J. S. Walter

1992-01-01

101

Fuel retention in tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tritium retention constitutes an outstanding problem for ITER operation and future fusion reactors, particularly for the choice of the first wall materials. In present day tokamaks, fuel retention is evaluated by two complementary methods. The in situ gas balance allows evaluation of how much fuel is retained during a discharge and, typically, up to one day of experiments. Post-mortem analysis is used to determine where the fuel is retained, integrated over an experimental campaign. In all the carbon clad devices, using the two methods, the retention is demonstrated to be very closely related to the carbon net erosion. This results from plasma-wall interaction with ion and charge-exchange fluxes, ELMs and is proportional to the pulse duration. The fuel retention by implantation saturates at high wall temperatures and limits the D/C ratio in the deposited layers but, as far as a carbon source exists, the dominant retention process remains the co-deposition of carbon with deuterium. In full metallic device, in the absence of wall conditioning with boron, co-deposition is strongly reduced and fuel retention below 1% can be achieved. Extrapolation to ITER shows that removing the carbon from the plasma-facing components would increase the number of discharges to 2500 before reaching the maximum tritium limit of 700 g.

Loarer, T.

2009-06-01

102

Campus Retention Committee Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In January 1996, Prince George's Community College (PGCC) established the Campus Retention Committee to review community college retention strategies, determine PGCC's strengths and weaknesses in the area of retention, and develop a list of retention goals and an implementation schedule for the college. After reviewing findings from previous…

James, David P.; Alford, Veronica; Alpha-Kpetewama, Tamba; Clagett, Craig A.; Engleberg, Isa N.

103

Mechanics of Dental Retentive Pins and Impression Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Initial studies are reported of problems of: (a) dental retentive pin installation and loading, and (b) deformation of dental impression materials; employing photoelastic and other techniques common to mechanical investigations of materials. Pin installat...

A. A. Caputo E. W. Collard J. P. Standlee S. C. Carniglia

1970-01-01

104

[Postpartum urinary retention].  

PubMed

Postpartum urinary retention is an uncommon event that occurs in 0.7 to 0.9% of vaginal deliveries. An ignorance of this situation can lead to delayed diagnosis worsening the prognosis and to inadequate treatments. This complication is defined as the absence of spontaneous micturition within 6hours of vaginal delivery with a bladder volume above 400mL. The etiology depends on multiple factors. Because of physiological changes during pregnancy, the bladder is hypotonic with an increased post-void residual volume. The occurrence of a perineal neuropathy during delivery may cause a urinary retention. Risk factors are primiparity, prolonged labour, instrumental delivery and perineal lacerations. Treatment consists on clean intermittent catheterization and recovery occurs generally in 72hours. Persistent urinary retention is the principal short-term complication and should be treated by clean intermittent self-catheterization. Long-term consequences are poorly reported in the literature. PMID:21193140

Bouhours, A C; Bigot, P; Orsat, M; Hoarau, N; Descamps, P; Fournié, A; Azzouzi, A-R

2011-01-01

105

Surface retention capacity calculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood wave transformation in the floodplain is the phenomenon which is researched within interdisciplinary project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase. The project focuses on broad range of floodplain ecosystem services and mitigation of flooding is one of them. Despite main influence on flood wave transformation is due to flow retardation, retention in surface depressions within floodplain has been analyzed to get better overview of whole transformation process. Detail digital relief model (DRM) has been used for given purposes to be able to analyze terrain depressions volumes. The model was developed with use of stereophotogrammetric evaluation of airborne images with high resolution of 10 cm. It was essential for purposes of presented analysis not to apply pit removal routines which are often used for generation of DRM for hydrological modelling purposes. First, the methodology of analysis was prepared and tested on artificial surface. This surface was created using random raster generation, filtration and resampling with final resolution of 1000 x 1000 units and height of maximum 10 units above datum. The methodology itself is based on analysis of areas inundated by water at different elevation levels. Volume is than calculated for each depression using extraction of terrain elevations under corresponding water level. The method was then applied on the area of Lužnice River floodplain section to assess retention capacity of real floodplain. The floodplain had to be cut into sections perpendicular to main river orientation for analyses as the method was tested for square shaped area without any significant inclination. Results obtained by mentioned analysis are presented in this paper. Acknowledgement Presented research was accomplished within national project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase, nr. QH82078. The project is funded by Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic. The support is highly acknowledged.

David, Vaclav; Dostal, Tomas

2010-05-01

106

Predictors of First-Year Retention in a Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retention is a complex issue of great importance to community colleges. Several retention models have been developed to help explain this phenomenon. However, these models typically have used four-year college and university environments to build their foundations. Several researchers have attempted to identify predictor variables using…

Mertes, Scott J.; Hoover, Richard E.

2014-01-01

107

Keeping Students in Higher Education: Successful Practices & Strategies for Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book explores the issues related to dropouts from higher education and presents a guide to identifying problems and developing practical solutions to the problems of retaining students. The chapters of part 1, The Challenge of Retention, are: (1) Keeping Students in Higher Education: A Pathway for Retention; and (2) A Student-Centered…

Moxley, David; Najor-Durack, Anwar; Dumbrigue, Cecille

108

Defining IT's Role in Mission-Critical Retention Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving student success and increasing retention are important objectives for campuses worldwide. Too often, though, the persons responsible for retention are not clearly identified, and the information and tools needed to measure and improve student success are not available. These gaps provide an opportunity for IT to take a leadership role…

Coley, Tim

2010-01-01

109

Changing Perspectives on Student Retention: A Role for Institutional Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a role for institutional research in changing institutional attitudes about priority placed on student retention efforts. Identifies organizational/attitudinal barriers to improving student retention efforts relative to theory on stages of grief (denial, hostility, bargaining, depression, acceptance); outlines tactics for moving the…

McLaughlin, Gerald W.; Brozovsky, Paul V.; McLaughlin, Josetta S.

1998-01-01

110

Prediction of the retention of s-triazines in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography under linear gradient-elution conditions.  

PubMed

In this paper, a multilayer artificial neural network is used to model simultaneously the effect of solute structure and eluent concentration profile on the retention of s-triazines in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography under linear gradient elution. The retention data of 24 triazines, including common herbicides and their metabolites, are collected under 13 different elution modes, covering the following experimental domain: starting acetonitrile volume fraction ranging between 40 and 60% and gradient slope ranging between 0 and 1% acetonitrile/min. The gradient parameters together with five selected molecular descriptors, identified by quantitative structure-retention relationship modelling applied to individual separation conditions, are the network inputs. Predictive performance of this model is evaluated on six external triazines and four unseen separation conditions. For comparison, retention of triazines is modelled by both quantitative structure-retention relationships and response surface methodology, which describe separately the effect of molecular structure and gradient parameters on the retention. Although applied to a wider variable domain, the network provides a performance comparable to that of the above "local" models and retention times of triazines are modelled with accuracy generally better than 7%. PMID:24830601

D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Maggi, Maria Anna; Ruggieri, Fabrizio

2014-08-01

111

Seed Implant Retention Score Predicts the Risk of Prolonged Urinary Retention After Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To risk-stratify patients for urinary retention after prostate brachytherapy according to a novel seed implant retention score (SIRS). Patients and Methods: A total of 835 patients underwent transperineal prostate seed implant from March 1993 to January 2007; 197 patients had {sup 125}I and 638 patients had {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy. Four hundred ninety-four patients had supplemental external-beam radiation. The final downsized prostate volume was used for the 424 patients who had neoadjuvant hormone therapy. Retention was defined as reinsertion of a Foley catheter after the implant. Results: Retention developed in 7.4% of patients, with an average duration of 6.7 weeks. On univariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation (10% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.02), neoadjuvant hormone therapy (9.4% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02), baseline alpha-blocker use (12.5% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.008), and increased prostate volume (13.4% vs. 6.9% vs. 2.9%, >45 cm{sup 3}, 25-45 cm{sup 3}, <25 cm{sup 3}; p = 0.0008) were significantly correlated with increased rates of retention. On multivariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation, neoadjuvant hormone therapy, baseline alpha-blocker use, and increased prostate volume were correlated with retention. A novel SIRS was modeled as the combined score of these factors, ranging from 0 to 5. There was a significant correlation between the SIRS and retention (p < 0.0001). The rates of retention were 0, 4%, 5.6%, 9%, 20.9%, and 36.4% for SIRS of 0 to 5, respectively. Conclusions: The SIRS may identify patients who are at high risk for prolonged retention after prostate brachytherapy. A prospective validation study of the SIRS is planned.

Lee, Hoon K., E-mail: Dr.Hoon@gmail.co [Regional Radiation Oncology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY (United States); Adams, Marc T. [Regional Radiation Oncology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY (United States); Shi, Qiuhu [Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, New York Medical School, Valhalla, NY (United States); Basillote, Jay; LaMonica, Joanne; Miranda, Luis; Motta, Joseph [Department of Urology, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY (United States)

2010-04-15

112

Data Show Retention Disparities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New nationwide data collected by the U.S. Department of Education's civil rights office reveal stark racial and ethnic disparities in student retentions, with black and Hispanic students far more likely than white students to repeat a grade, especially in elementary and middle school. The contrast is especially strong for African-Americans. In the…

Adams, Caralee J.; Robelen, Erik W.; Shah, Nirvi

2012-01-01

113

Financial Literacy and Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education administrators know it is more cost-effective to keep students than to recruit them. Understanding financial literacy--and how it impacts student retention and persistence on the campuses--is an important concept for administrators to comprehend. Most students are not financially literate when they enter the world of higher…

Adams, Ruth L.

2006-01-01

114

Promoting Employment Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document examines policy and program issues related to promoting employment retention among recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) who have moved from welfare into employment. The document begins with background information about the work requirements and time limits affecting TANF recipients. The second section…

Relave, Nanette

2000-01-01

115

Generic Recruitment and Retention Plan  

Cancer.gov

February 23, 2010 Version 3 Division of Cancer Prevention Recruitment Retention and Adherence Plan TemplateInstructions NCI DCP requires a study-specific recruitment, retention and adherence (RRA) plan for each cancer chemoprevention study. Each participating

116

Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients for two ponds in North Carolina. Employing a simple first order model that includes water residence time, the first order process responsible for species removal have been separated from the water residence time over which it acts. Assuming the rate constant for species removal is constant within the pond (arguable at least), the annual average rate constant for species removal is generated. Using the annual mean rate constant for species removal and monthly water residence times results in a significantly enhanced predictive capability for Davis Pond during most months of the year. Predictive ability remains poor in Davis Pond during winter/unstratified periods when internal loading of P and N results in low to negative chemical retention. Predictive ability for Piedmont Pond (which has numerous negative chemical retention periods) is improved but not to the same extent as Davis Pond. In Davis Pond, the rate constant for sediment removal (each month) is faster than the rate constant for water and explains the good predictability for sediment retention. However, the removal rate constant for P and N is slower than the removal rate constant for sediment (longer water column residence time for P,N than for sediment). Thus sedimentation is not an overall control on nutrient retention. Additionally, the removal rate constant for P is slower than for TOC (TOC is not the dominate removal process for P) and N is removed slower than P (different in pond controls). For Piedmont Pond, sediment removal rate constants are slower than the removal rate constant for water indicating significant sediment resuspension episodes. It appears that these sediment resuspension events are aperiodic and control the loading and the chemical retention capability of Piedmont Pond for N,P,TOC. These calculated rate constants reflect the differing internal loading processes for each component and suggest means and mechanisms for the use of ponds in water quality management.

Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.; John, B.

2002-05-01

117

Water retention and gas relative permeability of two industrial concretes  

SciTech Connect

This experimental study aims at identifying the water retention properties of two industrial concretes to be used for long term underground nuclear waste storage structures. Together with water retention, gas transfer properties are identified at varying water saturation level, i.e. relative gas permeability is assessed directly as a function of water saturation level S{sub w}. The influence of the initial de-sorption path and of the subsequent re-saturation are analysed both in terms of water retention and gas transfer properties. Also, the influence of concrete microstructure upon water retention and relative gas permeability is assessed, using porosity measurements, analysis of the BET theory from water retention properties, and MIP. Finally, a single relative gas permeability curve is proposed for each concrete, based on Van Genuchten-Mualem's statistical model, to be used for continuous modelling approaches of concrete structures, both during drying and imbibition.

Chen Wei; Liu Jian; Brue, Flore; Skoczylas, Frederic [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ECLille, LML, BP 48, F-59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); CNRS, UMR 8107, F-59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); Davy, C.A., E-mail: catherine.davy@ec-lille.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ECLille, LML, BP 48, F-59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); CNRS, UMR 8107, F-59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); Bourbon, Xavier; Talandier, Jean [Andra, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, F-92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France)

2012-07-15

118

Teacher Retention: Problems and Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a teacher retention crisis in the United States. The purpose of this paper is to answer the following questions: What contributes to teachers leaving the field? How has "No Child Left Behind" affected teacher retention? What can be done to retain good teachers? What impact do school administrators have on teacher retention? After…

McLaurin, Sidney E.; Smith, Willis; Smillie, Amanda

2009-01-01

119

Preliminary Analysis of the 1999 USMC Retention Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An Internet-based survey was developed to identify factors that influence marines in their retention decisions. Questionnaire areas include: demographics and military background; satisfaction with specific aspects of military life and work; overall satisf...

K. M. Kocher G. W. Thomas

2000-01-01

120

Recall, retention, and Ritalin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the effects of Ritalin on 2-hr story recall, 2-day story retention, and 2-day changes on screening tests of achievement in 16 male and 4 female primary-grade underachieving children. Ss were of average intelligence and free of both demonstrable neurological impairment and major psychological problems. Comparisons of drug and no-drug responses showed a significant positive drug effect on 2-hr story

Ellen D. Rie; Herbert E. Rie

1977-01-01

121

Retention: A Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bowie State University, one of six institutions, received a Model Institution for Excellence Award through the National Science Foundation and was funded by the National Aeronautic Space Administration - Goddard Space Flight Center. The primary goals for the Initiative are to increase Science Mathematics Engineering and Technology (SMET)student enrollment, retention and graduation rates and the number of minorities and women entering graduate school and SMET related workforces. Additionally, a satellite operations and control center was established at Bowie State University to provide training for students interested in space science. Thus far, the number of students entering the SMET domain has increase, the retention rate is up to 72-75%, graduation rate is up 80% and approximately 70 certifications have been awarded to students as Command Controllers, Spacecraft Analysts or Mission Planners as a result of their training in the Bowie State Satellite Operations and Control Center (BSOCC). The partnership between NASA and Bowie State University has been extremely beneficial to both and has established a model for the retention of science, mathematics, engineering and technology students.

Davis, E. J.; Strand, D.; Wiggs, M.

2004-12-01

122

Urinary retention in adults: diagnosis and initial management.  

PubMed

Urinary retention is the inability to voluntarily void urine. This condition can be acute or chronic. Causes of urinary retention are numerous and can be classified as obstructive, infectious and inflammatory, pharmacologic, neurologic, or other. The most common cause of urinary retention is benign prostatic hyperplasia. Other common causes include prostatitis, cystitis, urethritis, and vulvovaginitis; receiving medications in the anticholinergic and alphaadrenergic agonist classes; and cortical, spinal, or peripheral nerve lesions. Obstructive causes in women often involve the pelvic organs. A thorough history, physical examination, and selected diagnostic testing should determine the cause of urinary retention in most cases. Initial management includes bladder catheterization with prompt and complete decompression. Men with acute urinary retention from benign prostatic hyperplasia have an increased chance of returning to normal voiding if alpha blockers are started at the time of catheter insertion. Suprapubic catheterization may be superior to urethral catheterization for short-term management and silver alloy-impregnated urethral catheters have been shown to reduce urinary tract infection. Patients with chronic urinary retention from neurogenic bladder should be able to manage their condition with clean, intermittent self-catheterization; low-friction catheters have shown benefit in these patients. Definitive management of urinary retention will depend on the etiology and may include surgical and medical treatments. PMID:18350762

Selius, Brian A; Subedi, Rajesh

2008-03-01

123

Sediment retention in rangeland riparian buffers.  

PubMed

Controlling nonpoint-source sediment pollution is a common goal of riparian management, but there is little quantitative information about factors affecting performance of rangeland riparian buffers. This study evaluated the influence of vegetation characteristics, buffer width, slope, and stubble height on sediment retention in a Montana foothills meadow. Three vegetation types (sedge wetland, rush transition, bunchgrass upland) were compared using twenty-six 6- x 2-m plots spanning 2 to 20% slopes. Plots were clipped moderately (10-15 cm stubble) or severely (2-5 cm stubble). Sediment (silt + fine sand) was added to simulated overland runoff 6, 2, or 1 m above the bottom of each plot. Runoff was sampled at 15-s to > 5-min intervals until sediment concentrations approached background levels. Sediment retention was affected strongly by buffer width and moderately by vegetation type and slope, but was not affected by stubble height. Mean sediment retention ranged from 63 to > 99% for different combinations of buffer width and vegetation type, with 94 to 99% retention in 6-m-wide buffers regardless of vegetation type or slope. Results suggest that rangeland riparian buffers should be at least 6 m wide, with dense vegetation, to be effective and reliable. Narrower widths, steep slopes, and sparse vegetation increase risk of sediment delivery to streams. Vegetation characteristics such as biomass, cover, or density are more appropriate than stubble height for judging capacity to remove sediment from overland runoff, though stubble height may indirectly indicate livestock impacts that can affect buffer performance. PMID:12809315

Hook, Paul B

2003-01-01

124

Genome-Wide Association Study among Four Horse Breeds Identifies a Common Haplotype Associated with In Vitro CD3+ T Cell Susceptibility/Resistance to Equine Arteritis Virus Infection ?  

PubMed Central

Previously, we have shown that horses could be divided into susceptible and resistant groups based on an in vitro assay using dual-color flow cytometric analysis of CD3+ T cells infected with equine arteritis virus (EAV). Here, we demonstrate that the differences in in vitro susceptibility of equine CD3+ T lymphocytes to EAV infection have a genetic basis. To investigate the possible hereditary basis for this trait, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to compare susceptible and resistant phenotypes. Testing of 267 DNA samples from four horse breeds that had a susceptible or a resistant CD3+ T lymphocyte phenotype using both Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip and Sequenom's MassARRAY system identified a common, genetically dominant haplotype associated with the susceptible phenotype in a region of equine chromosome 11 (ECA11), positions 49572804 to 49643932. The presence of a common haplotype indicates that the trait occurred in a common ancestor of all four breeds, suggesting that it may be segregated among other modern horse breeds. Biological pathway analysis revealed several cellular genes within this region of ECA11 encoding proteins associated with virus attachment and entry, cytoskeletal organization, and NF-?B pathways that may be associated with the trait responsible for the in vitro susceptibility/resistance of CD3+ T lymphocytes to EAV infection. The data presented in this study demonstrated a strong association of genetic markers with the trait, representing de facto proof that the trait is under genetic control. To our knowledge, this is the first GWAS of an equine infectious disease and the first GWAS of equine viral arteritis.

Go, Yun Young; Bailey, Ernest; Cook, Deborah G.; Coleman, Stephen J.; MacLeod, James N.; Chen, Kuey-Chu; Timoney, Peter J.; Balasuriya, Udeni B. R.

2011-01-01

125

Factors Affecting Retention of First-Year Certificate and Diploma Students. SIAST Retention Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 1991, the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST), conducted a study to determine factors affecting retention and to identify students facing higher risk of non-completion. Specifically, the study sought to determine the effects of selected student characteristics and attitudes, as well as labor market conditions,…

Sarkar, Gerlinde

126

Using Standardized fMRI Protocols to Identify Patterns of Prefrontal Circuit Dysregulation that are Common and Specific to Cognitive and Emotional Tasks in Major Depressive Disorder: First Wave Results from the iSPOT-D Study  

PubMed Central

Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated dysregulation of prefrontal circuits in major depressive disorder (MDD), and these circuits are a viable target for predicting treatment outcomes. However, because of the heterogeneity of tasks and samples used in studies to date, it is unclear whether the central dysfunction is one of prefrontal hyperreactivity or hyporeactivity. We used a standardized battery of tasks and protocols for functional magnetic resonance imaging, to identify the common vs the specific prefrontal circuits engaged by these tasks in the same 30 outpatients with MDD compared with 30 matched, healthy control participants, recruited as part of the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D). Reflecting cognitive neuroscience theory and established evidence, the battery included cognitive tasks designed to assess functions of selective attention, sustained attention-working memory and response inhibition, and emotion tasks to assess explicit conscious and implicit nonconscious viewing of facial emotion. MDD participants were distinguished by a distinctive biosignature of: hypoactivation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during working memory updating and during conscious negative emotion processing; hyperactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during working memory and response inhibition cognitive tasks and hypoactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal during conscious processing of positive emotion. These results show that the use of standardized tasks in the same participants provides a way to tease out prefrontal circuitry dysfunction related to cognitive and emotional functions, and not to methodological or sample variations. These findings provide the frame of reference for identifying prefrontal biomarker predictors of treatment outcomes in MDD.

Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Etkin, Amit; Koslow, Stephen H; Williams, Leanne M

2013-01-01

127

Floating nut retention system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A floating nut retention system includes a nut with a central aperture. An inner retainer plate has an opening which is fixedly aligned with the nut aperture. An outer retainer member is formed of a base plate having an opening and a surface adjacent to a surface of the inner retainer plate. The outer retainer member includes a securing mechanism for retaining the inner retainer plate adjacent to the outer retainer member. The securing mechanism enables the inner retainer plate to float with respect to the outer retainer number, while simultaneously forming a bearing surface for inner retainer plate.

Charles, J. F.; Theakston, H. A. (inventors)

1980-01-01

128

Understanding recruitment and retention in neurological research.  

PubMed

Cognitive deficits in participants and the abrupt and traumatic way in which many neurological conditions present are two examples of the unique challenges in recruiting and retaining participants with neurological injury for research studies. The purpose of this investigation was to identify obstacles to recruitment and retention in three ongoing research studies. These studies involve persons with neurological disorders across the continuum of care, from those newly diagnosed and with emergent presentation to those with more established chronic neurological conditions. For this analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of the strategies employed to improve participation rates. The first study was a project funded by the National Institutes of Health designed to identify biomarkers of vasospasm in persons (n = 496) with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage who presented to the neurovascular intensive care unit (National Institute of Nursing Research, R01 NR004339). The purpose of the second study was to examine biobehavioral interactions in family caregivers (n = 59) of persons with a primary malignant brain tumor recruited in the community setting. The third project involved recruiting persons (n = 1,019) within an outpatient neurosurgical center to participate in a research registry. To determine differential effectiveness of strategies, consent and attrition rates were calculated at serial points over time in three studies, and recruitment and retention strategies were compared. Sentinel time points in participants' disease trajectories played a key role in determining whether those who were approached to participate gave consent and were retained, particularly in the studies involving persons with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (consent = 85%; retention = 89%) and persons with primary malignant brain tumors and their caregivers (consent = 68%; retention = 83%). In addition, several specific recruiter and interviewer training techniques were associated with higher recruitment and retention. Targeted strategies to improve participation rates are vital for neuroscience nurses involved in any aspect of clinical research, including those who conduct studies, assist with data collection, and recruit potential participants. PMID:20187349

Newberry, Alyssa; Sherwood, Paula; Hricik, Allison; Bradley, Sarah; Kuo, Jean; Crago, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Leslie A; Given, Barbara A

2010-02-01

129

The "Ins and Outs" of Marketing and Retention in Virginia's Community Colleges: Exemplary Marketing and Retention Practices in the Virginia Community College System. Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Virginia Community College System (VCCS) initiated the Marketing and Retention Recognition Program (MRRP) to identify and publicize innovative marketing and retention activities being implemented throughout the system. This report offers brief sketches of some of the exemplary projects identified by the MRRP. First, introductory material…

Puyear, Don, Ed.; And Others

130

Modelling of UPLC behaviour of acylcarnitines by quantitative structure-retention relationships.  

PubMed

In the present work, the retention time (RT) of acylcarnitines, collected by ultra-performance liquid-chromatography after formation of butyl esters, is modelled by quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) method. The investigated set consists of free carnitine and 46 different acylcarnitines, including the isomers commonly monitored in screening metabolic disorders. To describe the structure of (butylated) acylcarnitines, a large number of computational molecular descriptors generated by software Dragon are subjected to variable selection methods aimed at identifying a small informative subset. The QSRR model is established using two different approaches: the multi linear regression (MLR) combined with a genetic algorithm (GA) variable selection and the partial least square (PLS) regression after iterative stepwise elimination (ISE) of useless descriptors. Predictive performance of both models is evaluated using an external set consisting of 10 representative acylcarnitines, and, successively, by repeated random data partitions between the calibration and prediction sets. Finally, a principal component analysis (PCA) is performed on the model variables to facilitate the interpretation of the established QSRRs. A PLS model based on seven latent variables extracted from 20 molecular descriptors selected by ISE permits to calculate/predict the retention time of acylcarnitine with accuracy better than 5%, whereas a 6-dimensional model identified by GA-MLR provides a slightly worse performance. PMID:24780923

D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Maggi, Maria Anna; Ruggieri, Fabrizio

2014-08-01

131

Using standardized fMRI protocols to identify patterns of prefrontal circuit dysregulation that are common and specific to cognitive and emotional tasks in major depressive disorder: first wave results from the iSPOT-D study.  

PubMed

Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated dysregulation of prefrontal circuits in major depressive disorder (MDD), and these circuits are a viable target for predicting treatment outcomes. However, because of the heterogeneity of tasks and samples used in studies to date, it is unclear whether the central dysfunction is one of prefrontal hyperreactivity or hyporeactivity. We used a standardized battery of tasks and protocols for functional magnetic resonance imaging, to identify the common vs the specific prefrontal circuits engaged by these tasks in the same 30 outpatients with MDD compared with 30 matched, healthy control participants, recruited as part of the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D). Reflecting cognitive neuroscience theory and established evidence, the battery included cognitive tasks designed to assess functions of selective attention, sustained attention-working memory and response inhibition, and emotion tasks to assess explicit conscious and implicit nonconscious viewing of facial emotion. MDD participants were distinguished by a distinctive biosignature of: hypoactivation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during working memory updating and during conscious negative emotion processing; hyperactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during working memory and response inhibition cognitive tasks and hypoactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal during conscious processing of positive emotion. These results show that the use of standardized tasks in the same participants provides a way to tease out prefrontal circuitry dysfunction related to cognitive and emotional functions, and not to methodological or sample variations. These findings provide the frame of reference for identifying prefrontal biomarker predictors of treatment outcomes in MDD. PMID:23303059

Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Etkin, Amit; Koslow, Stephen H; Williams, Leanne M

2013-04-01

132

Replication of Genome Wide Association Identified Candidate Genes Confirm the Role of Common and Rare Variants in PAX7 and VAX1 in the Etiology of Non-syndromic CL(P)  

PubMed Central

Following recent genome wide association studies (GWAS), significant genetic associations have been identified for several genes with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL(P). To replicate two of these GWAS signals, we investigated the role of common and rare variants in the PAX7 and VAX1 genes. TaqMan genotyping was carried out for SNPs in VAX1 and PAX7 and Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) was performed to test for linkage and association in each population. Direct sequencing in and around the PAX7 and VAX1 genes in 1,326 individuals of European and Asian ancestry was done. TDT analysis showed strong associations with markers in VAX1 (rs7078160, p=2.7E-06 and rs475202, p=0.0002) in a combined sample of Mongolian and Japanese CL (P) case-parent triads. Analyses using parent-of-origin effects showed significant excess transmission of the minor allele from both parents with the effect in the mothers (p=6.5E-05, OR (transmission) =1.91) more striking than in the fathers (p=0.004, OR (transmission) =1.67) for VAX1 marker rs7078160 in the combined Mongolian and Japanese samples when all cleft types were combined. The rs6659735 trinucleotide marker in PAX7 was significantly associated with all the US cleft groups combined (p=0.007 in all clefts and p=0.02 in CL(P)). Eight rare missense mutations found in PAX7 and two rare missense mutations in VAX1. Our study replicated previous GWAS findings for markers in VAX1 in the Asian population, and identified rare variants in PAX7 and VAX1 that may contribute to the etiology of CL(P). Determining the role of rare variants clearly warrants further investigation.

Butali, Azeez; Suzuki, Satoshi; Cooper, Margaret E.; Mansilla, Adela M.; Cuenco, Karen; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Suzuki, Yasushi; Niimi, Teruyuki; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Ayanga, Gongorjav; Erkhembaatar, Tudevdorj; Furukawa, Hiroo; Fujiwawa, Kumiko; Imura, Hideto; Petrin, Aline L.; Natsume, Nagato; Beaty, Terri H.; Marazita, Mary L.; Murray, Jeffery C.

2012-01-01

133

The Retention/Promotion Checklist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on how elementary school teachers and administrators can make sensible, well-reasoned, and defensible retention and promotion decisions. The book contains a reproducible retention/promotion checklist made up of questions selected on the basis of factors that have an impact on school success or failure. Checklist summary and…

Grant, Jim; Richardson, Irv

134

Increasing undergraduate student retention rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on data from a questionnaire survey of the new undergraduate intake to the University of Birmingham, the factors which influence withdrawal\\/retention rates in the first term were examined. The effectiveness of counselling intervention with first-year undergraduate students at risk of leaving university in their first term is also explored. The implications for universities wishing to increase retention rates and

Barbara Rickinson; Desmond Rutherford

1995-01-01

135

Solvent Retention and Fibre Chemistry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this study was to understand in which way different chemical and physical treatments affect the solvent retention properties of pulps used in the middle layer of folding boxboard. The solvent retention properties of the treated pulps were exami...

M. Rantanen

2003-01-01

136

Retention of Hispanics in public sector mental health services.  

PubMed

Hispanic underutilization of mental health facilities extends to lowered retention rates among the chronically mentally ill. A theoretical model of retention was developed with four domains of variables: personal traits, accessibility of social support, treatment characteristics, and facility characteristics. Using data collected from CMHC clinical charts in 1983 and 1984, the model was tested using multiple regression and commonality analysis. The model was tenable (R = .59). However, the commonality analysis suggested that most of the unique variance was contributed by the treatment domain. The social support domain made negligible unique contribution. Implications of the model are discussed. PMID:3677589

Dworkin, R J; Adams, G L

1987-01-01

137

Rethinking Student Retention in Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that student retention is significant for measuring institutional effectiveness in the prevailing environment of accountability and budgetary constraints. Presents recommendations for increasing retention, including training staff on retention issues, reviewing admission and advising strategies affecting minority populations, and piloting…

Wild, Linda; Ebbers, Larry

2002-01-01

138

Common Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

139

Impact of non-HIV related comorbidities on retention in HIV medical care: does retention improve over time?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to understand how the presence of comorbid conditions affects retention in HIV medical care over time. A retrospective cohort design employing a medical chart review was conducted. A generalized linear mixed model was used to determine the predictors that affect retention over time. The mean follow-up for the study population was 5.75 years, and only 48.6 % achieved optimal retention. During the study period, 882 non-HIV related comorbidities were diagnosed in 610 (44.9 %) patients of whom, approximately 31 % had ?2 comorbidities diagnosed. In the mixed model, the number of comorbidities diagnosed during the study period was associated with improved retention over time (odds ratio = 2.28; 95 % confidence interval = 1.83-2.71). Having a non-HIV related comorbid condition was associated with improved retention, while those patients who were 'healthier' had worse retention. More research is needed to identify factors that improve retention and to quantify the impact of these factors. PMID:23695522

Crawford, Timothy N; Sanderson, Wayne T; Breheny, Patrick; Fleming, Steven T; Thornton, Alice

2014-03-01

140

Who does not succeed in engineering at the University of Cape Town? What can one tell from the retention rate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a quantitative investigation into the retention rates of engineering students at the University of Cape Town are presented. The authors show how longitudinal retention studies can be used to monitor the throughput efficiency of university degree programs and to identify groups of students that display poor retention rates over a period of time. Statistical methods are used

Jeff Jawitz; Leanne Scott

1997-01-01

141

Motorcoach Side Glazing Retention Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2003, NHTSA and Transport Canada entered into a joint research program conducted by Martec Limited that focused on preventing unrestrained occupant ejections during motorcoach rollovers by improving standard window glazing and retention. Through comput...

A. Prasad S. Duffy

2013-01-01

142

Turnover: strategies for staff retention.  

PubMed

This discussion has focused on a number of areas where organizations may find opportunities for more effectively managing employee retention. Given the multitude of causes and consequences, there is no one quick fix. Effective management of employee retention requires assessment of the entire human resources process, that is, recruitment, selection, job design, compensation, supervision, work conditions, etc. Regular and systematic diagnosis of turnover and implementation of multiple strategies and evaluation are needed (Mobley, 1982). PMID:10106673

SnowAntle, S

1990-01-01

143

Grade Retention and School Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A follow-up study of the predictors and consequences of grade retention up to age 14 was conducted. This study investigated the effects of retention on school achievement, perceived school competence, and delinquency. The study sample included 1,164 low-income, minority (95% Black, 5% Hispanic) children from the Chicago Longitudinal Study. This was 93% of the original study by Reynolds (1992). Twenty-eight

Ann R. McCoy; Arthur J. Reynolds

1999-01-01

144

A Social Network Analysis of Student Retention Using Archival Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempts to determine if a relationship exists between first-to-second-year retention and social network variables for a cohort of first-year students at a small liberal arts college. The social network is reconstructed using not survey data as is most common, but rather using archival data from a student information system. Each…

Eckles, James E.; Stradley, Eric G.

2012-01-01

145

Quantitative structure-retention-pharmacokinetic relationship studies.  

PubMed

Since the majority of lead compounds identified for drug clinical trials fail to reach the market due to poor efficacy in humans or poor pharmacokinetics (PKs), the prediction of PK properties in humans plays an important role in selection of potential drug candidates. The aim of the present study was to develop novel models for the prediction of separate PK parameters for a diverse set of drugs. Prediction would be based on the retention of each drug using micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) and selected theoretically-derived descriptors. Retention time, half life (t((1/2))), and volume of distribution (Vd) for each of the 26 training drugs were extracted from literature while molecular descriptors were generated using Molecular Modeling Pro. A total of 35 molecular descriptors describing molecular size, shape and solubility were calculated from the 3D molecular structure of each compound. Artificial neural network (ANN) modeling was used to correlate the calculated descriptors and retention time with half life and volume of distribution. A sensitivity analysis procedure was used to refine the models. The final predictive models showed significant correlations with literature values of t((1/2)) and Vd: 0.854 and 0.855 respectively for the internal testing data and 0.720 and 0.827 respectively for the external validation set of compounds. Absolute predicted values were in good agreement with literature values. Analysis of descriptors in the optimum models revealed a large degree of overlap. Solubility characteristics, hydrogen bonding, and molecular size and shape were shown to play important roles in determining drug t((1/2)) and Vd. The reciprocal of retention time was also included in both optimum models attesting to the significance of this particular physicochemical parameter and the complexity of the models developed. This novel combination of theoretical and experimental data for pharmacokinetic modeling may lead to further progress in drug development. PMID:19356082

Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Turner, Joseph V; Glass, Beverley D

2008-04-01

146

Grade Retention: Research, Policies, and Decision Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewing research on grade retention, this paper describes tools and guidelines developed as an aid in retention decisions and examines actual promotion/retention policies and practices. Most research on academic and social effects of grade retention suffers from poor methodology, leaving the conclusions suspect and the results contradictory. The…

Chafe, Doug

147

Retention Rate by Ethnicity. Information Capsule.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document from the Miami-Dade Community College Office of Institutional Research (Florida) briefly reports student retention rates at the college for the year 2000. Retention rates for degree-seeking students in 2000 increased from 1998 for all major ethnic categories. The year 2000 total college retention rate was 72.5%. Retention rates by…

Baldwin, Anne

148

Management of recurrent stress urinary incontinence and urinary retention following midurethral sling insertion in women  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Synthetic midurethral slings are the most common operations performed for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). However, there is only very scarce evidence regarding the management of complications from these operations. The aim of this survey was to canvass expert opinion regarding the management of recurrent SUI and urinary retention following insertion of these slings. METHODS Expert urologists and urogynaecologists in the UK with an interest in SUI were identified. Three clinical scenarios on recurrent SUI and one on urinary retention following midurethral sling placements were emailed twice to the experts. RESULTS The majority of the experts chose a repeat synthetic midurethral retropubic transvaginal tape (TVT) as the procedure of choice for recurrent SUI in patients who had had a previous TVT or midurethral transobturator tape inserted. In patients who continued to suffer SUI after a failed second TVT, there were mixed results with experts choosing fascial slings, colposuspension and bulking agents as their preferred method of treatment. In women who develop urinary retention following a TVT, tape pull-down within two weeks was the preferred method among the experts. However, division of the tape within two to six weeks following the procedure was also popular. CONCLUSIONS Based on expert opinion, it is difficult to make a recommendation as to the best method of treating recurrent SUI or urinary retention following tape insertion. There is an urgent requirement for well conducted, multicentre, randomised clinical trials to look at the management of these complications and also the tools used to assess the patient before salvage surgical management.

Hashim, H; Terry, TR

2012-01-01

149

Innovative techniques to address retention in a behavioral weight-loss trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given that retention rates for weight-loss trials have not significantly improved in the past 20 years, identifying effective techniques to en- hance retention is critical. This paper describes a conceptual and practical advance that may have improved retention in a behavioral weight- loss trial—the novel application of motivational interviewing techniques to diffuse ambivalence during interactive group-based orientation ses- sions prior

Jennifer H. Goldberg; Michaela Kiernan

2005-01-01

150

Common Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

151

Making the Common Good Common  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

Chase, Barbara

2011-01-01

152

Retention of hydrogen in graphite  

SciTech Connect

The retention of hydrogen in POCO AXF-5Q graphite has been measured at room temperature as a function of fluence and flux for H/sub 2//sup +/ ions at energies from 250 to 500 eV provided by a glow discharge. More than 2 x 10/sup 18/ H/cm/sup 2/ has been retained, and no indication of saturation has been observed to a fluence of 5 x 10/sup 19/ H/cm/sup 2/. In this experiment, retention was found to increase linearly with fluence for constant flux. A flux dependence was observed; that is, the retention rate was observed to decrease monotonically as the flux increased. A change-over experiment, deuterium to hydrogen, was conducted; the results show that significant change-over occurs (i.e., about 30% change-over for a fluence of 5 x 10/sup 17/ D/cm/sup 2/).

Langley, R.A.

1986-10-01

153

Retention of pins in amalgam.  

PubMed

The Max 021 titanium alloy self-threading retentive pin was evaluated for retention in amalgam and compared to the Link Plus titanium alloy self-threading pin. Fifteen specimens in which amalgam was condensed around the retentive pins were prepared. The specimens were mounted in a specially constructed test apparatus in an Instron Testing Machine and placed under a continuous tensile force (1 mm/min) until failure occurred. The mean force required to induce failure in the Max pin specimens was 87.6 (+/- 37.4) Newtons while the mean for the Link Plus pins was 180.4 (+/- 39.8) Newtons. The failure of the specimens using the Max pins was primarily a result of fracture of the amalgam with removal of the pin intact. The failure site of the Link Plus pin was primarily fracture of the pin itself. Statistically, a significantly greater force was required to induce failure in the Link Plus pins. PMID:2003894

Cooley, R L; Marshall, T D; Earnest, L

1991-02-01

154

Diffusion-limited retention of porous particles at density interfaces.  

PubMed

Downward carbon flux in the ocean is largely governed by particle settling. Most marine particles settle at low Reynolds numbers and are highly porous, yet the fluid dynamics of this regime have remained unexplored. We present results of an experimental investigation of porous particles settling through a density interface at Reynolds numbers between 0.1 and 1. We tracked 100 to 500 ?m hydrogel spheres with 95.5% porosity and negligible permeability. We found that a small negative initial excess density relative to the lower (denser) fluid layer, a common scenario in the ocean, results in long retention times of particles at the interface. We hypothesized that the retention time was determined by the diffusive exchange of the stratifying agent between interstitial and ambient fluid, which increases excess density of particles that have stalled at the interface, enabling their settling to resume. This hypothesis was confirmed by observations, which revealed a quadratic dependence of retention time on particle size, consistent with diffusive exchange. These results demonstrate that porosity can control retention times and therefore accumulation of particles at density interfaces, a mechanism that could underpin the formation of particle layers frequently observed at pycnoclines in the ocean. We estimate retention times of 3 min to 3.3 d for the characteristic size range of marine particles. This enhancement in retention time can affect carbon transformation through increased microbial colonization and utilization of particles and release of dissolved organics. The observed size dependence of the retention time could further contribute to improve quantifications of vertical carbon flux. PMID:21135242

Kindler, Kolja; Khalili, Arzhang; Stocker, Roman

2010-12-21

155

Survival Analysis of Faculty Retention Data: How Long Do They Stay? AIR 1997 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applied survival analysis methodology to faculty retention data in order to examine ways to measure faculty retention and determine whether men and women have different "survival times." The study at a selective, private liberal arts college first used college catalogs to identify 339 full-time tenure-track faculty who had begun working…

Tamada, Mike; Inman, Claudia

156

Developing a neonatal workforce: role evolution and retention of advanced neonatal nurse practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Over the past decade more than 120 advanced neonatal nurse practitioners (ANNPs) have graduated from the Southampton based ANNP programme.Objectives: To determine the scope of practice and evolving role of ANNPs and to identify factors that may affect future recruitment and retention.Method: An open ended structured questionnaire on clinical role, working arrangements, retention and attrition, continuing education, and professional

S L Smith; M A Hall

2003-01-01

157

Reading, Writing, and Retention: A Primer on Grade Retention Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that research shows that neither grade retention nor social promotion improves educational success. Suggests that familiarity with this research is essential when seeking intervention strategies. Considers how it is possible to strengthen the connection between research and practice by recognizing that educational professionals who know…

Jimerson, Shane R.; Kaufman, Amber M.

2003-01-01

158

Facilitating student retention in online graduate nursing education programs: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Online education, a form of distance education, provides students with opportunities to engage in lifelong learning without the restrictions of time and space. However, while this approach meets the needs of employed nursing professionals, it poses some challenges for educators. Student retention is one such challenge. Student retention rates serve as measures of program quality and are reported to accrediting bodies. Therefore, it is imperative that administrators and program faculty implement comprehensive programs to ensure student retention. This review of the literature was designed to identify strategies to improve student retention in online graduate nursing education programs. The review includes 23 articles that address models, research, and best practices supported in nursing and higher education. The findings indicate that student retention in online programs is a multidimensional problem requiring a multifaceted approach. Recommendations for facilitating retention in online nursing programs include ensuring social presence and program and course quality, and attentiveness to individual student characteristics. PMID:24529796

Gazza, Elizabeth A; Hunker, Diane F

2014-07-01

159

Confounding Impacts of Iron Reduction on Arsenic Retention  

SciTech Connect

A transition from oxidizing to reducing conditions has long been implicated to increase aqueous As concentrations, for which reductive dissolution of iron (hydr)oxides is commonly implicated as the primary culprit. Confounding our understanding of processes controlling As retention, however, is that reductive transformation of ferrihydrite has recently been shown to promote As retention rather than release. To resolve the role iron phases have in regulating arsenic concentrations, here we examine As desorption from ferrihydrite-coated sands presorbed with As(lll); experiments were performed at circumneutral pH under Fe-reducing conditions with the dissimilatory iron reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN-32 over extended time periods. We reveal that with the initial phase of iron reduction, ferrihydrite undergoes transformation to secondary phases and increases As(lll) retention (relative to abiotic controls). However, with increased reaction time, cessation of the phase transitions and ensuing reductive dissolution result in prolonged release of As(III) to the aqueous phase. Our results suggest that As(lll) retention during iron reduction is temporally dependent on secondary precipitation of iron phases; during transformation to secondary phases, particularly magnetite, As(lll) retention is enhanced even relative to oxidized systems. However, conditions that retard secondary transformation (more stable iron oxides or limited iron reducing bacterial activity), or prolonged anaerobiosis, will lead to both the dissolution of ferric (hydr)oxides and release of As(lll) to the aqueous phase.

Tufano, K.J.; Fendorf, S.

2009-05-26

160

The Recruitment and Retention of Minority Teachers in Gifted Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents data on the underrepresentation of black and other minority teachers and provides recommendations for the recruitment and retention of minority teachers in gifted education in the context of affective, philosophical, and cultural considerations. Research needs are identified in the areas of demographic data, career decisions,…

Ford, Donna Y.; Grantham, Tarek C.; Harris, J. John, III

1997-01-01

161

An Examination of Secondary Business Teachers' Retention Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated from a national perspective factors that influence the attrition and retention of newly hired secondary business teachers in the public sector. It also identified factors important to determine a business teacher's interest in continuing or not continuing in the teaching profession. The survey developed for the study consisted…

Ruhland, Sheila K.

162

Research and Practice of Student Retention: What Next?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After reviewing the state of student retention research and practice, past and present, the author looks to the future and identifies three areas of research and practice that call for further exploration. These concern issues of institutional action, program implementation, and the continuing challenge of promoting the success of low-income…

Tinto, Vincent

2007-01-01

163

Supporting Child Welfare Supervisors to Improve Worker Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent child welfare research has identified supervisors as key to retaining qualified and committed workers. This paper describes implementation of a federally funded child welfare training initiative designed to improve worker retention largely through developing, implementing, and evaluating a statewide supervisor training program in a…

Landsman, Miriam

2007-01-01

164

Etiology and management of urinary retention in women  

PubMed Central

Urinary retention (UR) can be defined as inability to achieve complete bladder emptying by voluntary micturition, and categorized as acute UR, chronic UR or incomplete bladder emptying. UR is common in elderly men but symptomatic UR is unusual in women. The epidemiology of female UR is not well documented. There are numerous causes now recognized in women, broadly categorized as infective, pharmacological, neurological, anatomical, myopathic and functional; labeling symptoms as having a “psychogenic basis” should be avoided. Detrusor failure is often an underlying factor that complicates interpretation. Initial management includes bladder drainage (intermittent or indwelling catheterization) if the woman is symptomatic or at risk of complications, and correcting likely causes. Investigations should be focused on identifying the underlying etiology and any reversible factor. A detailed history, general and pelvic examination are needed; urine dipstick analysis, routine microscopy and culture, and pelvic and renal ultrasound are suitable baseline investigations. Urodynamic tests are required in specific situations. Urethral dilatation has a limited role, but it should be considered if there is urethral stenosis. Definitive management requires correction of cause where possible and symptom management where no correctable cause is detected. Follow-up is needed for monitoring response to treatment, detection of complications and symptom control. Fowler’s syndrome is a specific group diagnosed on urethral sphincter electromyogram, representing a very challenging clinical scenario.

Mevcha, Amit; Drake, Marcus J.

2010-01-01

165

JCC Recruitment, Retention, Attrition Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to reduce the class attrition rate of 40% at Jefferson Community College (JCC), and to investigate the entire process of recruitment, retention, and attrition (RRA), a series of four faculty workshops were held. The plan was to look at the RRA process from the student's point of view in terms of four phases: (1) the pre-enrollment…

Horvath, Ronald J.

166

Employee voice and employee retention.  

PubMed

This study investigates the relationship between the extent to which employees have opportunities to voice dissatisfaction and voluntary turnover in 111 short-term, general care hospitals. Results show that, whether or not a union is present, high numbers of mechanisms for employee voice are associated with high retention rates. Implications for theory and research as well as management practice are discussed. PMID:10278801

Spencer, D G

1986-09-01

167

Implicit Memory: Retention without Remembering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews recent research on retention that is demonstrated without conscious recollection, such as the ability to tie shoelaces or drive a car. Suggests that future research in this field may have implications for such educational issues as the transfer of training and the carryover of abstract classroom learning to problems in other contexts. (EVL)

Roediger, Henry L., III

1990-01-01

168

Improving Hunter Recruitment and Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current trends show that despite overall support for hunting, fewer Americans are participating in the activity. Traditional recruitment and retention methods in which hunting families initiate, train, and socialize their children or other family members into hunting tradition are still the primary routes to recruiting and retaining new hunters. With declining numbers of hunters, however, this approach alone will not

Elizabeth L. Ryan; Bret Shaw

2011-01-01

169

Pathophysiology of renal fluid retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathophysiology of renal fluid retention. Central to a unifying hypothesis of body fluid regulation is maintenance of arterial circulatory integrity. This may be disturbed by arterial underfilling, either from reduction in cardiac output or by peripheral arterial vasodilation. In cardiac failure (CF), cardiac output falls and the nonosmotic release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and expression of AVP mRNA in the

Robert W. Schrier; Robert G. Fassett; Mamiko Ohara; Pierre-Yves Martin

1998-01-01

170

Institutionalization of a Retention Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bowie State University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center have, for the past 10 years, worked diligently together to enhance the science, mathematics, engineering and technology (SMET) domain. Efforts made, because of a Model Institutions for Excellence (MIE) Award, have changed the landscape of the SMET domain by increasing the retention and graduation rates, the number of students entering graduate and professional schools, and the number of students entering SMET related careers for minorities and women. Several initiatives a Scholarship Program, PRISEM Tutoring Center, Safety-net Program, Research emphasis, Focused Mentoring, a Summer Academy for accepted incoming students, a Bridge Program for students needing assistance being admitted to the University, the RISE Program and the Bowie State Satellite Operations and Control Center (BSOCC) provide the nurturing, mentoring, and opportunities for our students. As a result of efforts made, the retention rate has increase to approximately 80%, the graduation rate has increased 40%, and 85% of the SMET students are now interested or entering graduate and professional schools. Successes that have been documented by various assessment activities have led to the institutionalization of the Retention Model of the MIE Initiative. It is anticipated that University-wide application of the retention model will prove the incentives necessary to obtain similar results as the MIE Initiative.

Davis, E. J.; Campbell, A.

2006-05-01

171

Strategies for improving employee retention.  

PubMed

This article proposes a solution to the perennial problem of talent retention in the clinical laboratory. It includes the presentation of 12 strategies that may be used to significantly improve institutional identity formation and establishment of the psychological contract that employees form with laboratory management. Identity formation and psychological contracting are deemed as essential in helping reduce employee turnover and increase retention. The 12 conversational strategies may be used as a set of best practices for all employees, but most importantly for new employees, and should be implemented at the critical moment when employees first join the laboratory. This time is referred to as "retention on-boarding"--the period of induction and laboratory orientation. Retention on-boarding involves a dialogue between employees and management that is focused on the psychological, practical, cultural, and political dimensions of the laboratory. It is placed in the context of the modern clinical laboratory, which is faced with employing and managing Generation X knowledge workers. Specific topics and broad content areas of those conversations are outlined. PMID:17394785

Verlander, Edward G; Evans, Martin R

2007-01-01

172

Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

Brookman, David M.

1989-01-01

173

Leadership and Retention in TPU's: A Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Retention is a key readiness factor in US Army Reserve units. The initial report develops an integrative, conceptual model of retention in Troop Program Units (TPU' s) that highlights the role of TPU leadership. It describes three qualitatively different ...

K. Thomas

1995-01-01

174

Measuring Retention in HIV Care: The Elusive Gold Standard  

PubMed Central

Background Measuring retention in HIV primary care is complex as care includes multiple visits scheduled at varying intervals over time. We evaluated six commonly used retention measures in predicting viral load (VL) suppression and the correlation among measures. Methods Clinic-wide patient-level data from six academic HIV clinics were used for 12-months preceding implementation of the CDC/HRSA Retention in Care intervention. Six retention measures were calculated for each patient based upon scheduled primary HIV provider visits: count and dichotomous missed visits, visit adherence, 6-month gap, 4-month visit constancy, and the HRSA HAB retention measure. Spearman correlation coefficients and separate unadjusted logistic regression models compared retention measures to one another and with 12-month VL suppression, respectively. The discriminatory capacity of each measure was assessed with the c-statistic. Results Among 10,053 patients, 8,235 (82%) had 12-month VL measures, with 6,304 (77%) achieving suppression (VL<400 c/mL). All six retention measures were significantly associated (P<0.0001) with VL suppression (OR;95%CI, c-statistic): missed visit count (0.73;0.71–0.75,0.67), missed visit dichotomous (3.2;2.8–3.6,0.62), visit adherence (3.9;3.5–4.3,0.69), gap (3.0;2.6–3.3,0.61), visit constancy (2.8;2.5–3.0,0.63), HRSA HAB (3.8;3.3–4.4,0.59). Measures incorporating “no show” visits were highly correlated (Spearman coefficient=0.83–0.85), as were measures based solely upon kept visits (Spearman coefficient=0.72–0.77). Correlation coefficients were lower across these two groups of measures (Range=0.16–0.57). Conclusions Six retention measures displayed a wide range of correlation with one another, yet each measure had significant association and modest discrimination for VL suppression. These data suggest there is no clear gold standard, and that selection of a retention measure may be tailored to context.

Mugavero, Michael J.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Zinski, Anne; Davila, Jessica; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Gardner, Lytt I.; Keruly, Jeanne C.; Malitz, Faye; Marks, Gary; Metsch, Lisa; Wilson, Tracey E.; Giordano, Thomas P.

2012-01-01

175

Common cold  

PubMed Central

Introduction Each year, children suffer up to 5 colds and adults have 2-3 infections, leading to time off school or work, and considerable discomfort. Most symptoms resolve within a week, but coughs often persist for longer. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for common cold? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to May 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants (norephedrine, oxymetazoline, or pseudoephedrine), decongestants plus antihistamine, echinacea, steam inhalation, vitamin C, and zinc (intranasal gel or lozenges).

2008-01-01

176

Common cold  

PubMed Central

Introduction Each year, children suffer up to 5 colds and adults have two to three infections, leading to time off school or work, and considerable discomfort. Most symptoms resolve within 1 week, but coughs often persist for longer. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for common cold? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 21 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants for short-term and for long-term relief, decongestants plus antihistamines, echinacea, steam inhalation, vitamin C, and zinc (intranasal gel or lozenges).

2011-01-01

177

Quantitative structure-retention (property) relationships in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.  

PubMed

Quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRRs) attempt to quantitatively understand the relationship between structure and retention and quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs) to explore the prediction of molecular properties from retention in chromatography. The application of these techniques to micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) using surfactants, vesicles and liposomes is reviewed. A database of system constants for the solvation parameter model is assembled and critically discussed with respect to the interpretation of solvation properties of micellar pseudophases and their use to identify correlation models for the estimation of physicochemical and environmental properties from retention in MEKC and MEEKC. The use of structure-generated descriptors to model retention in MEKC is discussed and compared with experimental-based techniques. It is shown that the possibilities of exploiting the collection of tools that underpin QSRRs and QSPRs studies are only just starting to be realized in MEKC and more work is needed to convert from these possibilities to the realization of reliable and robust models for compounds of diverse structure. PMID:18207156

Poole, Salwa K; Poole, Colin F

2008-02-22

178

Supporting child welfare supervisors to improve worker retention.  

PubMed

Recent child welfare research has identified supervisors as key to retaining qualified and committed workers. This paper describes implementation of a federally funded child welfare training initiative designed to improve worker retention largely through developing, implementing, and evaluating a statewide supervisor training program in a Midwestern state. Unique to this collaborative effort was involving all child welfare supervisors in identifying needed content components, developing competencies, and conducting self-assessments. PMID:17533775

Landsman, Miriam

2007-01-01

179

Spray Drying: Retention of Volatile Compounds Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retention or loss of trace volatile compounds during spray drying can be vital for product quality. Examples of cases where loss or retentions of volatile substances are important include retention of balanced flavor and aroma in food products, removal of odiferous substances, and control of the release of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere. Factors and mechanisms determining losses of

C. Judson King

1995-01-01

180

Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Profile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 35 years of retention theory and literature have acknowledged the importance of institutional and student profiles in accounting for cross-sectional differences in retention and completion rates between types of colleges and universities. The first "P" within a 4 Ps framework of student retention--"profile"--recognizes that an institution's…

Kalsbeek, David H.; Zucker, Brian

2013-01-01

181

Issues related to staff retention and turnover.  

PubMed

Retention and turnover of staff, particularly highly skilled nurses, are important issues for administrators in the current health care environment. The purpose of this article is to review the literature to improve our understanding of factors related to staff retention. Group cohesion, job stress, manager style, and autonomy are examined. Strategies to improve retention, which focus on these critical factors, are described. PMID:12271763

Wells, Nancy; Roberts, Laura; Medlin, Lisa Cagle

2002-09-01

182

Retention of Second Language Students. Information Capsule.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document addresses the retention of second language students at Miami-Dade Community College in October 2002. Overall, retention of second language students has improved since the previous year. It should be noted that despite the increase in retention, fewer students are passing all of their lower level EAP courses. The report contains…

Morris, Cathy

183

Designing Online Courses to Promote Student Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the issue of student retention is a campus-wide one, it is of special interest in online distance learning courses, where retention rates are reported to be lower than in face-to-face classes. Among the explanations and theories of retention rates in online courses, one that struck us as most useful is a structural one, namely, course…

Dietz-Uhler, Beth; Fisher, Amy; Han, Andrea

2008-01-01

184

Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Progress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few words have dominated the vocabulary of college retention as has the word "persistence." Many institutions still struggle to engage faculty and administrators in building campuswide retention efforts, to find the organizational levers that translate the abstractions and complexities of retention theory into scalable and durable initiatives, and…

Spittle, Brian

2013-01-01

185

Student Retention: Crisis in Nursing Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted nationwide study of higher education student retention programs for baccalaureate-degree nursing programs in U.S. Findings from 263 National League for Nursing accredited programs revealed that respondent institutions with retention programs at college level had statistically significant higher retention rate (70.77%) than those colleges…

Catalano, Joseph T.; Eddy, John P.

1993-01-01

186

Do We Have a Retention Problem ... Or Do We Have a Problem "about" Retention?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with the "problem" of student retention in higher education. But unlike most, this paper focuses not on the problem of retention "per se" but rather on how institutional leaders think about student retention, completion, and success--how the way they frame their concerns about retention can give rise to a different sort of…

Butler, Lawrence

2011-01-01

187

Identify Symmetry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit will teach you how to identify symmetry in everyday objects and mathematical shapes in lines and rotational symmetry. What is line symmetry? Click on the link to find out: Line Symmetry Here is a line activity to see if you understand it: Line Symmetry Class Zone See if you understand the concepts by doing the following quiz: Line Symmetry Work Now for rotational symmetry: Rotational Symmetry See if you understand rotational symmetry by taking this quiz: Rotational Symmetry Work ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-03-03

188

Identifying Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this environmental science activity (page 3 of the PDF), leaners will identify and explain the causes of erosion. They will observe the effects of erosion on the surrounding area and further explore examples of erosion online. An extension activity allows learners to make a hands-on model of soil erosion. Though this was created as a pre-visit activity for a workshop about water flow and erosion, it makes a great stand-alone activity as well!

Cosi

2009-01-01

189

Clinical trials: the challenge of recruitment and retention of participants. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This methodological paper examines participant-related and research-related factors that affect recruitment and retention of patients in clinical trials. Recommendations include using pilot studies to identify problems prior to launching a trial and developing multiple recruitment strategies.

190

Effects of Physical Tracing on Estimates of Loss to Follow-Up, Mortality and Retention in Low and Middle Income Country Antiretroviral Therapy Programs: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background A large proportion of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) have unknown treatment outcomes and are classified as lost to follow-up (LTFU). Physical tracing of patients classified as LTFU is common; however, effects of tracing on outcomes remains unclear. The objective of this systematic review is to compare estimates of LTFU, mortality and retention in LMIC in cohorts of patients with and without physical tracing. Methods and Findings We systematically identified studies in LMIC programmatic settings using MEDLINE (2003–2011) and HIV conference abstracts (2009–2011). Studies reporting the proportion LTFU 12-months after ART initiation were included. Tracing activities were determined from manuscripts or by contacting study authors. Studies were classified as “tracing studies” if physical tracing was available for the majority of patients. Summary estimates from the 2 groups of studies (tracing and non-tracing) for LTFU, mortality, stop of ART, transfers out, and retention on ART were determined. 261 papers and 616 abstracts were identified of which 39 studies comprising 54 separate cohorts (n?=?187,666) met inclusion criteria. Of those, physical tracing was available for 46% of cohorts. Treatment programs with physical tracing activities had lower estimated LTFU (7.6% vs. 15.1%; p<.001), higher estimated mortality (10.5% vs. 6.6%; p?=?.006), higher retention on ART (80.0 vs. 75.8%; p?=?.04) and higher retention at the original site (80.0% vs. 72.9%; p?=?.02). Conclusions Knowledge of patient tracing is critical when interpreting program outcomes of LTFU, mortality and retention. The reduction of the proportion LTFU in tracing studies was only partially explained by re-classification of unknown outcomes. These data suggest that tracing may lead to increased re-engagement of patients in care, rather than just improved classification of unknown outcomes.

McMahon, James H.; Elliott, Julian H.; Hong, Steven Y.; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Jordan, Michael R.

2013-01-01

191

A Genome-wide Association Study of Early-Onset Breast Cancer Identifies PFKM as a Novel Breast Cancer Gene and Supports a Common Genetic Spectrum for Breast Cancer at Any Age.  

PubMed

Early-onset breast cancer (EOBC) causes substantial loss of life and productivity, creating a major burden among women worldwide. We analyzed 1,265,548 Hapmap3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) among a discovery set of 3,523 EOBC incident cases and 2,702 population control women ages ? 51 years. The SNPs with smallest P values were examined in a replication set of 3,470 EOBC cases and 5,475 control women. We also tested EOBC association with 19,684 genes by annotating each gene with putative functional SNPs, and then combining their P values to obtain a gene-based P value. We examined the gene with smallest P value for replication in 1,145 breast cancer cases and 1,142 control women. The combined discovery and replication sets identified 72 new SNPs associated with EOBC (P < 4 × 10(-8)) located in six genomic regions previously reported to contain SNPs associated largely with later-onset breast cancer (LOBC). SNP rs2229882 and 10 other SNPs on chromosome 5q11.2 remained associated (P < 6 × 10(-4)) after adjustment for the strongest published SNPs in the region. Thirty-two of the 82 currently known LOBC SNPs were associated with EOBC (P < 0.05). Low power is likely responsible for the remaining 50 unassociated known LOBC SNPs. The gene-based analysis identified an association between breast cancer and the phosphofructokinase-muscle (PFKM) gene on chromosome 12q13.11 that met the genome-wide gene-based threshold of 2.5 × 10(-6). In conclusion, EOBC and LOBC seem to have similar genetic etiologies; the 5q11.2 region may contain multiple distinct breast cancer loci; and the PFKM gene region is worthy of further investigation. These findings should enhance our understanding of the etiology of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(4); 658-69. ©2014 AACR. PMID:24493630

Ahsan, Habibul; Halpern, Jerry; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Pierce, Brandon L; Tong, Lin; Gamazon, Eric; McGuire, Valerie; Felberg, Anna; Shi, Jianxin; Jasmine, Farzana; Roy, Shantanu; Brutus, Rachelle; Argos, Maria; Melkonian, Stephanie; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Andrulis, Irene; Hopper, John L; John, Esther M; Malone, Kathi; Ursin, Giske; Gammon, Marilie D; Thomas, Duncan C; Seminara, Daniela; Casey, Graham; Knight, Julia A; Southey, Melissa C; Giles, Graham G; Santella, Regina M; Lee, Eunjung; Conti, David; Duggan, David; Gallinger, Steve; Haile, Robert; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Apicella, Carmel; Park, Daniel J; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Lathrop, Mark; Hunter, David J; Chanock, Stephen J; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lochmann, Magdalena; Beckmann, Lars; Hein, Rebecca; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Bui, Quang Minh; Stone, Jennifer; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Dahmen, Norbert; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Dunning, Alison M; Pharoah, Paul; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Nicolae, Dan; Easton, Douglas F; Cox, Nancy J; Whittemore, Alice S

2014-04-01

192

Bioassay data and a retention-excretion model for systemic plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The estimation of systemic burdens from urinalyses has been the most common and useful method of quantifying occupational exposures to plutonium. Problems arise in using this technique, however, because of inadequate modeling of human retention, translocation, and excretion of this element. Present methods for estimating the systemic burden from urinalyses were derived to a large extent from patterns observed in the first few months after exposure, but there is now evidence that these same patterns do not persist over long periods. In this report we collect and discuss data needed for the interpretation of bioassay results for Pu. These data are used to develop a model that describes the movement, retention, and excretion of systemic Pu in the human body in terms of explicitly identified anatomical compartments. This model may be used in conjunction with existing models and/or case-specific information concerning the translocation of Pu from the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract or from wounds to the bloodstream. Attention is restricted to the behavior of Pu after it has gained access to the bloodstream. There remain significant uncertainties concerning some aspects of the movement of Pu, particularly its translocation from the liver. An attempt has been made to construct the model in such a way as to elucidate those areas needing further attention. 98 references, 18 figures, 16 tables.

Leggett, R.W.

1984-05-01

193

Retention in methadone and buprenorphine treatment among African Americans.  

PubMed

Methadone has been the most commonly used pharmacotherapy for the treatment of opioid dependence in U.S. public sector treatment, but availability of buprenorphine as an alternative medication continues to increase. Drawing data from two community-based clinical trials that were conducted nearly contemporaneously, this study examined retention in methadone versus buprenorphine treatment over 6 months among urban African Americans receiving treatment in one of four publicly-funded programs (N=478; 178 methadone; 300 buprenorphine). Adjusting for confounds related to medication selection, survival analysis revealed that buprenorphine patients are at substantially higher risk of dropout compared to methadone patients (HR=2.43; p<.001). Buprenorphine's retention disadvantage appears to be concentrated in the earlier phases of treatment (approximately the first 50 days), after which risk of subsequent dropout becomes similar for the two medications. These findings confirm a retention disparity between methadone and buprenorphine in this population, and suggest potential avenues for future research to enhance retention in buprenorphine treatment. PMID:23566446

Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Jaffe, Jerome H; Kelly, Sharon M; Myers, C Patrick; O'Grady, Kevin E; Olsen, Yngvild K; Schwartz, Robert P

2013-09-01

194

Foundations of retention in partition chromatography.  

PubMed

The connection between the observable output in column chromatography (retention time, retention volume, retention factor, separation factor, etc.) and system properties (hold-up volume, pressure, temperature, isotherm behavior, etc.) is discussed from a practical and mechanistic perspective for gas-liquid chromatography, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and capillary electrochromatography. The unifying feature of these techniques is that retention can be described by a partition model, although not always exclusively. When over simplistic system models are used to explain variation in retention parameters they frequently mask the true reasons for poor repeatability and difficulties in transfer between system. Methods employing relative retention afford higher precision but may contain residual uncorrected errors. For those systems with several separate mechanisms contributing to retention the effective retention parameters can no longer be interpreted by simple partition models. The broadly based and practically focused material in this article affords an illustration of the often complicated relationship between system properties and retention, and the dangers that lurk in simplified retention models if the validity of their underlining approximations is not appropriate for the system under study. PMID:19013576

Poole, Colin F; Poole, Salwa K

2009-03-01

195

Chronic urinary retention in eunuchs  

PubMed Central

Eunuchs seek medical attention only when extremely distressed by symptoms. No scientific publication has highlighted the medical problems of eunuchs in India till date, probably because of lack of access to this community and their reluctance in seeking medical help. We evaluated four eunuchs in the last three years with chronic retention of urine due to urethral stenosis, caused by an incorrect method of amputation of the penis and urethra. Though the management of the problem is simple, the article highlights the traditional method of castration and penectomy which is practiced in Indian eunuchs which leads to urethral stenosis.

Patwardhan, Sujata; Sawant, Ajit; Nagabhushana, M.; Varma, Radheshyam; Ismail, Mohammed

2007-01-01

196

Retention at Departments of Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thriving physics department is the end result of many actions, taken over time, that results in the development of a sense of community between the faculty and the students. As part of this sense of community, gifted students must receive special attention and innovative ideas must be incorporated to successfully accommodate the needs of these students. We have found that the best retention strategy for gifted undergraduates is the total involvement of them in undergraduate research projects and also the development of leadership in extracurricular activities within the department. A careful employment strategy is needed to secure a faculty committed to the goals of the community.

Muller, Rafael; Rosa, Luis

2013-03-01

197

Osta Commonality Analysis, Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built ...

E. G. Stolarik

1981-01-01

198

Recruitment and retention of Alaska natives into nursing: elements enabling educational success.  

PubMed

In response to the underrepresentation of Alaska Native/American Indian nurses, nursing programs have implemented recruitment and retention efforts to support undergraduate Alaska Native/American Indian nursing students. The objective of this project was to provide graduates from the Recruitment and Retention of Alaska Natives into Nursing (RRANN) program the opportunity to identify program elements important to achieving academic success, levels of satisfaction, and make recommendations for future program direction. Findings suggest RRANN graduates viewed the program as vital to academic success. Recommendations include utilizing former graduates in recruitment and retention efforts, as mentors, and extending the program to benefit graduate students. PMID:23155892

Rearden, Annette K

2012-01-01

199

OSTA commonality analysis, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built using DRS on the Vax. It also shows commonality of parameter requirements by discipline and by application.

Stolarik, E. G.

1981-01-01

200

Workforce Issues--Rural Illinois Hospital Chief Executive Officers' Perceptions of Provider Shortages and Issues in Rural Recruitment and Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: It is important to assess rural health professions workforce needs and identify variables in recruitment and retention of rural health professionals. Purpose: This study examined the perspectives of rural hospital chief executive officers (CEOs) regarding workforce needs and their views of factors in the recruitment and retention

Glasser, Michael; Peters, Karen; MacDowell, Martin

2006-01-01

201

Adult Student Retention: A Practical Approach to Retention Improvement through Learning Enhancement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult student retention is an issue of growing concern for many institutions. It differs from traditional retention much like traditional students differ from adult students. As the majority of student body growth comes from adult students, adult student retention management will become critical to the majority of colleges and universities. To…

Fincher, Mark

2010-01-01

202

Wildfire impacts on soil-water retention in the Colorado Front Range, United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work examined the plot-scale differences in soil-water retention caused by wildfire in the area of the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in the Colorado Front Range, United States. We measured soil-water retention curves on intact cores and repacked samples, soil particle-size distributions, and organic matter content. Estimates were also made of plant-available water based on the soil-water retention curves. Parameters for use in soil-hydraulic property models were estimated; these parameters can be used in unsaturated flow modeling for comparing burned and unburned watersheds. The primary driver for measured differences in soil-water retention in burned and unburned soils was organic matter content and not soil-particle size distribution. The tendency for unburned south-facing soils to have greater organic matter content than unburned north-facing soils in this field area may explain why unburned south-facing soils had greater soil-water retention than unburned north-facing soils. Our results suggest that high-severity wildfire can "homogenize" soil-water retention across the landscape by erasing soil-water retention differences resulting from organic matter content, which for this site may be affected by slope aspect. This homogenization could have important implications for ecohydrology and plant succession/recovery in burned areas, which could be a factor in dictating the window of vulnerability of the landscape to flash floods and erosion that are a common consequence of wildfire.

Ebel, Brian A.

2012-12-01

203

Retention Of The Boston Keratoprosthesis Type 1: Multicenter Study Results  

PubMed Central

Objective To report the retention rate of the Boston Keratoprosthesis Type 1 and to identify risk factors for keratoprosthesis loss. Design Cohort study. Participants 300 eyes of 300 patients who underwent implantation of a Boston Keratoprosthesis Type I device between January 2003 and July 2008 by one of 19 surgeons at 18 medical centers. Methods Forms reporting preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative parameters were prospectively collected and subsequently analyzed at a central data collection site. Main Outcome Measures Keratoprosthesis retention. Results A total cumulative number of 422 life years of device implantation are included in this analysis. The average duration of follow up was 17.1 ± 14.8 months with a range of one week to over 6.1 years. 93% of the 300 Boston Keratoprosthesis implanted were retained at their last follow up, corresponding to a retention time of 396 patient-years or 1.42 years / keratoprosthesis. The probability of retention after one year and two years was 94% and 89%, respectively. During the study period, 21 (7%) keratoprosthesis implants failed to retain the device; the reasons for keratoprosthesis loss include sterile keratolysis (9), fungal infections (8), dense retroprosthetic membranes (3), and bacterial endophthalmitis (1). Multivariate analysis demonstrated three independent risk factors for keratoprosthesis loss: autoimmune etiology (hazard ratio [HR] = 11.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.31, 43.11), ocular surface exposure requiring a concomitant tarsorrhaphy (HR = 3.43; 95% CI 1.05, 11.22) and number of prior failed penetrating keratoplasties (HR = 1.64; 95% CI 1.18, 2.28). Conclusions The Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis appears to be a viable option for eyes that are not candidates for penetrating keratoplasty. Ocular surface disease due to an autoimmune etiology demonstrated the lowest retention rate.

Ciolino, Joseph B.; Belin, Michael W.; Todani, Amit; Al-Arfaj, Khalid; Rudnisky, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

204

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-09-30

205

Factors affecting phosphorus retention in small constructed wetlands treating agricultural non-point source pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four surface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) have been intensively investigated for phosphorus retention, from 3 to 7 years in the cold temperate climate of Norway. The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect phosphorus retention from non-point sources. The wetlands were located in first order streams, with surface areas of 0.06–0.4% of the watershed (CW-area 350–900 m2).

B. C Braskerud

2002-01-01

206

Uptake and retention of amitriptyline by kaolinite.  

PubMed

As the most commonly prescribed tricyclic antidepressant, amitriptyline (AT) is frequently detected in wastewater, surface runoff, and effluents from sewage treatment plants, and could potentially reach agriculture land through the application of municipal biosolids or reclaimed water. Kaolinite is one of the most important soil components under warm and humid climate conditions. In this study, the uptake and retention of AT by kaolinite from aqueous solution were investigated by batch tests, XRD, and FTIR analyses. The uptake of AT on kaolinite was instantaneous, attributed to surface adsorption as confirmed by XRD analyses. Quantitative correlation between desorption of exchangeable cations and AT adsorption confirmed experimentally that cation exchange was the dominant mechanism of AT uptake on kaolinite. The values for free energy of adsorption also suggested physi-sorption such as cation exchange. Solution pH had minimal influence at pH 5-11 even though the pKa value of AT was 9.4 and the surface charge of kaolinite was pH-dependent. PMID:24041550

Lv, Guocheng; Stockwell, Christie; Niles, Jacqueline; Minegar, Skylar; Li, Zhaohui; Jiang, Wei-Teh

2013-12-01

207

How “Good” is Your Institution's Retention Rate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to assess institutional performance by means of retention rates, student performance on standardized tests, and other raw outcome measures are seriously flawed because such measures fail to take into account the powerful effect of student inputs. In this study, national longitudinal retention data on 52,898 students attending 365 baccalaureate-granting colleges and universities are used to generate formulas for estimating

Alexander W. Astin

1997-01-01

208

Factors Affecting Students' Retention at Kuwait University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the factors that affect students' retention at Kuwait University. Five hundred seventy students participated in the study. A survey of 22 retention factors was designed to measure student perceptions. Students presented their agreement on factors which included: achieving personal aspiration, getting jobs, free-of-charge…

AlKandari, Nabila

2008-01-01

209

Classroom Techniques for Black Male Student Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes and encourages the application of 20 classroom techniques to enhance the retention and success of black male college students. Though retention enhancement programs work best when institution-wide support and commitment are behind them, the techniques described here can be implemented in the classroom with significant results…

Gardenhire, John Fouts

210

How "Good" Is Your Institution's Retention Rate?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National longitudinal retention data on 52,898 students at 65 colleges and universities were used to generate formulas for estimating any institution's expected retention rate based on its students' high school grades, admission test scores, and racial and gender composition. Separate formulas were computed for estimating degree completion rates…

Astin, Alexander W.

1997-01-01

211

Patterns of Aggregate Grade-Retention Rates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggregate data on grade-retention rates for grades 1 through 12 from 12 American states for 1979-80 and 11 for 1985-86 were examined for across-grade patterns. A negative growth exponential model appears to capture a basic underlying pattern of grade retention rates. (SLD)

Morris, Don R.

1993-01-01

212

Measuring Student Retention: A National Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors analyzed class-by-class enrollment data from the 1985-86 annual survey of nursing education programs to report retention rates in different types of nursing education programs nationwide. They also present results from a survey addendum in which program directors were asked which factors contribute to their retention problems. (CH)

Rosenfeld, Peri

1988-01-01

213

Novel word retention in sequential bilingual children.  

PubMed

Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after either a 2-month or a 4-month delay. Results showed that children retained more words in L1 than in L2 for both of the retention interval conditions. In addition, children's word retention was associated with their existing language knowledge and their fast-mapping performance within and across language. The patterns of association, however, were different between L1 and L2. These findings suggest that children's word retention might be related to the interactions of various components that are operating within a dynamic system. PMID:23672812

Kan, Pui Fong

2014-03-01

214

Engagement and Retention in Outpatient Alcoholism Treatment for Women  

PubMed Central

Reviews of the dropout literature note significant attrition from addiction treatment. However, consistent predictors have not been identified and few studies have examined factors related to retention and engagement for women in gender-specific treatment. The current study consisted of 102 women and their partners randomized to individual or couples outpatient alcoholism treatment. Women attended more treatment sessions if they were assigned to individual treatment, older, had fewer symptoms of alcohol dependence, had more satisfying marital relationships, had spouses who drank, and had matched preference for treatment condition. Women were more engaged in treatment (i.e., completed more assigned homework) if they had fewer children at home, fewer alcohol dependence symptoms, later age of onset of alcohol diagnosis, more satisfying marital relationships, and spouses who accepted or encouraged their drinking. Results highlight important associations of treatment and relationship variables with treatment retention and engagement.

Graff, Fiona S.; Morgan, Thomas J.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; McCrady, Barbara S.; Cook, Sharon M.; Jensen, Noelle K.; Kelly, Shalonda

2011-01-01

215

49 CFR 229.215 - Retention and inspection of designs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Retention and inspection of designs. 229.215 Section 229.215 Transportation...STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.215 Retention and inspection of designs. (a) Retention of...

2013-10-01

216

21 CFR 872.3740 - Retentive and splinting pin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Retentive and splinting pin. 872.3740 Section 872...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices...3740 Retentive and splinting pin. (a) Identification. A retentive and splinting pin is a device made of...

2010-04-01

217

21 CFR 872.3740 - Retentive and splinting pin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Retentive and splinting pin. 872.3740 Section 872...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices...3740 Retentive and splinting pin. (a) Identification. A retentive and splinting pin is a device made of...

2009-04-01

218

Removal of Invisalign retention attachments: a new minimally invasive method.  

PubMed

Removal of Invisalign resin retention buttons without damaging underlying enamel is a major challenge. To date, the use of tungsten carbide burs is the most common and fastest--yet a risky-ablation method. Stainbuster, a fiber-reinforced resin bur, has been introduced for removal of surface stains and resin remnants from tooth surfaces. This comparative in vitro and in vivo study proved that a combined technique, using multifluted tungsten carbide burs for fast removal of the bulk of resin followed by Stainbuster grinding for gentle removal of the final resin layer, is a safe and minimally invasive procedure for removing composite buttons from enamel. PMID:19998730

Ruiz, Jose Luis; Finger, Werner J; Sasazaki, Hiromi; Komatsu, Masahi

2009-01-01

219

Factors Influencing the Retention of Secondary Family and Consumer Sciences Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of teacher retention on quality education has inspired a great deal of research. Although many factors have been identified as contributors, few have been specific to the career and technical education (CTE) area and the diversity of CTE programs demands a more specific approach. The purpose of this study was to identify specific…

Dainty, Julie D.; Sandford, Brian A.; Su, Sho-Hsien; Belcher, Gregory G.

2011-01-01

220

The ABC's of staff retention.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to aid management in recognizing the key components to staff retention. Preparation for recruitment efforts, evaluating compensation, and establishing and maintaining good channels of communication are worthy undertakings for the purposes of reducing turnover. Combating turnover is really as easy as Appreciating your staff, rewarding the Behavior you want, and Continuing to ensure a work environment that is conducive to a place employees want to work. One of the key factors is listening. Do you hear what your staff is saying? Can you address their concerns? Do you communicate regularly with line staff? Are there ideas they have that can lead to improvements? Lead by example. If your staff sees your passion for the work, they will respect you and work hard to deliver what you have agreed are the goals on an individual and overall business objective level. Once you have established the aggregate levels that exist within your practice, you can move on to evaluating where each employee falls within the range. PMID:11680146

High, S H

2001-01-01

221

Modelling global nutrient retention by river damming: Phosphorus and silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phosphorus to silicon (P:Si) nutrient ratio is a key variable affecting ecosystem health in many aquatic environments. River damming represents a major anthropogenic perturbation of natural material flows along the aquatic continuum, with the potential to profoundly modify absolute and relative nutrient availabilities in surface waters. In this study, a multi-tiered approach for estimating global nutrient retention in man-made reservoirs is presented. We illustrate its application to the global riverine flux of reactive Si, using a database of dissolved reactive Si (DSi) budgets for 24 natural lakes and 22 artificial reservoirs. The database includes information on bedrock geology, surface water pH, water residence time, reservoir age and function, climate, and trophic status. Statistical analyses (ANOVA, t-test, PCA, linear plus non-linear regressions) are used to identify the best predictors of DSi retention and delineate how reservoir properties modulate nutrient dynamics. Results indicate that (1) reservoirs retain significantly less DSi than natural lakes, and (2) the water residence time, reservoir age and function (e.g., hydroelectrical production, irrigation, flood control) are the main system variables controlling DSi retention by dams. Next, a biogeochemical Si model is used to reproduce the previously derived statistical trends for DSi retention. Calibration of the model yields a relationship that enables one to predict annual in-reservoir siliceous productivity as a function of the external reactive Si supply. The model further accounts for the transition from reservoirs where reactive Si retention is primarily due to burial of allochtonous Si to those where in-reservoir DSi uptake by diatoms dominates. Finally, the statistical and mechanistic relationships are extrapolated to estimate that 25-28 Tg SiO2 yr-1 are retained worldwide by dams, or 7% of the annual reactive Si load to watersheds. We are currently applying the same multi-tiered approach to the global P cycle. Our goal is to predict not only the effect of dams on reactive P retention, but also to determine how they are changing the P:Si ratios in river systems. Our preliminary results indicate that reservoirs are more effective in retaining nutrient P than Si.

Maavara, Taylor; Dürr, Hans; Van Cappellen, Philippe

2014-05-01

222

Prediction of peptide retention times in high-pressure liquid chromatography on the basis of amino acid composition  

PubMed Central

Analysis of peptides by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography would be simplified if retention times could be predicted by summing the contribution to retention of each of the peptide's amino acid side chains. This paper describes the derivation of values (“retention coefficients”) that represent the contribution to retention of each of the common amino acids and end groups. Peptide retention times were determined on a Bio-Rad “ODS” column at room temperature with a linear gradient from 0.1 M NaclO4, pH 7.4 or 2.1, at 0 min to 60% acetonitrile/0.1 M NaclO4 at 80 min. The NaclO4, a chaotropic agent, was added to improve peak shape and to minimize conformational effects. Retention coefficients for the amino acids were computed by using a Hewlett-Packard 9815A calculator programmed to change the retention coefficients for all amino acids sequentially to obtain a maximum correlation between actual and predicted retention times. Correlations of 0.999 at pH 7.4 and 0.997 at pH 2.1 were obtained for 25 peptides including glucagon, oxytocin, [Met]enkephalin, neurotensin, and somatostatin. This high degree of correlation suggests that, for peptides containing up to 20 residues, retention is primarily due to partition processes that involve all the residues. Although steric or conformational factors do have some effect on retention, the data suggest that under the above chromatographic conditions the retention of peptides containing up to 20 residues can be predicted solely on the basis of their amino acid composition. This possibility was tested by using data taken from the literature.

Meek, James L.

1980-01-01

223

A Computer-Based Undergraduate Exercise Using Internet-Accessible Simulation Software for the Study of Retention Behavior and Optimization of Separation Conditions in Ion Chromatography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to scan retention data over a wide range of eluent composition opens up the possibility of a computerized selection of the optimal separation conditions. The major characteristics of retention behavior, peak-shape effects and pH effects evident in ion chromatography (IC) using common stationary phases and eluents are illustrated.

Haddad, Paul R.; Shaw, Matthew J.; Madden, John E.; Dicinoski, Greg W.

2004-01-01

224

ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

2011-09-07

225

49 CFR 599.502 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES FOR CONSUMER ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Enforcement § 599.502 Record retention. (a) Manufacturers, dealers, salvage...

2013-10-01

226

Escitalopram-associated acute urinary retention.  

PubMed

New-onset urinary retention can typically be explained by the use of the routine normally suspected medications (e.g., anticholinergics, antihistamines). However, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors are not typically presumed as the cause of acute urinary retention (AUR). The following case describes the introduction of escitalopram in a patient and the subsequent development of AUR. Medical causes of urinary retention had been ruled out, and ipratropium was initially suspected to be the cause of urinary difficulties and was discontinued. However, the retention persisted four days after suspending the ipratropium. Normal micturition resumed only after stopping the escitalopram without further need for catheterization. Escitalopram may cause rare cases of AUR and may often times be overlooked possibly because of the paucity of reporting. PMID:24129221

Trombetta, Dominick; Garrett, Kathleen; Harrison, Marissa

2013-10-01

227

7 CFR 4280.136 - Minimum retention.  

...SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.136 Minimum retention....

2014-01-01

228

Affiliation and Retention in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study that focused on the relationship between affiliation and retention is discussed. Affiliation was defined as the act of associating oneself with the university; a feeling of comfort with and belonging at the institution. (MLW)

Thomas, James H., Jr.; Andes, John

1987-01-01

229

Research of data retention in EEPROM cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates date retention ability of EEPROM cells for a given voltage or temperature by theory and experiment. The expression of EEPROM date retention is derived. In the temperature acceleration experiment, the logarithm of device inactivation time have linear ratio with temperature according to Arrhenius formula and the device life retention was acquired in the various temperature. According to Arrhenius equation, lifetime curve is deduced. In the electric acceleration experiment, because of the charge leaking on the floating-gate, the threshold voltage would decrease gradually. In the log-log plot, the decrease efficiency of threshold voltage have linear ratio with time. Under the assumption that the charge loss mechanism is Fowler-Nordheim tunneling through the thin oxide, date retention time of EEPROM cells is derived and the experience formula is derived by experiment.

Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Ni; Hu, Cang-lu; Jiao, Gang-cheng; Miao, Zhuang; Fu, Ling-yun; Liu, Feng

2013-08-01

230

Compensation and Teacher Retention: A Success Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes components of successful teacher-evaluation and compensation program at the Ladue School District in suburban St. Louis, Missouri. Reports that salary increases based on performance evaluations improve teacher satisfaction and retention. (Contains 13 references.) (PKP)

Morice, Linda C.; Murray, James E.

2003-01-01

231

Acute urinary retention: causes and treatment.  

PubMed

Acute urinary retention often is secondary to obstruction of the bladder or distal genitourinary system, which may be induced by any of a number of medical or surgical conditions. Treatment varies according to the cause. PMID:7058160

Ochsner, M G

1982-02-01

232

Retention models for programmed gas chromatography.  

PubMed

The models proposed by many authors for the prediction of retention times and temperatures, peak widths, retention indices and separation numbers in programmed temperature and pressure gas chromatography by starting from preliminary measurements of the retention in isothermal and isobaric conditions are reviewed. Several articles showing the correlation between retention data and thermodynamic parameters and the determination of the optimum programming rate are reported. The columns of different polarity used for the experimental measurement and the main equations, mathematical models and calculation procedures are listed. An empirical approach was used in the early models, followed by the application of thermodynamic considerations, iterative calculation procedures and statistical methods, based on increased computing power now available. Multiple column arrangements, simultaneous temperature and pressure programming, applications of two-dimensional and fast chromatography are summarised. PMID:19081102

Castello, G; Moretti, P; Vezzani, S

2009-03-01

233

19 CFR 10.308 - Records retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement § 10.308 Records retention. ...or who knowlingly causes to be exported, any merchandise to Canada shall make, keep, and render for examination and...

2013-04-01

234

Gas retention in irradiated beryllium  

SciTech Connect

Helium (an inert gas) with low solubility in beryllium is trapped in irradiated beryllium at low temperatures (<100{degree}C) while the tritium generated may have some mobility and be released. The subject of tritium retention in irradiated beryllium within fusion reactor blankets is of considerable interest in their conceptual design. Results from experiments on three sets of irradiated beryllium specimens are examined in this paper. The beryllium specimens were irradiated at abut 75{degree}C in capsules to protect them from the cooling water. One set of samples was irradiated to {approximately}3 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV). In these samples the calculated helium generated was {approximately} 14,000 appm. They are described in terms of swelling, annealing, microstructure, and helium bubble behavior (size, density and mobility). A second sample was irradiated to {approximately}5 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV). In that one the calculated helium and tritium generated were {approximately}24,000 appm He and {approximately}3720 appm, and tritium content was examined in a dissolution experiment. Most of the tritium was released as gas to the glovebox indicating the generated tritium was retained in the helium bubbles. In a third set of experiments a specimen was examined by annealing at a succession of temperatures to more than 600{degree}C for tritium release. In the temperature range of 300--500{degree}C little release (0.01--0.4%) occurred, but there was a massive release at just over 600{degree}C. Theories of swelling appear to adequately describe bubble behavior with breakaway release occurring at high helium contents and at large bubble diameters. 8 refs., 6 figs.

Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.; Longhurst, G.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Causey, R.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-06-01

235

Metal ion retention by emulsion liquid membrane coupled to liquid-phase polymer-based retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of polyelectrolytes (PELs) to enhance the metal ion retention in a double emulsion system (DES) was studied by\\u000a diafiltration. Our results indicate that PELs can increase the maximum retention capacity of DES as functional groups of polymer\\u000a are being saturated. Increase of retention can be explained by interaction between reverse emulsion globules and metal–polymer\\u000a species formed in solution.

Manuel Palencia; Bernabé L. Rivas

236

All Retention all the Time: How Institutional Research Can Synthesize Information and Influence Retention Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This study reports how an institutionalre search office at a large public research university has taken the lead to call attention to retention problems, describe attrition\\/retention predictors, and influence policy. Building on existing retention theories and previous institutional research studies, the institutional research office began coordinating several first- year study-based initiatives whose primary purpose was understanding and promoting first-year

A. Michael Williford; Joni Y. Schaller

2005-01-01

237

Fouling and retention of nanofiltration membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanofiltration membranes retain substances with molar masses higher than ?300 g\\/mol and multivalent ions. The retention characteristics depend much on how much free volume there is in the membranes, which can for some membranes be related to the flux. In this study, fouling and retention of four different nanofiltration membranes (NF40, NTR-7450, NTR-7410 and NTR-7250) were followed using different model

Marianne Nyström; Lena Kaipia; Susana Luque

1995-01-01

238

Extensive Management Promotes Plant and Microbial Nitrogen Retention in Temperate Grassland  

PubMed Central

Leaching losses of nitrogen (N) from soil and atmospheric N deposition have led to widespread changes in plant community and microbial community composition, but our knowledge of the factors that determine ecosystem N retention is limited. A common feature of extensively managed, species-rich grasslands is that they have fungal-dominated microbial communities, which might reduce soil N losses and increase ecosystem N retention, which is pivotal for pollution mitigation and sustainable food production. However, the mechanisms that underpin improved N retention in extensively managed, species-rich grasslands are unclear. We combined a landscape-scale field study and glasshouse experiment to test how grassland management affects plant and soil N retention. Specifically, we hypothesised that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands of high conservation value would have lower N loss and greater N retention than intensively managed, species-poor grasslands, and that this would be due to a greater immobilisation of N by a more fungal-dominated microbial community. In the field study, we found that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands had lower N leaching losses. Soil inorganic N availability decreased with increasing abundance of fungi relative to bacteria, although the best predictor of soil N leaching was the C/N ratio of aboveground plant biomass. In the associated glasshouse experiment we found that retention of added 15N was greater in extensively than in intensively managed grasslands, which was attributed to a combination of greater root uptake and microbial immobilisation of 15N in the former, and that microbial immobilisation increased with increasing biomass and abundance of fungi. These findings show that grassland management affects mechanisms of N retention in soil through changes in root and microbial uptake of N. Moreover, they support the notion that microbial communities might be the key to improved N retention through tightening linkages between plants and microbes and reducing N availability.

de Vries, Franciska T.; Bloem, Jaap; Quirk, Helen; Stevens, Carly J.; Bol, Roland; Bardgett, Richard D.

2012-01-01

239

A review of reporting of participant recruitment and retention in RCTs in six major journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Poor recruitment and retention of participants in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is problematic but common. Clear and detailed reporting of participant flow is essential to assess the generalisability and comparability of RCTs. Despite improved reporting since the implementation of the CONSORT statement, important problems remain. This paper aims: (i) to update and extend previous reviews evaluating reporting of participant

Merran Toerien; Sara T Brookes; Chris Metcalfe; Isabel de Salis; Zelda Tomlin; Tim J Peters; Jonathan Sterne; Jenny L Donovan

2009-01-01

240

Osteopontin Is a Critical Inhibitor of Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation and Retention in Renal Tubules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium nephrolithiasis is the most common form of renal stone disease, with calcium oxalate (CaOx) being the predominant constituent of renal stones. Current in vitro evi- dence implicates osteopontin (OPN) as one of several macro- molecular inhibitors of urinary crystallization with potentially important actions at several stages of CaOx crystal formation and retention. To determine the importance of OPN in

JEFFREY A. WESSON; RICHARD J. JOHNSON; MARRILDA MAZZALI; ANNE M. BESHENSKY; SUSAN STIETZ; CECI GIACHELLI; LUCY LIAW; CHARLES E. ALPERS; WILLIAM G. COUSER; JACK G. KLEINMAN; JEREMY HUGHES

2003-01-01

241

Correlation of bowel symptoms with colonic transit, length, and faecal load in functional faecal retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Abdominal pain, bloating, and defecation disturbances are common complaints in gastrointestinal functional disorders. This study ex- plores whether bowel symptoms are correlated to colon transit time (CTT), faecal loading (coprostasis), and colon length; and whether prokinetic inter- vention can reduce CTT, faecal retention, and symptoms. Methods: This observational and interventional study includes 281 patients, and 44 asymptomatic controls. Evaluations

Dennis Raahave; Elsebeth Christensen; Franck B. Loud; Lisbet L. Knudsen

242

Simple consistent models for water retention and hydraulic conductivity in the complete moisture range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The commonly used hydraulic models only account for capillary water retention and conductivity. Adsorptive water retention and film conductivity is neglected. This leads to erroneous description of hydraulic properties in the dry range. The few existing models, which account for film conductivity and adsorptive retention are either difficult to use or physically inconsistent. A new set of empirical hydraulic models for an effective description of water dynamics from full saturation to complete dryness is introduced. The models allow a clear partitioning between capillary and adsorptive water retention as well as between capillary and film conductivity. The number of adjustable parameters for the new retention model is not increased compared to the commonly used models, whereas only one extra parameter for quantifying the contribution of film conductivity is required for the new conductivity model. Both models are mathematically simple and thus easy to use in simulation studies. The new liquid conductivity model is coupled with an existing vapor conductivity model to describe conductivity in the complete moisture range. The new models were successfully applied to literature data, which all reach the dry to very dry range and cannot be well described with the classic capillary models. The investigated soils range from pure sands to clay loams. A simulation study with steady-state water transport scenarios shows that neglecting either film or vapor conductivity or both can lead to significant underestimation of water transport at low water contents.

Peters, A.

2013-10-01

243

Glycosyl part identified within Balanites aegyptiaca fruit protease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The many milk-clotting proteases from plant are glycosylated; attachment of monosaccharides to enzyme is an advantage for its activity and stability. In this study, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry-electrospray ionization was used to identify glycans bond to proteases purified from Balanites aegyptiaca fruits pulp through cation exchange chromatography. Carbohydrates were identified according to the retention time and the ion

R. G. Beka; V. D. Guiama; A. Delmont; P. Donn; M.-C. Slomianny; D. G. Libouga; C. M. Mbofung; D. Guillochon; D. Vercaigne-Marko

2011-01-01

244

Grade Retention: A Three Part Series. Policy Briefs. Grade Retention: A Flawed Education Strategy [and] Cost-Benefit Analysis of Grade Retention [and] Grade Retention: The Gap between Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document compiles a series of three policy briefs focused on the subject of grade retention. The first brief, "Grade Retention: A Flawed Education Strategy," suggests educators and policymakers caution the use of grade retention as a remedy for poor student performance. As concluded by the majority of past studies, grade retention is a failed…

Xia, Claire; Glennie, Elizabeth

2005-01-01

245

Retention strategies and predictors of attrition in an urban pediatric asthma study  

PubMed Central

Background The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) study is a multicenter prospective birth cohort study designed to examine factors related to the development of childhood asthma and allergies in an inner-city population. The retention of these participants has been challenging due to high mobility, inconsistent phone service, custody issues, and stressful life situations. Purpose In this article, we describe the specific retention challenges we encountered during the first 2 years of follow-up in URECA and the strategies we utilized to address them. We also examine how selected maternal characteristics and other factors are related to retention and missed study visits. Methods Strategies implemented to engage participants included: collecting updated and alternative contact information, after-hours phone calls to participants, culturally competent staff, flexible study event scheduling, clinic visit transportation, quarterly newsletters, retention events, drop-in home visits, and cell phone reimbursements. An internally developed web-based data management system enabled close monitoring by site teams and the coordinating center. The rate of deactivations was calculated using survival analysis. Characteristics of active and deactivated participants were compared using the chi-squared test with a Cochran–Mantel – Haenszel adjustment for study site. The proportion of missed visits of the total expected in the first 2 years was calculated and compared by family characteristics using an ANOVA model or a trend test controlling for study site. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (Cary, NC). Results The 2-year retention rate was 89%. Participation in the first study event predicted subsequent engagement in study activities. Mothers who did not complete the first visit were more likely to miss future events (46.1% vs. 8.9%, p < 0.0001) and to be deactivated (38.5% vs. 4.5%, p < 0.0001). Mothers under 18 years of age were more likely to leave the study compared to older mothers (22.7% vs. 10.1%, p = 0.02). Also, mothers who were married missed fewer events than those not married (8.8% vs. 15.6%, p = 0.01). In addition, deactivations were more common when the child had entered daycare by 3 months of age (10.9% vs. 3.6%, p = 0.05). Limitations The URECA population is predominantly minority, thus our findings might not be generalizable to other populations. Furthermore, we may not be able to observe the effects that might exist in a more diverse population. For example, 86% of the mothers are unmarried, making it difficult to reliably examine the effect of marital status. Conclusion In research, successfully engaging and retaining participants is essential for achieving the study objectives. Identifying factors related to missed visits and deactivations are the initial step in recognizing the potential at-risk participants and can enable the design of targeted strategies to retain participants.

Zook, Patricia M; Jordan, Carolina; Adams, Bernadette; Visness, Cynthia M; Walter, Michelle; Pollenz, Kathryn; Logan, Jennette; Tesson, Elizabeth; Smartt, Ernestine; Chen, Amy; D'Agostino, John; Gern, James E

2012-01-01

246

Recruitment and retention of scholarship recipient nursing students and staff.  

PubMed

Few problems are more relevant in health care today than nurse recruitment and retention. The purpose of this study was to identify job satisfaction factors for nurse and nursing student education scholarship recipients, as well as examine the relationship of these factors to the intent to complete contractual agreements. Findings revealed that job satisfaction and a positive image of nursing were influential factors in intent to complete contractual agreements. Results may prove valuable information to recruit nursing students and increase job satisfaction. PMID:22718670

Tucker, Susan K; Sherrod, Roy A

2011-01-01

247

Developing Sediment Retention Model for the Ecoservice Model InVEST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model has been gaining popularity internationally as a tool to evaluate and value services provided by nature. The sediment retention sub-model is one of the key components of the InVEST model that assesses potentials of landscape and landcover to retain sediments preventing them from reaching the waterways and reservoirs. Based on the outputs of the sediment retention sub-model, InVEST estimates landcover's economic values of avoiding water quality pollution and reservoir sedimentation. The current version of the sediment retention sub-model uses retention-coefficient approach based solely on landcover type in estimating the quantities of sediment retained and transported downstream. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a sediment-delivery-ratio approach that integrates more catchment characteristics, including slope and flow length, in addition to the landcover characteristics. This approach was tested in Midwestern U.S. using distributed sediment data. Results show that the sediment-delivery-ratio approach has improved performance in identifying sediment transport and retention processes. Incorporating this approach into the InVEST tool will enhance the model's capability in more accurately estimating the economic values of avoiding water quality pollution and reservoir sedimentation. Keywords: ecosystem service, modeling, sediment delivery ratio, sediment retention

Ghebremichael, L.; Ziv, G.; Ghile, Y.

2012-12-01

248

Common post-operative complications in children  

PubMed Central

The exact incidence of common post-operative complications in children is not known. Most common one is post-operative nausea and vomiting followed by respiratory complications leading to hypoxia. Cardiac complications are less in children without associated congenital cardiac anomaly. Post-operative shivering, agitation and delirium are seen more often in children anaesthetised with newer inhalational agents like sevoflurane and desflurane. Urinary retention in the post-operative period could be influenced by anaesthetic drugs and regional blocks. The purpose of this article is to review the literature and present to the postgraduate students comprehensive information about the current understanding and practice pattern on various common complications in the post-operative period. Extensive literature was searched with key words of various complications from Pubmed, Google scholar and specific journal, namely paediatric anaesthesia. The relevant articles, review article meta-analysis and editorials were the primary source of information for this article.

Pawar, Dilip

2012-01-01

249

Does the Timing of Grade Retention Make a Difference? Examining the Effects of Early versus Later Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research examining the effectiveness of grade retention has provided overwhelming and seemingly irrefutable evidence that grade retention is an ineffective and potentially harmful practice. However, proponents of grade retention often advocate that retention in the early elementary grades (e.g., kindergarten, first and second grade) is the…

Silberglitt, Benjamin; Jimerson, Shane R.; Burns, Matthew K.; Appleton, James J.

2006-01-01

250

Record retention practices among the nation's "most wired" hospitals.  

PubMed

This exploratory study examined health record retention practices among health information management professionals in acute care general hospitals in the United States. A descriptive research design was used, and data were collected using a self-reporting survey. Respondents answered questions about record retention policies, the responsibility of health information professionals in policy administration, record retention periods, factors that determine retention periods, and other information about health record retention practices. PMID:18563205

Rinehart-Thompson, Laurie A

2008-01-01

251

Retention Among North American HIV-infected Persons in Clinical Care, 2000-2008  

PubMed Central

Background Retention in care is key to improving HIV outcomes. Our goal was to describe “churn” in patterns of entry, exit, and retention in HIV care in the US and Canada. Methods Adults contributing ?1 CD4 count or HIV-1 RNA (HIV-lab) from 2000–2008 in North American Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) clinical cohorts were included. Incomplete retention was defined as lack of 2 HIV-labs (?90 days apart) within 12 months, summarized by calendar year. We used beta-binomial regression models to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of factors associated with incomplete retention. Results Among 61,438 participants, 15,360 (25%) with incomplete retention significantly differed in univariate analyses (p<0.001) from 46,078 (75%) consistently retained by age, race/ethnicity, HIV risk, CD4, ART use, and country of care (US vs. Canada). From 2000–2004, females (OR=0.82, CI:0.70–0.95), older individuals (OR=0.78, CI:0.74–0.83 per 10 years), and ART users (OR= 0.61, CI:0.54–0.68 vs all others) were less likely to have incomplete retention, while black individuals (OR=1.31, CI:1.16–1.49, vs. white), those with injection drug use (IDU) HIV risk (OR=1.68, CI:1.49–1.89, vs. non-IDU) and those in care longer (OR=1.09, CI:1.07–1.11 per year) were more likely to have incomplete retention. Results from 2005–2008 were similar. Discussion From 2000 to 2008, 75% of the NA-ACCORD population was consistently retained in care with 25% experiencing some change in status, or churn. In addition to the programmatic and policy implications, our findings identify patient groups who may benefit from focused retention efforts.

Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N.; Buchacz, Kate; Gill, M. John; Horberg, Michael; Krentz, Hartmut; Moore, Richard; Sterling, Timothy R.; Brooks, John T.; Gebo, Kelly A.; Hogg, Robert; Klein, Marina; Martin, Jeffrey; Mugavero, Michael; Rourke, Sean; Silverberg, Michael J.; Thorne, Jennifer; Gange, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

252

Evaluation and management of urinary retention after a suburethral sling procedure in women.  

PubMed

Suburethral slings have become the most commonly offered surgical procedure for the correction of stress urinary incontinence in women. Overcorrection of urethral angle or exaggerated applied tension may lead to urethral obstruction, causing complete urinary retention or obstructive voiding symptoms. Acute urinary retention usually indicates immediate surgical intervention. Conversely, obstructive voiding symptoms after a sling procedure require a more thorough evaluation to plan the most appropriate therapy. Different operative procedures ranging from urethrolysis to midline sling incision have been described with high success rates and a small risk of recurrent stress urinary incontinence. PMID:18702926

Campeau, Lysanne; Al-Afraa, Tala; Corcos, Jacques

2008-09-01

253

Retention mechanism assessment and method development for the analysis of iohexol and its related compounds in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) has emerged in recent years as a valuable alternative to reversed-phase liquid chromatography in the analysis of polar compounds. Research in HILIC is divided into two directions: the assessment of the retention mechanism and retention behavior, and the development of HILIC methods. In this work, four polar neutral analytes (iohexol and its related compounds A, B, and C) were analyzed on two silica and two diol columns in HILIC mode with the aim to investigate thoroughly the retention mechanisms and retention behavior of polar neutral compounds on these four columns. The adsorption and partition contribution to the overall HILIC retention mechanism was investigated by fitting the retention data to linear (adsorption and partition) and nonlinear (mixed-retention and quadratic) theoretical models. On the other hand, the establishment of empirical second-order polynomial retention models on the basis of D-optimal design made possible the estimation of the simultaneous influence of several mobile-phase-related factors. Furthermore, these models were also used as the basis for the application of indirect modeling of the selectivity factor and a grid point search approach in order to achieve the optimal separation of analytes. After the optimization goals had been set, the grids were searched and the optimal conditions were identified. Finally, the optimized method was subjected to validation. PMID:24752695

Jovanovi?, Marko; Raki?, Tijana; Jan?i?-Stojanovi?, Biljana; Ivanovi?, Darko; Medenica, Mirjana

2014-07-01

254

Comparison of the Retentive Property and Dentinal Crazing Ability of Retention Pins and Machinist's Taps  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison was made of the dentinal crazing formation and pull-out strength of conventional retention pins and modified machinist's taps. Modified machinist's taps produced less dentinal crazing in wet, fresh, and dried dentin than the conventional retention pins. Modified taps have sufficient pull-out strength to retain restorations on teeth with fresh dentin, in clinical situations.

Kai Chiu Chan; Carl W. Svare; R. H. Williams; Mohamed A. Khowassah

1974-01-01

255

Common Issues in Professional Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most conversations about ethics and professional behavior involve case studies and hypothetical situations. This study identifies and examines the most common concerns in professional behavior as reported by 303 student affairs practitioners in the field. Differences by gender, years of experience, organizational level, institutional type, and…

Janosik, Steven M.

2007-01-01

256

Liposome retention in size exclusion chromatography  

PubMed Central

Background Size exclusion chromatography is the method of choice for separating free from liposome-encapsulated molecules. However, if the column is not presaturated with lipids this type of chromatography causes a significant loss of lipid material. To date, the mechanism of lipid retention is poorly understood. It has been speculated that lipid binds to the column material or the entire liposome is entrapped inside the void. Results Here we show that intact liposomes and their contents are retained in the exclusion gel. Retention depends on the pore size, the smaller the pores, the higher the retention. Retained liposomes are not tightly fixed to the beads and are slowly released from the gels upon direct or inverted eluent flow, long washing steps or column repacking. Further addition of free liposomes leads to the elution of part of the gel-trapped liposomes, showing that the retention is transitory. Trapping reversibility should be related to a mechanism of partitioning of the liposomes between the stationary phase, water-swelled polymeric gel, and the mobile aqueous phase. Conclusion Retention of liposomes by size exclusion gels is a dynamic and reversible process, which should be accounted for to control lipid loss and sample contamination during chromatography.

Ruysschaert, Tristan; Marque, Audrey; Duteyrat, Jean-Luc; Lesieur, Sylviane; Winterhalter, Mathias; Fournier, Didier

2005-01-01

257

Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

Green, Kimberly

2012-01-01

258

Rationality, Cooperation, and Common Pool Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial dissatisfaction has emerged with the conceptualization of natural resource prob lems and individual decision making as represented in the tragedy of the commons model by Garret Hardin. A research program devoted to developing a theory of common pool resources that accounts for both successes andfailures ofcooperation among appropriators using common pool resources is reviewed. The theory identifies a set

Edella Schlager

2002-01-01

259

Modelling of arsenic retention in constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

A new model was developed in order to simulate the most significant arsenic retention processes that take place in constructed wetlands (CWs) treating high arsenic waters. The present contribution presents the implementation phases related to plants (arsenic uptake and accumulation, root arsenic adsorption, and root oxygen release), showing the first simulation results of the complete model. Different approaches with diverse influent configurations were simulated. In terms of total arsenic concentrations in effluent, the simulated data closely matched the data measured in all evaluated cases. The iron and arsenic species relationships, and the arsenic retention percentages obtained from simulations, were in agreement with the experimental data and literature. The arsenic retention efficiency increased whenever a new phase was implemented, reaching a maximum efficiency range of 85-95%. According to the quality of the obtained results, it can be considered that the implementation of all steps of RCB-ARSENIC provided reasonably good response values. PMID:23994963

Llorens, Esther; Obradors, Joshua; Alarcón-Herrera, María Teresa; Poch, Manel

2013-11-01

260

Tritium recycling and retention in JET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JET's 1997 Deuterium Tritium Experiment (DTE1) allows a detailed study of hydrogenic isotope recycling and retention in a pumped divertor configuration relevant to ITER. There appear to be two distinct forms of retained tritium. (1) A dynamic inventory which controls the fueling behaviour of a single discharge, and in particular determines the isotopic composition. This is shown to be consistent with neutral particle implantation over the whole vessel surface area. (2) A continually growing inventory, which plays a small role in the particle balance of a single discharge, but ultimately dominates the hydrogenic inventory for an experimental campaign comprising thousands of pulses. This will be the dominant retention mechanism in long-pulse devices like ITER. The JET retention scaled-up to ITER proportions suggests that ITER may reach its tritium inventory limit in less than 100 pulses.

Andrew, P.; Brennan, D.; Coad, J. P.; Ehrenberg, J.; Gadeberg, M.; Gibson, A.; Groth, M.; How, J.; Jarvis, O. N.; Jensen, H.; Lässer, R.; Marcus, F.; Monk, R.; Morgan, P.; Orchard, J.; Peacock, A.; Pearce, R.; Pick, M.; Rossi, A.; Schunke, B.; Stamp, M.; von Hellermann, M.; Hillis, D. L.; Hogan, J.

261

Common Stochastic Trends, Common Cycles, and Asymmetry in Economic Fluctuations. International Finance Discussion Papers Number 681.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper investigates the nature of business cycle asymmetry using a dynamic factor model of output, investment, and consumption. We first identify a common stochastic trend and a common transitory component by embedding the permanent income hypothesis ...

C. J. Kim J. Piger

2000-01-01

262

Recruitment and retention of oncology nurses.  

PubMed

Healthcare delivery is undergoing a startling metamorphosis. The nursing shortage continues to have ripple effects on the healthcare system. Changes expected to occur during this shortage will set the stage for nursing practice for years to come. Resulting staffing concerns are a high priority. Providing holistic care for the patient and family experiencing cancer could be compromised by reduced professional staff and alternative care delivery systems. A creative focus on recruitment, orientation, and retention strategies is needed to achieve a positive balance between recruitment and retention. PMID:2342975

Gullatte, M M; Levine, N M

1990-01-01

263

JT8D engine performance retention  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attractive performance retention characteristics of the JT8D engine are described. Because of its moderate bypass ratio and turbine temperature, and stiff structural design, the performance retention versus flight cycles of the JT8D engine sets a standard that is difficult for other engines to equal. In addition, the significant benefits of refurbishment of the JT8D engine are presented. Cold section refurbishment offers thrust specific fuel consumption improvements of up to 2 percent and payback in less than a year, making a very attractive investment option for the airlines.

James, A. D.; Weisel, D. R.

1981-01-01

264

Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing anthropogenic sources of N that are not retained in the watershed and maintaining high rates of N retention will be of utmost concern for coastal managers.

Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

2009-12-01

265

Modeling of Tritium Retention in TFTR  

SciTech Connect

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium retention experience is reviewed and the data related to models of plasma surface interactions. Over 3.5 years of TFTR deuterium-tritium operations, approximately 51% of the tritium injected into TFTR was retained in the torus. Most of this was subsequently recovered by glow discharges and air ventilation. Co-deposition rates for representative conditions in tritium operation were modeled with the BBQ code. The calculations indicate that known erosion mechanisms and subsequent co-deposition are sufficient to account for the order of magnitude of retention.

Blanchard, W.; Brooks, J.N.; Budny, R.V.; Hogan, J.T.; Hosea, J.; Skinner, C.H.; et al.

1998-08-19

266

Recruitment and Retention of Minorities in Teacher Education: Performance Assessment. Proceedings of the National Conference (7th, Lexington, Kentucky, January 17 - 19, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference proceedings monograph presents 20 papers describing initiatives that deal with the recruitment and retention of minorities in education. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Recruitment and Retention of Minority Scholarship and Grant Recipients: Identifying Successful Models" (Teresa Unseld); (2) "An Early…

Middleton, E., Ed.; And Others

267

On identified predictive control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-tuning control algorithms are potential successors to manually tuned PID controllers traditionally used in process control applications. A very attractive design method for self-tuning controllers, which has been developed over recent years, is the long-range predictive control (LRPC). The success of LRPC is due to its effectiveness with plants of unknown order and dead-time which may be simultaneously nonminimum phase and unstable or have multiple lightly damped poles (as in the case of flexible structures or flexible robot arms). LRPC is a receding horizon strategy and can be, in general terms, summarized as follows. Using assumed long-range (or multi-step) cost function the optimal control law is found in terms of unknown parameters of the predictor model of the process, current input-output sequence, and future reference signal sequence. The common approach is to assume that the input-output process model is known or separately identified and then to find the parameters of the predictor model. Once these are known, the optimal control law determines control signal at the current time t which is applied at the process input and the whole procedure is repeated at the next time instant. Most of the recent research in this field is apparently centered around the LRPC formulation developed by Clarke et al., known as generalized predictive control (GPC). GPC uses ARIMAX/CARIMA model of the process in its input-output formulation. In this paper, the GPC formulation is used but the process predictor model is derived from the state space formulation of the ARIMAX model and is directly identified over the receding horizon, i.e., using current input-output sequence. The underlying technique in the design of identified predictive control (IPC) algorithm is the identification algorithm of observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters developed by Juang et al. at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully applied to identification of flexible structures.

Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

1993-01-01

268

Identification of recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals in Ontario, Canada: results from expert panels  

PubMed Central

Background Demand for rehabilitation services is expected to increase due to factors such as an aging population, workforce pressures, rise in chronic and complex multi-system disorders, advances in technology, and changes in interprofessional health service delivery models. However, health human resource (HHR) strategies for Canadian rehabilitation professionals are lagging behind other professional groups such as physicians and nurses. The objectives of this study were: 1) to identify recruitment and retention strategies of rehabilitation professionals including occupational therapists, physical therapists and speech language pathologists from the literature; and 2) to investigate both the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies using expert panels amongst HHR and education experts. Methods A review of the literature was conducted to identify recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals. Two expert panels, one on Recruitment and Retention and the other on Education were convened to determine the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies. A modified-delphi process was used to gain consensus and to rate the identified strategies along these two dimensions. Results A total of 34 strategies were identified by the Recruitment and Retention and Education expert panels as being important and feasible for the development of a HHR plan for recruitment and retention of rehabilitation professionals. Seven were categorized under the Quality of Worklife and Work Environment theme, another seven in Financial Incentives and Marketing, two in Workload and Skill Mix, thirteen in Professional Development and five in Education and Training. Conclusion Based on the results from the expert panels, the three major areas of focus for HHR planning in the rehabilitation sector should include strategies addressing Quality of Worklife and Work Environment, Financial Incentives and Marketing and Professional Development.

Tran, Diem; Hall, Linda McGillis; Davis, Aileen; Landry, Michel D; Burnett, Dawn; Berg, Katherine; Jaglal, Susan

2008-01-01

269

Generation Y Student-Teachers' Motivational Factors: Retention Implications for K-12 Educational Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generation Y represents a growing number of student-teachers who will impact the future of educational practice, yet little research has been conducted for this demographic group. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to identify motivational factors of neophyte teachers and the retention implications these findings had on Kindergarten…

Bontempo, Brian

2010-01-01

270

NIE Conference on Studies in Teaching; Panel 1, Recruitment, Selection, and Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this panel was to recommend research that would identify factors affecting recruitment, selection, and retention of teachers and means of improving these processes. The panel also attempted to plan exemplary research and development activities for devising, validating, and installing methods for improving individuals' and institutions'…

Gage, N. L., Ed.

271

Characteristics of Successful Recruitment and Retention Programs for Latino Students. Research Report #15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Programs aimed at improving the high school graduation rate of Latino students and their college recruitment, retention, and graduation have increased in recent years, but they have seldom been evaluated. To improve the design of such programs, an in-depth analysis was conducted of 15 programs identified through a literature search. Need for…

de Acosta, Martha

272

Building a Stable Workforce: Recruitment and Retention in the Child Care and Early Years Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents findings from research aimed at identifying effective approaches to the recruitment and retention of child care workers, conducted to assist the UK Government's Childcare Strategy. The paper explores the practices and views of child care employers, Early Years Development and Childcare Partnerships (EYDCPs) and child care…

Rolfe, Heather

2005-01-01

273

An Assessment of Barriers and Strategies for Recruitment and Retention of a Diverse Graduate Student Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this exploratory qualitative investigation was to: a) describe the barriers of recruitment and retention of diverse graduate student population at one of the predominantly white universities (PWUs) in the Midwestern US as perceived by the program coordinators and directors and b) identify successful strategies for improving the…

Quarterman, Jerome

2008-01-01

274

Teacher Retention and Student Performance in the Inner-Urban Elementary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study is to identify the correlates of student performance and teacher retention in an inner city elementary school district, in order to provide administrators with information. The study is divided into two parts. In the first, the authors are concerned with describing the inner urban school system. The data to be analyzed…

Duff, William L., Jr.; And Others

275

The Nontraditional Student at Ferris State University: Implications for Recruitment and Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the demographic and scholastic characteristic differences between a nontraditional and traditional student cohort (total n=11,878) at Ferris State University (FSU) in Michigan, identified (through literature reviews) successful recruiting and retention activities for nontraditional students at other postsecondary educational…

Octernaud, Sharon K.

276

Beyond the Labor Market Paradigm: A Social Network Perspective on Teacher Recruitment and Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article identifies limits of the dominant labor market perspective (LMP) in research on teacher recruitment and retention and describes how research that incorporates a social network perspective (SNP) can contribute to the knowledge base and development of teacher education, staffing, and professional development approaches. A discussion of…

Baker-Doyle, Kira

2010-01-01

277

Pre-Entry Variables Related to Retention in Online Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identified pre-entry variables related to course completion and noncompletion in university online distance education courses. Four hundred and sixty-four students who were enrolled in online distance education courses participated in the study. Discriminant analysis revealed six pre-entry variables were related to retention, including…

Dupin-Bryant, Pamela A.

2004-01-01

278

Predictors of first semester attrition and their relation to retention of generic associate degree nursing students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In community college nursing programs the high rate of attrition was a major concern to faculty and administrators. Since first semester attrition could lead to permanent loss of students and low retention in nursing programs, it was important to identify at-risk students early and develop proactive approaches to assist them to be successful. The goal of nursing programs was to

Donna Katherine Jackson

2002-01-01

279

What Works in Student Retention? Fourth National Survey. Report for All Colleges and Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past three and one-half decades, ACT has dedicated itself to conducting research that collects information from colleges and universities that will help them identify and better understand the impact of various practices on college student retention and persistence to degree-completion. Conducted in the spring of 2009, ACT's most recent…

ACT, Inc., 2010

2010-01-01

280

Renal and Vascular Mechanisms of Thiazolidinedione-Induced Fluid Retention  

PubMed Central

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtype ? (PPAR?) activators that are clinically used as an insulin sensitizer for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Additionally, TZDs exhibit novel anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties, indicating therapeutic potential for a wide variety of diseases associated with diabetes and other conditions. The clinical applications of TZDs are limited by the common major side effect of fluid retention. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism of TZD-induced fluid retention is essential for the development of novel therapies with improved safety profiles. An important breakthrough in the field is the finding that the renal collecting duct is a major site for increased fluid reabsorption in response to rosiglitazone or pioglitazone. New evidence also indicates that increased vascular permeability in adipose tissues may contribute to edema formation and body weight gain. Future research should therefore be directed at achieving a better understanding of the detailed mechanisms of TZD-induced increases in renal sodium transport and in vascular permeability.

Yang, Tianxin; Soodvilai, Sunhapas

2008-01-01

281

Laboratory Talk and Women's Retention Rates in Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite initiatives designed to increase women's participation in science, their attrition rates remain high. To improve women's retention rates, this article proposes a closer examination of the culture of science to discover what it is about it that women might find uncomfortable, that could create a "chilly climate" for them. A 2-year ethnographic study of a university research laboratory group was conducted that identified the group's communication style as problematic for some female members. A weekly meeting was selected that exemplifies several of the dynamics of the communication style that women at this laboratory had found problematic. An analysis of this meeting identified specific features of the talk and examined research findings from the fields of language and gender research and laboratory studies to explain why women might find these features problematic.

Conefrey, Theresa

282

Common Procedures during Childbirth  

MedlinePLUS

... t InteliHealth Medical Content 2011-08-14 Common Procedures During Childbirth Most often labor and delivery proceeds ... needs a helping hand. Here are some common procedures used during childbirth: Continuous fetal monitoring is a ...

283

Common Foot Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... on the toes. Foot infections include warts; the common disease athlete's foot (tinea pedis), which is caused by ... of the skin of the foot. The most common fungal disease in humans, athlete's foot, may be passed to ...

284

Knowledge Representation for Commonality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The...

D. P. Yeager

1990-01-01

285

Common Hair Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... have the inherited tendency to "common baldness." Male pattern baldness is the most common cause of hair ... top of the head. Women may develop female pattern baldness in which the hair becomes thin over ...

286

Retention characteristics of an immobilized artificial membrane column in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Retention for a varied group of compounds on an immobilized artificial membrane column (IAM PC DD2) with a methanol-water mobile phase is shown to fit a second-order model for the retention factor (log k) as a function of the volume fraction of organic solvent. The numerical value of the intercept obtained by linear extrapolation to zero organic solvent (log k(w)) is shown to depend on the range of mobile phase composition used for the extrapolation. Each series of intercepts so obtained represents a different hypothetical distribution system as identified by the system constants of the solvation parameter model. Although a linear model is a poor fit for isocratic retention data, the linear solvent strength gradient model provides a reasonable estimate of isocratic retention factor values that are (slightly) larger than experimental values, but provide the same chemical information for the system. These preliminary results suggest that gradient elution may prove to be a rapid and useful method for creating system maps for column characterization and method development. In this work a system map is provided for methanol-water compositions from 0 to 60% (v/v) methanol and additional system constants for acetonitrile-water compositions containing 20 and 30% (v/v) acetonitrile. It is shown that the main factors contributing to retention on the IAM PC DD2 column are favorable cavity formation and dispersion interactions, electron lone pair interactions and the hydrogen-bond basicity of the sorbent. The latter feature more than any other distinguishes the IAM column from conventional chemically bonded phases. Interactions of a dipole-type (weakly) and inability to compete with the mobile phase as a hydrogen-bond acid reduce retention. A comparison of system constant ratios is used to demonstrate that the retention properties of the IAM column are not easily duplicated by conventional chemically bonded phases. The retention characteristics of the IAM column, however, are strongly correlated with the retention properties of pseudostationary phases used for micellar electrokinetic chromatography, which provide a suitable alternative to IAM columns for physical property estimations. By the same comparative method it is shown that retention on the IAM column possesses some similarity to biomembrane absorption processes, allowing suitable correlation models to be developed for the estimation of certain biopartitioning properties. PMID:11873960

Lepont, Claire; Poole, Colin F

2002-02-01

287

Recruitment & Retention: Special Report, Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles on Black college faculty recruitment and retention and student financial aid examines these issues: senior Black faculty and diversity issues, recruiting Black faculty to small towns, the supply of doctorates, doctoral fellowship programs targeting minorities, financial aid information on the Internet, and an online college…

Black Issues in Higher Education, 1999

1999-01-01

288

Foster Family Resources, Psychosocial Functioning, and Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined the effect of family resources and psychosocial problems on retention for foster families. Almost 50 percent of families who started preservice training did not complete it. Families with more psychosocial problems and fewer resources were more likely to express uncertainly about continuing. These results have…

Rhodes, Kathryn W.; Orme, John G.; Cox, Mary Ellen; Buehler, Cheryl

2003-01-01

289

Predictive models for phosphorus retention in wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of wetlands to efficiently remove (i.e., act as a nutrient sink) or to transform nutrients like phosphorus under high nutrient loading has resulted in their consideration as a cost-effective means of treating wastewater on the landscape. Few predictive models exist which can accurately assess P retention capacity. An analysis of the north American data base (NADB) allowed us

C. J. Richardson; S. Qian; C. B. Craft; R. G. Qualls

1996-01-01

290

Compartmental model of nitrate retention in streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compartmental modeling approach is presented to route nitrate retention along a cascade of stream reach sections. A process transfer function is used for transient storage equations with first-order reaction terms to represent nitrate uptake in the free stream and denitrification in the storage regions. In the context of a short-term nitrate injection we define nitrate assimilative capacity as 1

B. R. Faulkner; M. E. Campana

2007-01-01

291

Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

2011-01-01

292

Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When institutions engage in discussions regarding improving retention and graduation rates, invariably the conversation focuses on entering student characteristics, especially ACT and SAT scores and high school grades. Clearly, attracting and enrolling well-prepared and motivated high-ability students will certainly improve institutional measures…

Schroeder, Charles C.

2013-01-01

293

Disability and Community College Retention Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rise in the enrollment of persons with disabilities in post-secondary institutions has introduced a need for the identification of services and/or pre-entry variables that assist in the elevation of retention rates. There is a growing substantiation that connects support service usage with a successful academic experience. However, there is…

Culligan, Michael

2009-01-01

294

COMPARTMENTAL MODEL OF NITRATE RETENTION IN STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A compartmental modeling approach is presented to route nitrate retention along a cascade of stream reach sections. A process transfer function is used for transient storage equations with first order reaction terms to represent nitrate uptake in the free stream, and denitrifica...

295

Water retention capacity of tissue cultured plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves rapidly close their stomata after detachment resulting in a strong reduction of water loss. It has been reported that detached leaves of in vitro produced plants show continuous water loss indicating that they are unable to close the stomata properly and\\/or that their cuticle is malfunctioning. We examined the water retention capacity (WRC) of detached primary leaves of in

Klerk de G. J. M; F. Wijnhoven

2005-01-01

296

Effects of Emotional Intelligence on Teacher Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed methods, explanatory design study focused on determining if the emotional intelligence of principals affects the retention of new teachers. In phase one, a non-random cluster sample of 138 public school principals in the state of Louisiana was surveyed using a quantitative instrument. A Factor Analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and…

Gerald, Grant Ronald

2010-01-01

297

Metals Retention in Constructed Wetland Sediments  

SciTech Connect

The A-01 wetland treatment system (WTS) was designed to remove metals from the effluent at the A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. Sequential extraction data was used to evaluate remobilization and retention of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Fe in the wetland sediment. Remobilization of metals was determined by the Potentially Mobile Fraction (PMF) and metal retention by the Recalcitrant Factor (RF). The PMF, which includes water soluble, exchangeable, and oxides fractions, is the contaminant fraction that has the potential to enter into the mobile aqueous phase under changeable environmental conditions. PMF values were low for Cu, Zn and Pb (about 20 percent) and high for Fe and Mn (about 60 to 70 percent). The RF, which includes crystalline oxides, sulfides or silicates and aluminosilicates, is the ratio of strongly bound fractions to the total concentration of elements in sediment. RF values were about 80 percent for Cu, Zn and Pb, indicating high retention in the sediment and 30 percent to above 40 percent for Fe and Mn indication low retention.

KNOX, ANNA

2004-10-27

298

Tallahassee Community College Retention Study. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A retention study was conducted at Tallahassee Community College (TCC) to determine reasons student withdrew from TCC prior to meeting their educational objectives. The survey population consisted of all students, apart from graduates and those who had been academically suspended, who were enrolled in winter 1981 but had not returned by winter…

Johnston, Archie B.

299

TA705 Data Retention Chassis Operating Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Data Retention Chassis (DRC) is a data acquisition component based on the Motorola 68000 microprocessor. The purpose of the DRC is to download the correct set-up parameters into sixteen Tektronix 7912 digitizers, to verify that the digitizers retain t...

E. D. Baker

1989-01-01

300

Retention of Electronic Fundamentals: Differences Among Topics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criterion-referenced tests were used to measure the learning and retention of a sample of material taught by means of programed instruction in the Avionics Fundamentals Course, Class A. It was found that the students knew about 30 percent of the material before reading the programs, that mastery rose to a very high level on the immediate posttest,…

Johnson, Kirk A.

301

Temporal Retention Study on IPI Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past there has been some question about a pupil's retention of knowledge after the summer recess. In the Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) system, once a pupil begins working through the objectives, it should be unnecessary to have him take placement tests each Fall. The present study extracted data from the pupils' placement…

Weinberger, Jo Ann

302

Predicting Student Retention in Teacher Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the preliminary results from a longitudinal study of student teacher attrition and retention. The sample consisted of 316 students in an initial course in teacher education. Data collection included the following: high school grade point ratio (GPR); SAT scores; other demographic information, such as education of father and…

Vare, Jonatha W.; Dewalt, Mark W.; Dockery, E. Ray

303

Using Team Learning to Improve Student Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to improve the retention rate in their entry-level information systems course, the authors of this article integrated a team-learning approach into its instructional format. This article describes the steps taken, including how team learning compares with the traditional approach based on lecture with occasional group exercises, and…

Kreie, Jennifer; Headrick, R. Wayne; Steiner, Robert

2007-01-01

304

Shaping Retention from Research to Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents seven guidelines to direct professional practice aimed toward the improvement of institutional student retention rates. For each of the seven guidelines, specific recommendations to provide direction to the enactment of the focal guideline are described. These seven guidelines spring from empirical studies of campus-based…

Braxton, John M.; Brier, Ellen M.; Steele, Stephanie Lee

2008-01-01

305

Relationship of Personality Traits to Student Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carl Jung's theory of psychological types has been the basis for the development of personality categorization, including tests such as Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This study analyzed the extent of the relationship between MBTI and Tinto (1993) retention factors that influence Oriental medicine students' choice of staying or dropping out…

Liang, John Paul

2010-01-01

306

Canonical Commonality Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor variable. This paper outlines…

Leister, K. Dawn

307

Knowledge representation for commonality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the Commonality Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.

Yeager, Dorian P.

1990-01-01

308

Unconfounding Common Ground.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes the subsuming theory criterion for experiments on common ground in mutual knowledge (i.e., the design must keep common information constant and only vary whether or not it is common). Demonstrates how doing so makes stronger claims. Illustrates how experiments can be designed to satisfy the criterion by evaluating some earlier studies…

Keysar, Boaz

1997-01-01

309

Staff retention and recruitment: "one great department".  

PubMed

The projected demand for healthcare workers during the next ten years has been the impetus for many organizations to develop more creative strategies to ensure adequate staffing levels in the future. In order to keep pace with service demands, the diagnostic imaging department at Valley Lutheran Medical Center (VLMC) in Mesa, Ariz., has been growing as well. Since November of 1999, the number of core FTEs increased from 54.5 to 96. As a result, efforts to retain the current employees became just as critical as efforts to recruit staff for the new positions that were created to support the expanded services. In February 2001, an AHRA seminar was held in Phoenix, which included a day-long session called "Workforce 2001: Recruitment, Selection, Retention of Quality Employees." The presenter, Clint Maun, C.S.P., emphasized the need to provide "passionate orientation" for new employees, encouraged team-based selection of new employees, and reminded the audience that new employees decide within the first three days whether or not they will stay with an organization, regardless of how long it actually takes to leave. Maun also described to the group a model for creating team effort called "One Great Unit" (OGU), which uses a "12-Week Plan" for engaging staff. For the diagnostic imaging department at VLMC, this concept was remodeled so that, instead of focusing on one modality (unit) in the department, the focus was on the whole department. The first step to creating "One Great Department" was to establish an Oversight Committee that would help define the focus of the 12-Week Teams. Five, front-line employees were recruited who represented a cross-section of the imaging department. To assist in the implementation, the director of learning and innovation at VLMC agreed to facilitate the first two meetings. The first 12-Week Team was called together in May 2001. The operational objective addressed was "improving communication inter- and intra-departmentally." Each member volunteered to take one issue to investigate. For instance, the team identified that unit secretaries used an outdated resource document for ordering radiology exams. The 2001 goal was to limit voluntary employee turnover to less than 15 percent, an aggressive goal considering that in 2000 the turnover rate was 40 percent. In January 2002, the 2001 turnover rate was 14.5 percent (Bravo!). While we accomplished our goal, there are many challenges ahead. The Arizona market is so volatile that we cannot afford to rest on any previous success. PMID:12422659

Casady, Wanda M; Dowd, Terry A

2002-01-01

310

Spondylitic psoriatic arthritis presenting as acute urinary retention.  

PubMed

Psoriatic arthritis is a seronegative arthropathy occurring in the presence of psoriasis. In majority of cases, typical psoriatic skin lesions precede joint disease, making diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis without typical skin lesions, a diagnostic challenge. Nail lesions are commonly seen in patients affected by this condition, making it a useful clue in the diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis. This is a case of a 58-year-old Filipino woman presenting with sudden acute urinary retention and weakness of both lower extremities accompanied with active polyarthritis. Onycholytic nail changes initially thought to be a fungal nail infection led to the diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis involving the spine. The patient was eventually treated with methotrexate and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs leading to full resolution of symptoms. The patient is currently ambulatory and on regular follow-up. This case report highlights the importance of clinical and physical findings particularly the nails that would lead to a diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis. PMID:24789155

Lo, Tom Edward Ngo; Que, Mary Lareine V; Tee, Michael L

2014-01-01

311

Acute urinary retention after transperineal template-guided prostate biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeUrinary retention occurs in 5%–36% of patients with prostate cancer after implantation of radioactive seeds for brachytherapy. We used transperineal biopsy as a model to determine the influence of needle trauma on urinary retention.

Steven J Buskirk; David M Pinkstaff; Steven P Petrou; Michael J Wehle; Gregory A Broderick; Paul R Young; Stephen D Weigand; Peter C O'Brien; Todd C Igel

2004-01-01

312

Nursing Education: Developing Specification Equations for Selection and Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To develop a specification equation that could be used to predict retention, data from 151 nursing students were subjected to univariate and discriminant analyses. Personality attributes associated with retention emerged. (SK)

Huch, Mary H.; And Others

1992-01-01

313

Shared Retention Data--The Barrier of Fear.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need for more explicit data on successful retention programs. Considers problems in collecting institutionwide, local, state, regional, and national information. Urges leadership from professional associations to establish policy directions ensuring the availability of student retention information. (DMM)

Lee, Ralph H.

1981-01-01

314

21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4930 Suture retention device. (a) Identification. A suture retention...

2013-04-01

315

21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...suture retention device is a device, such as a retention bridge, a surgical button, or a suture bolster, intended to aid wound healing by distributing suture tension over a larger area in the patient. (b) Classification. Class I...

2009-04-01

316

Recruitment and retention monitoring: facilitating the mission of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)  

PubMed Central

It is commonly accepted that inefficient recruitment and inadequate retention continue to threaten the completion of clinical trials intended to reduce the public health burden of neurological disease. This article will discuss the scientific, economic, and ethical implications of failure to recruit and retain adequate samples in clinical trials, including the consequences of failing to recruit adequately diverse samples. We will also discuss the more common challenges and barriers to efficient and effective recruitment and retention, and the impact these have on successful clinical trial planning. We will explain the newly established efforts within National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) to monitor recruitment and retention with well-defined metrics and implementation of grant awards that include feasibility milestones for continued funding. Finally, we will describe our efforts to address some of the common challenges to recruitment and retention through assistance to investigators and coordinators with evidence-based support, tools, and resources for planning and strategizing recruitment and retention as well as a trans-NIH effort to improve awareness of clinical research in the general public.

Roberts, J; Waddy, S; Kaufmann, P

2012-01-01

317

Common Bayesian models for common cognitive issues.  

PubMed

How can an incomplete and uncertain model of the environment be used to perceive, infer, decide and act efficiently? This is the challenge that both living and artificial cognitive systems have to face. Symbolic logic is, by its nature, unable to deal with this question. The subjectivist approach to probability is an extension to logic that is designed specifically to face this challenge. In this paper, we review a number of frequently encountered cognitive issues and cast them into a common Bayesian formalism. The concepts we review are ambiguities, fusion, multimodality, conflicts, modularity, hierarchies and loops. First, each of these concepts is introduced briefly using some examples from the neuroscience, psychophysics or robotics literature. Then, the concept is formalized using a template Bayesian model. The assumptions and common features of these models, as well as their major differences, are outlined and discussed. PMID:20658175

Colas, Francis; Diard, Julien; Bessière, Pierre

2010-09-01

318

A systematic review of health service interventions to improve linkage with or retention in HIV care.  

PubMed

The importance of early linkage to and continuing retention in HIV care is increasingly recognised, particularly in light of the implications poor linkage and retention rates have for the effectiveness of HIV treatment as prevention strategies. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of healthcare interventions in improving patient linkage to or retention in HIV care. We systematically searched PubMed (MEDLINE and PubMed-only citations) and EMBASE databases for articles reporting the original results of randomised controlled trials, and used a standard data collection form to extract information on study characteristics and outcome data. Five articles met the inclusion criteria, of which two articles focused on linkage to care and three on retention in care. The methodological quality, both of internal and external validity, of most of the trials was suboptimal. Wide variation in the interventions and outcome measures meant synthesis of the results using meta-analysis was not appropriate. This review shows evidence that interventions based on supporting patient self-management improves linkage to, and possibly retention in, care. Interventions aimed at delivery service design may also be effective, although evidence in this review was limited. It is vital that interventions are developed to improve patient engagement in HIV care. The dearth of research identified by this review highlights the need for well-designed trials of interventions in this area in the future. PMID:24354712

Brennan, Aline; Browne, John P; Horgan, Mary

2014-07-01

319

Cross-column prediction of gas-chromatographic retention indices of saturated esters.  

PubMed

We combine computational molecular descriptors and variables related with the gas-chromatographic stationary phase into a comprehensive model able to predict the retention of solutes in external columns. To explore the quality of various approaches based on alternative column descriptors, we analyse the Kováts retention indices (RIs) of 90 saturated esters collected with seven columns of different polarity (SE-30, OV-7, DC-710, OV-25, XE-60, OV-225 and Silar-5CP). Cross-column retention prediction is evaluated on an internal validation set consisting of data of 40 selected esters collected with each of the seven columns, sequentially excluded from calibration. The molecular descriptors are identified by a genetic algorithm variable selection method applied to a large set of non-empirical structural quantities aimed at finding the best multi-linear quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) for the column OV-25 having intermediate polarity. To describe the columns, we consider the sum of the first five McReynolds phase constants and, alternatively, the coefficients of the corresponding QSRRs. Moreover, the mean RI value for the subset of esters used in QSRR calibration or RIs of a few selected compounds are used as column descriptors. For each combination of solute and column descriptors, the retention model is generated both by multi-linear regression and artificial neural network regression. PMID:24939086

D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Maggi, Maria Anna; Ruggieri, Fabrizio

2014-08-15

320

Predictors of Retention in Dual-Focus Self-Help Groups  

PubMed Central

Attendance at 12-step groups has been found useful in maintaining abstinence from substance use; many members disengage early, missing out on potential benefits. New 12-step based groups have emerged to address the recovery needs of the many substance users with psychiatric comorbidity. Little is known about factors associated with retention in 12-step, especially in this population. This study sought to identify predictors of retention over a one-year period among members of a dual-focus 12-Step fellowship (N = 276). Using multivariate analysis, the following baseline characteristics were associated with greater retention one year later: older age, more lifetime arrests, abstinence in the pre-baseline year, more psychiatric symptoms in the pre-baseline year, not taking psychiatric medication, being more troubled by substance abuse than by mental health, and greater level of self-efficacy for recovery; residing in supported housing and being enrolled in outpatient treatment at follow-up were also significantly associated with better retention. Clinical implications to enhance retention in specialized 12-step groups are discussed.

Laudet, Alexandre B.; Magura, Stephen; Cleland, Charles M.; Vogel, Howard S.; Knight, Edward L.

2007-01-01

321

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

PubMed Central

Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II) were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

2010-01-01

322

Fostering Resilience: A Necessary Skill for Teacher Retention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this qualitative 2-year study was to examine the resilience building process in four novice secondary science teachers and its link to teacher retention. To achieve the research goal, a resilience framework was established. Three factors were instrumental in creating the framework. The first focused on stressors and protective factors in the lives of novice secondary science teachers and provided direction and goals for the research. Second, a case study was developed for each of the four teachers participating in the research in order to emphasize the detailed analysis of factors linked to resilience. Finally, cross-case analysis was employed to identify similarities and differences and provide insight into issues concerning the resilience process. Results of this study suggest that the interaction between stressors and protective factors acts as a primary force in the resilience process and stimulate responses to help counteract negative effects of resulting stress. Therefore, it can be reasoned that resilience can be fostered in novice teachers as a means to encourage teacher retention.

Doney, Patricia A.

2013-06-01

323

Student Retention at UW-Oshkosh. Planning Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on student retention at the University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, are analyzed. The retention rate of full-time freshmen for each of the past five years is presented versus the projected effects of achieving the institutional enrollment goal each year until 1986. Retention increased by only .1 of 1 percent in 1980 as compared to just over 2…

Hoyt, Tim

324

Framing Retention for Institutional Improvement: A 4 Ps Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 4 Ps framework for student retention strategy is a construct for reframing the retention discussion in a way that enables institutional improvement by challenging some conventional wisdom and prevailing perspectives that have characterized retention strategy for years. It opens new possibilities for action and improvement by suggesting that…

Kalsbeek, David H.

2013-01-01

325

From vigilance to violence: Mate retention tactics in married couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although much research has explored the adaptive problems of mate selection and mate attraction, little research has investigated the adaptive problem of mate retention. We tested several evolutionary psychological hypotheses about the determinants of mate retention in 214 married people. We assessed the usage of 19 mate retention tactics ranging from vigilance to violence. Key hypothesized findings include the following:

David M. Buss; Todd K. Shackelford

1997-01-01

326

Human resource management strategies for the retention of nurses.  

PubMed

Retention of nurses is a critical problem facing health care managers across Australia today. Retention of experienced employees is not only cost effective, but of great importance to the continued high performance of the nursing services in health care organisations. This article will examine innovative human resource management strategies to promote the retention of nurses. PMID:11855120

Hogan, P

2001-06-01

327

Grade Retention in Massachusetts Public Schools: 2003-04  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retention is defined as when a student is required to repeat the grade in which they were enrolled the previous year. This report provides important information on statewide student grade retention statistics, including retention data by grade level, race/ethnicity, gender, in special education status, limited English proficiency status, and…

Massachusetts Department of Education, 2005

2005-01-01

328

Success in Cyberspace: Student Retention in Online Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student retention is an important issue in distance education. In the literature of higher education literature, however, information on student retention in online courses is incomplete. Few empirical studies have been conducted. Many articles reference the issue and then provide descriptions of best practices to address retention. Seldom,…

Moore, Kathleen; Bartkovich, Jeffrey; Fetzner, Marie; Ison, Sherrill

2003-01-01

329

Measuring Student Retention at an Online Institution of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student persistence or retention has been a documented issue in higher education in the United States since the late 1800s. While much has been written about the topic of retention at the more traditional types of institutions, little has been written about retention at the online institutions of higher learning that have developed since the early…

Boston, Wallace E., Jr.

2010-01-01

330

Grade Retention in Massachusetts Public Schools: 2004-05  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is the third retention report published by the Massachusetts Department of Education (MADOE) to provide districts and the public general information on student retention in Massachusetts. Retention is defined as repeating a grade--students are retained when they are required to repeat the grade in which they were enrolled in the…

Massachusetts Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

331

Retention Data Collection: Problems, Uses, and Suggested Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues concerning the collection and uses of data about college student retention are considered. Some of the documented findings about student retention in U.S. colleges is summarized, with attention to both national data and data for colleges belonging to the United Negro College Fund. Difficulties in obtaining useful retention data are…

Fordyce, Hugh

1988-01-01

332

The Tennessee Lottery Scholarship Program: Impact on Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined if the Tennessee Education Lottery Scholarship (TELS), which began in 2004, was related to student retention at the six Tennessee Board of Regents four-year institutions. This study investigated the impact of the TELS on student retention at TBR universities and general knowledge regarding retention. Post-facto data were…

Puryear, Carol G.

2009-01-01

333

Student Retention in Higher Education: Some Conceptual and Programmatic Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a review of conceptual perspectives on the salient issues affecting student retention in higher education generally, and minority student retention in particular, over the past few decades. Also summarizes programmatic strategies implemented at institutions as examples of student retention initiatives that have had significant impacts.…

Lang, Marvel

2002-01-01

334

Shared project studies, revises hospital record retention policies.  

PubMed

Through their shared service organization, six hospitals conducted a study that showed that they had similar practical needs and legal requirements for medical record retention but widely varying retention policies. Written policies that were developed for and jointly adopted by the hospitals have ensured consistent, cost-effective retention practices. PMID:640605

Domanico, L; Leverette, T J

1978-05-16

335

A Study of the Progress of Basic Skills Students through an Examination of Their Success and Retention Rates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify: the success and retention rates of basic skills students, and the rates of basic skills students' progress from basic skills courses to college level courses, and ultimately, transfer level courses. The study chose its cohorts from the semester of fall 1994. Essentially, four cohorts were identified:…

Luan, Jing

336

Orbit Evolution in Common Envelopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study how the inclination angle and eccentricity evolve during a common envelope phase. During a common envelope phase, a compact star is swallowed by its giant companion and spirals into a tighter orbit. A close binary results if the compact star releases enough energy to expel the envelope. We investigate possible fossil evidence of the common envelope phase on the inclination angle and the eccentricity. A convective common envelope leads to force component perpendicular to the orbital plane, and thus change the orbital inclination. This makes it harder to uniquely identify the signature of neutron star natal kicks. A common envelope is usually assumed to circularize orbits, but some eccentricity in fact arises both from the spiral-in process itself, and from random forces in the orbital plane. When the envelope is expelled, it might seem that the binary system would preserve whatever eccentricity had been established at the final stage of the inspiral. But tidal dissipation by the residual envelope can reduce the eccentricity. The final eccentricity depends on which of these effects wins or how they balance each other. We discuss applications and observational tests of these predictions.

Luan, Jing; Phinney, E. S.

2011-09-01

337

Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

2009-01-01

338

Science Teacher Retention: Mentoring and Renewal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Some forty percent of all new science teachers leave the profession within five years, and too many science teachers are wedded to their textbooks and the routines they acquired during their collegiate years." What can be done to retain new science teachers and reinvigorate more experienced science teachers? Allow Science Teacher Retention: Mentoring and Renewal to "mentor" you as you reach toward this lofty but attainable goal. For this book, Jack Rhoton and Patricia Bowers assembled some of the country's most noted science educators and asked them to offer ideas to resolve the problems of science teacher retention and renewal. Their suggestions are designed to keep the brightest and most motivated new teachers in the profession and help all science teachers to continue to learn and to treat their own profession like science itself--that is, by basing it on questions, suggesting answers, and using their interests and abilities to test the validity of these answers.

2003-01-01

339

Staff retention and empowerment: functions of leadership.  

PubMed

Regardless of any organization's structure and technology, the most potent leverage for exceptional performance and quality assurance resides within personnel. Retention of empowered, committed staff who believe in their organization's purpose and leadership is important to an organization's success. The Clinical Laboratory Sciences (CLS) profession faces a different kind of crisis, not only one of economics, but also one of quality because of lost professional expertise. This dilemma is because of profound neglect of the organization's greatest asset--its CLS professionals. Retention of expert CLS professionals requires a dramatic change in management's belief system regarding the value of their assets. Laboratory leaders must create a culture of empowered people with the freedom to exhibit self-direction toward achieving the organization's mission and goals. Managers must consider employees valuable enough to invest in their professional growth. A laboratory's long-term sustainability and economic performance will depend on a committed workforce. PMID:12506831

Mass, Diana

2002-01-01

340

How technology solutions can impact nursing retention.  

PubMed

In the high-tech industry, technology is at the forefront of almost all innovation. In health care, things move a little slower. A look at several large, as well as small, diverse organizations provides a snapshot of technology and its effect on nursing retention. Electronic medical records/computer provider order entry, communication via technology, facility design, staffing software, and a nursing innovation center are examined. PMID:18616057

Russell, Judith

2008-01-01

341

300 Area Building Retention Evaluation Mitigation Plan  

SciTech Connect

Evaluate the long-term retention of several facilities associated with the PNNL Capability Replacement Laboratory and other Hanfor mission needs. WCH prepared a mitigation plan for three scenarios with different release dates for specific buildings. The evaluations present a proposed plan for providing utility services to retained facilities in support of a long-term (+20 year) lifespan in addition to temporary services to buildings with specified delayed release dates.

D. J. McBride

2007-07-03

342

Helium retention of plasma facing materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The helium retention properties such as retained amount, desorption temperature and activation energy of desorption were examined for graphite, B4C, SiC and tungsten. After the helium ion irradiation with a helium energy of 5 keV in an ECR ion source, these data were obtained by using a technique of thermal desorption spectroscopy. The amount of retained helium saturated at the

T. Hino; Y. Yamauchi; Y. Hirohata

1999-01-01

343

A Rare Non Urologic Cause for Urinary Retention; Report of 2 Cases  

PubMed Central

Although Imperforate hymen is a rare condition, it is the most common obstructive anomaly of the female genital tract. The early diagnosis of this condition requires a high index of suspicion in newborns and in females without a history of menarche. Hydronephrosis is a known but rare complication of an imperforate hymen. Hereby we preset 2 cases of premenstrual adolescent with urinary retention and bilateral moderate to severe hydroureteronephrosis.

Rabani, Seyed Mohammadreza

2013-01-01

344

Deuterium Retention in NSTX with Lithium Conditioning  

SciTech Connect

High (approximate to 90%) deuterium retention was observed in NSTX gas balance measurements both with- and without lithiumization of the carbon plasma-facing components. The gas retained in ohmic discharges was measured by comparing the vessel pressure rise after a discharge to that of a gas-only pulse with the pumping valves closed. For neutral beam heated discharges the gas input and gas pumped by the NB cryopanels were tracked. The discharges were followed by outgassing of deuterium that reduced the retention. The relationship between retention and surface chemistry was explored with a new plasma-material interface probe connected to an in vacuo surface science station that exposed four material samples to the plasma. XPS and TDS analysis demonstrated that binding of D atoms in graphite is fundamentally changed by lithium - in particular atoms are weakly bonded in regions near lithium atoms bound to either oxygen or the carbon matrix. This is in contrast to the strong ionic bonding that occurs between D and pure Li. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Skinner, C. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Allain, J. P. [Purdue University; Blanchard, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kugel, H. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Maingi, Rajesh [ORNL; Roquemore, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Soukhanovskii, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Taylor, C. N. [Purdue University

2011-01-01

345

Testing to enhance retention in human anatomy.  

PubMed

Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the nervous system, were developed. The quizzes were optional, and no credit was awarded. They were posted online using Blackboard, which provided feedback, and they were very popular. To determine whether the quizzes had any effect on retention, they were given in a controlled setting to 21 future medical and dental students. The weekly quizzes included questions on regional anatomy and an expanded set of questions on the nervous system. Each question about the nervous system was given three times, in a slightly different form each time. The second quiz was given approximately half an hour after the first one, and the third was given one week after the second to assess retention. The quizzes were unpopular, but students showed robust improvement on the questions about the nervous system. The scores increased by almost 9% on the second quiz, with no intervention except viewing the correct answers. The scores were 29% higher on the third quiz than on the first, and there was also a positive correlation between the grades on the quizzes and the final examination. Thus, repeated testing is an effective strategy for learning and retaining information about human anatomy. PMID:21805688

Logan, Jessica M; Thompson, Andrew J; Marshak, David W

2011-01-01

346

Testing to enhance retention in human anatomy  

PubMed Central

Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one’s knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body and four about the nervous system, were developed. The quizzes were optional, and no credit was awarded. They were posted online using Blackboard, which provided feedback, and they were very popular. To determine whether the quizzes had any effect on retention, they were given in a controlled setting to 21 future medical and dental students. The weekly quizzes included questions on regional anatomy and an expanded set of questions on the nervous system. Each question about the nervous system was given three times, in a slightly different form each time. The second quiz was given approximately half an hour after the first one, and the third was given one week after the second to assess retention. The quizzes were unpopular, but students showed robust improvement on the questions about the nervous system. The scores increased by almost 9% on the second quiz, with no intervention except viewing the correct answers. The scores were 29% higher on the third quiz than on the first, and there was also a positive correlation between the grades on the quizzes and the final examination. Thus, repeated testing is an effective strategy for learning and retaining information about human anatomy.

Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

2011-01-01

347

Improved motor sequence retention by motionless listening.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of listening to a newly learned musical piece on subsequent motor retention of the piece. Thirty-six non-musicians were trained to play an unfamiliar melody on a piano keyboard. Next, they were randomly assigned to participate in three follow-up listening sessions over 1 week. Subjects who, during their listening sessions, listened to the same initial piece showed significant improvements in motor memory and retention of the piece despite the absence of physical practice. These improvements included increased pitch accuracy, time accuracy, and dynamic intensity of key pressing. Similar improvements, though to a lesser degree, were observed in subjects who, during their listening sessions, were distracted by another task. Control subjects, who after learning the piece had listened to nonmusical sounds, showed impaired motoric retention of the piece at 1 week from the initial acquisition day. These results imply that motor sequences can be established in motor memory without direct access to motor-related information. In addition, the study revealed that the listening-induced improvements did not generalize to the learning of a new musical piece composed of the same notes as the initial piece learned, limiting the effects to musical motor sequences that are already part of the individual's motor repertoire. PMID:22434336

Lahav, Amir; Katz, Tal; Chess, Roxanne; Saltzman, Elliot

2013-05-01

348

Space Station Commonality Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems a...

1988-01-01

349

NSDL Math Common Core  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NSDL Math Common Core collection provides quick and easy access to high-quality math resources that have been related to one or more standard statements within the Math Common Core. These resources are selected from the larger NSDL collection and other trusted providers, and organized by grade level and domain area.

2010-08-10

350

Common Undiagnosed Appendicular Fractures  

PubMed Central

Family physicians working in the emergency room or assessing acutely injured patients in the office often must assess radiographs of suspected fractures. Many common fractures are difficult to diagnose with plain film radiography. This article focuses on some commonly undiagnosed fractures, with illustrations. ImagesFigures 1-2Figures 3-5Figures 6-7Figures 8-9Figure 10

McLennan, Michael K.; Rubenstein, Joel; Howard, Brian

1992-01-01

351

Conceptualizing an Information Commons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology-management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service-delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment. (Author)

Beagle, Donald

1999-01-01

352

Testing for Common Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cointegrated multiple time series share at least one common trend. Two tests are developed for the number of common stochastic trends (i.e., for the order of cointegration) in a multiple time series with and without drift. Both tests involve the roots of the ordinary least squares coefficient matrix obtained by regressing the series onto its first lag. Critical values for

James H. Stock; Mark W. Watson

1988-01-01

353

Metaphor and Common-Sense Reasoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inferences based on metaphors appear to play a major role in human common sense reasoning. This paper identifies and analyzes general inference patterns based upon underlying metaphors, in particular the pervasive balance principle. Strategies for metapho...

J. G. Carbonell S. Minton

1983-01-01

354

Retention of drug administration skills after intensive teaching.  

PubMed

We have identified deficiencies in medical students' drug administration skills, and we attempted to address them with interactive online teaching modules and simulated critical incident scenarios. Short-term improvements have been evident with this intensive effort, but medium-term retention of skills has not been measured. A drug administration lecture, an online module and a simulated emergency scenario were offered to final year clinical students. None of the teaching was compulsory but participation was recorded, along with students' simulator performances and marks in an objective structured practical examination 9 months later. A poor simulator score predicted a poor performance in the later examination. Participation in the simulated scenario only significantly improved examination scores when supplemented by online teaching (p = 0.002). Intensive drug administration teaching using an online module and high fidelity simulation improves drug administration skills in the medium term. Students found simulation much more engaging than online teaching. PMID:18336488

Wheeler, D W; Degnan, B A; Murray, L J; Dunling, C P; Whittlestone, K D; Wood, D F; Smith, H L; Gupta, A K

2008-04-01

355

GABAA receptors determine the temporal dynamics of memory retention  

PubMed Central

Four experiments studied the role of GABAA receptors in the temporal dynamics of memory retention. Memory for an active avoidance response was a nonmonotonic function of the retention interval. When rats were tested shortly (2 min) or some time (24 h) after training, retention was excellent, but when they were tested at intermediate intervals (1–4 h), retention was poor. Activity at GABAA receptors was critical for impairing memory retention at the intermediate intervals because injection of the GABAA receptor partial inverse agonist FG7142 prior to test significantly improved performance. These retention enhancing effects of FG7142 were dose-dependent and not due to any nonspecific effects of FG7142 on activity. Our results suggest that the temporal dynamics of memory retention may be caused by variations in neurotransmission through the GABAA receptor in the post-training period.

McNally, Gavan P.; Augustyn, Katarzyna A.; Richardson, Rick

2008-01-01

356

Common Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a larger, more detailed toolkit is in progress.

Steinfeld, Aaron; Lewis, Michael; Fong, Terrence; Scholtz, Jean; Schultz, Alan; Kaber, David; Goodrich, Michael

2006-01-01

357

Facilitating job retention for chronically ill employees: perspectives of line managers and human resource managers  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic diseases are a leading contributor to work disability and job loss in Europe. Recent EU policies aim to improve job retention among chronically ill employees. Disability and occupational health researchers argue that this requires a coordinated and pro-active approach at the workplace by occupational health professionals, line managers (LMs) and human resource managers (HRM). Little is known about the perspectives of LMs an HRM on what is needed to facilitate job retention among chronically ill employees. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and compare the perspectives of Dutch LMs and HRM on this issue. Methods Concept mapping methodology was used to elicit and map statements (ideas) from 10 LMs and 17 HRM about what is needed to ensure continued employment for chronically ill employees. Study participants were recruited through a higher education and an occupational health services organization. Results Participants generated 35 statements. Each group (LMs and HRM) sorted these statements into six thematic clusters. LMs and HRM identified four similar clusters: LMs and HRM must be knowledgeable about the impact of chronic disease on the employee; employees must accept responsibility for work retention; work adaptations must be implemented; and clear company policy. Thematic clusters identified only by LMs were: good manager/employee cooperation and knowledge transfer within the company. Unique clusters identified by HRM were: company culture and organizational support. Conclusions There were both similarities and differences between the views of LMs and HRM on what may facilitate job retention for chronically ill employees. LMs perceived manager/employee cooperation as the most important mechanism for enabling continued employment for these employees. HRM perceived organizational policy and culture as the most important mechanism. The findings provide information about topics that occupational health researchers and planners should address in developing job retention programs for chronically ill workers.

2011-01-01

358

Commonality and Variability in Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes how to perform domain engineering by identifying the commonalities and variabilities within a family of products. Through interesting examples dealing with reuse libraries, design patterns, and programming language design, the authors suggest a systematic scope, commonalities, and variabilities approach to formal analysis. Their SCV analysis has been an integral part of the FAST (Family-oriented Abstraction, Specification, and

James Coplien; Daniel Hoffman; David M. Weiss

1998-01-01

359

A Common Metric for Integrating Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The choice of a common metric for the meta-analysis (quantitative synthesis) of correlational and experimental research studies is presented and justified. First, a background for the problem of identifying a common metric is presented. Second, the percentage of accounted variance (PAV) is described as the metric of choice, and reasons are given…

Haladyna, Tom

360

Social Equity and the One Florida Initiative: Minority Student Admission, Retention, and Graduation in the University System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Executive Order 99-281 (1999), commonly known as the "One Florida Initiative," abolished affirmative action policies in university admissions, state employment, and state contracting. This dissertation studies the impact that the implementation of this initiative has had on the admission, retention and graduation rates of minority students in…

Duffourc, Danielle

2010-01-01

361

Communication and common interest.  

PubMed

Explaining the maintenance of communicative behavior in the face of incentives to deceive, conceal information, or exaggerate is an important problem in behavioral biology. When the interests of agents diverge, some form of signal cost is often seen as essential to maintaining honesty. Here, novel computational methods are used to investigate the role of common interest between the sender and receiver of messages in maintaining cost-free informative signaling in a signaling game. Two measures of common interest are defined. These quantify the divergence between sender and receiver in their preference orderings over acts the receiver might perform in each state of the world. Sampling from a large space of signaling games finds that informative signaling is possible at equilibrium with zero common interest in both senses. Games of this kind are rare, however, and the proportion of games that include at least one equilibrium in which informative signals are used increases monotonically with common interest. Common interest as a predictor of informative signaling also interacts with the extent to which agents' preferences vary with the state of the world. Our findings provide a quantitative description of the relation between common interest and informative signaling, employing exact measures of common interest, information use, and contingency of payoff under environmental variation that may be applied to a wide range of models and empirical systems. PMID:24244116

Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Martínez, Manolo

2013-01-01

362

Enhancing nitrification at low temperature with zeolite in a mining operations retention pond.  

PubMed

Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up to 9?months of the year. The aluminosilicate mineral zeolite was tested as an additive to retention pond water to increase rates of ammonium removal at 4°C. Water samples were collected across the length of the retention pond monthly over a year. The structure of the microbial community (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya), as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, was more stable during cold months than during July-September, when there was a marked phytoplankton bloom. Of the ammonia-oxidizing community, only bacterial amoA genes were consistently detected. Zeolite (10?g) was added to retention pond water (100?mL) amended with 5?mM ammonium and incubated at 12°C to encourage development of a nitrifying biofilm. The biofilm community was composed of different amoA phylotypes from those identified in gene clone libraries of native water samples. Zeolite biofilm was added to fresh water samples collected at different times of the year, resulting in a significant increase in laboratory measurements of potential nitrification activity at 4°C. A significant positive correlation between the amount of zeolite biofilm and potential nitrification activity was observed; rates were unaffected in incubations containing 1-20?mM ammonium. Addition of zeolite to retention ponds in cold environments could effectively increase nitrification rates year-round by concentrating active nitrifying biomass. PMID:22866052

Miazga-Rodriguez, Misha; Han, Sukkyun; Yakiwchuk, Brian; Wei, Kai; English, Colleen; Bourn, Steven; Bohnert, Seth; Stein, Lisa Y

2012-01-01

363

Retention of total carotenoid and ?-carotene in yellow sweet cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) after domestic cooking  

PubMed Central

Background Over the last decade, considerable efforts have been made to identify cassava cultivars to improve the vitamin A nutritional status of undernourished populations, especially in northeast Brazil, where cassava is one of the principal and essentially only nutritional source. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the total carotenoid, ?-carotene, and its all-E-, 9-, and 13-Z-?-carotene isomers content in seven yellow sweet cassava roots and their retention after three boiling cooking methods. Design The total carotenoid, ?-carotene, and its all-E-, 9-, and 13-Z-?-carotene isomers in yellow sweet cassava samples were determined by ultraviolet/visible spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively, before and after applying the cooking methods. All analyses were performed in triplicate. Results The total carotenoid in raw roots varied from 2.64 to 14.15 µg/g and total ?-carotene from 1.99 to 10.32 µg/g. The ?-carotene predominated in all the roots. The Híbrido 2003 14 08 cultivar presented the highest ?-carotene content after cooking methods 1 and 3. The 1153 – Klainasik cultivar presented the highest 9-Z-?-carotene content after cooking by method 3. The highest total carotenoid retention was observed in cultivar 1456 – Vermelhinha and that of ?-carotene for the Híbrido 2003 14 11 cultivar, both after cooking method 1. Evaluating the real retention percentage (RR%) in sweet yellow cassava after home cooking methods showed differences that can be attributed to the total initial carotenoid contents. However, no cooking method uniformly provided a higher total carotenoid or ?-carotene retention in all the cultivars. Conclusion Differences were found in the cooking methods among the samples regarding total carotenoid or ?-carotene retention, suggesting that the different behaviors of the cultivars need to be further analyzed. However, high percentages of total carotenoid or ?-carotene retention were observed and can minimize vitamin A deficiency in low-income populations.

Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Oliveira, Alcides R. G.; Godoy, Ronoel L. O.; Pacheco, Sidney; Nutti, Marilia R.; de Carvalho, Jose L. V.; Pereira, Elenilda J.; Fukuda, Wania G.

2012-01-01

364

Coronary endothelial dysfunction in humans is associated with coronary retention of osteogenic endothelial progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Aims Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) may participate in the repair of injured coronary endothelium. We have recently identified EPC co-expressing the osteoblastic marker osteocalcin [OCN (+) EPC] and found that their numbers are increased in patients with early and late coronary atherosclerosis. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that early coronary atherosclerosis is associated with the retention of osteogenic EPC within the coronary circulation. Methods and results Blood samples were taken simultaneously from the proximal aorta and the coronary sinus from 31 patients undergoing invasive coronary endothelial function testing. Using flow cytometry, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analysed for EPC markers (CD133, CD34, KDR) and OCN. The net gradient of EPC was calculated by multiplying the coronary blood flow by the arteriovenous EPC gradient (a negative net gradient indicating retention of EPC). Similarly, serum samples were analysed for stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1 alpha) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) and their net production calculated. Compared with controls (n = 17) patients with endothelial dysfunction (ED, n = 14) had a significant net retention of CD34+/CD133?/KDR+/OCN+ EPC [118.38 (0.00, 267.04) vs. ?112.03 (838.36, 0.00), P = 0.004]. The retention of OCN (+) EPC correlated with the degree of ED. Patients with ED also showed a net retention of CD34+/CD133?/KDR+ EPC (P = 0.010). Net production of IL-8 was positive in ED [1540.80 (?300.40, 21744.10)pg/mL] but negative in controls [?3428.50 (?11225.00, 647.48), P = 0.025]. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that patients with early coronary atherosclerosis are characterized by retention of OCN (+) EPC within the coronary circulation, potentially leading to progressive coronary calcification rather than normal repair.

Gossl, Mario; Modder, Ulrike I.; Gulati, Rajiv; Rihal, Charanjit S.; Prasad, Abhiram; Loeffler, Darrell; Lerman, Lilach O.; Khosla, Sundeep; Lerman, Amir

2010-01-01

365

Common variable immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a common primary immunodeficiency characterized by a failure in B-cell differentiation with defective immunoglobulin production. Affected patients are uniquely susceptible to recurrent infection with encapsulated organisms and have an increased propensity for the development of inflammatory and autoimmune manifestations. The diagnosis of CVID is commonly delayed and the underlying cause of the disorder is not understood. Replacement antibody therapy reduces the risk of serious infections. However, optimal treatment regimens for the uncommon manifestations associated with this disease, such as granulomatous lymphocytic interstitial lung disease, require further research.

Tam, Jonathan S.

2013-01-01

366

Automatic grading of appearance retention of carpets using intensity and range images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Textiles are mainly used for decoration and protection. In both cases, their original appearance and its retention are important factors for customers. Therefore, evaluation of appearance parameters are critical for quality assurance purposes, during and after manufacturing, to determine the lifetime and/or beauty of textile products. In particular, appearance retention of textile products is commonly certified with grades, which are currently assigned by human experts. However, manufacturers would prefer a more objective system. We present an objective system for grading appearance retention, particularly, for textile floor coverings. Changes in appearance are quantified by using linear regression models on texture features extracted from intensity and range images. Range images are obtained by our own laser scanner, reconstructing the carpet surface using two methods that have been previously presented. We extract texture features using a variant of the local binary pattern technique based on detecting those patterns whose frequencies are related to the appearance retention grades. We test models for eight types of carpets. Results show that the proposed approach describes the degree of wear with a precision within the range allowed to human inspectors by international standards. The methodology followed in this experiment has been designed to be general for evaluating global deviation of texture in other types of textiles, as well as other surface materials.

Orjuela Vargas, Sergio Alejandro; Ortiz-Jaramillo, Benhur; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Rooms, Filip; De Meulemeester, Simon; de Keyser, Robain; Van Langenhove, Lieva; Philips, Wilfried

2012-04-01

367

Sequestration and Retention of Uranium (VI) in the Presence of Hydroxylapatite under Dynamic Geochemical Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Numerous solid- and aqueous-phase, phosphate-based technologies for remediating heavy metals and radionuclides have the common premise of sequestration by hydroxylapatite. Complexation reactions and hydrolysis generally preclude actinides from incorporation into intracrystalline sites; rather, surface sorption and precipitation are significant mechanisms for the sequestration of actinides. The effect of pH, aqueous speciation, and the availability of reactive surface sites on minerals such as hydroxylapatite have a significant impact on the mechanism and degree of sequestration and retention of variably charged contaminants such as uranium. Yet, little attention has been given to the sequestration and retention of uranium by hydroxylapatite under dynamic geochemical conditions which may be encountered during remediation activities. We present the results of an investigation evaluating the removal of uranium by hydroxylapatite in systems near equilibrium with respect to hydroxylapatite, and the effect of dynamic aqueous geochemical conditions, such as those encountered during and subsequent to remediation activities, on the retention of uranium are considered. Results presented here support previous investigations demonstrating the efficiency of hydroxylapatite for sequestration of uranium and illustrate the importance of geochemical conditions, including changes to surface properties and aqueous speciation, on the sequestration and retention of uranium.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Glovack, Julia N.; Parker, Kent E.; Richards, Emily L.; Pierce, Eric M.

2008-02-24

368

Cooperative Learning and Enhanced Communication: Effects on Student Performance, Retention, and Attitudes in General Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report discusses the retention and performance of three sections of general chemistry that utilized different levels of cooperative learning and enhanced communication. The structured cooperative section (S-coop) required that students belonged to study groups, had group homework and group quizzes and had course credit driven electronic mail. The unstructured cooperative section (U-coop) encouraged students to form optional informal groups and provided for optional enhanced communication by paper mail. The control section used a standard lecture format without any cooperative learning or enhanced communication options. The student retention (C or better) was S-coop 85 %, U-coop 76 %, and Control 59 % (all differences were statistically significant). On the final exam the percent correct for common questions was S-coop 58%, U-coop 60%, and Control 55%. Adjusted for the difference in retention there was no significant difference between the two cooperative sections. The results of the Student Instructional Rating System for the three sections had the following percentage of students agreeing that the instructor was an effective teacher: S-coop 74%; U-coop 99%; and Control 80%. In all cases the differences were statistically significant. We conclude that a structured cooperative learning environment with enhanced communication can improve overall student retention and performance in general chemistry.

Dougherty, R. C.; Bowen, C. W.; Berger, T.; Rees, W.; Mellon, E. K.; Pulliam, E.

1995-09-01

369

Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... arch supports into shoes to reduce foot pain. Toe Walking Toe walking is common among toddlers as ... stretch the calf muscles. Continue In-Toeing (Pigeon Toes) In-toeing (medical name: femoral anteversion), or walking ...

370

Metabolism - Common Metabolism Concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains how solar energy is the energy source for almost all living systems on earth. Photosynthesis, catabolic reactions, and anabolic reactions are briefly discussed. Lastly, common questions are answered about converting food to energy.

371

Common peroneal nerve dysfunction  

MedlinePLUS

Neuropathy - common peroneal nerve; Peroneal nerve injury; Peroneal nerve palsy ... The peroneal nerve is a branch of the sciatic nerve, which supplies movement and sensation to the lower leg, foot and ...

372

Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

1973-01-01

373

Common MANET Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort researched, developed and demonstrated a Common Mobile Ad-hoc Networking (MANET) framework (CMF) to provide a uniform abstraction for wireless discovery, communication, and routing of network traffic over heterogeneous transmission technologie...

G. Frazier

2008-01-01

374

Commonly Occurring VHL Manifestations  

MedlinePLUS

... Most Common Ages at DX Frequency in Patients CNS Retinal hemangioblastomas 0-68 yrs 12-25 yrs ... Occurring VHL Manifestations Kidney Brain and Spinal Cord / CNS Retina Pancreas Inner Ear Pheochromocytoma / Paraganglioma Reproductive Organs ...

375

Common skin conditions.  

PubMed Central

Four common conditions: acne, psoriasis, eczema and urticaria are considered. Guidance is given on appropriate topical and systematic treatment for the different types and degrees of these conditions, with notes on management in general and criteria for referral to hospital outpatient departments. Where there are different types of the condition, with varying aetiology, for example in urticaria and eczema, management of the common types is outlined.

Ridley, M.; Safranek, M.

1992-01-01

376

Filter-feeding in common bream (Abramis brama), white bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and roach (Rutilus rutilus); structures, functions and ecological significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

common bream <\\/DIV>In this thesis the retention mechanism of the branchial sieve of three sympatric cyprinid fish species, the common bream (Abramis brama), the white bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and the roach (Rutilus rutilus) , is studied. In eutrophic lakes zooplankton is an important food resource and common bream is dominant. Previous research indicated that common bream retains

Berg van den C

1993-01-01

377

Provitamin A carotenoids in biofortified maize and their retention during processing and preparation of South African maize foods.  

PubMed

Provitamin A-biofortified maize may contribute to alleviating vitamin A deficiency (VAD), in developing countries. However, processing the maize into food products may reduce its provitamin A content. The aims of this study were to determine the composition of provitamin A carotenoids in biofortified maize varieties as well as to assess their retention during processing of popular maize foods consumed in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The non-provitamin A carotenoid, zeaxanthin and the provitamin A carotenoids, ?-cryptoxanthin, and trans and cis isomers of ?-carotene, and other unidentified trans and cis isomers of ?-carotene were detected in varying concentrations in the maize. Milling provitamin A-biofortified maize into mealie meal resulted in a higher retention of carotenoids compared to milling into samp. The highest retention of provitamin A carotenoids was observed in cooked phutu and cooked samp, whilst cooking into thin porridge resulted in the lowest retention of provitamin A carotenoids. In phutu, 96.6?±?20.3% ?-cryptoxanthin and 95.5?±?13.6% of the ?-carotene were retained after cooking. In samp, 91.9?±?12.0% ?-cryptoxanthin and 100.1?±?8.8% ?-carotene; and in thin porridge, 65.8?±?4.6% ?-cryptoxanthin and 74.7?±?3.0% ?-carotene were retained after cooking. This study demonstrates that provitamin A retention in maize is affected by the cooking method (and hence cooked food form) and therefore cooking methods that result in a good retention of provitamin A need to be identified and recommended. PMID:24741156

Pillay, Kirthee; Siwela, Muthulisi; Derera, John; Veldman, Frederick J

2014-04-01

378

Urinary retention presenting as complete bowel obstruction  

PubMed Central

A 59-year-old male was admitted to hospital for clinical and radiological signs of large bowel obstruction with clinical signs of generalized peritonitis. As such, he was scheduled to undergo emergency exploratory laparotomy. During preoperative preparation, over 2000 mL of urine was obtained after catheterization. We suggested re-evaluation, and after several hours the symptoms resolved. Although rare, pressure from the distended bladder due to urinary retention can cause complete bowel obstruction and signs of peritonitis. If a large volume of urine is obtained during preoperative preparation for mechanical bowel obstruction, it is recommended to re-evaluate the patient to avoid unnecessary surgery and imaging studies.

Papes, Dino; Altarac, Silvio; Arslani, Nuhi; Rajkovic, Zoran

2013-01-01

379

Deuterium retention in tungsten at elevated temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tungsten ITER divertor will be operated at temperatures above 1000 K. Most of the laboratory experiments on hydrogen isotope retention in tungsten have been performed at lower temperatures where the hydrogen is retained as both atoms and molecules. At higher temperatures, atomic trapping plays a smaller role. The purpose of this paper is to see if hydrogen is trapped at internal voids at elevated temperatures, and to see if gas-filled cavities can be formed at high fluences. Additionally, this paper examines the effect of helium bubbles and radiation damage on trapping.

Causey, R. A.; Cowgill, D. F.; Doerner, R.; Kolasinski, R.; Mills, B.; Morse, D.; Smugeresky, J.; Wampler, W. R.; Williams, R.; Huber, D.

2011-08-01

380

Clinic policy and retention in methadone maintenance.  

PubMed

Advantage was taken of a natural experiment to investigate the relationship of clinic objectives and procedures with retention in methadone maintenance. Assessment, maximum dose, and time in treatment data on 238 patients were summarized using Cox regression. While allowing for patient descriptors and maximum dose of methadone, those subjects assigned to a strongly abstinence-oriented program were 26% (95% C.I., 18 to 33%), 98% (66 to 137%), 213% (132 to 322%), and 393% (224 to 651%) more likely to leave treatment in the first, second, third, fourth 6 months of treatment, respectively, than those subjects assigned to a more laissez-faire program. PMID:8380283

Caplehorn, J R; McNeil, D R; Kleinbaum, D G

1993-01-01

381

Workforce Challenges and Retention Success Stories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document discusses the current and future challenges in building and retaining the required workforce of scientist and engineers for NASA. Specifically, the talk reviews the current situation at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Several programs at NASA for high school and college students to assist in inspiring the next generation of scientist and engineers are reviewed. The issue of retention of the best of the young scientists and engineers is also reviewed, with a brief review of several young engineers and their success with and for NASA.

Donohue, John T.

2008-01-01

382

Sling Revision/Removal for Mesh Erosion and Urinary Retention: Long-term Risk and Predictors  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate the long-term risk of sling revision/removal after an initial sling and to assess indications (mesh erosion and urinary retention) and predictors of sling revision/removal. Study Design Using a population-based cohort of commercially insured individuals, we identified women ? 18 who underwent a sling (CPT 57288) between 2001–2010 and any subsequent sling revision/removal (CPT 57287). We estimated the cumulative risk of revision/removal annually and evaluated predictors of sling revision/removal using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. Results We identified 188,454 eligible women who underwent an index sling. The 9-year cumulative risk of sling revision/removal was 3.7% (95%CI 3.5, 3.9). At one year, this risk was already 2.2% and then increased to 3.2% at four years before plateauing. Regarding the indication for the sling revision/removal, a greater proportion was due to mesh erosion compared to urinary retention, with a 9-year risk of 2.5% (95%CI 2.3, 2.6) for mesh erosion versus 1.3% (95%CI 1.2, 1.4) for urinary retention. Age had an effect on revision/removal rates for both mesh erosion and urinary retention, with the higher risks among those aged 18–29. The risk of revision/removal for mesh erosion and urinary retention was also elevated among women who had a concomitant anterior or apical prolapse procedure. Conclusions In this population-based analysis, the 9-year risk of sling revision/removal was relatively low at 3.7%, with 60% of revisions/removals due to mesh erosion.

Jonsson Funk, Michele; Siddiqui, Nazema Y.; Pate, Virginia; Amundsen, Cindy L.; Wu, Jennifer M.

2012-01-01

383

Education for Sustainable Development and retention: unravelling a research agenda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the question of what education for sustainable development (ESD) research might signify when linked to the concept of "retention", and how this relation (ESD and retention) might be researched. It considers two different perspectives on retention, as revealed through educational research trajectories, drawing on existing research and case studies. Firstly, it discusses an ESD research agenda that documents retention by focusing on the issue of keeping children in schools. This research agenda is typical of the existing discourses surrounding Education for All (EFA). It then discusses a related ESD research agenda that focuses more on the pedagogical and curricular aspects of retention, as this provides for a deeper understanding of how ESD can contribute to improving the quality of teaching and learning within a wider EFA retention agenda.

Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

2010-06-01

384

Recruitment and retention in academic medicine--what junior faculty and trainees want department chairs to know.  

PubMed

Attracting and retaining bright and motivated physicians remains a high priority for academia. Historically, the recruitment of trainees into academia and the retention of junior faculty have been suboptimal. To learn more about the perceived obstacles that discourage the pursuit of academic careers, a Workshop on Academic Career Pathways was conducted during the 2011 Southern Regional Meetings held in New Orleans. The audience included mainly residents and fellows as well as junior and senior faculties. Speakers described career options in academic medicine focusing on the clinician-investigator and the clinician-educator tracks. Afterward, the audience was asked to identify perceived obstacles to recruitment and retention in academic medicine. The group identified 10 major obstacles in 3 categories: financial challenges, personal mentoring and academic skills acquisition. This article summarizes the workshop proceedings and ends with recommendations to chairs and department leaders for improving recruitment and retention in academic medicine based on the discussion. PMID:22744375

Kubiak, Nancy T; Guidot, David M; Trimm, R Franklin; Kamen, Diane L; Roman, Jesse

2012-07-01

385

Football and Freshmen Retention: Examining the Impact of College Football on Institutional Retention Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student retention has been one of the more researched topics in the study of American higher education over the past 20 years (Braxton, Hirschy, & McClendon, 2004; Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005). Very little of this research, however, has attempted to examine the impact of college athletics on an institution's ability to retain students. This…

Jones, Willis A.

2010-01-01

386

In-vessel tritium retention and removal in ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tritium retention inside the vacuum vessel has emerged as a potentially serious constraint in the operation of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In this paper we review recent tokamak and laboratory data on hydrogen, deuterium and tritium retention for materials and conditions which are of direct relevance to the design of ITER. These data, together with significant advances in understanding the underlying physics, provide the basis for modelling predictions of the tritium inventory in ITER. We present the derivation, and discuss the results, of current predictions both in terms of implantation and codeposition rates, and critically discuss their uncertainties and sensitivity to important design and operation parameters such as the plasma edge conditions, the surface temperature, the presence of mixed-materials, etc. These analyses are consistent with recent tokamak findings and show that codeposition of tritium occurs on the divertor surfaces primarily with carbon eroded from a limited area of the divertor near the strike zones. This issue remains an area of serious concern for ITER. The calculated codeposition rates for ITER are relatively high and the in-vessel tritium inventory limit could be reached, under worst assumptions, in approximately a week of continuous operation. We discuss the implications of these estimates on the design, operation and safety of ITER and present a strategy for resolving the issues. We conclude that as long as carbon is used in ITER - and more generically in any other next-step experimental fusion facility fuelled with tritium - the efficient control and removal of the codeposited tritium is essential. There is a critical need to develop and test in situ cleaning techniques and procedures that are beyond the current experience of present-day tokamaks. We review some of the principal methods that are being investigated and tested, in conjunction with the R&D work still required to extrapolate their applicability to ITER. Finally, unresolved issues are identified and recommendations are made on potential R&D avenues for their resolution.

Federici, G.; Anderl, R. A.; Andrew, P.; Brooks, J. N.; Causey, R. A.; Coad, J. P.; Cowgill, D.; Doerner, R. P.; Haasz, A. A.; Janeschitz, G.; Jacob, W.; Longhurst, G. R.; Nygren, R.; Peacock, A.; Pick, M. A.; Philipps, V.; Roth, J.; Skinner, C. H.; Wampler, W. R.

387

The Federal Commons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1999, the Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act was passed in order to force the development of federal electronic grant processing. A result of the legislation, the Federal Commons portal gives "grantees (state and local governments, universities, small businesses, etc.) full service grants processing across all functions in the grant life cycle." While providing only an entrance to various grant institutions and services, the Federal Commons helps to eliminate the maze-like trail that multi-grant projects sometimes must travel to get to grant proposal Web sites. Most physical sciences researchers will find relevant federal departments listed under the Science and Technology link.

388

Common-place  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This promising new quarterly online publication situates itself somewhere between a popular magazine and scholarly journal, offering a common place for a variety of readers "to explore and exchange ideas about American history." Similar in some ways to the UK-based popular history magazine History Today, Common-place offers a mix of articles, short features, and reviews aimed at an interested and informed, but not necessarily academic, audience. A discussion board is planned for the near future, and users may subscribe for email notification of new issues.

389

Common Cause Failure Modes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

2011-01-01

390

Real-time imaging reveals endothelium-mediated leukocyte retention in LPS-treated lung microvessels.  

PubMed

Endotoxemia, a major feature of sepsis, is a common cause of acute lung injury and initiates rapid accumulation of leukocytes in the lung vasculature. Endothelial mechanisms that underlie this accumulation remain unclear, as current experimental models of endotoxemia are less suitable for targeted activation of the endothelium. Toward elucidating this, we used the isolated blood-perfused rat lung preparation. With a microcatheter inserted through a left atrial cannula, we cleared blood cells from a small lung region and then infused lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into microvessels. After a Ringer's wash to remove residual LPS, we infused fluorescently-labeled autologous leukocytes and imaged their transit through the treated microvessels. Image analysis revealed that leukocytes infused 90 min after LPS treatment were retained more in treated venules and capillaries than untreated vessels. Further, pretreatment with either the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mAb or polymyxin-B blunted LPS-induced leukocyte retention in both microvessel segments. In addition, retention of leukocytes treated ex vivo with LPS in LPS-treated microvessels was higher compared to retention of untreated leukocytes. In situ immunofluorescence experiments revealed that LPS significantly increased microvessel ICAM-1 expression at 90 min post treatment. Polymyxin pretreatment inhibited this increase. Taken together, the data suggest that LPS increased leukocyte retention in both venules and capillaries and this response was mediated by the increased expression of endothelial ICAM-1. Thus, endothelial mechanisms may themselves play a major role in LPS-induced leukocyte retention in lung microvessels. Blunting the endothelial responses may mitigate endotoxin-induced morbidity. PMID:22342350

Kandasamy, Kathirvel; Sahu, Geetaram; Parthasarathi, Kaushik

2012-05-01

391

Can periprosthetic hip joint infections be successfully managed by debridement and prosthesis retention?  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the current literature about how successfully periprosthetic hip joint infections can be managed by debridement and prosthesis retention. A literature search was performed through PubMed until September 2013. Search terms were “DAIR (debridement, antibiotics, irrigation, and retention)” alone and in combination with “hip” as well as “hip infection + prosthesis retention”. A total of 11 studies reporting on 292 cases could be identified. Five different treatment modalities have been described with varying success rates (debridement-21% infection eradication rate; debridement + lavage-75% infection eradication rate; debridement, lavage, with change of modular prosthesis components-70.4% infection eradication rate; debridement, lavage, change of modular prosthesis components + vacuum-assisted closure-92.8% infection eradication rate; acetabular cup removal + spacer head onto retained stem-89.6% infection eradication rate). With regard to the postoperative antibiotic therapy, no general consensus could be drawn from the available data. Debridement, antibiotic therapy, irrigation, and prosthesis retention is an acceptable solution in the management of early and acute hematogenous periprosthetic hip joint infections. The current literature does not allow for generalization of conclusions with regard to the best treatment modality. A large, multi-center study is required for identification of the optimal treatment of these infections.

Anagnostakos, Konstantinos; Schmitt, Cornelia

2014-01-01

392

Can periprosthetic hip joint infections be successfully managed by debridement and prosthesis retention?  

PubMed

To evaluate the current literature about how successfully periprosthetic hip joint infections can be managed by debridement and prosthesis retention. A literature search was performed through PubMed until September 2013. Search terms were "DAIR (debridement, antibiotics, irrigation, and retention)" alone and in combination with "hip" as well as "hip infection + prosthesis retention". A total of 11 studies reporting on 292 cases could be identified. Five different treatment modalities have been described with varying success rates (debridement-21% infection eradication rate; debridement + lavage-75% infection eradication rate; debridement, lavage, with change of modular prosthesis components-70.4% infection eradication rate; debridement, lavage, change of modular prosthesis components + vacuum-assisted closure-92.8% infection eradication rate; acetabular cup removal + spacer head onto retained stem-89.6% infection eradication rate). With regard to the postoperative antibiotic therapy, no general consensus could be drawn from the available data. Debridement, antibiotic therapy, irrigation, and prosthesis retention is an acceptable solution in the management of early and acute hematogenous periprosthetic hip joint infections. The current literature does not allow for generalization of conclusions with regard to the best treatment modality. A large, multi-center study is required for identification of the optimal treatment of these infections. PMID:25035823

Anagnostakos, Konstantinos; Schmitt, Cornelia

2014-07-18

393

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2010-09-30

394

Hydrogen retention in ion irradiated steels  

SciTech Connect

In the future 1--5 MW Spallation Neutron Source, target radiation damage will be accompanied by high levels of hydrogen and helium transmutation products. The authors have recently carried out investigations using simultaneous Fe/He,H multiple-ion implantations into 316 LN stainless steel between 50 and 350 C to simulate the type of radiation damage expected in spallation neutron sources. Hydrogen and helium were injected at appropriate energy and rate, while displacement damage was introduced by nuclear stopping of 3.5 MeV Fe{sup +}, 1 {micro}m below the surface. Nanoindentation measurements showed a cumulative increase in hardness as a result of hydrogen and helium injection over and above the hardness increase due to the displacement damage alone. TEM investigation indicated the presence of small bubbles of the injected gases in the irradiated area. In the current experiment, the retention of hydrogen in irradiated steel was studied in order to better understand its contribution to the observed hardening. To achieve this, the deuterium isotope ({sup 2}H) was injected in place of natural hydrogen ({sup 1}H) during the implantation. Trapped deuterium was then profiled, at room temperature, using the high cross-section nuclear resonance reaction with {sup 3}He. Results showed a surprisingly high concentration of deuterium to be retained in the irradiated steel at low temperature, especially in the presence of helium. There is indication that hydrogen retention at spallation neutron source relevant target temperatures may reach as high as 10%.

Hunn, J.D.; Lewis, M.B.; Lee, E.H.

1998-11-01

395

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2013-10-15

396

Phosphorus retention in non-tidal palustrine forssted wetlands of the mid-atlantic region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We: 1) quantified the areal extent of wetlands by type in Caroline County, VA to estimate the relative importance of non-tidal\\u000a palustrine forested wetlands as a component of the wetland resources in Virginia’s mid-Atlantic coastal plain, 2) used a comparative\\u000a literature review to identify factors that might be important in controlling P retention in these wetlands, and 3) evaluated\\u000a three

Mark R. Walbridge; Judith P. Struthers

1993-01-01

397

Building a peer mentor home health aide program: implications for home health aide retention.  

PubMed

The Home Health Aide (HHA) industry is challenged with low wages, little possibility of career advancement, and high turnover rates. Jewish Home Lifecare, Home Assistance Personnel Inc. (HAPI) is a home care aide agency that has developed a Peer Mentor HHA program. Peer Mentor HHAs mentor newly hired/trained HHAs within our agency. This career path leads to higher paying work that allows for growth of our workforce for the identified growing care need and positively impacts HHA retention. PMID:20811183

Kreiser, Athena Lu; Adamski, Tom; Gallagher, Bridget

2010-09-01

398

First-Grade Student Retention Within a 3Tier Reading Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

First-grade students from 6 Title I schools participated in this study, which used a response to intervention (RTI) framework to examine the retention of 1st-grade students. Researchers examined reading and behavior data from 3 cohorts of students (1 historical control cohort and 2 cohorts receiving tiered reading instruction) and data gathered from interviews with school principals. They (a) identified a

Christy S. Murray; Althea L. Woodruff; Sharon Vaughn

2010-01-01

399

Quantitative structure-retention relationship for the Kovats retention indices of a large set of terpenes: a combined data splitting-feature selection strategy.  

PubMed

A data set consisting of a large number of terpenoids, the widely distributed compounds in nature that are found in abundance in higher plants, have been used to develop a quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) for their Kovats retention index. QSPR models are usually obtained by splitting the data into two sets including calibration (or training) and prediction (or validation). All model building steps, especially feature selection procedure, are performed using this initial splitting, and therefore the performances of the resulted models are highly dependent on the initial data splitting. To investigate the effects of data splitting on the feature selection in the current article we proposed a combined data splitting-feature selection (CDFS) methodology for QSPR model development by producing several different training/validation/test sets, and repeating all of the model building studies. In this method, data splitting is achieved many times and in each case feature selection is performed. The resulted models are compared for similarity and dissimilarity between the selected descriptors. The final model is one whose descriptors are the common variables between all of resulted models. The method was applied to QSPR study of a large data set containing the Kovats retention indices of 573 terpenoids. A final 8-parametric multilinear model with constitutional and topological indices was obtained. Cross-validation indicated that the model could reproduce more than 90% of variances in the Kovats retention data. The relative error of prediction for an external test set of 50 compounds was 3.2%. Finally, to improve the results, structure-retention relationships were followed by nonlinear approach using artificial neural networks and consequently better results were obtained. PMID:17499073

Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Javadnia, Katayoun; Elyasi, Maryam

2007-05-29

400

The global landscape of intron retentions in lung adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The transcriptome complexity in an organism can be achieved by alternative splicing of precursor messenger RNAs. It has been revealed that alternations in mRNA splicing play an important role in a number of diseases including human cancers. Methods In this study, we exploited whole transcriptome sequencing data from five lung adenocarcinoma tissues and their matched normal tissues to interrogate intron retention, a less studied alternative splicing form which has profound structural and functional consequence by modifying open reading frame or inserting premature stop codons. Results Abundant intron retention events were found in both tumor and normal tissues, and 2,340 and 1,422 genes only contain tumor-specific retentions and normal-specific retentions, respectively. Combined with gene expression analysis, we showed that genes with tumor-specific retentions tend to be over-expressed in tumors, and the abundance of intron retention within genes is negatively related with gene expression, indicating the action of nonsense mediated decay. Further functional analysis demonstrated that genes with tumor-specific retentions include known lung cancer driver genes and are found enriched in pathways important in carcinogenesis. Conclusions We hypothesize that intron retentions and consequent nonsense mediated decay may collectively counteract the over-expression of genes promoting cancer development. Identification of genes with tumor-specific retentions may also help develop targeted therapies.

2014-01-01

401

Conceptual classification model for Sustainable Flood Retention Basins.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to recommend a rapid conceptual classification model for Sustainable Flood Retention Basins (SFRB) used to control runoff in a temperate climate. An SFRB is an aesthetically pleasing retention basin predominantly used for flood protection adhering to sustainable drainage and best management practices. The classification model was developed on the basis of a database of 141 SFRB using the River Rhine catchment in Baden (part of Baden-Württemberg, Germany) as a case study. It is based on an agglomerative cluster analysis and is intended to be used by engineers and scientists to adequately classify the following different types of SFRB: Hydraulic Flood Retention Basin, Traditional Flood Retention Basin, Sustainable Flood Retention Wetland, Aesthetic Flood Retention Wetland, Integrated Flood Retention Wetland and Natural Flood Retention Wetland. The selection of classification variables was supported by a principal component analysis. The identification of SFRB in the data set was based on a Ward cluster analysis of 34 weighted classification variables. Scoring tables were defined to enable the assignment of the six SFRB definitions to retention basins in the data set. The efficiency of these tables was based on a scoring system which gave the conceptual model for the example case study sites an overall efficiency of approximately 60% (as opposed to 17% by chance). This conceptual classification model should be utilized to improve communication by providing definitions for SFRB types. The classification definitions are likely to be applicable for other regions with both temperate oceanic and temperate continental climates. PMID:18280029

Scholz, Miklas; Sadowski, Adam J

2009-01-01

402

Liquid effluent retention facility dangerous waste permit application  

SciTech Connect

This appendix to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application contains pumps, piping, leak detection systems, geomembranes, leachate collection systems, earthworks and floating cover systems. (GHH)

Not Available

1991-06-01

403

Common Set of Definitions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A common set of definitions for Title XX services is found in this booklet. The service descriptors were prepared from a study conducted by Boston College Graduate School of Social Work under a grant from HEW. The definitions, program elements, and activi...

1979-01-01

404

COMMON LISP: The language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book describes COMMON LISP,which is becoming the industry and government standard AI language. Topics covered include the following: data types; scope and extent; type specifiers; program structure; predicates; control structure; macros; declarations; symbols; packages; numbers; characters; sequences; lists; hash tables; arrays; strings; structures; the evaluator; streams; input\\/output; file system interface; and errors.

G. L. Steele; G. L. Jr

1984-01-01

405

A Language in Common.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles reprinted from the "London Times Literary Supplement" indicates the flexibility of English as a common literary language in its widespread use outside the United States and England. Major articles present the thesis that English provides an artistic medium which is enriched through colloquial idioms in the West Indies…

1963

406

Space station commonality analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

1988-01-01

407

Solving Common Mathematical Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

Luz, Paul L.

2005-01-01

408

Common Standards for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

Principal, 2010

2010-01-01

409

Discovering Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use pattern blocks to represent fractions with unlike denominators. Students discover that they need to convert all the pattern blocks to the same shape in order to add them. Therefore, they find and use common denominators for the addition of fractions.

Kloper, Adam

2012-07-22

410

Information Commons to Go  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

Bayer, Marc Dewey

2008-01-01

411

Math, Literacy, & Common Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made…

Education Week, 2012

2012-01-01

412

Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

Olson, Mark

2013-01-01

413

Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:May 29,2014 Cholesterol can be both good and bad, so it's important to learn the facts about ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

414

Human Commonalities and Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

Passmore, Kaye

2008-01-01

415

Extraction, separation and quantitative structure-retention relationship modeling of essential oils in three herbs.  

PubMed

The essential oils extracted from three kinds of herbs were separated by a 5% phenylmethyl silicone (DB-5MS) bonded phase fused-silica capillary column and identified by MS. Seventy-four of the compounds identified were selected as origin data, and their chemical structure and gas chromatographic retention times (RT) were performed to build a quantitative structure-retention relationship model by genetic algorithm and multiple linear regressions analysis. The predictive ability of the model was verified by internal validation (leave-one-out, fivefold, cross-validation and Y-scrambling). As for external validation, the model was also applied to predict the gas chromatographic RT of the 14 volatile compounds not used for model development from essential oil of Radix angelicae sinensis. The applicability domain was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability. The results obtained using several validations indicated that the best quantitative structure-retention relationship model was robust and satisfactory, could provide a feasible and effective tool for predicting the gas chromatographic RT of volatile compounds and could be also applied to help in identifying the compound with the same gas chromatographic RT. PMID:20506431

Wei, Yuhui; Xi, Lili; Chen, Dongxia; Wu, Xin'an; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

2010-07-01

416

Fast Mapping Across Time: Memory Processes Support Children's Retention of Learned Words  

PubMed Central

Children’s remarkable ability to map linguistic labels to referents in the world is commonly called fast mapping. The current study examined children’s (N?=?216) and adults’ (N?=?54) retention of fast-mapped words over time (immediately, after a 1-week delay, and after a 1-month delay). The fast mapping literature often characterizes children’s retention of words as consistently high across timescales. However, the current study demonstrates that learners forget word mappings at a rapid rate. Moreover, these patterns of forgetting parallel forgetting functions of domain-general memory processes. Memory processes are critical to children’s word learning and the role of one such process, forgetting, is discussed in detail – forgetting supports extended mapping by promoting the memory and generalization of words and categories.

Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

2012-01-01

417

Common Rail Injection System Development  

SciTech Connect

The collaborative research program between the Department of energy and Electro-Motive Diesels, Inc. on the development of common rail fuel injection system for locomotive diesel engines that can meet US EPA Tier 2 exhaust emissions has been completed. This final report summarizes the objectives of the program, work scope, key accomplishments and research findings. The major objectives of this project encompassed identification of appropriate injection strategies by using advanced analytical tools, development of required prototype hardware/controls, investigations of fuel spray characteristics including cavitation phenomena, and validation of hareware using a single-cylinder research locomotive diesel engine. Major milestones included: (1) a detailed modeling study using advanced mathematical models - several various injection profiles that show simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulates on a four stroke-cycle locomotive diesel engine were identified; (2) development of new common rail fuel injection hardware capable of providing these injection profiles while meeting EMD engine and injection performance specifications. This hardware was developed together with EMD's current fuel injection component supplier. (3) Analysis of fuel spray characteristics. Fuel spray numerical studies and high speed photographic imaging analyses were performed. (4) Validation of new hardware and fuel injection profiles. EMD's single-cylinder research diesel engine located at Argonne National Laboratory was used to confirm emissions and performacne predictions. These analytical ane experimental investigations resulted in optimized fuel injection profiles and engine operating conditions that yield reductions in NOx emissions from 7.8 g/bhp-hr to 5.0 g/bhp-hr at full (rated) load. Additionally, hydrocarbon and particulate emissions were reduced considerably when compared to baseline Tier I levels. The most significant finding from the injection optimization process was a 2% to 3% improvement in fuel economy over EMD's traditional Tier I engine hardware configuration. the common rail fuel injection system enabled this added benefit by virtue of an inherent capability to provide multiple injections per power stroke at high fuel rail pressures. On the basis of the findings in this study, EMD concludes that the new electronically-controlled high-pressure common rail injection system has the potential to meet locomotive Tier 2 NOx and particulates emission standards without sacrificing the fuel economy. A number of areas to further improve the injection hardware and engine operating characteristics to further exploit the benefits of common rail injection system have also been identified.

Electro-Motive,

2005-12-30

418

Common Causes of Stillbirth  

MedlinePLUS

... pregnancy are at increased risk for placental abruption. Poor Fetal Growth Poor fetal growth accounts for about 20 percent of ... risk. An ultrasound can help your doctor identify poor fetal growth and more closely monitor the pregnancy. ...

419

The Impact of Financial Aid on the Enrollment and Retention of Student Athletes at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III Colleges and Universities: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to review current literature on the enrollment and retention of student athletes at NCAA Division III institutions. However, the review identifies very few studies that specifically focused on Division III programs and none that looks at the influence of financial aid on the enrollment and retention of student athletes at…

Bandre, Mark A.

2011-01-01

420

Scoring Dawg Core Breakoff and Retention Mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This novel core break-off and retention mechanism consists of a scoring dawg controlled by a set of two tubes (a drill tube and an inner tube). The drill tube and the inner tube have longitudinal concentric holes. The solution can be implemented in an eccentric tube configuration as well where the tubes have eccentric longitudinal holes. The inner tube presents at the bottom two control surfaces for controlling the orientation of the scoring dawg. The drill tube presents a sunk-in profile on the inside of the wall for housing the scoring dawg. The inner tube rotation relative to the drill tube actively controls the orientation of the scoring dawg and hence its penetration and retrieval from the core. The scoring dawg presents a shaft, two axially spaced arms, and a tooth. The two arms slide on the control surfaces of the inner tube. The tooth, when rotated, can penetrate or be extracted from the core. During drilling, the two tubes move together maintaining the scoring dawg completely outside the core. After the desired drilling depth has been reached the inner tube is rotated relative to the drill tube such that the tooth of the scoring dawg moves toward the central axis. By rotating the drill tube, the scoring dawg can score the core and so reduce its cross sectional area. The scoring dawg can also act as a stress concentrator for breaking the core in torsion or tension. After breaking the core, the scoring dawg can act as a core retention mechanism. For scoring, it requires the core to be attached to the rock. If the core is broken, the dawg can be used as a retention mechanism. The scoring dawg requires a hard-tip insert like tungsten carbide for scoring hard rocks. The relative rotation of the two tubes can be controlled manually or by an additional actuator. In the implemented design solution the bit rotation for scoring was in the same direction as the drilling. The device was tested for limestone cores and basalt cores. The torque required for breaking the 10-mm diameter limestone cores was 5 to 5.8 lb-in. (0.56 to 0.66 N-m).

Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Backes, Paul G.

2011-01-01

421

Geoecological controls on net mercury retention in northern peatlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands, which receive much or all of their element inputs (e.g. nutrients or trace metals) via the atmosphere, are considered an ideal archive for studying past changes in mercury (Hg) deposition. These archives potentially contain information not only on important anthropogenic contributions to the environment over the past few centuries, but also on the natural antecedent conditions over the past several millennia. However, the assumption that Hg accumulation rates in peat represent an absolute record of past atmospheric deposition has proved problematic. In on-going studies of Hg retention in northern peatlands (bogs and oligotrophic fens) we find that net Hg accumulation is influenced by a range of geoecological factors in addition to actual changes in atmospheric deposition. Factors that influence the interception and net retention of Hg include differences in vegetation and microtopography - both of which may enhance dry deposition, and properties and processes within the peat such as decomposition that might influence long-term retention. Wetness, too, may play an important role in net retention in the surface peat through increased evasive losses of Hg. Differences between Hg concentrations in vascular plants and mosses are well established (at our site: 5-15 ng/g for leaves/needles of cottongrass, heather, Labrador tea and pine; 15-45 ng/g for mosses Sphagnum centrale and S. rubellum), but we also measured significant differences between different mosses within the same plots (S. rubellum, 24±3 ng/g; S. centrale, 18±2 ng/g). Further differences in Hg concentrations occur for single moss species in different settings; for example, Hg concentrations in S. centrale in open Sphagnum-only plots relative to plots including a mixture of vascular plants that form a field-layer canopy are 18±2 and 32±6 ng/g, respectively. As a result, sampling sites consisting of both Sphagnum and vascular plants have long-term cumulative inventories of mercury in the peat that are >60% greater than in areas characterized only by a mixture of Sphagnum species (where the water table is also relatively highest). However, comparisons of Pb-210 inventories, an independent proxy for atmospheric deposition, indicate that this increase in interception should be ?40%. Based on data also from other sites, where Hg inventories may vary between cores by 2-4 times, we have observed that wetter sites invariably have the lowest cumulative Hg inventories and hypothesize greater evasive loss from wetter sites, which has been shown for soils. We will investigate this during fall 2010. Although we have identified a number of factors that complicate the use of peat records as absolute records of mercury deposition, these problems can be circumvented by multi-core studies that provide a more robust estimate of mean net accumulation rates in peatlands.

Bindler, R.; Rydberg, J.

2010-12-01

422

Estimating soil water retention using soil component additivity model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water retention is a major soil hydraulic property that governs soil functioning in ecosystems and greatly affects soil management. Data on soil water retention are used in research and applications in hydrology, agronomy, meteorology, ecology, environmental protection, and many other soil-related fields. Soil organic matter content and composition affect both soil structure and adsorption properties; therefore water retention may be affected by changes in soil organic matter that occur because of both climate change and modifications of management practices. Thus, effects of organic matter on soil water retention should be understood and quantified. Measurement of soil water retention is relatively time-consuming, and become impractical when soil hydrologic estimates are needed for large areas. One approach to soil water retention estimation from readily available data is based on the hypothesis that soil water retention may be estimated as an additive function obtained by summing up water retention of pore subspaces associated with soil textural and/or structural components and organic matter. The additivity model and was tested with 550 soil samples from the international database UNSODA and 2667 soil samples from the European database HYPRES containing all textural soil classes after USDA soil texture classification. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) of the volumetric water content estimates for UNSODA vary from 0.021 m3m-3 for coarse sandy loam to 0.075 m3m-3 for sandy clay. Obtained RMSEs are at the lower end of the RMSE range for regression-based water retention estimates found in literature. Including retention estimates of organic matter significantly improved RMSEs. The attained accuracy warrants testing the 'additivity' model with additional soil data and improving this model to accommodate various types of soil structure. Keywords: soil water retention, soil components, additive model, soil texture, organic matter.

Zeiliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.; Semenov, V.

2009-04-01

423

Identifying mutual engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual engagement occurs when people creatively spark together and enter a state of group flow. We present a characterisation of mutually engaging interaction, discuss design features which contribute to mutually engaging interactions, and identify a set of measures for identifying mutual engagement in collaboration. A collaborative music editor's interface features are systematically manipulated in an empirical study of their effect

Nick Bryan-Kinns; Fraser Hamilton

2009-01-01

424

Identifying and Classifying Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we identify and classify rocks? In this lesson, we are going to learn about different ways that we classify and identify rocks! There are three types of rocks. Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous As we are learning about the three types of rocks, print out this chart and use it to write down what you learn about each type of ...

Owen, Elisabeth

2010-11-03

425

Identifying Conditional Conservatism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides guidance for empiricists interested in measuring conditional conservatism and in interpreting associations of those measures with variables of interest. I begin by discussing the nature and importance of conditional conservatism and surveying the literature identifying conditional conservatism. I then describe and comment on the various limitations of asymmetric timeliness identified in the literature. Despite these limitations, I

Stephen G. Ryan

2006-01-01

426

Fluoroalcohols as novel buffer components for basic buffer solutions for liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: retention mechanisms.  

PubMed

Two fluoroalcohols--1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-methyl-2-propanol (HFTB)--were evaluated as volatile buffer acids in basic mobile phases for LC-ESI-MS determination of acidic and basic compounds. HFIP and HFTB as acidic buffer components offer interesting possibilities to adjust retention behavior of different analytes and expand the currently rather limited range of ESI-compatible buffer systems for basic mobile phases. Comparing with commonly used basic buffer components the fluoroalcohols did not suppress the ionization of the analytes, for several analytes ionization enhancement was observed. RP chromatographic retention mechanisms were evaluated and compared to traditional buffer system. All trends in retention of the acidic and basic analytes can be interpreted by the following model: the neutral fluoroalcohols are quite strongly retained by the stationary phase whereas their anions are less retained, thus their amount on the stationary phase is dependent on mobile phase pH; the anions of the fluoroalcohols form ion pairs in the mobile phase with the basic analytes; the fluoroalcohols on the stationary phase surface compete with acidic analytes thereby hindering their retention; the fluoroalcohols on the stationary phase bind basic analytes thereby favoring their retention. PMID:21968346

Kipper, Karin; Herodes, Koit; Leito, Ivo

2011-11-11

427

Common Compound Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database, part of a college-level chemistry course, provides information on hundreds of compounds, elements, and substances encountered in introductory chemistry courses and in everyday life. The informaion includes chemical synonyms, molecular weights, structures, equilibrium constants, thermodynamic properties, and common uses, with properties presented in a variety of common units. Structure information includes flat structural formulas, ball and stick models, electron density/electric potential maps, and Chime "live" structures that can be rotated and queried for bond lengths, bond angles, and torsion angles. The site also includes links to the course website, a glossary, a frequently-asked-questions feature, information on sources used in constructing the database, and many other resources.

Senese, Frederick A.

428

Common tester platform concept.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

Hurst, Michael James

2008-05-01

429

Sequence-specific retention calculator. Algorithm for peptide retention prediction in ion-pair RP-HPLC: application to 300- and 100-A pore size C18 sorbents.  

PubMed

Continued development of a new sequence-specific algorithm for peptide retention prediction in RP HPLC is reported. Our discovery of the large effect on the apparent hydrophobicity of N-terminal amino acids produced by the ion-pairing retention mechanism has led to the development of sequence-specific retention calculator (SSRCalc) algorithms. These were optimized for a set of approximately 2000 tryptic peptides confidently identified by off-line microHPLC-MALDI MS (MS/MS) (300-A pore size C18 sorbent, linear water/acetonitrile gradient, and trifluoroacetic acid as ion-pairing modifier). The latest version of the algorithm takes into account amino acid composition, position of the amino acid residues (N- and C-terminal), peptide length, overall hydrophobicity, pI, nearest-neighbor effect of charged side chains (K, R, H), and propensity to form helical structures. A correlation with R2 approximately 0.98 was obtained for the 2000-peptide optimization set. A flexible structure for the SSRC programming code allows easy adaptation to different chromatographic conditions. This was demonstrated by adapting the algorithm (approximately 0.98 R2 value) for a set of approximately 2500 peptides separated on a 100-A pore size C18 column. The SSRCalc algorithm has also been extensively tested for a number of real samples, providing solid support for protein identification and characterization; correlations in the range of 0.95-0.97 R2 value have normally been observed. PMID:17105172

Krokhin, Oleg V

2006-11-15

430

Common Anorectal Disorders  

PubMed Central

Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management.

Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

2014-01-01

431

Common Skin Cancers  

PubMed Central

Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9

Ho, Vincent C.

1992-01-01

432

Six Common Air Pollutants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EPA's site about the six common air pollutants is a great resource for the public, or for anyone studying or teaching about air pollution and other environmental issues. Air pollution trends are outlined on the site and a brief backround shows highlights of air pollutant history including the Clean Air Act and different standards. This site is a great place to find the most recent information about air pollutants and quality in the U.S.

2008-11-25

433

Common penile problems.  

PubMed

A variety of penile problems are commonly seen by primary care physicians. This article reviews the diagnosis, evaluation, and management of congenital conditions such as hypospadias, chordee, webbed and buried penis, duplicated urethra, ambiguous genitalia, and micropenis. Acquired emergent conditions, including minor trauma and paraphimosis, are also discussed, with a particular emphasis on initial evaluation and management. Conditions associated with erectile dysfunction, including priapism and Peyronie disease, are reviewed. PMID:20705203

Wan, Julian; Rew, Karl T

2010-09-01

434

Common drive unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

1987-01-01

435

Addition with Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students build a conceptual understanding of adding fractions with common denominators by linking visual models to procedures. Students first add using models, and then progress to using numbers. This page includes a video demonstration of the tool and sample lessons from the Conceptua curriculum. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access full curriculum and allow full student use.

2011-01-01

436

Ten Common NWP Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Webcast introduces forecasters to ten of the most commonly encountered or significant misconceptions about NWP models. It attempts to dispel these misconceptions with the truth about how NWP is performed and provides advice on how NWP products may be used more effectively with this knowledge. Based on a teletraining session delivery in 2001, the content has been revised and updated, and new examples are drawn from both U.S. and Canadian models.

Spangler, Tim

2002-01-01

437

Job Satisfaction Among United States Navy and Marine Corps Aviation Officers - A Study of the Impact on Career Retention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

United States Naval Aviation Officer retention has been identified by senior-level personnel managers as one of the largest challenges faced by the services in recent years. In robust economic times all branches of the armed forces face the challenge of r...

D. J. Sullivan

1998-01-01

438

Assessing the Impact of Health Literacy on Education Retention of Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Inadequate health literacy is a pervasive problem with major implications for reduced health status and health disparities. Despite the role of focused education in both primary and secondary prevention of stroke, the effect of health literacy on stroke education retention has not been reported. We examined the relationship of health literacy to the retention of knowledge after recommended stroke education. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at an urban safety-net hospital. Study subjects were patients older than 18 admitted to the hospital stroke unit with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke who were able to provide informed consent to participate (N = 100). Health literacy levels were measured by using the short form of Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Patient education was provided to patients at an inpatient stroke unit by using standardized protocols, in compliance with Joint Commission specifications. The education outcomes for poststroke care education, knowledge retention, was assessed for each subject. The effect of health literacy on the Stroke Patient Education Retention scores was assessed by using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of the 100 participating patients, 59% had inadequate to marginal health literacy. Stroke patients who had marginal health literacy (mean score, 7.45; standard deviation [SD], 1.9) or adequate health literacy (mean score, 7.31; SD, 1.76) had statistically higher education outcome scores than those identified as having inadequate health literacy (mean score, 5.58; SD, 2.06). Results from multivariate analysis indicated that adequate health literacy was most predictive of education outcome retention. Conclusions This study demonstrated a clear relationship between health literacy and stroke education outcomes. Studies are needed to better understand the relationship of health literacy to key educational outcomes for primary or secondary prevention of stroke and to refine stroke education for literacy levels of high-risk populations.

Schnepel, Loretta; Smotherman, Carmen; Livingood, William; Dodani, Sunita; Antonios, Nader; Lukens-Bull, Katryne; Balls-Berry, Joyce; Johnson, Yvonne; Miller, Terri; Hodges, Wayne; Falk, Diane; Wood, David; Silliman, Scott

2014-01-01

439

Volatile species retention during metallic fuel casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, and although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Based on these results it is very probable that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

Fielding, Randall S.; Porter, Douglas L.

2013-10-01

440

Retention of Cationic Starch onto Cellulose Fibres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three methods of cationic starch titration were used to quantify its retention on cellulose fibres, namely: (i) the complexation of CS with iodine and measurement of the absorbency of the ensuing blue solution by UV-vis spectroscopy; (ii) hydrolysis of the starch macromolecules followed by the conversion of the resulting sugars to furan-based molecules and quantifying the ensuing mixture by measuring their absorbance at a ? of 490 nm, using the same technique as previous one and; finally (iii) hydrolysis of starch macromolecules by trifluoro-acetic acid and quantification of the sugars in the resulting hydrolysates by high performance liquid chromatography. The three methods were found to give similar results within the range of CS addition from 0 to 50 mg per g of cellulose fibres.

Missaoui, Mohamed; Mauret, Evelyne; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur

2008-08-01

441

Urinary retention presenting as complete bowel obstruction.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old male was admitted to hospital for clinical and radiological signs of large bowel obstruction with clinical signs of generalized peritonitis. As such, he was scheduled to undergo emergency exploratory laparotomy. During preoperative preparation, over 2000 mL of urine was obtained after catheterization. We suggested re-evaluation, and after several hours the symptoms resolved. Although rare, pressure from the distended bladder due to urinary retention can cause complete bowel obstruction and signs of peritonitis. If a large volume of urine is obtained during preoperative preparation for mechanical bowel obstruction, it is recommended to re-evaluate the patient to avoid unnecessary surgery and imaging studies. PMID:24409213

Papeš, Dino; Altarac, Silvio; Arslani, Nuhi; Rajkovi?, Zoran

2013-01-01

442

Raising the bar on recruitment and retention.  

PubMed

Although finding and keeping talented staff is a problem that affects virtually every healthcare organization, Falls Church, Virginia-based Inova Health System found itself particularly challenged by a fiercely competitive market and failing employee retention system. Large percentages of staff in Inova's finance division were employed for less than one year. To address this staffing crisis, department leadership joined with human resource representatives and employees to pursue a practical strategy emphasizing self-analysis, responsive solutions, and promotion of recruitment activities. In less than a year, the division had exceeded its expectations--vacancies were significantly reduced, use of temporary replacements had ceased, and members of the public were recognizing the organization as an industry leader. PMID:12061050

Macdonald, Lisa

2002-06-01

443

207-A retention basins system design description  

SciTech Connect

The 242-A Evaporator is a waste treatment facility designed to reduce liquid waste volumes currently stored in the Hanford Area double shell Waste Storage Tanks. The evaporator uses evaporative concentration to achieve this volume reduction, returning the concentrated slurry to the double-shell tanks for storage. The process effluent is transferred to various retention/treatment facilities for eventual release to the environment. The process utilizes an evaporator vessel and various supporting systems for heating, evaporating, and condensing low-heat-generating liquid waste produced it the Hanford Site. The process reduces the total volume of the liquid waste requiring storage in a double shell tank, making it more manageable for current storage as well as for future treatment and disposal. The main components of the 242-A Evaporator are the Reboiler, Vapor-Liquid Separator, Recirculation Pump and Pump Loop, Slurry System, Condenser System, Steam Jet Vacuum System, Condensate Collection Tank, and Ion Exchange System.

Wahlquist, R.A.

1994-09-29

444

Recruitment and Retention of LGBTIQ Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, or questioning (LGBTIQ) astronomers face many of the same workplace challenges as women and racial/ethnic minorities, from implicit bias to overt discrimination, other challenges are unique to this group. An obvious example is the absence at many institutions of health insurance and other benefits for the same-sex domestic partners of their employees. More subtle is the psychological toll paid by LGBTIQ astronomers who remain "in the closet," self-censoring every statement about their personal lives. Paradoxically, the culture of the physical sciences, in which sexuality, gender identity, and gender expression are considered irrelevant, can discourage their discussion, further isolating LGBTIQ researchers. Addressing these challenges is not just a matter of fairness; it is an essential tool in the recruitment and retention of the brightest researchers and in assuring their productivity. We will discuss these issues and what individuals and departments can to make their institutions more welcoming to their LGBTIQ colleagues.

Dixon, William Van Dyke