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Sample records for identify common retention

  1. 47 CFR 22.303 - Retention of station authorizations; identifying transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of station authorizations; identifying transmitters. 22.303 Section 22.303 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Operational and Technical Requirements...

  2. IDENTIFYING RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruitment and Retention Issues for the National Children's Study
    Danelle T Lobdell1, Suzanne Gilboa2, Pauline Mendola1 (1US EPA, NHEERL; 2UNC Chapel Hill)

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, co...

  3. A Computer-Based Instrument That Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrabee, Timothy G.; Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for and development of a computer-based instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. The instrument, known as the Science Beliefs Test, is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. The use of an online data collection system…

  4. Mapping patient-identified barriers and facilitators to retention in HIV care and antiretroviral therapy adherence to Andersen's Behavioral Model.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Carol W; Shea, Judy A; Glanz, Karen; Jacobs, Lisa M; Gross, Robert; Hines, Janet; Mounzer, Karam; Samuel, Rafik; Metlay, Joshua P; Yehia, Baligh R

    2015-01-01

    Andersen's Behavioral Model (ABM) provides a framework for understanding how patient and environmental factors impact health behaviors and outcomes. We compared patient-identified barriers/facilitators to retention in care and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and evaluated how they mapped to ABM. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 51 HIV-infected adults at HIV clinics in Philadelphia, PA, in 2013 were used to explore patients' experiences with HIV care and treatment. Interview data were analyzed for themes using a grounded theory approach. Among those interviewed, 53% were male and 88% were nonwhite; 49% were retained in care, 96% were on ART, and 57% were virally suppressed. Patients discussed 18 barriers/facilitators to retention in care and ART adherence: 11 common to both behaviors (stigma, mental illness, substance abuse, social support, reminder strategies, housing, insurance, symptoms, competing life activities, colocation of services, provider factors), 3 distinct to retention (transportation, clinic experiences, appointment scheduling), and 4 distinct to adherence (medication characteristics, pharmacy services, health literacy, health beliefs). Identified barriers/facilitators mapped to all ABM domains. These data support the use of ABM as a framework for classifying factors influencing HIV-specific health behaviors and have the potential to inform the design of interventions to improve retention in care and ART adherence. PMID:25671515

  5. Identifying Common Genes and Networks in Multi-Organ Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wenzke, Kevin E.; Cantemir-Stone, Carmen; Zhang, Jie; Marsh, Clay B.; Huang, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Fibroproliferative diseases of organs are poorly understood and generally lack effective anti-fibrotic treatments. Our goal was to identify the key regulatory factors in pathologic fibrosis, common between organ-based fibrotic disease. We analyzed 9 microarray datasets publicly available in the GEO datasets from lung, heart, liver and kidney fibrotic disease tissue (489 microarrays total, disease and control). We identified a set of 90 genes differentially expressed in at least five microarray datasets. We used IPA and DAVID analysis to identify gene networks and their molecular functions. A mutual information based network work activity analysis showed that a connective tissue disorders network was the most active for all types of fibrosis included in this analysis. Conclusion: Our analysis indicates that despite different disease manifestation, organ fibrosis share a specific set of genes suggesting the potential for a common origin. PMID:22779061

  6. Subclass Mapping: Identifying Common Subtypes in Independent Disease Data Sets

    PubMed Central

    Hoshida, Yujin; Brunet, Jean-Philippe; Tamayo, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    Whole genome expression profiles are widely used to discover molecular subtypes of diseases. A remaining challenge is to identify the correspondence or commonality of subtypes found in multiple, independent data sets generated on various platforms. While model-based supervised learning is often used to make these connections, the models can be biased to the training data set and thus miss inherent, relevant substructure in the test data. Here we describe an unsupervised subclass mapping method (SubMap), which reveals common subtypes between independent data sets. The subtypes within a data set can be determined by unsupervised clustering or given by predetermined phenotypes before applying SubMap. We define a measure of correspondence for subtypes and evaluate its significance building on our previous work on gene set enrichment analysis. The strength of the SubMap method is that it does not impose the structure of one data set upon another, but rather uses a bi-directional approach to highlight the common substructures in both. We show how this method can reveal the correspondence between several cancer-related data sets. Notably, it identifies common subtypes of breast cancer associated with estrogen receptor status, and a subgroup of lymphoma patients who share similar survival patterns, thus improving the accuracy of a clinical outcome predictor. PMID:18030330

  7. Identifying Common Genetic Risk Factors of Diabetic Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, Ini-Isabée; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Khalaf, Kinda; Lee, Sungmun; Khandoker, Ahsan H.; Alsafar, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global public health problem of epidemic proportions, with 60–70% of affected individuals suffering from associated neurovascular complications that act on multiple organ systems. The most common and clinically significant neuropathies of T2DM include uremic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. These conditions seriously impact an individual’s quality of life and significantly increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. Although advances in gene sequencing technologies have identified several genetic variants that may regulate the development and progression of T2DM, little is known about whether or not the variants are involved in disease progression and how these genetic variants are associated with diabetic neuropathy specifically. Significant missing heritability data and complex disease etiologies remain to be explained. This article is the first to provide a review of the genetic risk variants implicated in the diabetic neuropathies and to highlight potential commonalities. We thereby aim to contribute to the creation of a genetic-metabolic model that will help to elucidate the cause of diabetic neuropathies, evaluate a patient’s risk profile, and ultimately facilitate preventative and targeted treatment for the individual. PMID:26074879

  8. Identifying the Best Treatment Among Common Nonsurgical Neck Pain Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.; Cassidy, J. David; Côté, Pierre; Boyle, Eleanor; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Chan, Stella; Subrata, Peter; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Hurwitz, Eric; Bombardier, Claire; Krahn, Murray

    2008-01-01

    Study Design Decision analysis. Objective To identify the best treatment for nonspecific neck pain. Summary of Background Data In Canada and the United States, the most commonly prescribed neck pain treatments are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), exercise, and manual therapy. Deciding which treatment is best is difficult because of the trade-offs between beneficial and harmful effects, and because of the uncertainty of these effects. Methods (Quality-adjusted) life expectancy associated with standard NSAIDs, Cox-2 NSAIDs, exercise, mobilization, and manipulation were compared in a decision-analytic model. Estimates of the course of neck pain, background risk of adverse events in the general population, treatment effectiveness and risk, and patient-preferences were input into the model. Assuming equal effectiveness, we conducted a baseline analysis using risk of harm only. We assessed the stability of the baseline results by conducting a second analysis that incorporated effectiveness data from a high-quality randomized trial. Results There were no important differences across treatments. The difference between the highest and lowest ranked treatments predicted by the baseline model was 4.5 days of life expectancy and 3.4 quality-adjusted life-days. The difference between the highest and lowest ranked treatments predicted by the second model was 7.3 quality-adjusted life-days. Conclusion When the objective is to maximize life expectancy and quality-adjusted life expectancy, none of the treatments in our analysis were clearly superior.

  9. The newly identified yeast GRD genes are required for retention of late-Golgi membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Nothwehr, S F; Bryant, N J; Stevens, T H

    1996-01-01

    Processing of A-ALP, a late-Golgi membrane protein constructed by fusing the cytosolic domain of dipeptidyl aminopeptidase A to the transmembrane and lumenal domains of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serves as a convenient assay for loss of retention of late-Golgi membrane proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, a large group of novel grd (for Golgi retention defective) yeast mutants, representing 18 complementation groups, were identified on the basis of their mislocalization of A-ALP to the vacuole, where it was proteolytically processed and thus became enzymatically activated. All of the grd mutants exhibited significant mislocalization of A-ALP, as measured by determining the kinetics of A-ALP processing and by analyzing its PMID:8649377

  10. Identifying Psychological Contract Breaches to Guide Improvements in Faculty Recruitment, Retention, and Development

    PubMed Central

    Desselle, Shane P.; Draugalis, JoLaine R.; Spies, Alan R.; Davis, Tamra S.; Bolino, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To identify pharmacy faculty members’ perceptions of psychological contract breaches that can be used to guide improvements in faculty recruitment, retention, and development. Methods. A list of psychological contract breaches was developed using a Delphi procedure involving a panel of experts assembled through purposive sampling. The Delphi consisted of 4 rounds, the first of which elicited examples of psychological contract breaches in an open-ended format. The ensuing 3 rounds consisting of a survey and anonymous feedback on aggregated group responses. Results. Usable responses were obtained from 11 of 12 faculty members who completed the Delphi procedure. The final list of psychological contract breaches included 27 items, after modifications based on participant feedback in subsequent rounds. Conclusion. The psychological contract breach items generated in this study provide guidance for colleges and schools of pharmacy regarding important aspects of faculty recruitment, retention, and development. PMID:22919084

  11. Iodine content in bread, milk and the retention of inherent iodine in commonly used Indian recipes.

    PubMed

    Longvah, T; Toteja, G S; Upadhyay, A

    2013-01-15

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) is still a major public health problem and iodized salt remains the most effective means to control IDD in India. Few reports indicate that vegans have inadequate iodine intake while at the same time concerns are being raised on the implementation of universal salt iodization in the country. Therefore, we investigated the iodine content in bread, milk and commonly used Indian recipes prepared without iodized salt and the retention of inherent iodine therein. Results showed considerable iodine content in bread (25 μg/100g) and milk (303 μg/L) as a positive fallout of universal salt iodization. Iodine content in 38 vegetarian recipes prepared without iodized salt was very low (2.9 ± 2.4 μg/100g). Retention of inherent iodine (65.6 ± 15.4%) and iodine from iodized salt (76.7 ± 10.3%) in the same recipes was comparable. Thus, universal salt iodization programme remains the single most important source of dietary iodine for the Indian population. PMID:23122074

  12. Development of Preschool Children's Ability to Identify Common Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, David K.

    1989-01-01

    In four tasks, 42 children between three and five years of age were asked to identify materials and familiar objects, and to predict which items would adhere to a magnet. No age differences were found in the ability to identify objects, but significant differences occurred in identification of materials and prediction of magnetic attraction. (RH)

  13. Identifying innovation in laboratory studies of cultural evolution: rates of retention and measures of adaptation.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Christine A; Cornish, Hannah; Kandler, Anne

    2016-03-19

    In recent years, laboratory studies of cultural evolution have become increasingly prevalent as a means of identifying and understanding the effects of cultural transmission on the form and functionality of transmitted material. The datasets generated by these studies may provide insights into the conditions encouraging, or inhibiting, high rates of innovation, as well as the effect that this has on measures of adaptive cultural change. Here we review recent experimental studies of cultural evolution with a view to elucidating the role of innovation in generating observed trends. We first consider how tasks are presented to participants, and how the corresponding conceptualization of task success is likely to influence the degree of intent underlying any deviations from perfect reproduction. We then consider the measures of interest used by the researchers to track the changes that occur as a result of transmission, and how these are likely to be affected by differing rates of retention. We conclude that considering studies of cultural evolution from the perspective of innovation provides us with valuable insights that help to clarify important differences in research designs, which have implications for the likely effects of variation in retention rates on measures of cultural adaptation. PMID:26926283

  14. Folate content and retention in commonly consumed vegetables in the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Prayna P P; Prasad, Surendra; Devi, Riteshma; Gopalan, Romila

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the effect of boiling and frying on the retention of folate in commonly consumed Fijian vegetables (drumstick leaves, taro leaves, bele leaves, amaranth leaves, fern/ota, okra and French bean). The folate content was determined by microbiological assay (Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus) and tri-enzyme (protease, α-amylase and chicken pancreas conjugase) extraction treatment. The folate loss varied among the vegetables from 10-64% on boiling while 1-36% on frying. The higher folate loss was observed during boiling. The folate content in the water derived after boiling different vegetables ranged from 11.9 ± 0.5 to 61.6 ± 2.5 μg/100mL. The folate loss on boiling was accounted for in the cooking water. The predominant way of folate loss on boiling was leaching rather than thermal degradation which makes boiling the better choice of cooking the studied vegetables for folate intake, provided the cooking water is consumed together with the vegetables. PMID:25842344

  15. Identifying danger and anxiety expectancies as components of common fears.

    PubMed

    Gursky, D M; Reiss, S

    1987-12-01

    The hypothesis was the common fears can be analyzed into separate factors for danger and anxiety expectancies. Six scales were constructed to measure danger and anxiety expectancies for the fears of flying, heights, and public speaking. The internal reliabilities of the scales were assessed in Study 1. The unreliable items were then deleted, and the revised scales were assessed in Study 2. The revised scales were found to have a satisfactory degree of internal consistency and test/retest reliability. For each fear, the items of the danger and anxiety expectancy scales were pooled and then submitted to a factor analysis. The danger and anxiety expectancy scales formed separate factors for each fear. The results were near-perfect; 51 of 53 items had factor loadings that were consistent with the distinction between danger and anxiety expectancies. It also was found that danger and anxiety expectancies are specific for each fear; that is, a person can have one fear that is danger-based and another that is anxiety-based. The findings have implications for understanding fears. Future research is suggested to test Reiss and McNally's (1985) hypothesis that desensitization might be more effective than credible placebo in the treatment of danger-based fear but that both desensitization and credible placebo are about equally effective in the treatment of anxiety-based fear. PMID:3437055

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum retention is a common defect associated with tyrosinase-negative albinism

    PubMed Central

    Halaban, Ruth; Svedine, Sherri; Cheng, Elaine; Smicun, Yoel; Aron, Rebecca; Hebert, Daniel N.

    2000-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a melanocyte-specific enzyme critical for the synthesis of melanin, a process normally restricted to a post-Golgi compartment termed the melanosome. Loss-of-function mutations in tyrosinase are the cause of oculocutaneous albinism, demonstrating the importance of the enzyme in pigmentation. In the present study, we explored the possibility that trafficking of albino tyrosinase from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus and beyond is disrupted. Toward this end, we analyzed the common albino mouse mutation Tyr(C85S), the frequent human albino substitution TYR(T373K), and the temperature-sensitive tyrosinase TYR(R402Q)/Tyr(H402A) found in humans and mice, respectively. Intracellular localization was monitored in albino melanocytes carrying the native mutation, as well as in melanocytes ectopically expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged tyrosinase. Enzymatic characterization of complex glycans and immunofluorescence colocalization with organelle-specific resident proteins established that all four mutations produced defective proteins that were retained in the ER. TYR(R402Q)/Tyr(H402A) Golgi processing and transport to melanosomes were promoted at the permissive temperature of 32°C, but not at the nonpermissive 37°C temperature. Furthermore, evidence of protein misfolding was demonstrated by the prolonged association of tyrosinase mutants with calnexin and calreticulin, known ER chaperones that play a key role in the quality-control processes of the secretory pathway. From these results we concluded that albinism, at least in part, is an ER retention disease. PMID:10823941

  17. Modeling Retention at a Large Public University: Can At-Risk Students Be Identified Early Enough to Treat?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singell, Larry D.; Waddell, Glen R.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the extent to which readily available data at a large public university can be used to a priori identify at-risk students who may benefit from targeted retention efforts. Although it is possible to identify such students, there remains an inevitable tradeoff in any resource allocation between not treating the students who are likely to…

  18. Faecal retention: a common cause in functional bowel disorders, appendicitis and haemorrhoids--with medical and surgical therapy.

    PubMed

    Raahave, Dennis

    2015-03-01

    The present studies explored whether faecal retention in the colon is a causative factor in functional bowel disease, appendicitis, and haemorrhoids. Faecal retention was characterized by colon transit time (CTT) after radio-opaque marker ingestion and estimation of faecal loading on abdominal radiographs at 48 h and 96 h. Specific hypotheses were tested in patients (n = 251 plus 281) and in healthy random controls (n = 44). A questionnaire was completed for each patient, covering abdominal and anorectal symptoms and without a priori grouping. Patients with functional bowel disorders, predominantly women, had a significantly increased CTT and faecal load compared to controls. The CTT was significantly and positively correlated with segmental and total faecal loading. The faecal load was equal at 48 h and 96 h, mirroring the presence of permanent faecal reservoirs. In these first clinical studies to correlate bowel symptoms with CTT and colon faecal loading, abdominal bloating was significantly correlated with faecal loading in the right colon, total faecal load, and CTT. Abdominal pain was significantly and positively correlated to distal faecal loading and significantly associated with bloating. A new phenomenon with a high faecal load and a normal CTT was observed in a subset of patients (n = 90), proving faecal retention as hidden constipation. The CTT and faecal load were significantly higher in the right-side compared to the left and distal segments. Within the control group of healthy persons, the right-sided faecal load was significantly greater than the left and distal load. The CTT and faecal load significantly positively correlated with a palpable mass in the left iliac fossa and meteorism. Cluster analysis revealed that CTT and faecal load positively correlated with a symptom factor consisting of bloating, proctalgia and infrequent defecation of solid faeces. On the other hand, CTT and faecal load negatively correlated with a symptom factor comprising frequent easy defecations, repetitiveness, and incompleteness with solid or liquid faeces. The majority of patients with a heavy faecal load but normal CTT had repetitive daily defecation, mostly with ease and with altering faecal consistence. Flue-like episodes co-existed in symptom factors with abdominal pain and meteorism, and these symptoms together with a palpable right iliac fossa mass and tenderness, and in other factors with seldom and difficult defecation, and with epigastric discomfort and halitosis. Patients with seldom and difficult defecation of solid faeces experienced abdominal pain significantly more often and presented a palpable mass in the right iliac fossa with tenderness and meteorism. The CTT was significantly prolonged and faecal load significantly increased. In patients with a normal CTT and increased faecal load, only patients with abdominal pain had a significant correlation between faecal loading and bloating. CTT and faecal load were shown for the first time to increase significantly with the number of colonic redundancies (colon length), which also resulted in significantly increased bloating and pain. Intervention with a bowel stimulation regimen combining a fibre-rich diet, fluid, physical activity, and a prokinetic drug was essential to proving that abdominal symptoms and defecation disorders are caused by faecal retention, with or without a prolonged CTT. The CTT was significantly reduced, as was faecal load. Bloating and pain were reduced significantly. The defecation became easy with solid faeces, towards one per day and with significant reductions in incompleteness and repetitiveness. Proctalgia and flue-like episodes were significantly reduced. The intervention significantly reduced the presence of a tender palpable mass in the right fossa and rectal constipation. In patients with a normal CTT but increased faecal load, the intervention did not significantly change the CTT or load, but bloating and pain were significantly reduced, just as defecation improved overall. The novel knowledge of faecal retention in the patients does not explain why faecal retention occurs. However, it may be inferred from the present results that a constipated or irritable bowel may belong to the same underlying disease dimension, where faecal retention is a common factor. Thus, measuring CTT and faecal load is suggested as a guide to a positive functional diagnosis of bowel disorders compared to the constellation of symptoms alone. Thirty-five patients underwent surgery after being refractory to the conservative treatment for constipation. They had a significantly prolonged CTT and heavy faecal loading, which was responsible for the aggravated abdominal and defaecatory symptoms. The operated patients presented with a redundant colon (dolichocolon) significantly more often. These patients also had an extremely high rate of previous appendectomy. Twenty-one patients underwent hemicolectomy, and 11 patients had a subtotal colectomy with an ileosigmoidal anastomosis; three patients received a stoma. However, some patients had to have the initial segmental colectomy converted to a final subtotal colectomy because of persisting symptoms. Six more subtotal colectomies have been performed and the leakage rate of all colectomies is then 4.9 % (one patient died). After a mean follow-up of 5 years, the vast majority of patients were without abdominal pain and bloating, having two to four defecations daily with control and their quality of life had increased considerably. A faecalith is often located in the appendix, the occlusion of which is responsible for many cases of acute appendicitis, which is infrequent in all except white populations. An effort to trace the origin of the faecalith to faecal retention in the colon was made in a case control study (56 patients and 44 random controls). The CTT was longer and faecal load greater in patients with appendicitis compared to controls, though the difference was not significant. Power calculations showed that more patients were needed to reach statistical significance for these parameters. The presence of a faecalith was most often associated with a gangrenous or perforated appendix. No significant differences were found between the CTT and faecal load of patients who had or did not have a faecalith. However, the right-sided faecal load was significantly higher than the left and distal load. Haemorrhoids are often a consequence of constipation and defaecatory disorders and were found in every second patient with functional bowel disorders. The present studies are the first Danish reports of a novel operation to cure this disease, stapled haemorrhoidopexy (n = 40 and 258 patients). The majority of patients had prolapsed haemorrhoids, and the durability of procedure was confirmed with a follow-up of up to 5 years, meaning a normal anus. The operation time was short, post-operative pain was low, and recovery was rapid. No incontinence was observed, and patient satisfaction was high and significantly correlated with the appearance of a normal anus without prolapse. The cumulative risk of re-operation was greatest in the first 2 years after the stapled haemorrhoidopexy. Patients with persisting haemorrhoidal prolapse had the procedure repeated with results as good as those obtained in the rest of the patients. It was shown in a statistical model that the preoperative severity of haemorrhoidal disease and the immediate postoperative result contributed significantly to predicting the outcome that is the durability of the operation. The most frequent post-operative complication was bleeding requiring surgical haemostasis. One serious complication occurred after an anastomotic leak from a highly placed anastomosis, resulting in retro rectal, retro- and intra-peritoneal, and mediastinal gas. The patient recovered after conservative treatment and without surgical intervention. The stapling technique now used has revolutionized the surgical treatment of prolapsing haemorrhoids. Finally, a common cause may be suspected for diseases constantly associated with one another. Epidemiological evidence has recognized that constipation, diverticulosis and IBS increase the risk of colon cancer (and adenomas), diseases exceedingly rare in communities exempt from appendicitis. Haemorrhoids are a colonic co-morbidity as well. Notably, the patients with a functional bowel disorder had a much higher rate of a previous appendectomy than the background population. In addition, the patients who had previously had an appendectomy had a significantly longer CTT compared to patients, who had not. The data points to the involvement of faecal retention in the origin of faecaliths and, thus, acute appendicitis. Faecal reservoirs were shown in the right and left colon segments in both patients and controls, which are the same areas bearing the highest incidences of adenomateous polyps and malignancies. Familial colorectal cancer occurred significantly more often in patients who had a higher faecal load than the controls. Four malignancies and 25 adenomas were identified. An increased faecal load in the colon with or without delayed transit will increase bacterial counts and create a chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa, which is a risk factor for cancer onset. A functional bowel disorder is then likely to occur with gradually transition from a primary functional disease into specific organic diseases. A diet rich in fibre and regular physical activity have a therapeutic and preventive effect on colorectal diseases associated with faecal retention. A “common cause” was earlier proposed for constipation, colon diverticula, cancer, appendicitis, and haemorrhoids. The actual results of the present studies support this unifying theory for these diet-related diseases, in which the functional retention of faeces maybe the common cause. PMID:25748875

  19. IDENTIFYING RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES AMONG NON-WHITE PARTICIPANTS FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding potential stakeholders perspectives prior to recruitment may improve the effectiveness of a recruitment campaign as well as sustain participant retention. In early 2003, eighteen focus groups were conducted across the United States to address these issues, but non-...

  20. Mineralocorticoid-induced sodium appetite and renal salt retention: Evidence for common signaling and effector mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yiling; Vallon, Volker

    2014-01-01

    An increase in renal sodium chloride (salt) retention and an increase in sodium appetite is the body's response to salt restriction or depletion in order to restore salt balance. Renal salt retention and increased sodium appetite can also be maladaptive and sustain the pathophysiology in conditions like salt-sensitive hypertension and chronic heart failure. Here we review the central role of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in both the increase in renal salt reabsorption and sodium appetite. We discuss the working hypothesis that aldosterone activates similar signaling and effector mechanisms in the kidney and brain, including the mineralocorticoid receptor, the serum-and-glucocorticoid-induced kinase SGK1, the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2, and the epithelial sodium channel ENaC. The latter also mediates the gustatory salt sensing in the tongue, which is required for the manifestation of increased salt intake. Effects of aldosterone on both brain and kidney synergize with the effects of angiotensin II. Thus, mineralocorticoids appear to induce similar molecular pathways in the kidney, brain, and possibly tongue, which could provide opportunities for more effective therapeutic interventions. Inhibition of renal salt reabsorption is compensated by stimulation of salt appetite and vice versa; targeting both mechanisms should be more effective. Inhibiting the arousal to consume salty food may improve a patient's compliance to reducing salt intake. While a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms is needed and will provide new options, current pharmacological interventions that target both salt retention and sodium appetite include mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and potentially inhibitors of angiotensin II and ENaC. PMID:25376899

  1. What Are They Thinking? The Development and Use of an Instrument that Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles R.; Larrabee, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for, and development of, an online instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. Science Beliefs is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. It utilizes a true or false, along with a written-explanation, format. The true or…

  2. Identifying Common Elements of Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Children's Disruptive Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Ann F.; Hawley, Kristin M.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Hurlburt, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews a new method to identify common core elements of evidence-based practice (EBP) for children with disruptive behavior problems and their parents. This will not only help in characterizing practice, but also will enhance the skills and attitudes of therapists and be useful in implementing EBP in community-based service settings.

  3. Identifying the Common Characteristics of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deslatte, Kyrie'; Carson, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to (a) determine the common characteristics of current comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP) in Louisiana and (b) identify strategies for implementing a CSPAP. Four individuals (i.e., one physical education teacher, one principal, and two classroom teachers) were recruited from three public schools

  4. An Effective Method to Identify Shared Pathways and Common Factors among Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Nie, Yaling; Yu, Jingkai

    2015-01-01

    Groups of distinct but related diseases often share common symptoms, which suggest likely overlaps in underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Identifying the shared pathways and common factors among those disorders can be expected to deepen our understanding for them and help designing new treatment strategies effected on those diseases. Neurodegeneration diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), were taken as a case study in this research. Reported susceptibility genes for AD, PD and HD were collected and human protein-protein interaction network (hPPIN) was used to identify biological pathways related to neurodegeneration. 81 KEGG pathways were found to be correlated with neurodegenerative disorders. 36 out of the 81 are human disease pathways, and the remaining ones are involved in miscellaneous human functional pathways. Cancers and infectious diseases are two major subclasses within the disease group. Apoptosis is one of the most significant functional pathways. Most of those pathways found here are actually consistent with prior knowledge of neurodegenerative diseases except two cell communication pathways: adherens and tight junctions. Gene expression analysis showed a high probability that the two pathways were related to neurodegenerative diseases. A combination of common susceptibility genes and hPPIN is an effective method to study shared pathways involved in a group of closely related disorders. Common modules, which might play a bridging role in linking neurodegenerative disorders and the enriched pathways, were identified by clustering analysis. The identified shared pathways and common modules can be expected to yield clues for effective target discovery efforts on neurodegeneration. PMID:26575483

  5. Genome-Wide Association Studies: Progress in Identifying Genetic Biomarkers in Common, Complex Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Lindquist, Ingrid E.; Mudge, Joann; Beavis, William D.

    2007-01-01

    Novel, comprehensive approaches for biomarker discovery and validation are urgently needed. One particular area of methodologic need is for discovery of novel genetic biomarkers in complex diseases and traits. Here, we review recent successes in the use of genome wide association (GWA) approaches to identify genetic biomarkers in common human diseases and traits. Such studies are yielding initial insights into the allelic architecture of complex traits. In general, it appears that complex diseases are associated with many common polymorphisms, implying profound genetic heterogeneity between affected individuals. PMID:19662211

  6. Efforts to Improve Undergraduate Student Retention Rates at a Hispanic Serving Institution: Building Collaborative Relationships for the Common Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nancy K.; Meyer, Kristi

    2010-01-01

    This article describes efforts to improve retention and graduation rates at the University of Texas at San Antonio, a large Hispanic serving institution (HSI). One college within the university is focusing on increasing retention and graduation rates primarily by building relationships and capitalizing on university resources. In addition to…

  7. Common Viral Integration Sites Identified in Avian Leukosis Virus-Induced B-Cell Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Justice, James F.; Morgan, Robin W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian leukosis virus (ALV) induces B-cell lymphoma and other neoplasms in chickens by integrating within or near cancer genes and perturbing their expression. Four genes—MYC, MYB, Mir-155, and TERT—have previously been identified as common integration sites in these virus-induced lymphomas and are thought to play a causal role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we employ high-throughput sequencing to identify additional genes driving tumorigenesis in ALV-induced B-cell lymphomas. In addition to the four genes implicated previously, we identify other genes as common integration sites, including TNFRSF1A, MEF2C, CTDSPL, TAB2, RUNX1, MLL5, CXorf57, and BACH2. We also analyze the genome-wide ALV integration landscape in vivo and find increased frequency of ALV integration near transcriptional start sites and within transcripts. Previous work has shown ALV prefers a weak consensus sequence for integration in cultured human cells. We confirm this consensus sequence for ALV integration in vivo in the chicken genome. PMID:26670384

  8. Identifying the common elements of treatment engagement interventions in children's mental health services.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Michael A; Brandt, Nicole E; Becker, Kimberly D; Lee, Bethany R; Barth, Richard P; Daleiden, Eric L; Chorpita, Bruce F

    2014-09-01

    Difficulty engaging families in mental health treatment is seen as an underlying reason for the disparity between child mental health need and service use. Interpretation of the literature on how best to engage families is complicated by a diversity of operational definitions of engagement outcomes and related interventions. Thus, we sought to review studies of engagement interventions using a structured methodology allowing for an aggregate summary of the most common practices associated with effective engagement interventions. We identified 344 articles through a combination of database search methods and recommendations from engagement research experts; 38 articles describing 40 studies met our inclusion criteria. Following coding methods described by Chorpita and Daleiden (J Consul Clin Psychol 77(3):566-579, 2009, doi: 10.1037/a0014565 ), we identified 22 engagement practice elements from 89 study groups that examined or implemented family engagement strategies. Most frequently identified engagement practice elements included assessment, accessibility promotion, psychoeducation about services, homework assignment, and appointment reminders. Assessment and accessibility promotion were two practice elements present in at least 50 % of treatment groups that outperformed a control group in a randomized controlled trial. With the exception of appointment reminders, these frequently identified engagement practice elements had a high likelihood of being associated with winning treatments when they were used. This approach offers a novel way of summarizing the engagement literature and provides the foundation for enhancing clinical decision-making around treatment engagement. PMID:24379129

  9. Common-path optical frequency domain imaging system designed for identifying and grading pearls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Myeong Jin; Ryu, Seon Young; Na, Jihoon; Choi, Hae Young; Kim, Hae Yeon; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2010-02-01

    We present a common-path optical frequency domain imaging (CP-OFDI) system for non-invasive evaluation of various pearls. By adopting a high speed ready-to-ship scanning light source and a common-path lensed fiber probe, with the help of a rotation stage, real-time display of whole circumference of a pearl could be achieved. The common-path lensed fiber probe was fabricated by simply forming a focusing lens directly on the tip of an optical fiber, thus the fiber lens acted as a reference reflector as well as a focusing lens. The focal length of the lensed fiber probe was over 600 μm in free space and the average imaging depth reached up to 3 mm, which was deep enough to examine the internal structure of the pearl. The sensitivity of the system was experimentally obtained as 100dB. With an implemented system, the presence of nucleus and the nacreous laminated pattern were confirmed and analyzed. Experimental results show that the CP-OFDI system has great potential for identifying and grading pearls non-invasively but precisely.

  10. Genome-wide analysis identifies a role for common copy number variants in specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Nuala H; Ceroni, Fabiola; Reader, Rose H; Covill, Laura E; Knight, Julian C; Hennessy, Elizabeth R; Bolton, Patrick F; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; O'Hare, Anne; Baird, Gillian; Fisher, Simon E; Newbury, Dianne F

    2015-10-01

    An exploratory genome-wide copy number variant (CNV) study was performed in 127 independent cases with specific language impairment (SLI), their first-degree relatives (385 individuals) and 269 population controls. Language-impaired cases showed an increased CNV burden in terms of the average number of events (11.28 vs 10.01, empirical P=0.003), the total length of CNVs (717 vs 513 Kb, empirical P=0.0001), the average CNV size (63.75 vs 51.6 Kb, empirical P=0.0005) and the number of genes spanned (14.29 vs 10.34, empirical P=0.0007) when compared with population controls, suggesting that CNVs may contribute to SLI risk. A similar trend was observed in first-degree relatives regardless of affection status. The increased burden found in our study was not driven by large or de novo events, which have been described as causative in other neurodevelopmental disorders. Nevertheless, de novo CNVs might be important on a case-by-case basis, as indicated by identification of events affecting relevant genes, such as ACTR2 and CSNK1A1, and small events within known micro-deletion/-duplication syndrome regions, such as chr8p23.1. Pathway analysis of the genes present within the CNVs of the independent cases identified significant overrepresentation of acetylcholine binding, cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity and MHC proteins as compared with controls. Taken together, our data suggest that the majority of the risk conferred by CNVs in SLI is via common, inherited events within a 'common disorder-common variant' model. Therefore the risk conferred by CNVs will depend upon the combination of events inherited (both CNVs and SNPs), the genetic background of the individual and the environmental factors. PMID:25585696

  11. In-silico analysis of Pasteurella multocida to identify common epitopes between fowl, goat and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Ghaffar, Ammarah; Tariq, Aamira

    2016-04-10

    Pasteurella multocida represents a highly diverse group of bacteria infecting various hosts like the fowl, goat and buffalo leading to huge economic loss to the poultry and cattle industry. Previous reports indicated that the outer membrane proteins contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida. The comparative in-silico genome wide analysis of four pathogenic Pasteurella multocida strains (Anand1-poultry, Anand1-goat, PMTB and VTCCBAA264) with their respective hosts was performed. A pipeline was developed to identify the list of non-homologous proteins of Pasteurella multocida strains and their hosts. The list was further analyzed for the identification of the essential outer membrane proteins responsible for the pathogenicity. Outer membrane proteins were further selected from these antigenic proteins on the basis of their pathogenic potential. A common B-cell epitope (TDYRNRDRS, ARRSVTSKEN, and KINDQWRW) determined via sequential and structural approach from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) assembly outer membrane complex protein was predicted from fowl, goat and buffalo. Furthermore, we identified T-cell epitopes based on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) assembly outer membrane complex protein via docking studies which were either similar to the B-cell epitopes or were occurring in the same patch except for MHC class II M fowl. We propose that this difference in epitope sequence is due to different interacting MHC class II protein predicted from the fowl. Hence, in the current study we found that a unique epitope based on the common antigenic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) outer membrane complex protein present in fowl, goat and buffalo can be a suitable target for vaccine development against the two economic devastating diseases; fowl cholera (FC) and hemorrhagic septicemia (HS). PMID:26779825

  12. Identifying common components across biological network graphs using a bipartite data model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The GeneWeaver bipartite data model provides an efficient means to evaluate shared molecular components from sets derived across diverse species, disease states and biological processes. In order to adapt this model for examining related molecular components and biological networks, such as pathway or gene network data, we have developed a means to leverage the bipartite data structure to extract and analyze shared edges. Using the Pathway Commons database we demonstrate the ability to rapidly identify shared connected components among a diverse set of pathways. In addition, we illustrate how results from maximal bipartite discovery can be decomposed into hierarchical relationships, allowing shared pathway components to be mapped through various parent-child relationships to help visualization and discovery of emergent kernel driven relationships. Interrogating common relationships among biological networks and conventional GeneWeaver gene lists will increase functional specificity and reliability of the shared biological components. This approach enables self-organization of biological processes through shared biological networks. PMID:25374613

  13. Identifying Patients Most Likely to Have a Common Bile Duct Stone After a Positive Intraoperative Cholangiogram

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Jason; Mishra, Girish; Baillie, John; Gilliam, John; Fernandez, Adolfo; Evans, John

    2014-01-01

    The false-positive rates of a positive intraoperative cholangiogram (IOC) are as high as 60%. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for stone removal is required after a positive IOC. It is unclear which clinical factors identify patients most likely to have a stone after a positive IOC. This study was conducted to identify factors predictive of common bile duct (CBD) stone(s) on ERCP after a positive IOC. A retrospective review of our endoscopic database identified all ERCP and/or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) procedures performed for a positive IOC between August 2003 and August 2009. Collected data included patient demographics; indication for cholecystectomy; IOC findings; blood tests before and after cholecystectomy, including liver function tests, complete blood count, and amylase and lipase measurements; and ERCP and/or EUS results. Patients who had a negative EUS for CBD stones and no subsequent ERCP were contacted by phone to see if they eventually required an ERCP. Univariate and multi-variable analyses were performed. A total of 114 patients were included in the study. IOC findings included a single stone, multiple stones, nonpassage of contrast into the duodenum, dilated CBD, and poor visualization of the bile duct. Eighty-four percent of patients had ERCP only, 9% had EUS only, and 7% had EUS followed by ERCP. Sixty-five patients (57%) had CBD stones on ERCP or EUS. Older age, multiple stones, dilated CBD on IOC, and elevated postcholecystectomy bilirubin levels were the clinical variables with statistically significant differences on univariate analysis. On multivariable analysis, older age and elevated postcholecystectomy total bilirubin levels correlated with the presence of CBD stones on ERCP. Fifty-seven percent of patients referred for endoscopic evaluation after a positive IOC had CBD stones on ERCP. Patients with CBD stones after a positive IOC were more likely to be older with elevated post-cholecystectomy total serum bilirubin levels. PMID:24976807

  14. Pleiotropy among Common Genetic Loci Identified for Cardiometabolic Disorders and C-Reactive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ligthart, Symen; de Vries, Paul S.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Dehghan, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Pleiotropic genetic variants have independent effects on different phenotypes. C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with several cardiometabolic phenotypes. Shared genetic backgrounds may partially underlie these associations. We conducted a genome-wide analysis to identify the shared genetic background of inflammation and cardiometabolic phenotypes using published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We also evaluated whether the pleiotropic effects of such loci were biological or mediated in nature. First, we examined whether 283 common variants identified for 10 cardiometabolic phenotypes in GWAS are associated with CRP level. Second, we tested whether 18 variants identified for serum CRP are associated with 10 cardiometabolic phenotypes. We used a Bonferroni corrected p-value of 1.1×10-04 (0.05/463) as a threshold of significance. We evaluated the independent pleiotropic effect on both phenotypes using individual level data from the Women Genome Health Study. Evaluating the genetic overlap between inflammation and cardiometabolic phenotypes, we found 13 pleiotropic regions. Additional analyses showed that 6 regions (APOC1, HNF1A, IL6R, PPP1R3B, HNF4A and IL1F10) appeared to have a pleiotropic effect on CRP independent of the effects on the cardiometabolic phenotypes. These included loci where individuals carrying the risk allele for CRP encounter higher lipid levels and risk of type 2 diabetes. In addition, 5 regions (GCKR, PABPC4, BCL7B, FTO and TMEM18) had an effect on CRP largely mediated through the cardiometabolic phenotypes. In conclusion, our results show genetic pleiotropy among inflammation and cardiometabolic phenotypes. In addition to reverse causation, our data suggests that pleiotropic genetic variants partially underlie the association between CRP and cardiometabolic phenotypes. PMID:25768928

  15. Identifying Regulators of Morphogenesis Common to Vertebrate Neural Tube Closure and Caenorhabditis elegans Gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Sullivan-Brown, Jessica L; Tandon, Panna; Bird, Kim E; Dickinson, Daniel J; Tintori, Sophia C; Heppert, Jennifer K; Meserve, Joy H; Trogden, Kathryn P; Orlowski, Sara K; Conlon, Frank L; Goldstein, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Neural tube defects including spina bifida are common and severe congenital disorders. In mice, mutations in more than 200 genes can result in neural tube defects. We hypothesized that this large gene set might include genes whose homologs contribute to morphogenesis in diverse animals. To test this hypothesis, we screened a set of Caenorhabditis elegans homologs for roles in gastrulation, a topologically similar process to vertebrate neural tube closure. Both C. elegans gastrulation and vertebrate neural tube closure involve the internalization of surface cells, requiring tissue-specific gene regulation, actomyosin-driven apical constriction, and establishment and maintenance of adhesions between specific cells. Our screen identified several neural tube defect gene homologs that are required for gastrulation in C. elegans, including the transcription factor sptf-3. Disruption of sptf-3 in C. elegans reduced the expression of early endodermally expressed genes as well as genes expressed in other early cell lineages, establishing sptf-3 as a key contributor to multiple well-studied C. elegans cell fate specification pathways. We also identified members of the actin regulatory WAVE complex (wve-1, gex-2, gex-3, abi-1, and nuo-3a). Disruption of WAVE complex members reduced the narrowing of endodermal cells' apical surfaces. Although WAVE complex members are expressed broadly in C. elegans, we found that expression of a vertebrate WAVE complex member, nckap1, is enriched in the developing neural tube of Xenopus. We show that nckap1 contributes to neural tube closure in Xenopus. This work identifies in vivo roles for homologs of mammalian neural tube defect genes in two manipulable genetic model systems. PMID:26434722

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies shared risk loci common to two malignancies in golden retrievers.

    PubMed

    Tonomura, Noriko; Elvers, Ingegerd; Thomas, Rachael; Megquier, Kate; Turner-Maier, Jason; Howald, Cedric; Sarver, Aaron L; Swofford, Ross; Frantz, Aric M; Ito, Daisuke; Mauceli, Evan; Arendt, Maja; Noh, Hyun Ji; Koltookian, Michele; Biagi, Tara; Fryc, Sarah; Williams, Christina; Avery, Anne C; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Barber, Lisa; Burgess, Kristine; Lander, Eric S; Karlsson, Elinor K; Azuma, Chieko; Modiano, Jaime F; Breen, Matthew; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2015-02-01

    Dogs, with their breed-determined limited genetic background, are great models of human disease including cancer. Canine B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma are both malignancies of the hematologic system that are clinically and histologically similar to human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and angiosarcoma, respectively. Golden retrievers in the US show significantly elevated lifetime risk for both B-cell lymphoma (6%) and hemangiosarcoma (20%). We conducted genome-wide association studies for hemangiosarcoma and B-cell lymphoma, identifying two shared predisposing loci. The two associated loci are located on chromosome 5, and together contribute ~20% of the risk of developing these cancers. Genome-wide p-values for the top SNP of each locus are 4.6×10-7 and 2.7×10-6, respectively. Whole genome resequencing of nine cases and controls followed by genotyping and detailed analysis identified three shared and one B-cell lymphoma specific risk haplotypes within the two loci, but no coding changes were associated with the risk haplotypes. Gene expression analysis of B-cell lymphoma tumors revealed that carrying the risk haplotypes at the first locus is associated with down-regulation of several nearby genes including the proximal gene TRPC6, a transient receptor Ca2+-channel involved in T-cell activation, among other functions. The shared risk haplotype in the second locus overlaps the vesicle transport and release gene STX8. Carrying the shared risk haplotype is associated with gene expression changes of 100 genes enriched for pathways involved in immune cell activation. Thus, the predisposing germ-line mutations in B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma appear to be regulatory, and affect pathways involved in T-cell mediated immune response in the tumor. This suggests that the interaction between the immune system and malignant cells plays a common role in the tumorigenesis of these relatively different cancers. PMID:25642983

  17. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Shared Risk Loci Common to Two Malignancies in Golden Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    Tonomura, Noriko; Elvers, Ingegerd; Thomas, Rachael; Megquier, Kate; Turner-Maier, Jason; Howald, Cedric; Sarver, Aaron L.; Swofford, Ross; Frantz, Aric M.; Ito, Daisuke; Mauceli, Evan; Arendt, Maja; Noh, Hyun Ji; Koltookian, Michele; Biagi, Tara; Fryc, Sarah; Williams, Christina; Avery, Anne C.; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Barber, Lisa; Burgess, Kristine; Lander, Eric S.; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Azuma, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Dogs, with their breed-determined limited genetic background, are great models of human disease including cancer. Canine B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma are both malignancies of the hematologic system that are clinically and histologically similar to human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and angiosarcoma, respectively. Golden retrievers in the US show significantly elevated lifetime risk for both B-cell lymphoma (6%) and hemangiosarcoma (20%). We conducted genome-wide association studies for hemangiosarcoma and B-cell lymphoma, identifying two shared predisposing loci. The two associated loci are located on chromosome 5, and together contribute ~20% of the risk of developing these cancers. Genome-wide p-values for the top SNP of each locus are 4.6×10-7 and 2.7×10-6, respectively. Whole genome resequencing of nine cases and controls followed by genotyping and detailed analysis identified three shared and one B-cell lymphoma specific risk haplotypes within the two loci, but no coding changes were associated with the risk haplotypes. Gene expression analysis of B-cell lymphoma tumors revealed that carrying the risk haplotypes at the first locus is associated with down-regulation of several nearby genes including the proximal gene TRPC6, a transient receptor Ca2+-channel involved in T-cell activation, among other functions. The shared risk haplotype in the second locus overlaps the vesicle transport and release gene STX8. Carrying the shared risk haplotype is associated with gene expression changes of 100 genes enriched for pathways involved in immune cell activation. Thus, the predisposing germ-line mutations in B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma appear to be regulatory, and affect pathways involved in T-cell mediated immune response in the tumor. This suggests that the interaction between the immune system and malignant cells plays a common role in the tumorigenesis of these relatively different cancers. PMID:25642983

  18. Molecular profiling of experimental endometriosis identified gene expression patterns in common with human disease

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Idhaliz; Rivera, Elizabeth; Ruiz, Lynnette A.; Santiago, Olga I.; Vernon, Michael W.; Appleyard, Caroline B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To validate a rat model of endometriosis using cDNA microarrays by identifying common gene expression patterns beween experimental and natural disease. DESIGN Autotransplantation rat model. SETTING Medical school department. ANIMALS Female Sprague-Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS Endometriosis was surgically-induced by suturing uterine horn implants next to the small intestine’s mesentery. Control rats received sutures with no implants. After 60 days, endometriotic implants and uterine horn were obtained. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Gene expression levels determined by cDNA microarrays and QRT-PCR. METHODS Cy5-labeled cDNA was synthesized from total RNA obtained from endometriotic implants. Cy3-labeled cDNA was synthesized using uterine RNA from a control rat. Gene expression levels were analyzed after hybridizing experimental and control labeled cDNA to PIQOR™ Toxicology Rat Microarrays (Miltenyi Biotec) containing 1,252 known genes. Cy5/Cy3 ratios were determined and genes with >2-fold higher or <0.5-fold lower expression levels were selected. Microarray results were validated by QRT-PCR. RESULTS We observed differential expression of genes previously shown to be upregulated in patients, including growth factors, inflammatory cytokines/receptors, tumor invasion/metastasis factors, adhesion molecules, and anti-apoptotic factors. CONCLUSIONS This study presents evidence in support of using this rat model to study the natural history of endometriosis and test novel therapeutics for this incurable disease. PMID:17478174

  19. Dense genotyping identifies and localizes multiple common and rare variant association signals in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Trynka, Gosia; Hunt, Karen A; Bockett, Nicholas A; Romanos, Jihane; Mistry, Vanisha; Szperl, Agata; Bakker, Sjoerd F; Bardella, Maria Teresa; Bhaw-Rosun, Leena; Castillejo, Gemma; de la Concha, Emilio G; de Almeida, Rodrigo Coutinho; Dias, Kerith-Rae M; van Diemen, Cleo C; Dubois, Patrick C A; Duerr, Richard H; Edkins, Sarah; Franke, Lude; Fransen, Karin; Gutierrez, Javier; Heap, Graham A R; Hrdlickova, Barbara; Hunt, Sarah; Plaza Izurieta, Leticia; Izzo, Valentina; Joosten, Leo A B; Langford, Cordelia; Mazzilli, Maria Cristina; Mein, Charles A; Midah, Vandana; Mitrovic, Mitja; Mora, Barbara; Morelli, Marinita; Nutland, Sarah; Núñez, Concepción; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Pearce, Kerra; Platteel, Mathieu; Polanco, Isabel; Potter, Simon; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis; Rich, Stephen S; Rybak, Anna; Santiago, José Luis; Senapati, Sabyasachi; Sood, Ajit; Szajewska, Hania; Troncone, Riccardo; Varadé, Jezabel; Wallace, Chris; Wolters, Victorien M; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Thelma, B K; Cukrowska, Bozena; Urcelay, Elena; Bilbao, Jose Ramon; Mearin, M Luisa; Barisani, Donatella; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Plagnol, Vincent; Deloukas, Panos; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Heel, David A

    2011-12-01

    Using variants from the 1000 Genomes Project pilot European CEU dataset and data from additional resequencing studies, we densely genotyped 183 non-HLA risk loci previously associated with immune-mediated diseases in 12,041 individuals with celiac disease (cases) and 12,228 controls. We identified 13 new celiac disease risk loci reaching genome-wide significance, bringing the number of known loci (including the HLA locus) to 40. We found multiple independent association signals at over one-third of these loci, a finding that is attributable to a combination of common, low-frequency and rare genetic variants. Compared to previously available data such as those from HapMap3, our dense genotyping in a large sample collection provided a higher resolution of the pattern of linkage disequilibrium and suggested localization of many signals to finer scale regions. In particular, 29 of the 54 fine-mapped signals seemed to be localized to single genes and, in some instances, to gene regulatory elements. Altogether, we define the complex genetic architecture of the risk regions of and refine the risk signals for celiac disease, providing the next step toward uncovering the causal mechanisms of the disease. PMID:22057235

  20. Dense genotyping identifies and localizes multiple common and rare variant association signals in celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Trynka, Gosia; Hunt, Karen A; Bockett, Nicholas A; Romanos, Jihane; Mistry, Vanisha; Szperl, Agata; Bakker, Sjoerd F; Bardella, Maria Teresa; Bhaw-Rosun, Leena; Castillejo, Gemma; de la Concha, Emilio G.; de Almeida, Rodrigo Coutinho; Dias, Kerith-Rae M; van Diemen, Cleo C.; Dubois, Patrick CA; Duerr, Richard H.; Edkins, Sarah; Franke, Lude; Fransen, Karin; Gutierrez, Javier; Heap, Graham AR; Hrdlickova, Barbara; Hunt, Sarah; Izurieta, Leticia Plaza; Izzo, Valentina; Joosten, Leo AB; Langford, Cordelia; Mazzilli, Maria Cristina; Mein, Charles A; Midah, Vandana; Mitrovic, Mitja; Mora, Barbara; Morelli, Marinita; Nutland, Sarah; Núñez, Concepción; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Pearce, Kerra; Platteel, Mathieu; Polanco, Isabel; Potter, Simon; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis; Rich, Stephen S.; Rybak, Anna; Santiago, José Luis; Senapati, Sabyasachi; Sood, Ajit; Szajewska, Hania; Troncone, Riccardo; Varadé, Jezabel; Wallace, Chris; Wolters, Victorien M; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Thelma, B.K.; Cukrowska, Bozena; Urcelay, Elena; Bilbao, Jose Ramon; Mearin, M Luisa; Barisani, Donatella; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Plagnol, Vincent; Deloukas, Panos; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Heel, David A

    2011-01-01

    We densely genotyped, using 1000 Genomes Project pilot CEU and additional re-sequencing study variants, 183 reported immune-mediated disease non-HLA risk loci in 12,041 celiac disease cases and 12,228 controls. We identified 13 new celiac disease risk loci at genome wide significance, bringing the total number of known loci (including HLA) to 40. Multiple independent association signals are found at over a third of these loci, attributable to a combination of common, low frequency, and rare genetic variants. In comparison with previously available data such as HapMap3, our dense genotyping in a large sample size provided increased resolution of the pattern of linkage disequilibrium, and suggested localization of many signals to finer scale regions. In particular, 29 of 54 fine-mapped signals appeared localized to specific single genes - and in some instances to gene regulatory elements. We define a complex genetic architecture of risk regions, and refine risk signals, providing a next step towards elucidating causal disease mechanisms. PMID:22057235

  1. Common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance identified using the proxy-phenotype method

    PubMed Central

    Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Esko, Tõnu; Davies, Gail; Pers, Tune H.; Turley, Patrick; Benyamin, Beben; Chabris, Christopher F.; Emilsson, Valur; Johnson, Andrew D.; Lee, James J.; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Medland, Sarah E.; Miller, Michael B.; Rostapshova, Olga; van der Lee, Sven J.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Amin, Najaf; Conley, Dalton; Derringer, Jaime; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Franke, Lude; Glaeser, Edward L.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hayward, Caroline; Iacono, William G.; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla; Jaddoe, Vincent; Karjalainen, Juha; Laibson, David; Lichtenstein, Paul; Liewald, David C.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; McMahon, George; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pinker, Steven; Porteous, David J.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Smith, Blair H.; Starr, John M.; Tiemeier, Henning; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Uitterlinden, André G.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ward, Mary E.; Wright, Margaret J.; Davey Smith, George; Deary, Ian J.; Johannesson, Magnus; Plomin, Robert; Visscher, Peter M.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Koellinger, Philipp D.

    2014-01-01

    We identify common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance using a two-stage approach, which we call the proxy-phenotype method. First, we conduct a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in a large sample (n = 106,736), which produces a set of 69 education-associated SNPs. Second, using independent samples (n = 24,189), we measure the association of these education-associated SNPs with cognitive performance. Three SNPs (rs1487441, rs7923609, and rs2721173) are significantly associated with cognitive performance after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. In an independent sample of older Americans (n = 8,652), we also show that a polygenic score derived from the education-associated SNPs is associated with memory and absence of dementia. Convergent evidence from a set of bioinformatics analyses implicates four specific genes (KNCMA1, NRXN1, POU2F3, and SCRT). All of these genes are associated with a particular neurotransmitter pathway involved in synaptic plasticity, the main cellular mechanism for learning and memory. PMID:25201988

  2. Common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance identified using the proxy-phenotype method.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, Cornelius A; Esko, Tõnu; Davies, Gail; Pers, Tune H; Turley, Patrick; Benyamin, Beben; Chabris, Christopher F; Emilsson, Valur; Johnson, Andrew D; Lee, James J; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Marioni, Riccardo E; Medland, Sarah E; Miller, Michael B; Rostapshova, Olga; van der Lee, Sven J; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Amin, Najaf; Conley, Dalton; Derringer, Jaime; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Franke, Lude; Glaeser, Edward L; Hansell, Narelle K; Hayward, Caroline; Iacono, William G; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla; Jaddoe, Vincent; Karjalainen, Juha; Laibson, David; Lichtenstein, Paul; Liewald, David C; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; McMahon, George; Pedersen, Nancy L; Pinker, Steven; Porteous, David J; Posthuma, Danielle; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Smith, Blair H; Starr, John M; Tiemeier, Henning; Timpson, Nicholas J; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Uitterlinden, André G; Verhulst, Frank C; Ward, Mary E; Wright, Margaret J; Davey Smith, George; Deary, Ian J; Johannesson, Magnus; Plomin, Robert; Visscher, Peter M; Benjamin, Daniel J; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D

    2014-09-23

    We identify common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance using a two-stage approach, which we call the proxy-phenotype method. First, we conduct a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in a large sample (n = 106,736), which produces a set of 69 education-associated SNPs. Second, using independent samples (n = 24,189), we measure the association of these education-associated SNPs with cognitive performance. Three SNPs (rs1487441, rs7923609, and rs2721173) are significantly associated with cognitive performance after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. In an independent sample of older Americans (n = 8,652), we also show that a polygenic score derived from the education-associated SNPs is associated with memory and absence of dementia. Convergent evidence from a set of bioinformatics analyses implicates four specific genes (KNCMA1, NRXN1, POU2F3, and SCRT). All of these genes are associated with a particular neurotransmitter pathway involved in synaptic plasticity, the main cellular mechanism for learning and memory. PMID:25201988

  3. Developing germplasm resources to identify the genetic basis of resistance to common scab in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common scab, caused mainly by the soil-borne bacterium Streptomyces scabies, produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing tuber quality and profitability. Methods to manage common scab are often expensive, impractical, and can be ineffective. Therefore, creating cultivars that are resistant to common...

  4. Role of IgG4 serology in identifying common orbital lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Ma, Jian-Min; Ge, Xin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the role of IgG4 serology in identifying common orbital lymphoproliferative disorders. METHODS Eighty-one patients with orbital lymphoproliferative diseases were treated in the Department of Ocular Oncology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University between September 2010 and December 2012. Serum IgG4 levels were measured in 46 cases of idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor (IOIP), 17 benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLEL), 12 cases of orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), and 6 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL) using immuno-scatter turbidmetry (ISTM). RESULTS The frequency of elevated IgG4 levels in patients with IOIP, BLEL, MALT, and DLBL was 30.43% (14/46), 76.47% (13/17), 8.33% (1/12), and 0.00 (0/6), respectively. Among the patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels, all IgG-IOIP patients were male, and 92.31% of the IgG4-BLEL patients were female (12/13). The mean serum IgG4 level of IgG4-IOIP patients was lower than that of individuals with IgG4-BLEL, but the variation in serum IgG4 levels was larger in IgG4-IOIP than IgG4-BLEL patients. Only one case of IgG4-MALT with elevated serum IgG4 levels had a medical history >10y, which was significantly longer than the MALT patients with normal serum IgG4 levels. There was no significant elevation of serum IgG4 levels in patients with DLBL. CONCLUSION Detecting serum IgG4 levels plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of orbital lymphoproliferative diseases. PMID:26949650

  5. School Grounds Guide: A Pictured Guide for Identifying Common Organisms Found In and Around the School Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Rodney

    Designed for quick, easy identification of some of the most commonly encountered organisms found in and around the school ground, this illustrated guide identifies by a picture and a short biological description the common animals and plants found in and around school lawns, house lawns, parks, fence rows, flower gardens, vacant lots, and

  6. School Grounds Guide: A Pictured Guide for Identifying Common Organisms Found In and Around the School Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Rodney

    Designed for quick, easy identification of some of the most commonly encountered organisms found in and around the school ground, this illustrated guide identifies by a picture and a short biological description the common animals and plants found in and around school lawns, house lawns, parks, fence rows, flower gardens, vacant lots, and…

  7. Identifying the Role of Common Interests in Online User Trust Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Lei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Hou, Lei; Guo, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Despite enormous recent efforts in detecting the mechanism of the social relation formation in online social systems, the underlying rules between the common interests and social relations are still under dispute. Do online users befriend others who have similar tastes, or do their tastes become more similar after they become friends? In this paper, we investigate the correlation between online user trust formation and their common interests, measured by the overlap rate ρ and taste similarity θ respectively. The trust relation creation time is set as the zero timestamp. The statistical results before and after the trust formation for an online network, namely Epinions, show that, the overlap rate ρ increases greatly before the trust formation, while it would increase smoothly after the creation of the trust relation. Comparing with the empirical results, two null models are presented by shuffling the temporal behaviors of online users, which suggests that the accumulation of the common interests can result in the trust formation. Furthermore, we investigate the taste similarity θ of the common interests, which can reflect the users’ preference on their common interests. The empirical results show that the taste similarity θ is rapidly increased around the day when users trust the others. That is, the similar tastes on the common interests among users lead to the trust formation. Finally, we report that the user degree can also influence the effect of the taste similarity θ on user trust formation. This work may shed some light for deeply understanding the evolution mechanism of the online social systems. PMID:26161853

  8. Identifying the Role of Common Interests in Online User Trust Formation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Hou, Lei; Guo, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Despite enormous recent efforts in detecting the mechanism of the social relation formation in online social systems, the underlying rules between the common interests and social relations are still under dispute. Do online users befriend others who have similar tastes, or do their tastes become more similar after they become friends? In this paper, we investigate the correlation between online user trust formation and their common interests, measured by the overlap rate ρ and taste similarity θ respectively. The trust relation creation time is set as the zero timestamp. The statistical results before and after the trust formation for an online network, namely Epinions, show that, the overlap rate ρ increases greatly before the trust formation, while it would increase smoothly after the creation of the trust relation. Comparing with the empirical results, two null models are presented by shuffling the temporal behaviors of online users, which suggests that the accumulation of the common interests can result in the trust formation. Furthermore, we investigate the taste similarity θ of the common interests, which can reflect the users' preference on their common interests. The empirical results show that the taste similarity θ is rapidly increased around the day when users trust the others. That is, the similar tastes on the common interests among users lead to the trust formation. Finally, we report that the user degree can also influence the effect of the taste similarity θ on user trust formation. This work may shed some light for deeply understanding the evolution mechanism of the online social systems. PMID:26161853

  9. Identifying and Reconstructing Common Cold Misconceptions among Developing K-12 Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcus Lee; Bungum, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Common cold misconceptions may contribute to ill-informed decisions and recommendations made by K-12 educators who often encounter infected students. Understanding the structure of educators' misconceptions can be used to improve health instruction in teacher professional preparation programs. Purpose: The purposes of this project were…

  10. An important difference between "exposed" and "photodistributed" underscores the importance of identifying common reactions.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Breithaupt, Andrew D

    2009-09-01

    This article presents the case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis who was referred to dermatology for what was suspected to be a photosensitivity reaction to hydroxychloroquine, a common culprit in photodrug reactions. Despite the patient's insistence to the contrary, the cause of her eruption was an airborne allergic contact dermatitis to chemicals she was exposed to during her longtime hobby of soap-making. This case serves as an important illustration of the anatomical differences between eruptions occurring in exposed and photodistributed areas. This article also discusses the causes of dermatitis that may mimic photodrug reactions. PMID:20729959

  11. Identifying common genetic variants in blood pressure due to polygenic pleiotropy with associated phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Ole A; McEvoy, Linda K; Thompson, Wesley K; Wang, Yunpeng; Reppe, Sjur; Schork, Andrew J; Zuber, Verena; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Gautvik, Kaare; Aukrust, Pål; Karlsen, Tom H; Djurovic, Srdjan; Desikan, Rahul S; Dale, Anders M

    2014-04-01

    Blood pressure is a critical determinant of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is affected by environmental factors, but has a strong heritable component. Despite recent large genome-wide association studies, few genetic risk factors for blood pressure have been identified. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between blood pressure and several diseases and traits, which may partly arise from a shared genetic basis (genetic pleiotropy). Using genome-wide association studies summary statistics and a genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate method, we systematically investigated genetic overlap between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 12 comorbid traits and diseases. We found significant enrichment of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with SBP as a function of their association with body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, waist/hip ratio, schizophrenia, bone mineral density, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and celiac disease. In contrast, the magnitude of enrichment due to shared polygenic effects was smaller with the other phenotypes (triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, type 2 diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, and height). Applying the conditional false discovery rate method to the enriched phenotypes, we identified 62 loci associated with SBP (false discovery rate <0.01), including 42 novel loci. The observed polygenic overlap between SBP and several related disorders indicates that the epidemiological associations are not mediated solely via lifestyle factors but also reflect an etiologic relation that warrants further investigation. The new gene loci identified implicate novel genetic mechanisms related to lipid biology and the immune system in SBP. PMID:24396023

  12. There is need for antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests to identify common acute tropical illnesses.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Henry; Suankratay, Chusana

    2007-01-01

    Enteric fever, typhus, leptospirosis, dengue, melioidosis, and tuberculous meningitis present urgent diagnostic problems that require experience and clinical judgment to make early evidence-based management decisions. Basic and applied research dealing with reliable antigen-based diagnostics has been published and confirmed for several of these infections. This should have initiated commercial production but has not. Established international firms see little profit in such diagnostic kits since they would be used in poor countries with little prospects for return of investment capital. We attempt to illustrate this issue, using common causes of acute febrile illnesses in the Southeast Asian region. We believe that rapid diagnostic technology could prevent significant delay in starting appropriate therapy, reduce hospital expenses, and even save lives. PMID:17617848

  13. The Genome Sequence of the Emerging Common Midwife Toad Virus Identifies an Evolutionary Intermediate within Ranaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Mavian, Carla; López-Bueno, Alberto; Balseiro, Ana; Casais, Rosa; Alcamí, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide amphibian population declines have been ascribed to global warming, increasing pollution levels, and other factors directly related to human activities. These factors may additionally be favoring the emergence of novel pathogens. In this report, we have determined the complete genome sequence of the emerging common midwife toad ranavirus (CMTV), which has caused fatal disease in several amphibian species across Europe. Phylogenetic and gene content analyses of the first complete genomic sequence from a ranavirus isolated in Europe show that CMTV is an amphibian-like ranavirus (ALRV). However, the CMTV genome structure is novel and represents an intermediate evolutionary stage between the two previously described ALRV groups. We find that CMTV clusters with several other ranaviruses isolated from different hosts and locations which might also be included in this novel ranavirus group. This work sheds light on the phylogenetic relationships within this complex group of emerging, disease-causing viruses. PMID:22301140

  14. Genome-wide association identifies diverse causes of common variable immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Orange, Jordan S.; Glessner, Joseph T.; Resnick, Elena; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Lucas, Mary; Ferry, Berne; Kim, Cecilia E.; Hou, Cuiping; Wang, Fengxiang; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Kugathasan, Subra; Sleasman, John W.; Baldassano, Robert; Perez, Elena E.; Chapel, Helen; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2013-01-01

    Background Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous immune defect characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, failure of specific antibody production, susceptibility to infections, and an array of comorbidities. Objective To address the underlying immunopathogenesis of CVID and comorbidities, we conducted the first genome-wide association and gene copy number variation (CNV) study in patients with CVID. Methods Three hundred sixty-three patients with CVID from 4 study sites were genotyped with 610,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Patients were divided into a discovery cohort of 179 cases in comparison with 1,917 control subjects and a replication cohort of 109 cases and 1,114 control subjects. Results Our analyses detected strong association with the MHC region and association with a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) genes (P combined = 1.96 × 10−7) replicated in the independent cohort. CNV analysis defined 16 disease-associated deletions and duplications, including duplication of origin recognition complex 4L (ORC4L) that was unique to 15 cases (P = 8.66 × 10−16), as well as numerous unique rare intraexonic deletions and duplications suggesting multiple novel genetic causes of CVID. Furthermore, the 1,000 most significant SNPs were strongly predictive of the CVID phenotype by using a Support Vector Machine algorithm with positive and negative predictive values of 1.0 and 0.957, respectively. Conclusion Our integrative genome-wide analysis of SNP genotypes and CNVs has uncovered multiple novel susceptibility loci for CVID, both common and rare, which is consistent with the highly heterogeneous nature of CVID. These results provide new mechanistic insights into immunopathogenesis based on these unique genetic variations and might allow for improved diagnosis of CVID based on accurate prediction of the CVID clinical phenotypes by using our Support Vector Machine model. PMID:21497890

  15. Genome Sequence of Complex HIV-1 Unique Recombinant Forms Sharing a Common Recombination Breakpoint Identified in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Hui Ting; Ng, Kim Tien; Ong, Lai Yee; Takebe, Yutaka; Chan, Kok Gan; Koh, Clayton; Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2015-01-01

    Three strains of HIV-1 unique recombinant forms (URFs) descended from subtypes B, B?, and CRF01_AE were identified among people who inject drugs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. These three URFs shared a common recombination breakpoint in the reverse transcriptase region, indicating frequent linkage within the drug-injecting networks in Malaysia. PMID:26543107

  16. Risk assessment derived from migrants identified in several adhesives commonly used in food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Canellas, E; Vera, P; Nerín, C

    2015-01-01

    Adhesives are used to manufacture multilayer materials, where their components pass through the layers and migrate to the food. Nine different adhesives (acrylic, vinyl and hotmelt) and their migration in 21 laminates for future use as market samples have been evaluated and risk assessment has been carried out. A total of 75 volatiles and non volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Most of the compounds migrated below their specific migration limit (SML), lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and values recommended by Cramer. Six compounds classified as high toxicity class III according to Cramer classification, migrated over their SML and exposure values recommended by Cramer, when they were applied in the full area of the packaging. Nevertheless, these adhesives fulfill the threshold in the real application as they are applied in a small area of the packaging. PMID:25445514

  17. Identifying Best Practices for Increasing Linkage to, Retention, and Re-engagement in HIV Medical Care: Findings from a Systematic Review, 1996-2014.

    PubMed

    Higa, Darrel H; Crepaz, Nicole; Mullins, Mary M

    2016-05-01

    A systematic review was conducted to identify best practices for increasing linkage, retention and re-engagement in HIV care (LRC) for persons living with HIV (PLWH). Our search strategy consisted of automated searches of electronic databases and hand searches of journals, reference lists and listservs. We developed two sets of criteria: evidence-based to identify evidence-based interventions (EBIs) tested with a comparison group and evidence-informed to identify evidence-informed interventions (EIs) tested with a one-group design. Eligible interventions included being published between 1996 and 2014, U.S.-based studies with a comparison or one-group designs with pre-post data, international randomized controlled trials, and having objective measures of LRC-relevant outcomes. We identified 10 best practices: 5 EBIs and 5 EIs. None focused on re-engagement. Providers and prevention planners can use the review findings to identify best practices suitable for their clinics, agencies, or communities to increase engagement in care for PLWH, ultimately leading to viral suppression. PMID:26404014

  18. Genome Wide Association Identifies Common Variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 Locus Influencing Plasma Cortisol and Corticosteroid Binding Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Direk, Nese; Lewis, John G.; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Hill, Lesley A.; Anderson, Anna; Huffman, Jennifer; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan; Hastie, Nicholas; Wild, Sarah H.; Velders, Fleur P.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kaakinen, Marika; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Davey Smith, George; Ring, Susan M.; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Tanaka, Toshiko; Milaneschi, Yuri; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; van der Harst, Pim; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Bakker, Stephen J. L.; Verweij, Niek; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Morris, Andrew; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Anderson, Laura N.; Pennell, Craig E.; Lye, Stephen J.; Matthews, Stephen G.; Eriksson, Joel; Mellstrom, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes; Price, Jackie F.; Strachan, Mark W. J.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Tiemeier, Henning; Walker, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30–60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma), and SERPINA1, encoding α1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG). Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136) influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases. PMID:25010111

  19. A Pan-Cancer Modular Regulatory Network Analysis to Identify Common and Cancer-Specific Network Components

    PubMed Central

    Knaack, Sara A; Siahpirani, Alireza Fotuhi; Roy, Sushmita

    2014-01-01

    Many human diseases including cancer are the result of perturbations to transcriptional regulatory networks that control context-specific expression of genes. A comparative approach across multiple cancer types is a powerful approach to illuminate the common and specific network features of this family of diseases. Recent efforts from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) have generated large collections of functional genomic data sets for multiple types of cancers. An emerging challenge is to devise computational approaches that systematically compare these genomic data sets across different cancer types that identify common and cancer-specific network components. We present a module- and network-based characterization of transcriptional patterns in six different cancers being studied in TCGA: breast, colon, rectal, kidney, ovarian, and endometrial. Our approach uses a recently developed regulatory network reconstruction algorithm, modular regulatory network learning with per gene information (MERLIN), within a stability selection framework to predict regulators for individual genes and gene modules. Our module-based analysis identifies a common theme of immune system processes in each cancer study, with modules statistically enriched for immune response processes as well as targets of key immune response regulators from the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) families. Comparison of the inferred regulatory networks from each cancer type identified a core regulatory network that included genes involved in chromatin remodeling, cell cycle, and immune response. Regulatory network hubs included genes with known roles in specific cancer types as well as genes with potentially novel roles in different cancer types. Overall, our integrated module and network analysis recapitulated known themes in cancer biology and additionally revealed novel regulatory hubs that suggest a complex interplay of immune response, cell cycle, and chromatin remodeling across multiple cancers. PMID:25374456

  20. Preserved Proteins from Extinct Bison latifrons Identified by Tandem Mass Spectrometry; Hydroxylysine Glycosides are a Common Feature of Ancient Collagen.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ryan C; Wither, Matthew J; Nemkov, Travis; Barrett, Alexander; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Hansen, Kirk C

    2015-07-01

    Bone samples from several vertebrates were collected from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, in Snowmass Village, Colorado, and processed for proteomics analysis. The specimens come from Pleistocene megafauna Bison latifrons, dating back ∼ 120,000 years. Proteomics analysis using a simplified sample preparation procedure and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was applied to obtain protein identifications. Several bioinformatics resources were used to obtain peptide identifications based on sequence homology to extant species with annotated genomes. With the exception of soil sample controls, all samples resulted in confident peptide identifications that mapped to type I collagen. In addition, we analyzed a specimen from the extinct B. latifrons that yielded peptide identifications mapping to over 33 bovine proteins. Our analysis resulted in extensive fibrillar collagen sequence coverage, including the identification of posttranslational modifications. Hydroxylysine glucosylgalactosylation, a modification thought to be involved in collagen fiber formation and bone mineralization, was identified for the first time in an ancient protein dataset. Meta-analysis of data from other studies indicates that this modification may be common in well-preserved prehistoric samples. Additional peptide sequences from extracellular matrix (ECM) and non-ECM proteins have also been identified for the first time in ancient tissue samples. These data provide a framework for analyzing ancient protein signatures in well-preserved fossil specimens, while also contributing novel insights into the molecular basis of organic matter preservation. As such, this analysis has unearthed common posttranslational modifications of collagen that may assist in its preservation over time. The data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001827. PMID:25948757

  1. Global gene analysis identifying genes commonly regulated by the Ras/Raf/MEK and type I IFN pathways

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Y.; Hirasawa, K.; Christian, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses exploit alterations in cancer cells to specifically infect cancer cells but not normal healthy cells. Previous work has shown that oncogenic Ras interferes with interferon (IFN) signaling to promote viral replication. Furthermore, inhibition of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway at the level of Ras, MEK, or ERK was sufficient to restore IFN signaling. In order to identify genes that were commonly regulated by the inhibition of the Ras pathway and the IFN pathway, we treated NIH/3T3 cells that overexpress oncogenic Ras with the MEK inhibitor, U0126, or IFN-α for 6 h, and performed DNA microarray analysis (Gene Expression Omnibus accession number GSE49469). Here, we also provide additional information on the experimental and functional analysis of the genes responsive to U0126 and IFN. PMID:26484185

  2. Gene co-expression analysis identifies common modules related to prognosis and drug resistance in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Li, Li; Li, Weidong

    2014-12-15

    To discover a common gene co-expression network in cancer cell, we applied weighted gene co-expression network analysis to transcriptional profiles of 917 cancer cell lines. Fourteen biologically meaningful modules were identified, including cytoskeleton, cell cycle, RNA splicing, signaling pathway, transcription, translation and others. These modules were robust in an independent human cancer microarray dataset. Furthermore, we collected 11 independent cancer microarray datasets, and correlated these modules with clinical outcome. Most of these modules could predict patient survival in one or more cancer types. Some modules were predictive of relapse, metastasis and drug resistance. Novel regulatory mechanisms were also implicated. In summary, our findings, for the first time, provide a modular map for cancer cell lines, new targets for therapy and modules for regulatory mechanism of cancer development and drug resistance. PMID:24771271

  3. RETRACTED ARTICLE: What Are They Thinking? The Development and Use of an Instrument That Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles R.; Larrabee, Timothy

    2007-04-01

    This article describes the rationale for, and development of, an online instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. Science Beliefs is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. It utilizes a true or false, along with a written-explanation, format. The true or false responses provide a cursory view of the extent to which specific beliefs are prevalent, while the accompanying explanations reveal underlying reasons for those beliefs. The stages of instrument development, reliability and validity information, along with the original sources of the items are discussed. The developed instrument has the potential to help science educators understand some specific barriers to deepening understanding across a range of science topics.

  4. A common rejection module (CRM) for acute rejection across multiple organs identifies novel therapeutics for organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Purvesh; Roedder, Silke; Kimura, Naoyuki; De Vusser, Katrien; Morgan, Alexander A.; Gong, Yongquan; Fischbein, Michael P.; Robbins, Robert C.; Naesens, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Using meta-analysis of eight independent transplant datasets (236 graft biopsy samples) from four organs, we identified a common rejection module (CRM) consisting of 11 genes that were significantly overexpressed in acute rejection (AR) across all transplanted organs. The CRM genes could diagnose AR with high specificity and sensitivity in three additional independent cohorts (794 samples). In another two independent cohorts (151 renal transplant biopsies), the CRM genes correlated with the extent of graft injury and predicted future injury to a graft using protocol biopsies. Inferred drug mechanisms from the literature suggested that two FDA-approved drugs (atorvastatin and dasatinib), approved for nontransplant indications, could regulate specific CRM genes and reduce the number of graft-infiltrating cells during AR. We treated mice with HLA-mismatched mouse cardiac transplant with atorvastatin and dasatinib and showed reduction of the CRM genes, significant reduction of graft-infiltrating cells, and extended graft survival. We further validated the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on graft survival by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a single-center cohort of 2,515 renal transplant patients followed for up to 22 yr. In conclusion, we identified a CRM in transplantation that provides new opportunities for diagnosis, drug repositioning, and rational drug design. PMID:24127489

  5. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common variants in CTNNA2 associated with excitement-seeking.

    PubMed

    Terracciano, A; Esko, T; Sutin, A R; de Moor, M H M; Meirelles, O; Zhu, G; Tanaka, T; Giegling, I; Nutile, T; Realo, A; Allik, J; Hansell, N K; Wright, M J; Montgomery, G W; Willemsen, G; Hottenga, J-J; Friedl, M; Ruggiero, D; Sorice, R; Sanna, S; Cannas, A; Räikkönen, K; Widen, E; Palotie, A; Eriksson, J G; Cucca, F; Krueger, R F; Lahti, J; Luciano, M; Smoller, J W; van Duijn, C M; Abecasis, G R; Boomsma, D I; Ciullo, M; Costa, P T; Ferrucci, L; Martin, N G; Metspalu, A; Rujescu, D; Schlessinger, D; Uda, M

    2011-01-01

    The tendency to seek stimulating activities and intense sensations define excitement-seeking, a personality trait akin to some aspects of sensation-seeking. This trait is a central feature of extraversion and is a component of the multifaceted impulsivity construct. Those who score high on measures of excitement-seeking are more likely to smoke, use other drugs, gamble, drive recklessly, have unsafe/unprotected sex and engage in other risky behaviors of clinical and social relevance. To identify common genetic variants associated with the Excitement-Seeking scale of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, we performed genome-wide association studies in six samples of European ancestry (N=7860), and combined the results in a meta-analysis. We identified a genome-wide significant association between the Excitement-Seeking scale and rs7600563 (P=2 × 10(-8)). This single-nucleotide polymorphism maps within the catenin cadherin-associated protein, alpha 2 (CTNNA2) gene, which encodes for a brain-expressed α-catenin critical for synaptic contact. The effect of rs7600563 was in the same direction in all six samples, but did not replicate in additional samples (N=5105). The results provide insight into the genetics of excitement-seeking and risk-taking, and are relevant to hyperactivity, substance use, antisocial and bipolar disorders. PMID:22833195

  6. Network-based SNP meta-analysis identifies joint and disjoint genetic features across common human diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided a large set of genetic loci influencing the risk for many common diseases. Association studies typically analyze one specific trait in single populations in an isolated fashion without taking into account the potential phenotypic and genetic correlation between traits. However, GWA data can be efficiently used to identify overlapping loci with analogous or contrasting effects on different diseases. Results Here, we describe a new approach to systematically prioritize and interpret available GWA data. We focus on the analysis of joint and disjoint genetic determinants across diseases. Using network analysis, we show that variant-based approaches are superior to locus-based analyses. In addition, we provide a prioritization of disease loci based on network properties and discuss the roles of hub loci across several diseases. We demonstrate that, in general, agonistic associations appear to reflect current disease classifications, and present the potential use of effect sizes in refining and revising these agonistic signals. We further identify potential branching points in disease etiologies based on antagonistic variants and describe plausible small-scale models of the underlying molecular switches. Conclusions The observation that a surprisingly high fraction (>15%) of the SNPs considered in our study are associated both agonistically and antagonistically with related as well as unrelated disorders indicates that the molecular mechanisms influencing causes and progress of human diseases are in part interrelated. Genetic overlaps between two diseases also suggest the importance of the affected entities in the specific pathogenic pathways and should be investigated further. PMID:22988944

  7. Meta-Analysis of 28,141 Individuals Identifies Common Variants within Five New Loci That Influence Uric Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Serena; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Perola, Markus; Mangino, Massimo; Albrecht, Eva; Wallace, Chris; Farrall, Martin; Johansson, Åsa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Aulchenko, Yurii; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Campbell, Harry; Connell, John; Dominiczak, Anna; Homuth, Georg; Lamina, Claudia; McCarthy, Mark I.; Meitinger, Thomas; Mooser, Vincent; Munroe, Patricia; Nauck, Matthias; Peden, John; Prokisch, Holger; Salo, Perttu; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Waterworth, Dawn; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Wright, Alan F.; Adamski, Jerzy; Whitfield, John B.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Pramstaller, Peter; Watkins, Hugh; Doering, Angela; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Spector, Tim D.; Peltonen, Leena; Völzke, Henry; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Vollenweider, Peter; Caulfield, Mark; Illig, Thomas; Gieger, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Elevated serum uric acid levels cause gout and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To investigate the polygenetic basis of serum uric acid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans from 14 studies totalling 28,141 participants of European descent, resulting in identification of 954 SNPs distributed across nine loci that exceeded the threshold of genome-wide significance, five of which are novel. Overall, the common variants associated with serum uric acid levels fall in the following nine regions: SLC2A9 (p = 5.2×10−201), ABCG2 (p = 3.1×10−26), SLC17A1 (p = 3.0×10−14), SLC22A11 (p = 6.7×10−14), SLC22A12 (p = 2.0×10−9), SLC16A9 (p = 1.1×10−8), GCKR (p = 1.4×10−9), LRRC16A (p = 8.5×10−9), and near PDZK1 (p = 2.7×10−9). Identified variants were analyzed for gender differences. We found that the minor allele for rs734553 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in lowering uric acid levels in women and the minor allele of rs2231142 in ABCG2 elevates uric acid levels more strongly in men compared to women. To further characterize the identified variants, we analyzed their association with a panel of metabolites. rs12356193 within SLC16A9 was associated with DL-carnitine (p = 4.0×10−26) and propionyl-L-carnitine (p = 5.0×10−8) concentrations, which in turn were associated with serum UA levels (p = 1.4×10−57 and p = 8.1×10−54, respectively), forming a triangle between SNP, metabolites, and UA levels. Taken together, these associations highlight additional pathways that are important in the regulation of serum uric acid levels and point toward novel potential targets for pharmacological intervention to prevent or treat hyperuricemia. In addition, these findings strongly support the hypothesis that transport proteins are key in regulating serum uric acid levels. PMID:19503597

  8. Short non-coding RNAs as bacteria species identifiers detected by surface plasmon resonance enhanced common path interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greef, Charles; Petropavlovskikh, Viatcheslav; Nilsen, Oyvind; Khattatov, Boris; Plam, Mikhail; Gardner, Patrick; Hall, John

    2008-04-01

    Small non-coding RNA sequences have recently been discovered as unique identifiers of certain bacterial species, raising the possibility that they can be used as highly specific Biowarfare Agent detection markers in automated field deployable integrated detection systems. Because they are present in high abundance they could allow genomic based bacterial species identification without the need for pre-assay amplification. Further, a direct detection method would obviate the need for chemical labeling, enabling a rapid, efficient, high sensitivity mechanism for bacterial detection. Surface Plasmon Resonance enhanced Common Path Interferometry (SPR-CPI) is a potentially market disruptive, high sensitivity dual technology that allows real-time direct multiplex measurement of biomolecule interactions, including small molecules, nucleic acids, proteins, and microbes. SPR-CPI measures differences in phase shift of reflected S and P polarized light under Total Internal Reflection (TIR) conditions at a surface, caused by changes in refractive index induced by biomolecular interactions within the evanescent field at the TIR interface. The measurement is performed on a microarray of discrete 2-dimensional areas functionalized with biomolecule capture reagents, allowing simultaneous measurement of up to 100 separate analytes. The optical beam encompasses the entire microarray, allowing a solid state detector system with no scanning requirement. Output consists of simultaneous voltage measurements proportional to the phase differences resulting from the refractive index changes from each microarray feature, and is automatically processed and displayed graphically or delivered to a decision making algorithm, enabling a fully automatic detection system capable of rapid detection and quantification of small nucleic acids at extremely sensitive levels. Proof-of-concept experiments on model systems and cell culture samples have demonstrated utility of the system, and efforts are in progress for full development and deployment of the device. The technology has broad applicability as a universal detection platform for BWA detection, medical diagnostics, and drug discovery research, and represents a new class of instrumentation as a rapid, high sensitivity, label-free methodology.

  9. Mentoring--a staff retention tool.

    PubMed

    Kanaskie, Mary Louise

    2006-01-01

    Staff retention presents a common challenge for hospitals nationwide. Mentorship programs have been explored as one method of creating environments that promote staff retention. Successful achievement of nurse competencies identified in the Synergy Model for Patient Care can best be achieved in an environment that encourages and facilitates mentoring. Mentoring relationships in critical care provide the ongoing interactions, coaching, teaching, and role modeling to facilitate nurses' progression along this continuum. Mentoring relationships offer support and professional development for nurses at all levels within an organization as well as an optimistic outlook for the nursing profession. PMID:16862027

  10. How well do HapMap haplotypes identify common haplotypes of genes? A comparison with haplotypes of 334 genes resequenced in the environmental genome project.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jack A; Xu, Zong-Li; Kaplan, Norman L; Morris, Richard W

    2006-01-01

    One of the goals of the International HapMap Project is the identification of common haplotypes in genes. However, HapMap uses an incomplete catalogue of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and might miss some common haplotypes. We examined this issue using data from the Environmental Genome Project (EGP) which resequenced 335 genes in 90 people, and thus, has a nearly complete catalogue of gene SNPs. The EGP identified a total of 45,243 SNPs, of which 10,780 were common SNPs (minor allele frequency >or=0.1). Using EGP common SNP genotype data, we identified 1,459 haplotypes with frequency >or=0.05 and we use these as "benchmark" haplotypes. HapMap release 16 had genotype information for 1,573 of 10,780 (15%) EGP common SNPs. Using these SNPs, we identified common HapMap haplotypes (frequency >or=0.05) in each of the four HapMap ethnic groups. To compare common HapMap haplotypes to EGP benchmark haplotypes, we collapsed benchmark haplotypes to the set of 1,573 SNPs. Ninety-eight percent of the collapsed benchmark haplotypes could be found as common HapMap haplotypes in one or more of the four HapMap ethnic groups. However, collapsing benchmark haplotypes to the set of SNPs available in HapMap resulted in a loss of haplotype information: 545 of 1,459 (37%) benchmark haplotypes were uniquely identified, and only 25% of genes had all their benchmark haplotypes uniquely identified. We resampled the EGP data to examine the effect of increasing the number of HapMap SNPs to 5 million, and estimate that approximately 40% of common SNPs in genes will be sampled and that half of the genes will have sufficient SNPs to identify all common haplotypes. This inability to distinguish common haplotypes of genes may result in loss of power when examining haplotype-disease association. PMID:16434598

  11. A DNA methylation microarray-based study identifies ERG as a gene commonly methylated in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzman, Jacob; Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange; Gibbs, Angela; Gao, Lina; Corless, Christopher L; Jin, Jennifer; Zarour, Luai; Higano, Celestia; True, Lawrence D; Vessella, Robert L; Wilmot, Beth; Bottomly, Daniel; McWeeney, Shannon K; Bova, G. Steven; Partin, Alan W; Mori, Motomi

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation of promoter regions is a common event in prostate cancer, one of the most common cancers in men worldwide. Because prior reports demonstrating that DNA methylation is important in prostate cancer studied a limited number of genes, we systematically quantified the DNA methylation status of 1,505 CpG dinucleotides for 807 genes in 78 paraffin-embedded prostate cancer samples and three normal prostate samples. The ERG gene, commonly repressed in prostate cells in the absence of an oncogenic fusion to the TMPRSS2 gene, was one of the most commonly methylated genes, occurring in 74% of prostate cancer specimens. In an independent group of patient samples, we confirmed that ERG DNA methylation was common, occurring in 57% of specimens, and cancer-specific. The ERG promoter is marked by repressive chromatin marks mediated by polycomb proteins in both normal prostate cells and prostate cancer cells, which may explain ERG's predisposition to DNA methylation and the fact that tumors with ERG DNA methylation were more methylated, in general. These results demonstrate that bead arrays offer a high-throughput method to discover novel genes with promoter DNA methylation such as ERG, whose measurement may improve our ability to more accurately detect prostate cancer. PMID:21946329

  12. Identifying Future Sacred Heart Administrators by Examining the Characteristics, Commonalities, and Personal Motivations of Current School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Julie Brill

    2012-01-01

    Since their inception, all schools of the Sacred Heart have been headed by nuns of the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Jesus [RSCJ]. As the years have passed, many RSCJ nuns have aged and retired leaving vacancies that have proven difficult to fill. In this qualitative study, the characteristics, commonalities, and personal motivations of Sacred

  13. Identifying Future Sacred Heart Administrators by Examining the Characteristics, Commonalities, and Personal Motivations of Current School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Julie Brill

    2012-01-01

    Since their inception, all schools of the Sacred Heart have been headed by nuns of the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Jesus [RSCJ]. As the years have passed, many RSCJ nuns have aged and retired leaving vacancies that have proven difficult to fill. In this qualitative study, the characteristics, commonalities, and personal motivations of Sacred…

  14. Association scan of 14,500 nsSNPs in four common diseases identifies variants involved in autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    We have genotyped 14,436 nsSNPs and 897 MHC tagSNPs in 1000 independent cases of Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD), Multiple Sclerosis and Breast Cancer. Comparing each of these diseases against a common control set of 1500 unselected healthy British individuals, we report initial association and independent replication of two new loci for AS, ARTS1 and IL23R, and confirmation of the previously reported AITD association with TSHR and FCRL3. These findings, enabled in part by expanding the control reference group with individuals from the other disease groups to increase statistical power, highlight important new possibilities for autoimmune regulation and suggest that IL23R may be a common susceptibility factor for the major ‘seronegative’ diseases. PMID:17952073

  15. A novel common large genomic deletion and two new missense mutations identified in the Romanian phenylketonuria population.

    PubMed

    Gemperle-Britschgi, Corinne; Iorgulescu, Daniela; Mager, Monica Alina; Anton-Paduraru, Dana; Vulturar, Romana; Thöny, Beat

    2016-01-15

    The mutation spectrum for the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene was investigated in a cohort of 84 hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) patients from Romania identified through newborn screening or neurometabolic investigations. Differential diagnosis identified 81 patients with classic PAH deficiency while 3 had tetrahydropterin-cofactor deficiency and/or remained uncertain due to insufficient specimen. PAH-genetic analysis included a combination of Sanger sequencing of exons and exon–intron boundaries, MLPA and NGS with genomic DNA, and cDNA analysis from immortalized lymphoblasts. A diagnostic efficiency of 99.4% was achieved, as for one allele (out of a total of 162 alleles) no mutation could be identified. The most prevalent mutation was p.Arg408Trp which was found in ~ 38% of all PKU alleles. Three novel mutations were identified, including the two missense mutations p.Gln226Lys and p.Tyr268Cys that were both disease causing by prediction algorithms, and the large genomic deletion EX6del7831 (c.509 + 4140_706 + 510del7831) that resulted in skipping of exon 6 based on PAH-cDNA analysis in immortalized lymphocytes. The genomic deletion was present in a heterozygous state in 12 patients, i.e. in ~ 8% of all the analyzed PKU alleles, and might have originated from a Romanian founder. PMID:26481238

  16. Clonal analysis identifies hemogenic endothelium as the source of the blood-endothelial common lineage in the mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Padrón-Barthe, Laura; Temiño, Susana; Villa del Campo, Cristina; Carramolino, Laura; Isern, Joan; Torres, Miguel

    2014-10-16

    The first blood and endothelial cells of amniote embryos appear in close association in the blood islands of the yolk sac (YS). This association and in vitro lineage analyses have suggested a common origin from mesodermal precursors called hemangioblasts, specified in the primitive streak during gastrulation. Fate mapping and chimera studies, however, failed to provide strong evidence for a common origin in the early mouse YS. Additional in vitro studies suggest instead that mesodermal precursors first generate hemogenic endothelium, which then generate blood cells in a linear sequence. We conducted an in vivo clonal analysis to determine the potential of individual cells in the mouse epiblast, primitive streak, and early YS. We found that early YS blood and endothelial lineages mostly derive from independent epiblast populations, specified before gastrulation. Additionally, a subpopulation of the YS endothelium has hemogenic activity and displays characteristics similar to those found later in the embryonic hemogenic endothelium. Our results show that the earliest blood and endothelial cell populations in the mouse embryo are specified independently, and that hemogenic endothelium first appears in the YS and produces blood precursors with markers related to definitive hematopoiesis. PMID:25139355

  17. Contribution of 32 GWAS-identified common variants to severe obesity in European adults referred for bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Mägi, Reedik; Manning, Sean; Yousseif, Ahmed; Pucci, Andrea; Santini, Ferruccio; Karra, Efthimia; Querci, Giorgia; Pelosini, Caterina; McCarthy, Mark I; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Batterham, Rachel L

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of severe obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35.0 kg/m(2), is rising rapidly. Given the disproportionately high health burden and healthcare costs associated with this condition, understanding the underlying aetiology, including predisposing genetic factors, is a biomedical research priority. Previous studies have suggested that severe obesity represents an extreme tail of the population BMI variation, reflecting shared genetic factors operating across the spectrum. Here, we sought to determine whether a panel of 32 known common obesity-susceptibility variants contribute to severe obesity in patients (n = 1,003, mean BMI 48.4 ± 8.1 kg/m(2)) attending bariatric surgery clinics in two European centres. We examined the effects of these 32 common variants on obesity risk and BMI, both as individual markers and in combination as a genetic risk score, in a comparison with normal-weight controls (n = 1,809, BMI 18.0-24.9 kg/m(2)); an approach which, to our knowledge, has not been previously undertaken in the setting of a bariatric clinic. We found strong associations with severe obesity for SNP rs9939609 within the FTO gene (P = 9.3 × 10(-8)) and SNP rs2815752 near the NEGR1 gene (P = 3.6 × 10(-4)), and directionally consistent nominal associations (P<0.05) for 12 other SNPs. The genetic risk score associated with severe obesity (P = 8.3 × 10(-11)) but, within the bariatric cohort, this score did not associate with BMI itself (P = 0.264). Our results show significant effects of individual BMI-associated common variants within a relatively small sample size of bariatric patients. Furthermore, the burden of such low-penetrant risk alleles contributes to severe obesity in this population. Our findings support that severe obesity observed in bariatric patients represents an extreme tail of the population BMI variation. Moreover, future genetic studies focused on bariatric patients may provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of obesity at a population level. PMID:23950990

  18. Whole transcriptome sequencing identifies BCOR internal tandem duplication as a common feature of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Astolfi, Annalisa; Melchionda, Fraia; Perotti, Daniela; Fois, Maura; Indio, Valentina; Urbini, Milena; Genovese, Chiara Giusy; Collini, Paola; Salfi, Nunzio; Nantron, Marilina; D'Angelo, Paolo; Spreafico, Filippo; Pession, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) is a rare pediatric renal tumor that is frequently difficult to distinguish among other childhood renal tumors due to its histological heterogeneity. This work evaluates genetic abnormalities carried by a series of CCSK samples by whole transcriptome sequencing (WTS), to identify molecular biomarkers that could improve the diagnostic process. Methods WTS was performed on tumor RNA from 8 patients with CCSK. Bioinformatic analysis, with implementation of a pipeline for detection of intragenic rearrangements, was executed. Sanger sequencing and gene expression were evaluated to validate BCOR internal tandem duplication (ITD). Results WTS did not identify any shared SNVs, Ins/Del or fusion event. Conversely, analysis of intragenic rearrangements enabled the detection of a breakpoint within BCOR transcript recurrent in all samples. Three different in-frame ITD in exon15 of BCOR, were detected. The presence of the ITD was confirmed on tumor DNA and cDNA, and resulted in overexpression of BCOR. Conclusion WTS coupled with specific bioinformatic analysis is able to detect rare genetic events, as intragenic rearrangements. ITD in the last exon of BCOR is recurrent in all CCSK samples analyzed, representing a valuable molecular marker to improve diagnosis of this rare childhood renal tumor. PMID:26516930

  19. dcVar: a method for identifying common variants that modulate differential correlation structures in gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    Lareau, Caleb A.; White, Bill C.; Montgomery, Courtney G.; McKinney, Brett A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated the role of differential co-expression or correlation structure in gene expression data to help explain phenotypic differences. However, few attempts have been made to characterize the function of variants based on their role in regulating differential co-expression. Here, we describe a statistical methodology that identifies pairs of transcripts that display differential correlation structure conditioned on genotypes of variants that regulate co-expression. Additionally, we present a user-friendly, computationally efficient tool, dcVar, that can be applied to expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) or RNA-Seq datasets to infer differential co-expression variants (dcVars). We apply dcVar to the HapMap3 eQTL dataset and demonstrate the utility of this methodology at uncovering novel function of variants of interest with examples from a height genome-wide association and cancer drug resistance. We provide evidence that differential correlation structure is a valuable intermediate molecular phenotype for further characterizing the function of variants identified in GWAS and related studies. PMID:26539209

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Common Variants Associated with Brachial Circumference: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Boraska, Vesna; Day-Williams, Aaron; Franklin, Christopher S.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Albrecht, Eva; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Bochud, Murielle; Cadby, Gemma; Ernst, Florian; Evans, David M.; Hayward, Caroline; Hicks, Andrew A.; Huffman, Jennifer; Huth, Cornelia; James, Alan L.; Klopp, Norman; Kolcic, Ivana; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Musk, Arthur W.; Pehlic, Marina; Pennell, Craig E.; Perry, John R. B.; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pourcain, Beate St; Ring, Susan M.; Salvi, Erika; Schipf, Sabine; Staessen, Jan A.; Teumer, Alexander; Timpson, Nicholas; Vitart, Veronique; Warrington, Nicole M.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; An, Ping; Anttila, Verneri; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Holmen, Jostein; Ntalla, Ioanna; Palotie, Aarno; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Wedenoja, Juho; Winsvold, Bendik S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Province, Michael A.; Zwart, John-Anker; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Cusi, Daniele; Davey Smith, George; Frayling, Timothy M.; Gieger, Christian; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rudan, Igor; Völzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Wright, Alan F.; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2012-01-01

    Brachial circumference (BC), also known as upper arm or mid arm circumference, can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and fat tissue, which are distributed differently in men and women. Analysis of anthropometric measures of peripheral fat distribution such as BC could help in understanding the complex pathophysiology behind overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic variants associated with BC through a large-scale genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis. We used fixed-effects meta-analysis to synthesise summary results across 14 GWAS discovery and 4 replication cohorts comprising overall 22,376 individuals (12,031 women and 10,345 men) of European ancestry. Individual analyses were carried out for men, women, and combined across sexes using linear regression and an additive genetic model: adjusted for age and adjusted for age and BMI. We prioritised signals for follow-up in two-stages. We did not detect any signals reaching genome-wide significance. The FTO rs9939609 SNP showed nominal evidence for association (p<0.05) in the age-adjusted strata for men and across both sexes. In this first GWAS meta-analysis for BC to date, we have not identified any genome-wide significant signals and do not observe robust association of previously established obesity loci with BC. Large-scale collaborations will be necessary to achieve higher power to detect loci underlying BC. PMID:22479309

  1. Molecular cloning of the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) identifies a type II integral membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Shipp, M A; Richardson, N E; Sayre, P H; Brown, N R; Masteller, E L; Clayton, L K; Ritz, J; Reinherz, E L

    1988-01-01

    Common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) is a 100-kDa cell-surface glycoprotein expressed on most acute lymphoblastic leukemias and certain other immature lymphoid malignancies and on normal lymphoid progenitors. The latter are either uncommitted to B- or T-cell lineage or committed to only the earliest stages of B- or T-lymphocyte maturation. To elucidate to homogeneity, obtained the NH2-terminal sequence from both the intact protein and derived tryptic and V8 protease peptides and isolated CALLA cDNAs from a Nalm-6 cell line lambda gt10 library using redundant oligonucleotide probes. The CALLA cDNA sequence predicts a 750-amino acid integral membrane protein with a single 24-amino acid hydrophobic segment that could function as both a transmembrane region and a signal peptide. The COOH-terminal 700 amino acids, including six potential N-linked glycosylation sites compose the extracellular protein segment, whereas the 25 NH2-terminal amino acids remaining after cleavage of the initiation methionine form the cytoplasmic tail. CALLA+ cells contain CALLA transcripts of 2.7 to 5.7 kilobases with the major 5.7- and 3.7-kilobase mRNAs being preferentially expressed in specific cell types. Images PMID:2968607

  2. The Effects of Small Sample Size on Identifying Polytomous DIF Using the Liu-Agresti Estimator of the Cumulative Common Odds Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Jorge; Skorupski, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of the behavior of the Liu-Agresti estimator of the cumulative common odds ratio when identifying differential item functioning (DIF) with polytomously scored test items using small samples. The Liu-Agresti estimator has been proposed by Penfield and Algina as a promising approach for the study of polytomous DIF but no…

  3. A Comprehensive Analysis of Common and Rare Variants to Identify Adiposity Loci in Hispanic Americans: The IRAS Family Study (IRASFS)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chuan; Wang, Nan; Guo, Xiuqing; Ziegler, Julie T.; Taylor, Kent D.; Xiang, Anny H.; Hai, Yang; Kridel, Steven J.; Nadler, Jerry L.; Kandeel, Fouad; Raffel, Leslie J.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Norris, Jill M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Watanabe, Richard M.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Bowden, Donald W.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Palmer, Nicholette D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is growing epidemic affecting 35% of adults in the United States. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci associated with obesity. However, the majority of studies have been completed in Caucasians focusing on total body measures of adiposity. Here we report the results from genome-wide and exome chip association studies focusing on total body measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF) and measures of fat deposition including waist circumference (WAIST), waist-hip ratio (WHR), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in Hispanic Americans (nmax = 1263) from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). Five SNPs from two novel loci attained genome-wide significance (P<5.00x10-8) in IRASFS. A missense SNP in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) was associated with WAIST (rs34218846, MAF = 6.8%, PDOM = 1.62x10-8). This protein is postulated to play an important role in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis as demonstrated in cell and knock-out animal models. Four correlated intronic SNPs in the Zinc finger, GRF-type containing 1 gene (ZGRF1; SNP rs1471880, MAF = 48.1%, PDOM = 1.00x10-8) were strongly associated with WHR. The exact biological function of ZGRF1 and the connection with adiposity remains unclear. SNPs with p-values less than 5.00x10-6 from IRASFS were selected for replication. Meta-analysis was computed across seven independent Hispanic-American cohorts (nmax = 4156) and the strongest signal was rs1471880 (PDOM = 8.38x10-6) in ZGRF1 with WAIST. In conclusion, a genome-wide and exome chip association study was conducted that identified two novel loci (IDH1 and ZGRF1) associated with adiposity. While replication efforts were inconclusive, when taken together with the known biology, IDH1 and ZGRF1 warrant further evaluation. PMID:26599207

  4. Population sequencing of two endocannabinoid metabolic genes identifies rare and common regulatory variants associated with extreme obesity and metabolite level

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Targeted re-sequencing of candidate genes in individuals at the extremes of a quantitative phenotype distribution is a method of choice to gain information on the contribution of rare variants to disease susceptibility. The endocannabinoid system mediates signaling in the brain and peripheral tissues involved in the regulation of energy balance, is highly active in obese patients, and represents a strong candidate pathway to examine for genetic association with body mass index (BMI). Results We sequenced two intervals (covering 188 kb) encoding the endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) in 147 normal controls and 142 extremely obese cases. After applying quality filters, we called 1,393 high quality single nucleotide variants, 55% of which are rare, and 143 indels. Using single marker tests and collapsed marker tests, we identified four intervals associated with BMI: the FAAH promoter, the MGLL promoter, MGLL intron 2, and MGLL intron 3. Two of these intervals are composed of rare variants and the majority of the associated variants are located in promoter sequences or in predicted transcriptional enhancers, suggesting a regulatory role. The set of rare variants in the FAAH promoter associated with BMI is also associated with increased level of FAAH substrate anandamide, further implicating a functional role in obesity. Conclusions Our study, which is one of the first reports of a sequence-based association study using next-generation sequencing of candidate genes, provides insights into study design and analysis approaches and demonstrates the importance of examining regulatory elements rather than exclusively focusing on exon sequences. PMID:21118518

  5. Low-resolution mass spectrometric relative response factors (RRFs) and relative retention times (RRTs) on two common gas chromatographic stationary phases for 87 polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Kjell; Rappe, Christoffer; Tysklind, Mats

    2004-05-01

    All 87 tetra- to octa-chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were analysed using high-resolution gas chromatography/low-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-LRMS). The mass spectrometer was operated in two different modes: electron ionisation (EI), and negative ion chemical ionisation (NCI) with methane as a reagent gas. Baseline separation and identification of all PCDF congeners was carried out using one non-polar (DB-5) and one polar (RT-2330) capillary GC column. Relative retention times (RRTs) on both columns, and relative response factors (RRFs) in both EI- and NCI-modes, were calculated for all 87 of the PCDFs. Comparison of the EI-RRFs and NCI-RRFs showed that the mass spectrometric NCI-responses varied to a higher degree than the EI-responses. The level of NCI-response was dependent on the substitution positions of the chlorine atoms on the dibenzofuran molecule skeleton. The ratio between the highest and lowest RRFs was 26 in the NCI-mode, but only 2.3 in the EI-mode. Thus, quantification of tetra- to octa-CDFs in environmental samples using the NCI-mode will result in incorrect estimates of PCDF concentrations unless 13C-labelled internal standards are used for each congener, or RRFs are taken into consideration. In contrast, the quantification of PCDFs in the EI-mode using a single internal 13C-labelled PCDF standard for each PCDF homologue is accurate according to the findings in this investigation. A flue gas sample from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) analysed in the NCI-mode was quantified with and without NCI-RRFs. When using NCI-RRFs the reported concentration of SigmaPCDFs in the flue gas sample increased by 40%. Furthermore, TCDF analysis was compared using two mass spectrometers (a VG 12-250 and a Finnigan 4500) operating in EI-mode. These quadrupole instruments performed equally well, giving similar EI-RRFs for the tested compounds. PMID:15051368

  6. Toward a Record Retention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jason

    2007-01-01

    An academic library working group was charged in 2005 to create a records retention schedule and policy applicable to records containing personally identifiable information of library patrons. This group conducted a survey and extensive research, culminating in an adopted library records retention schedule and policy implemented in 2006.

  7. Evaluation of Fluoride Retention Due to Most Commonly Consumed Estuarine Fishes Among Fish Consuming Population of Andhra Pradesh as a Contributing Factor to Dental Fluorosis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ganta, Shravani; Nagaraj, Anup; Pareek, Sonia; Sidiq, Mohsin; Singh, Kushpal; Vishnani, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    Background Fluoride in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. The principal sources of fluoride include water, some species of vegetation, certain edible marine animals, dust and industrial processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride retention of most commonly consumed estuarine fishes among fish consuming population of Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the amount of fluoride retention due to ten most commonly consumed estuarine fishes as a contributing factor to Fluorosis by SPADNS Spectrophotometric method. The presence and severity of dental fluorosis among fish consuming population was recorded using Community Fluorosis Index. Statistical analysis was done using MedCalc v12.2.1.0 software. Results For Sea water fishes, the fluoride levels in bone were maximum in Indian Sardine (4.22 ppm). Amongst the river water fishes, the fluoride levels in bone were maximum in Catla (1.51 ppm). Also, the mean total fluoride concentrations of all the river fishes in skin, muscle and bone were less (0.86 ppm) as compared to the sea water fishes (2.59 ppm). It was unveiled that sea fishes accumulate relatively large amounts of Fluoride as compared to the river water fishes. The mean Community Fluorosis Index was found to be 1.06 amongst a sampled fish consuming population. Evaluation by Community Index for Dental fluorosis (CFI) suggested that fluorosis is of medium public health importance. Conclusion It was analysed that bone tends to accumulate more amount of fluoride followed by muscle and skin which might be due to the increased permeability and chemical trapping of fluoride inside the tissues. The amount of fluoride present in the fishes is directly related to the severity of fluorosis amongst fish consuming population, suggesting fishes as a contributing factor to fluorosis depending upon the dietary consumption. PMID:26266208

  8. Principals Retention. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Many districts are struggling with the problem of administrator retention. Hoffman (2004) identifies some of the reasons for this: (1) Increased accountability expectations; (2) Diminished or static levels of resources to support reform efforts; (3) Greater administrator vulnerability to sanctions; (4) The complex demands of government and the…

  9. Predicting Rural College Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roweton, William E.; Bare, Charles

    This paper identified significant precollege predictors of retention in two freshman classes of a rural college. The subjects of the study were the 1987 and 1988 freshman classes (with 256 and 302 students, respectively) of Chadron State College (Nebraska), a rural college of over 3,000 students. Thirty-three student background variables were

  10. Modelling the fate of six common pharmaceuticals in a small stream: quantification of attenuation and retention in different stream-specific environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riml, Joakim; Wörman, Anders; Kunkel, Uwe; Radke, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Detection of pharmaceutical residues in streaming waters is common in urbanized areas. Although the occurrence and source of these micropollutants is known, their behavior in these aquatic ecosystems is still only partly understood. Specifically, quantitative information of biogeochemical processes in stream-specific environments where predominant reactions occur is often missing. In an attempt to address this knowledge gap, we performed simultaneous tracer tests in Säva Brook, Sweden, with bezafibrate, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, metoprolol and naproxen, as well as with the more inert solutes uranine and Rhodamine WT. The breakthrough curves at five successive sampling stations along a 16 km long stream reach were evaluated using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model framework containing surface water transport together with a representation of transient storage in slow/immobile zones of the stream. The multi-tracer experiment opens for decoupling of hydrological and biogeochemical contribution to the fate, and by linking impact and sensitivity analyses to relative significance of model parameters the most important processes for each contaminant were elucidated. Specifically for Säva Brook, the proposed methodology revealed that the pharmaceutical-contaminated stream water remained in the storage zones for times corresponding to 5-25% of the flow time of the stream. Furthermore, the results indicate a great variability in terms of predominant biogeochemical processes between the different contaminants. Rapid reactions occurring in the transient storage zone attenuated both ibuprofen and clofibric acid, and we conclude that a major degradation pathway for these contaminants was biodegradation in the hyporheic zone. In contrast, bezafibrate, metoprolol, and naproxen were mainly affected by sorption both in the storage zone and the main channel, while diclofenac displayed negligible effects of biogeochemical reactions.

  11. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  12. The Perceptions of Kindergarten Teachers on Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okpala, Comfort O.

    2007-01-01

    The perceptions of 37 kindergarten teachers on kindergarten student retention as an intervention were examined. The major goals of the study were to: 1) identify kindergarten teachers' perceptions of retention, 2) examine differences in reported perceptions of kindergarten student retention as an intervention by certified versus noncertified…

  13. Comparative gene expression analysis in mouse models for multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and stroke for identifying commonly regulated and disease-specific gene changes

    PubMed Central

    Tseveleki, Vivian; Rubio, Renee; Vamvakas, Sotiris-Spyros; White, Joseph; Taoufik, Era; Petit, Edwige; Quackenbush, John; Probert, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    The brain responds to injury and infection by activating innate defense and tissue repair mechanisms. Working upon the hypothesis that the brain defense response involves common genes and pathways across diverse pathologies, we analysed global gene expression in brain from mouse models representing three major central nervous system disorders, cerebral stroke, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease compared to normal brain using DNA microarray expression profiling. A comparison of dysregulated genes across disease models revealed common genes and pathways including key components of estrogen and TGF-β signaling pathways that have been associated with neuroprotection as well as a neurodegeneration mediator, TRPM7. Further, for each disease model, we discovered collections of differentially expressed genes that provide novel insight into the individual pathology and its associated mechanisms. Our data provide a resource for exploring the complex molecular mechanisms that underlie brain neurodegeneration and a new approach for identifying generic and disease-specific targets for therapy. PMID:20435134

  14. Experienced nurse retention strategies: what can be learned from top-performing organizations.

    PubMed

    Hirschkorn, Colleen A; West, Terry B; Hill, Karen S; Cleary, Brenda L; Hewlett, Peggy O

    2010-11-01

    Pursuit of high-quality care depends, in part, on hospital leaders' ability to retain an experienced RN workforce. Yet, 55% of nurses plan to retire between 2011 and 2020, heightening the need to identify proven retention strategies. Findings from 7 case studies conducted at hospitals and nonhealthcare organizations publicly recognized for success retaining experienced employees are summarized. The authors conclude that although the mix of retention strategies varies, all top-performing organizations share common success factors. PMID:20978413

  15. Uncommon HLA alleles identified by hemizygous ultra-high Sanger sequencing: haplotype associations and reconsideration of their assignment in the Common and Well-Documented catalogue.

    PubMed

    Voorter, Christina E M; Groeneweg, Mathijs; Groeneveld, Lisette; Tilanus, Marcel G J

    2016-02-01

    Although the number of HLA alleles still increases, many of them have been reported being uncommon. This is partly due to lack of full length gene sequencing, especially for those alleles belonging to an allele ambiguity in which the first discovered allele has been assigned as the most frequent one. As members of the working group on Common and Well Documented (CWD) alleles and since we implemented full length group-specific sequencing as standard method routinely, we have investigated the presence of presumably rare alleles in our collection of HLA typing data. We identified 50 alleles, that were not previously encountered as Common or Well Documented. Sixteen of them should be added to the CWD catalogue, since we encountered them in 5 or more unrelated individuals. Another 11 could be added, based upon our results and the data present in the IMGT database and the rare allele section of the allele frequencies database. Furthermore, tight associations were observed between several different alleles even at the level of synonymous and non-coding sequences. In addition, in several cases the uncommon allele was found to be more frequent than its common counterpart. PMID:26610902

  16. Trans-ethnic meta-analysis identifies common and rare variants associated with hepatocyte growth factor levels in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicholas B; Berardi, Cecilia; Decker, Paul A; Wassel, Christina L; Kirsch, Phillip S; Pankow, James S; Sale, Michele M; de Andrade, Mariza; Sicotte, Hugues; Tang, Weihong; Hanson, Naomi Q; Tsai, Michael Y; Taylor, Kent D; Bielinski, Suzette J

    2015-07-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a mesenchyme-derived pleiotropic factor that regulates cell growth, motility, mitogenesis, and morphogenesis in a variety of cells, and increased serum levels of HGF have been linked to a number of clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease phenotypes. However, little is currently known regarding which genetic factors influence HGF levels, despite evidence of substantial genetic contributions to HGF variation. Based upon ethnicity-stratified single-variant association analysis and trans-ethnic meta-analysis of 6201 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we discovered five statistically significant common and low-frequency variants: HGF missense polymorphism rs5745687 (p.E299K) as well as four variants (rs16844364, rs4690098, rs114303452, rs3748034) within or in proximity to HGFAC. We also identified two significant ethnicity-specific gene-level associations (A1BG in African Americans; FASN in Chinese Americans) based upon low-frequency/rare variants, while meta-analysis of gene-level results identified a significant association for HGFAC. However, identified single-variant associations explained modest proportions of the total trait variation and were not significantly associated with coronary artery calcium or coronary heart disease. Our findings indicate that genetic factors influencing circulating HGF levels may be complex and ethnically diverse. PMID:25998175

  17. Search for common targets of lithium and valproic acid identifies novel epigenetic effects of lithium on the rat leptin receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Lee, R S; Pirooznia, M; Guintivano, J; Ly, M; Ewald, E R; Tamashiro, K L; Gould, T D; Moran, T H; Potash, J B

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics may have an important role in mood stabilizer action. Valproic acid (VPA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and lithium (Li) may have downstream epigenetic actions. To identify genes commonly affected by both mood stabilizers and to assess potential epigenetic mechanisms that may be involved in their mechanism of action, we administered Li (N = 12), VPA (N = 12), and normal chow (N = 12) to Brown Norway rats for 30 days. Genomic DNA and mRNA were extracted from the hippocampus. We used the mRNA to perform gene expression analysis on Affymetrix microarray chips, and for genes commonly regulated by both Li and VPA, we validated expression levels using quantitative real-time PCR. To identify potential mechanisms underlying expression changes, genomic DNA was bisulfite treated for pyrosequencing of key CpG island 'shores' and promoter regions, and chromatin was prepared from both hippocampal tissue and a hippocampal-derived cell line to assess modifications of histones. For most genes, we found little evidence of DNA methylation changes in response to the medications. However, we detected histone H3 methylation and acetylation in the leptin receptor gene, Lepr, following treatment with both drugs. VPA-mediated effects on histones are well established, whereas the Li effects constitute a novel mechanism of transcriptional derepression for this drug. These data support several shared transcriptional targets of Li and VPA, and provide evidence suggesting leptin signaling as an epigenetic target of two mood stabilizers. Additional work could help clarify whether leptin signaling in the brain has a role in the therapeutic action of Li and VPA in bipolar disorder. PMID:26171981

  18. From flower to seed: identifying phenological markers and reliable growth functions to model reproductive development in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Clavijo Michelangeli, Jose A; Bhakta, Mehul; Gezan, Salvador A; Boote, Kenneth J; Vallejos, C Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    The lack of dependable morphological indicators for the onset and end of seed growth has hindered modeling work in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). We have addressed this problem through the use of mathematical growth functions to analyse and identify critical developmental stages, which can be linked to existing developmental indices. We performed this study under greenhouse conditions with an Andean and a Mesoamerican genotype of contrasting pod and seed phenotypes, and three selected recombinant inbred lines. Pods from tagged flowers were harvested at regular time intervals for various measurements. Differences in flower production and seed and pod growth trajectories among genotypes were detected via comparisons of parameters of fitted growth functions. Regardless of the genotype, the end of pod elongation marked the beginning of seed growth, which lasted until pods displayed a sharp decline in color, or pod hue angle. These results suggest that the end of pod elongation and the onset of color change are reliable indicators of important developmental transitions in the seed, even for widely differing pod phenotypes. We also provide a set of equations that can be used to model different aspects of reproductive growth and development in the common bean. PMID:23586628

  19. Efficacy of the core DNA barcodes in identifying processed and poorly conserved plant materials commonly used in South African traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mankga, Ledile T.; Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Moteetee, Annah M.; Daru, Barnabas H.; van der Bank, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Medicinal plants cover a broad range of taxa, which may be phylogenetically less related but morphologically very similar. Such morphological similarity between species may lead to misidentification and inappropriate use. Also the substitution of a medicinal plant by a cheaper alternative (e.g. other non-medicinal plant species), either due to misidentification, or deliberately to cheat consumers, is an issue of growing concern. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to identify commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. Using the core plant barcodes, matK and rbcLa, obtained from processed and poorly conserved materials sold at the muthi traditional medicine market, we tested efficacy of the barcodes in species discrimination. Based on genetic divergence, PCR amplification efficiency and BLAST algorithm, we revealed varied discriminatory potentials for the DNA barcodes. In general, the barcodes exhibited high discriminatory power, indicating their effectiveness in verifying the identity of the most common plant species traded in South African medicinal markets. BLAST algorithm successfully matched 61% of the queries against a reference database, suggesting that most of the information supplied by sellers at traditional medicinal markets in South Africa is correct. Our findings reinforce the utility of DNA barcoding technique in limiting false identification that can harm public health. PMID:24453559

  20. PDGFRA amplification is common in pediatric and adult high-grade astrocytomas and identifies a poor prognostic group in IDH1 mutant glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Joanna J; Aranda, Derick; Ellison, David W; Judkins, Alexander R; Croul, Sidney E; Brat, Daniel J; Ligon, Keith L; Horbinski, Craig; Venneti, Sriram; Zadeh, Gelareh; Santi, Mariarita; Zhou, Shengmei; Appin, Christina L; Sioletic, Stefano; Sullivan, Lisa M; Martinez-Lage, Maria; Robinson, Aaron E; Yong, William H; Cloughesy, Timothy; Lai, Albert; Phillips, Heidi S; Marshall, Roxanne; Mueller, Sabine; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A; Molinaro, Annette M; Perry, Arie

    2013-09-01

    High-grade astrocytomas (HGAs), corresponding to World Health Organization grades III (anaplastic astrocytoma) and IV (glioblastoma; GBM), are biologically aggressive, and their molecular classification is increasingly relevant to clinical management. PDGFRA amplification is common in HGAs, although its prognostic significance remains unclear. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the most sensitive technique for detecting PDGFRA copy number gains, we determined PDGFRA amplification status in 123 pediatric and 263 adult HGAs. A range of PDGFRA FISH patterns were identified and cases were scored as non-amplified (normal and polysomy) or amplified (low-level and high-level). PDGFRA amplification was frequent in pediatric (29.3%) and adult (20.9%) tumors. Amplification was not prognostic in pediatric HGAs. In adult tumors diagnosed initially as GBM, the presence of combined PDGFRA amplification and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1)(R132H) mutation was a significant independent prognostic factor (P = 0.01). In HGAs, PDGFRA amplification is common and can manifest as high-level and focal or low-level amplifications. Our data indicate that the latter is more prevalent than previously reported with copy number averaging techniques. To our knowledge, this is the largest survey of PDGFRA status in adult and pediatric HGAs and suggests PDGFRA amplification increases with grade and is associated with a less favorable prognosis in IDH1 mutant de novo GBMs. PMID:23438035

  1. Antibody screening identifies 78 putative host proteins involved in Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection or propagation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed Central

    Gotesman, M; Soliman, H; El-Matbouli, M

    2014-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a serious and notifiable disease afflicting common and koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L., termed koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). Significant progress has been achieved in the last 15 years, since the initial reports surfaced from Germany, USA and Israel of the CyHV-3 virus, in terms of pathology and detection. However, relatively few studies have been carried out in understanding viral replication and propagation. Antibody-based affinity has been used for detection of CyHV-3 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR-based techniques, and immunohistological assays have been used to describe a CyHV-3 membrane protein, termed ORF81. In this study, monoclonal antibodies linked to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated spin columns were used to purify CyHV-3 and host proteins from tissue samples originating in either CyHV-3 symptomatic or asymptomatic fish. The samples were next analysed either by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and subsequently by electrospray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) or by ESI-MS analysis directly after purification. A total of 78 host proteins and five CyHV-3 proteins were identified in the two analyses. These data can be used to develop novel control methods for CyHV-3, based on pathways or proteins identified in this study. PMID:23347276

  2. The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor and alpha-L-fucosidase are located near a newly identified common virus integration site, Evi11.

    PubMed Central

    Valk, P J; Hol, S; Vankan, Y; Ihle, J N; Askew, D; Jenkins, N A; Gilbert, D J; Copeland, N G; de Both, N J; Löwenberg, B; Delwel, R

    1997-01-01

    A new common region of virus integration, Evi11, has been identified in two retrovirally induced murine myeloid leukemia cell lines, NFS107 and NFS78. By interspecific backcross analysis, it was shown that Evi11 is located at the distal end of mouse chromosome 4, in a region that shows homology with human 1p36. The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor (Cnr2) and alpha-L-fucosidase (Fuca1) were identified near the integration site by using a novel exon trapping system. Cnr2 is suggested to be the target gene for viral interference in Evi11, since proviruses are integrated in the first intron of Cnr2 and retroviral integrations alter mRNA expression of Cnr2 in NFS107 and NFS78. In addition, proviral integrations were demonstrated within the 3' untranslated region of Cnr2 in five independent newly derived CasBrM-MuLV (mouse murine leukemia virus) tumors, CSL13, CSL14, CSL16, CSL27, and CSL97. The Cnr2 gene encodes a seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor which is normally expressed in hematopoietic tissues. Our data suggest that the peripheral cannabinoid receptor gene might be involved in leukemogenesis as a result of aberrant expression of Cnr2 due to retroviral integration in Evi11. PMID:9261404

  3. A Four-Year Longitudinal Study of the Sustained Effects of Promotion/Retention and Skill-Specific Intervention Relative to Identified Deficiencies on the Performance of Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachal, Janella; Hoffman, Lee McGraw

    One of a series of studies examining Louisiana's compensatory education program, this study investigated four assumptions upon which a skill-specific intervention program was based. Framed as questions, these assumptions are: (1) Is retention effective for students who do not know basic content for a given grade level? (2) When is retention most…

  4. Managing retention.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2007-01-01

    To build this process it is necessary to consult customers for preferences, build familiarity and knowledge to build a relationship and conduct business in a customized fashion. The process takes every opportunity to build customer satisfaction with each customer contact. It is an important process to have, since customers today are more demanding, sophisticated, educated and comfortable speaking to the company as an equal (Belk, 2003). Customers have more customized expectations so they want to be reached as individuals (Raymond and Tanner, 1994). Also, a disproportionate search for new business is costly. The cost to cultivate new customers is more than maintaining existing customers (Cathcart, 1990). Other reasons that customer retention is necessary is because many unhappy customers will never buy again from a company that dissatisfied them and they will communicate their displeasure to other people. These dissatisfied customers may not even convey their displeasure but without saying anything just stop doing business with that company, which may keep them unaware for some time that there is any problem (Cathcart, 1990). PMID:18453139

  5. Fluid retention in cirrhosis: pathophysiology and management.

    PubMed

    Kashani, A; Landaverde, C; Medici, V; Rossaro, L

    2008-02-01

    Accumulation of fluid as ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis. This is occurring in about 50% of patients within 10 years of the diagnosis of cirrhosis. It is a prognostic sign with 1-year and 5-year survival of 85% and 56%, respectively. The most acceptable theory for ascites formation is peripheral arterial vasodilation leading to underfilling of circulatory volume. This triggers the baroreceptor-mediated activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system and nonosmotic release of vasopressin to restore circulatory integrity. The result is an avid sodium and water retention, identified as a preascitic state. This condition will evolve in overt fluid retention and ascites, as the liver disease progresses. Once ascites is present, most therapeutic modalities are directed on maintaining negative sodium balance, including salt restriction, bed rest and diuretics. Paracentesis and albumin infusion is applied to tense ascites. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is considered for refractory ascites. With worsening of liver disease, fluid retention is associated with other complications; such as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. This is a primary infection of ascitic fluid caused by organisms originating from large intestinal normal flora. Diagnostic paracentesis and antibiotic therapy plus prophylactic regimen are mandatory. Hepatorenal syndrome is a state of functional renal failure in the setting of low cardiac output and impaired renal perfusion. Its management is based on drugs that restore normal renal blood flow through peripheral arterial and splanchnic vasoconstriction, renal vasodilation and/or plasma volume expansion. However, the definitive treatment is liver transplantation. PMID:18184668

  6. TfoX-Based Genetic Mapping Identifies Vibrio fischeri Strain-Level Differences and Reveals a Common Lineage of Laboratory Strains

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, John F.; Gyllborg, Mattias C.; Kocher, Acadia A.; Markey, Laura E. H.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial strain variation exists in natural populations of bacteria and can be generated experimentally through directed or random mutation. The advent of rapid and cost-efficient whole-genome sequencing has facilitated strain-level genotyping. Even with modern tools, however, it often remains a challenge to map specific traits to individual genetic loci, especially for traits that cannot be selected under culture conditions (e.g., colonization level or pathogenicity). Using a combination of classical and modern approaches, we analyzed strain-level variation in Vibrio fischeri and identified the basis by which some strains lack the ability to utilize glycerol as a carbon source. We proceeded to reconstruct the lineage of the commonly used V. fischeri laboratory strains. Compared to the wild-type ES114 strain, we identify in ES114-L a 9.9-kb deletion with endpoints in tadB2 and glpF; restoration of the missing portion of glpF restores the wild-type phenotype. The widely used strains ESR1, JRM100, and JRM200 contain the same deletion, and ES114-L is likely a previously unrecognized intermediate strain in the construction of many ES114 derivatives. ES114-L does not exhibit a defect in competitive squid colonization but ESR1 does, demonstrating that glycerol utilization is not required for early squid colonization. Our genetic mapping approach capitalizes on the recently discovered chitin-based transformation pathway, which is conserved in the Vibrionaceae; therefore, the specific approach used is likely to be useful for mapping genetic traits in other Vibrio species. PMID:25561715

  7. TfoX-based genetic mapping identifies Vibrio fischeri strain-level differences and reveals a common lineage of laboratory strains.

    PubMed

    Brooks, John F; Gyllborg, Mattias C; Kocher, Acadia A; Markey, Laura E H; Mandel, Mark J

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial strain variation exists in natural populations of bacteria and can be generated experimentally through directed or random mutation. The advent of rapid and cost-efficient whole-genome sequencing has facilitated strain-level genotyping. Even with modern tools, however, it often remains a challenge to map specific traits to individual genetic loci, especially for traits that cannot be selected under culture conditions (e.g., colonization level or pathogenicity). Using a combination of classical and modern approaches, we analyzed strain-level variation in Vibrio fischeri and identified the basis by which some strains lack the ability to utilize glycerol as a carbon source. We proceeded to reconstruct the lineage of the commonly used V. fischeri laboratory strains. Compared to the wild-type ES114 strain, we identify in ES114-L a 9.9-kb deletion with endpoints in tadB2 and glpF; restoration of the missing portion of glpF restores the wild-type phenotype. The widely used strains ESR1, JRM100, and JRM200 contain the same deletion, and ES114-L is likely a previously unrecognized intermediate strain in the construction of many ES114 derivatives. ES114-L does not exhibit a defect in competitive squid colonization but ESR1 does, demonstrating that glycerol utilization is not required for early squid colonization. Our genetic mapping approach capitalizes on the recently discovered chitin-based transformation pathway, which is conserved in the Vibrionaceae; therefore, the specific approach used is likely to be useful for mapping genetic traits in other Vibrio species. PMID:25561715

  8. A trans-ethnic genetic study of rheumatoid arthritis identified FCGR2A as a candidate common risk factor in Japanese and European populations.

    PubMed

    Meziani, Roubila; Yamada, Ryo; Takahashi, Meiko; Ohigashi, Kenei; Morinobu, Akio; Terao, Chikashi; Hiratani, Hitomi; Ohmura, Koichiro; Yamaguchi, Masao; Nomura, Takashi; Vasilescu, Alexandre; Kokubo, Miki; Renault, Victor; Hirosawa, Katsura; Ratanajaraya, Chanavee; Heath, Simon; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Lathrop, Mark; Melchers, Inga; Kumagai, Shunichi; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2012-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common systemic autoimmune disease and its onset and prognosis are controlled by genetic, immunological, and environmental factors. The HLA locus, particularly HLA-DRB1, is its strongest genetic risk determinant across ethnicities. Several other genes, including PTPN22 and PADI4, show modest association with RA. However, they cover only a part of its genetic components and their relative contribution is different between populations. To identify novel genetic determinants, we took a candidate gene approach in a trans-ethnic manner. After critical selection of 169 genes based on their immunological function, we performed SNP discovery of these genes by the resequencing of exons and surrounding areas using European and Japanese DNAs. We then generated a panel of 1,509 SNPs for case-control association study in both populations. The DerSimonian-Laird test for meta-analysis, using the combined results of the two populations, identified rs7551957 at the 5'-flanking region of the low-affinity Fc-gamma receptor IIa (FCGR2A) gene as the strongest candidate for the association (p = 8.6 × 10(-5), odds ratio = 1.58 with 95%CI 1.25-1.99). Suggestive signals were also obtained for three SNPs in the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) gene (rs6685859; p = 1.3 × 10(-4), rs7550959; p = 1.5 × 10(-4) and rs7531138; p = 1.7 × 10(-4)) and an intronic SNP, rs2269310, of the erythrocytic spectrin beta (SPTB) gene (p = 7.9 × 10(-4)). PMID:21607711

  9. Fission-product retention in HTGR fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, F.J.; Kania, M.J.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    Retention data for gaseous and metallic fission products are presented for both Triso-coated and Biso-coated HTGR fuel particles. Performance trends are established that relate fission product retention to operating parameters, such as temperature, burnup, and neutron exposure. It is concluded that Biso-coated particles are not adequately retentive of fission gas or metallic cesium, and Triso-coated particles which retain cesium still lose silver. Design implications related to these performance trends are identified and discussed.

  10. Demographic clusters identified within the northern Gulf of Mexico common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates) unusual mortality event: January 2010-June 2013.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Garrison, Lance; Litz, Jenny; Fougeres, Erin; Mase, Blair; Rappucci, Gina; Stratton, Elizabeth; Carmichael, Ruth; Odell, Daniel; Shannon, Delphine; Shippee, Steve; Smith, Suzanne; Staggs, Lydia; Tumlin, Mandy; Whitehead, Heidi; Rowles, Teri

    2015-01-01

    A multi-year unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates) was declared in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) with an initial start date of February 2010 and remains ongoing as of August 2014. To examine potential changing characteristics of the UME over time, we compared the number and demographics of dolphin strandings from January 2010 through June 2013 across the entire GoM as well as against baseline (1990-2009) GoM stranding patterns. Years 2010 and 2011 had the highest annual number of stranded dolphins since Louisiana's record began, and 2011 was one of the years with the highest strandings for both Mississippi and Alabama. Statewide, annual numbers of stranded dolphins were not elevated for GoM coasts of Florida or Texas during the UME period. Demographic, spatial, and temporal clusters identified within this UME included increased strandings in northern coastal Louisiana and Mississippi (March-May 2010); Barataria Bay, Louisiana (August 2010-December 2011); Mississippi and Alabama (2011, including a high prevalence and number of stranded perinates); and multiple GoM states during early 2013. While the causes of the GoM UME have not been determined, the location and magnitude of dolphin strandings during and the year following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including the Barataria Bay cluster from August 2010 to December 2011, overlap in time and space with locations that received heavy and prolonged oiling. There are, however, multiple known causes of previous GoM dolphin UMEs, including brevetoxicosis and dolphin morbillivirus. Additionally, increased dolphin strandings occurred in northern Louisiana and Mississippi before the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Identification of spatial, temporal, and demographic clusters within the UME suggest that this mortality event may involve different contributing factors varying by location, time, and bottlenose dolphin populations that will be better discerned by incorporating diagnostic information, including histopathology. PMID:25671657

  11. Demographic Clusters Identified within the Northern Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncates) Unusual Mortality Event: January 2010 - June 2013

    PubMed Central

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Garrison, Lance; Litz, Jenny; Fougeres, Erin; Mase, Blair; Rappucci, Gina; Stratton, Elizabeth; Carmichael, Ruth; Odell, Daniel; Shannon, Delphine; Shippee, Steve; Smith, Suzanne; Staggs, Lydia; Tumlin, Mandy; Whitehead, Heidi; Rowles, Teri

    2015-01-01

    A multi-year unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates) was declared in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) with an initial start date of February 2010 and remains ongoing as of August 2014. To examine potential changing characteristics of the UME over time, we compared the number and demographics of dolphin strandings from January 2010 through June 2013 across the entire GoM as well as against baseline (1990-2009) GoM stranding patterns. Years 2010 and 2011 had the highest annual number of stranded dolphins since Louisiana’s record began, and 2011 was one of the years with the highest strandings for both Mississippi and Alabama. Statewide, annual numbers of stranded dolphins were not elevated for GoM coasts of Florida or Texas during the UME period. Demographic, spatial, and temporal clusters identified within this UME included increased strandings in northern coastal Louisiana and Mississippi (March-May 2010); Barataria Bay, Louisiana (August 2010-December 2011); Mississippi and Alabama (2011, including a high prevalence and number of stranded perinates); and multiple GoM states during early 2013. While the causes of the GoM UME have not been determined, the location and magnitude of dolphin strandings during and the year following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including the Barataria Bay cluster from August 2010 to December 2011, overlap in time and space with locations that received heavy and prolonged oiling. There are, however, multiple known causes of previous GoM dolphin UMEs, including brevetoxicosis and dolphin morbillivirus. Additionally, increased dolphin strandings occurred in northern Louisiana and Mississippi before the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Identification of spatial, temporal, and demographic clusters within the UME suggest that this mortality event may involve different contributing factors varying by location, time, and bottlenose dolphin populations that will be better discerned by incorporating diagnostic information, including histopathology. PMID:25671657

  12. Fall 1982 Retention Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    In fall 1982, a study was conducted in the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) using withdrawal and grade distribution data to analyze student retention patterns. Successful retention rates were based on the percentage of students who received a passing grade, while total retention rates were based on the percentage of students who received…

  13. Neckband retention for lesser snow geese in the western Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Smith, A.E.; Baranyuk, W.; Cooch, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    Neckbands are commonly used in waterfowl studies (especially geese) to identify individuals for determination of movement and behavior and to estimate population parameters. Substantial neckband loss can adversely affect these research objectives and produce biased survival estimates. We used capture, recovery, and observation histories for lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) banded in the western Arctic, 1993-1996, to estimate neckband retention. We found that neckband retention differed between snow goose breeding colonies at Wrangel Island, Russia, and Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Male snow geese had higher neckband loss than females, a pattern similar to that found for Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and lesser snow geese in Alaska. We found that the rate of neckband loss increased with time, suggesting that neckbands are lost as the plastic deteriorates. Survival estimates for geese based on resighting neckbands will be biased unless estimates are corrected for neckband loss. We recommend that neckband loss be estimated using survival estimators that incorporate recaptures, recoveries, and observations of marked birds. Research and management studies using neckbands should be designed to improve neckband retention and to include the assessment of neckband retention.

  14. Role of BMI-associated loci identified in GWAS meta-analyses in the context of common childhood obesity in European Americans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Zhang, Haitao; Sleiman, Patrick M; Kim, Cecilia E; Glessner, Joseph T; Deliard, Sandra; Thomas, Kelly A; Frackelton, Edward C; Li, Mingyao; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Berkowitz, Robert I; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F A

    2011-12-01

    Obesity is a serious health concern for children and adolescents, particularly in Western societies, where its incidence is now considered to have reached epidemic proportions. A number of genetic determinants of adult BMI have already been established through genome wide association studies (GWAS), most recently from the GIANT meta-analysis of such datasets combined. In this current study of European Americans, we examined the 32 loci detected in that GIANT study in the context of common childhood obesity within a cohort of 1,097 cases (defined as BMI ≥95th percentile), together with 2,760 lean controls (defined as BMI <50th percentile), aged between 2 and 18 years old. Nine of these single-nucleotide polymorphims (SNPs) yielded at least nominal evidence for association with common childhood obesity, namely at the FTO, TMEM18, NRXN3, MC4R, SEC16B, GNPDA2, TNNI3K, QPCTL, and BDNF loci. However, overall 28 of the 32 loci showed directionally consistent effects to that of the adult BMI meta-analysis. We conclude that among the 32 loci that have been reported to associate with adult BMI in the largest meta-analysis of BMI to date, at least nine also contribute to the determination of common obesity in childhood in European Americans, as demonstrated by their associations in our pediatric cohort. PMID:21779088

  15. Redox Proteomics of the Inflammatory Secretome Identifies a Common Set of Redoxins and Other Glutathionylated Proteins Released in Inflammation, Influenza Virus Infection and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Checconi, Paola; Salzano, Sonia; Bowler, Lucas; Mullen, Lisa; Mengozzi, Manuela; Hanschmann, Eva-Maria; Lillig, Christopher Horst; Sgarbanti, Rossella; Panella, Simona; Nencioni, Lucia; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Ghezzi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Protein cysteines can form transient disulfides with glutathione (GSH), resulting in the production of glutathionylated proteins, and this process is regarded as a mechanism by which the redox state of the cell can regulate protein function. Most studies on redox regulation of immunity have focused on intracellular proteins. In this study we have used redox proteomics to identify those proteins released in glutathionylated form by macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) after pre-loading the cells with biotinylated GSH. Of the several proteins identified in the redox secretome, we have selected a number for validation. Proteomic analysis indicated that LPS stimulated the release of peroxiredoxin (PRDX) 1, PRDX2, vimentin (VIM), profilin1 (PFN1) and thioredoxin 1 (TXN1). For PRDX1 and TXN1, we were able to confirm that the released protein is glutathionylated. PRDX1, PRDX2 and TXN1 were also released by the human pulmonary epithelial cell line, A549, infected with influenza virus. The release of the proteins identified was inhibited by the anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (DEX), which also inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α release, and by thiol antioxidants (N-butanoyl GSH derivative, GSH-C4, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which did not affect TNF-α production. The proteins identified could be useful as biomarkers of oxidative stress associated with inflammation, and further studies will be required to investigate if the extracellular forms of these proteins has immunoregulatory functions. PMID:25985305

  16. Common Mechanisms Underlying Refractive Error Identified in Functional Analysis of Gene Lists From Genome-Wide Association Study Results in 2 European British Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Hysi, Pirro G.; Mahroo, Omar A.; Cumberland, Phillippa; Wojciechowski, Robert; Williams, Katie M.; Young, Terri L.; Mackey, David A.; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Hammond, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE To date, relatively few genes responsible for a fraction of heritability have been identified by means of large genetic association studies of refractive error. OBJECTIVE To explore the genetic mechanisms that lead to refractive error in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Genome-wide association studies were carried out in 2 British population-based independent cohorts (N = 5928 participants) to identify genes moderately associated with refractive error. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Enrichment analyses were used to identify sets of genes overrepresented in both cohorts. Enriched groups of genes were compared between both participating cohorts as a further measure against random noise. RESULTS Groups of genes enriched at highly significant statistical levels were remarkably consistent in both cohorts. In particular, these results indicated that plasma membrane (P = 7.64 × 10−30), cell-cell adhesion (P = 2.42 × 10−18), synaptic transmission (P = 2.70 × 10−14), calcium ion binding (P = 3.55 × 10−15), and cation channel activity (P = 2.77 × 10−14) were significantly overrepresented in relation to refractive error. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings provide evidence that development of refractive error in the general population is related to the intensity of photosignal transduced from the retina, which may have implications for future interventions to minimize this disorder. Pathways connected to the procession of the nerve impulse are major mechanisms involved in the development of refractive error in populations of European origin. PMID:24264139

  17. Targeted Next Generation Sequencing Identifies Novel Mutations in RP1 as a Relatively Common Cause of Autosomal Recessive Rod-Cone Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    El Shamieh, Said; Boulanger-Scemama, Elise; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Antonio, Aline; Dmontant, Vanessa; Condroyer, Christel; Letexier, Mlanie; Saraiva, Jean-Paul; Mohand-Sad, Saddek; Sahel, Jos-Alain; Audo, Isabelle; Zeitz, Christina

    2015-01-01

    We report ophthalmic and genetic findings in families with autosomal recessive rod-cone dystrophy (arRCD) and RP1 mutations. Detailed ophthalmic examination was performed in 242 sporadic and arRCD subjects. Genomic DNA was investigated using our customized next generation sequencing panel targeting up to 123 genes implicated in inherited retinal disorders. Stringent filtering coupled with Sanger sequencing and followed by cosegregation analysis was performed to confirm biallelism and the implication of the most likely disease causing variants. Sequencing identified 9 RP1 mutations in 7 index cases. Eight of the mutations were novel, and all cosegregated with severe arRCD phenotype, found associated with additional macular changes. Among the identified mutations, 4 belong to a region, previously associated with arRCD, and 5 others in a region previously associated with adRCD. Our prevalence studies showed that RP1 mutations account for up to 2.5% of arRCD. These results point out for the necessity of sequencing RP1 when genetically investigating sporadic and arRCD. It further highlights the interest of unbiased sequencing technique, which allows investigating the implication of the same gene in different modes of inheritance. Finally, it reports that different regions of RP1 can also lead to arRCD. PMID:25692139

  18. A family inheriting different subtypes of acute myelogenous leukemia identifies a gene common to the differentation of multiple hematopoetic lineages and acting early in leukemogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, M.S.; Radich, J.; Sabath, D.E.

    1994-09-01

    The initial steps promoting carcinogenesis in the hematologic malignancies remain poorly understood. We report on a family with an incompletely penetrant, autosomal dominant syndrome of acute myelogenous leukemia, affecting at least eight adults from three generations. The affected individuals have developed leukemias differing in morphologic subtype, tumor cytogenetics, and abruptness of presentation. Within this family are found subtypes affecting the granulocytic, monocytic, and megakaryocytic lineages. At least one individual has a normal tumor karyotype while another has complex rearrangements including monsomy 7, trisomy 8 and translocation 1;7. Some have presented with acute onset and others with a protracted myelodysplasia syndrome. One person at fifty percent risk of inheriting this gene developed disseminated atypical mycobacterium infection in the absence of leukemia, but also without apparent causes for acquired deficiencies in cellular immunity. Features common to affected family members, including the individual with mycobacterium infection, are the early presence in bone marrow of red cell and platelet maturation defects. A search for mutations in diseased marrows fails to detect abnormalities of p53 exons 5, 6, 7 and 8 or N-ras codons 12, 13 and 61. We conclude that there is a gene in this family that probably acts early in hematopoetic differentiation and confers susceptibility to a wide range of leukemia subtypes spanning the maturation of the myeloid series.

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies common and low-frequency variants at the AMH gene locus that strongly predict serum AMH levels in males

    PubMed Central

    Perry, John R.B.; McMahon, George; Day, Felix R.; Ring, Susan M; Nelson, Scott M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an essential messenger of sexual differentiation in the foetus and is an emerging biomarker of postnatal reproductive function in females. Due to a paucity of adequately sized studies, the genetic determinants of circulating AMH levels are poorly characterized. In samples from 2815 adolescents aged 15 from the ALSPAC study, we performed the first genome-wide association study of serum AMH levels across a set of ∼9 m ‘1000 Genomes Reference Panel’ imputed genetic variants. Genetic variants at the AMH protein-coding gene showed considerable allelic heterogeneity, with both common variants [rs4807216 (PMale = 2 × 10−49, Beta: ∼0.9 SDs per allele), rs8112524 (PMale = 3 × 10−8, Beta: ∼0.25)] and low-frequency variants [rs2385821 (PMale = 6 × 10−31, Beta: ∼1.2, frequency 3.6%)] independently associated with apparently large effect sizes in males, but not females. For all three SNPs, we highlight mechanistic links to AMH gene function and demonstrate highly significant sex interactions (PHet 0.0003–6.3 × 10−12), culminating in contrasting estimates of trait variance explained (24.5% in males versus 0.8% in females). Using these SNPs as a genetic proxy for AMH levels, we found no evidence in additional datasets to support a biological role for AMH in complex traits and diseases in men. PMID:26604150

  20. Screening to Identify Commonly Used Chinese Herbs That Affect ERBB2 and ESR1 Gene Expression Using the Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Chong; Wen, Che-Sheng; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Wei-Shone; Shyr, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Our aim the was to screen the commonly used Chinese herbs in order to detect changes in ERBB2 and ESR1 gene expression using MCF-7 cells. Methods. Using the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, cell cytotoxicity and proliferation were evaluated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays, respectively. A luciferase reporter assay was established by transient transfecting MCF-7 cells with plasmids containing either the ERBB2 or the ESR1 promoter region linked to the luciferase gene. Chinese herbal extracts were used to treat the cells at 24 h after transfection, followed by measurement of their luciferase activity. The screening results were verified by Western blotting to measure HER2 and ERα protein expression. Results. At concentrations that induced little cytotoxicity, thirteen single herbal extracts and five compound recipes were found to increase either ERBB2 or ESR1 luciferase activity. By Western blotting, Si-Wu-Tang, Kuan-Shin-Yin, and Suan-Tsao-Ren-Tang were found to increase either HER2 or ERα protein expression. In addition, Ligusticum chuanxiong was shown to have a great effect on ERBB2 gene expression and synergistically with estrogen to stimulate MCF-7 cell growth. Conclusion. Our results provide important information that should affect clinical treatment strategies among breast cancer patients who are receiving hormonal or targeted therapies. PMID:24987437

  1. Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analyses to Identify Common Genetic Variants Associated with Hallux Valgus in Caucasian and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Liu, Youfang; Hannan, Marian T.; Maixner, William; Smith, Shad B.; Diatchenko, Luda; Golightly, Yvonne M.; Menz, Hylton B.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Doherty, Michael; Wilson, A.G.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hallux valgus (HV) affects ~36% of Caucasian adults. Although considered highly heritable, the underlying genetic determinants are unclear. We conducted the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) aimed to identify genetic variants associated with HV. Methods HV was assessed in 3 Caucasian cohorts (n=2,263, n=915, and n=1,231 participants, respectively). In each cohort, a GWAS was conducted using 2.5M imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Mixed-effect regression with the additive genetic model adjusted for age, sex, weight and within-family correlations was used for both sex-specific and combined analyses. To combine GWAS results across cohorts, fixed-effect inverse-variance meta-analyses were used. Following meta-analyses, top-associated findings were also examined in an African American cohort (n=327). Results The proportion of HV variance explained by genome-wide genotyped SNPs was 50% in men and 48% in women. A higher proportion of genetic determinants of HV was sex-specific. The most significantly associated SNP in men was rs9675316 located on chr17q23-a24 near the AXIN2 gene (p=5.46×10−7); the most significantly associated SNP in women was rs7996797 located on chr13q14.1-q14.2 near the ESD gene (p=7.21×10−7). Genome-wide significant SNP-by-sex interaction was found for SNP rs1563374 located on chr11p15.1 near the MRGPRX3 gene (interaction p-value =4.1×10−9). The association signals diminished when combining men and women. Conclusion Findings suggest that the potential pathophysiological mechanisms of HV are complex and strongly underlined by sex-specific interactions. The identified genetic variants imply contribution of biological pathways observed in osteoarthritis as well as new pathways, influencing skeletal development and inflammation. PMID:26337638

  2. Systematic analysis of RNAi reports identifies dismal commonality at gene-level & reveals an unprecedented enrichment in pooled shRNA screens

    PubMed Central

    Bhinder, Bhavneet; Djaballah, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has opened promising avenues to better understand gene function. Though many RNAi screens report on the identification of genes, very few, if any, have been further studied and validated. Data discrepancy is emerging as one of RNAi main pitfalls. We reasoned that a systematic analysis of lethality-based screens, since they score for cell death, would examine the extent of hit discordance at inter-screen level. To this end, we developed a methodology for literature mining and overlap analysis of several screens using both siRNA and shRNA flavors, and obtained 64 gene lists censoring an initial list of 7,430 nominated genes. We further performed a comparative analysis first at a global level followed by hit re-assessment under much more stringent conditions. To our surprise, none of the hits overlapped across the board even for PLK1, which emerged as a strong candidate in siRNA screens; but only marginally in the shRNA ones. Furthermore, EIF5B emerges as the most common hit only in the shRNA screens. A highly unusual and unprecedented result was the observation that 5,269 out of 6,664 nominated genes (~80%) in the shRNA screens were exclusive to the pooled format, raising concerns as to the merits of pooled screens which qualify hits based on relative depletions, possibly due to multiple integrations per cell, data deconvolution or inaccuracies in intracellular processing causing off-target effects. Without golden standards in place, we would encourage the community to pay more attention to RNAi screening data analysis practices, bearing in mind that it is combinatorial in nature and one active siRNA duplex or shRNA hairpin per gene does not suffice credible hit nomination. Finally, we also would like to caution interpretation of pooled shRNA screening outcomes. PMID:23848309

  3. Common components of the infection thread matrix and the intercellular space identified by immunocytochemical analysis of pea nodules and uninfected roots

    PubMed Central

    VandenBosch, Kathryn A.; Bradley, Desmond J.; Knox, J. Paul; Perotto, Silvia; Butcher, Geoffrey W.; Brewin, Nicholas J.

    1989-01-01

    Three rat hybridoma cell lines have been isolated which produce monoclonal antibodies identifying a noduleenhanced, soluble component of Pisum sativum root nodules. These antibodies each recognized a protease-sensitive band (Mr 95K) on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The 95K antigen was resolved by isoelectric focusing into acidic and neutral components which were separately detected by AFRC MAC 236 and MAC 265 respectively. The third antibody (MAC 204) reacted with both acidic and neutral components through an epitope that was sensitive to periodate oxidation. These monoclonal antibodies were used for immunogold localizations at light and electron microscopic levels. In each case, the antigen was shown to be present in the matrix that surrounds the invading rhizobia in infection threads and infection droplets, as well as in the intercellular spaces between plant cell walls of nodules and also of uninfected roots. By contrast, a fourth monoclonal antibody, AFRC JIM 5, labelled a pectic component in the walls of infection threads, and JIM 5 was also found to label the middle lamella of plant cell walls, especially at three-way junctions between cells. The composition and structure of the infection thread lumen is thus comparable to that of an intercellular space. Images PMID:16453870

  4. Use of Anisotropy, 3D Segmented Atlas, and Computational Analysis to Identify Gray Matter Subcortical Lesions Common to Concussive Injury from Different Sites on the Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Praveen; Kenkel, William; Finklestein, Seth P.; Barchet, Thomas M.; Ren, JingMei; Davenport, Mathew; Shenton, Martha E.; Kikinis, Zora; Nedelman, Mark; Ferris, Craig F.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can occur anywhere along the cortical mantel. While the cortical contusions may be random and disparate in their locations, the clinical outcomes are often similar and difficult to explain. Thus a question that arises is, do concussions at different sites on the cortex affect similar subcortical brain regions? To address this question we used a fluid percussion model to concuss the right caudal or rostral cortices in rats. Five days later, diffusion tensor MRI data were acquired for indices of anisotropy (IA) for use in a novel method of analysis to detect changes in gray matter microarchitecture. IA values from over 20,000 voxels were registered into a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas covering 150 brain areas. Comparisons between left and right hemispheres revealed a small population of subcortical sites with altered IA values. Rostral and caudal concussions were of striking similarity in the impacted subcortical locations, particularly the central nucleus of the amygdala, laterodorsal thalamus, and hippocampal complex. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis of these sites showed significant neuroinflammation. This study presents three significant findings that advance our understanding and evaluation of TBI: 1) the introduction of a new method to identify highly localized disturbances in discrete gray matter, subcortical brain nuclei without postmortem histology, 2) the use of this method to demonstrate that separate injuries to the rostral and caudal cortex produce the same subcortical, disturbances, and 3) the central nucleus of the amygdala, critical in the regulation of emotion, is vulnerable to concussion. PMID:25955025

  5. Genomic analysis of LPS-stimulated myeloid cells identifies a common pro-inflammatory response but divergent IL-10 anti-inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Andrew Paul; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is an essential physiological response to infection and injury that must be kept within strict bounds. The IL-10/STAT3 anti-inflammatory response (AIR) is indispensable for controlling the extent of inflammation, although the complete mechanisms downstream of STAT3 have not yet been elucidated. The AIR is widely known to extend to other myeloid cells, but it has best been characterized in macrophages. Here we set out to characterize the LPS-mediated pro-inflammatory response and the AIR across a range of myeloid cells. We found that whereas the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response is broadly similar among macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, mast cells and eosinophils, the AIR is drastically different across all myeloid cell types that respond to IL-10 (all bar eosinophils). We propose a model whereby the IL-10/STAT3 AIR works by selectively inhibiting specific pathways in distinct cell types: in macrophages the AIR most likely works through the inhibition of NF-κB target genes; in DCs and mast cells through indirect IRF disruption; and in neutrophils through IRF disruption and possibly also indirect NF-κB inhibition. In summary, no conserved IL-10/STAT3 AIR effectors were identified; instead a cell type-specific model of the AIR is proposed. PMID:25765318

  6. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common susceptibility polymorphisms for colorectal and endometrial cancer near SH2B3 and TSHZ1.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Timothy H T; Thompson, Deborah; Painter, Jodie; O'Mara, Tracy; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Palles, Claire; Jones, Angela; Buchanan, Daniel D; Ko Win, Aung; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Giles, Graham G; Pharoah, Paul; Peto, Julian; Cox, Angela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Couch, Fergus; Cunningham, Julie M; Goode, Ellen L; Winham, Stacey J; Lambrechts, Diether; Fasching, Peter; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Salvesen, Helga B; Kristensen, Vessela; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Tao; Lindblom, Annika; Hall, Per; de Polanco, Magdalena Echeverry; Sans, Monica; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Aguiar Jnr, Samuel; Teixeira, Manuel R; Dunning, Alison M; Dennis, Joe; Otton, Geoffrey; Proietto, Tony; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Ashton, Katie; Scott, Rodney J; McEvoy, Mark; Dowdy, Sean C; Fridley, Brooke L; Werner, Henrica M J; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Tham, Emma; Mints, Miriam; Runnebaum, Ingo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Amant, Frederic; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif; Czene, Kamila; Meindl, Alfons; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wang, Qin; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Shah, Mitul; Annibali, Daniela; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Al-Tassan, Nada A; Harris, Rebecca; Meyer, Brian F; Whiffin, Nicola; Hosking, Fay J; Kinnersley, Ben; Farrington, Susan M; Timofeeva, Maria; Tenesa, Albert; Campbell, Harry; Haile, Robert W; Hodgson, Shirley; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Cheadle, Jeremy P; Easton, Douglas; Dunlop, Malcolm; Houlston, Richard; Spurdle, Amanda; Tomlinson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    High-risk mutations in several genes predispose to both colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC). We therefore hypothesised that some lower-risk genetic variants might also predispose to both CRC and EC. Using CRC and EC genome-wide association series, totalling 13,265 cancer cases and 40,245 controls, we found that the protective allele [G] at one previously-identified CRC polymorphism, rs2736100 near TERT, was associated with EC risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, P = 0.000167); this polymorphism influences the risk of several other cancers. A further CRC polymorphism near TERC also showed evidence of association with EC (OR = 0.92; P = 0.03). Overall, however, there was no good evidence that the set of CRC polymorphisms was associated with EC risk, and neither of two previously-reported EC polymorphisms was associated with CRC risk. A combined analysis revealed one genome-wide significant polymorphism, rs3184504, on chromosome 12q24 (OR = 1.10, P = 7.23 × 10(-9)) with shared effects on CRC and EC risk. This polymorphism, a missense variant in the gene SH2B3, is also associated with haematological and autoimmune disorders, suggesting that it influences cancer risk through the immune response. Another polymorphism, rs12970291 near gene TSHZ1, was associated with both CRC and EC (OR = 1.26, P = 4.82 × 10(-8)), with the alleles showing opposite effects on the risks of the two cancers. PMID:26621817

  7. 708 Common and 2010 rare DISC1 locus variants identified in 1542 subjects: analysis for association with psychiatric disorder and cognitive traits

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, P A; Parla, J S; McRae, A F; Kramer, M; Ramakrishnan, K; Yao, J; Soares, D C; McCarthy, S; Morris, S W; Cardone, L; Cass, S; Ghiban, E; Hennah, W; Evans, K L; Rebolini, D; Millar, J K; Harris, S E; Starr, J M; MacIntyre, D J; McIntosh, A M; Watson, J D; Deary, I J; Visscher, P M; Blackwood, D H; McCombie, W R; Porteous, D J

    2014-01-01

    A balanced t(1;11) translocation that transects the Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene shows genome-wide significant linkage for schizophrenia and recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) in a single large Scottish family, but genome-wide and exome sequencing-based association studies have not supported a role for DISC1 in psychiatric illness. To explore DISC1 in more detail, we sequenced 528 kb of the DISC1 locus in 653 cases and 889 controls. We report 2718 validated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of which 2010 have a minor allele frequency of <1%. Only 38% of these variants are reported in the 1000 Genomes Project European subset. This suggests that many DISC1 SNPs remain undiscovered and are essentially private. Rare coding variants identified exclusively in patients were found in likely functional protein domains. Significant region-wide association was observed between rs16856199 and rMDD (P=0.026, unadjusted P=6.3 × 10−5, OR=3.48). This was not replicated in additional recurrent major depression samples (replication P=0.11). Combined analysis of both the original and replication set supported the original association (P=0.0058, OR=1.46). Evidence for segregation of this variant with disease in families was limited to those of rMDD individuals referred from primary care. Burden analysis for coding and non-coding variants gave nominal associations with diagnosis and measures of mood and cognition. Together, these observations are likely to generalise to other candidate genes for major mental illness and may thus provide guidelines for the design of future studies. PMID:23732877

  8. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common susceptibility polymorphisms for colorectal and endometrial cancer near SH2B3 and TSHZ1

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Timothy HT; Thompson, Deborah; Painter, Jodie; O’Mara, Tracy; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Palles, Claire; Jones, Angela; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Ko Win, Aung; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Giles, Graham G; Pharoah, Paul; Peto, Julian; Cox, Angela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Couch, Fergus; Cunningham, Julie M; Goode, Ellen L; Winham, Stacey J; Lambrechts, Diether; Fasching, Peter; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Salvesen, Helga B.; Kristensen, Vessela; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Tao; Lindblom, Annika; Hall, Per; de Polanco, Magdalena Echeverry; Sans, Monica; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Aguiar Jnr, Samuel; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Dunning, Alison M; Dennis, Joe; Otton, Geoffrey; Proietto, Tony; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Ashton, Katie; Scott, Rodney J; McEvoy, Mark; Dowdy, Sean C; Fridley, Brooke L; Werner, Henrica MJ; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Tham, Emma; Mints, Miriam; Runnebaum, Ingo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Amant, Frederic; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif; Czene, Kamila; Meindl, Alfons; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wang, Qin; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Shah, Mitul; Annibali, Daniela; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Al-Tassan, Nada A.; Harris, Rebecca; Meyer, Brian F.; Whiffin, Nicola; Hosking, Fay J; Kinnersley, Ben; Farrington, Susan M.; Timofeeva, Maria; Tenesa, Albert; Campbell, Harry; Haile, Robert W.; Hodgson, Shirley; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Cheadle, Jeremy P.; Easton, Douglas; Dunlop, Malcolm; Houlston, Richard; Spurdle, Amanda; Tomlinson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    High-risk mutations in several genes predispose to both colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC). We therefore hypothesised that some lower-risk genetic variants might also predispose to both CRC and EC. Using CRC and EC genome-wide association series, totalling 13,265 cancer cases and 40,245 controls, we found that the protective allele [G] at one previously-identified CRC polymorphism, rs2736100 near TERT, was associated with EC risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, P = 0.000167); this polymorphism influences the risk of several other cancers. A further CRC polymorphism near TERC also showed evidence of association with EC (OR = 0.92; P = 0.03). Overall, however, there was no good evidence that the set of CRC polymorphisms was associated with EC risk, and neither of two previously-reported EC polymorphisms was associated with CRC risk. A combined analysis revealed one genome-wide significant polymorphism, rs3184504, on chromosome 12q24 (OR = 1.10, P = 7.23 × 10−9) with shared effects on CRC and EC risk. This polymorphism, a missense variant in the gene SH2B3, is also associated with haematological and autoimmune disorders, suggesting that it influences cancer risk through the immune response. Another polymorphism, rs12970291 near gene TSHZ1, was associated with both CRC and EC (OR = 1.26, P = 4.82 × 10−8), with the alleles showing opposite effects on the risks of the two cancers. PMID:26621817

  9. Providing grief resolution as an oncology nurse retention strategy: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Lori

    2012-12-01

    Oncology nurses play a pivotal role in optimizing care provided to patients at the end of life (EOL). Although oncology nurses commonly provide EOL care and witness deaths of patients that they have maintained long-standing relationships with, they are frequently excluded from grief resolution endeavors. With a worldwide shortage of oncology nurses, retention is paramount to ensuring that the care patients with cancer receive is not jeopardized. Various strategies were identified to resolve grief and increase nurse retention, including creating supportive work environments, debriefing with colleagues, providing EOL and grief education, and altering patient care assignments. Future research on emerging technologies and their effects on oncology nurse coping and retention strategies also was suggested. PMID:23178352

  10. Pathogenesis-Related Proteins Limit the Retention of Condensed Tannin Additions to Red Wines.

    PubMed

    Springer, Lindsay F; Sherwood, Robert W; Sacks, Gavin L

    2016-02-17

    Exogenous additions of condensed tannin (CT) to must or wine are a common winemaking practice, but many studies have reported inexplicably low and variable retention of added CT. We observed that additions of purified CT to red wines can result in the formation of an insoluble precipitate with high nitrogen content. Proteomic analysis of the precipitant identified several classes of pathogenesis-related proteins. Proteins in juices and red wines were quantitated by SDS-PAGE and were highest in native Vitis spp., followed by interspecific hybrids and Vitis vinifera. Wine protein was positively correlated with the ratio of juice protein to the quantity of tannin derived from fruit. The binding of added CT by wine protein could be well modeled by the Freundlich equation. These observations may explain the poor CT retention in previous studies, particularly for interspecific hybrids, and also indicate that protein removal during winemaking may improve exogenous CT retention. PMID:26806526

  11. Student Recruitment & Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Esther D.

    Proper student recruitment and retention programs can bring about sustained institutional holding power and subsequently greater financial solvency. In establishing such a program, the following premises should be accepted: (1) retention begins with recruitment of prospective graduates; (2) a high quality educational advisement program leads to…

  12. Student Retention in Athletic Training Education Programs

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Thomas M; Mitchell, Murray F; Mensch, James M

    2009-01-01

    Context: The success of any academic program, including athletic training, depends upon attracting and keeping quality students. The nature of persistent students versus students who prematurely leave the athletic training major is not known. Understanding the profiles of athletic training students who persist or leave is important. Objective: To (1) explore the relationships among the following variables: anticipatory factors, academic integration, clinical integration, social integration, and motivation; (2) determine which of the aforementioned variables discriminate between senior athletic training students and major changers; and (3) identify which variable is the strongest predictor of persistence in athletic training education programs. Design: Descriptive study using a qualitative and quantitative mixed-methods approach. Setting: Thirteen athletic training education programs located in District 3 of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Patients or Other Participants: Ninety-four senior-level athletic training students and 31 college students who changed majors from athletic training to another degree option. Data Collection: Data were collected with the Athletic Training Education Program Student Retention Questionnaire (ATEPSRQ). Analysis: Data from the ATEPSRQ were analyzed via Pearson correlations, multivariate analysis of variance, univariate analysis of variance, and a stepwise discriminant analysis. Open-ended questions were transcribed and analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding procedures. Member checks and peer debriefing techniques ensured trustworthiness of the study. Results: Pearson correlations identified moderate relationships among motivation and clinical integration (r  =  0.515, P < .01) and motivation and academic integration (r  =  0.509, P < .01). Univariate analyses of variance showed that academic integration (F1,122  =  8.483, P < .004), clinical integration (F1,119  =  30.214, P < .001), and motivation (F1,121  =  68.887, P < .001) discriminated between seniors and major changers. Discriminant analysis indicated that motivation was the strongest predictor of persistence in athletic training education, accounting for 37.2% of the variance between groups. The theoretic model accurately classified 95.7% of the seniors and 53.8% of the major changers. A common theme emerging from the qualitative data was the presence of a strong peer-support group that surrounded many of the senior-level students. Conclusions: Understanding student retention in athletic training is important for our profession. Results from this study suggest 3 key factors associated with student persistence in athletic training education programs: (1) student motivation, (2) clinical and academic integration, and (3) the presence of a peer-support system. Educators and program directors must create comprehensive recruitment and retention strategies that address factors influencing students' decisions to stay in the athletic training profession. PMID:19295966

  13. Recruitment and retention of emergency medical technicians: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Patterson, P Daniel; Probst, Janice C; Leith, Katherine H; Corwin, Sara J; Powell, M Paige

    2005-01-01

    Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are critical to out-of-hospital care, but maintaining staff can be difficult. The study objective was to identify factors that contribute to recruitment and retention of EMTs and paramedics. Information was drawn from three focus groups of EMT-Basic, EMT-Intermediate, and EMT-Paramedic personnel recruited from participants at an annual conference. Thoughts and feelings of EMTs and paramedics were investigated using eight questions designed to explore entry into emergency medical services, what it is like to be an EMT or paramedic, and the EMT educational process. Data were analyzed at the group level for common themes using NVivo. For a majority of respondents, emergency medical services was not a primary career path. Most respondents entered the industry as an alternate or replacement for a nursing career or as a second career following military medic service. The majority of respondents believed the job was stressful yet rewarding, and although it negatively affected their personal lives, the occupation gave them a sense of accomplishment and belonging. Respondents expressed a preference for EMT education resulting in college credit or licensure versus professional certification. Job-related stress produced by numerous factors appears to be a likely contributor to low employee retention. Recruitment and retention efforts should address study findings, incorporating key findings into educational, evaluation, and job enhancement programs. PMID:16252678

  14. [Chronic monstrous urine retention].

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Frederik Gustav; Holm, Mette Lind

    2015-01-26

    A 75-year-old male was diagnosed with renal mass at a computed tomography during an examination for extended abdominal girth. A large mesenterical cyst was also detected. The patient had infrequent voiding, which he had trained over many years as a taxi driver. A basic physical examination led to suspect urinary retention. His creatinine level was normal and he had no hydronephrosis. A renography showed equal function, but prolonged bilateral outflow. The volume extracted by urethral catheter passed 15 l. Absence of hydronephrosis and normal S-creatinine level has not been described in chronic urinary retention of this extent. Hydronephrosis is seen, but in much smaller volume of retention. Infrequent voiding is easily diagnosed. Urinary retention should be suspected when finding median cystic processes. PMID:25612956

  15. Retention in Tough Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Beverly; Jordan-Evans, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 25 global talent leaders discuss keeping good people and the challenges and emerging practices for retaining employees. Sidebars discuss retention tips and what keeps people on the job. (JOW)

  16. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  17. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  18. Student Responses to Merit Scholarship Retention Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Christopher M.; Lee, Kyung Hee; Mustard, David B.

    2005-01-01

    A common justification for state-sponsored merit scholarships like Georgia's HOPE program is to promote academic achievement. However, grade-based retention rules encourage other behavioral responses. Using longitudinal records of enrolled undergraduates at the University of Georgia between 1989 and 1997, we estimate the effects of HOPE on

  19. Retention Indices for Frequently Reported Compounds of Plant Essential Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babushok, V. I.; Linstrom, P. J.; Zenkevich, I. G.

    2011-12-01

    Gas chromatographic retention indices were evaluated for 505 frequently reported plant essential oil components using a large retention index database. Retention data are presented for three types of commonly used stationary phases: dimethyl silicone (nonpolar), dimethyl silicone with 5% phenyl groups (slightly polar), and polyethylene glycol (polar) stationary phases. The evaluations are based on the treatment of multiple measurements with the number of data records ranging from about 5 to 800 per compound. Data analysis was limited to temperature programmed conditions. The data reported include the average and median values of retention index with standard deviations and confidence intervals.

  20. Common Space, Common Time, Common Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Melody J.

    2005-01-01

    The most valued means of support and learning cited by new teachers at Poland Regional High School in rural Maine are the collegial interactions that common workspace, common planning time, and common tasks make possible. The school has used these everyday structures to enable new and veteran teachers to converse about curricular and pedagogical

  1. Predictors of retention in treatment in a tertiary care de-addiction center

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Pradipta; Sarkar, Siddharth; Gupta, Rishab; Patra, Bichitra Nanda; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Context: Retention in treatment can improve the outcomes of patients with substance use disorders. Aims: This study aimed to assess the predictors of treatment retention in a set of patients admitted with substance use disorders. Setting and Design: This record-based study was conducted among consecutive patients discharged from the inpatient unit of a tertiary care de-addiction facility in Northern India. Materials and Methods: Patients were classified as being retained in treatment or drop-outs based on follow-up records. Statistical Analysis: Those who were retained and those who dropped out were compared using appropriate parametric and nonparametric tests. Logistic regression was used to find out the predictors of retention in treatment. Results: A total of 88 case records were evaluated. All subjects were males and majority of the sample was married, educated up to 10th grade, employed, belonged to the nuclear family and urban background. Opioid dependence syndrome (96.6%) was the most common substance use disorder identified. Guilt feelings, general weakness of body, and loss of social respect were the most common substance-related complications experienced. Of the total sample, 40 (45.4%) were classified as retained into treatment. Higher socioeconomic status and having a family member with substance use was associated with higher chances of treatment retention. Conclusion: Identification of patient characteristics predicting drop-outs can help in targeting those individuals at higher risk. This can help in more favorable patient outcomes. PMID:26985101

  2. A Descriptive Study of the Retention of Secondary Trade and Industrial Teachers in Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Sho-Hsien; Dainty, Julie D.; Sandford, Brian A.; Townsend, Donald; Belcher, Gregory G.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher retention is an important issue which can influence the delivery of quality education. However, only a few factors have been identified in the area of career and technical education that may influence teacher retention. The purpose of this study was to identify specific factors that may influence the retention of trade and industrial…

  3. Clinic Network Collaboration and Patient Tracing to Maximize Retention in HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, James H.; Moore, Richard; Eu, Beng; Tee, Ban-Kiem; Chen, Marcus; El-Hayek, Carol; Street, Alan; Woolley, Ian; Buggie, Andrew; Collins, Danielle; Medland, Nicholas; Hoy, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding retention and loss to follow up in HIV care, in particular the number of people with unknown outcomes, is critical to maximise the benefits of antiretroviral therapy. Individual-level data are not available for these outcomes in Australia, which has an HIV epidemic predominantly focused amongst men who have sex with men. Methods and Findings A network of the 6 main HIV clinical care sites was established in the state of Victoria, Australia. Individuals who had accessed care at these sites between February 2011 and June 2013 as assessed by HIV viral load testing but not accessed care between June 2013 and February 2014 were considered individuals with potentially unknown outcomes. For this group an intervention combining cross-referencing of clinical data between sites and phone tracing individuals with unknown outcomes was performed. 4966 people were in care in the network and before the intervention estimates of retention ranged from 85.9%–95.8% and the proportion with unknown outcomes ranged from 1.3-5.5%. After the intervention retention increased to 91.4–98.8% and unknown outcomes decreased to 0.1–2.4% (p<.01 for all sites for both outcomes). Most common reasons for disengagement from care were being too busy to attend or feeling well. For those with unknown outcomes prior to the intervention documented active psychiatric illness at last visit was associated with not re-entering care (p = 0.04) Conclusions The network demonstrated low numbers of people with unknown outcomes and high levels of retention in care. Increased levels of retention in care and reductions in unknown outcomes identified after the intervention largely reflected confirmation of clinic transfers while a smaller number were successfully re-engaged in care. Factors associated with disengagement from care were identified. Systems to monitor patient retention, care transfer and minimize disengagement will maximise individual and population-level outcomes for populations with HIV. PMID:26011034

  4. Retention behavior of common mono- and divalent cations on calcinated silica gel columns in ion chromatography with conductimetric detection and the use of nitric acid, containing crown ethers, as eluents.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Kusumoto, Keiji; Takao, Yasumasa; Towata, Atsuya; Kawakami, Shoji; Murase, Yoshio; Ohashi, Masayoshi

    2002-05-17

    Ion chromatographic behavior of common mono- and divalent cations (Li+, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) on columns packed with silica gels (Super Micro Bead Silica Gel B-5, SMBSG B-5) calcinated at 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 degrees C for 5 h was investigated using nitric acid containing crown ethers [18-crown-6 (1,4,7,10,13,15-hexaoxacyclooctadecane) and 15-crown-5 (1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclopentadecane)] as eluent. When using 0.5 mM HNO3 as the eluent, the calcination had almost no effect on the improvement of peak resolution between these mono- and divalent cations. In contrast, when using 0.5 mM HNO3 containing crown ethers as the eluent, with increasing the calcinating temperature, the amount of crown ethers adsorbed on the corresponding calcinated SMBSG B-5 silica gels columns increased and, as a consequence, peak resolution between these mono- and divalent cations was quite improved. Excellent simultaneous separation of these mono- and divalent cations was achieved on column (150x4.6 mm I.D.) packed with the SMBSG B-5 silica gel calcinated at 1000 degrees C by elution with 0.5 mM HNO3 containing either 1.0 mM 18-crown-6 or 5.0 mM 15-crown-5. PMID:12108647

  5. Surface retention capacity calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Vaclav; Dostal, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Flood wave transformation in the floodplain is the phenomenon which is researched within interdisciplinary project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase. The project focuses on broad range of floodplain ecosystem services and mitigation of flooding is one of them. Despite main influence on flood wave transformation is due to flow retardation, retention in surface depressions within floodplain has been analyzed to get better overview of whole transformation process. Detail digital relief model (DRM) has been used for given purposes to be able to analyze terrain depressions volumes. The model was developed with use of stereophotogrammetric evaluation of airborne images with high resolution of 10 cm. It was essential for purposes of presented analysis not to apply pit removal routines which are often used for generation of DRM for hydrological modelling purposes. First, the methodology of analysis was prepared and tested on artificial surface. This surface was created using random raster generation, filtration and resampling with final resolution of 1000 x 1000 units and height of maximum 10 units above datum. The methodology itself is based on analysis of areas inundated by water at different elevation levels. Volume is than calculated for each depression using extraction of terrain elevations under corresponding water level. The method was then applied on the area of Lužnice River floodplain section to assess retention capacity of real floodplain. The floodplain had to be cut into sections perpendicular to main river orientation for analyses as the method was tested for square shaped area without any significant inclination. Results obtained by mentioned analysis are presented in this paper. Acknowledgement Presented research was accomplished within national project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase, nr. QH82078. The project is funded by Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic. The support is highly acknowledged.

  6. Standardized fluorescence in situ hybridization testing based on an appropriate panel of probes more effectively identifies common cytogenetic abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes than conventional cytogenetic analysis: a multicenter prospective study of 2302 patients in China.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yue-Yun; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Li, Juan; Zou, Ping; Xu, Ze-Feng; Sun, Hui; Shao, Zong-Hong; Zhou, Dao-Bin; Chen, Fang-Ping; Liu, Zhuo-Gang; Zhu, Huan-Ling; Wu, De-Pei; Wang, Chun; Zhang, Yin; Li, Yan; Hou, Ming; Du, Xin; Wang, Xin; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Rong; Zhou, Jin; Zhou, Yu-Hong; Fang, Mei-Yun; Qiu, Lin; Wang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Guang-Sen; Jiang, Ming; Liang, Ying-Min; Zhang, Lian-Sheng; Chen, Xie-Qun; Bai, Hai; Lin, Jin-Ying

    2015-05-01

    In an attempt to establish the advantages of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies over conventional cytogenetic (CC) analysis, a total of 2302 de novo MDS patients from 31 Chinese institutions were prospectively selected in the present study for both CC and standardized FISH analysis for +8, -7/7q-, -5/5q-, 20q- and-Y chromosomal abnormalities. CC analysis was successful in 94.0% of the patients; of these patients, 35.9% of the cases were abnormal. FISH analysis was successful in all 2302 patients and detected at least one type of common cytogenetic abnormality in 42.7% of the cases. The incidences of +8, -7/7q-, -5/5q-, 20q- and-Y chromosomal abnormalities by FISH were 4.1% to 8.7% higher than those by CC. FISH identified abnormalities in 23.6% of the patients exhibiting normal CC results and revealed that 20.7% of the patients with adequate normal metaphases (≥20) had abnormal clones. FISH identified cytogenetic abnormalities in 50.4% of the patients with failed CC analysis. In summary, our multicenter studies emphasised and confirmed the importance of applying standardized FISH testing based on an appropriate panel of probes to detect common cytogenetic abnormalities in Chinese de novo MDS patients, particularly those with normal or failed CC results. PMID:25823643

  7. Retention in Special Education Teachers in Georgia: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Arndra N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was to identify and examine factors influencing the retention rate of special education teachers in rural and urban schools in middle Georgia. Provided in this study are factors that are related to retention in special education teachers. Semistructured interviews were used to

  8. Flying Blind: National Graduation Goals and Adult Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilghman, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this article is to shed light on a variety of metrics institutions and some accreditors currently use to track the retention of working adults. Further, it identifies a number of important principles that all stakeholders should consider when creating a standard measure of adult student retention. Finally, it describes a few errors to…

  9. Retention in Special Education Teachers in Georgia: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Arndra N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was to identify and examine factors influencing the retention rate of special education teachers in rural and urban schools in middle Georgia. Provided in this study are factors that are related to retention in special education teachers. Semistructured interviews were used to…

  10. Predictors of First-Year Retention in a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertes, Scott J.; Hoover, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Retention is a complex issue of great importance to community colleges. Several retention models have been developed to help explain this phenomenon. However, these models typically have used four-year college and university environments to build their foundations. Several researchers have attempted to identify predictor variables using…

  11. Changing Perspectives on Student Retention: A Role for Institutional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Gerald W.; Brozovsky, Paul V.; McLaughlin, Josetta S.

    1998-01-01

    Proposes a role for institutional research in changing institutional attitudes about priority placed on student retention efforts. Identifies organizational/attitudinal barriers to improving student retention efforts relative to theory on stages of grief (denial, hostility, bargaining, depression, acceptance); outlines tactics for moving the…

  12. Student Retention in the Community College: The Faculty Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malm, Nelda W.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses retention in community colleges, identifying four reasons that students leave college, including attainment of goals and frustrated expectations. Lists eight intervention strategies that have proved successful, and provides suggestions for retention, such as having faculty serve as mentors to students, and providing the most appropriate…

  13. Enrollment & Retention: Counseling & Testing. Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL. Kennedy-King Coll.

    In response to some of the problems identified in the areas of enrollment and retention at Chicago City Colleges, the Student Government Association (SGA) of Kennedy-King Community College (K-KCC) made several suggestions to alleviate these problems, especially as they existed at K-KCC. The first issue perceived by the SGA related to the…

  14. 7 CFR 56.38 - Retention authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Identifying and Marking Products § 56.38 Retention authorities. A grader may... identification and control of shell eggs which are not in compliance with the regulations or are held for...

  15. 7 CFR 56.38 - Retention authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Identifying and Marking Products § 56.38 Retention authorities. A grader may... identification and control of shell eggs which are not in compliance with the regulations or are held for...

  16. Seed Implant Retention Score Predicts the Risk of Prolonged Urinary Retention After Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoon K.; Adams, Marc T.; Shi, Qiuhu; Basillote, Jay; LaMonica, Joanne; Miranda, Luis; Motta, Joseph

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To risk-stratify patients for urinary retention after prostate brachytherapy according to a novel seed implant retention score (SIRS). Patients and Methods: A total of 835 patients underwent transperineal prostate seed implant from March 1993 to January 2007; 197 patients had {sup 125}I and 638 patients had {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy. Four hundred ninety-four patients had supplemental external-beam radiation. The final downsized prostate volume was used for the 424 patients who had neoadjuvant hormone therapy. Retention was defined as reinsertion of a Foley catheter after the implant. Results: Retention developed in 7.4% of patients, with an average duration of 6.7 weeks. On univariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation (10% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.02), neoadjuvant hormone therapy (9.4% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02), baseline alpha-blocker use (12.5% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.008), and increased prostate volume (13.4% vs. 6.9% vs. 2.9%, >45 cm{sup 3}, 25-45 cm{sup 3}, <25 cm{sup 3}; p = 0.0008) were significantly correlated with increased rates of retention. On multivariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation, neoadjuvant hormone therapy, baseline alpha-blocker use, and increased prostate volume were correlated with retention. A novel SIRS was modeled as the combined score of these factors, ranging from 0 to 5. There was a significant correlation between the SIRS and retention (p < 0.0001). The rates of retention were 0, 4%, 5.6%, 9%, 20.9%, and 36.4% for SIRS of 0 to 5, respectively. Conclusions: The SIRS may identify patients who are at high risk for prolonged retention after prostate brachytherapy. A prospective validation study of the SIRS is planned.

  17. Promoting Employment Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relave, Nanette

    2000-01-01

    This document examines policy and program issues related to promoting employment retention among recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) who have moved from welfare into employment. The document begins with background information about the work requirements and time limits affecting TANF recipients. The second section…

  18. Secrets of Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Recruiting students is one thing, but keeping them in a chorus, orchestra, or band is another. Although a music director has no control over some variables, there is much that can be done to help students to stay. Several experts share their advice on retention. One expert said a teacher's own attitude and classroom strategies may be two of the

  19. Secrets of Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Recruiting students is one thing, but keeping them in a chorus, orchestra, or band is another. Although a music director has no control over some variables, there is much that can be done to help students to stay. Several experts share their advice on retention. One expert said a teacher's own attitude and classroom strategies may be two of the…

  20. Improving College Freshman Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Winnie Y.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, access to higher education was greatly improved through public funding. This improvement is not matched by a similar increase in graduation rate. The purpose of this study is to examine what postsecondary institutions can do to improve college freshman retention. The conceptual framework was based on research on college student…

  1. Financial Literacy and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ruth L.

    2006-01-01

    Higher education administrators know it is more cost-effective to keep students than to recruit them. Understanding financial literacy--and how it impacts student retention and persistence on the campuses--is an important concept for administrators to comprehend. Most students are not financially literate when they enter the world of higher

  2. Improving Doctoral Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Shelly M.; Papalewis, Rosemary

    This report describes a case study in the use of peer mentoring and cohorts to improve doctoral student retention and summarizes survey data reflecting the experience of eight universities. The University of California/California State University Fresno Joint Doctoral Program in Educational Leadership was designed to create cohorts of doctoral…

  3. Tritium retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Wilson, K.L.

    1988-04-01

    This report discusses the materials physics related to D-T operation in TFTR. Research activities are described pertaining to basic studies of hydrogenic retention in graphite, hydrogen recycling phenomena, first-wall and limiter conditioning, surface analysis of TFTR first-wall components, and estimates of the tritium inventory.

  4. Retention Projection” Enables Reliable Use of Shared Gas Chromatographic Retention Data Across Labs, Instruments, and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Brian B.; Wilson, Michael B.; Carr, Peter W.; Vitha, Mark F.; Broeckling, Corey D.; Heuberger, Adam L.; Prenni, Jessica; Janis, Gregory C.; Corcoran, Henry; Snow, Nicholas H.; Chopra, Shilpi; Dhandapani, Ramkumar; Tawfall, Amanda; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Boswell, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a primary tool used to identify compounds in complex samples. Both mass spectra and GC retention times are matched to those of standards, but it is often impractical to have standards on hand for every compound of interest, so we must rely on shared databases of MS data and GC retention information. Unfortunately, retention databases (e.g. linear retention index libraries) are experimentally restrictive, notoriously unreliable, and strongly instrument dependent, relegating GC retention information to a minor, often negligible role in compound identification despite its potential power. A new methodology called “retention projection” has great potential to overcome the limitations of shared chromatographic databases. In this work, we tested the reliability of the methodology in five independent laboratories. We found that even when each lab ran nominally the same method, the methodology was 3-fold more accurate than retention indexing because it properly accounted for unintentional differences between the GC-MS systems. When the labs used different methods of their own choosing, retention projections were 4- to 165-fold more accurate. More importantly, the distribution of error in the retention projections was predictable across different methods and labs, thus enabling automatic calculation of retention time tolerance windows. Tolerance windows at 99% confidence were generally narrower than those widely used even when physical standards are on hand to measure their retention. With its high accuracy and reliability, the new retention projection methodology makes GC retention a reliable, precise tool for compound identification, even when standards are not available to the user. PMID:24205931

  5. Common Schools for Common Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Eamonn

    1995-01-01

    A vision of common education for citizens of a liberal democracy warrants faith in common schools as an instrument of social good. Some kinds of separate schooling are not inconsistent with common schooling and are even desirable. Equal respect, as defined by J. Rawls, is a basis for common education. (SLD)

  6. Identifying harms.

    PubMed

    Harrosh, Shlomit

    2012-11-01

    Moral disagreements often revolve around the issue of harm to others. Identifying harms, however, is a contested enterprise. This paper provides a conceptual toolbox for identifying harms, and so possible wrongdoing, by drawing several distinctions. First, I distinguish between four modes of human vulnerability, forming four ways in which one can be in a harmed state. Second, I argue for the intrinsic disvalue of harm and so distinguish the presence of harm from the fact that it is instrumental to or constitutive of a valued act, practice or way of life. Finally, I distinguish between harm and wrongdoing, arguing that while harm is a normative concept requiring justification, not all harmed states are automatically unjustified. The advantage of this view is that it refocuses the moral debate on the normative issues involved while establishing a common basis to which both sides can agree: the presence of harm to others. PMID:21434956

  7. Mobile Learning and Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozdar, Bharat Inder; Kumar, Lalita S.

    2007-01-01

    Student retention in open and distance learning (ODL) is comparatively poor to traditional education and, in some contexts, embarrassingly low. Literature on the subject of student retention in ODL indicates that even when interventions are designed and undertaken to improve student retention, they tend to fall short. Moreover, this area has not…

  8. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...

  9. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Common Cold Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page ... Help people who are suffering from the common cold by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials. ...

  10. Enhancing retention of partial dentures using elastomeric retention rings.

    PubMed

    Revathi, Kakkirala; Reddy, Srikanth S; Reddy, Kesava K

    2015-01-01

    This report presents an alternative method for the retention of partial dentures that relies on the engagement of tooth undercuts by a lining material. The lab procedures are also presented. A new maxillary and mandibular acrylic partial dentures were fabricated using elastomeric retention technique for a partially dentate patient. A partially dentate man reported difficulty in retaining his upper removable partial denture (RPD). The maxillary RPD was designed utilizing elastomeric retention technique. During follow-up, it was necessary to replace the retention rings due to wear. The replacement of the retention rings, in this case, was done through a chairside reline technique. Elastomeric retention technique provides exceptionally good retention can be indicated to stabilize, cushion, splint periodontally involved teeth, no enough undercut for clasps, eliminate extractions, single or isolated teeth. PMID:26275205

  11. Variability of Moisture Retention and Hydrophobicity Among Biochars

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research identifies factors and mechanisms that control changes in moisture retention when biochars produced from different feedstocks and under different heat treatment temperatures are mixed with fine sand. While substantial experimental research has been conducted on the ...

  12. Stemming the Revolving Door: Teacher Retention and Attrition in Arctic Alaska Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaden, Ute; Patterson, Philip P.; Healy, Joanne; Adams, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    Limited research is available concerning teacher retention and teacher attrition in Arctic Alaska. This paper reports survey research findings, which identify factors related to teacher retention and attrition in Alaskan Arctic Native communities. Teacher retention rates (2009-2013) vary widely over time showing no significant trends. Results…

  13. Retention and Social Promotion: Research and Implications for Policy. ERIC Digest Number 161.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Charles L.; Cunningham, Elizabeth K.

    This digest highlights major research findings about social promotion, retention, and programs that identify and assist students at risk of retention. Research findings indicate that, overall, neither social promotion nor retention offers lasting advantage nor leads to high performance. Some evidence supports, and little evidence disputes, the…

  14. Meningitis-Retention Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Basoulis, Dimitrios; Mylona, Maria; Toskas, Pantelis; Tsilingiris, Dimitris; Fytili, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Meningitis-retention syndrome (MRS) is a clinical entity that has recently appeared in the literature. We present the case of a 22-year-old man with fever and headache who, in the course of his hospitalization with a diagnosis of aseptic meningitis, developed acute urinary retention. Fewer than 30 such cases have been described and in several of them, no clear associations with other disorders have been made. In some cases, direct association with viral infection has been proved, and in others, there are indications of an underlying demyelinating condition. To further complicate the issue, various conditions such as Elsberg syndrome and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, which not only have some similarities but also have some distinct differences, have been placed under the umbrella definition of MRS. In our review, we attempt to address these conditions and better define MRS by establishing diagnostic criteria based on what has thus far been described in the literature. PMID:26620904

  15. Meningitis-Retention Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Basoulis, Dimitrios; Mylona, Maria; Toskas, Pantelis; Tsilingiris, Dimitris; Fytili, Christina

    2015-09-01

    Meningitis-retention syndrome (MRS) is a clinical entity that has recently appeared in the literature. We present the case of a 22-year-old man with fever and headache who, in the course of his hospitalization with a diagnosis of aseptic meningitis, developed acute urinary retention. Fewer than 30 such cases have been described and in several of them, no clear associations with other disorders have been made. In some cases, direct association with viral infection has been proved, and in others, there are indications of an underlying demyelinating condition. To further complicate the issue, various conditions such as Elsberg syndrome and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, which not only have some similarities but also have some distinct differences, have been placed under the umbrella definition of MRS. In our review, we attempt to address these conditions and better define MRS by establishing diagnostic criteria based on what has thus far been described in the literature. PMID:26620904

  16. A survey on retention practice among orthodontists in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Low, Tze Fui; Idris, Nur Shaheera

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate retention practices commonly employed by orthodontists. The objectives were to identify the types of retainer frequently used and to investigate the variations in retention practice. Methods A total of 97 orthodontists were randomly selected, and a questionnaire consisting of 25 multiple-choice questions sent to them by mail. Upon receiving of the completed questionnaires, the data were statistically analyzed. Results A total of 32 responses were received; among these, 59.4% of orthodontists' practiced is in a government setting and 40.6% were in private practice. A vacuum-formed retainer was the most commonly used removable retainer for both maxillary (46.9%) and mandibular (46.9%) arches, followed by a Hawley retainer (maxilla, 43.8%; mandible, 37.5%), and a fixed retainer (maxilla, 3.1%; mandible, 9.4%). Of the responding orthodontists, 78.1% prescribed full-time wear (more than 20 h per day) for a duration of 3–9 months for a maxillary arch, compared to 71.9% for the mandibular arch. Only 18.8% of the orthodontists prescribed part-time wear of the retainer for the maxillary arch, compared to 21.9% for the mandibular arch. The majority of orthodontists did not instruct their patients to stop wearing removable retainers (71.9%) or fixed retainers (66.8%) at any specific time and they preferred their patients to continue wearing retainers. Conclusions Vacuum-formed retainers are the most commonly used retainers among orthodontists. The majority of orthodontists prescribed full-time wear for more than 20 h per day with a duration of 3–9 months and preferred indefinite use of the retainer. PMID:26877981

  17. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  18. Replication of Genome Wide Association Identified Candidate Genes Confirm the Role of Common and Rare Variants in PAX7 and VAX1 in the Etiology of Non-syndromic CL(P)

    PubMed Central

    Butali, Azeez; Suzuki, Satoshi; Cooper, Margaret E.; Mansilla, Adela M.; Cuenco, Karen; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Suzuki, Yasushi; Niimi, Teruyuki; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Ayanga, Gongorjav; Erkhembaatar, Tudevdorj; Furukawa, Hiroo; Fujiwawa, Kumiko; Imura, Hideto; Petrin, Aline L.; Natsume, Nagato; Beaty, Terri H.; Marazita, Mary L.; Murray, Jeffery C.

    2012-01-01

    Following recent genome wide association studies (GWAS), significant genetic associations have been identified for several genes with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL(P). To replicate two of these GWAS signals, we investigated the role of common and rare variants in the PAX7 and VAX1 genes. TaqMan genotyping was carried out for SNPs in VAX1 and PAX7 and Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) was performed to test for linkage and association in each population. Direct sequencing in and around the PAX7 and VAX1 genes in 1,326 individuals of European and Asian ancestry was done. TDT analysis showed strong associations with markers in VAX1 (rs7078160, p=2.7E-06 and rs475202, p=0.0002) in a combined sample of Mongolian and Japanese CL (P) case-parent triads. Analyses using parent-of-origin effects showed significant excess transmission of the minor allele from both parents with the effect in the mothers (p=6.5E-05, OR (transmission) =1.91) more striking than in the fathers (p=0.004, OR (transmission) =1.67) for VAX1 marker rs7078160 in the combined Mongolian and Japanese samples when all cleft types were combined. The rs6659735 trinucleotide marker in PAX7 was significantly associated with all the US cleft groups combined (p=0.007 in all clefts and p=0.02 in CL(P)). Eight rare missense mutations found in PAX7 and two rare missense mutations in VAX1. Our study replicated previous GWAS findings for markers in VAX1 in the Asian population, and identified rare variants in PAX7 and VAX1 that may contribute to the etiology of CL(P). Determining the role of rare variants clearly warrants further investigation. PMID:23463464

  19. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, ... It is called the common cold for good reason. There are over one billion colds in the United States each year. You and your children will ...

  20. An introductory review of parallel independent component analysis (p-ICA) and a guide to applying p-ICA to genetic data and imaging phenotypes to identify disease-associated biological pathways and systems in common complex disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Liu, Jingyu; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2015-01-01

    Complex inherited phenotypes, including those for many common medical and psychiatric diseases, are most likely underpinned by multiple genes contributing to interlocking molecular biological processes, along with environmental factors (Owen et al., 2010). Despite this, genotyping strategies for complex, inherited, disease-related phenotypes mostly employ univariate analyses, e.g., genome wide association. Such procedures most often identify isolated risk-related SNPs or loci, not the underlying biological pathways necessary to help guide the development of novel treatment approaches. This article focuses on the multivariate analysis strategy of parallel (i.e., simultaneous combination of SNP and neuroimage information) independent component analysis (p-ICA), which typically yields large clusters of functionally related SNPs statistically correlated with phenotype components, whose overall molecular biologic relevance is inferred subsequently using annotation software suites. Because this is a novel approach, whose details are relatively new to the field we summarize its underlying principles and address conceptual questions regarding interpretation of resulting data and provide practical illustrations of the method. PMID:26442095

  1. An introductory review of parallel independent component analysis (p-ICA) and a guide to applying p-ICA to genetic data and imaging phenotypes to identify disease-associated biological pathways and systems in common complex disorders.

    PubMed

    Pearlson, Godfrey D; Liu, Jingyu; Calhoun, Vince D

    2015-01-01

    Complex inherited phenotypes, including those for many common medical and psychiatric diseases, are most likely underpinned by multiple genes contributing to interlocking molecular biological processes, along with environmental factors (Owen et al., 2010). Despite this, genotyping strategies for complex, inherited, disease-related phenotypes mostly employ univariate analyses, e.g., genome wide association. Such procedures most often identify isolated risk-related SNPs or loci, not the underlying biological pathways necessary to help guide the development of novel treatment approaches. This article focuses on the multivariate analysis strategy of parallel (i.e., simultaneous combination of SNP and neuroimage information) independent component analysis (p-ICA), which typically yields large clusters of functionally related SNPs statistically correlated with phenotype components, whose overall molecular biologic relevance is inferred subsequently using annotation software suites. Because this is a novel approach, whose details are relatively new to the field we summarize its underlying principles and address conceptual questions regarding interpretation of resulting data and provide practical illustrations of the method. PMID:26442095

  2. Floating nut retention system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. F.; Theakston, H. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A floating nut retention system includes a nut with a central aperture. An inner retainer plate has an opening which is fixedly aligned with the nut aperture. An outer retainer member is formed of a base plate having an opening and a surface adjacent to a surface of the inner retainer plate. The outer retainer member includes a securing mechanism for retaining the inner retainer plate adjacent to the outer retainer member. The securing mechanism enables the inner retainer plate to float with respect to the outer retainer number, while simultaneously forming a bearing surface for inner retainer plate.

  3. Understanding Recruitment and Retention in Neurological Research

    PubMed Central

    Newberry, Alyssa; Sherwood, Paula; Hricik, Allison; Bradley, Sarah; Kuo, Jean; Crago, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Given, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in participants and the abrupt and traumatic way in which many neurological conditions present are two examples of the unique challenges in recruiting and retaining subjects with neurological injury for research studies. The purpose of this investigation was to identify obstacles to recruitment and retention in three ongoing research studies. These studies involve persons with neurological disorders across the continuum of care, from those newly diagnosed and with emergent presentation to those with more established, chronic neurological conditions. For the purpose of this analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of the strategies employed to improve participation rates. The first study was an NIH funded project designed to identify biomarkers of vasospasm in persons (N=496) with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who presented to the neurovascular intensive care unit (NINR, RO1 NR004339). The purpose of the second study was to examine bio-behavioral interactions in family caregivers (N=59) of persons with a primary malignant brain tumor (PMBT) recruited in the community setting. The third project involved recruiting persons (N=1019) within an outpatient neurosurgical center to participate in a research registry. To determine differential effectiveness of strategies, consent and attrition rates were calculated at serial points over time in three studies and recruitment and retention strategies were compared. Sentinel time points in participants' disease trajectories played a key role in determining whether those who were approached to participate gave consent and were retained, particularly in the studies involving persons with aneurysmal SAH (consent = 85%; retention = 89%) and persons with PMBTs and their caregivers (consent = 68%; retention = 83%). In addition, several specific recruiter and interviewer training techniques were associated with higher recruitment and retention. Targeted strategies to improve participation rates are vital for neuroscience nurses involved in any aspect of clinical research, including those who conduct studies, assist with data collection, and recruit potential participants. PMID:20187349

  4. The "Ins and Outs" of Marketing and Retention in Virginia's Community Colleges: Exemplary Marketing and Retention Practices in the Virginia Community College System. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puyear, Don, Ed.; And Others

    Detailed descriptive information is provided on programs and activities identified by the Virginia Community College System's (VCCS) Marketing and Retention Recognition Program (MRRP), which was designed to identify and publicize innovative marketing and retention activities being implemented throughout the system. Following introductory material,

  5. The "Ins and Outs" of Marketing and Retention in Virginia's Community Colleges: Exemplary Marketing and Retention Practices in the Virginia Community College System. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puyear, Don, Ed.; And Others

    The Virginia Community College System (VCCS) initiated the Marketing and Retention Recognition Program (MRRP) to identify and publicize innovative marketing and retention activities being implemented throughout the system. This report offers brief sketches of some of the exemplary projects identified by the MRRP. First, introductory material…

  6. The "Ins and Outs" of Marketing and Retention in Virginia's Community Colleges: Exemplary Marketing and Retention Practices in the Virginia Community College System. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puyear, Don, Ed.; And Others

    Detailed descriptive information is provided on programs and activities identified by the Virginia Community College System's (VCCS) Marketing and Retention Recognition Program (MRRP), which was designed to identify and publicize innovative marketing and retention activities being implemented throughout the system. Following introductory material,…

  7. Intron retention is a widespread mechanism of tumor-suppressor inactivation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyunchul; Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Jongkeun; Park, Donghyun; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Park, Woong-Yang; Hong, Dongwan; Park, Peter J; Lee, Eunjung

    2015-11-01

    A substantial fraction of disease-causing mutations are pathogenic through aberrant splicing. Although genome profiling studies have identified somatic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in cancer, the extent to which these variants trigger abnormal splicing has not been systematically examined. Here we analyzed RNA sequencing and exome data from 1,812 patients with cancer and identified ∼900 somatic exonic SNVs that disrupt splicing. At least 163 SNVs, including 31 synonymous ones, were shown to cause intron retention or exon skipping in an allele-specific manner, with ∼70% of the SNVs occurring on the last base of exons. Notably, SNVs causing intron retention were enriched in tumor suppressors, and 97% of these SNVs generated a premature termination codon, leading to loss of function through nonsense-mediated decay or truncated protein. We also characterized the genomic features predictive of such splicing defects. Overall, this work demonstrates that intron retention is a common mechanism of tumor-suppressor inactivation. PMID:26437032

  8. Patient retention at dental school clinics: a marketing perspective.

    PubMed

    Makarem, Suzanne C; Coe, Julie M

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the drivers of patient retention at dental school clinics from a services marketing perspective. An analysis of patient characteristics at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Dentistry, screened between August 2010 and July 2011 (N=3604), was performed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations, and a binary logistic regression. The main findings were that 42 percent of patients in the study were retained and that no response to communication efforts (36 percent) and financial problems (28 percent) constituted the most common reasons for non-retention. Older age, having insurance, and living within a sixty-mile radius were significant drivers of retention (p<0.05). Patients who had completed disease control treatments had a significantly higher retention rate (62 percent) than those who did not (42 percent). Finally, some groups of dental students had higher retention rates than others (p<0.05), indicating that service providers were a driver of retention. The resulting insights benefit dental schools in recruiting patients with the greatest likelihood of returning for care, providing dental students with skills to better service them, and consequently increasing retention. This will lead to providing a continuum of care and student education and to ensuring the sustainability and quality of the school's educational programs. PMID:25362692

  9. Molten core retention assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1976-06-22

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical, imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods.

  10. SULFUR RETENTION IN COAL ASH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analytical study to assess the potential for sulfur retention in various types of coal-fired boilers. Results of a field test of 10 industrial coal-fired boilers were used to evaluate the impact on sulfur retention of the operating variables (load a...

  11. Retention of Motor Skills: Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, J. D.; And Others

    A summary of an extensive literature survey deals with the variables known or suspected to affect the retention of learned motor behaviors over lengthy no-practice intervals. Emphasis was given to research conducted by or for the military. The variables that may affect the retention of motor skills were dichotomized into task variables and…

  12. Retention in Grade: Lethal Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Charles

    Despite a growing trend toward retention in grade of low-achieving students and apparent public support for the practice, many educators and psychologists disagree with the perception that flunking is an appropriate response to poor academic performance. Research reported in the past two decades indicates that grade-level retention produces little…

  13. Geography Undergraduate Program Essentials: Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estaville, Lawrence E.; Brown, Brock J.; Caldwell, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Following an integrative model that shows the complex connections of recruitment, retention, and placement, this second paper in a three-part series explores the exigent endeavor of retaining students who undertake geography as their undergraduate major. Survey data of graduating students are requisite in constructing successful retention plans.…

  14. Common Chuckwalla

    The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

  15. Understanding the Behavioral Determinants of Retention in HIV Care: A Qualitative Evaluation of a Situated Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills Model of Care Initiation and Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.; Amico, K. Rivet

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The current study provides a qualitative test of a recently proposed application of an Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behavior situated to the social-environmental, structural, cognitive-affective, and behavioral demands of retention in HIV care. Mixed-methods qualitative analysis was used to identify the content and context of critical theory-based determinants of retention in HIV care, and to evaluate the relative fit of the model to the qualitative data collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews with a sample of inner-city patients accessing traditional and nontraditional HIV care services in the Bronx, NY. The sample reflected a diverse marginalized patient population who commonly experienced comorbid chronic conditions (e.g., psychiatric disorders, substance abuse disorders, diabetes, hepatitis C). Through deductive content coding, situated IMB model-based content was identified in all but 7.1% of statements discussing facilitators or barriers to retention in HIV care. Inductive emergent theme identification yielded a number of important themes influencing retention in HIV care (e.g., acceptance of diagnosis, stigma, HIV cognitive/physical impairments, and global constructs of self-care). Multiple elements of these themes strongly aligned with the model's IMB constructs. The convergence of the results from both sets of analysis demonstrate that participants' experiences map well onto the content and structure of the situated IMB model, providing a systematic classification of important theoretical and contextual determinants of retention in care. Future intervention efforts to enhance retention in HIV care should address these multiple determinants (i.e., information, motivation, behavioral skills) of self-directed retention in HIV care. PMID:22612447

  16. Retention in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C D; Littlewood, S J

    2015-02-16

    Retention is necessary following orthodontic treatment to prevent relapse of the final occlusal outcome. Relapse can occur as a result of forces from the periodontal fibres around the teeth which tend to pull the teeth back towards their pre-treatment positions, and also from deflecting occlusal contacts if the final occlusion is less than ideal. Age changes, in the form of ongoing dentofacial growth, as well as changes in the surrounding soft tissues, can also affect the stability of the orthodontic outcome. It is therefore essential that orthodontists, patients and their general dental practitioners understand the importance of wearing retainers after orthodontic treatment. This article will update the reader on the different types of removable and fixed retainers, including their indications, duration of wear, and how they should be managed in order to minimise any unwanted effects on oral health and orthodontic outcomes. The key roles that the general dental practitioner can play in supporting their patients wearing orthodontic retainers are also emphasised. PMID:25686428

  17. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  18. Enrolment Management in Graduate Business Programs: Predicting Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshghi, Abdoloreza; Haughton, Dominique; Li, Mingfei; Senne, Linda; Skaletsky, Maria; Woolford, Sam

    2011-01-01

    The increasing competition for graduate students among business schools has resulted in a greater emphasis on graduate business student retention. In an effort to address this issue, the current article uses survival analysis, decision trees and TreeNet® to identify factors that can be used to identify students who are at risk of dropping out of a…

  19. Nitrogen surface water retention in the Baltic Sea drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålnacke, P.; Pengerud, A.; Vassiljev, A.; Smedberg, E.; Mörth, C.-M.; Hägg, H. E.; Humborg, C.; Andersen, H. E.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N) in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW) for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for which we had observed data, with a sufficient degree of precision and accuracy. The estimated retention parameters were also statistically significant. Our results show that around 380 000 t of N are annually retained in surface waters draining to the Baltic Sea. The total annual riverine load from the 117 basins to the Baltic Sea was estimated at 570 000 t of N, giving a total surface water N retention of around 40%. In terms of absolute retention values, three major river basins account for 50% of the total retention in the 117 basins; i.e. around 104 000 t of N are retained in Neva, 55 000 t in Vistula and 32 000 t in Oder. The largest retention was found in river basins with a high percentage of lakes as indicated by a strong relationship between N retention (%) and share of lake area in the river drainage areas. For example in Göta älv, we estimated a total N retention of 72%, whereof 67% of the retention occurred in the lakes of that drainage area (Lake Vänern primarily). The obtained results will hopefully enable the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) to refine the nutrient load targets in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), as well as to better identify cost-efficient measures to reduce nutrient loadings to the Baltic Sea.

  20. Veterans’ Perspectives on Interventions to Improve Retention in HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    Kertz, Barbara L.; Cully, Jeffery A.; Stanley, Melinda A.; Davila, Jessica A.; Dang, Bich N.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Giordano, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Poor retention in HIV medical care is associated with increased mortality among patients with HIV/AIDS. Developing new interventions to improve retention in HIV primary care is needed. The Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) is the largest single provider of HIV care in the US. We sought to understand what veterans would want in an intervention to improve retention in VA HIV care. We conducted 18 one-on-one interviews and 15 outpatient focus groups with 46 patients living with HIV infection from the Michael E. DeBakey VAMC (MEDVAMC). Analysis identified three focus areas for improving retention in care: developing an HIV friendly clinic environment, providing mental health and substance use treatment concurrent with HIV care and encouraging peer support from other Veterans with HIV. PMID:26829641

  1. Veterans' Perspectives on Interventions to Improve Retention in HIV Care.

    PubMed

    Minick, Sophie G; Stafford, Crystal L; Kertz, Barbara L; Cully, Jeffery A; Stanley, Melinda A; Davila, Jessica A; Dang, Bich N; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Giordano, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Poor retention in HIV medical care is associated with increased mortality among patients with HIV/AIDS. Developing new interventions to improve retention in HIV primary care is needed. The Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) is the largest single provider of HIV care in the US. We sought to understand what veterans would want in an intervention to improve retention in VA HIV care. We conducted 18 one-on-one interviews and 15 outpatient focus groups with 46 patients living with HIV infection from the Michael E. DeBakey VAMC (MEDVAMC). Analysis identified three focus areas for improving retention in care: developing an HIV friendly clinic environment, providing mental health and substance use treatment concurrent with HIV care and encouraging peer support from other Veterans with HIV. PMID:26829641

  2. Geographic Characteristics and First-Year Retention: An Examination of the Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Mingchu; Williams, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Enrollment practitioners commonly discuss the effect of geographic factors on retention at rural or small-city institutions. This study examined the correlations between geographic characteristics of first-year college students' home location and their retention to the second year at a university located in a small city. The dimension of…

  3. Enhancing Minority Student Retention and Academic Performance: What We Can Learn from Program Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    In this important resource, Dr. Fleming (a noted expert in the field of minority retention) draws on educational evaluations she has developed in the course of her distinguished career. This book analyzes the common factors and the role institutional characteristics play in minority student retention to show what really works in increasing…

  4. The Recruitment and Retention of African-American Students in Gifted Education Programs: Implications and Recommendations. Recruitment and Retention Research-Based Decision Making Series 9406.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Donna Y.

    This report describes barriers to the successful recruitment and retention of African American students in gifted education programs and services, and offers recommendations for ensuring successful recruitment and retention of this population. Barriers to recruitment identified include: inadequate identification practices, too little attention…

  5. Pulmonary retention of coal dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, P.E.; Gibb, F.R.; Beiter, H.; Amato, F.; Yuile, C.; Kilpper, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The principal objectives of this study were: to determine, quantitatively, coal dust retention times in the dog lung; to test the appropriateness of a pulmonary retention model which incorporates first order rate coefficients obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments on neutron-activated coal; to acquire a temporal description of the pulmonary disposition of the retained coal dust, and to compare the behavior of two different Pennsylvania coals in the foregoing regards. The principal findings include: retention half-times for both coals of approximately 2 years following single, hour-long exposures; a vivid association of the retained coal dust with the pulmonic lymphatics; and a general validation of the retention model.

  6. A Social Network Analysis of Student Retention Using Archival Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, James E.; Stradley, Eric G.

    2012-01-01

    This study attempts to determine if a relationship exists between first-to-second-year retention and social network variables for a cohort of first-year students at a small liberal arts college. The social network is reconstructed using not survey data as is most common, but rather using archival data from a student information system. Each…

  7. Phospohorus and calcium retention in serially harvested cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from 3 serial harvest trials were utilized to calculate phosphorus and calcium retention in cattle. Trial 1 evaluated the effect of three rates of gain during a growing period followed by a common finishing diet utilizing British crossbred steers. Four steers were harvested from each treatmen...

  8. Defining and analyzing retention-in-care among pregnant and breastfeeding HIV-infected women: unpacking the data to interpret and improve PMTCT outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Nigel C; Becquet, Renaud; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Phiri, Sam; Hayashi, Chika; Baller, April; Shaffer, Nathan

    2014-11-01

    The prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) "cascade" describes the programmatic steps for pregnant and breastfeeding women that influence HIV transmission rates. To this end, HIV-infected pregnant women and mothers need access to health services and adhere to antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis or lifetime treatment. Within the cascade, the concept of "retention-in-care" is commonly used as a proxy for adherence to ARV interventions and, even, viral suppression. Yet surprisingly, there is no standard definition of retention-in-care either for the purposes of HIV surveillance or implementation research. Implicit to the concept of retention-in-care is the sense of continuity and receipt of care at relevant time points. In the context of PMTCT, the main challenge for surveillance and implementation research is to estimate effective coverage of ARV interventions over a prolonged period of time. These data are used to inform program management and also to estimate postnatal MTCT rates. Attendance of HIV-infected mothers at clinic at 12-month postpartum is often equated with full retention in PMTCT programs over this period. Yet, measurement approaches that fail to register missed visits, or inconsistent attendance or other missing data in the interval period, fail to capture patterns of attendance and care received by mothers and children and risk introducing systematic errors and bias. More importantly, providing only an aggregated rate of attendance as a proxy for retention-in-care fails to identify specific gaps in health services where interventions to improve retention along the PMTCT cascade are most needed. In this article, we discuss how data on retention-in-care can be understood and analyzed, and what are the implications and opportunities for programs and implementation research. PMID:25310122

  9. Retention in medication-assisted treatment for opiate dependence: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Timko, Christine; Schultz, Nicole R; Cucciare, Michael A; Vittorio, Lisa; Garrison-Diehn, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Retention in medication-assisted treatment among opiate-dependent patients is associated with better outcomes. This systematic review (55 articles, 2010-2014) found wide variability in retention rates (i.e., 19%-94% at 3-month, 46%-92% at 4-month, 3%-88% at 6-month, and 37%-91% at 12-month follow-ups in randomized controlled trials), and identified medication and behavioral therapy factors associated with retention. As expected, patients who received naltrexone or buprenorphine had better retention rates than patients who received a placebo or no medication. Consistent with prior research, methadone was associated with better retention than buprenorphine/naloxone. And, heroin-assisted treatment was associated with better retention than methadone among treatment-refractory patients. Only a single study examined retention in medication-assisted treatment for longer than 1 year, and studies of behavioral therapies may have lacked statistical power; thus, studies with longer-term follow-ups and larger samples are needed. Contingency management showed promise to increase retention, but other behavioral therapies to increase retention, such as supervision of medication consumption, or additional counseling, education, or support, failed to find differences between intervention and control conditions. Promising behavioral therapies to increase retention have yet to be identified. PMID:26467975

  10. 32 CFR 240.6 - Retention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retention program. 240.6 Section 240.6 National... INFORMATION ASSURANCE SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM (IASP) § 240.6 Retention program. (a) The DoD IASP retention program... for their selected program, which are outlined in DoD IASP Academic Programs for Retention...

  11. 32 CFR 240.6 - Retention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retention program. 240.6 Section 240.6 National... INFORMATION ASSURANCE SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM (IASP) § 240.6 Retention program. (a) The DoD IASP retention program... for their selected program, which are outlined in DoD IASP Academic Programs for Retention...

  12. Reactive barriers for {sup 137}Cs retention

    SciTech Connect

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BRADY,PATRICK V.; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

    2000-05-19

    {sup 137}Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of {sup 137}Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half life of {sup 137}Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if {sup 137}Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with {sup 135}Cs (half life 2.3x10{sup 6} years) in addition to {sup 137}Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention Cs resorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO{sub 3} and LiCl washes. Washed clay were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F- 111 were similar; 0.017 to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12 to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake so most soils have some limited ability to act as a natural barrier to Cs migration. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt ({approximately} 0.33 wt% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artificial reactive barriers.

  13. Place memory retention in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Daniela; Kahsai, Lily; Kramer, Elizabeth F; Knutson, Patrick; Zars, Troy

    2015-09-01

    Some memories last longer than others, with some lasting a lifetime. Using several approaches memory phases have been identified. How are these different phases encoded, and do these different phases have similar temporal properties across learning situations? Place memory in Drosophila using the heat-box provides an excellent opportunity to examine the commonalities of genetically-defined memory phases across learning contexts. Here we determine optimal conditions to test place memories that last up to three hours. An aversive temperature of 41°C was identified as critical for establishing a long-lasting place memory. Interestingly, adding an intermittent-training protocol only slightly increased place memory when intermediate aversive temperatures were used, and slightly extended the stability of a memory. Genetic analysis of this memory identified four genes as critical for place memory within minutes of training. The role of the rutabaga type I adenylyl cyclase was confirmed, and the latheo Orc3 origin of recognition complex component, the novel gene encoded by pastrel, and the small GTPase rac were all identified as essential for normal place memory. Examination of the dopamine and ecdysone receptor (DopEcR) did not reveal a function for this gene in place memory. When compared to the role of these genes in other memory types, these results suggest that there are genes that have both common and specific roles in memory formation across learning contexts. Importantly, contrasting the timing for the function of these four genes, plus a previously described role of the radish gene, in place memory with the temporal requirement of these genes in classical olfactory conditioning reveals variability in the timing of genetically-defined memory phases depending on the type of learning. PMID:26143995

  14. Easy come, easy go. Retention of blood donors.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, A

    2015-08-01

    Retention of blood donors has benefits over recruitment of new blood donors. Retention is defined as preventing donors from lapsing and eventually becoming inactive. This review paper discusses literature on the importance of efforts to retain donors, specifically new donors, since lapsing is most common before the fifth donation. Studies have found that intention to donate, attitudes towards blood donation and self-efficacy (does one feel capable of donating blood) are predictors of blood donation. Feelings of 'warm glow' predict donation behaviour better than altruism. The existing literature further suggests that first time donors can be retained by paying extra attention to adverse events (vasovagal reactions and fatigue). These events could be reduced by drinking water and muscle tension exercises. Feelings of anxiety (in regular donors) and stress can further prevent donors from returning. Planning donations amongst busy lives can help retention, and suggestions are given on which interventions might be helpful. PMID:26399971

  15. Risk Factors for Postoperative Retention After Hemorrhoidectomy: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Qi-Ming, Xue; Jue-Ying, Xiang; Ben-Hui, Chen; Jing, Wu; Ning, Li

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for urinary retention after hemorrhoidectomy. With the approval of West China Hospital of Sichuan University Ethics Board, data were abstracted from 961 charts of patients who underwent hemorrhoidectomy from January 1, 2009, to June 30, 2011. The outcome was urinary retention in the first 24 hours after surgery. Risk factors were identified using multivariable logistic regression, and they were expressed as odds ratios or 95% confidence intervals. The overall urinary retention rate was 14.8% (n = 142). Significant risk factors associated with postoperative urinary retention included female gender, anesthesia methods, severity of hemorrhoid, a large amount of intravenous fluid administered perioperatively, and length of hospital stay. Logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender (odds ratio, 2.607; p < .01), sacral anesthesia (odds ratio, 2.481; p = .02), more than 3 hemorrhoids resected (odds ratio, 2.658; p < .01), hemorrhoids having 4 degrees of severity (odds ratio, 3.101; p < .01), intravenous fluids > 700 ml (odds ratio, 1.597; p = .02), and length of stay more than 7 days (odds ratio, 1.852; p < .01) were significant predictors of urinary retention post-hemorrhoidectomy. PMID:25974011

  16. Can retention forestry help conserve biodiversity? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fedrowitz, Katja; Koricheva, Julia; Baker, Susan C; Lindenmayer, David B; Palik, Brian; Rosenvald, Raul; Beese, William; Franklin, Jerry F; Kouki, Jari; Macdonald, Ellen; Messier, Christian; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Gustafsson, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Industrial forestry typically leads to a simplified forest structure and altered species composition. Retention of trees at harvest was introduced about 25 years ago to mitigate negative impacts on biodiversity, mainly from clearcutting, and is now widely practiced in boreal and temperate regions. Despite numerous studies on response of flora and fauna to retention, no comprehensive review has summarized its effects on biodiversity in comparison to clearcuts as well as un-harvested forests. Using a systematic review protocol, we completed a meta-analysis of 78 studies including 944 comparisons of biodiversity between retention cuts and either clearcuts or un-harvested forests, with the main objective of assessing whether retention forestry helps, at least in the short term, to moderate the negative effects of clearcutting on flora and fauna. Retention cuts supported higher richness and a greater abundance of forest species than clearcuts as well as higher richness and abundance of open-habitat species than un-harvested forests. For all species taken together (i.e. forest species, open-habitat species, generalist species and unclassified species), richness was higher in retention cuts than in clearcuts. Retention cuts had negative impacts on some species compared to un-harvested forest, indicating that certain forest-interior species may not survive in retention cuts. Similarly, retention cuts were less suitable for some open-habitat species compared with clearcuts. Positive effects of retention cuts on richness of forest species increased with proportion of retained trees and time since harvest, but there were not enough data to analyse possible threshold effects, that is, levels at which effects on biodiversity diminish. Spatial arrangement of the trees (aggregated vs. dispersed) had no effect on either forest species or open-habitat species, although limited data may have hindered our capacity to identify responses. Results for different comparisons were largely consistent among taxonomic groups for forest and open-habitat species, respectively. Synthesis and applications. Our meta-analysis provides support for wider use of retention forestry since it moderates negative harvesting impacts on biodiversity. Hence, it is a promising approach for integrating biodiversity conservation and production forestry, although identifying optimal solutions between these two goals may need further attention. Nevertheless, retention forestry will not substitute for conservation actions targeting certain highly specialized species associated with forest-interior or open-habitat conditions. Our meta-analysis provides support for wider use of retention forestry since it moderates negative harvesting impacts on biodiversity. Hence, it is a promising approach for integrating biodiversity conservation and production forestry, although identifying optimal solutions between these two goals may need further attention. Nevertheless, retention forestry will not substitute for conservation actions targeting certain highly specialized species associated with forest-interior or open-habitat conditions. PMID:25552747

  17. Oral mucoceles; extravasation cysts and retention cysts. A study of 298 cases.

    PubMed

    Granholm, Carina; Olsson Bergland, Kamilla; Walhjalt, Hanna; Magnusson, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Oral mucoceles can be divided in two different forms, extravasation and retention cysts. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of each form, sex- and age distribution, location, recurrences, referent and the differences between the two forms. A total of three-hundred-five cases were retrieved from the Department of Oral Pathology at the Institution of Odontology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University between 1993 and 2003. Seven referrals were disregarded because there was insufficient information, leaving 298 cases for this study. In relation to other studies, our study investigated a larger number of cases. Extravasation cysts were the most common type (258 cases). There was a slight predominance among women (55%) and the most frequent location was the lower lip (71%). 84% occurred between the ages of 0 and 40 years with peak incidence in the second decade (34%). 62% of the referrals came from specialists, 28% from general practitioners, and 10% from the Department of Oral Medicine. Retention cysts were not found as frequently as extravasation cysts (40 cases) and the occurrence in women was also a bit higher (58%). We found a more even distribution regarding age and location. The most common locations were floor of the mouth (25%), cheek (20%), and lower lip (18%). They occurred more often between the ages of 11 and 30 (31%), and between 50 and 80 (50%). 75% of the referrals came from specialists, 15% from general practitioners,and 10% from the Department of Oral Medicine. Recurrences were unusual for both cyst types. 17 cases of extravasation cysts were reported as recurrences and one case of retention cyst. PMID:19994562

  18. The Impact of Principal Leadership on Working Conditions and Teacher Retention in North Carolina Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomon, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates that administrative leadership is the most important factor in determining the climate of a school, and there are specific leadership attributes such as improving working conditions that promote retention. This study seeks to identify leadership behaviors that positively affect quality teacher retention among two particular…

  19. EVALUATION OF SOIL WATER RETENTION MODELS BASED ON BASIC SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algorithms to model soil water retention are needed to study the response of vegetation and hydrologic systems to climate change. he objective of this study was to evaluate some soil water retention models to identify minimum input data requirements. ix models that function with ...

  20. Admissions and Retention Problems of Black Students at Seven Predominantly White Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donald H.

    Interviews and questionnaires were administered to black students and black and white faculty and administrators at seven universities to identify the principal problems related to the retention of black undergraduate students in higher educational institutions and to propose program alternatives and strategies for their retention and graduation…

  1. Factors Affecting Student Retention in Online Courses: Overcoming This Critical Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaytan, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what a panel of 15 experts would identify as critical factors affecting student retention in online courses that will serve as implications for educational leaders to guide their student retention strategies, online organizational structures, institutional policies, and online instructional activities. A…

  2. 37 CFR 202.23 - Full term retention of copyright deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... records of the Office. (b) Form and content of request for full term retention—(1) Forms. The Copyright Office does not provide printed forms for the use of persons requesting full term retention of copyright... acceptable identifying materials for retention in lieu of the actual copyright deposit. (d) Form of...

  3. 78 FR 40149 - Scientific Information Request on Chronic Urinary Retention (CUR) Treatment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Urinary Retention (CUR) Treatment AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION... retention (CUR) treatment, which is currently being conducted by the Evidence-based Practice Centers for the... (CUR) treatment. The EHC Program is dedicated to identifying as many studies as possible that...

  4. Survival Analysis of Faculty Retention Data: How Long Do They Stay? AIR 1997 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamada, Mike; Inman, Claudia

    This study applied survival analysis methodology to faculty retention data in order to examine ways to measure faculty retention and determine whether men and women have different "survival times." The study at a selective, private liberal arts college first used college catalogs to identify 339 full-time tenure-track faculty who had begun working…

  5. Confounding Impacts of Iron Reduction on Arsenic Retention

    SciTech Connect

    Tufano, K.J.; Fendorf, S.

    2009-05-26

    A transition from oxidizing to reducing conditions has long been implicated to increase aqueous As concentrations, for which reductive dissolution of iron (hydr)oxides is commonly implicated as the primary culprit. Confounding our understanding of processes controlling As retention, however, is that reductive transformation of ferrihydrite has recently been shown to promote As retention rather than release. To resolve the role iron phases have in regulating arsenic concentrations, here we examine As desorption from ferrihydrite-coated sands presorbed with As(lll); experiments were performed at circumneutral pH under Fe-reducing conditions with the dissimilatory iron reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN-32 over extended time periods. We reveal that with the initial phase of iron reduction, ferrihydrite undergoes transformation to secondary phases and increases As(lll) retention (relative to abiotic controls). However, with increased reaction time, cessation of the phase transitions and ensuing reductive dissolution result in prolonged release of As(III) to the aqueous phase. Our results suggest that As(lll) retention during iron reduction is temporally dependent on secondary precipitation of iron phases; during transformation to secondary phases, particularly magnetite, As(lll) retention is enhanced even relative to oxidized systems. However, conditions that retard secondary transformation (more stable iron oxides or limited iron reducing bacterial activity), or prolonged anaerobiosis, will lead to both the dissolution of ferric (hydr)oxides and release of As(lll) to the aqueous phase.

  6. Genetic programming based quantitative structure-retention relationships for the prediction of Kovats retention indices.

    PubMed

    Goel, Purva; Bapat, Sanket; Vyas, Renu; Tambe, Amruta; Tambe, Sanjeev S

    2015-11-13

    The development of quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) aims at constructing an appropriate linear/nonlinear model for the prediction of the retention behavior (such as Kovats retention index) of a solute on a chromatographic column. Commonly, multi-linear regression and artificial neural networks are used in the QSRR development in the gas chromatography (GC). In this study, an artificial intelligence based data-driven modeling formalism, namely genetic programming (GP), has been introduced for the development of quantitative structure based models predicting Kovats retention indices (KRI). The novelty of the GP formalism is that given an example dataset, it searches and optimizes both the form (structure) and the parameters of an appropriate linear/nonlinear data-fitting model. Thus, it is not necessary to pre-specify the form of the data-fitting model in the GP-based modeling. These models are also less complex, simple to understand, and easy to deploy. The effectiveness of GP in constructing QSRRs has been demonstrated by developing models predicting KRIs of light hydrocarbons (case study-I) and adamantane derivatives (case study-II). In each case study, two-, three- and four-descriptor models have been developed using the KRI data available in the literature. The results of these studies clearly indicate that the GP-based models possess an excellent KRI prediction accuracy and generalization capability. Specifically, the best performing four-descriptor models in both the case studies have yielded high (>0.9) values of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) and low values of root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute percent error (MAPE) for training, test and validation set data. The characteristic feature of this study is that it introduces a practical and an effective GP-based method for developing QSRRs in gas chromatography that can be gainfully utilized for developing other types of data-driven models in chromatography science. PMID:26460075

  7. Promoting Hispanic Student Retention in Two Texas Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Karissa R.; Scott, Joyce A.

    2014-01-01

    Texas' Hispanic population has increased dramatically since 2000 as have Hispanic enrollments in higher education (+118%). Despite having the largest spike in college enrollment, Hispanic students' completion rates remain the lowest among all ethnic groups. To identify institutional practices that might encourage Hispanic student retention,…

  8. Tracking/Monitoring Program To Enhance Multicultural Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Jose; Corzo, Miguel

    The StudentPal program is a student tracking system developed jointly by the Multicultural Affairs program and High Technology Center at Glendale Community College, in Arizona. The program uses computer-assisted tracking to target students and various student characteristics and identify at-risk factors to improve the retention and success of…

  9. College Student Retention: A Self-Determination Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetreault, Jules

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to identify the relationship between a student's level of self-determination towards aspiring to receive a college degree and student retention from the first to second year. Deci & Ryan's (2000) self-determination theory served as the conceptual framework for this study. The fundamental assumption of…

  10. Social Promotion or Retention? Factors That Influence Committee Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groom, Ileetha Brooks

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented here is to identify which factors school level practitioners consider in deciding whether to retain or promote a student and to ascertain their knowledge of and training in retention research. This research illuminates the process of determining which students are promoted and which are retained, and the…

  11. Research and Practice of Student Retention: What Next?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinto, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    After reviewing the state of student retention research and practice, past and present, the author looks to the future and identifies three areas of research and practice that call for further exploration. These concern issues of institutional action, program implementation, and the continuing challenge of promoting the success of low-income…

  12. An Examination of Secondary Business Teachers' Retention Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.

    A study investigated from a national perspective factors that influence the attrition and retention of newly hired secondary business teachers in the public sector. It also identified factors important to determine a business teacher's interest in continuing or not continuing in the teaching profession. The survey developed for the study consisted…

  13. Compartmental model of nitrate retention in streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, B. R.; Campana, M. E.

    2007-02-01

    A compartmental modeling approach is presented to route nitrate retention along a cascade of stream reach sections. A process transfer function is used for transient storage equations with first-order reaction terms to represent nitrate uptake in the free stream and denitrification in the storage regions. In the context of a short-term nitrate injection we define nitrate assimilative capacity as 1 - ?, where the attenuation factor, ?, is the fraction of injected nitrate mass that is flushed past the outlet of stream. Net exchange with groundwater is modeled by allowing free stream discharge to vary from one reach section to the next. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to compare results of the compartmental model with the OTIS numerical model. Out of 350 Monte Carlo simulations of a stream consisting of five reach sections the highest relative percent difference was 15%, most being well below 10%, as determined using moment analysis on breakthrough curves. Moment analysis on published experimental breakthrough curves showed assimilative capacities did not differ from those determined with the compartmental model by more than about 0.035 and were well within the uncertainty due to possible errors in measured stream metrics and net exchange with groundwater. The results show that the compartmental modeling approach, commonly used in analysis of groundwater data, can also be useful in evaluating nitrate retention in streams.

  14. Integration of high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of chromosome 16q with expression array data refines common regions of loss at 16q23-qter and identifies underlying candidate tumor suppressor genes in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Watson, J E Vivienne; Doggett, Norman A; Albertson, Donna G; Andaya, Armann; Chinnaiyan, Arul; van Dekken, Herman; Ginzinger, David; Haqq, Christopher; James, Karen; Kamkar, Sherwin; Kowbel, David; Pinkel, Daniel; Schmitt, Lars; Simko, Jeffry P; Volik, Stanislav; Weinberg, Vivian K; Paris, Pamela L; Collins, Colin

    2004-04-22

    We have constructed a high-resolution genomic microarray of human chromosome 16q, and used it for comparative genomic hybridization analysis of 16 prostate tumors. We demarcated 10 regions of genomic loss between 16q23.1 and 16qter that occurred in five or more samples. Mining expression array data from four independent studies allowed us to identify 11 genes that were frequently underexpressed in prostate cancer and that co-localized with a region of genomic loss. Quantitative expression analyses of these genes in matched tumor and benign tissue from 13 patients showed that six of these 11 (WWOX, WFDC1, MAF, FOXF1, MVD and the predicted novel transcript Q9H0B8 (NM_031476)) had significant and consistent downregulation in the tumors relative to normal prostate tissue expression making them candidate tumor suppressor genes. PMID:15007382

  15. The Development, Validation, and Use of Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Models of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (2B) Receptor Ligands to Identify Novel Receptor Binders and Putative Valvulopathic Compounds among Common Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hajjo, Rima; Grulke, Christopher; Golbraikh, Alexander; Setola, Vincent; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Some antipsychotic drugs are known to cause valvular heart disease by activating serotonin 5-HT2B receptors. We have developed and validated binary classification QSAR models capable of predicting potential 5-HT2B binders. The classification accuracies of the models to discriminate 5-HT2B actives from the inactives were as high as 80% for the external test set. These models were used to screen in silico 59,000 compounds included in the World Drug Index and 122 compounds were predicted as actives with high confidence. Ten of them were tested in radioligand binding assays and nine were found active suggesting a success rate of 90%. All validated binders were then tested in functional assays and one compound was identified as a true 5-HT2B agonist. We suggest that the QSAR models developed in this study could be used as reliable predictors to flag drug candidates that are likely to cause valvulopathy. PMID:20958049

  16. A Genome-wide Association Study of Early-onset Breast Cancer Identifies PFKM as a Novel Breast Cancer Gene and Supports a Common Genetic Spectrum for Breast Cancer at Any Age

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Habibul; Halpern, Jerry; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Pierce, Brandon L; Tong, Lin; Gamazon, Eric; McGuire, Valerie; Felberg, Anna; Shi, Jianxin; Jasmine, Farzana; Roy, Shantanu; Brutus, Rachelle; Argos, Maria; Melkonian, Stephanie; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Andrulis, Irene; Hopper, John L; John, Esther M.; Malone, Kathi; Ursin, Giske; Gammon, Marilie D; Thomas, Duncan C; Seminara, Daniela; Casey, Graham; Knight, Julia A; Southey, Melissa C; Giles, Graham G; Santella, Regina M; Lee, Eunjung; Conti, David; Duggan, David; Gallinger, Steve; Haile, Robert; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Apicella, Carmel; Park, Daniel J; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Lathrop, Mark; Hunter, David J; Chanock, Stephen J; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lochmann, Magdalena; Beckmann, Lars; Hein, Rebecca; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Bui, Quang Minh; Stone, Jennifer; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Dahmen, Norbert; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Nicolae, Dan; Easton, Douglas F; Cox, Nancy J; Whittemore, Alice S

    2014-01-01

    Early-onset breast cancer (EOBC) causes substantial loss of life and productivity, creating a major burden among women worldwide. We analyzed 1,265,548 Hapmap3 SNPs among a discovery set of 3,523 EOBC incident case and 2,702 population control women aged <=51 years. The SNPs with smallest P-values were examined in a replication set of 3,470 EOBC case and 5,475 control women. We also tested EOBC association with 19,684 genes by annotating each gene with putative functional SNPs, and then combining their P-values to obtain a gene-based P-value. We examined the gene with smallest P-value for replication in 1,145 breast cancer case and 1,142 control women. The combined discovery and replication sets identified 72 new SNPs associated with EOBC (P<4×10−8) located in six genomic regions previously reported to contain SNPs associated largely with later-onset breast cancer (LOBC). SNP rs2229882 and 10 other SNPs on chromosome 5q11.2 remained associated (P<6×10−4) after adjustment for the strongest published SNPs in the region. Thirty-two of the 82 currently known LOBC SNPs were associated with EOBC (P<0.05). Low power is likely responsible for the remaining 50 unassociated known LOBC SNPs. The gene-based analysis identified an association between breast cancer and the phosphofructokinase-muscle (PFKM) gene on chromosome 12q13.11 that met the genomewide gene-based threshold of 2.5×10−6. In conclusion, EOBC and LOBC appear to have similar genetic etiologies; the 5q11.2 region may contain multiple distinct breast cancer loci; and the PFKM gene region is worthy of further investigation. These findings should enhance our understanding of the etiology of breast cancer. PMID:24493630

  17. A genome-wide association study of early-onset breast cancer identifies PFKM as a novel breast cancer gene and supports a common genetic spectrum for breast cancer at any age.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Habibul; Halpern, Jerry; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Pierce, Brandon L; Tong, Lin; Gamazon, Eric; McGuire, Valerie; Felberg, Anna; Shi, Jianxin; Jasmine, Farzana; Roy, Shantanu; Brutus, Rachelle; Argos, Maria; Melkonian, Stephanie; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Andrulis, Irene; Hopper, John L; John, Esther M; Malone, Kathi; Ursin, Giske; Gammon, Marilie D; Thomas, Duncan C; Seminara, Daniela; Casey, Graham; Knight, Julia A; Southey, Melissa C; Giles, Graham G; Santella, Regina M; Lee, Eunjung; Conti, David; Duggan, David; Gallinger, Steve; Haile, Robert; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Apicella, Carmel; Park, Daniel J; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Lathrop, Mark; Hunter, David J; Chanock, Stephen J; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lochmann, Magdalena; Beckmann, Lars; Hein, Rebecca; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Bui, Quang Minh; Stone, Jennifer; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Dahmen, Norbert; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Dunning, Alison M; Pharoah, Paul; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Nicolae, Dan; Easton, Douglas F; Cox, Nancy J; Whittemore, Alice S

    2014-04-01

    Early-onset breast cancer (EOBC) causes substantial loss of life and productivity, creating a major burden among women worldwide. We analyzed 1,265,548 Hapmap3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) among a discovery set of 3,523 EOBC incident cases and 2,702 population control women ages ≤ 51 years. The SNPs with smallest P values were examined in a replication set of 3,470 EOBC cases and 5,475 control women. We also tested EOBC association with 19,684 genes by annotating each gene with putative functional SNPs, and then combining their P values to obtain a gene-based P value. We examined the gene with smallest P value for replication in 1,145 breast cancer cases and 1,142 control women. The combined discovery and replication sets identified 72 new SNPs associated with EOBC (P < 4 × 10(-8)) located in six genomic regions previously reported to contain SNPs associated largely with later-onset breast cancer (LOBC). SNP rs2229882 and 10 other SNPs on chromosome 5q11.2 remained associated (P < 6 × 10(-4)) after adjustment for the strongest published SNPs in the region. Thirty-two of the 82 currently known LOBC SNPs were associated with EOBC (P < 0.05). Low power is likely responsible for the remaining 50 unassociated known LOBC SNPs. The gene-based analysis identified an association between breast cancer and the phosphofructokinase-muscle (PFKM) gene on chromosome 12q13.11 that met the genome-wide gene-based threshold of 2.5 × 10(-6). In conclusion, EOBC and LOBC seem to have similar genetic etiologies; the 5q11.2 region may contain multiple distinct breast cancer loci; and the PFKM gene region is worthy of further investigation. These findings should enhance our understanding of the etiology of breast cancer. PMID:24493630

  18. Strategies to improve retention in randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Brueton, Valerie C; Tierney, Jayne; Stenning, Sally; Harding, Seeromanie; Meredith, Sarah; Nazareth, Irwin; Rait, Greta

    2013-01-01

    Background Loss to follow-up from randomised trials can introduce bias and reduce study power, affecting the generalisability, validity and reliability of results. Many strategies are used to reduce loss to follow-up and improve retention but few have been formally evaluated. Objectives To quantify the effect of strategies to improve retention on the proportion of participants retained in randomised trials and to investigate if the effect varied by trial strategy and trial setting. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, DARE, CINAHL, Campbell Collaboration's Social, Psychological, Educational and Criminological Trials Register, and ERIC. We handsearched conference proceedings and publication reference lists for eligible retention trials. We also surveyed all UK Clinical Trials Units to identify further studies. Selection criteria We included eligible retention trials of randomised or quasi-randomised evaluations of strategies to increase retention that were embedded in 'host' randomised trials from all disease areas and healthcare settings. We excluded studies aiming to increase treatment compliance. Data collection and analysis We contacted authors to supplement or confirm data that we had extracted. For retention trials, we recorded data on the method of randomisation, type of strategy evaluated, comparator, primary outcome, planned sample size, numbers randomised and numbers retained. We used risk ratios (RR) to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of strategies to improve retention. We assessed heterogeneity between trials using the Chi2 and I2 statistics. For main trials that hosted retention trials, we extracted data on disease area, intervention, population, healthcare setting, sequence generation and allocation concealment. Main results We identified 38 eligible retention trials. Included trials evaluated six broad types of strategies to improve retention. These were incentives, communication strategies, new questionnaire format, participant case management, behavioural and methodological interventions. For 34 of the included trials, retention was response to postal and electronic questionnaires with or without medical test kits. For four trials, retention was the number of participants remaining in the trial. Included trials were conducted across a spectrum of disease areas, countries, healthcare and community settings. Strategies that improved trial retention were addition of monetary incentives compared with no incentive for return of trial-related postal questionnaires (RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.28, P value < 0.0001), addition of an offer of monetary incentive compared with no offer for return of electronic questionnaires (RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.38, P value < 0.00001) and an offer of a GBP20 voucher compared with GBP10 for return of postal questionnaires and biomedical test kits (RR 1.12; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22, P value < 0.005). The evidence that shorter questionnaires are better than longer questionnaires was unclear (RR 1.04; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.08, P value = 0.07) and the evidence for questionnaires relevant to the disease/condition was also unclear (RR 1.07; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.14). Although each was based on the results of a single trial, recorded delivery of questionnaires seemed to be more effective than telephone reminders (RR 2.08; 95% CI 1.11 to 3.87, P value = 0.02) and a 'package' of postal communication strategies with reminder letters appeared to be better than standard procedures (RR 1.43; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.67, P value < 0.0001). An open trial design also appeared more effective than a blind trial design for return of questionnaires in one fracture prevention trial (RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.63, P value = 0.0003). There was no good evidence that the addition of a non-monetary incentive, an offer of a non-monetary incentive, 'enhanced' letters, letters delivered by priority post, additional reminders, or questionnaire question order either increased or decreased trial questionnaire response/retention. There was also no evidence that a telephone survey was either more or less effective than a monetary incentive and a questionnaire. As our analyses are based on single trials, the effect on questionnaire response of using offers of charity donations, sending reminders to trial sites and when a questionnaire is sent, may need further evaluation. Case management and behavioural strategies used for trial retention may also warrant further evaluation. Authors' conclusions Most of the retention trials that we identified evaluated questionnaire response. There were few evaluations of ways to improve participants returning to trial sites for trial follow-up. Monetary incentives and offers of monetary incentives increased postal and electronic questionnaire response. Some other strategies evaluated in single trials looked promising but need further evaluation. Application of the findings of this review would depend on trial setting, population, disease area, data collection and follow-up procedures. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Methods that might help to keep people in randomised trials Background Most trials follow people up to collect data through personal contact after they have been recruited. Some trials get data from other sources, such as routine collected data or disease registers. There are many ways to collect data from people in trials, and these include using letters, the internet, telephone calls, text messaging, face-to-face meetings or the return of medical test kits. Most trials have missing data, for example, because people are too busy to reply, are unable to attend a clinic, have moved or no longer want to participate. Sometimes data has not been recorded at study sites, or are not sent to the trial co-ordinating centre. Researchers call this 'loss to follow-up', 'drop out' or 'attrition' and it can affect the trial's results. For example, if the people with the most or least severe symptoms do not return questionnaires or attend a follow-up visit, this will bias the findings of the trial. Many methods are used by researchers to keep people in trials. These encourage people to send back data by questionnaire, return to a clinic or hospital for trial-related tests, or be seen by a health or community care worker. Study characteristics This review identified methods that encouraged people to stay in trials. We searched scientific databases for randomised studies (where people are allocated to one of two or more possible treatments in a random manner) or quasi-randomised studies (where allocation is not really random, e.g. based on date of birth, order in which they attended clinic) that compared methods of increasing retention in trials. We included trials of participants from any age, gender, ethnic, cultural, language and geographic groups. Key results The methods that appeared to work were offering or giving a small amount of money for return of a completed questionnaire and enclosing a small amount of money with a questionnaire with the promise of a further small amount of money for return of a filled in questionnaire. The effect of other ways to keep people in trials is still not clear and more research is needed to see if these really do work. Such methods are shorter questionnaires, sending questionnaires by recorded delivery, using a trial design where people know which treatment they will receive, sending specially designed letters with a reply self addressed stamped envelope followed by a number of reminders, offering a donation to charity or entry into a prize draw, sending a reminder to the study site about participants to follow-up, sending questionnaires close to the time the patient was last followed-up, managing peoples' follow-up, conducting follow-up by telephone and changing the order of questionnaire questions. Quality of evidence The methods that we identified were tested in trials run in many different disease areas and settings and, in some cases, were tested in only one trial. Therefore, more studies are needed to help decide whether our findings could be used in other research fields. PMID:24297482

  19. Strategies for improving employee retention.

    PubMed

    Verlander, Edward G; Evans, Martin R

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes a solution to the perennial problem of talent retention in the clinical laboratory. It includes the presentation of 12 strategies that may be used to significantly improve institutional identity formation and establishment of the psychological contract that employees form with laboratory management. Identity formation and psychological contracting are deemed as essential in helping reduce employee turnover and increase retention. The 12 conversational strategies may be used as a set of best practices for all employees, but most importantly for new employees, and should be implemented at the critical moment when employees first join the laboratory. This time is referred to as "retention on-boarding"--the period of induction and laboratory orientation. Retention on-boarding involves a dialogue between employees and management that is focused on the psychological, practical, cultural, and political dimensions of the laboratory. It is placed in the context of the modern clinical laboratory, which is faced with employing and managing Generation X knowledge workers. Specific topics and broad content areas of those conversations are outlined. PMID:17394785

  20. Mechanisms of gas bubble retention

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Mendoza, D.P.; Miller, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns regarding double-shell tanks (DSTs) containing waste slurries. Previous investigations have concluded that gas bubbles are retained by the slurry that has settled at the bottom of the DST. However, the mechanisms responsible for the retention of these bubbles are not well understood. In addition, the presence of retained gas bubbles is expected to affect the physical properties of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of these bubbles. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to gas bubble retention and release from sludge such as is in Tank 241-SY-101, understand how the bubbles affect the physical properties of the sludge, develop correlations of these physical properties to include in computer models, and collect experimental data on the physical properties of simulated sludges with bubbles. This report presents a theory and experimental observations of bubble retention in simulated sludge and gives correlations and new data on the effect of gas bubbles on sludge yield strength.

  1. Three Recruitment and Retention Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronx Community Coll., NY.

    This three-part report summarizes methodology and findings of three recruitment and retention studies conducted by the Bronx Community College (BCC) during 1979-1980. Part I examines a survey of enrolled students conducted to determine student attitudes toward BCC, the services that were most in demand, the reasons for attending BCC, and student…

  2. Exploring General Education Development Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Sharon D.

    2013-01-01

    According to the instructors and administrators at a local adult education (AE) program in Houston, Texas, retaining and graduating general education development (GED) students has been a constant challenge. Locating GED attendance barriers could enable AE programs to develop techniques that increase student retention and graduation rates. The…

  3. Self-Managed Skill Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Robert D.

    1986-01-01

    Presents the Relapse Prevention model, which provides the structure in which managers can analyze potential lapses in their own skill retention. Discusses training goals, self-management, specific strategies, choosing a skill to retain, imagery and prediction, and holistic training. (CT)

  4. Course Retention Analysis. Focus Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.

    A study was conducted at Mount San Antonio College (MSAC), California, to analyze patterns in credit course retention between fall 1986 and spring 1989. The study investigated the development of course prerequisites based on faculty perceptions of the skills necessary for success and minimal skill levels associated with success; student assessment…

  5. A Research Study in Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knibbe, Marie Vannozzi; Dusewicz, Russell A.

    A study of the Center for Literacy's (CFL) program was conducted to provide information on retention and attrition in an urban, open-entry/open-exit, individualized, goal-based literacy program. An exploratory analysis that used student and tutor records from 1985 through 1989 provided a summary of demographics and attendance patterns. This…

  6. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  7. JCC Recruitment, Retention, Attrition Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Ronald J.

    In an effort to reduce the class attrition rate of 40% at Jefferson Community College (JCC), and to investigate the entire process of recruitment, retention, and attrition (RRA), a series of four faculty workshops were held. The plan was to look at the RRA process from the student's point of view in terms of four phases: (1) the pre-enrollment…

  8. Retention as a School Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, William A.

    1970-01-01

    Argues that because of the need for the experiences of a child to be positive and successful, a process of uninterrupted promotion into each succeeding grade merits consideration; that each such retention be considered as an individual case, the school system instigating new programs for such retained students. (RJ)

  9. Teacher Retention: An Appreciative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesavento-Conway, Jennifer Jean

    2010-01-01

    Nationally, the problem of teacher retention compounds the unstable nature of the educational situation, especially in urban, high-needs schools. Much of the instability of urban schools is due to teacher movement, the migration of teachers from school to another school within or between school districts, particularly from high-needs schools.…

  10. Employee voice and employee retention.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D G

    1986-09-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the extent to which employees have opportunities to voice dissatisfaction and voluntary turnover in 111 short-term, general care hospitals. Results show that, whether or not a union is present, high numbers of mechanisms for employee voice are associated with high retention rates. Implications for theory and research as well as management practice are discussed. PMID:10278801

  11. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and

  12. Retention: A Commitment to Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Allen, Georgio H.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews literature on student retention in colleges and universities and considers components of a college retention program that will enhance student's primary objective of academic achievement. Discusses need for quality instructional program and appropriate leadership structure. (NB)

  13. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    MedlinePlus

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were ... walk too much at one time. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid retention) Weigh yourself. l Weigh yourself ...

  14. Quantitative structure-retention (property) relationships in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Poole, Salwa K; Poole, Colin F

    2008-02-22

    Quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRRs) attempt to quantitatively understand the relationship between structure and retention and quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs) to explore the prediction of molecular properties from retention in chromatography. The application of these techniques to micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) using surfactants, vesicles and liposomes is reviewed. A database of system constants for the solvation parameter model is assembled and critically discussed with respect to the interpretation of solvation properties of micellar pseudophases and their use to identify correlation models for the estimation of physicochemical and environmental properties from retention in MEKC and MEEKC. The use of structure-generated descriptors to model retention in MEKC is discussed and compared with experimental-based techniques. It is shown that the possibilities of exploiting the collection of tools that underpin QSRRs and QSPRs studies are only just starting to be realized in MEKC and more work is needed to convert from these possibilities to the realization of reliable and robust models for compounds of diverse structure. PMID:18207156

  15. The HIV Care Continuum: Changes over Time in Retention in Care and Viral Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Yehia, Baligh R.; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J.; Fleishman, John A.; Berry, Stephen A.; Agwu, Allison L.; Metlay, Joshua P.; Moore, Richard D.; Christopher Mathews, W.; Nijhawan, Ank; Rutstein, Richard; Gaur, Aditya H.; Gebo, Kelly A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The HIV care continuum (diagnosis, linkage to care, retention in care, receipt of antiretroviral therapy (ART), viral suppression) has been used to identify opportunities for improving the delivery of HIV care. Continuum steps are typically calculated in a conditional manner, with the number of persons completing the prior step serving as the base population for the next step. This approach may underestimate the prevalence of viral suppression by excluding patients who are suppressed but do not meet standard definitions of retention in care. Understanding how retention in care and viral suppression interact and change over time may improve our ability to intervene on these steps in the continuum. Methods We followed 17,140 patients at 11 U.S. HIV clinics between 2010-2012. For each calendar year, patients were classified into one of five categories: (1) retained/suppressed, (2) retained/not-suppressed, (3) not-retained/suppressed, (4) not-retained/not-suppressed, and (5) lost to follow-up (for calendar years 2011 and 2012 only). Retained individuals were those completing ≥2 HIV medical visits separated by ≥90 days in the year. Persons not retained completed ≥1 HIV medical visit during the year, but did not meet the retention definition. Persons lost to follow-up had no HIV medical visits in the year. HIV viral suppression was defined as HIV-1 RNA ≤200 copies/mL at the last measure in the year. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the probability of patients’ transitioning between retention/suppression categories from 2010 to 2011 and 2010 to 2012, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, HIV risk factor, insurance status, CD4 count, and use of ART. Results Overall, 65.8% of patients were retained/suppressed, 17.4% retained/not-suppressed, 10.0% not-retained/suppressed, and 6.8% not-retained/not-suppressed in 2010. 59.5% of patients maintained the same status in 2011 (kappa=0.458) and 53.3% maintained the same status in 2012 (kappa=0.437). Conclusions Not counting patients not-retained/suppressed as virally suppressed, as is commonly done in the HIV care continuum, underestimated the proportion suppressed by 13%. Applying the care continuum in a longitudinal manner will enhance its utility. PMID:26086089

  16. Persistence-Retention. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This snapshot report provides information on student persistence and retention rates for Spring 2014. Data is presented in tabular format on the following: (1) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Starting Enrollment Intensity (all institutional sectors); (2) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Age at College Entry (all…

  17. Designing Online Courses to Promote Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz-Uhler, Beth; Fisher, Amy; Han, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Although the issue of student retention is a campus-wide one, it is of special interest in online distance learning courses, where retention rates are reported to be lower than in face-to-face classes. Among the explanations and theories of retention rates in online courses, one that struck us as most useful is a structural one, namely, course…

  18. 5 CFR 351.404 - Retention register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention register. 351.404 Section 351... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.404 Retention register. (a) When a competing employee is to be released from a competitive level under this part, the agency shall establish a separate retention register...

  19. 32 CFR 240.6 - Retention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Retention program. 240.6 Section 240.6 National... INFORMATION ASSURANCE SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM (IASP) § 240.6 Retention program. (a) The DoD IASP retention program... permanent DoD civilian employees may apply for a master's or doctoral degree program; enlisted personnel...

  20. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spittle, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Few words have dominated the vocabulary of college retention as has the word "persistence." Many institutions still struggle to engage faculty and administrators in building campuswide retention efforts, to find the organizational levers that translate the abstractions and complexities of retention theory into scalable and durable initiatives, and…

  1. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.; Zucker, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Over 35 years of retention theory and literature have acknowledged the importance of institutional and student profiles in accounting for cross-sectional differences in retention and completion rates between types of colleges and universities. The first "P" within a 4 Ps framework of student retention--"profile"--recognizes that an institution's…

  2. Persistence-Retention. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Snapshot Report offers information on student persistence and retention rates for 2009-2013. It offers data on the following: (1) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates for Students Who Start College at Four-Year Private Nonprofit Institutions; (2) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates for Students Who Start College at Four-Year…

  3. 5 CFR 351.404 - Retention register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention register. 351.404 Section 351... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.404 Retention register. (a) When a competing employee is to be released from a competitive level under this part, the agency shall establish a separate retention register...

  4. 12 CFR 1002.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 1002.12 Section 1002.12 Banks....12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor may retain in its files... statutes or regulations. (b) Preservation of records—(1) Applications. For 25 months (12 months...

  5. 12 CFR 202.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 202.12 Section 202.12 Banks... OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor...) Applications. For 25 months (12 months for business credit, except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of...

  6. 12 CFR 202.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention. 202.12 Section 202.12 Banks... OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor...) Applications. For 25 months (12 months for business credit, except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of...

  7. 12 CFR 202.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 202.12 Section 202.12 Banks... OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor...) Applications. For 25 months (12 months for business credit, except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of...

  8. 12 CFR 202.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 202.12 Section 202.12 Banks... OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor...) Applications. For 25 months (12 months for business credit, except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of...

  9. 12 CFR 202.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 202.12 Section 202.12 Banks... OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor...) Applications. For 25 months (12 months for business credit, except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of...

  10. 12 CFR 1002.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 1002.12 Section 1002.12 Banks....12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor may retain in its files... statutes or regulations. (b) Preservation of records—(1) Applications. For 25 months (12 months...

  11. 12 CFR 1002.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 1002.12 Section 1002.12 Banks....12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor may retain in its files... statutes or regulations. (b) Preservation of records—(1) Applications. For 25 months (12 months...

  12. Do We Have a Retention Problem ... Or Do We Have a Problem "about" Retention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the "problem" of student retention in higher education. But unlike most, this paper focuses not on the problem of retention "per se" but rather on how institutional leaders think about student retention, completion, and success--how the way they frame their concerns about retention can give rise to a different sort of…

  13. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening criteria (availability, environmental compatibility, mass competitiveness of energy storage, safety, and practicality for the application) were used to define concept applicability for each lunar and Mars application. A screening study resulted in 13 power systems for lunar applications and 15 for Mars applications. A commonality analysis showed several power systems with potentially high commonality (across both lunar and Mars applications). These high commonality systems include d PVA/RFC, dynamic isotope (1033 K Stirling, 1133 K Brayton, and 1300 K Brayton PCU's), SP-100 TE and dynamic derivatives (Mars systems required vacuum enclosure), in-core thermionic reactor, and liquid metal cooled reactor/Stirling cycle (1033 K). The generic commonality results were used to synthesize 3 high commonality power system architectures: (1) predominantly PV (limited nuclear and isotope), (2) predominantly in-core thermionic reactor/DIPS, and (3) predominantly SP-100 reactor/DIPS. The in-core thermionic reactor/DIPS power system architecture had the lowest total mass. Specific outputs from this study included lists of power system requirements, power system candidates, a power system application matrix, power system characteristics (mass), power system commonality ratings, example high commonality power system architectures, architecture masses, and issues/design solutions for lunar/Mars commonality.

  14. Soil Water Retention Curves and Their Impact on Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciocca, F.; Lunati, I.; Parlange, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    An accurate description of soil moisture dynamics in both the liquid and vapor phases is crucial to properly estimate soil evaporation. Soil moisture dynamics are largely dependent on the soil water retention. In the most commonly used models the water retention curve diverges at residual water content, the value below which liquid connectivity is lost and liquid flow stops. Not only this is physically unrealistic but results in incorrect evaporation modeling near dry conditions since the water vapor role is limited. We consider two of the main parametrizations that allow vapor flux below residual water content (modified models): one consists in a re-fit of the standard retention curve with zero residual water content, the other, supported by some laboratory measurements, considers a linear extension (on a semi-log plot) of the standard retention curve in the dry region. For a medium-textured sand and a loam we numerically investigate the effects of both the modified and the standard Van Genuchten models on the liquid and vapor transport during the simulated drying process, with and without surface radiative forcing. In the isothermal case, we show how all the models almost identically describe the capillary-dominated evaporative regime whereas when vapor diffusion is the dominant evaporative mechanism the modified models yield larger and longer sustained vapor fluxes, significantly increasing soil water removal. In the presence of diurnal radiative forcing at the soil surface, we focus on the effects of temperature fluctuations on soil water retention. The impact on liquid and vapor fluxes is analyzed in order to assess whether temperature-dependent and dry-extended retention curves may 'fill the gap' or not between theory and some still debated field experimental evidences (e.g. the midday moisture content rise) without the need of introducing any questionable and ad-hoc empirical terms such as vapor enhancement and/or liquid gain factors.

  15. Establishment of reliable mass spectra and retention indices library: identification of fatty acids in human plasma without authentic standards.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangxiao; Tan, Binbin; Zeng, Maomao; Lu, Hongmei; Liang, Yizeng

    2012-01-15

    Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is routinely employed to analyze small molecules in various samples. The more challenge of GC-MS data processing is to identify the unknown compounds in samples. Mass spectra and retention indices library searching are commonly used method. However, the current libraries are often built through collecting data from different groups. To unknown compounds with similar mass spectra and retention indices (e.g. geometric (cis/trans) isomers), the inaccurate results sometime are supplied. In this case, the costly standard compounds have to be used in every analysis. In this report, taking identification of fatty acids as an example, we proposed a strategy of establishment of special database constructed by equivalent chain length (ECL) values in uniform conditions and mass spectra of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The mass spectral characteristics were firstly used to identify all expected straight saturated fatty acids, and subsequently calculate the ECL for fatty acids in the sample. Finally, the ECL values of fatty acids in the sample were compared with those of fatty acids in the customized database to identify their structures. The results showed that the method developed in this report could effectively identify similar unknown compounds (FAMEs in the human plasma) after validated by the authentic standards. PMID:22265504

  16. A RETENTION INDEX SCHEME FOR USE WITH SULFUR SPECIFIC DETECTORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retention indices are very important for compound identification when using gas chromatography. Retention indices are important because they remain static under different conditions and instruments while retention times vary dramatically. Generally, a retention index is generated using a series of...

  17. Acute urinary retention and the difficult catheterization: current emergency management.

    PubMed

    Sliwinski, Ania; D'Arcy, Frank T; Sultana, Ron; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Acute urinary retention (AUR) is a common presentation to emergency departments. This article updates the reader on the appropriate management, investigations and guidelines for AUR. It looks at the mechanism of normal micturition and describes the theories of AUR. It outlines urethral catheterization techniques for difficult cases, reviews suprapubic catheterization procedures and describes the management of AUR in polytrauma. Although emergency management is by bladder drainage, key points in the history and examination may expose significant, latent pathologies. PMID:26479738

  18. Effects of Physical Tracing on Estimates of Loss to Follow-Up, Mortality and Retention in Low and Middle Income Country Antiretroviral Therapy Programs: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, James H.; Elliott, Julian H.; Hong, Steven Y.; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Jordan, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large proportion of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) have unknown treatment outcomes and are classified as lost to follow-up (LTFU). Physical tracing of patients classified as LTFU is common; however, effects of tracing on outcomes remains unclear. The objective of this systematic review is to compare estimates of LTFU, mortality and retention in LMIC in cohorts of patients with and without physical tracing. Methods and Findings We systematically identified studies in LMIC programmatic settings using MEDLINE (20032011) and HIV conference abstracts (20092011). Studies reporting the proportion LTFU 12-months after ART initiation were included. Tracing activities were determined from manuscripts or by contacting study authors. Studies were classified as tracing studies if physical tracing was available for the majority of patients. Summary estimates from the 2 groups of studies (tracing and non-tracing) for LTFU, mortality, stop of ART, transfers out, and retention on ART were determined. 261 papers and 616 abstracts were identified of which 39 studies comprising 54 separate cohorts (n?=?187,666) met inclusion criteria. Of those, physical tracing was available for 46% of cohorts. Treatment programs with physical tracing activities had lower estimated LTFU (7.6% vs. 15.1%; p<.001), higher estimated mortality (10.5% vs. 6.6%; p?=?.006), higher retention on ART (80.0 vs. 75.8%; p?=?.04) and higher retention at the original site (80.0% vs. 72.9%; p?=?.02). Conclusions Knowledge of patient tracing is critical when interpreting program outcomes of LTFU, mortality and retention. The reduction of the proportion LTFU in tracing studies was only partially explained by re-classification of unknown outcomes. These data suggest that tracing may lead to increased re-engagement of patients in care, rather than just improved classification of unknown outcomes. PMID:23424643

  19. OSTA commonality analysis, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarik, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built using DRS on the Vax. It also shows commonality of parameter requirements by discipline and by application.

  20. Cucurbit leaf crumple virus Identified in Common Bean in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection of Cucurbit leaf crumple virus in green beans in Florida suggests that this virus may be more widely distributed than previously known in the state and that green bean (and potentially other legumes) are potential reservoirs for Cucurbit leaf crumple virus....

  1. Payment and Pricing Plans: Survey Identifies Most Common Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, David M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 787 colleges and universities investigated institutions' payment and pricing practices designed to attract and retain students. Issues examined include acceptance of credit cards, cash discounts, prepayment options, differential pricing based on credits or programs, and the rationales for and results of the policies. Results reflect…

  2. Bioassay data and a retention-excretion model for systemic plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    The estimation of systemic burdens from urinalyses has been the most common and useful method of quantifying occupational exposures to plutonium. Problems arise in using this technique, however, because of inadequate modeling of human retention, translocation, and excretion of this element. Present methods for estimating the systemic burden from urinalyses were derived to a large extent from patterns observed in the first few months after exposure, but there is now evidence that these same patterns do not persist over long periods. In this report we collect and discuss data needed for the interpretation of bioassay results for Pu. These data are used to develop a model that describes the movement, retention, and excretion of systemic Pu in the human body in terms of explicitly identified anatomical compartments. This model may be used in conjunction with existing models and/or case-specific information concerning the translocation of Pu from the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract or from wounds to the bloodstream. Attention is restricted to the behavior of Pu after it has gained access to the bloodstream. There remain significant uncertainties concerning some aspects of the movement of Pu, particularly its translocation from the liver. An attempt has been made to construct the model in such a way as to elucidate those areas needing further attention. 98 references, 18 figures, 16 tables.

  3. Retention of African American Women in a Lifestyle Physical Activity Program

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Susan W.; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael E.; Fogg, Louis; Ingram, Diana M.; Miller, Arlene; Braun, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Using a cohort of African American women enrolled in a physical activity program, the purpose of the paper is to examine how well individual characteristics, neighborhood characteristics and intervention participation predict study retention and staff level of effort needed for retention. Secondary data analysis was conducted from a randomized clinical trial. Participants were 40–65 years without major signs/symptoms of cardiovascular disease. Assessments were conducted at community sites in/bordering African American communities. Study retention was 90%. Of those retained, 24% required moderate/high level of staff effort for retention. Retention was predicted by being older, having lower perceived neighborhood walkability, living in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage and crime, and having greater program participation. More staff effort was predicted by participants being younger, having more economic hardships, poorer health, or lower intervention participation. We may be able to identify people at baseline likely to require more staff effort to retain. PMID:26475680

  4. Retention of African American Women in a Lifestyle Physical Activity Program.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Susan W; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael E; Fogg, Louis; Ingram, Diana M; Miller, Arlene; Braun, Lynne

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the article is to examine how well individual characteristics, neighborhood characteristics, and intervention participation predict study retention and staff level of effort needed for retention, using a cohort of African American women enrolled in a physical activity program. Secondary data analysis was conducted from a randomized clinical trial. Participants were aged 40 to 65 years without major signs/symptoms of cardiovascular disease. Assessments were conducted at community sites in/bordering African American communities. Study retention was 90%. Of those retained, 24% required moderate/high level of staff effort for retention. Retention was predicted by being older, having lower perceived neighborhood walkability, living in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage and crime, and having greater program participation. More staff effort was predicted by participants being younger, having more economic hardships, poorer health, or lower intervention participation. We may be able to identify people at baseline likely to require more staff effort to retain. PMID:26475680

  5. Gas chromatographic retention of 180 polybrominated diphenyl ethers and prediction of relative retention under various operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hua; Yang, Ruiqiang; Li, An; Christensen, Erik R; Rockne, Karl J

    2010-04-23

    The gas chromatographic (GC) retention times of 180 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were obtained under different operational conditions on two types of commonly used capillary columns, Restek Rtx-1614 and J&W DB-5MS, of different dimensions. The relative retention times (RRTs) for PBDEs were calculated by normalizing the retention times of individual congeners to the sum of those of BDEs 47 and 183. In clear contrast to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the elution of PBDEs has few cross-homolog overlaps, and this observation is discussed in terms of molecular conformation with regard to co-planarity. Within a homolog, ortho substitution in PBDEs tends to decrease GC retention, and such an effect is stronger for higher homologs. With the RRT database established in this work, a simple approach is evaluated for the identification of all mono to hepta PBDEs from the RRTs of 39 congeners under various GC conditions to facilitate the identification of unknown PBDE peaks for which chemical standards are not available. PMID:20334866

  6. Gastro retention using polymer cocoons.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Julien; Hunkeler, David

    2015-02-01

    A gastro-retentive capsule has been prepared which is retained in the stomach for a period of 24h, providing a vehicle for the controlled delivery to the upper intestines. These "gastro cocoons" can resist passage through the sphincter of the stomach, and can retain a high drug payload (30%). They are made from oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and can swell to twice their initial volume. They are strong and also can resist 550 N of compressive force. They are based on filled pharmaceutical capsules which are visible to X-rays. Using ambroxol hydrochloride as a model drug linear, zero-order, release curves were obtained. PMID:25078789

  7. Retention at Departments of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Rafael; Rosa, Luis

    2013-03-01

    A thriving physics department is the end result of many actions, taken over time, that results in the development of a sense of community between the faculty and the students. As part of this sense of community, gifted students must receive special attention and innovative ideas must be incorporated to successfully accommodate the needs of these students. We have found that the best retention strategy for gifted undergraduates is the total involvement of them in undergraduate research projects and also the development of leadership in extracurricular activities within the department. A careful employment strategy is needed to secure a faculty committed to the goals of the community.

  8. Common NICU Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... care unit (NICU) > Common NICU equipment Common NICU equipment E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... other specialized machines during her NICU stay. What equipment is commonly used in the NICU? Equipment commonly ...

  9. QSAR in Chromatography: Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships (QSRRs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliszan, Roman; Bączek, Tomasz

    To predict a given physicochemical or biological property, the relationships can be identified between the chemical structure and the desired property. Ideally these relationships should be described in reliable quantitative terms. To obtain statistically significant relationships, one needs relatively large series of property parameters. Chromatography is a unique method which can provide a great amount of quantitatively precise, reproducible, and comparable retention data for large sets of structurally diversified compounds (analytes). On the other hand, chemometrics is recognized as a valuable tool for accomplishing a variety of tasks in a chromatography laboratory. Chemometrics facilitates the interpretation of large sets of complex chromatographic and structural data. Among various chemometric methods, multiple regression analysis is most often performed to process retention data and to extract chemical information on analytes. And the methodology of quantitative structure-(chromatographic) retention relationships (QSRRs) is mainly based on multiple regression analysis. QSRR can be a valuable source of knowledge on both the nature of analytes and of the macromolecules forming the stationary phases. Therefore, quantitative structure-retention relationships have been considered as a model approach to establish strategy and methods of property predictions.

  10. Retention of internal anchor tags by juvenile striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.; Wallin, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    We marked hatchery-reared striped bass Morone saxatilis (145-265 mm total length) with internal anchor tags and monitored retention for 28 months after stocking in the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina. Anchor tags (with an 18-mm, T-shaped anchor and 42-mm streamer) were surgically implanted ventrally, and coded wire tags (1 mm long and 0.25 mm in diameter) were placed into the cheek muscle to help identify subsequent recaptures. The estimated probability of retention (SD) of anchor tags was 0.94 (0.05) at 4 months, 0.64 (0.13) at 16 months, and 0.33 (0.19) at 28 months. Of 10 fish recaptured with only coded wire tags, 5 showed an externally visible wound or scar near the point of anchor tag insertion. The incidence of wounds or scars, which we interpreted as evidence of tag shedding, increased to 50% in recaptures taken at 28 months (three of six fish). Our estimates for retention of anchor tags were generally lower than those in other studies of striped bass, possibly because of differences in the style of anchor or sizes of fish used. Because of its low rate of retention, the type of anchor tag we used may not be suitable for long-term assessments of stock enhancement programs that use striped bass of the sizes we evaluated.

  11. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.

  12. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  13. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  14. Politics of rural health care: recruitment and retention of physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Rourke, J T

    1993-01-01

    The shortage of physicians in underserviced areas has been defined, and the causative recruitment and retention factors have been identified. The CMA report provides a framework for understanding these factors. Many can be modified, but this requires cooperation between physicians, communities, hospitals, medical schools, medical associations and governments. The development of a rural-practice master plan in each province would facilitate this process. PMID:8267698

  15. Effects of cement on crown retention.

    PubMed

    Worley, J L; Hamm, R C; von Fraunhofer, J A

    1982-09-01

    This study indicates that the frequent clinical technique of permanently cementing a crown without removing all traces of a temporary ZOE cement from the tooth has no adverse effect on retention. Circumferential grooving of the tooth preparation did not significantly increase retention. In contrast, cutting a shallow groove in the crown significantly improved retention. Therefore, it would appear that the grooving of the gold casting might be advantageous in conditions where the crown restoration has minimal retention. Significant improvement in retention with grooving of the restorations was accompanied by a change in the location of the cement film. The cement was retained in the crown coronal to the groove rather than on the tooth. This finding was interesting, since previous retention studies showed that adhesive failure occurred at the metal-cement interface. From this data it appears that a primary factor of crown retention is the adhesion or mechanical interlocking of the cement to the crown. This would explain why small variations in cement film thickness, such as those due to the use of die relief, have little effect on retention. In view of these findings, the current concepts on cement retention and cement adhesiveness should be reevaluated. PMID:6750093

  16. Organ retention and return: problems of consent

    PubMed Central

    Brazier, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores difficulties around consent in the context of organ retention and return. It addresses the proposals of the Independent Review Group in Scotland on the Retention of Organs at Post Mortem to speak of authorisation rather than consent. Practical problems about whose consent determines disputes in relation to organ retention are explored. If a young child dies and his mother refuses consent but his father agrees what should ensue? Should the expressed wishes of a deceased adult override the objections of surviving relatives? The paper suggests much broader understanding of the issues embedded in organ retention is needed to provide solutions which truly meet families' and society's needs. PMID:12569192

  17. Retention and success of culturally diverse nursing students.

    PubMed

    Duerksen, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    One of the major issues facing the future of the nursing profession is to increase the ethnic diversity of the nursing workforce (Institute of Medicine, 2010). The United States population is quickly becoming a nation of minorities (Sullivan Commission, 2004) and the nursing population must adapt in order to provide high quality, culturally competent care. Oklahoma's most recent population statistics indicate a dire need to focus on increasing the Black, Hispanic, and multiracial registered nurse populations. Nursing programs are challenged with this recommendation because culturally diverse students have lower retention rates and higher academic failure rates than Caucasian students. The purpose of this systematic review was to describe common barriers for culturally diverse nursing students and discover best practices to promote retention and success. The findings may be used to encourage further development of beneficial practices and programs within Oklahoma, as well as stimulate additional nursing research on cultural diversity. PMID:24049982

  18. A Study to Determine Whether a Relationship Exists between Attending a Public, Two-Year Community College in the United States with or without Campus Housing and the Retention of First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaun, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Student retention is a growing and common concern among community college administrators across the United States given the low retention rates at two-year institutions. With little change in the retention rates of first-year students at community colleges, administrators are searching for successful strategies and models within these…

  19. Factors affecting the retention of first-year female science and engineering students at the University of Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Juliet Webb

    Alarming to many academics is that while the numbers of female students (at the University of Michigan in particular) in SEM (Science, Engineering, and Mathematics) departments have shown increases in enrollment over the past decades, the number of female professionals in the field has decreased. The purpose of the study was to determine the environmental perceptions of female SEM students in the Women in Science and Engineering (WISE) Program at the University of Michigan. The WISE-RP (Residence Program) is an existing living and learning education program at the university that was designed to facilitate the successful retention and graduation of undergraduate female SEM students in the capacity that the admissions statistics should logically imply. The objectives of the study included identification of the perceptions of female students that contribute to, and foster retention of students participating in the WISE-RP program. The knowledge obtained from this evaluation will guide the University of Michigan in formulating specific interventions and retention approaches, both in and out of the classroom. This was achieved by identifying (among other things) commonality of experiences, and female student's perceptions of acceptance, integration and interactivity. The data used in this secondary analysis was collected over a 2 year period (1999--2001). The primary instrument used for data collection was a structured interview protocol utilizing focus groups. The population and samples studied were comprised of: a research project consisting of 36 focus groups from WISE-RP, University Research Opportunity Program, and the University Research Opportunity in Residence Programs; the sample size of the initial project was 180 first year SEM male and female students. The research project consisted of working with a senior research team at the University of Michigan to develop a structured interview instrument, pilot the instrument, and select focus groups. Content analysis was conducted on the open-ended focus group questions. Three themes emerged from the data set: (a) general contributing factors to retention, (b) support networks and programmatic features that contributed to retention, (c) individual/gender specific challenges that students faced. It found that the initial mission of the program has been accomplished, as evidenced by the findings of this study. The University is graduating and retaining female SEM students at a higher rate than at the program's inception. The challenges for the University at this point include: increasing numbers of female SEM faculty, enhancing and focusing the living learning community mission of the program, integrating student affairs components to the program features on an administrative level, committing to longitudinal analysis and assessment of individual incoming students toward identifying strengths and weaknesses, and finally---committing increased resources to these objectives.

  20. Developing a Hybrid Model to Predict Student First Year Retention in STEM Disciplines Using Machine Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhasawneh, Ruba; Hargraves, Rosalyn Hobson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a hybrid framework to model first year student retention for underrepresented minority (URM) students comprising African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans. Identifying inputs that best contribute to student retention provides significant information for institutions to learn about…

  1. Workforce Issues--Rural Illinois Hospital Chief Executive Officers' Perceptions of Provider Shortages and Issues in Rural Recruitment and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Michael; Peters, Karen; MacDowell, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Background: It is important to assess rural health professions workforce needs and identify variables in recruitment and retention of rural health professionals. Purpose: This study examined the perspectives of rural hospital chief executive officers (CEOs) regarding workforce needs and their views of factors in the recruitment and retention

  2. 32 CFR 174.7 - Retention for DoD Component use and transfer to other Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retention for DoD Component use and transfer to... OF REALIGNMENT Real Property 174.7 Retention for DoD Component use and transfer to other Federal... Department of Defense will identify DoD and Federal interests in real property at closing and...

  3. 32 CFR 174.7 - Retention for DoD Component use and transfer to other Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retention for DoD Component use and transfer to... OF REALIGNMENT Real Property 174.7 Retention for DoD Component use and transfer to other Federal... Department of Defense will identify DoD and Federal interests in real property at closing and...

  4. 32 CFR 174.7 - Retention for DoD Component use and transfer to other Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Retention for DoD Component use and transfer to... OF REALIGNMENT Real Property 174.7 Retention for DoD Component use and transfer to other Federal... Department of Defense will identify DoD and Federal interests in real property at closing and...

  5. Wildfire impacts on soil-water retention in the Colorado Front Range, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, Brian A.

    2012-12-01

    This work examined the plot-scale differences in soil-water retention caused by wildfire in the area of the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in the Colorado Front Range, United States. We measured soil-water retention curves on intact cores and repacked samples, soil particle-size distributions, and organic matter content. Estimates were also made of plant-available water based on the soil-water retention curves. Parameters for use in soil-hydraulic property models were estimated; these parameters can be used in unsaturated flow modeling for comparing burned and unburned watersheds. The primary driver for measured differences in soil-water retention in burned and unburned soils was organic matter content and not soil-particle size distribution. The tendency for unburned south-facing soils to have greater organic matter content than unburned north-facing soils in this field area may explain why unburned south-facing soils had greater soil-water retention than unburned north-facing soils. Our results suggest that high-severity wildfire can "homogenize" soil-water retention across the landscape by erasing soil-water retention differences resulting from organic matter content, which for this site may be affected by slope aspect. This homogenization could have important implications for ecohydrology and plant succession/recovery in burned areas, which could be a factor in dictating the window of vulnerability of the landscape to flash floods and erosion that are a common consequence of wildfire.

  6. Adult Student Retention: A Practical Approach to Retention Improvement through Learning Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Adult student retention is an issue of growing concern for many institutions. It differs from traditional retention much like traditional students differ from adult students. As the majority of student body growth comes from adult students, adult student retention management will become critical to the majority of colleges and universities. To…

  7. iMatch: A retention index tool for analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Fang, Aiqin; Wang, Bing; Kim, Seong Ho; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Zhou, Zhanxiang; McClain, Craig; Zhang, Xiang

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed to employ National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 2008 retention index database information for molecular retention matching via constructing a set of empirical distribution functions (DFs) of the absolute retention index deviation to its mean value. The effects of different experimental parameters on the molecules retention indices were first assessed. The results show that the column class, the column type, and the data type have significant effects on the retention index values acquired on capillary columns. However, the normal alkane retention index (Inorm) with the ramp condition is similar to the linear retention index (IT), while the Inorm with the isothermal condition is similar to the Kovts retention index (I). As for the Inorm with the complex condition, these data should be treated as an additional group, because the mean Inorm value of the polar column is significantly different from the IT. Based on this analysis, nine DFs were generated from the grouped retention index data. The DF information was further implemented into a software program called iMatch. The performance of iMatch was evaluated using experimental data of a mixture of standards and metabolite extract of rat plasma with spiked-in standards. About 19% of the molecules identified by ChromaTOF were filtered out by iMatch from the identification list of electron ionization (EI) mass spectral matching, while all of the spiked-in standards were preserved. The analysis results demonstrate that using the retention index values, via constructing a set of DFs, can improve the spectral matching-based identifications by reducing a significant portion of false-positives. PMID:21813131

  8. Developing Successful Retention Programs: An Interview with Michael Hovland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluepfel, Gail A.; Hovland, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Michael Hovland, the senior consultant at Noel-Levitz Centers, responds to questions about summer bridge programs, first-year seminar programs, Rutgers' retention model, faculty reactions to retention programs, the impact of retention programs on institutional mission, administrative involvement in retention, student assessment, retention efforts…

  9. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  10. Uptake and retention of amitriptyline by kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Lv, Guocheng; Stockwell, Christie; Niles, Jacqueline; Minegar, Skylar; Li, Zhaohui; Jiang, Wei-Teh

    2013-12-01

    As the most commonly prescribed tricyclic antidepressant, amitriptyline (AT) is frequently detected in wastewater, surface runoff, and effluents from sewage treatment plants, and could potentially reach agriculture land through the application of municipal biosolids or reclaimed water. Kaolinite is one of the most important soil components under warm and humid climate conditions. In this study, the uptake and retention of AT by kaolinite from aqueous solution were investigated by batch tests, XRD, and FTIR analyses. The uptake of AT on kaolinite was instantaneous, attributed to surface adsorption as confirmed by XRD analyses. Quantitative correlation between desorption of exchangeable cations and AT adsorption confirmed experimentally that cation exchange was the dominant mechanism of AT uptake on kaolinite. The values for free energy of adsorption also suggested physi-sorption such as cation exchange. Solution pH had minimal influence at pH 5-11 even though the pKa value of AT was 9.4 and the surface charge of kaolinite was pH-dependent. PMID:24041550

  11. 5 CFR 293.404 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (e.g., through an administrative or judicial procedure) and performance-related records pertaining to... determine the retention schedule; and (iv) Except where prohibited by law, retention of automated records... destroyed in accordance with agency procedures. (c) Where any performance-related document is needed...

  12. 5 CFR 293.404 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (e.g., through an administrative or judicial procedure) and performance-related records pertaining to... determine the retention schedule; and (iv) Except where prohibited by law, retention of automated records... destroyed in accordance with agency procedures. (c) Where any performance-related document is needed...

  13. 5 CFR 293.404 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (e.g., through an administrative or judicial procedure) and performance-related records pertaining to... determine the retention schedule; and (iv) Except where prohibited by law, retention of automated records... destroyed in accordance with agency procedures. (c) Where any performance-related document is needed...

  14. 5 CFR 293.404 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (e.g., through an administrative or judicial procedure) and performance-related records pertaining to... determine the retention schedule; and (iv) Except where prohibited by law, retention of automated records... destroyed in accordance with agency procedures. (c) Where any performance-related document is needed...

  15. 5 CFR 293.404 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (e.g., through an administrative or judicial procedure) and performance-related records pertaining to... determine the retention schedule; and (iv) Except where prohibited by law, retention of automated records... destroyed in accordance with agency procedures. (c) Where any performance-related document is needed...

  16. Emotional Intelligence and Nursing Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Victoria Jane

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the constructs of a Multi-Intelligence Model of Retention with four constructs: cognitive and emotional-social intelligence, student characteristics, and environmental factors. Data were obtained from sophomore students entering two diploma, nine associate, and five baccalaureate nursing programs. One year later, retention and…

  17. Retention of New Teachers in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah; Rueben, Kim S.; Barbour, Elisa

    2006-01-01

    In the continuing effort to raise the academic performance of public schools, improving teacher retention could be an important strategy for California. Keeping new teachers in the classroom could improve academic performance, because experienced teachers are, on average, more effective at raising student test scores. Better retention of teachers…

  18. Using Enrollment Data to Predict Retention Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Melissa A.; Solverson, Natalie Walleser

    2016-01-01

    First- to second-year retention rates are one metric reported by colleges and universities to convey institutional success to a variety of external constituents. But how much of a retention rate is institutional inputs, and how much can be understood by examining student inputs? The authors utilize multi-year, multi-institutional data to examine…

  19. Novel Word Retention in Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-01-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after

  20. Faculty Personality: A Factor of Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Cassandra S.; Wu, Xiaodong; Irwin, Kathleen C.; Patrizi, L. A. Chad

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between student retention and faculty personality as it was hypothesized that faculty personality has an effect on student retention. The methodology adopted for this study was quantitative and in two parts 1) using linear regression models to examine the impact or causality of faculty…

  1. Novel Word Retention in Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-01-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after…

  2. Profile in Action: Linking Admission and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    A profile-oriented retention strategy embraces the admission process as a powerful lever in improving retention and completion rates and recognizes that the student profile can be shaped by changes in admission policies or priorities--even within the current market position of the institution. In addition, the student body can be oriented toward…

  3. Increasing Retention without Increasing Study Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Doug; Pashler, Hal

    2007-01-01

    Because people forget much of what they learn, students could benefit from learning strategies that provide long-lasting knowledge. Yet surprisingly little is known about how long-term retention is most efficiently achieved. Here we examine how retention is affected by two variables: the duration of a study session and the temporal distribution

  4. Measuring Up: Benchmarking Graduate Retention. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyers, C.; Perryman, S.; Barber, L.

    Retention of college graduates by employers across the United Kingdom was examined. Data were collected through a survey of 362 organizations and interviews with 36 employers and their graduate employees. Most employers were unworried by their levels of graduate retention; two-thirds expected to keep new recruits for the foreseeable future. Rates…

  5. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records retention. 107.280 Section 107.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer of an infant formula shall make and retain...

  6. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records retention. 107.280 Section 107.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer of an infant formula shall make and retain...

  7. 10 CFR 37.103 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 37.103 Section 37.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Records § 37.103 Record retention. Licensees shall maintain the records that are required by...

  8. Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or…

  9. 21 CFR 600.13 - Retention samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention samples. 600.13 Section 600.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.13 Retention samples. Manufacturers shall...

  10. Retention Models for Minority College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiakor, Festus E.; Harris-Obiakor, Pauline

    This paper discusses retention techniques that can be used with minority students at predominantly white colleges, focusing on four phases that are critical to the retention and academic achievement of minority students: acceptance, acclimatization, responsibility, and productivity. In the acceptance phase, the college community should attempt to…

  11. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate,...

  12. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate, accessible, and reproducible for later...

  13. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate,...

  14. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate, accessible, and reproducible for later...

  15. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Records retention. 133.21 Section 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.21 Records retention. (a) The...

  16. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate,...

  17. Profile in Action: Linking Admission and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    A profile-oriented retention strategy embraces the admission process as a powerful lever in improving retention and completion rates and recognizes that the student profile can be shaped by changes in admission policies or priorities--even within the current market position of the institution. In addition, the student body can be oriented toward

  18. The Grade Retention/Social Promotion Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John

    1985-01-01

    This publication focuses on the retention/promotion debate regarding failing and low-achieving students. An introductory essay describes the inherent limitation in the research done on this issue--the impossibility of obtaining an appropriate control group--and suggests that the retention/promotion quandary can best be resolved by accommodating

  19. 12 CFR 226.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention. 226.25 Section 226.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 226.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor...

  20. Enrollment and Retention: A Private College Consortium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    A consortium program of eight private colleges in Southern California that focuses on student retention efforts is described. Each college has a retention task force consisting of faculty, administrators, student affairs staff, and students. A steering committee with one representative from each college, generally the dean of students, coordinates…

  1. 12 CFR 1013.8 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 1013.8 Section 1013.8 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) § 1013.8 Record retention. A lessor shall retain evidence of compliance with the requirements imposed by this part,...

  2. 12 CFR 226.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 226.25 Section 226.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 226.25 Record retention. (a) General rule....

  3. 12 CFR 213.8 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 213.8 Section 213.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) § 213.8 Record retention. A lessor shall retain evidence of compliance with the...

  4. Retention of Nontraditional Students. Tip Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This publication begins with a list of suggestions for increasing the retention of male and female students pursuing nontraditional occupations. It then highlights five successful Ohio programs for the retention of these students: (1) Overcoming Sex Bias and Sex Stereotyping in Secondary Vocational Education--Nontraditional Support (Great Oaks…

  5. Light's Retention Scale [and] Recording Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, H. Wayne

    Light's Retention Scale, consisting of 19 evaluation categories, is designed for use by teachers and school psychologists to determine whether a student should be retained in grade or promoted. Another suggested use is for nonprofessionals to determine what educational and psychological research discloses about a specific retention candidate in…

  6. 50 CFR 401.15 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Record retention. 401.15 Section 401.15 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.15 Record retention. All records of accounts and reports with...

  7. 50 CFR 401.15 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Record retention. 401.15 Section 401.15 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.15 Record retention. All records of accounts and reports with...

  8. 50 CFR 401.15 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Record retention. 401.15 Section 401.15 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.15 Record retention. All records of accounts and reports with...

  9. 50 CFR 401.15 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Record retention. 401.15 Section 401.15 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.15 Record retention. All records of accounts and reports with...

  10. 50 CFR 401.15 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Record retention. 401.15 Section 401.15 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.15 Record retention. All records of accounts and reports with...

  11. Novel word retention in sequential bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-03-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after either a 2-month or a 4-month delay. Results showed that children retained more words in L1 than in L2 for both of the retention interval conditions. In addition, children's word retention was associated with their existing language knowledge and their fast-mapping performance within and across language. The patterns of association, however, were different between L1 and L2. These findings suggest that children's word retention might be related to the interactions of various components that are operating within a dynamic system. PMID:23672812

  12. Managing patients with acute urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Shanggar; Gillatt, David

    2011-04-01

    Acute urinary retention (AUR) is more than ten times more common in men than women. In men it tends to occur in the elderly; the risk of AUR is higher in men > 70 years. The causes in men can be divided into precipitated or occurring spontaneously. These can be further divided according to the mechanism i.e. obstructive, neurological and myogenic. Spontaneous AUR, caused by progression of BPH leading to a mechanical obstruction of the bladder outlet, is the most common cause of AUR. The typical presentation of AUR is a patient complaining of a sudden inability to urinate associated with progressive abdominal distension which is usually painful. The pain increases in intensity with increasing distension of the bladder. An abdominal examination should reveal a distended bladder which can be confirmed by a dull percussion note. A digital rectal examination is vital to gain information on prostatic enlargement (benign or malignant), faecal load in rectum, anal tone and presence of other masses. Urinalysis and culture should be carried out on a sample obtained after catheterisation to rule out infection. Renal function should be assessed to see if there has been damage to the upper tracts. It is better not to perform a PSA test in this situation as it will invariably be raised due to distension of the bladder and catheter insertion. If catheter insertion fails then a urological consultation is required for insertion of a suprapubic catheter. Admission is essential if the patient is: unwell with urosepsis; has abnormal renal function needing investigation and fluid monitoring; has acute neurological problems; or cannot take care of the catheter. Trial without catheter needs to be planned and the ideal time to do this is within 2-3 days so that the patient can pass urine naturally. PMID:21789984

  13. Retention modelling in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Euerby, Melvin R; Hulse, Jennifer; Petersson, Patrik; Vazhentsev, Andrey; Kassam, Karim

    2015-12-01

    The retention behaviour of acidic, basic and quaternary ammonium salts and polar neutral analytes has been evaluated on acidic, basic and neutral hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) stationary phases as a function of HILIC operating parameters such as MeCN content, buffer concentration, pH and temperature. Numerous empirical HILIC retention models (existing and newly developed ones) have been assessed for their ability to describe retention as a function of the HILIC operating parameters investigated. Retention models have been incorporated into a commercially available retention modelling programme (i.e. ACD/LC simulator) and their accuracy of retention prediction assessed. The applicability of HILIC modelling using these equations has been demonstrated in the two-dimensional isocratic (i.e. buffer concentration versus MeCN content modelling) and one-dimensional gradient separations for a range of analytes of differing physico-chemical properties on the three stationary phases. The accuracy of retention and peak width prediction was observed to be comparable to that reported in reversed-phase chromatography (RPC) retention modelling. Intriguingly, our results have confirmed that the use of gradient modelling to predict HILIC isocratic conditions and vice versa is not reliable. A relative ranking of the importance of the retention and selectivity of HILIC operating parameters has been determined using statistical approaches. For retention, the order of importance was observed to be organic content > stationary phase > temperature ≈ mobile phase pH (i.e. pH 3-6 which mainly effects the ionization of the analyte) ≈ buffer concentration. For selectivity, the nature of the stationary phase > mobile phase pH > buffer concentration > temperature > organic content. PMID:26563113

  14. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  15. Engagement and Retention in Outpatient Alcoholism Treatment for Women

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Fiona S.; Morgan, Thomas J.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; McCrady, Barbara S.; Cook, Sharon M.; Jensen, Noelle K.; Kelly, Shalonda

    2011-01-01

    Reviews of the dropout literature note significant attrition from addiction treatment. However, consistent predictors have not been identified and few studies have examined factors related to retention and engagement for women in gender-specific treatment. The current study consisted of 102 women and their partners randomized to individual or couples outpatient alcoholism treatment. Women attended more treatment sessions if they were assigned to individual treatment, older, had fewer symptoms of alcohol dependence, had more satisfying marital relationships, had spouses who drank, and had matched preference for treatment condition. Women were more engaged in treatment (i.e., completed more assigned homework) if they had fewer children at home, fewer alcohol dependence symptoms, later age of onset of alcohol diagnosis, more satisfying marital relationships, and spouses who accepted or encouraged their drinking. Results highlight important associations of treatment and relationship variables with treatment retention and engagement. PMID:19444731

  16. Do symptoms of voiding dysfunction predict urinary retention?

    PubMed Central

    ADELOWO, Amos O.; HACKER, Michele R.; MODEST, Anna MERPORT; ELKADRY, Eman A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the relationship between symptoms of voiding dysfunction and elevated post void urinary residual (PVR). Methods Cross-sectional study of women presenting for initial evaluation from February through July 2011. Charts were reviewed for demographics, voiding dysfunction symptoms, and examination findings. Urinary retention was defined as PVR ?100cc. Data are presented as median (interquartile range) or proportion; test characteristics are reported with 95% confidence intervals. Results Of 641 eligible women, 57 (8.9%) had urinary retention. Of these, 32 (56.1%) had at least one symptom of voiding dysfunction, most commonly sensation of incomplete emptying (30.1%). Sensitivity and positive predictive values of voiding dysfunction symptoms were low. Of 254 women reporting voiding symptoms, most (87.5%) had PVR<100 and were significantly more likely to have other pelvic floor symptoms and findings. Conclusions Patient symptoms do not predict urinary retention. PVR should be measured and other causes of voiding dysfunction symptoms should be considered. PMID:23143428

  17. Fractal processes in soil water retention

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, S.W.; Wheatcraft, S.W. )

    1990-05-01

    The authors propose a physical conceptual model for soil texture and pore structure that is based on the concept of fractal geometry. The motivation for a fractal model of soil texture is that some particle size distributions in granular soils have already been shown to display self-similar scaling that is typical of fractal objects. Hence it is reasonable to expect that pore size distributions may also display fractal scaling properties. The paradigm that they used for the soil pore size distribution is the Sierpinski carpet, which is a fractal that contains self similar holes (or pores) over a wide range of scales. The authors evaluate the water retention properties of regular and random Sierpinski carpets and relate these properties directly to the Brooks and Corey (or Campbell) empirical water retention model. They relate the water retention curves directly to the fractal dimension of the Sierpinski carpet and show that the fractal dimension strongly controls the water retention properties of the Sierpinski carpet soil. Higher fractal dimensions are shown to mimic clay-type soils, with very slow dewatering characteristics and relatively low fractal dimensions are shown to mimic a sandy soil with relatively rapid dewatering characteristics. Their fractal model of soil water retention removes the empirical fitting parameters from the soil water retention models and provides paramters which are intrinsic to the nature of the fractal porous structure. The relative permeability functions of Burdine and Mualem are also shown to be fractal directly from fractal water retention results.

  18. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  19. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,

  20. Acute Urinary Retention: Risks and Management

    PubMed Central

    Roehrborn, Claus G

    2005-01-01

    Acute urinary retention (AUR) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia has in the past represented an immediate indication for surgery, and today most patients failing to void after an attempt at catheter removal still undergo surgery. The concept that this disease is in fact progressive in nature is slowly being accepted. Descriptive and analytical epidemiological data have shown that the incidence rate per 1000 person-years is less variable in the community than previously assumed; however, the risk is cumulative and increases with advancing age. The risk for patients diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia is naturally higher, and analytical epidemiology has identified several strong risk factors, the most important one being serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In addition, prostate volume, maximum flow rate, and symptom severity should be considered when counseling patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms and clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia who are considering a course of watchful waiting. Efforts toward primary prevention of AUR should be directed to patients at increased risk, ie, those who are older and have more severe symptoms, larger glands, and higher PSA values. Risk reduction with finasteride has been demonstrated, and α-blockers have been shown to aid patients in achieving spontaneous voiding after an episode of AUR. PMID:16986053

  1. Rainwater runoff retention on an aged intensive green roof.

    PubMed

    Speak, A F; Rothwell, J J; Lindley, S J; Smith, C L

    2013-09-01

    Urban areas are characterised by large proportions of impervious surfaces which increases rainwater runoff and the potential for surface water flooding. Increased precipitation is predicted under current climate change projections, which will put further pressure on urban populations and infrastructure. Roof greening can be used within flood mitigation schemes to restore the urban hydrological balance of cities. Intensive green roofs, with their deeper substrates and higher plant biomass, are able to retain greater quantities of runoff, and there is a need for more studies on this less common type of green roof which also investigate the effect of factors such as age and vegetation composition. Runoff quantities from an aged intensive green roof in Manchester, UK, were analysed for 69 rainfall events, and compared to those on an adjacent paved roof. Average retention was 65.7% on the green roof and 33.6% on the bare roof. A comprehensive soil classification revealed the substrate, a mineral soil, to be in good general condition and also high in organic matter content which can increase the water holding capacity of soils. Large variation in the retention data made the use of predictive regression models unfeasible. This variation arose from complex interactions between Antecedant Dry Weather Period (ADWP), season, monthly weather trends, and rainfall duration, quantity and peak intensity. However, significantly lower retention was seen for high rainfall events, and in autumn, which had above average rainfall. The study period only covers one unusually wet year, so a longer study may uncover relationships to factors which can be applied to intensive roofs elsewhere. Annual rainfall retention for Manchester city centre could be increased by 2.3% by a 10% increase in intensive green roof construction. The results of this study will be of particular interest to practitioners implementing greenspace adaptation in temperate and cool maritime climates. PMID:23712113

  2. Thermal tracking of meltwater retention in Greenland's accumulation area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, Neil F.; Harper, Joel T.; Pfeffer, W. Tad

    2012-01-01

    Poorly understood processes controlling retention of meltwater in snow and firn have important implications for Greenland Ice Sheet's mass balance and flow dynamics. Here we present results from a 3 year (2007-2009) field campaign studying firn thermal profiles and density structure along an 85 km transect of the percolation zone of west Greenland. We installed one or two thermistor strings at 14 study sites, each string having 32 sensors spaced between 0 and 10 m depth. Data from our network of over 500 sensors were collected at 15-60 min intervals for 1-2 years, thereby recording the thermal signature of meltwater infiltration and refreezing during annual melt cycles. We document three types of heating of firn related to different mechanisms of meltwater motion and freezing, including heterogeneous breakthrough events, wetting front advance, and year-round heating from freezing of residual deep pore water. Vertically infiltrating meltwater commonly penetrates through cold firn accumulated over decades, even where ice layers are present at the previous summer surface and where ice layer thickness exceeds several decimeters. The offset between the mean annual air temperature and the 10 m firn temperature reveals the elevation dependency of meltwater retention along our transect. The firn is > 10°C warmer than the mean annual air temperature at the region where meltwater runoff initiates. During 2007-2009, runoff was limited to elevations lower than ˜1500 m with no sharp “runoff limit” rather, the ratio of retention to runoff transitioned from all retention to all runoff across a ˜20 km wide zone.

  3. Retention in Early Care at an HIV Outpatient Clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daniel S; De Boni, Raquel B; Lake, Jordan E; Cardoso, Sandra W; Ribeiro, Sayonara; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Clark, Jesse L; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Luz, Paula M

    2016-05-01

    Retention in early HIV care has been associated with virologic suppression and improved survival, but remains understudied in Brazil. We estimated retention in early HIV care for the period 2000-2013, and identified socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with good retention in an urban cohort from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Antiretroviral therapy-naïve, HIV-infected persons ≥18 years old linked to care between 2000 and 2011 were included. Retention in the first 2 years post-linkage (i.e. early care) was defined by the proportion of 6-month intervals with ≥1 HIV laboratory result. "Good" retention was defined as ≥1 HIV laboratory result recorded in at least three intervals. Overall, 80 % of participants met criteria for good retention and retention significantly improved over the study period. Older age, higher education level and early antiretroviral therapy initiation were associated with good retention. Efforts to improve retention in early care in this population should target younger and less-educated HIV-infected persons. PMID:26525222

  4. Retention of safe diving skills.

    PubMed

    Blitvich, J D; McElroy, G K; Blanksby, B A; Parler, H E

    2003-06-01

    This study investigated diving skill maintenance over an eight-month retention period following an intervention program. Thirty-four recreational swimmers with poor diving skills were measured before and immediately after a diving skills intervention program. Twenty-two returned for follow-up evaluation. Treadwater, Deck and Block dives were video-recorded, and maximum depth, distance, velocity, entry angle and flight distance were compared. Underwater hand and arm positions were examined. Pre-intervention, a breaststroke arm action before maximum depth occurred in 18% of all dives and 38% of Treadwater dives. This was eliminated post-intervention, improving head protection. The Treadwater dive elicited the greatest mean maximum depth, and ANOVA showed depth for this entry decreased (improved) following intervention and remained shallower at follow-up. Deck and Block dives also became shallower following intervention. As seven 10-minute skills sessions resulted in shallower dives with safer hand and arm positions, including safe diving skills in learn-to-swim programs can provide a diving spinal cord injury prevention strategy. PMID:12945622

  5. A strategic approach to employee retention.

    PubMed

    Gering, John; Conner, John

    2002-11-01

    A sound retention strategy should incorporate a business plan, a value proposition, progress measures, and management influences. The business plan will indicate whether a healthcare organization will achieve a return on investment for its effort. A value proposition will showcase an organization's strengths and differentiate it from its competitors. Measuring progress toward meeting retention goals at regular intervals will help keep an organization on track. The best managers require accountability, rewarding employees for their successes and taking corrective action as necessary. Retention rate targets must be at a level that will achieve a competitive advantage in the served market. PMID:12656028

  6. Personal Counselling at an Ontario Community College: Client Groups, Service Usage, and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on personal counselling clients in a community college in Ontario. Using archival records from the 2008-2009 academic year, at-risk client groups were identified and compared with respect to usage rates and retention. Significant differences were identified. Overall, first-year students who engaged in personal counselling had a…

  7. Factors Influencing the Retention of Secondary Family and Consumer Sciences Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dainty, Julie D.; Sandford, Brian A.; Su, Sho-Hsien; Belcher, Gregory G.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of teacher retention on quality education has inspired a great deal of research. Although many factors have been identified as contributors, few have been specific to the career and technical education (CTE) area and the diversity of CTE programs demands a more specific approach. The purpose of this study was to identify specific…

  8. New Directions in Education Research: Using Data Mining Techniques to Explore Predictors of Grade Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley-Winstead, Deanna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use classification trees and logistic regression to identify subgroups of students more likely to be retained. The National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) was used to identify the sociodemographic, family background and school related factors associated with grade retention. The sample size for…

  9. New Directions in Education Research: Using Data Mining Techniques to Explore Predictors of Grade Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley-Winstead, Deanna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use classification trees and logistic regression to identify subgroups of students more likely to be retained. The National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) was used to identify the sociodemographic, family background and school related factors associated with grade retention. The sample size for

  10. Common Issues in Professional Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janosik, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Most conversations about ethics and professional behavior involve case studies and hypothetical situations. This study identifies and examines the most common concerns in professional behavior as reported by 303 student affairs practitioners in the field. Differences by gender, years of experience, organizational level, institutional type, and

  11. Modelling global nutrient retention by river damming: Phosphorus and silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maavara, Taylor; Dürr, Hans; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    The phosphorus to silicon (P:Si) nutrient ratio is a key variable affecting ecosystem health in many aquatic environments. River damming represents a major anthropogenic perturbation of natural material flows along the aquatic continuum, with the potential to profoundly modify absolute and relative nutrient availabilities in surface waters. In this study, a multi-tiered approach for estimating global nutrient retention in man-made reservoirs is presented. We illustrate its application to the global riverine flux of reactive Si, using a database of dissolved reactive Si (DSi) budgets for 24 natural lakes and 22 artificial reservoirs. The database includes information on bedrock geology, surface water pH, water residence time, reservoir age and function, climate, and trophic status. Statistical analyses (ANOVA, t-test, PCA, linear plus non-linear regressions) are used to identify the best predictors of DSi retention and delineate how reservoir properties modulate nutrient dynamics. Results indicate that (1) reservoirs retain significantly less DSi than natural lakes, and (2) the water residence time, reservoir age and function (e.g., hydroelectrical production, irrigation, flood control) are the main system variables controlling DSi retention by dams. Next, a biogeochemical Si model is used to reproduce the previously derived statistical trends for DSi retention. Calibration of the model yields a relationship that enables one to predict annual in-reservoir siliceous productivity as a function of the external reactive Si supply. The model further accounts for the transition from reservoirs where reactive Si retention is primarily due to burial of allochtonous Si to those where in-reservoir DSi uptake by diatoms dominates. Finally, the statistical and mechanistic relationships are extrapolated to estimate that 25-28 Tg SiO2 yr-1 are retained worldwide by dams, or 7% of the annual reactive Si load to watersheds. We are currently applying the same multi-tiered approach to the global P cycle. Our goal is to predict not only the effect of dams on reactive P retention, but also to determine how they are changing the P:Si ratios in river systems. Our preliminary results indicate that reservoirs are more effective in retaining nutrient P than Si.

  12. A systematic review of interventions to improve postpartum retention of women in PMTCT and ART care

    PubMed Central

    Geldsetzer, Pascal; Yapa, H Manisha N; Vaikath, Maria; Ogbuoji, Osondu; Fox, Matthew P; Essajee, Shaffiq M; Negussie, Eyerusalem K; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization recommends lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV. Effective transitioning from maternal and child health to ART services, and long-term retention in ART care postpartum is crucial to the successful implementation of lifelong ART for pregnant women. This systematic review aims to determine which interventions improve (1) retention within prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes after birth, (2) transitioning from PMTCT to general ART programmes in the postpartum period, and (3) retention of postpartum women in general ART programmes. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, the regional World Health Organization databases and conference abstracts for data published between 2002 and 2015. The quality of all included studies was assessed using the GRADE criteria. Results and Discussion After screening 8324 records, we identified ten studies for inclusion in this review, all of which were from sub-Saharan Africa except for one from the United Kingdom. Two randomized trials found that phone calls and/or text messages improved early (six to ten weeks) postpartum retention in PMTCT. One cluster-randomized trial and three cohort studies found an inconsistent impact of different levels of integration between antenatal care/PMTCT and ART care on postpartum retention. The inconsistent results of the four identified studies on care integration are likely due to low study quality, and heterogeneity in intervention design and outcome measures. Several randomized trials on postpartum retention in HIV care are currently under way. Conclusions Overall, the evidence base for interventions to improve postpartum retention in HIV care is weak. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that phone-based interventions can improve retention in PMTCT in the first one to three months postpartum. PMID:27118443

  13. Retention of colonoscopy skills after virtual reality simulator training by independent and proctored methods.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Christopher W; Vandromme, Marianne J; Tyra, Sharon L; Hawn, Mary T

    2010-07-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators may enhance surgical resident colonoscopy skills, but the duration of skill retention and the effects of different simulator training methods are unknown. Medical students participating in a randomized trial of independent (automated simulator feedback only) versus proctored (human expert feedback plus simulator feedback) simulator training performed a standardized VR colonoscopy scenario at baseline, at the end of training (posttraining), and after a median 4.5 months without practice (retention). Performances were scored on a 10-point scale based on expert proficiency criteria and compared for the independent and proctored groups. Thirteen trainees (8 proctored, 5 independent) were included. Performance at retention testing was significantly better than baseline (median score 10 vs. 5, P < 0.0001), and no different from posttraining (median score 10 vs. 10, P = 0.19). Score changes from baseline to retention and from posttraining to retention were no different for the proctored and independent groups. Overinsufflation and excessive force were the most common reasons for nonproficiency at retention. After proficiency-based VR simulator training, colonoscopy skills are retained for several months, regardless of whether an independent or proctored approach is used. Error avoidance skills may not be retained as well as speed and efficiency skills. PMID:20698383

  14. A Computer-Based Undergraduate Exercise Using Internet-Accessible Simulation Software for the Study of Retention Behavior and Optimization of Separation Conditions in Ion Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Paul R.; Shaw, Matthew J.; Madden, John E.; Dicinoski, Greg W.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to scan retention data over a wide range of eluent composition opens up the possibility of a computerized selection of the optimal separation conditions. The major characteristics of retention behavior, peak-shape effects and pH effects evident in ion chromatography (IC) using common stationary phases and eluents are illustrated.

  15. Is the Cure Worse than the Disease? A Longitudinal Study on the Effect of Grade Retention in Secondary Education on Achievement and Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamote, Carl; Pinxten, Maarten; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Van Damme, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Holding students back when they do not meet a specific attainment level is common practice in a lot of countries. However, this practice is not without controversy and recent studies point at the negative effects of grade retention, especially in the long-term. The majority of these studies focused on grade retention in primary education. In our…

  16. 7 CFR 400.412 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Social Security Account Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers 400.412 Record retention. (a) FCIC... of claim. (b) The statute of limitations for FCIC contract claims may permit litigation to...

  17. 7 CFR 400.412 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Social Security Account Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers 400.412 Record retention. (a) FCIC... of claim. (b) The statute of limitations for FCIC contract claims may permit litigation to...

  18. Educational strategies for targeted retention of nonphysician health care providers.

    PubMed Central

    Hafferty, F W; Goldberg, H I

    1986-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a community-based, totally decentralized training program on the likelihood that graduates would establish their first practice within predefined and limited geographic regions. We found that when students in a physician assistant/nurse practitioner program received their preclinical and terminal training (preceptorship) in a region geographically proximate to their home residence, the likelihood that they would establish their first practice in that region was greatly increased. Similar results were found for students who took their preclinical training away from their home region but returned there for terminal training. Three additional training pathways were identified as being associated with markedly lower rates of regionally based graduate retention. Discriminant analysis was used to compare the relative impact of training and personal variables on retention. The educational process itself was found to be the single most important predictor of graduate retention. When structural variables were controlled, personal variables such as marital status, age, or sex had no predictive capabilities. With appropriate attention to the structural components of training--particularly terminal training (preceptorship)--experiences, PAs and NPs can be targeted to specific and relatively focused areas of medical need. These data suggest that several decentralized training strategies exist for physician assistants and nurse practitioners that would contribute to meeting health care delivery needs in chronically underserved areas. PMID:2872189

  19. Nuclear Retention of mRNA in Mammalian Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bahar Halpern, Keren; Caspi, Inbal; Lemze, Doron; Levy, Maayan; Landen, Shanie; Elinav, Eran; Ulitsky, Igor; Itzkovitz, Shalev

    2015-01-01

    Summary mRNA is thought to predominantly reside in the cytoplasm, where it is translated and eventually degraded. Although nuclear retention of mRNA has a regulatory potential, it is considered extremely rare in mammals. Here, to explore the extent of mRNA retention in metabolic tissues, we combine deep sequencing of nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA fractions with single-molecule transcript imaging in mouse beta cells, liver, and gut. We identify a wide range of protein-coding genes for which the levels of spliced polyadenylated mRNA are higher in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm. These include genes such as the transcription factor ChREBP, Nlrp6, Glucokinase, and Glucagon receptor. We demonstrate that nuclear retention of mRNA can efficiently buffer cytoplasmic transcript levels from noise that emanates from transcriptional bursts. Our study challenges the view that transcripts predominantly reside in the cytoplasm and reveals a role of the nucleus in dampening gene expression noise. PMID:26711333

  20. [Retention of selenium volatility using lime in coal combustion].

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Ren, D; Zhong, Q; Xu, F; Zhang, Y; Yin, J

    2001-05-01

    For understanding the volatility of selenium, the effect of the contents of exchangeable cations of coal on it, and the retention of selenium using CaO in coal combustion, the sequential chemistry extraction, the fixed bed and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) were undertaken. The results showed that the volatility of selenium was more than 97% in coal combustion at 815 degrees C, and the volatility of selenium was affected by the content of exchangeable cations of coal in low-middle temperature. It was identified that lime can restrain the volatility of selenium. In fixed bed combustion of coal, the retention rates of selenium volatility were between 11.6% and 50.7% using lime. In circulating fluidized bed combustion of coal, partitioning of selenium changed very much in ash of different size fraction between without lime and with lime. Comparing with combustion without lime, the content of selenium in ash from chimney was less than fourth times and that in leaching water from chimney decreased by two orders of magnitude using lime. Retention of selenium volatility using lime is so effective in coal combustion, especially in CFB combustion of coal. PMID:11507891

  1. ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

    2011-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

  2. Extensive Management Promotes Plant and Microbial Nitrogen Retention in Temperate Grassland

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Franciska T.; Bloem, Jaap; Quirk, Helen; Stevens, Carly J.; Bol, Roland; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Leaching losses of nitrogen (N) from soil and atmospheric N deposition have led to widespread changes in plant community and microbial community composition, but our knowledge of the factors that determine ecosystem N retention is limited. A common feature of extensively managed, species-rich grasslands is that they have fungal-dominated microbial communities, which might reduce soil N losses and increase ecosystem N retention, which is pivotal for pollution mitigation and sustainable food production. However, the mechanisms that underpin improved N retention in extensively managed, species-rich grasslands are unclear. We combined a landscape-scale field study and glasshouse experiment to test how grassland management affects plant and soil N retention. Specifically, we hypothesised that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands of high conservation value would have lower N loss and greater N retention than intensively managed, species-poor grasslands, and that this would be due to a greater immobilisation of N by a more fungal-dominated microbial community. In the field study, we found that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands had lower N leaching losses. Soil inorganic N availability decreased with increasing abundance of fungi relative to bacteria, although the best predictor of soil N leaching was the C/N ratio of aboveground plant biomass. In the associated glasshouse experiment we found that retention of added 15N was greater in extensively than in intensively managed grasslands, which was attributed to a combination of greater root uptake and microbial immobilisation of 15N in the former, and that microbial immobilisation increased with increasing biomass and abundance of fungi. These findings show that grassland management affects mechanisms of N retention in soil through changes in root and microbial uptake of N. Moreover, they support the notion that microbial communities might be the key to improved N retention through tightening linkages between plants and microbes and reducing N availability. PMID:23227252

  3. 32 CFR 552.121 - Possession or retention of prohibited weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Possession or retention of prohibited weapons... prohibited weapons. Prohibited weapons are defined as: (a) Any instrument or weapon of the kind usually known... and/or explosives. (c) Any weapons not legally obtained. (d) Any instrument commonly used in...

  4. 32 CFR 552.121 - Possession or retention of prohibited weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Possession or retention of prohibited weapons... prohibited weapons. Prohibited weapons are defined as: (a) Any instrument or weapon of the kind usually known... and/or explosives. (c) Any weapons not legally obtained. (d) Any instrument commonly used in...

  5. Children's Noun-Pair Retention: Assessment of Pictorial Elaboration and Bizarreness Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    Three experiments were conducted to assess the effects of nonbizarre vs. bizarre pictorial elaboration on the paired-associate retention of noun pairs. Five and seven year old children served as subjects in the first two experiments and learned a list of common noun pairs by the study-test paired-associate method. Experiment 1 provided a…

  6. Analysis of Institutionally Specific Retention Research: A Comparison between Survey and Institutional Database Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caison, Amy L.

    2007-01-01

    This study empirically explores the comparability of traditional survey-based retention research methodology with an alternative approach that relies on data commonly available in institutional student databases. Drawing on Tinto's [Tinto, V. (1993). "Leaving College: Rethinking the Causes and Cures of Student Attrition" (2nd Ed.), The University…

  7. Liposomal formulations of poorly soluble camptothecin: drug retention and biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Flaten, Gøril Eide; Chang, Ting-Tung; Phillips, William T; Brandl, Martin; Bao, Ande; Goins, Beth

    2013-03-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) represents a potent anticancer drug. However, its therapeutic use is impaired by both drug solubility, hydrolysis, and protein interactions in vivo. Use of liposomes as a drug-formulation approach could overcome some of these challenges. The aim of this study was to perform a mechanistic study of the incorporation and retention of the lipophilic parent CPT compound in different liposome formulations using radiolabeled CPT and thus to be able to identify promising CPT delivery systems. In this context, we also wanted to establish an appropriate mouse tumor model, in vivo scintigraphic imaging, and biodistribution methodology for testing the most promising formulation. CPT retention in various liposome formulations after incubation in buffer and serum was determined. The HT-29 mouse tumor model, (111)In-labeled liposomes, as well as (3)H-labeled CPT were used to investigate the biodistribution of liposomes and drug. The ability of different liposome formulations to retain CPT in buffer was influenced by lipid concentration and drug/lipid ratio, rather than lipid composition. The tested formulations were cleared from the blood in the following order: CPT solution > CPT liposomes > (111)In-labeled liposomes, and liposomes mainly accumulated in the liver. Lipid composition did not influence CPT retention to the same extent as earlier observed from incorporation studies. The set-up for the biodistribution study works well and is suited for future in vivo studies on CPT liposomes. The biodistribution study showed that liposomes circulated longer than free drug, but premature release of drug from liposomes occurred. Further studies to develop formulations with higher retention potential and prolonged circulation are desired. PMID:23210622

  8. Discovery Path: a retention strategy for mid-career nurses.

    PubMed

    Donner, G J; Wheeler, M M

    2001-01-01

    As health care administrators, policymakers, nursing organizations, and nurses begin to deal with the reality of a looming (and to an increasing extent, existing) serious shortage of nurses both in Canada and globally, recruitment and retention issues are again in the news. Much attention has been directed towards two responses: (a) attracting young people into the profession and helping them integrate into and identify with nursing as a lifelong career, and (b) developing sustainable retention strategies to ensure that nurses remain in nursing. One population that requires particular attention is the mid-career group of nurses. Those nurses, in their late 30s and 40s with 15 and more years of experience, have the professional memory that employers count on, the expertise that patients and clients require, and the experience and wisdom that young nurses depend on for coaching, mentoring, and support. Retention strategies targeted to these mid-career nurses require a diverse set of activities that are focused on those nurses' specific stage of personal and professional development and that recognize their unique needs. The purpose of this article is to describe a program that targets mid-career nurses, predominantly women who, having spent much of their careers and lives caring for others-children, parents, patients-are beginning to question their own futures. The goals of the program and the experiences of one group of nurses in the program, as well as the results of a two-year follow up with them, will be discussed. Recommendations for future retention strategies will also be offered. PMID:15487311

  9. Simulating retention in gas-liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.G.; Siepmann, J.I.; Schure, M.R.

    1999-12-16

    Accurate predictions of retention times, retention indices, and partition constants are a long sought-after goal for theoretical studies in chromatography. Configurational-bias Monte Carlo (CBMC) simulations in the Gibbs ensemble using the transferable potentials for phase equilibria-united atom (TraPPE-UA) force field have been carried out to obtain a microscopic picture of the partitioning of 10 alkane isomers between a helium vapor phase and a squalane liquid phase, a protypical gas-liquid chromatography system. The alkane solutes include some topological isomers that differ only in the arrangement of their building blocks (e.g., 2,5-dimethylhexane and 3,4-dimethylhexane), for which the prediction of the retention order is particularly difficult. The Kovats retention indices, a measure of the relative retention times, are calculated directly from the partition constants and are in good agreement with experimental values. The calculated Gibbs free energies of transfer for the normal alkanes conform to Martin's equation which is the basis of linear free energy relationships used in many process modeling packages. Analysis of radial distribution functions and the corresponding energy integrals does not yield evidence for specific retention structures and shows that the internal energy of solvation is not the main driving force for the separation of topological isomers in this system.

  10. Hydrogeomorphic controls on phosphorus retention in streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Martin W.; Stanley, Emily H.; Harbor, Jon M.

    2003-06-01

    We compared the relative influences of biochemical uptake processes and dynamic hydrology and geomorphology (hydrogeomorphology) on molybdate reactive phosphorus (MRP) retention within a stream. MRP concentrations were measured upstream and downstream of a 4.5-km reach undergoing dynamic channel adjustment in response to downstream dam removal. Geomorphic adjustments following removal produced measurable changes in velocity and depth, and decreases in MRP retention. Paired upstream and downstream measurements of MRP concentration were used to compute three retention metrics: uptake rate, mass transfer coefficient, and uptake length, which were used as model parameters. Modeling results showed that changes in channel morphology alone following dam removal could result in an approximate 40% increase in downstream MRP concentrations compared with conditions with the dam in place. However, empirical and modeling results indicate that hydrogeomorphology can control nutrient retention on the reach scale only when uptake processes are either sufficiently great or when uptake rates have limited variability. Review of published phosphorus retention values revealed greater variability in biochemical uptake rates than in hydrogeomorphology. Thus uptake rates should exert a stronger control on reach-scale MRP retention than changing channel morphology or hydrology. These results suggest that maintaining or restoring channel conditions that are conducive to biochemical uptake are of greater priority than restoration of hydrologic or geomorphic conditions alone.

  11. Characteristics of urinary retention in female inpatients managed with medical treatments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Yong; Kim, Chul Sung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to analyze the characteristics of urinary retention (UR) in female inpatients managed with medical treatments. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of female inpatients referred to the department of urology for UR at our institution from January 2009, to December 2014. UR was defined as a difficulty in self-voiding despite a sufficient urine volume or >300-mL postvoid residual. The data included patients' age, body mass index (BMI), ambulatory status, medical and surgical history, classes of taking drugs, and urinary tract infection. Results A total of 182 women were included as retention group, mean age of 72.64±12.94 years and BMI of 22.94±3.10 kg/m2. In the chi-square analysis, cardiovascular disorders (p=0.000), diabetes mellitus (p=0.008), metastatic malignancy (p=0.008), chronic renal disorders (p=0.028) were found significantly. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, cardiovascular disorders (p=0.002; odds ratio [OR], 0.491), metastatic malignancy (p=0.013; OR, 2.616) were found to increase the risk of UR. The most common surgical history was anti-incontinence surgery (7.2%). In term of medication use, the most prescribed agents were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (53.8%). The patients taking multiple drugs with antimuscarinic effects except of NSAIDs, narcotics and diuretics were 48 (26.4%). Urinary tract infection was identified in 43 patients (23.6%). Conclusions UR in females managed with medical treatments could be occurred occasionally. We think that thorough attentions are needed for UR to patients with cardiovascular disorders including diabetes mellitus, metastatic malignancy, chronic renal disorders urinary tract infection, and more careful interests when managing with drugs with antimuscarinic effects. PMID:26682022

  12. How Common Is PTSD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center for PTSD » Public » How Common is PTSD? PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... here Enter ZIP code here How Common is PTSD? Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, ...

  13. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  14. 5 CFR 536.302 - Optional pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional pay retention. 536.302 Section 536.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Pay Retention § 536.302 Optional pay retention. (a) Subject to the requirements in §...

  15. 5 CFR 536.302 - Optional pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Optional pay retention. 536.302 Section 536.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Pay Retention § 536.302 Optional pay retention. (a) Subject to the requirements in §...

  16. Knowledge representation for commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1990-01-01

    Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the Commonality Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.

  17. The Common Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ernest L.

    Current curricula in institutions of higher education are criticized in this speech for their lack of a common core of education. Several possibilities for developing such a common core include education centered around our common heritage and the challenges of the present. It is suggested that all students must be introduced to the events,…

  18. Retention strategies and predictors of attrition in an urban pediatric asthma study

    PubMed Central

    Zook, Patricia M; Jordan, Carolina; Adams, Bernadette; Visness, Cynthia M; Walter, Michelle; Pollenz, Kathryn; Logan, Jennette; Tesson, Elizabeth; Smartt, Ernestine; Chen, Amy; D’Agostino, John; Gern, James E

    2012-01-01

    Background The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) study is a multicenter prospective birth cohort study designed to examine factors related to the development of childhood asthma and allergies in an inner-city population. The retention of these participants has been challenging due to high mobility, inconsistent phone service, custody issues, and stressful life situations. Purpose In this article, we describe the specific retention challenges we encountered during the first 2 years of follow-up in URECA and the strategies we utilized to address them. We also examine how selected maternal characteristics and other factors are related to retention and missed study visits. Methods Strategies implemented to engage participants included: collecting updated and alternative contact information, after-hours phone calls to participants, culturally competent staff, flexible study event scheduling, clinic visit transportation, quarterly newsletters, retention events, drop-in home visits, and cell phone reimbursements. An internally developed web-based data management system enabled close monitoring by site teams and the coordinating center. The rate of deactivations was calculated using survival analysis. Characteristics of active and deactivated participants were compared using the chi-squared test with a Cochran–Mantel – Haenszel adjustment for study site. The proportion of missed visits of the total expected in the first 2 years was calculated and compared by family characteristics using an ANOVA model or a trend test controlling for study site. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (Cary, NC). Results The 2-year retention rate was 89%. Participation in the first study event predicted subsequent engagement in study activities. Mothers who did not complete the first visit were more likely to miss future events (46.1% vs. 8.9%, p < 0.0001) and to be deactivated (38.5% vs. 4.5%, p < 0.0001). Mothers under 18 years of age were more likely to leave the study compared to older mothers (22.7% vs. 10.1%, p = 0.02). Also, mothers who were married missed fewer events than those not married (8.8% vs. 15.6%, p = 0.01). In addition, deactivations were more common when the child had entered daycare by 3 months of age (10.9% vs. 3.6%, p = 0.05). Limitations The URECA population is predominantly minority, thus our findings might not be generalizable to other populations. Furthermore, we may not be able to observe the effects that might exist in a more diverse population. For example, 86% of the mothers are unmarried, making it difficult to reliably examine the effect of marital status. Conclusion In research, successfully engaging and retaining participants is essential for achieving the study objectives. Identifying factors related to missed visits and deactivations are the initial step in recognizing the potential at-risk participants and can enable the design of targeted strategies to retain participants. PMID:20571137

  19. Application of a quantitative structure retention relationship approach for the prediction of the two-dimensional gas chromatography retention times of polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycle compounds.

    PubMed

    Gieleciak, Rafal; Hager, Darcy; Heshka, Nicole E

    2016-03-11

    Information on the sulfur classes present in petroleum is a key factor in determining the value of refined products and processing behavior in the refinery. A large part of the sulfur present is included in polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs), which in turn are difficult to desulfurize. Furthermore, some PASHs are potentially more mutagenic and carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs. All of this calls for improved methods for the identification and quantification of individual sulfur species. Recent advances in analytical techniques such as comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) have enabled the identification of many individual sulfur species. However, full identification of individual components, particularly in virgin oil fractions, is still out of reach as standards for numerous compounds are unavailable. In this work, a method for accurately predicting retention times in GC×GC using a QSRR (quantitative structure retention relationship) method was very helpful for the identification of individual sulfur compounds. Retention times for 89 saturated, aromatic, and polyaromatic sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds were determined using two-dimensional gas chromatography. These retention data were correlated with molecular descriptors generated with CODESSA software. Two independent QSRR relationships were derived for the primary as well as the secondary retention characteristics. The predictive ability of the relationships was tested by using both independent sets of compounds and a cross-validation technique. When the corresponding chemical standards are unavailable, the equations developed for predicting retention times can be used to identify unknown chromatographic peaks by matching their retention times with those of sulfur compounds of known molecular structure. PMID:26879453

  20. Developing Sediment Retention Model for the Ecoservice Model InVEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghebremichael, L.; Ziv, G.; Ghile, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model has been gaining popularity internationally as a tool to evaluate and value services provided by nature. The sediment retention sub-model is one of the key components of the InVEST model that assesses potentials of landscape and landcover to retain sediments preventing them from reaching the waterways and reservoirs. Based on the outputs of the sediment retention sub-model, InVEST estimates landcover's economic values of avoiding water quality pollution and reservoir sedimentation. The current version of the sediment retention sub-model uses retention-coefficient approach based solely on landcover type in estimating the quantities of sediment retained and transported downstream. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a sediment-delivery-ratio approach that integrates more catchment characteristics, including slope and flow length, in addition to the landcover characteristics. This approach was tested in Midwestern U.S. using distributed sediment data. Results show that the sediment-delivery-ratio approach has improved performance in identifying sediment transport and retention processes. Incorporating this approach into the InVEST tool will enhance the model's capability in more accurately estimating the economic values of avoiding water quality pollution and reservoir sedimentation. Keywords: ecosystem service, modeling, sediment delivery ratio, sediment retention

  1. Colloid Transport and Retention in Fractured Media

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.

    2001-02-01

    The goal of this project was to identify the chemical and physical factors that control the transport of colloids in fractured materials, and develop a generalized capability to predict colloid attachment and detachment based on hydraulic factors (head, flow rate), physical processes and structure (fracture aperture, matrix porosity), and chemical properties (surface properties of colloids, solution chemistry, and mineralogy of fracture surfaces). Both aqueous chemistry and physical structure of geologic formations influenced transport. Results of studies at all spatial scales reached consensus on the importance of several key controlling variables: (1) colloid retention is dominated by chemical conditions favoring colloid-wall interactions; (2) even in the presence of conditions favorable to colloid collection, deposited colloids are remobilized over long times and this process contributes substantially to the overall extent of transport; (3) diffusive exchange between water-conducting fractures and finer fractures and pores acts to ''buffer'' the effects of the major fracture network structure, and reduces predictive uncertainties. Predictive tools were developed that account for fundamental mechanisms of colloid dynamics in fracture geometry, and linked to larger-scale processes in networks of fractures. The results of our study highlight the key role of physical and hydrologic factors, and processes of colloid remobilization that are potentially of even greater importance to colloid transport in the vadose zone than in saturated conditions. We propose that this work be extended to focus on understanding vadose zone transport processes so that they can eventually be linked to the understanding and tools developed in our previous project on transport in saturated groundwater systems.

  2. Participant Retention in a Longitudinal National Telephone Survey of African American Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Le, Daisy; Calvanelli, Joe; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M.; Roth, David L.; Williams, Beverly; Schulz, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to describe participant demographic factors related to retention, and to report on retention strategies in a national study of African Americans re-contacted 2.5 years after an initial baseline telephone interview. Design & Setting The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study was originally developed as a cross-sectional telephone survey to examine relationships between religious involvement and health-related factors in a national sample of African Americans. The cohort was re-contacted on average of 2.5 years later for a follow-up interview. Participants RHIAA participants were 2,803 African American men (1,202) and women (1,601). Interventions RHIAA used retention strategies consistent with recommendations from Hunt and White.1 Participants also received a lay summary of project findings. Main outcome measures Retention at the follow-up interview. Results Retention rates ranged from 39%–41%. Retained participants tended to be older and female. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, retained participants were more educated, single, and in better health status than those not retained. There was no difference in religious involvement in adjusted analyses. Conclusions Although overall retention rates are lower than comparable longitudinal studies, RHIAA was not originally designed as a longitudinal study and so lacked a number of structures associated with long-term studies. However, this project illustrates the feasibility of conducting lengthy cold call telephone interviews with an African American population and helps to identify some participant factors related to retention and study strategies that may aid in retention. PMID:26118147

  3. Considering Student Retention as a Complex System: A Possible Way forward for Enhancing Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsman, Jonas; van den Bogaard, Maartje; Linder, Cedric; Fraser, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    This study uses multilayer minimum spanning tree analysis to develop a model for student retention from a complex system perspective, using data obtained from first-year engineering students at a large well-regarded institution in the European Union. The results show that the elements of the system of student retention are related to one another…

  4. Considering Student Retention as a Complex System: A Possible Way forward for Enhancing Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsman, Jonas; van den Bogaard, Maartje; Linder, Cedric; Fraser, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    This study uses multilayer minimum spanning tree analysis to develop a model for student retention from a complex system perspective, using data obtained from first-year engineering students at a large well-regarded institution in the European Union. The results show that the elements of the system of student retention are related to one another

  5. Employee retention: a customer service approach.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Richard F

    2002-01-01

    Employee retention is a huge problem. There are staff shortages in radiology because not enough people are entering the profession; too many people are leaving the profession for retirement, higher-paying jobs or jobs with less stress; and there are not enough opportunities for career advancement. Staff shortages are exacerbated by difficulty in retaining people who enter the profession. While much work has been focused on recruitment and getting more people "in the front door," I suggest that the bulk of future efforts be focused on employee retention and "closing the back door." Employee retention must be an ongoing process, not a program. Approaches to employee retention that focus on external things, i.e., things that the company can do to or for the employee, generally are not successful. The truth is that employee retention processes must focus on what the employee gets out of the job. The process must be a benefits-based approach that helps employees answer the question, "What's in it for me?" The retention processes must be ongoing and integrated into the daily culture of the company. The best way to keep your employees is to treat them like customers. Customer service works for external customers. We treat them nicely. We work to satisfy them. We help them achieve their goals. Why not do the same for our employees? If positive customer service policies and practices can satisfy and keep external customers, why not adapt these policies and practices for employees? And, there is a service/satisfaction link between employee retention and higher levels of customer satisfaction. Customers prefer dealing with the same employees over and over again. Employee turnover destroys a customer's confidence in the company. Just like a customer does not want to have to "train and educate" a new provider, they do not want to do the same for your "revolving door" employees. So, the key is to keep employees so they in turn will help you keep your customers. Because the techniques of this process mirror the activities of customer service and customer relationship management, I call the combined process C/ERM for customer/employee relationship management. Both activities must be going on simultaneously to create a loyalty link that ensures customer satisfaction and retention through employee service, satisfaction and retention. PMID:12080928

  6. Common Control System Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

  7. Threads of common knowledge.

    PubMed

    Icamina, P

    1993-04-01

    Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information and research priorities will be examined and an action plan developed in future months. PMID:12286443

  8. Retention mechanisms and binding states of deuterium implanted into beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinelt, M.; Allouche, A.; Oberkofler, M.; Linsmeier, Ch

    2009-04-01

    The retention of 1 keV D+ ions implanted into clean and oxidized single crystalline Be at room and elevated temperatures is investigated by a combination of in situ analytical techniques including temperature programmed desorption (TPD), nuclear reaction analysis, low-energy ion spectroscopy (LEIS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For the first time, the whole temperature regime for deuterium release and the influence of thin oxide films on the release processes are clarified. The cleaned and annealed Be sample has residual oxygen concentration equivalent to 0.2 monolayer (ML) BeO in the near-surface region as the only contamination. LEIS shows that Be from the volume covers thin BeO surface layers above an annealing temperature of 1000 K by segregation, forming a pure Be-terminated surface, which is stable at lower temperatures until again oxidized by residual gas. No deuterium is retained in the sample above 950 K. By analyzing TPD spectra, active retention mechanisms and six energetically different binding states are identified. Activation energies (EA) for the release of D from binding states in Be are obtained by modelling the experimental data. Two ion-induced trap sites with release temperatures between 770 and 840 K (EA= 1.88 and 2.05 eV, respectively) and two trap sites (release between 440 and 470 K) due to supersaturation of the bulk above the steady state fluence of 2×1017 cm-2 are identified. None of the release steps shows a surface recombination limit. A thin BeO surface layer introduces an additional binding state with a release temperature of 680 K. Implantation at elevated temperatures (up to 530 K) changes the retention mechanism above the saturation limit and populates a binding state with a release temperature of 570 K.

  9. Retention projection enables accurate calculation of liquid chromatographic retention times across labs and methods.

    PubMed

    Abate-Pella, Daniel; Freund, Dana M; Ma, Yan; Simón-Manso, Yamil; Hollender, Juliane; Broeckling, Corey D; Huhman, David V; Krokhin, Oleg V; Stoll, Dwight R; Hegeman, Adrian D; Kind, Tobias; Fiehn, Oliver; Schymanski, Emma L; Prenni, Jessica E; Sumner, Lloyd W; Boswell, Paul G

    2015-09-18

    Identification of small molecules by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be greatly improved if the chromatographic retention information is used along with mass spectral information to narrow down the lists of candidates. Linear retention indexing remains the standard for sharing retention data across labs, but it is unreliable because it cannot properly account for differences in the experimental conditions used by various labs, even when the differences are relatively small and unintentional. On the other hand, an approach called "retention projection" properly accounts for many intentional differences in experimental conditions, and when combined with a "back-calculation" methodology described recently, it also accounts for unintentional differences. In this study, the accuracy of this methodology is compared with linear retention indexing across eight different labs. When each lab ran a test mixture under a range of multi-segment gradients and flow rates they selected independently, retention projections averaged 22-fold more accurate for uncharged compounds because they properly accounted for these intentional differences, which were more pronounced in steep gradients. When each lab ran the test mixture under nominally the same conditions, which is the ideal situation to reproduce linear retention indices, retention projections still averaged 2-fold more accurate because they properly accounted for many unintentional differences between the LC systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most successful study to date aiming to calculate (or even just to reproduce) LC gradient retention across labs, and it is the only study in which retention was reliably calculated under various multi-segment gradients and flow rates chosen independently by labs. PMID:26292625

  10. Deuterium Retention in NSTX with Lithium Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner, J.P. Allain, W. Blanchard, H.W. Kugel, R. Maingi, L. Roquemore, V. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor

    2010-06-02

    High (≈ 90%) deuterium retention was observed in NSTX gas balance measurements both withand without lithiumization of the carbon plasma facing components. The gas retained in ohmic discharges was measured by comparing the vessel pressure rise after a discharge to that of a gasonly pulse with the pumping valves closed. For neutral beam heated discharges the gas input and gas pumped by the NB cryopanels were tracked. The discharges were followed by outgassing of deuterium that reduced the retention. The relationship between retention and surface chemistry was explored with a new plasma-material interface probe connected to an in-vacuo surface science station that exposed four material samples to the plasma. XPS and TDS analysis showed that the binding of D atoms is fundamentally changed by lithium - in particular atoms are weakly bonded in regions near lithium atoms bound to either oxygen or the carbon matrix.

  11. Safeguards Workforce Repatriation, Retention and Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Gallucci, Nicholas; Poe, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked by NA-241 to assess the transition of former IAEA employees back to the United States, investigating the rate of retention and overall smoothness of the repatriation process among returning safeguards professionals. Upon conducting several phone interviews, study authors found that the repatriation process went smoothly for the vast majority and that workforce retention was high. However, several respondents expressed irritation over the minimal extent to which their safeguards expertise had been leveraged in their current positions. This sentiment was pervasive enough to prompt a follow-on study focusing on questions relating to the utilization rather than the retention of safeguards professionals. A second, web-based survey was conducted, soliciting responses from a larger sample pool. Results suggest that the safeguards workforce may be oversaturated, and that young professionals returning to the United States from Agency positions may soon encounter difficulties finding jobs in the field.

  12. Appropriate training and retention of community doctors in rural areas: a case study from Mali

    PubMed Central

    Van Dormael, Monique; Dugas, Sylvie; Kone, Yacouba; Coulibaly, Seydou; Sy, Mansour; Marchal, Bruno; Desplats, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Background While attraction of doctors to rural settings is increasing in Mali, there is concern for their retention. An orientation course for young practicing rural doctors was set up in 2003 by a professional association and a NGO. The underlying assumption was that rurally relevant training would strengthen doctors' competences and self-confidence, improve job satisfaction, and consequently contribute to retention. Methods Programme evaluation distinguished trainees' opinions, competences and behaviour. Data were collected through participant observation, group discussions, satisfaction questionnaires, a monitoring tool of learning progress, and follow up visits. Retention was assessed for all 65 trainees between 2003 and 2007. Results and discussion The programme consisted of four classroom modules – clinical skills, community health, practice management and communication skills – and a practicum supervised by an experienced rural doctor. Out of the 65 trained doctors between 2003 and 2007, 55 were still engaged in rural practice end of 2007, suggesting high retention for the Malian context. Participants viewed the training as crucial to face technical and social problems related to rural practice. Discussing professional experience with senior rural doctors contributed to socialisation to novel professional roles. Mechanisms underlying training effects on retention include increased self confidence, self esteem as rural doctor, and sense of belonging to a professional group sharing a common professional identity. Retention can however not be attributed solely to the training intervention, as rural doctors benefit from other incentives and support mechanisms (follow up visits, continuing training, mentoring...) affecting job satisfaction. Conclusion Training increasing self confidence and self esteem of rural practitioners may contribute to retention of skilled professionals in rural areas. While reorientations of curricula in training institutions are necessary, other types of professional support are needed. This experience suggests that professional associations dedicated to strengthening quality of care can contribute significantly to rural practitioners' morale. PMID:19017381

  13. Heavy metal retention of different embankments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werkenthin, Moritz; Kluge, Bjoern; Wessolek, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    The accumulation and retention of heavy metals in roadside soils has been studied for at least over forty years, but it is still subject of major interest. The continuously increasing road traffic induces high heavy metal loadings in runoff and seepage water. Elevated concentrations of heavy metals are a potential environmental risk. Especially in the long term development there is an increasing problem of soil contamination and groundwater pollution. A significant rate of road runoff infiltrates into the hard and soft shoulder. They are usually built during road construction and located directly along the road edge. According to valid german law, newly constructed hard shoulders have to provide a specific bearing capacity to enable trafficability in emergency cases. Therefore the applicable materials consist of defined gravel-soil mixtures, which can fulfill this requirement. To determine and compare the concentration of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr in the road runoff and seepage water of different hard shoulder substrates, we installed 6 lysimeters along the edge of the german highway A115. Three lysimeters were filled with different materials wich are commonly used for road construction in Germany and compacted afterwards. Surface runoff is sampled, as is seepage water in two depths in the three lysimeters. Furthermore three lysimeters where installed and filled with plain gravel, to observe the distribution, quantity and quality of road runoff. Additionally soil column experiments were carried out with the same construction material. Both, the measured seepage water concentrations from field and column experiments of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr do not yet exceed the trigger values of the German Federal Soil Protection and Contamination Ordinance (BBodSchV). No significant differences in heavy metal concentrations of the three artificial hard shoulder lysimeters were determined so far. First analytical results of the road runoff show concentrations of up to 12.9 µg/l Pb, 0.1 µg/l Cd, 19.8 µg/l Cu, 3.9 µg/l Cr, and 49.6 µg/l Zn. They are in the same order of magnitude as literature values.

  14. On identified predictive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    Self-tuning control algorithms are potential successors to manually tuned PID controllers traditionally used in process control applications. A very attractive design method for self-tuning controllers, which has been developed over recent years, is the long-range predictive control (LRPC). The success of LRPC is due to its effectiveness with plants of unknown order and dead-time which may be simultaneously nonminimum phase and unstable or have multiple lightly damped poles (as in the case of flexible structures or flexible robot arms). LRPC is a receding horizon strategy and can be, in general terms, summarized as follows. Using assumed long-range (or multi-step) cost function the optimal control law is found in terms of unknown parameters of the predictor model of the process, current input-output sequence, and future reference signal sequence. The common approach is to assume that the input-output process model is known or separately identified and then to find the parameters of the predictor model. Once these are known, the optimal control law determines control signal at the current time t which is applied at the process input and the whole procedure is repeated at the next time instant. Most of the recent research in this field is apparently centered around the LRPC formulation developed by Clarke et al., known as generalized predictive control (GPC). GPC uses ARIMAX/CARIMA model of the process in its input-output formulation. In this paper, the GPC formulation is used but the process predictor model is derived from the state space formulation of the ARIMAX model and is directly identified over the receding horizon, i.e., using current input-output sequence. The underlying technique in the design of identified predictive control (IPC) algorithm is the identification algorithm of observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters developed by Juang et al. at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully applied to identification of flexible structures.

  15. Laparoscopic Treatment of Ovarian Retention Pathology

    PubMed

    Dionisi; Dionisi; Dionisi

    1996-08-01

    We define ovarian retention pathology as the complications (cystic, degenerative, adhesions, endometriosis, pain, etc.) attributed to ovaries deliberately retained at the time of hysterectomy. We established a protocol for laparoscopy in these women. During 14 laparoscopic procedures for ovarian retention pathology, only one intraoperative complication occurred, a small bowel injury requiring minilaparotomy. One woman required repeat surgery for ovarian remnant syndrome. Published experience with laparotomy suggests that significant injuries to or resections of bowel, bladder, or ureters can occur, but the limited experience with laparoscopic surgery has not shown significant complications. PMID:9074105

  16. Meningitis-retention Syndrome; A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Gen; Hata, Kenichi; Aoki, Soichiro; Suzuki, Masayasu; Kimura, Takahiro; Egawa, Shin

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of meningitis-retention syndrome followed by urodynamic tests. A 48-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for an undiagnosed fever with headache and urinary retention. Aseptic meningitis was suspected according to cerebrospinal fluid analyses, and urodynamic test showed an underactive detrusor, leading to inadequate contraction of the bladder on voiding in spite of a normal sensation during bladder filling. Clean intermittent self-catheterization was required temporarily, but normal urinary voiding without the need for medication was restored in 2 weeks after discharge from the hospital, when urodynamic tests showed normal contractility of the bladder during voiding. PMID:27175342

  17. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing anthropogenic sources of N that are not retained in the watershed and maintaining high rates of N retention will be of utmost concern for coastal managers.

  18. Meningitis-retention Syndrome; A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Gen; Hata, Kenichi; Aoki, Soichiro; Suzuki, Masayasu; Kimura, Takahiro; Egawa, Shin

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of meningitis-retention syndrome followed by urodynamic tests. A 48-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for an undiagnosed fever with headache and urinary retention. Aseptic meningitis was suspected according to cerebrospinal fluid analyses, and urodynamic test showed an underactive detrusor, leading to inadequate contraction of the bladder on voiding in spite of a normal sensation during bladder filling. Clean intermittent self-catheterization was required temporarily, but normal urinary voiding without the need for medication was restored in 2 weeks after discharge from the hospital, when urodynamic tests showed normal contractility of the bladder during voiding. PMID:27175342

  19. Radiomarked Common Loon

    A juvenile common loon wearing a satellite transmitter antenna follows an adult. USGS scientists and partners captured and radiomarked juvenile common loons on lakes scattered across Minnesota and Wisconsin during the last two weeks of August 2014 to track their movements and wintering ground...

  20. Scientist Releases Common Loon

    As part of a cooperative project, scientists with the USGS and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources tagged common loons in north central Wisconsin to study the distribution and migration movements, as well as foraging patterns and depth profiles of common loons equipped with archiv...

  1. Recruitment and Retention of Minorities in Teacher Education: Performance Assessment. Proceedings of the National Conference (7th, Lexington, Kentucky, January 17 - 19, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, E., Ed.; And Others

    This conference proceedings monograph presents 20 papers describing initiatives that deal with the recruitment and retention of minorities in education. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Recruitment and Retention of Minority Scholarship and Grant Recipients: Identifying Successful Models" (Teresa Unseld); (2) "An Early…

  2. Experimental analysis of retention forces of different magnetic devices for bone-anchored auricular facial prostheses.

    PubMed

    Voigt, A; Christ, S; Klein, M

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which combination of differently designed magnetic abutments provides the best retention for an auricular prosthesis. The withdrawal forces of eight combinations of abutments were measured and results compared. There was a significantly higher withdrawal force in arrangements containing three magnets over only two. The highest withdrawal force was found in the combination of one telescopic magnet and two large spherical magnets (median: 7.69 N), whereas two telescopic magnets alone showed the lowest withdrawal force (3.41 N). The use of two conical magnets increased retention slightly, but the median retention force remained the same (3.41 N). The commonly used combination of two small spherical magnets and one telescopic magnet showed the lowest retention of combinations consisting of three magnets (4.94 N). There seems to be no difference in median withdrawal force if a conical magnet instead of a telescopic magnet is used. The withdrawal force at a 45 degrees angle was about 10% higher than the vertical force but the difference was not significant. The rupture force needed to tear the magnet completely out of the silicone was 240.6-519.7 N (mean 331.74 N) and therefore over 10 times higher than magnetic retention. PMID:18440779

  3. Identification of recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals in Ontario, Canada: results from expert panels

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Diem; Hall, Linda McGillis; Davis, Aileen; Landry, Michel D; Burnett, Dawn; Berg, Katherine; Jaglal, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Background Demand for rehabilitation services is expected to increase due to factors such as an aging population, workforce pressures, rise in chronic and complex multi-system disorders, advances in technology, and changes in interprofessional health service delivery models. However, health human resource (HHR) strategies for Canadian rehabilitation professionals are lagging behind other professional groups such as physicians and nurses. The objectives of this study were: 1) to identify recruitment and retention strategies of rehabilitation professionals including occupational therapists, physical therapists and speech language pathologists from the literature; and 2) to investigate both the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies using expert panels amongst HHR and education experts. Methods A review of the literature was conducted to identify recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals. Two expert panels, one on Recruitment and Retention and the other on Education were convened to determine the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies. A modified-delphi process was used to gain consensus and to rate the identified strategies along these two dimensions. Results A total of 34 strategies were identified by the Recruitment and Retention and Education expert panels as being important and feasible for the development of a HHR plan for recruitment and retention of rehabilitation professionals. Seven were categorized under the Quality of Worklife and Work Environment theme, another seven in Financial Incentives and Marketing, two in Workload and Skill Mix, thirteen in Professional Development and five in Education and Training. Conclusion Based on the results from the expert panels, the three major areas of focus for HHR planning in the rehabilitation sector should include strategies addressing Quality of Worklife and Work Environment, Financial Incentives and Marketing and Professional Development. PMID:19068134

  4. The Role of Academic and Non-Academic Factors in Improving College Retention. ACT Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotkowski, Veronica A.; Robbins, Steven B.; Noeth, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    This report provides information from a major technical study about the influence of non-academic factors, alone and combined with academic factors, on student retention and performance at four-year colleges and universities. A meta-analysis technique was used to identify the non-academic factors that had the most salient relationship to…

  5. Predictive Modeling of Student Performances for Retention and Academic Support in a Diagnostic Medical Sonography Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghese, Peter; Lacey, Sandi

    2014-01-01

    As part of a retention and academic support program, data was collected to develop a predictive model of student performances in core classes in a Diagnostic Medical Sonography (DMS) program. The research goal was to identify students likely to have difficulty with coursework and provide supplemental tutorial support. The focus was on the…

  6. Why Do They Stay? Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Job Satisfaction and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrachione, Beverly A.; Rosser, Vicki J.; Petersen, George J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify intrinsic and extrinsic variables that influence teacher job satisfaction and retention. A survey was sent to 300 randomly selected Missouri public elementary school teachers in grades K-5 having 5 or more years of teaching experience. The results from 201 respondents suggest that three intrinsic…

  7. The Relationship between High School Math Courses, High School GPA, and Retention of Honors Scholarships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megert, Diann Ackerman

    2005-01-01

    This research examined the high school transcripts of honors scholarship recipients to identify a better criterion for awarding scholarships than high school grade point average (GPA) alone. Specifically, this study compared the honors scholarship retention rate when the scholarship was awarded based on completed advanced high school math classes…

  8. Determining the Impact of Remediation on College Level Course Grades, Retention and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Thomas Kelvin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this causal-comparative study was to determine whether varying levels of prior remediation affected grades, success, and retention in online college level courses. Traditional and online sections completed a demographics survey to identify background characteristics along with the amount and type of developmental class. Instructors…

  9. Making Marketing Work: How a Coordinated Approach Improved a College's Enrollment, Retention, and Public Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    Through a coordinated approach, Evergreen State achieved three goals--enrollment growth, increased student retention, and greater public awareness. Six steps to develop a marketing plan are identified: review the institution's position; establish administrative leadership, adapt educational services; and prepare, coordinate, carry out, and…

  10. Pre-Entry Variables Related to Retention in Online Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupin-Bryant, Pamela A.

    2004-01-01

    This study identified pre-entry variables related to course completion and noncompletion in university online distance education courses. Four hundred and sixty-four students who were enrolled in online distance education courses participated in the study. Discriminant analysis revealed six pre-entry variables were related to retention, including…

  11. Faculty Influences on Black Recruitment and Retention in Schools of Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, John J.; Feldbaum, Eleanor G.

    To determine why blacks are underrepresented in the field of nursing, a three-year nationwide study was undertaken to examine and evaluate the recruitment and retention strategies used in schools of nursing, and to identify the most successful ones. Forty schools in 16 states were selected by their geographic and program representativeness; they…

  12. Within High Schools--Influences on Retention among the Indigenous People of Northeast India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudussery, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative case study of three high schools was conducted to identify and profile school practices employed in educating a traditionally low-achieving subpopulation in northeast India. By the considerably higher than average retention and graduation rates among their students who come from indigenous tribal communities, these schools stand out…

  13. Retention and Attrition of Students in Higher Education: Challenges in Modern Times to What Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Marguerite; Macallister, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Retention and attrition rates in higher education have long been a focus of research. This paper presents findings of a single case study, undertaken in a School of Education, which identify important strategies that have led to attrition of five to eight per cent, compared with 18 per cent cross the education sector in Australia (Department of…

  14. A Critical Review of the Literature on Student Services and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutto, Claude P.

    This article presents a review of literature on topics and theoretical frameworks relevant to the interrelated concerns of student services and freshman retention. The first section identifies information related to the stages, processes, and perspectives from which student service personnel interact with students. A second section focuses on…

  15. The Drivers of Student Enrolment and Retention: A Stakeholder Perception Analysis in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelopulo, George

    2013-01-01

    This study identified the drivers of student participation in the academic programmes of a South African university department. First, it explored the determinants of student enrolment and retention from earlier research and literature. Second, it discussed the utility of Q methodology in the identification of subjective perception. Finally, it…

  16. What Works in Student Retention? Fourth National Survey. Report for All Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    Over the past three and one-half decades, ACT has dedicated itself to conducting research that collects information from colleges and universities that will help them identify and better understand the impact of various practices on college student retention and persistence to degree-completion. Conducted in the spring of 2009, ACT's most recent…

  17. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: Paths to Advancement for Single Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia; Deitch, Victoria; Hill, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2003, the Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project identified and implemented a diverse set of innovative models designed to promote employment stability and wage or earnings progression among low-income individuals, mostly current or former welfare recipients. The project's goal was to determine which strategies could

  18. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: Paths to Advancement for Single Parents. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia; Deitch, Victoria; Hill, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2003, the Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project identified and implemented a diverse set of innovative models designed to promote employment stability and wage or earnings progression among low-income individuals, mostly current or former welfare recipients. The project's goal was to determine which strategies could

  19. Generation Y Student-Teachers' Motivational Factors: Retention Implications for K-12 Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bontempo, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Generation Y represents a growing number of student-teachers who will impact the future of educational practice, yet little research has been conducted for this demographic group. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to identify motivational factors of neophyte teachers and the retention implications these findings had on Kindergarten…

  20. The Nontraditional Student at Ferris State University: Implications for Recruitment and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Octernaud, Sharon K.

    This study analyzed the demographic and scholastic characteristic differences between a nontraditional and traditional student cohort (total n=11,878) at Ferris State University (FSU) in Michigan, identified (through literature reviews) successful recruiting and retention activities for nontraditional students at other postsecondary educational…

  1. Beyond the Labor Market Paradigm: A Social Network Perspective on Teacher Recruitment and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies limits of the dominant labor market perspective (LMP) in research on teacher recruitment and retention and describes how research that incorporates a social network perspective (SNP) can contribute to the knowledge base and development of teacher education, staffing, and professional development approaches. A discussion of…

  2. NIE Conference on Studies in Teaching; Panel 1, Recruitment, Selection, and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, N. L., Ed.

    The goal of this panel was to recommend research that would identify factors affecting recruitment, selection, and retention of teachers and means of improving these processes. The panel also attempted to plan exemplary research and development activities for devising, validating, and installing methods for improving individuals' and institutions'…

  3. Generation Y Student-Teachers' Motivational Factors: Retention Implications for K-12 Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bontempo, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Generation Y represents a growing number of student-teachers who will impact the future of educational practice, yet little research has been conducted for this demographic group. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to identify motivational factors of neophyte teachers and the retention implications these findings had on Kindergarten

  4. Renal and Vascular Mechanisms of Thiazolidinedione-Induced Fluid Retention

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tianxin; Soodvilai, Sunhapas

    2008-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtype γ (PPARγ) activators that are clinically used as an insulin sensitizer for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Additionally, TZDs exhibit novel anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties, indicating therapeutic potential for a wide variety of diseases associated with diabetes and other conditions. The clinical applications of TZDs are limited by the common major side effect of fluid retention. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism of TZD-induced fluid retention is essential for the development of novel therapies with improved safety profiles. An important breakthrough in the field is the finding that the renal collecting duct is a major site for increased fluid reabsorption in response to rosiglitazone or pioglitazone. New evidence also indicates that increased vascular permeability in adipose tissues may contribute to edema formation and body weight gain. Future research should therefore be directed at achieving a better understanding of the detailed mechanisms of TZD-induced increases in renal sodium transport and in vascular permeability. PMID:18784848

  5. In-Vessel Retention of Molten Corium: Lessons Learned and Outstanding Issues

    SciTech Connect

    J.L. Rempe; K.Y. Suh; F. B. Cheung; S. B. Kim

    2008-03-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Advanced 600 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designed by Westinghouse (AP600), which relied upon External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) for IVR, resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing Light Water Reactors (LWRs). However, it is not clear that the ERVC proposed for the AP600 could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe) without additional enhancements. This paper reviews efforts made and results reported regarding the enhancement of IVR in LWRs. Where appropriate, the paper identifies what additional data or analyses are needed to demonstrate that there is sufficient margin for successful IVR in high power thermal reactors.

  6. Retention characteristics of an immobilized artificial membrane column in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lepont, Claire; Poole, Colin F

    2002-02-01

    Retention for a varied group of compounds on an immobilized artificial membrane column (IAM PC DD2) with a methanol-water mobile phase is shown to fit a second-order model for the retention factor (log k) as a function of the volume fraction of organic solvent. The numerical value of the intercept obtained by linear extrapolation to zero organic solvent (log k(w)) is shown to depend on the range of mobile phase composition used for the extrapolation. Each series of intercepts so obtained represents a different hypothetical distribution system as identified by the system constants of the solvation parameter model. Although a linear model is a poor fit for isocratic retention data, the linear solvent strength gradient model provides a reasonable estimate of isocratic retention factor values that are (slightly) larger than experimental values, but provide the same chemical information for the system. These preliminary results suggest that gradient elution may prove to be a rapid and useful method for creating system maps for column characterization and method development. In this work a system map is provided for methanol-water compositions from 0 to 60% (v/v) methanol and additional system constants for acetonitrile-water compositions containing 20 and 30% (v/v) acetonitrile. It is shown that the main factors contributing to retention on the IAM PC DD2 column are favorable cavity formation and dispersion interactions, electron lone pair interactions and the hydrogen-bond basicity of the sorbent. The latter feature more than any other distinguishes the IAM column from conventional chemically bonded phases. Interactions of a dipole-type (weakly) and inability to compete with the mobile phase as a hydrogen-bond acid reduce retention. A comparison of system constant ratios is used to demonstrate that the retention properties of the IAM column are not easily duplicated by conventional chemically bonded phases. The retention characteristics of the IAM column, however, are strongly correlated with the retention properties of pseudostationary phases used for micellar electrokinetic chromatography, which provide a suitable alternative to IAM columns for physical property estimations. By the same comparative method it is shown that retention on the IAM column possesses some similarity to biomembrane absorption processes, allowing suitable correlation models to be developed for the estimation of certain biopartitioning properties. PMID:11873960

  7. Retention through Counseling: Counseling the ABE Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arruza, Andrew; Daniel, Marcia

    These materials are intended to help adult basic education (ABE) instructors in their role as counselors. Most are suitable for use in a workshop for ABE instructors. An introduction describes the ABE Retention through Counseling Program and highlights the skills an ABE instructor needs to work with adult learners. Chapter 1 provides pointers for…

  8. 5 CFR 293.511 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records 293.511 Retention schedule. (a) Temporary EMFS records must not be placed in a newly-created EMF for a separating employee and must be removed from an already existing EMF before its transfer to another agency or to the NPRC. Such records must be disposed of...

  9. 5 CFR 293.511 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records 293.511 Retention schedule. (a) Temporary EMFS records must not be placed in a newly-created EMF for a separating employee and must be removed from an already existing EMF before its transfer to another agency or to the NPRC. Such records must be disposed of...

  10. 5 CFR 293.511 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records 293.511 Retention schedule. (a) Temporary EMFS records must not be placed in a newly-created EMF for a separating employee and must be removed from an already existing EMF before its transfer to another agency or to the NPRC. Such records must be disposed of...

  11. 5 CFR 293.511 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records 293.511 Retention schedule. (a) Temporary EMFS records must not be placed in a newly-created EMF for a separating employee and must be removed from an already existing EMF before its transfer to another agency or to the NPRC. Such records must be disposed of...

  12. 5 CFR 293.511 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records 293.511 Retention schedule. (a) Temporary EMFS records must not be placed in a newly-created EMF for a separating employee and must be removed from an already existing EMF before its transfer to another agency or to the NPRC. Such records must be disposed of...

  13. An Examination of Master's Student Retention & Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Melissa; Mathies, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted at a research-extensive public university in the southeastern United States. It examined the retention and completion of master's degree students across numerous disciplines. Results were derived from a series of descriptive statistics, T-tests, and a series of binary logistic regression models. The findings from binary…

  14. 40 CFR 35.6705 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the starting dates for records retention described in 40 CFR 31.42(c) (1) and (2). ... been started before the expiration of the ten-year period, the records must be retained until completion of the action and resolution of all issues which arise from it, or until the end of the...

  15. 40 CFR 35.6705 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the starting dates for records retention described in 40 CFR 31.42(c) (1) and (2). ... been started before the expiration of the ten-year period, the records must be retained until completion of the action and resolution of all issues which arise from it, or until the end of the...

  16. 40 CFR 35.6705 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the starting dates for records retention described in 40 CFR 31.42(c) (1) and (2). ... been started before the expiration of the ten-year period, the records must be retained until completion of the action and resolution of all issues which arise from it, or until the end of the...

  17. 40 CFR 35.6705 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the starting dates for records retention described in 40 CFR 31.42(c) (1) and (2). ... been started before the expiration of the ten-year period, the records must be retained until completion of the action and resolution of all issues which arise from it, or until the end of the...

  18. Using Team Learning to Improve Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreie, Jennifer; Headrick, R. Wayne; Steiner, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to improve the retention rate in their entry-level information systems course, the authors of this article integrated a team-learning approach into its instructional format. This article describes the steps taken, including how team learning compares with the traditional approach based on lecture with occasional group exercises, and

  19. Effects of Emotional Intelligence on Teacher Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerald, Grant Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods, explanatory design study focused on determining if the emotional intelligence of principals affects the retention of new teachers. In phase one, a non-random cluster sample of 138 public school principals in the state of Louisiana was surveyed using a quantitative instrument. A Factor Analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and…

  20. 78 FR 57927 - Credit Risk Retention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... proposal, as described in more detail below. \\5\\ Credit Risk Retention; Proposed Rule, 76 FR 24090 (April... legislation.''). \\24\\ See 78 FR 6408 (January 30, 2013), as amended by 78 FR 35430 (June 12, 2013). These two... Federal Register. See 76 FR 27390 (May 11, 2011). The Board had initial responsibility for...

  1. Healthcare Learning Community and Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sherryl W.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching, learning, and retention processes have evolved historically to include multifaceted techniques beyond the traditional lecture. This article presents related results of a study using a healthcare learning community in a southwest Georgia university. The value of novel techniques and tools in promoting student learning and retention…

  2. Retention of First Year Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Melissa H.

    2012-01-01

    Although close to half of all community college students leave before obtaining their stated goals, most retention studies are still being conducted at the four-year college and university level. There is still little research conducted at the community college level. In order to determine what student characteristics increase community college…

  3. Shaping Retention from Research to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, John M.; Brier, Ellen M.; Steele, Stephanie Lee

    2008-01-01

    This article presents seven guidelines to direct professional practice aimed toward the improvement of institutional student retention rates. For each of the seven guidelines, specific recommendations to provide direction to the enactment of the focal guideline are described. These seven guidelines spring from empirical studies of campus-based…

  4. High temperature ceramic composition for hydrogen retention

    DOEpatents

    Webb, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    A ceramic coating for H retention in fuel elements is described. The coating has relatively low thermal neutron cross section, is not readily reduced by H at 1500 deg F, is adherent to the fuel element base metal, and is stable at reactor operating temperatures. (JRD)

  5. 5 CFR 9901.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... preexisting entitlement to pay retention under 5 CFR part 536 immediately before becoming covered by NSPS... the circumstances described in 5 CFR 831.1203(a)(4); (8) When an employee occupying a position under a Schedule C appointment (authorized under 5 CFR 213.3301) is placed, other than for unacceptable...

  6. 5 CFR 9901.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... preexisting entitlement to pay retention under 5 CFR part 536 immediately before becoming covered by NSPS... the circumstances described in 5 CFR 831.1203(a)(4); (8) When an employee occupying a position under a Schedule C appointment (authorized under 5 CFR 213.3301) is placed, other than for unacceptable...

  7. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...

  8. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...

  9. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...

  10. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...

  11. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the

  12. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  13. Retention--A Pseudo-Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geis, George L.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses retention of learning; training methods; maintenance issues; the effect of punishment; reinforcement; the performance environment; transfer of training; forgetting; implications for designers of instructional materials or designers of training programs; and the division between training and on-the-job performance. (LRW)

  14. 24 CFR 266.515 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record retention. 266.515 Section 266.515 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  15. 7 CFR 275.4 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Administration § 275.4 Record retention. (a) The State agency shall maintain Performance Reporting System records to permit ready access to, and use of, these records. Performance Reporting System records include information used in...

  16. Longitudinal Literature Review on Grade Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Carleton R.; Range, Bret; Pijanowski, John

    2009-01-01

    Literature on retention focuses on both short term and long term outcomes for retained students. Short term outcomes typically include academic achievement, self-esteem issues, and occurrence of behavior problems. Long term outcomes include academic growth and persistence to graduation. Regardless of the focus and intent of the study, research on…

  17. Does salience facilitate longer-term retention?

    PubMed

    Hunt, R Reed

    2009-01-01

    The isolation paradigm is a staple in the study of distinctiveness and memory. Isolated items are better remembered than non-isolated controls, and the standard interpretation of this effect is that subjective experience of salience recruits extraordinary processing to the isolated item. This interpretation is at odds with data showing an isolation effect when the isolate is not perceived as salient (e.g., von Restorff, 1933). All available research on the early isolation effect has tested memory after a relatively short retention interval. Perhaps the effect of salience on memory in the isolation paradigm would be revealed following longer retention intervals. The experiment reported here examines the effect of isolation following a 48-hour retention interval when the isolate evokes an experience of salience compared to when the isolate does not evoke that reaction. The isolation effect was substantial after the 48-hour delay but equally so for early and late isolation. Salience appears to have nothing to do with the memory processes even at the longer retention intervals. PMID:19101843

  18. 24 CFR 266.515 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record retention. 266.515 Section 266.515 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  19. 5 CFR 353.302 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.302 Section 353.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. An injured employee enjoys no special protection in a reduction in force. Separation by...

  20. 5 CFR 353.302 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.302 Section 353.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. An injured employee enjoys no special protection in a reduction in force. Separation by...

  1. 5 CFR 353.209 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.209 Section 353.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. (a) During uniformed service. An employee may not be demoted or separated (other than...

  2. 5 CFR 353.302 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.302 Section 353.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. An injured employee enjoys no special protection in a reduction in force. Separation by...

  3. 5 CFR 353.209 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.209 Section 353.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. (a) During uniformed service. An employee may not be demoted or separated (other than...

  4. 5 CFR 353.209 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.209 Section 353.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. (a) During uniformed service. An employee may not be demoted or separated (other than...

  5. 5 CFR 353.209 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.209 Section 353.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. (a) During uniformed service. An employee may not be demoted or separated (other than...

  6. 5 CFR 353.302 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.302 Section 353.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. An injured employee enjoys no special protection in a reduction in force. Separation by...

  7. COMPARTMENTAL MODEL OF NITRATE RETENTION IN STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A compartmental modeling approach is presented to route nitrate retention along a cascade of stream reach sections. A process transfer function is used for transient storage equations with first order reaction terms to represent nitrate uptake in the free stream, and denitrifica...

  8. Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koroscik, Judith Smith

    The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…

  9. Predicting Student Retention in Teacher Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vare, Jonatha W.; Dewalt, Mark W.; Dockery, E. Ray

    This paper describes the preliminary results from a longitudinal study of student teacher attrition and retention. The sample consisted of 316 students in an initial course in teacher education. Data collection included the following: high school grade point ratio (GPR); SAT scores; other demographic information, such as education of father and…

  10. Retention of Electronic Fundamentals: Differences Among Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kirk A.

    Criterion-referenced tests were used to measure the learning and retention of a sample of material taught by means of programed instruction in the Avionics Fundamentals Course, Class A. It was found that the students knew about 30 percent of the material before reading the programs, that mastery rose to a very high level on the immediate posttest,…

  11. AASCU/Sallie Mae National Retention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Pamela G.

    This brochure describes the AASCU/Sallie Mae National Retention Project's goals, beginnings, continuing work, and participants. An introduction describes how the Project has resulted in over 370 state institutions looking closely at their effectiveness in student learning and achievement and at emerging accountability requirements. An overview…

  12. Retention of First Year Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Melissa H.

    2012-01-01

    Although close to half of all community college students leave before obtaining their stated goals, most retention studies are still being conducted at the four-year college and university level. There is still little research conducted at the community college level. In order to determine what student characteristics increase community college

  13. Grade Retention: Does It Hold Children Back?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottorff, Donald D.

    1991-01-01

    The academic benefits of grade retention are doubtful. Researchers have found that a low percentage of retained students achieve at a higher rate and that many regress. Parents should request a multidisciplinary evaluation before allowing a child to be retained. (JD)

  14. Attrition and Retention among Special Education Paraprofessionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kimberly D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to obtain information about issues of turnover and retention among former and current special education paraprofessionals in one school district. Survey data and findings indicated ways to retain staff and reduce turnover. Information from this study was shared within the district and will be considered in creating…

  15. Predicting Retention in Online General Education Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Libby V.; Wu, Sz-Shyan; Finnegan, Catherine L.

    2005-01-01

    A classification rule was developed to predict undergraduate students' withdrawal from or completion of fully online general education courses. A multivariate technique, predictive discriminant analysis (PDA), was used. High school grade point average and SAT mathematics score were shown to be related to retention in the online university courses.…

  16. Relationship of Personality Traits to Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    Carl Jung's theory of psychological types has been the basis for the development of personality categorization, including tests such as Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This study analyzed the extent of the relationship between MBTI and Tinto (1993) retention factors that influence Oriental medicine students' choice of staying or dropping out…

  17. Personnel Recruitment and Retention in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helge, Doris; Marrs, Lawrence W.

    Recruitment and retention of special education teachers and related services staff have been persistent problems of rural school districts nationwide. High teacher attrition rates have serious ramifications for personnel development and program stability. Effective recruitment strategies for rural areas have four main components: (1) emphasis on…

  18. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  20. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...