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Sample records for identify gamma rays

  1. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark; Gosnell, Tom B.; Ham, Cheryl; Perkins, Dwight; Wong, James

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  2. Identifying high-redshift gamma-ray bursts with RATIR

    SciTech Connect

    Littlejohns, O. M.; Butler, N. R.; Cucchiara, A.; Watson, A. M.; Lee, W. H.; Richer, M. G.; De Diego, J. A.; Georgiev, L.; González, J.; Román-Zúñiga, C. G.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.; Moseley, H.; Klein, C. R.; Fox, O. D.; Bloom, J. S.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.

    2014-07-01

    We present a template-fitting algorithm for determining photometric redshifts, z {sub phot}, of candidate high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using afterglow photometry, obtained by the Reionization and Transients InfraRed (RATIR) camera, this algorithm accounts for the intrinsic GRB afterglow spectral energy distribution, host dust extinction, and the effect of neutral hydrogen (local and cosmological) along the line of sight. We present the results obtained by this algorithm and the RATIR photometry of GRB 130606A, finding a range of best-fit solutions, 5.6 < z {sub phot} < 6.0, for models of several host dust extinction laws (none, the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Clouds, and Small Magellanic Clouds), consistent with spectroscopic measurements of the redshift of this GRB. Using simulated RATIR photometry, we find that our algorithm provides precise measures of z {sub phot} in the ranges of 4 < z {sub phot} ≲ 8 and 9 < z {sub phot} < 10 and can robustly determine when z {sub phot} > 4. Further testing highlights the required caution in cases of highly dust-extincted host galaxies. These tests also show that our algorithm does not erroneously find z {sub phot} < 4 when z {sub sim} > 4, thereby minimizing false negatives and allowing us to rapidly identify all potential high-redshift events.

  3. Real time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials from HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Wong, James L.; Jessup, James L.; Bianchini, Greg M.; Miller, Wayne O.

    2007-10-23

    A real-time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials which collects gamma count rates from a HPGe gamma-radiation detector to produce a high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum. A library of nuclear material definitions ("library definitions") is provided, with each uniquely associated with a nuclide or isotope material and each comprising at least one logic condition associated with a spectral parameter of a gamma-ray energy spectrum. The method determines whether the spectral parameters of said high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum satisfy all the logic conditions of any one of the library definitions, and subsequently uniquely identifies the material type as that nuclide or isotope material associated with the satisfied library definition. The method is iteratively repeated to update the spectrum and identification in real time.

  4. Identifiability of UHE Gamma-ray Air Showers by Neural-Network-Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; Inoue, N.; Miyazawa, K.; Vankov, H.P.

    The chemical composition of Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) comic rays is one of unsolved mysteries, and its study will give us fruitful information on the origin and acceleration mechanism of UHE cosmic rays. Especially, a detection of UHE gamma-rays by hybrid experiments, such as AUGER and TA, will be a key to solve these questions. The characteristics of UHE gamma-ray showers have been studied on lateral and longitudinal structure of shower particles by AIRES and our own simulation code, so far. There are apparent differences in a slope of lateral distribution (Eta) and a depth of shower maximum (Xmax) between gamma-ray and proton induced showers because UHE gamma-ray showers are affected by the LPM effect and the geomagnetic cascading process in an energy region of > 1019.5eV. Different features between gamma-ray and proton showers are pointed out from the simulation study and an identifiability of gamma-ray showers from proton ones is also discussed by the method of Neural-Network-Analysis.

  5. Comparison of thunderstorm systems that produce or lack RHESSI identified terrestrial gamma ray flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splitt, M. E.; Barnes, D. E.; Dwyer, J. R.; Rassoul, H.; Lazarus, S. M.; Smith, D. M.; Cramer, E. S.; Schaal, M.; Saleh, Z. H.; Ulrich, W.; Grefenstette, B.; Hazelton, B. J.

    2009-12-01

    Thunderstorms associated with RHESSI-identified terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) tend to be tall tropical thunderstorms in regions of significant lower tropospheric convergence. Yet despite the frequent occurrence of thunderstorms with these attributes within the RHESSI footprint, TGF detection is relatively rare. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data that sync, in both space and time, with RHESSI, are used to determine whether there are observable differences between thunderstorm systems in which the RHESSI observes a TGF and those that it does not. In particular, TRMM Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data are used to identify electrically active, but non-TGF producing, thunderstorms within a RHESSI footprint . TRMM precipitation and cloud-derived products from the null events are analyzed and compared to the same products composited from TGF producing storms. In addition, observations collected as part of the recent Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE) project are analyzed in this context.

  6. Calculation of the decision thresholds for radionuclides identified in gamma-ray spectra by post-processing peak analysis results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korun, Matjaž; Vodenik, Branko; Zorko, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    A method for calculating the decision thresholds for gamma-ray emitters, identified in gamma-ray spectrometric analyses, is described. The method is suitable for application in computerized spectra-analyzing procedures. In the calculation, the number of counts and the uncertainty in the number of counts for the peaks associated with the emitter are used. The method makes possible to calculate decision thresholds from peaks on a curved background and overlapping peaks. The uncertainty in the number of counts used in the calculation was computed using Canberra's Standard Peak Search Program (Canberra, 1986, Peak Search Algorithm Manual 07-0064). For isolated peaks, the decision threshold exceeds the value calculated from the channel contents in an energy region that is 2.5 FWHM wide, covering the background in the immediate vicinity of the peak. The decision thresholds vary by approximately 20% over a dynamic range of peak areas of about 1000. In the case of overlapping peaks, the decision threshold increases considerably. For multi-gamma-ray emitters, a common decision threshold is calculated from the decision thresholds obtained from individual gamma-ray emissions, being smaller than the smallest of the individual decision thresholds.

  7. Gamma ray generator

    DOEpatents

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  8. Prompt and Afterglow Emmision Properties of Gamma-ray Bursts with Spectroscopically Identified Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, Yuki; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Granot, Jonathan; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Woosley, Stan E.; Patel, Sandeep K.; Rol, Evert; In'TZant, Jean J. M.; VanDerHorst, Alexander J.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Strom, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of the prompt and afterglow emission of four nearby long-soft gamma-ray bursts (GRBs 980425,030329,031203, and 060218) that were spectroscopically found to be associated with Type IC supernovae and compare them to the general GRB population. For each event, we investigate the spectral and luminosity evolution and estimate the total energy budget based on broadband observations. The observational inventory for these events has become rich enough to allow estimates of their energy content in relativistic and subrelativistic form. The result is a global portrait of the effects of the physical processes responsible for producing long-soft GRBs. In particular, we find that the values of the energy released in mildly relativistic out8ows appears to have a sigruficantly smaller scatter than those found in highly relativistic ejecta. This is consistent with a picture in which the energy released inside the progenitor star is roughly standard, while the fracti

  9. Prompt and Afterglow Emission Properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts with Spectroscopically Identified Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, Yuki; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Granot, Jonathan; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Woosley, Stan E.; Patel, Sandeep K.; Rol, Evert; In'TZand, Jean J. M.; VanDerHorst, Alexander J.; Wuers, Ralph A. M. J.; Strom, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of the prompt and afterglow emission of four nearby long-soft gamma-ray bursts (GRBs 980425,030329,031203, and 060218) that were spectroscopically found to be associated with Type Ic supernovae and compare them to the general GRB population. For each event, we investigate the spectral and luminosity evolution and estimate the total energy budget based on broadband observations. The observational inventory for these events has become rich enough to allow estimates of their energy content in relativistic and subrelativistic form. The result is a global portrait of the effects of the physical processes responsible for producing long-soft GRBs. In particular, we find that the values of the energy released in mildly relativistic outflows appears to have a significantly smaller scatter than those found in highly relativistic ejecta. This is consistent with a picture in which the energy released inside the progenitor star is roughly standard, while the fraction of that energy that ends up in highly relativistic ejecta outside the star can vary dramatically between different events.

  10. Prompt and Afterglow Emission Properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts with Spectroscopically Identified Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Yuki; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Granot, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Woosley, S.E.; Patel, S.K.; Rol, E.; Zand, J.J.M.in't; a; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Strom, R.; /USRA, Huntsville /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study /UC, Santa Cruz /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NASA, Marshall /Leicester U. /SRON, Utrecht /Utrecht, Astron. Inst. /Amsterdam U., Astron. Inst. /NFRA, Dwingeloo

    2006-07-12

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of the prompt and afterglow emission of four nearby long-soft gamma-ray bursts (GRBs 980425, 030329, 031203, and 060218) that were spectroscopically found to be associated with type Ic supernovae, and compare them to the general GRB population. For each event, we investigate the spectral and luminosity evolution, and estimate the total energy budget based upon broadband observations. The observational inventory for these events has become rich enough to allow estimates of their energy content in relativistic and sub-relativistic form. The result is a global portrait of the effects of the physical processes responsible for producing long-soft GRBs. In particular, we find that the values of the energy released in mildly relativistic outflows appears to have a significantly smaller scatter than those found in highly relativistic ejecta. This is consistent with a picture in which the energy released inside the progenitor star is roughly standard, while the fraction of that energy that ends up in highly relativistic ejecta outside the star can vary dramatically between different events.

  11. Astrophysical gamma-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.; Kozlovsky, B.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of gamma-ray lines from solar flares, the Galactic Center, and transient celestial events are reviewed. The lines observed in each case are identified, and possible emission sources are considered. Future prospects for gamma-ray line astronomy are briefly discussed.

  12. Gamma ray detector shield

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, R.D.; Humphrey, H.W.

    1985-08-26

    A gamma ray detector shield comprised of a rigid, lead, cylindrical-shaped vessel having upper and lower portions with an pneumatically driven, sliding top assembly. Disposed inside the lead shield is a gamma ray scintillation crystal detector. Access to the gamma detector is through the sliding top assembly.

  13. Gamma ray transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, Thomas L.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of cosmic gamma ray bursts was made with systems designed at Los Alamos Laboratory for the detection of nuclear explosions beyond the atmosphere. HELIOS-2 was the first gamma ray burst instrument launched; its initial results in 1976, seemed to deepen the mystery around gamma ray transients. Interplanetary spacecraft data were reviewed in terms of explaining the behavior and source of the transients.

  14. Gamma-ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W. (Editor); Trombka, J. I. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Conference papers on gamma ray astrophysics are summarized. Data cover the energy region from about 0.3 MeV to a few hundred GeV and theoretical models of production mechanisms that give rise to both galactic and extragalactic gamma rays.

  15. Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2011-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has revolutionized the study of pulsar physics with the detection of over 80 gamma-ray pulsars. Several new populations have been discovered, including 24 radio quiet pulsars found through gamma-ray pulsations alone and about 20 millisecond gamma-ray pulsars. The gamma-ray pulsations from millisecond pulsars were discovered by both folding at periods of known radio millisecond pulsars or by detecting them as gamma-ray sources that are followed up by radio pulsar searches. The second method has resulted in a phenomenally successful synergy, with -35 new radio MSPs (to date) having been discovered at Fermi unidentified source locations and the gamma-ray pulsations having then been detected in a number of these using the radio timing solutions. The higher sensitivity and larger energy range of the Fermi Large Area Telescope has produced detailed energy-dependent light curves and phase-resolved spectroscopy on brighter pulsars, that have ruled out polar cap models as the major source of the emission in favor of outer magnetosphere accelerators. The large number of gamma-ray pulsars now allows for the first time meaningful population and sub-population studies that are revealing surprising properties of these fascinating sources.

  16. Gamma-rays attenuation of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa at different energies: A new technique for identifying the origin of gemstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limkitjaroenporn, P.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, the gamma-rays interaction properties of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa have been studied. The densities of Cambodian and South African's zircons are 4.6716±0.0040 g/cm3 and 4.5505±0.0018 g/cm3, respectively. The mass attenuation coefficient and the effective atomic number of gemstones were measured with the gamma-ray in energies range 223-662 keV using the Compton scattering technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of both zircons decreased with the increasing of gamma-rays energies. The different mass attenuation coefficients between the two zircons observed at gamma-ray energies below 400 keV are attributed to the differences in the photoelectric interaction. The effective atomic number of zircons was decreased with the increasing of gamma-ray energies and showed totally different values between the Cambodia and South Africa sources. The origins of the two zircons could be successfully identified by the method based on gamma-rays interaction with matter with advantage of being a non-destructive testing.

  17. Identifying Dark Matter Annihilation Products In The Diffuse Gamma Ray Background

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Belikov, Alexander V.; Hooper, Dan; Serpico, Pasquale

    2009-03-01

    Annihilation of cosmologically distributed dark matter is predicted to produce a potentially observable flux of high energy photons. Neglecting the contribution from local structure, this signal is predicted to be virtually uniform on the sky and, in order to be identified, must compete with various extragalactic backgrounds. We focus here on unresolved blazars and discuss several techniques for separating the dark matter signal from this background. First, the spectral shapes of the signal and background are expected to differ, a feature which can be exploited with the Fisher Matrix formalism. Second, in any given angular pixel, the number of photons from blazars is drawn from a distribution which is far from Poisson. A knowledge of this distribution enhances one's ability to extract the dark matter signal, while ignorance of it can lead to the introduction of a large systematic error.

  18. Gamma ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Jentschel, M.; Guenther, M. M.; Habs, D.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    Via refractive or diffractive scattering one can shape {gamma} ray beams in terms of beam divergence, spot size and monochromaticity. These concepts might be particular important in combination with future highly brilliant gamma ray sources and might push the sensibility of planned experiments by several orders of magnitude. We will demonstrate the experimental feasibility of gamma ray monochromatization on a ppm level and the creation of a gamma ray beam with nanoradian divergence. The results are obtained using the inpile target position of the High Flux Reactor of the ILL Grenoble and the crystal spectrometer GAMS. Since the refractive index is believed to vanish to zero with 1/E{sup 2}, the concept of refractive optics has never been considered for gamma rays. The combination of refractive optics with monochromator crystals is proposed to be a promising design. Using the crystal spectrometer GAMS, we have measured for the first time the refractive index at energies in the energy range of 180 - 2000 keV. The results indicate a deviation from simple 1/E{sup 2} extrapolation of X-ray results towards higher energies. A first interpretation of these new results will be presented. We will discuss the consequences of these results on the construction of refractive optics such as lenses or refracting prisms for gamma rays and their combination with single crystal monochromators.

  19. Gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1991-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to the development of the Bursts and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory and to analysis of archival data from balloon flight experiments were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  20. Gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Cosmic gamma rays, the physical processes responsible for their production and the astrophysical sites from which they were seen are reported. The bulk of the observed gamma ray emission is in the photon energy range from about 0.1 MeV to 1 GeV, where observations are carried out above the atmosphere. There are also, however, gamma ray observations at higher energies obtained by detecting the Cerenkov light produced by the high energy photons in the atmosphere. Gamma ray emission was observed from sources as close as the Sun and the Moon and as distant as the quasar 3C273, as well as from various other galactic and extragalactic sites. The radiation processes also range from the well understood, e.g. energetic particle interactions with matter, to the still incompletely researched, such as radiation transfer in optically thick electron positron plasmas in intense neutron star magnetic fields.

  1. Gamma ray line astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.

    1984-01-01

    The interpretations and implications of the astrophysical observations of gamma-ray lines are reviewed. At the Galactic Center e(+)-e(-) pairs from a compact object produce an annihilation line that shows no redshift, indicating an annihilation site far removed from this object. In the jets of SS433, gamma-ray lines are produced by inelastic excitations, probably in dust grains, although line emission from fusion reactions has also been considered. Observations of diffuse galactic line emission reveal recently synthesized radioactive aluminum in the interstellar medium. In gamma-ray bursts, redshifted pair annihilation lines are consistent with a neutron star origin for the bursts. In solar flares, gamma-ray line emission reveals the prompt acceleration of protons and nuclei, in close association with the flare energy release mechanism.

  2. Gamma Ray Pulsars: Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    High-energy gamma rays are a valuable tool for studying particle acceleration and radiation in the magnetospheres of energetic pulsars. The six or more pulsars seen by CGRO/EGRET show that: the light curves usually have double-peak structures (suggesting a broad cone of emission); gamma rays are frequently the dominant component of the radiated power; and all the spectra show evidence of a high-energy turnover. Unless a new pulsed component appears at higher energies, progress in gamma-ray pulsar studies will be greatest in the 1-20 GeV range. Ground-based telescopes whose energy ranges extend downward toward 10 GeV should make important measurements of the spectral cutoffs. The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), now in planning for a launch in 2005, will provide a major advance in sensitivity, energy range, and sky coverage.

  3. Gamma ray camera

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, C.D.; Wang, S.

    1980-09-09

    An anger gamma ray camera is improved by the substitution of a gamma ray sensitive, proximity type image intensifier tube for the scintillator screen in the anger camera, the image intensifier tube having a negatively charged flat scintillator screen and a flat photocathode layer and a grounded, flat output phosphor display screen all of the same dimension (Unity image magnification) and all within a grounded metallic tube envelope and having a metallic, inwardly concaved input window between the scintillator screen and the collimator.

  4. Prospects for gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission and the Gamma Ray Experiment aboard the SMM spacecraft are discussed. Mission plans for interplanetary probes are also discussed. The Gamma Ray observatory and its role in future gamma ray astronomy is highlighted. It is concluded that gamma ray astronomy will be of major importance in the development of astronomical models and in the development of comsological theory.

  5. The gamma-ray observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) mission. Detection of gamma rays and gamma ray sources, operations using the Space Shuttle, and instruments aboard the GRO, including the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE), the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL), and the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) are among the topics surveyed.

  6. Gamma ray camera

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1997-01-01

    A gamma ray camera for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array.

  7. Gamma Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The project has progressed successfully during this period of performance. The highlights of the Gamma Ray Astronomy teams efforts are: (1) Support daily BATSE data operations, including receipt, archival and dissemination of data, quick-look science analysis, rapid gamma-ray burst and transient monitoring and response efforts, instrument state-of-health monitoring, and instrument commanding and configuration; (2) On-going scientific analysis, including production and maintenance of gamma-ray burst, pulsed source and occultation source catalogs, gamma-ray burst spectroscopy, studies of the properties of pulsars and black holes, and long-term monitoring of hard x-ray sources; (3) Maintenance and continuous improvement of BATSE instrument response and calibration data bases; (4) Investigation of the use of solid state detectors for eventual application and instrument to perform all sky monitoring of X-Ray and Gamma sources with high sensitivity; and (5) Support of BATSE outreach activities, including seminars, colloquia and World Wide Web pages. The highlights of this efforts can be summarized in the publications and presentation list.

  8. Gamma ray camera

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1997-01-21

    A gamma ray camera is disclosed for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array. 6 figs.

  9. Gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Gehrels, Neil; Mészáros, Péter

    2012-08-24

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day, typically last for tens of seconds, and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this Review, we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglow. PMID:22923573

  10. Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  11. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Mészáros, Péter

    2012-08-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day, typically last for tens of seconds, and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this Review, we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglow.

  12. Gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1991-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to the development of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory and to collection, analysis, and interpretation of data from the MSFC Very Low Frequency transient monitoring program were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  13. Gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1992-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to mission operations and data analysis for the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory, to collection, analysis, and interpretation of data from the Marshall Space Flight Center Very Low Frequency transient monitoring program, and to compilation and analysis of induced radioactivity data were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  14. Celestial gamma ray study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelson, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the research activities performed by Stanford University investigators as part of the data reduction effort and overall support of the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Observatory. This report is arranged chronologically, with each subsection detailing activities during roughly a one year period of time, beginning in June 1991.

  15. Gamma ray astronomy in perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview of the development of gamma ray astronomy is presented. Gamma ray telescopes and other optical measuring instruments are highlighted. Emphasis is placed on findings that were unobtainable before gamma ray astronomy. Information on evolution of the solar system, the relationship of the solar system to the galaxy, and the composition of interstellar matter is discussed.

  16. The gamma-ray telescope Gamma-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akimov, V. V.; Nesterov, V. E.; Rodin, V. G.; Kalinkin, L. F.; Balibanov, V. M.; Prilutsky, O. F.; Leikov, N. G.; Bielaoussov, A. S.; Dobrian, L. B.; Poluektov, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    French and Soviet specialists have designed and built the gamma-ray telescope GAMMA-1 to detect cosmic gamma rays above 50 MeV. The sensitive area of the detector is 1400 sq cm, energy resolution is 30% at 300 MeV, and angular resolution 1.2 deg at 300 MeV (and less than 20' arc when a coded aperture mask is used). Results on calibration of the qualification model and Monte-Carlo calculations are presented.

  17. Topics in gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Observations of gamma rays from solar flares, gamma ray bursts, the Galactic center, galactic nucleosynthesis, SS433, and Cygnus X-3, and their effects on astrophysical problems are discussed. It is observed that gamma ray spectra from solar flares are applicable to the study of particle acceleration and confinement and the determination of chemical abundances in the solar atmosphere. The gamma ray lines from the compact galactic object SS433 are utilized to examine the acceleration of jets, and analysis of the gamma ray lines of Cygnus X-3 reveal that particles can be accelerated in compact sources to ultrahigh energies.

  18. Topics in gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    Observations of gamma rays from solar flares, gamma ray bursts, the Galactic center, galactic nucleosynthesis, SS433, and Cygnus X-3, and their effects on astrophysical problems are discussed. It is observed that gamma ray spectra from solar flares are applicable to the study of particle acceleration and confinement and the determination of chemical abundances in the solar atmosphere. The gamma ray lines from the compact galactic object SS433 are utilized to examine the acceleration of jets, and analysis of the gamma ray lines of Cygnus X-3 reveal that particles can be accelerated in compact sources to ultrahigh energies.

  19. Gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1994-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) is one of four instruments on the Compton observatory which was launched by the space shuttle Atlantis on April 5, 1991. As of mid-March, 1994, BATSE detected more than 925 cosmic gamma-ray bursts and more than 725 solar flares. Pulsed gamma rays have been detected from at least 16 sources and emission from at least 28 sources (including most of the pulsed sources) has been detected by the earth occultation technique. UAH participation in BATSE is extensive but can be divided into two main areas, operations and data analysis. The daily BATSE operations tasks represent a substantial level of effort and involve a large team composed of MSFC personnel as well as contractors such as UAH. The scientific data reduction and analysis of BATSE data is also a substantial level of effort in which UAH personnel have made significant contributions.

  20. Gamma ray collimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casanova, Edgar J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A gamma ray collimator including a housing having first and second sections is disclosed. The first section encloses a first section of depleted uranium which is disposed for receiving and supporting a radiation emitting component such as cobalt 60. The second section encloses a depleted uranium member which is provided with a conical cut out focusing portion disposed in communication with the radiation emitting element for focusing the emitted radiation to the target.

  1. Gamma ray collimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casanova, Edgar J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A gamma ray collimator including a housing having first and second sections. The first section encloses a first section of depleted uranium which is disposed for receiving and supporting a radiation emitting component such as cobalt 60. The second section encloses a depleted uranium member which is provided with a conical cut-out focusing portion disposed in communication with the radiation emitting element for focusing the emitted radiation to the target.

  2. SYNTH - Gamma Ray Spectrum Synthesizer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-05-18

    SYNTH was designed to synthesize the results of typical gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments. The code allows a user to specify the physical characteristics of a gamma-ray source, the quantity of radionuclides emitting gamma radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the presence and type of any intervening absorbers, the size and type of the gamma-ray detector, and the electronic set-up used to gather the data.

  3. NEAR Gamma Ray Spectrometer Characterization and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groves, Joel Lee; Vajda, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the work completed in the third year of the contract. The principle activities during this period were (1) the characterization of the NEAR 2 Gamma Ray Spectrometer using a neutron generator to generate complex gamma ray spectra and a large Ge Detecter to identify all the major peaks in the spectra; (2) the evaluation and repair of the Engineering Model Unit of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer for the NEAR mission; (3) the investigation of polycapillary x-ray optics for x-ray detection; and (4) technology transfer from NASA to forensic science.

  4. UNIDENTIFIED {gamma}-RAY SOURCES: HUNTING {gamma}-RAY BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; Ajello, M.; D'Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Tosti, G.; Gasparrini, D.

    2012-06-10

    One of the main scientific objectives of the ongoing Fermi mission is unveiling the nature of unidentified {gamma}-ray sources (UGSs). Despite the major improvements of Fermi in the localization of {gamma}-ray sources with respect to the past {gamma}-ray missions, about one-third of the Fermi-detected objects are still not associated with low-energy counterparts. Recently, using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer survey, we discovered that blazars, the rarest class of active galactic nuclei and the largest population of {gamma}-ray sources, can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources on the basis of their infrared (IR) colors. Based on this result, we designed an association method for the {gamma}-ray sources to recognize if there is a blazar candidate within the positional uncertainty region of a generic {gamma}-ray source. With this new IR diagnostic tool, we searched for {gamma}-ray blazar candidates associated with the UGS sample of the second Fermi {gamma}-ray LAT catalog (2FGL). We found that our method associates at least one {gamma}-ray blazar candidate as a counterpart to each of 156 out of 313 UGSs analyzed. These new low-energy candidates have the same IR properties as the blazars associated with {gamma}-ray sources in the 2FGL catalog.

  5. Unidentified Gamma-Ray Sources: Hunting Gamma-Ray Blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Tosti, G.; Ajello, M.; Gasparrini, A.Paggi.D.

    2012-04-02

    One of the main scientific objectives of the ongoing Fermi mission is unveiling the nature of the unidentified {gamma}-ray sources (UGSs). Despite the large improvements of Fermi in the localization of {gamma}-ray sources with respect to the past {gamma}-ray missions, about one third of the Fermi-detected objects are still not associated to low energy counterparts. Recently, using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) survey, we discovered that blazars, the rarest class of Active Galactic Nuclei and the largest population of {gamma}-ray sources, can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources on the basis of their infrared (IR) colors. Based on this result, we designed an association method for the {gamma}-ray sources to recognize if there is a blazar candidate within the positional uncertainty region of a generic {gamma}-ray source. With this new IR diagnostic tool, we searched for {gamma}-ray blazar candidates associated to the UGS sample of the second Fermi {gamma}-ray catalog (2FGL). We found that our method associates at least one {gamma}-ray blazar candidate as a counterpart each of 156 out of 313 UGSs analyzed. These new low-energy candidates have the same IR properties as the blazars associated to {gamma}-ray sources in the 2FGL catalog.

  6. Gamma rays from Centaurus A

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Nayantara

    2008-06-15

    Centaurus A, the cosmic ray accelerator a few Mpc away from us, is possibly one of the nearest sources of extremely high energy cosmic rays. We investigate whether the gamma ray data currently available from Centaurus A in the GeV-TeV energy band can be explained with only proton-proton interactions. We show that for a single power law proton spectrum, mechanisms of {gamma}-ray production other than proton-proton interactions are needed inside this radio-galaxy to explain the gamma ray flux observed by EGRET, upper limits from HESS/CANGAROO-III and the correlated extremely energetic cosmic ray events observed by the Pierre Auger experiment. In future, with better {gamma}-ray data, and simultaneous observation with {gamma}-ray and cosmic ray detectors, it will be possible to carry out such studies on different sources in more detail.

  7. Gamma ray astronomy and black hole astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison P.

    1990-01-01

    The study of soft gamma emissions from black-hole candidates is identified as an important element in understanding black-hole phenomena ranging from stellar-mass black holes to AGNs. The spectra of Cyg X-1 and observations of the Galactic Center are emphasized, since thermal origins and MeV gamma-ray bumps are evident and suggest a thermal-pair cloud picture. MeV gamma-ray observations are suggested for studying black hole astrophysics such as the theorized escaping pair wind, the anticorrelation between the MeV gamma bump and the soft continuum, and the relationship between source compactness and temperature.

  8. Gamma-ray detected radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, Volker; Soldi, Simona; De Jong, Sandra; Kretschmer, Karsten; Savchenko, Volodymyr

    2016-07-01

    So far 15 radio galaxies have been detected in the gamma-ray domain by CGRO/EGRET and Fermi/LAT, with a few detections also in the VHE range. We search for distinguishing parameters and estimate the total number of gamma-ray emitting radio galaxies that are potentially detectable by Fermi/LAT. We use Fermi/LAT data in comparison with X-ray and hard X-ray data in order to constrain basic parameters such as the total power of the inverse Compton branch and the position of its peak. We search for possible correlations between the radio, UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray domain and derive the number counts distribution. We then compare their properties with those of the radio galaxies in the 3CRR and SMS4 catalogues. The data show no correlation between the peak of the inverse Compton emission and its luminosity. For the gamma-ray detected radio galaxies the luminosities in the various bands are correlated, except for the UV band, but there is no indication of a correlation of peak frequency or luminosity with the spectral slopes in the X-ray or gamma-ray band. The comparison with other bright radio galaxies shows that the gamma-ray detected objects are among those that have the largest X-ray but rather moderate radio fluxes. Their UV and X-ray luminosities are similar, but gamma-ray detected radio galaxies are predominantly of type FR-I, while the 3CRR sample contains mainly FR-II objects. The number counts of the so far gamma-ray detected radio galaxies shows a very shallow slope, indicating that potentially a fraction of radio galaxies has been missed so far or has not been identified as such, although the predicted number of 22 ± 7 is consistent with the observed 15 objects.

  9. Gamma Ray Bursts - Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy GRB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission.

  10. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

    1994-06-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

  11. High energy gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    High energy gamma ray astronomy has evolved with the space age. Nonexistent twenty-five years ago, there is now a general sketch of the gamma ray sky which should develop into a detailed picture with the results expected to be forthcoming over the next decade. The galactic plane is the dominant feature of the gamma ray sky, the longitude and latitude distribution being generally correlated with galactic structural features including the spiral arms. Two molecular clouds were already seen. Two of the three strongest gamma ray sources are pulsars. The highly variable X-ray source Cygnus X-3 was seen at one time, but not another in the 100 MeV region, and it was also observed at very high energies. Beyond the Milky Way Galaxy, there is seen a diffuse radiation, whose origin remains uncertain, as well as at least one quasar, 3C 273. Looking to the future, the satellite opportunities for high energy gamma ray astronomy in the near term are the GAMMA-I planned to be launched in late 1987 and the Gamma Ray Observatory, scheduled for launch in 1990. The Gamma Ray Observatory will carry a total of four instruments covering the entire energy range from 30,000 eV to 3 x 10 to the 10th eV with over an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity relative to previous satellite instruments.

  12. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

  13. Gamma-ray line astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Ramaty, R.

    1986-01-01

    Recent observations of gamma-ray line emission from solar flares, gamma-ray bursts, the galactic center, the interstellar medium and the jets of SS433 are reviewed. The implications of these observations on high energy processes in these sources are discussed.

  14. Gamma Ray Pulsars: Multiwavelength Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2004-01-01

    High-energy gamma rays are a valuable tool for studying particle acceleration and radiation in the magnetospheres of energetic pulsars. The seven or more pulsars seen by instruments on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) show that: the light curves usually have double-peak structures (suggesting a broad cone of emission); gamma rays are frequently the dominant component of the radiated power; and all the spectra show evidence of a high-energy turnover. For all the known gamma-ray pulsars, multiwavelength observations and theoretical models based on such observations offer the prospect of gaining a broad understanding of these rotating neutron stars. The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), now in planning for a launch in 2006, will provide a major advance in sensitivity, energy range, and sky coverage.

  15. Planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    The measured intensities of certain gamma rays of specific energies escaping from a planetary surface can be used to determine the abundances of a number of elements. The fluxes of the more intense gamma-ray lines emitted from 32 elements were calculated using current nuclear data and existing models for the source processes. The source strengths for neutron-capture reactions were modified from those previously used. The fluxes emitted form a surface of average lunar composition are reported for 292 gamma-ray lines. These theoretical fluxes were used elsewhere to convert the data from the Apollo gamma-ray spectrometers to elemental abundances and can be used with measurements from future missions to map the concentrations of a number of elements over a planet's surface. Detection sensitivities for these elements are examined and applications of gamma-ray spectroscopy for future orbiters to Mars and other solar-system objects are discussed.

  16. Gamma-ray spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. R.; Peterson, L. E.; Metzger, A. E.; Trombka, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    The experiments in gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the geochemical composition of the lunar surface are reported. The theory is discussed of discrete energy lines of natural radioactivity, and the lines resulting from the bombardment of the lunar surface by high energy cosmic rays. The gamma-ray spectrometer used in lunar orbit and during transearth coast is described, and a preliminary analysis of the results is presented.

  17. Gamma rays, cosmic rays, and galactic structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1977-01-01

    Observations of cosmic and gamma radiation by SAS-2 satellite are summarized and analyzed to determine processes responsible for producing observed galactic radiation. In addition to the production of gamma rays in discrete galactic objects such as pulsars, there are three main mechanisms by which high-energy (greater than 100 MeV) radiation is produced by high-energy interactions involving cosmic rays in interstellar space. These processes, which produce what may be called diffuse galactic gamma-rays, are: (1) the decay of pi mesons produced by interactions of cosmic ray nucleons with interstellar gas nuclei; (2) the bremsstrahlung radiation produced by cosmic ray electrons interacting in the Coulomb fields of nuclei of interstellar gas atoms; and (3) Compton interactions between cosmic ray electrons and low-energy photons in interstellar space.

  18. Jet Shockwaves Produce Gamma Rays

    NASA Video Gallery

    Theorists believe that GRB jets produce gamma rays by two processes involving shock waves. Shells of material within the jet move at different speeds and collide, generating internal shock waves th...

  19. Gamma rays at airplane altitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, J.; Koss, T.; Lord, J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, J.; Woosley, J. )

    1990-03-20

    An examination of the gamma ray flux above 1 TeV in the atmosphere is needed to better understand the anomalous showers from point sources. Suggestions are made for future experiments on board airplanes.

  20. Cosmic-Rays and Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meli, A.

    2013-07-01

    Cosmic-rays are subatomic particles of energies ranging between a few eV to hundreds of TeV. These particles register a power-law spectrum, and it seems that most of them originate from astrophysical galactic and extragalactic sources. The shock acceleration in superalfvenic astrophysical plasmas, is believed to be the main mechanism responsible for the production of the non-thermal cosmic-rays. Especially, the importance of the very high energy cosmic-ray acceleration, with its consequent gamma-ray radiation and neutrino production in the shocks of the relativistic jets of Gamma Ray Bursts, is a favourable theme of study. I will discuss the cosmic-ray shock acceleration mechanism particularly focusing on simulation studies of cosmic-ray acceleration occurring in the relativistic shocks of GRB jets.

  1. Gamma-ray line astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy is a valuable source of information on solar activity, supernovae, and nucleosynthesis. Cosmic gamma-ray lines were first observed from solar flares and more recently from the galactic center and a transient event. The latter may give an important insight into nuclear reactions taking place near neutron stars and black holes and a measure of the gravitational redshifts of such objects.

  2. Directional detector of gamma rays

    DOEpatents

    Cox, Samson A.; Levert, Francis E.

    1979-01-01

    A directional detector of gamma rays comprises a strip of an electrical cuctor of high atomic number backed with a strip of a second electrical conductor of low atomic number. These elements are enclosed within an electrical conductor that establishes an electrical ground, maintains a vacuum enclosure and screens out low-energy gamma rays. The detector exhibits a directional sensitivity marked by an increased output in the favored direction by a factor of ten over the output in the unfavored direction.

  3. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) was launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on 5 April 1991. The spacecraft and instruments are in good health and returning exciting results. The mission provides nearly six orders of magnitude in spectral coverage, from 30 keV to 30 GeV, with sensitivity over the entire range an order of magnitude better than that of previous observations. The 16,000 kilogram observatory contains four instruments on a stabilized platform. The mission began normal operations on 16 May 1991 and is now over half-way through a full-sky survey. The mission duration is expected to be from six to ten years. A Science Support Center has been established at Goddard Space Flight Center for the purpose of supporting a vigorous Guest Investigator Program. New scientific results to date include: (1) the establishment of the isotropy, combined with spatial inhomogeneity, of the distribution of gamma-ray bursts in the sky; (2) the discovery of intense high energy (100 MeV) gamma-ray emission from 3C 279 and other quasars and BL Lac objects, making these the most distant and luminous gamma-ray sources ever detected; (3) one of the first images of a gamma-ray burst; (4) the observation of intense nuclear and position-annihilation gamma-ray lines and neutrons from several large solar flares; and (5) the detection of a third gamma-ray pulsar, plus several other transient and pulsing hard X-ray sources.

  4. Gamma Rays from Classical Novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA at the University of Chicago, provided support for a program of theoretical research into the nature of the thermonuclear outbursts of the classical novae and their implications for gamma ray astronomy. In particular, problems which have been addressed include the role of convection in the earliest stages of nova runaway, the influence of opacity on the characteristics of novae, and the nucleosynthesis expected to accompany nova outbursts on massive Oxygen-Neon-Magnesium (ONeMg) white dwarfs. In the following report, I will identify several critical projects on which considerable progress has been achieved and provide brief summaries of the results obtained:(1) two dimensional simulation of nova runaway; (2) nucleosynthesis of nova modeling; and (3) a quasi-analytic study of nucleosynthesis in ONeMg novae.

  5. Gamma-ray astronomy and the origin of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Recent observations of cosmic gamma radiation are reviewed. It is shown that this radiation consists of an extragalactic background as well as a bright band of galactic radiation lying in the plane of the Milky Way and produced primarily by cosmic-ray collisions with interstellar gas atoms. The galactic gamma radiation is divided into a near component apparently associated with Gould's belt and a far component originating about 15,000 light years away and narrowly confined to the galactic plane. A Great Galactic Ring is identified which is 35,000 light years in diameter and in which most galactic cosmic rays are produced and supernovae and pulsars are concentrated. The physical mechanisms responsible for the production of most of the cosmic gamma rays in the Galaxy are examined, and the origin of galactic cosmic rays is considered. It is concluded that the cosmic rays are produced either in supernova explosions or in the pulsars they leave behind

  6. Gamma Ray Astronomy with LHAASO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernetto, S.; LHAASO Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The aim of LHAASO is the development of an air shower experiment able to monitor with unprecedented sensitivity the gamma ray sky at energies from ~200 GeV to 1 PeV, and at the same time be an instrument able to measure the cosmic ray spectrum, composition and anisotropy in a wide energy range (~1 TeV to 1 EeV). LHAASO, thanks to the large area and the high capability of background rejection, can reach sensitivities to gamma ray fluxes above 30 TeV that are about 100 times higher than that of current instruments, offering the possibility to monitor for the first time the gamma ray sky up to PeV energies and to discover the long sought “Pevatrons”.

  7. The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope for precision gamma-ray emission investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topchiev, N. P.; Galper, A. M.; Bonvicini, V.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Bakaldin, A. V.; Bergstrom, L.; Berti, E.; Bigongiari, G.; Bobkov, S. G.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Bottai, S.; Castellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cumani, P.; Dalkarov, O. D.; Dedenko, G. L.; De Donato, C.; Dogiel, V. A.; Finetti, N.; Gascon, D.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Gusakov, Yu V.; Hnatyk, B. I.; Kadilin, V. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kaplun, A. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Korepanov, V. E.; Larsson, J.; Leonov, A. A.; Loginov, V. A.; Longo, F.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Martinez, M.; Men'shenin, A. L.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu; Papini, P.; Paredes, J. M.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Ricciarini, S.; Runtso, M. F.; Ryde, F.; Serdin, O. V.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Yu I.; Suchkov, S. I.; Taraskin, A. A.; Tavani, M.; Tiberio, A.; Tyurin, E. M.; Ulanov, M. V.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Ward, J. E.; Yurkin, Yu T.; Zampa, N.; Zirakashvili, V. N.; Zverev, V. G.

    2016-02-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope with excellent angular and energy resolutions is designed to search for signatures of dark matter in the fluxes of gamma-ray emission and electrons + positrons. Precision investigations of gamma-ray emission from Galactic Center, Crab, Vela, Cygnus, Geminga, and other regions will be performed, as well as diffuse gamma-ray emission, along with measurements of high-energy electron + positron and nuclei fluxes. Furthermore, it will study gamma-ray bursts and gamma-ray emission from the Sun during periods of solar activity. The GAMMA-400 energy range is expected to be from ∼20 MeV up to TeV energies for gamma rays, up to 10 TeV for electrons + positrons, and up to 1015 eV for cosmic-ray nuclei. For 100-GeV gamma rays, the GAMMA-400 angular resolution is ∼0.01° and energy resolution is ∼1% the proton rejection factor is ∼5x105. GAMMA-400 will be installed onboard the Russian space observatory.

  8. Gamma-400 Science Objectives Built on the Current HE Gamma-Ray and CR Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseev, Alexander; Mitchell, John; Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    The main scientific interest of the Russian Gamma-400 team: Observe gamma-rays above approximately 50 GeV with excellent energy and angular resolution with the goals of: (1) Studying the fine spectral structure of the isotropic high-energy gamma-radiation, (2) Attempting to identify the many still-unidentified Fermi-LAT gamma-ray sources. Gamma-400 will likely be the only space-based gamma-ray observatory operating at the end of the decade. In our proposed Gamma-400-LE version, it will substantially improve upon the capabilities of Fermi LAT and AGILE in both LE and HE energy range. Measuring gamma-rays from approx 20 MeV to approx 1 TeV for at least 7 years, Gamma-400-LE will address the topics of dark matter, cosmic ray origin and propagation, neutron stars, flaring pulsars, black holes, AGNs, GRBs, and actively participate in multiwavelength campaigns.

  9. The Gamma-ray Sky with Fermi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays reveal extreme, nonthermal conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been exploring the gamma-ray sky for more than four years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge gamma-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  10. Gamma-ray Imaging Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Valentine, J; Wright, D

    2006-10-05

    In this document we discuss specific implementations for gamma-ray imaging instruments including the principle of operation and describe systems which have been built and demonstrated as well as systems currently under development. There are several fundamentally different technologies each with specific operational requirements and performance trade offs. We provide an overview of the different gamma-ray imaging techniques and briefly discuss challenges and limitations associated with each modality (in the appendix we give detailed descriptions of specific implementations for many of these technologies). In Section 3 we summarize the performance and operational aspects in tabular form as an aid for comparing technologies and mapping technologies to potential applications.

  11. Towed seabed gamma ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.G. )

    1994-08-01

    For more than 50 years, the measurement of radioactivity has been used for onshore geological surveys and in laboratories. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has extended the use of this type of equipment to the marine environment with the development of seabed gamma ray spectrometer systems. The present seabed gamma ray spectrometer, known as the Eel, has been successfully used for sediment and solid rock mapping, mineral exploration, and radioactive pollution studies. The range of applications for the system continues to expand. This paper examines the technological aspects of the Eel and some of the applications for which it has been used.

  12. Cosmological gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan

    1991-01-01

    The distribution in angle and flux of gamma-ray bursts indicates that the majority of gamma-ray bursters are at cosmological distances, i.e., at z of about 1. The rate is then about 10 exp -8/yr in a galaxy like the Milky Way, i.e., orders of magnitude lower than the estimated rate for collisions between neutron stars in close binary systems. The energy per burst is about 10 exp 51 ergs, assuming isotropic emission. The events appear to be less energetic and more frequent if their emission is strongly beamed. Some tests for the distance scale are discussed: a correlation between the burst's strength and its spectrum; the absorption by the Galactic gas below about 2 keV; the X-ray tails caused by forward scattering by the Galactic dust; about 1 month recurrence of some bursts caused by gravitational lensing by foreground galaxies; and a search for gamma-ray bursts in M31. The bursts appear to be a manifestation of something exotic, but conventional compact objects can provide an explanation. The best possibility is offered by a decay of a bindary composed of a spinning-stellar-mass black-hole primary and a neutron or a strange-quark star secondary. In the final phase the secondary is tidally disrupted, forms an accretion disk, and up to 10 exp 54 ergs are released. A very small fraction of this energy powers the gamma-ray burst.

  13. Gamma ray spectroscopy in astrophysics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L. (Editor); Ramaty, R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical aspects of gamma ray spectroscopy in high energy astrophysics are discussed. Line spectra from solar, stellar, planetary, and cosmic gamma rays are examined as well as HEAO investigations, the prospects of a gamma ray observatory, and follow-on X-ray experiments in space.

  14. Gamma rays for pedestrians

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1987-05-07

    Nuclear gamma radiation does not have many of the properties taken for granted in atomic or molecular radiation and necessary for lasers. The basic science and technology underlying these differences and the proposed methods of overcoming difficulties resulting from them are not properly understood. Considerable illumination in this interdisciplinary problem could be provided by some back-of-the-envelope calculations and simple experimental surveys by small groups of students and postdocs with an elementary knowledge of the nuclear and solid state physics which is evidently not familiar these days to laser physicists. 3 refs.

  15. The Gamma-ray Universe through Fermi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays, the most powerful form of light, reveal extreme conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and its smaller cousin AGILE have been exploring the gamma-ray sky for several years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge ga.nuna-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  16. Gamma Ray/neutron Spectrometers for Planetary Elemental Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Auchampaugh, G. F.; Barraclough, B. L.; Burt, W. W.; Byrd, R. C.; Drake, D. M.; Edwards, B. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Martin, R. A.; Moss, C. E.

    1993-01-01

    Los Alamos has designed gamma ray and neutron spectrometers for Lunar Scout, two robotic missions to map the Moon from 100 km polar orbits. Knowledge of the elemental composition is desirable in identifying resources and for geochemical studies and can be obtained using gamma ray and neutron spectrometers. Measurements with gamma ray and neutron spectrometers complement each other in determining elemental abundances in a planet's surface. Various aspects of the instruments are discussed.

  17. Gamma ray astronomy. [source mechanisms review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D.

    1974-01-01

    The various source mechanisms for celestial gamma rays are reviewed. The gamma-ray data are examined as a source of information about the processes and source locations for the production of charged particle cosmic rays, galactic structure, explosive nucleosynthesis in supernovae, regions of confinement for cosmic rays, regions where matter-antimatter annihilation occurs, and the general condition in cosmological space both in the past and present. Topics include gamma rays from pi mesons by nuclear interactions, nuclear and supernovae lines, diffuse emission and discrete sources, interstellar absorption and detection of gamma rays, and others. A brief view of the available gamma-ray detection systems and techniques is presented.

  18. Gamma-ray camera flyby

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Animation based on an actual classroom demonstration of the prototype CCI-2 gamma-ray camera's ability to image a hidden radioactive source, a cesium-137 line source, in three dimensions. For more information see http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2010/06/02/applied-nuclear-physics/.

  19. Gamma ray slush hydrogen monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Shen, Chih-Peng; Sprinkle, Danny R.

    1992-01-01

    Mass attenuation for 109Cd radiation have been measured in mixtures of phases and in single phases of five chemical compounds. As anticipated, the mass attenuation coefficients are independent of the phases of the test chemicals. It is recommended that a slush hydrogen monitoring system based on low energy gamma ray attenuation be developed for utilization aboard the NASP.

  20. Observational Gamma-ray Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primack, Joel R.; Bullock, James S.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2005-02-01

    We discuss how measurements of the absorption of gamma-rays from GeV to TeV energies via pair production on the extragalactic background light (EBL) can probe important issues in galaxy formation. Semi-analytic models (SAMs) of galaxy formation, based on the flat LCDM hierarchical structure formation scenario, are used to make predictions of the EBL from 0.1 to 1000 microns. SAMs incorporate simplified physical treatments of the key processes of galaxy formation - including gravitational collapse and merging of dark matter halos, gas cooling and dissipation, star formation, supernova feedback and metal production. We will summarize SAM successes and failures in accounting for observations at low and high redshift. New ground- and space-based gamma ray telescopes will help to determine the EBL, and also help to explain its origin by constraining some of the most uncertain features of galaxy formation theory, including the stellar initial mass function, the history of star formation, and the reprocessing of light by dust. On a separate topic concerning gamma ray cosmology, we discuss a new theoretical insight into the distribution of dark matter at the center of the Milky Way, and its implications concerning the high energy gamma rays observed from the Galactic center.

  1. Advances in gamma-ray line astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma ray line observations of solar flares, gamma ray transients, and the galactic center are reviewed and interpreted. Prospects of future line detections are discussed. Previously announced in STAR as N82-27200

  2. Swift's 500th Gamma Ray Burst

    NASA Video Gallery

    On April 13, 2010, NASA's Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer satellite discovered its 500th burst. Swift's main job is to quickly localize each gamma-ray burst (GRB), report its position so that others...

  3. Telescope Would Image X And Gamma Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed telescope forms images of sources of gamma rays, hard x rays, and soft x rays. Contains reflecting, grazing-incidence reflectors. Multiple coaxial nested pairs used to form images simultaneously at multiple gamma-ray or hard x-ray energies or enhance collection area at single photon energy. Conceived for use in astrophysical studies in outer space. With modifications, used in terrestrial laboratory vaccum systems to image x or gamma rays from pulsed plasmas.

  4. Portable compton gamma-ray detection system

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S.; Oldaker, Mark E.

    2008-03-04

    A Compton scattered gamma-ray detector system. The system comprises a gamma-ray spectrometer and an annular array of individual scintillators. The scintillators are positioned so that they are arrayed around the gamma-ray spectrometer. The annular array of individual scintillators includes a first scintillator. A radiation shield is positioned around the first scintillator. A multi-channel analyzer is operatively connected to the gamma-ray spectrometer and the annular array of individual scintillators.

  5. The Andromeda galaxy in gamma-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oezel, M. E.; Berkhuijsen, E. M.

    1987-01-01

    Implications of high-energy gamma-ray observations of the Andromeda galaxy with the next generation of satellites Gamma-1 and GRO are discussed in the context of the origin of cosmic rays and gamma-ray processes. The present estimate of the total gamma-ray flux of this galaxy at energies above 100 MeV is a factor of about three less than previous estimates.

  6. Observations of diffuse galactic gamma rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    The observations of galactic diffuse gamma radiation are reviewed. The connections of the gamma ray observations with galactic structure and cosmic rays are discussed. The high latitude galactic component and the low latitude emission from the galactic plane are examined. The observations in other regions of the gamma ray spectrum are discussed.

  7. Gamma ray astrophysics. [emphasizing processes and absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1974-01-01

    Gamma ray production processes are reviewed, including Compton scattering, synchrotron radiation, bremsstrahlung interactions, meson decay, nucleon-antinucleon annihilations, and pion production. Gamma ray absorption mechanisms through interactions with radiation and with matter are discussed, along with redshifts and gamma ray fluxes.

  8. Nuclear gamma rays from energetic particle interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma ray line emission from nuclear deexcitation following energetic particle reactions is evaluated. The compiled nuclear data and the calculated gamma ray spectra and intensities can be used for the study of astrophysical sites which contain large fluxes of energetic protons and nuclei. A detailed evaluation of gamma ray line production in the interstellar medium is made.

  9. Cascaded Gamma Rays as a Probe of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Kohta

    2014-06-01

    Very-high-energy (VHE) and ultra-high-energy (UHE) gamma rays from extragalactic sources experience electromagnetic cascades during their propagation in intergalactic space. Recent gamma-ray data on TeV blazars and the diffuse gamma-ray background may have hints of the cascade emission, which are especially interesting if it comes from UHE cosmic rays. I show that cosmic-ray-induced cascades can be discriminated from gamma-ray-induced cascades with detailed gamma-ray spectra. I also discuss roles of structured magnetic fields, which suppress inverse-Compton pair halos/echoes but lead to guaranteed signals - synchrotron pair halos/echoes.

  10. Future prospects for gamma-ray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C.

    1980-01-01

    Astrophysical phenomena discussed are: the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects; astrophysical nucleo-synthesis; solar particle acceleration; the chemical composition of the planets and other bodies of the solar system; the structure of our galaxy; the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays; the high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies, especially active ones; and the degree of matter antimater symmetry of the universe. The gamma ray results of GAMMA-I, the gamma ray observatory, the gamma ray burst network, solar polar, and very high energy gamma ray telescopes on the ground provide justification for more sophisticated telescopes.

  11. Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Guest Investigator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a final report for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Guest Investigator Program from 06/01/91-07/31/97. The topics include: 1) Solar Flare Neutron Spectra and Accelerated Ions; 2) Gamma Ray Lines From The Orion Complex; 3) Implications of Nuclear Line Emission From The Orion Complex; 4) Possible Sites of Nuclear Line Emission From Massive OB Associations; 5) Gamma-Ray Burst Repitition and BATSE Position Uncertainties; 6) Effects of Compton Scattering on BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Spectra; and 7) Selection Biases on the Spectral and Temporal Distribution of Gamma Ray Bursts.

  12. Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the observation of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes (TGFs) by Gamma-Ray Telescopes. These were: (1) BATSE /Compton Observatory, (2) Solar Spectroscopic Imager, (3) AGILE Gamma-ray Telescope, and (4) Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. It contains charts which display the counts over time, a map or the TGFs observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). and a map showing the latitude and longitude of 85 of the TGFs observed by the Fermi GBM.

  13. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedrenne, G.

    1981-06-01

    The general characteristics of gamma-ray bursts are considered. During the period from 1967 to 1977 62 gamma-ray bursts were discovered. Between September 1978 and December 1980 more than 40 bursts were observed with the aid of interplanetary spacecraft, including the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, ISEE-C, Helios B, Vela, Prognoz 7, Venera 11, and Venera 12. The time structures are discussed along with the spectra, and the burst intensity distribution. Attention is given to events observed on March 5, April 6, November 4, and November 19, 1979, taking into account the location of each event. The implications of the more recent results are discussed. It is pointed out that for a better understanding of the origin of the emissions, it is necessary to have a coordinated observation program with several satellites separated by large distances.

  14. Solar gamma-ray lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite has observed emissions produced by nuclear reactions in over 20 separate solar flares. The observed intensity from different flares ranges over a factor of 100, and the time scale for their production ranges from 10-s pulses to complete events lasting over 1000 s. The emissions include narrow and broadened prompt gamma-ray lines from numerous isotopes from Li-7 to Fe-56 and cover the energy range from 0.431 MeV (Be-7) to 7.12 MeV (O-16). The instrument has also observed emissions at energies greater than 10 MeV from the decay of pi0 mesons, from electron bremsstrahlung, and from the direct observation of greater-than-100-MeV solar neutrons. The intensity, temporal and spectral properties of these emissions are reviewed from the point of view that solar flares represent an astrophysical particle-acceleration site.

  15. Apollo orbital geochemistry: Gamma rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trombka, J. I.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar gamma ray spectra obtained during Apollo-15 and -16 flights show a natural radioactivity due to potassium, thorium, and uranium as well as a cosmic ray induced activity in the lunar surface due to high neutron interactions produced by (p,n) reaction in the lunar surface. The radioactivity is at a low in the highlands on the backside of the moon; most of the radioactivity is confined to the Oceanus Procellarum/Mare Imbrium region and to the Van de Graff area on the lunar backside.

  16. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies with GLAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the prospects of extending the understanding of gamma ray pulsars, and answering the open questions left from the limited observations that are available from current observatories. There are 2 new gamma ray observatories that are either on orbit or will be shortly launched: (1) Astro-rivelatore Gamma a Immagini LEggero (AGILE), and Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). On board GLAST there will be two instruments Large Area Telescope (LAT), and GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM).

  17. Gamma-Ray Astronomy Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades gamma-ray observations have become a valuable tool for studying the universe. Progress made in diverse 8re1lS such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), nucleosynthesis, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has complimented and enriched our astrophysical understanding in many ways. We present an overview of current and future planned space y-ray missions and discussion technology needs for- the next generation of space gamma-ray instruments.

  18. Gamma-Ray Bursts: A Mystery Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Ann

    2007-01-01

    With the success of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer currently in orbit, this is quite an exciting time in the history of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The study of GRBs is a modern astronomical mystery story that began over 30 years ago with the serendipitous discovery of these astronomical events by military satellites in the late 1960's. Until the launch of BATSE on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory, astronomers had no clue whether GRBs originated at the edge of our solar system, in our own Milky Way Galaxy or incredibly far away near the edge of the observable Universe. Data from BATSE proved that GRBs are distributed isotropically on the sky and thus could not be the related to objects in the disk of our Galaxy. Given the intensity of the gamma-ray emission, an extragalactic origin would require an astounding amount of energy. Without sufficient data to decide the issue, a great debate continued about whether GRBs were located in the halo of our own galaxy or were at extragalactic - even cosmological distances. This debate continued until 1997 when the BeppoSAX mission discovered a fading X-ray afterglow signal in the same location as a GRB. This discovery enabled other telescopes, to observe afterglow emission at optical and radio wavelengths and prove that GRBs were at cosmological distances by measuring large redshifts in the optical spectra. Like BeppoSAX Swift, slews to new GRB locations to measure afterglow emission. In addition to improved GRB sensitivity, a significant advantage of Swift over BeppoSAX and other missions is its ability to slew very quickly, allowing x-ray and optical follow-up measurements to be made as early as a minute after the gamma-ray burst trigger rather than the previous 6-8 hour delay. Swift afterglow measurements along with follow-up ground-based observations, and theoretical work have allowed astronomers to identify two plausible scenarios for the creation of a GRB: either through core collapse of super massive stars or

  19. Distance Indicators of Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Distance measurements of gamma-ray pulsars are challenging questions in present pulsar studies. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi gamma-ray observatory discovered more than 100 gamma-ray pulsars including 24 new gamma-selected pulsars which nearly have no distance information. We study the relation between gamma-ray emission efficiency (η = Lγ/Ė) and pulsar parameters for young radio-selected gamma-ray pulsars with known distance information in the first gamma-ray pulsar catalog reported by Fermi/LAT. We have introduced three generation order parameters to describe gamma-ray emission properties of pulsars, and find the strong correlation of η - ζ3 a generation order parameter which reflects γ-ray photon generations in pair cascade processes induced by magnetic field absorption in pulsar magnetosphere. A good correlation of η - BLC the magnetic field at the light cylinder radius is also found. These correlations would be the distance indicators in gamma-ray pulsars to evaluate distances for gamma-selected pulsars. Distances of 25 gamma-selected pulsars are estimated, which could be tested by other distance measurement methods. Physical origin of the correlations may be also interesting for pulsar studies.

  20. Gamma-Ray Library and Uncertainty Analysis: Passively Emitted Gamma Rays Used in Safeguards Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, W

    2009-09-18

    streams can be especially challenging to identify. The super cooled detectors have a marked improvement in energy resolution, allowing the possibility of deconvolution of mixtures of gamma rays that was unavailable with high purity germanium detectors. Isotopic analysis codes require libraries of gamma rays. In certain situations, isotope identification can be made in the field, sometimes with a short turnaround time, depending on the choice of detector and software analysis package. Sodium iodide and high purity germanium detectors have been successfully used in field scenarios. The newer super cooled detectors offer dramatically increased resolution, but they have lower efficiency and so can require longer collection times. The different peak shapes require software development for the specific detector type and field application. Libraries can be tailored to specific scenarios; by eliminating isotopes that are certainly not present, the analysis time may be shortened and the accuracy may be increased. The intent of this project was to create one accurate library of gamma rays emitted from isotopes of interest to be used as a reliable reference in safeguards work. All simulation and spectroscopy analysis codes can draw upon this best library to improve accuracy and cross-code consistency. Modeling codes may include MCNP and COG. Gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis codes may include MGA, MGAU, U235 and FRAM. The intent is to give developers and users the tools to use in nuclear energy safeguards work. In this project, the library created was limited to a selection of actinide isotopes of immediate interest to reactor technology. These isotopes included {sup 234-238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238-242}Pu, {sup 241,243}Am and {sup 244}Cm. These isotopes were examined, and the best of gamma-ray data, including line energies and relative strengths were selected.

  1. Characteristics of gamma-ray line flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, T.; Dennis, B.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of solar gamma rays by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) demonstrate that energetic protons and ions are rapidly accelerated during the impulsive phase. To understand the acceleration mechanisms for these particles, the characteristics of the gamma ray line flares observed by SMM were studied. Some very intense hard X-ray flares without detectable gamma ray lines were also investigated. Gamma ray line flares are distinguished from other flares by: (1) intense hard X-ray and microwave emissions; (2) delay of high energy hard X-rays; (3) emission of type 2 and/or type 4 radio bursts; and (4) flat hard X-ray spectra (average power law index: 3.1). The majority of the gamma ray line flares shared all these characteristics, and the remainder shared at least three of them. Positive correlations were found between durations of spike bursts and spatial sizes of flare loops as well as between delay times and durations of spike bursts.

  2. Effect of gamma ray irradiation on sodium borate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalidasan, M.; Asokan, K.; Baskar, K.; Dhanasekaran, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the effects of 5 kGy, 10 kGy and 20 kGy doses of gamma ray irradiation on sodium borate, Na2[B4O5(OH)4]·(H2O)8 single crystals have been studied. Initially these crystals were grown by solution growth technique and identified as monoclinic using X-ray diffraction analysis. X-ray rocking curves confirm the formation of crystalline defects due to gamma rays in sodium borate single crystals. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra have been recorded to identify the radicals created due to gamma ray irradiation in sodium borate single crystals. The thermoluminescence glow curves due to the defects created by gamma rays in this crystal have been observed and their kinetic parameters were calculated using Chen's peak shape method. The optical absorption increases and photoluminescence spectral intensity decreases for 5 kGy and 20 kGy doses gamma ray irradiated crystals compared to pristine and 10 kGy dose irradiated one. The effect of various doses of gamma rays on vibrational modes of the sodium borate single crystals was studied using FT-Raman and ATR-FTIR spectral analysis. The dielectric permittivity, conductance and dielectric loss versus frequency graphs of these crystals have been analyzed to know the effect of gamma ray irradiation on these parameters.

  3. Fissile interrogation using gamma rays from oxygen

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Donald; Micklich, Bradley J.; Fessler, Andreas

    2004-04-20

    The subject apparatus provides a means to identify the presence of fissionable material or other nuclear material contained within an item to be tested. The system employs a portable accelerator to accelerate and direct protons to a fluorine-compound target. The interaction of the protons with the fluorine-compound target produces gamma rays which are directed at the item to be tested. If the item to be tested contains either a fissionable material or other nuclear material the interaction of the gamma rays with the material contained within the test item with result in the production of neutrons. A system of neutron detectors is positioned to intercept any neutrons generated by the test item. The results from the neutron detectors are analyzed to determine the presence of a fissionable material or other nuclear material.

  4. Gamma-ray astrophysics with AGILE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavani, M.

    2003-09-01

    Gamma-ray astrophysics above 30 MeV will soon be revitalized by a new generation of high-energy detectors in space. We discuss here the AGILE Mission that will be dedicated to gamma-ray astrophysics above 30 MeV during the period 2005-2006. The main characteristics of AGILE are: (1) excellent imaging and monitoring capabilities both in the γ-ray (30 MeV - 30 GeV) and hard X-ray (10-40 keV) energy ranges (reaching an arcminute source positioning), (2) very good timing (improving by three orders of magnitude the instrumental deadtime for γ-ray detection compared to previous instruments), and (3) excellent imaging and triggering capability for Gamma-Ray Bursts. The AGILE scientific program will emphasize a quick response to gamma-ray transients and multiwavelength studies of gamma-ray sources.

  5. Gamma ray astronomy from satellites and balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfelder, V.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of gamma ray astronomy topics presented at the Cosmic Ray Conference. The major conclusions at the Cosmic Ray Conference in the field of gamma ray astronomy are given. (1) MeV-emission of gamma-ray bursts is a common feature. Variations in duration and energy spectra from burst to burst may explain the discrepancy between the measured log N - log S dependence and the observed isotropy of bursts. (2) The gamma-ray line at 1.809 MeV from Al(26) is the first detected line from a radioactive nucleosynthesis product. In order to understand its origin it will be necessary to measure its longitude distribution in the Milky Way. (3) The indications of a gamma-ray excess found from the direction of Loop I is consistent with the picture that the bulk of cosmic rays below 100 GeV is produced in galactic supernova remnants. (4) The interpretation of the large scale distribution of gamma rays in the Milky Way is controversial. At present an extragalactic origin of the cosmic ray nuclei in the GeV-range cannot be excluded from the gamma ray data. (5) The detection of MeV-emission from Cen A is a promising step towards the interesting field of extragalactic gamma ray astronomy.

  6. AI gamma-ray burst classification: Methodology/preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Roiger, Richard J.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.

    1998-05-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) classifiers can be used to classify unknowns, refine existing classification parameters, and identify/screen-out ineffectual parameters. We present an AI methodology for classifying gamma-ray bursts, along with some preliminary results.

  7. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Dave; McEnery, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Gamma Ray Astronomy as enhanced by the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope and Radio Astronomy as a synergistic relationship. Gamma rays often represent a significant part of the energy budget of a source; therefore, gamma-ray studies can be critical to understanding physical processes in such sources. Radio observations offer timing and spatial resolutions vastly superior to anything possible with gamma-ray telescopes; therefore radio is often the key to understanding source structure. Gamma-ray and radio observations can complement each other, making a great team. It reviews the Fermi Guest Investigator (GI) program, and calls for more cooperative work that involves Fermi and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a system of ten radio telescopes.

  8. Understanding Doppler Broadening of Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini; Sullivan, John P.

    2014-07-03

    Doppler-broadened gamma ray peaks are observed routinely in the collection and analysis of gamma-ray spectra. If not recognized and understood, the appearance of Doppler broadening can complicate the interpretation of a spectrum and the correct identification of the gamma ray-emitting material. We have conducted a study using a simulation code to demonstrate how Doppler broadening arises and provide a real-world example in which Doppler broadening is found. This report describes that study and its results.

  9. Testing pulse density distribution for terrestrial gamma ray flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abukhaled, Marwan; Allen, Edward; Guessoum, Nidhal

    2014-07-01

    Maximum likelihood fits for the time profiles of 51 terrestrial gamma ray flashes (from Compton Gamma Ray Observatory/Burst and Transient Source Experiment and Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope/Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor) were calculated for five proposed probability densities. A lognormal distribution, which had been used by other researchers, was compared with piecewise Gaussian, piecewise exponential, inverse Gaussian, and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck probability density functions. The piecewise Gaussian and piecewise exponential distributions are justified physically through assuming exponential growth and decay of the electron avalanches which result in the gamma ray bursts and are therefore highly relevant in this context. However, identifying the electron avalanche phenomenon as a form of stochastic exit time process, the inverse Gaussian and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck are reasonable alternatives. Results of the maximum likelihood calculations indicate that the five probability densities fit the gamma ray pulse data equally well. By this comparison, our aim is to indicate to terrestrial gamma ray flash researchers these other at least equally valid distribution functions, which may give insights into the physical processes that the electrons (and the positrons) undergo in the gamma ray flashes.

  10. Hard gamma ray emission from blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, Alan P.; Bloom, Steven D.

    1992-01-01

    The gamma-ray emission expected from compact extragalactic sources of nonthermal radiation is examined. The highly variable objects in this class should produce copious amounts of self-Compton gamma-rays in the compact relativistic jet. This is shown to be a likely interpretation of the hard gamma-ray emission recently detected from the quasar 3C 279 during a period of strong nonthermal flaring at lower frequencies. Ways of discriminating between the self-Compton model and other possible gamma-ray emission mechanisms are discussed.

  11. Gamma-ray burst models.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew

    2007-05-15

    I consider various possibilities for making gamma-ray bursts, particularly from close binaries. In addition to the much-studied neutron star+neutron star and black hole+neutron star cases usually considered good candidates for short-duration bursts, there are also other possibilities. In particular, neutron star+massive white dwarf has several desirable features. These systems are likely to produce long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), in some cases definitely without an accompanying supernova, as observed recently. This class of burst would have a strong correlation with star formation and occur close to the host galaxy. However, rare members of the class need not be near star-forming regions and could have any type of host galaxy. Thus, a long-duration burst far from any star-forming region would also be a signature of this class. Estimates based on the existence of a known progenitor suggest that this type of GRB may be quite common, in agreement with the fact that the absence of a supernova can only be established in nearby bursts. PMID:17293332

  12. Gamma-ray burst populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgili, Francisco Javier

    Over the last fifty years the field of gamma-ray bursts has shown incredible growth, but the amassing of data has also left observers and theorists alike wondering about some of the basic questions surrounding these phenomena. Additionally, these events show remarkable individuality and extrema, ranging in redshift throughout the observable universe and over ten orders of magnitude in energy. This work focuses on analyzing groups of bursts that are different from the general trend and trying to understand whether these bursts are from different intrinsic populations and if so, what can be said about their progenitors. This is achieved through numerical Monte Carlo simulations and statistical inference in conjunction with current GRB observations. Chapter 1 gives a general introduction of gamma-ray burst theory and observations in a semi-historical context. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to the theory and practical issues surrounding the numerical simulations and statistics. Chapters 3--5 are each dedicated to a specific problem relating to a different type of GRB population: high-luminosity v. low-luminosity bursts, constraints from high-redshift bursts, and Type I v. Type II bursts. Chapter 6 follows with concluding remarks.

  13. Positron annihilation in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    1990-01-01

    Emission features appear at energies of 350 to 450 keV in the spectra of a number of gamma ray burst sources. These features were interpreted as electron-positron annihilation lines, redshifted by the gravitational field near the surface of a neutron star. Evidence that gamma ray bursts originate at neutron stars with magnetic field strengths of approx. 10(exp 12) Gauss came from recent observations of cyclotron scattering harmonics in the spectra of two bursts. Positrons could be produced in gamma ray burst sources either by photon-photon pair production or by one-photon pair production in a strong magnetic field. The annihilation of positrons is affected by the presence of a strong neutron star magnetic field in several ways. The relaxation of transverse momentum conservation causes an intrinsic broadening of the two-photon annihilation line and there is a decrease in the annihilation cross section below the free-space value. An additional channel for one-photon annihilation also becomes possible in high magnetic fields. The physics of pair production and annihilation near strongly magnetized neutron stars will be reviewed. Results from a self-consistent model for non-thermal synchrotron radiation and pair annihilation are beginning to identify the conditions required to produce observable annihilation features from strongly magnetized plasmas.

  14. Instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsch, David L.; Fichtel, Carl E.; Trombka, Jacob I.

    1988-01-01

    The current status of gamma-ray-telescope technology for ground, airborne, and space observations is surveyed and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and graphs and tables of typical data. For the low- and medium-energy ranges, consideration is given to detectors and detector cooling systems, background-rejection methods, radiation damage, large-area detectors, gamma-ray imaging, data analysis, and the Compton-interaction region. Also discussed are the gamma-ray interaction process at high energies; multilevel automated spark-chamber gamma-ray telescopes; the Soviet Gamma-1 telescope; the EGRET instrument for the NASA Gamma-Ray Observatory; and Cerenkov, air-shower, and particle-detector instruments for the TeV and PeV ranges. Significant improvements in resolution and sensitivity are predicted for the near future.

  15. Instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsch, David L.; Fichtel, Carl E.; Trombka, Jacob I.

    1988-03-01

    The current status of gamma-ray-telescope technology for ground, airborne, and space observations is surveyed and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and graphs and tables of typical data. For the low- and medium-energy ranges, consideration is given to detectors and detector cooling systems, background-rejection methods, radiation damage, large-area detectors, gamma-ray imaging, data analysis, and the Compton-interaction region. Also discussed are the gamma-ray interaction process at high energies; multilevel automated spark-chamber gamma-ray telescopes; the Soviet Gamma-1 telescope; the EGRET instrument for the NASA Gamma-Ray Observatory; and Cerenkov, air-shower, and particle-detector instruments for the TeV and PeV ranges. Significant improvements in resolution and sensitivity are predicted for the near future.

  16. Modeling gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxham, Amanda

    Discovered serendipitously in the late 1960s, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are huge explosions of energy that happen at cosmological distances. They provide a grand physical playground to those who study them, from relativistic effects such as beaming, jets, shocks and blastwaves to radiation mechanisms such as synchrotron radiation to galatic and stellar populations and history. Through the Swift and Fermi space telescopes dedicated to observing GRBs over a wide range of energies (from keV to GeV), combined with accurate pinpointing that allows ground based follow-up observations in the optical, infrared and radio, a rich tapestry of GRB observations has emerged. The general picture is of a mysterious central engine (CE) probably composed of a black hole or neutron star that ejects relativistic shells of matter into intense magnetic fields. These shells collide and combine, releasing energy in "internal shocks" accounting for the prompt emission and flaring we see and the "external shock" or plowing of the first blastwave into the ambient surrounding medium has well-explained the afterglow radiation. We have developed a shell model code to address the question of how X-ray flares are produced within the framework of the internal shock model. The shell model creates randomized GRB explosions from a central engine with multiple shells and follows those shells as they collide, merge and spread, producing prompt emission and X-ray flares. We have also included a blastwave model, which can constrain X-ray flares and explain the origin of high energy (GeV) emission seen by the Fermi telescope. Evidence suggests that gamma-ray prompt emission and X-ray flares share a common origin and that at least some flares can only be explained by long-lasting central engine activity. We pay special attention to the time history of central engine activity, internal shocks, and observed flares. We calculate the gamma-ray (Swift/BAT band) and X-ray (Swift/XRT band) lightcurves for arbitrary

  17. The status of low-energy gamma-ray astronomy and the Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    A brief sketch of the objectives and status of the various subdisciplines in gamma-ray astronomy (below 10 GeV) are presented. The Gamma-Ray Observatory planned for launch in 1988 is described. This NASA observatory and several planned French-Soviet spacecraft are expected to elevate gamma-ray astronomy into a mature observational science for the Space Station era.

  18. X-ray and gamma ray astronomy detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decher, Rudolf; Ramsey, Brian D.; Austin, Robert

    1994-01-01

    X-ray and gamma ray astronomy was made possible by the advent of space flight. Discovery and early observations of celestial x-rays and gamma rays, dating back almost 40 years, were first done with high altitude rockets, followed by Earth-orbiting satellites> once it became possible to carry detectors above the Earth's atmosphere, a new view of the universe in the high-energy part of the electromagnetic spectrum evolved. Many of the detector concepts used for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy were derived from radiation measuring instruments used in atomic physics, nuclear physics, and other fields. However, these instruments, when used in x-ray and gamma ray astronomy, have to meet unique and demanding requirements related to their operation in space and the need to detect and measure extremely weak radiation fluxes from celestial x-ray and gamma ray sources. Their design for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy has, therefore, become a rather specialized and rapidly advancing field in which improved sensitivity, higher energy and spatial resolution, wider spectral coverage, and enhanced imaging capabilities are all sought. This text is intended as an introduction to x-ray and gamma ray astronomy instruments. It provides an overview of detector design and technology and is aimed at scientists, engineers, and technical personnel and managers associated with this field. The discussion is limited to basic principles and design concepts and provides examples of applications in past, present, and future space flight missions.

  19. X-ray and gamma ray astronomy detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decher, Rudolf; Ramsey, Brian D.; Austin, Robert

    X-ray and gamma ray astronomy was made possible by the advent of space flight. Discovery and early observations of celestial x-rays and gamma rays, dating back almost 40 years, were first done with high altitude rockets, followed by Earth-orbiting satellites> once it became possible to carry detectors above the Earth's atmosphere, a new view of the universe in the high-energy part of the electromagnetic spectrum evolved. Many of the detector concepts used for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy were derived from radiation measuring instruments used in atomic physics, nuclear physics, and other fields. However, these instruments, when used in x-ray and gamma ray astronomy, have to meet unique and demanding requirements related to their operation in space and the need to detect and measure extremely weak radiation fluxes from celestial x-ray and gamma ray sources. Their design for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy has, therefore, become a rather specialized and rapidly advancing field in which improved sensitivity, higher energy and spatial resolution, wider spectral coverage, and enhanced imaging capabilities are all sought. This text is intended as an introduction to x-ray and gamma ray astronomy instruments. It provides an overview of detector design and technology and is aimed at scientists, engineers, and technical personnel and managers associated with this field. The discussion is limited to basic principles and design concepts and provides examples of applications in past, present, and future space flight missions.

  20. Correlating Petrophysical Well Logs Using Fractal-based Analysis to Identify Changes in the Signal Complexity Across Neutron, Density, Dipole Sonic, and Gamma Ray Tool Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, L.; Gurrola, H.

    2015-12-01

    Typical petrophysical well log correlation is accomplished by manual pattern recognition leading to subjective correlations. The change in character in a well log is dependent upon the change in the response of the tool to lithology. The petrophysical interpreter looks for a change in one log type that would correspond to the way a different tool responds to the same lithology. To develop an objective way to pick changes in well log characteristics, we adapt a method of first arrival picking used in seismic data to analyze changes in the character of well logs. We chose to use the fractal method developed by Boschetti et al[1] (1996). This method worked better than we expected and we found similar changes in the fractal dimension across very different tool types (sonic vs density vs gamma ray). We reason the fractal response of the log is not dependent on the physics of the tool response but rather the change in the complexity of the log data. When a formation changes physical character in time or space the recorded magnitude in tool data changes complexity at the same time even if the original tool response is very different. The relative complexity of the data regardless of the tool used is dependent upon the complexity of the medium relative to tool measurement. The relative complexity of the recorded magnitude data changes as a tool transitions from one character type to another. The character we are measuring is the roughness or complexity of the petrophysical curve. Our method provides a way to directly compare different log types based on a quantitative change in signal complexity. For example, using changes in data complexity allow us to correlate gamma ray suites with sonic logs within a well and then across to an adjacent well with similar signatures. Our method creates reliable and automatic correlations to be made in data sets beyond the reasonable cognitive limits of geoscientists in both speed and consistent pattern recognition. [1] Fabio Boschetti

  1. X ray and gamma ray emission from classical nova outbursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truran, James W.; Starrfield, Sumner; Sparks, Warren M.

    1992-01-01

    The outbursts of classical novae are now recognized to be consequences of thermonuclear runaways proceeding in accreted hydrogen-rich shells on white dwarfs in close binary systems. For the conditions that are known to exist in these environments, it is expected that soft x-rays can be emitted, and indeed x-rays were detected from a number of novae. The circumstances for which we expect novae to produce significant x-ray fluxes and provide estimates of the luminosities and effective temperatures are described. It is also known that at the high temperatures that are known to be achieved in this explosive hydrogen-burning environment, significant production of both Na-22 and Al-26 will occur. In this context, we identify the conditions for which gamma-ray emission may be expected to result from nova outbursts.

  2. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Candidates for GLAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.

    2008-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will be launched this year, and its Large Area Telescope (LAT) is expected to discover scores to hundreds of gamma-ray pulsars. This poster discusses which of the over 1700 known pulsars, mostly visible only at radio frequencies, are likely to emit greater than 100 MeV gamma rays with intensities detectable by the LAT. The main figure of merit used to select gamma-ray pulsar candidates is sqrt(E-dot)/d2, where E-dot is the energy loss due to rotational spin-down, and d is the distance to the pulsar. The figure of merit incorporates spin-down flux at earth (proportional to E-dot/d2) times efficiency, assumed proportional to l/sqrt(E-dot). A few individual objects are cited to illustrate the issues. Since large E-dot pulsars also tend to have large timing noise and occasional glitches, their ephemerides can become inaccurate in weeks to months. To detect and study the gamma-ray emission the photons must be accurately tagged with the pulse phase. With hours to days between gamma-ray photon arrival times from a pulsar and months to years of LAT exposure needed for good detections, GLAST will rely on radio and X-ray timing measurements throughout the continuous gamma-ray observations. The poster will describe efforts to coordinate pulsar timing of the candidate gamma-ray pulsars.

  3. Gamma-ray burster recurrence timescales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, B. E.; Cline, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Three optical transients have been found which are associated with gamma-ray bursters (GRBs). The deduced recurrence timescale for these optical transients (tau sub opt) will depend on the minimum brightness for which a flash would be detected. A detailed analysis using all available data of tau sub opt as a function of E(gamma)/E(opt) is given. For flashes similar to those found in the Harvard archives, the best estimate of tau sub opt is 0.74 years, with a 99% confidence interval from 0.23 years to 4.7 years. It is currently unclear whether the optical transients from GRBs also give rise to gamma-ray events. One way to test this association is to measure the recurrence timescale of gamma-ray events tau sub gamma. A total of 210 gamma-ray error boxes were examined and it was found that the number of observed overlaps is not significantly different from the number expected from chance coincidence. This observation can be used to place limits on tau sub gamma for an assumed luminosity function. It was found that tau sub gamma is approx. 10 yr if bursts are monoenergetic. However, if GRBs have a power law luminosity function with a wide dynamic range, then the limit is tau sub gamma 0.5 yr. Hence, the gamma-ray data do not require tau sub gamma and tau sub opt to be different.

  4. Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.; Davis, L., Jr.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Prince, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    Research activities in cosmic rays, gamma rays, and astrophysical plasmas are covered. The activities are divided into sections and described, followed by a bibliography. The astrophysical aspects of cosmic rays, gamma rays, and of the radiation and electromagnetic field environment of the Earth and other planets are investigated. These investigations are performed by means of energetic particle and photon detector systems flown on spacecraft and balloons.

  5. Cloaked Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, David

    2014-06-01

    It is suggested that many gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are cloaked by an ultrarelativistic baryonic shell that has high optical depth when the photons are manufactured. Such a shell would not fully block photons reflected or emitted from its inner surface, because the radial velocity of the photons can be less than that of the shell. This avoids the standard problem associated with GRBs that the thermal component should be produced where the flow is still obscured by high optical depth. The radiation that escapes high optical depth obeys the Amati relation. Observational implications may include (1) anomalously high ratios of afterglow to prompt emission, such as may have been the case in the recently discovered PTF 11agg, and (2) ultrahigh-energy neutrino pulses that are non-coincident with detectable GRB. It is suggested that GRB 090510, a short, very hard GRB with very little afterglow, was an exposed GRB, in contrast to those cloaked by baryonic shells.

  6. CLOAKED GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Eichler, David

    2014-06-01

    It is suggested that many gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are cloaked by an ultrarelativistic baryonic shell that has high optical depth when the photons are manufactured. Such a shell would not fully block photons reflected or emitted from its inner surface, because the radial velocity of the photons can be less than that of the shell. This avoids the standard problem associated with GRBs that the thermal component should be produced where the flow is still obscured by high optical depth. The radiation that escapes high optical depth obeys the Amati relation. Observational implications may include (1) anomalously high ratios of afterglow to prompt emission, such as may have been the case in the recently discovered PTF 11agg, and (2) ultrahigh-energy neutrino pulses that are non-coincident with detectable GRB. It is suggested that GRB 090510, a short, very hard GRB with very little afterglow, was an exposed GRB, in contrast to those cloaked by baryonic shells.

  7. Gamma rays from hidden millisecond pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco

    1992-01-01

    The properties were studied of a new class of gamma ray sources consisting of millisecond pulsars totally or partially surrounded by evaporating material from irradiated companion stars. Hidden millisecond pulsars offer a unique possibility to study gamma ray, optical and radio emission from vaporizing binaries. The relevance of this class of binaries for GRO observations and interpretation of COS-B data is emphasized.

  8. A 16N gamma-ray facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Ethan L.; Pehl, Richard H.; Stanley, Michelle R.; Foster, Charles C.; Komisarcik, Kevin; East, Gary W.; Vanderwerp, John D.; Friesel, Dennis L.

    1997-02-01

    A practical 16N gamma-ray source is created in a medium-energy cyclotron environment. A 16N source emits 6129 and 7115 keV gamma rays. The viability of this several μCi source for detector calibration and studying detector physics is established.

  9. Future prospects for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C.

    1981-01-01

    As gamma-ray astronomy moves from the discovery to the exploratory phase, the promise of gamma-ray astrophysics noted by theorists in the late 1940s and 1950s is beginning to be realized. In the future, satellites should carry instruments that will have over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than those flown thus far, and, for at least some portions of the gamma-ray energy range, these detectors will also have substantially improved energy and angular resolution. The information to be obtained from these experiments should greatly enhance our knowledge of several astrophysical phenomena including the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects, astrophysical nucleosynthesis, solar particle acceleration, the chemical composition of the planets and other bodies of the solar system, the structure of our galaxy, the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays, high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies especially active ones, and the degree of matter-antimatter symmetry of the universe. The gamma-ray results of the forthcoming programs such as Gamma-I, the Gamma Ray Observatory, the gamma-ray burst network, Solar Polar, and very high energy gamma-ray telescopes on the ground will almost certainly provide justification for more sophisticated telescopes. These advanced instruments might be placed on the Space Platform currently under study by N.A.S.A.

  10. Gamma-ray spectral analysis algorithm library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-05-06

    The routines of the Gauss Algorithms library are used to implement special purpose products that need to analyze gamma-ray spectra from Ge semiconductor detectors as a part of their function. These routines provide the ability to calibrate energy, calibrate peakwidth, search for peaks, search for regions, and fit the spectral data in a given region to locate gamma rays.

  11. Gamma-ray Spectral Analysis Algorithm Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-09-25

    The routines of the Gauss Algorithm library are used to implement special purpose products that need to analyze gamma-ray spectra from GE semiconductor detectors as a part of their function. These routines provide the ability to calibrate energy, calibrate peakwidth, search for peaks, search for regions, and fit the spectral data in a given region to locate gamma rays.

  12. Optical search for gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Ceplecha, Z.; Ehrlich, J.; Borovicka, J.; Hurley, K.; Ateia, J.-L.; Barat, C.; Niel, M.; Vedrenne, G.; Estulin, I. V.

    Preliminary results from an optical search for light pulses associated with gamma-ray bursts by means of the Czechoslovak Fireball Network plate collection at the Ondřejov Observatory are given. Optical monitoring represents more than 7700 hours, but no real optical counterpart was found. Problems associated with the optical search for gamma-ray bursts are discussed.

  13. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Candidates for GLAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.; Smith, D. A.; Dumora, D.; Guillemot, L.; Parent, D.; Reposeur, T.; Grove, E.; Romani, R. W.; Thorsett, S. E.

    2007-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will be launched less than a year from now, and its Large Area Telescope (LAT) is expected to discover scores to hundreds of gamma-ray pulsars. This poster discusses which of the over 1700 known pulsars, mostly visible only at radio Erequencies, are likely to emit greater than l00 MeV gamma rays with intensities detectable by the LAT. The main figure of merit used to select gamma-ray pulsar candidates is sqrt(E-dot)/d^2, where E-dot is the energy loss due to rotational spindown, and d is the distance to the pulsar. The figure of merit incorporates spin-down flux at earth (proportional to E-dot/d^2) times efficiency, assumed proportional to 1/sqrt(E-dot). A few individual objects are cited to illustrate the issues. Since large E-dot pulsars also tend to have large timing noise and occasional glitches, their ephemerides can become inaccurate in weeks to months. To detect and study the gamma-ray emission the photons must be accurately tagged with the pulse phase. With hours to days between gamma-ray photon arrival times from a pulsar and months to years of LAT exposure needed for good detections, GLAST will need timing measurements throughout the continuous gamma-ray observations. The poster will describe efforts to coordinate pulsar timing of the candidate gamma-ray pulsars.

  14. Gamma ray lines from dark matter annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Giudice, G.F.

    1989-08-01

    If direct annihilation of dark matter particles into a pair of photons occurs in the galactic halo, a narrow {gamma}-ray line can be discovered at future {gamma}-ray detectors sensitive to the GeV region. The signals predicted by different dark matter candidates are analyzed. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Very high-energy gamma rays from gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Paula M

    2007-05-15

    Very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy has undergone a transformation in the last few years, with telescopes of unprecedented sensitivity having greatly expanded the source catalogue. Such progress makes the detection of a gamma-ray burst at the highest energies much more likely than previously. This paper describes the facilities currently operating and their chances for detecting gamma-ray bursts, and reviews predictions for VHE gamma-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts. Results to date are summarized. PMID:17293337

  16. Gamma-Ray Astronomy from the Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horns, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    The observation of cosmic gamma-rays from the ground is based upon the detection of gamma-ray initiated air showers. At energies between approximately 1011 eV and 1013 eV, the imaging air Cherenkov technique is a particularly successful approach to observe gamma-ray sources with energy fluxes as low as ≈ 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1. The observations of gamma-rays in this energy band probe particle acceleration in astrophysical plasma conditions and are sensitive to high energy phenomena beyond the standard model of particle physics (e.g., self-annihilating or decaying dark matter, violation of Lorentz invariance, mixing of photons with light pseudoscalars). The current standing of the field and its major instruments are summarized briefly by presenting selected highlights. A new generation of ground based gamma-ray instruments is currently under development. The perspectives and opportunities of these future facilities will be discussed.

  17. Future Missions for Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy has made great advances in recent years, due largely to the recently completed 9-year mission of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. In this talk I will give an overview of what advances we may expect in the near future, with particular emphasis on earth-orbiting missions scheduled for flight within the next 5 years. Two missions, the High Energy Transient Explorer and Swift, will provide important new information on the sources of gamma-ray bursts. The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope will investigate high energy emission from a wide variety of sources, including active galaxies and gamma-ray pulsars. The contributions of ground-based and multiwavelength observations will also be addressed.

  18. Gamma-Ray Bursts: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    1995-01-01

    A history and overview of the observed properties of gamma-ray bursts are presented. The phenomenon of gamma-ray bursts is without precedent in astronomy, having no observed property that would be a direct indicator of their distance and no counterpart object in another wavelength region. Their brief, random appearance only in the gamma-ray region has made their study difficult. The observed time profiles, spectral properties, and durations of gamma-ray bursts cover a wide range. All proposed models for their origin must be considered speculative. It is humbling to think that even after 25 years since their discovery, the distance scale of gamma-ray bursts is still very much debatable.

  19. Gamma-ray Astronomy and GLAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2007-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray (30 MeV to 100 GeV) sky has been relatively poorly studied. Most of our current knowledge comes from observations made by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) detector on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), which revealed that the GeV gamma-ray sky is rich and vibrant. Studies of astrophysical objects at GeV energies are interesting for several reasons: The high energy gamma-rays are often produced by a different physical process than the better studied X-ray and optical emission, thus providing a unique information for understanding these sources. Production of such high-energy photons requires that charged particles are accelerated to equally high energies, or much greater. Thus gamma-ray astronomy is the study of extreme environments, with natural and fundamental connections to cosmic-ray and neutrino astrophysics. The launch of GLAST in 2008 will herald a watershed in our understanding of the high energy gamma-ray sky, providing dramatic improvements in sensitivity, angular resolution and energy range. GLAST will open a new avenue to study our Universe as well as to answer scientific questions EGRET observations have raised. In this talk, I will describe the GLAST instruments and capabilities and highlight some of the science we expect to address.

  20. The Most Remote Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    ESO Telescopes Observe "Lightning" in the Young Universe Summary Observations with telescopes at the ESO La Silla and Paranal observatories (Chile) have enabled an international team of astronomers [1] to measure the distance of a "gamma-ray burst", an extremely violent, cosmic explosion of still unknown physical origin. It turns out to be the most remote gamma-ray burst ever observed . The exceedingly powerful flash of light from this event was emitted when the Universe was very young, less than about 1,500 million years old, or only 10% of its present age. Travelling with the speed of light (300,000 km/sec) during 11,000 million years or more, the signal finally reached the Earth on January 31, 2000. The brightness of the exploding object was enormous, at least 1,000,000,000,000 times that of our Sun, or thousands of times that of the explosion of a single, heavy star (a "supernova"). The ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) was also involved in trail-blazing observations of another gamma-ray burst in May 1999, cf. ESO PR 08/99. PR Photo 28a/00 : Sky field near GRB 000131 . PR Photo 28b/00 : The fading optical counterpart of GRB 000131 . PR Photo 28c/00 : VLT spectrum of GRB 000131 . What are Gamma-Ray Bursts? One of the currently most active fields of astrophysics is the study of the mysterious events known as "gamma-ray bursts" . They were first detected in the late 1960's by instruments on orbiting satellites. These short flashes of energetic gamma-rays last from less than a second to several minutes. Despite much effort, it is only within the last few years that it has become possible to locate the sites of some of these events (e.g. with the Beppo-Sax satellite ). Since the beginning of 1997, astronomers have identified about twenty optical sources in the sky that are associated with gamma-ray bursts. They have been found to be situated at extremely large (i.e., "cosmological") distances. This implies that the energy release during a gamma-ray burst within a few

  1. Xenon gamma-ray spectrometer for radioactive waste controlling complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulin, S.; Novikov, A.; Dmitrenko, V.; Vlasik, K.; Krivova, K.; Petrenko, D.; Uteshev, Z.; Shustov, A.; Petkovich, E.

    2016-02-01

    Xenon detector based gamma-ray spectrometer for a radioactive waste sorting complex and its characteristics are described. It has been shown that the “thin-wall” modification of the detector allows better registration of low-energy gamma rays (tens of keV). The spectrometer is capable of operation in unfavorable field conditions and can identify radionuclides of interest in less than 1 second.

  2. Gamma-ray tracking method for pet systems

    DOEpatents

    Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai M.

    2010-06-08

    Gamma-ray tracking methods for use with granular, position sensitive detectors identify the sequence of the interactions taking place in the detector and, hence, the position of the first interaction. The improved position resolution in finding the first interaction in the detection system determines a better definition of the direction of the gamma-ray photon, and hence, a superior source image resolution. A PET system using such a method will have increased efficiency and position resolution.

  3. GLAST and Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The launch of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope together with the advent of a new generation of ground-based gamma-ray detectors such as VERITAS, HESS, MAGIC and CANGAROO, will usher in a new era of high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics. GLAST and the ground based gamma-ray observatories will provide highly complementary capabilities for spectral, temporal and spatial studies of high energy gamma-ray sources. Joint observations will cover a huge energy range, from 20 MeV to over 20 TeV. The LAT will survey the entire sky every three hours, allowing it both to perform uniform, long-term monitoring of variable sources and to detect flaring sources promptly. Both functions complement the high-sensitivity pointed observations provided by ground-based detectors. Finally, the large field of view of GLAST will allow a study of gamma-ray emission on large angular scales and identify interesting regions of the sky for deeper studies at higher energies. In this poster, we will discuss the science returns that might result from joint GLAST/ground-based gamma-ray observations and illustrate them with detailed source simulations.

  4. Gamma-ray burst cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G.; Liang, E. W.

    2015-08-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous electromagnetic explosions in the Universe, which emit up to 8.8 × 1054 erg isotropic equivalent energy in the hard X-ray band. The high luminosity makes them detectable out to the largest distances yet explored in the Universe. GRBs, as bright beacons in the deep Universe, would be the ideal tool to probe the properties of high-redshift universe: including the cosmic expansion and dark energy, star formation rate, the reionization epoch and the metal enrichment history of the Universe. In this article, we review the luminosity correlations of GRBs, and implications for constraining the cosmological parameters and dark energy. Observations show that the progenitors of long GRBs are massive stars. So it is expected that long GRBs are tracers of star formation rate. We also review the high-redshift star formation rate derived from GRBs, and implications for the cosmic reionization history. The afterglows of GRBs generally have broken power-law spectra, so it is possible to extract intergalactic medium (IGM) absorption features. We also present the capability of high-redshift GRBs to probe the pre-galactic metal enrichment and the first stars.

  5. Gamma-Ray Emission from X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrader, Chris R.

    2007-01-01

    We summarize the current observational picture regarding high-energy emission from Galactic X-ray binaries, reviewing the results of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory mission. We speculate on the prospects for the GLAST era.

  6. Gamma-Ray Bursts: The End Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Don

    1997-11-01

    The nature of gamma-ray bursts has been one of the greatest unsolved mysteries in astrophysics for more than a quarter century. A major reason for this is that no definite counterparts to the bursts could be found at other wavelengths, despite intense efforts spanning more than two decades. Consequently, the study of gamma-ray bursts has been isolated from the rest of astronomy. Scientists studying them have had only the laws of physics and the bursts themselves to guide them in attempting to solve the burst mystery. All of this changed dramatically with the discovery earlier this year of fading X-ray and optical sources in the arcminute-sized positional error boxes of several gamma-ray bursts. For the first time, temporal, as well as spatial, coincidence could be used to associate these X-ray and optical sources with the gamma-ray bursts. As a result, the odds are great that the fading X-ray and optical sources are counterparts of the bursts, and that the study of gamma-ray bursts has finally been connected with the rest of astronomy. In this talk, we describe the dramatic new information about the nature of gamma-ray bursts that the X-ray, optical, and radio observations of the fading sources have provided, and emphasize the implications that this information has for the distance scale to the bursts.

  7. Gamma rays from giant molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; Kanbach, Gottfried

    1990-01-01

    Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) are massive, bounded, cool, dense regions containing mostly H2, but also H I, CO, and other molecules. These clouds occupy less than 1 percent of the galactic volume, but are a substantial part of the interstellar mass. They are irradiated by the high energy cosmic rays which are possibly modulated by the matter and magnetic fields within the clouds. The product of cosmic-ray flux and matter density is traced by the emission of high energy gamma-rays. A spherical cloud model is considered and the gamma ray flux from several GMCs within 1 kpc of the sun which should be detectable by the EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope) instrument on GRO (Gamma Ray Observatory).

  8. Software tool for xenon gamma-ray spectrometer control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernysheva, I. V.; Novikov, A. S.; Shustov, A. E.; Dmitrenko, V. V.; Pyae Nyein, Sone; Petrenko, D.; Ulin, S. E.; Uteshev, Z. M.; Vlasik, K. F.

    2016-02-01

    Software tool "Acquisition and processing of gamma-ray spectra" for xenon gamma-ray spectrometers control was developed. It supports the multi-windows interface. Software tool has the possibilities for acquisition of gamma-ray spectra from xenon gamma-ray detector via USB or RS-485 interfaces, directly or via TCP-IP protocol, energy calibration of gamma-ray spectra, saving gamma-ray spectra on a disk.

  9. Zapping Mars Rocks with Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1999-12-01

    Because we do not know what deadly microorganisms might be lurking inside samples returned from Mars, the samples will either have to be sterilized before release or kept in isolation until biological studies declare them safe. One way to execute microorganisms is with radiation, such as gamma rays. Although quite effective in snuffing out bacteria and viruses, gamma rays might also affect the mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic compositions of the zapped rocks and soils. Carl Allen (Lockheed Martin Space Operations, Houston) and a team of 18 other analysts tested the effect of gamma rays on rock and mineral samples like those we expect on Mars. Except for some darkening of some minerals, high doses of gamma rays had no significant effect on the rocks, making gamma radiation a feasible option for sterilizing samples returned from Mars.

  10. Thermal neutron capture gamma-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Tuli, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    The energy and intensity of gamma rays as seen in thermal neutron capture are presented. Only those (n,..cap alpha..), E = thermal, reactions for which the residual nucleus mass number is greater than or equal to 45 are included. These correspond to evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. The publication source data are contained in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The data presented here do not involve any additional evaluation. Appendix I lists all the residual nuclides for which the data are included here. Appendix II gives a cumulated index to A-chain evaluations including the year of publication. The capture gamma ray data are given in two tables - the Table 1 is the list of all gamma rays seen in (n,..gamma..) reaction given in the order of increasing energy; the Table II lists the gamma rays according to the nuclide.

  11. Very high energy gamma ray astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, R.C.; Lewis, D.A.

    1992-02-01

    The second reflector (project GRANITE) is on schedule. At present (January 1992) it and the 10 m reflector are obtaining stereoscopic views of gamma-ray air showers from the Crab Nebula which verify the expected performance of the twin reflector telescopes. With the additional improvements of the upgrade (a pending DOE proposal) the twin reflectors should reach a limiting intensity of 1% that of the Crab. The astonishing early results from the EGRET detector aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory indicate that distant quasars (powered by supermassive black holes) are active at GeV energies. The Whipple instruments are poised to see if such behavior continues above 100 GeV, as well as perform sensitive observations of previously reported GeV (Geminga) and TeV (Hercules X-1, etc.) sources. In addition to observing sources and identifying their location in the sky to one arcminute, experiments are planned to search for WIMPS in the mass range 0.1 to 1 TeV, and to determine the abundance of anti-protons in the cosmic rays. The successful performance of the stereoscopic reflectors demonstrates the feasibility of the concept of arrays of Cherenkov receivers. Design studies for a much larger array (CASITA) are just beginning.

  12. Gamma ray pulsars: Models and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    1990-01-01

    The two known gamma ray pulsars, the Crab and Vela, were used as guides for the development of models of high-energy radiation from spinning neutron stars. Two general classes of models were developed: those with the gamma radiation originating in the pulsar magnetosphere far from the neutron star surface (outer gap models) and those with the gamma radiation coming from above the polar cap (polar cap models). The goal is to indicate how EGRET can contribute to understanding gamma-ray pulsars, and especially how it can help distinguish between models for emission.

  13. Python in gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deil, Christoph Deil

    2016-03-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy is a relatively new window on the cosmos. The first source detected from the ground was the Crab nebula, seen by the Whipple telescope in Arizona in 1989. Today, about 150 sources have been detected at TeV energies using gamma-ray telescopes from the ground such as H.E.S.S. in Namibia or VERITAS in Arizona, and about 3000 sources at GeV energies using the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Soon construction will start for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), which will be the first ground-based gamma-ray telescope array operated as an open observatory, with a site in the southern and a second site in the northern hemisphere. In this presentation I will give a very brief introduction to gamma-ray astronomy and data analysis, as well as a short overview of the software used for the various missions. The main focus will be on recent attempts to build open-source gamma-ray software on the scientific Python stack and Astropy: ctapipe as a CTA Python pipeline prototype, Fermipy and the Fermi Science Tools for Fermi-LAT analysis, Gammapy as a community-developed gamma-ray Python package and naima as a non-thermal spectral modeling and fitting package.

  14. Gamma-Ray Burst Physics with GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Omodei, N.; /INFN, Pisa

    2006-10-06

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is an international space mission that will study the cosmos in the energy range 10 keV-300 GeV, the upper end of which is one of the last poorly observed region of the celestial electromagnetic spectrum. The ancestor of the GLAST/LAT was the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) detector, which flew onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). The amount of information and the step forward that the high energy astrophysics made thanks to its 9 years of observations are impressive. Nevertheless, EGRET uncovered the tip of the iceberg, raising many questions, and it is in the light of EGRET's results that the great potential of the next generation gamma-ray telescope can be appreciated. GLAST will have an imaging gamma-ray telescope, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) vastly more capable than instruments own previously, as well as a secondary instrument, the GLAST Bursts Monitor, or GBM, to augment the study of gamma-ray bursts. Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) science is one of the most exciting challenges for the GLAST mission, exploring the high energy emission of one of the most intense phenomena in the sky, shading light on various problems: from the acceleration of particles to the emission processes, to more exotic physics like Quantum Gravity effect. In this paper we report the work done so far in the simulation development as well as the study of the LAT sensitivity to GRB.

  15. Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    Some basic observed properties of gamma-ray bursts are reviewed. Although some properties were known 25 years ago, new and more detailed observations have been made by the Compton Observatory in the past three years. The new observation with the greatest impact has been the observed isotropic distribution of bursts along with a deficiency of weak bursts which would be expected from a homogeneous burst distribution. This is not compatible with any known Galactic population of objects. Gamma-ray bursts show an enormous variety of burst morphologies and a wide spread in burst durations. The spectra of gamma-ray bursts are characterized by rapid variations and peak power which is almost entirely in the gamma-ray energy range. Delayed gamma-ray burst photons extending to GeV energies have been detected for the first time. A time dilation effect has also been reported to be observed in gamma-ray, bursts. The observation of a gamma-ray burst counterpart in another wavelength region has yet to be made.

  16. Analysis of fissionable material using delayed gamma rays from photofission

    SciTech Connect

    Hollas, C.L.; Close, D.A.; Moss, C.E.

    1986-09-01

    The energetic gamma-ray spectra from the fission products of photofission have been investigated to determine whether photofission can identify heavily shielded fissionable material. Target samples of natural thorium, 93% enriched /sup 235/U, natural uranium, and 93% enriched /sup 239/Pu were irradiated with bremsstrahlung gamma rays produced by 10-MeV electrons from a small linear accelerator. The gamma-ray spectra for each of the four isotopes studied reveals a distinctive intensity distribution. For example, the intensity ratio of the pair of gamma rays at 1436 keV (/sup 138/Cs) and 1428 keV (/sup 94/Sr) is 1.9 for /sup 235/U, 2.4 for /sup 238/U, 1.7 for /sup 232/Th and 1.4 for /sup 239/Pu. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies with GLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. J.

    2008-02-01

    Some pulsars have their maximum observable energy output in the gamma-ray band, offering the possibility of using these high-energy photons as probes of the particle acceleration and interaction processes in pulsar magnetospheres. After an extended hiatus between satellite missions, the recently-launched AGILE mission and the upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) will allow gamma-ray tests of the theoretical models developed based on past discoveries. With its greatly improved sensitivity, better angular resolution, and larger energy reach than older instruments, GLAST LAT should detect dozens to hundreds of new gamma-ray pulsars and measure luminosities, light curves, and phase-resolved spectra with unprecedented resolution. It will also have the potential to find radio-quiet pulsars like Geminga, using blind search techniques. Cooperation with radio and X-ray pulsar astronomers is an important aspect of the LAT team's planning for pulsar studies.

  18. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies With GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.J.; /NASA, Goddard

    2011-11-23

    Some pulsars have their maximum observable energy output in the gamma-ray band, offering the possibility of using these high-energy photons as probes of the particle acceleration and interaction processes in pulsar magnetospheres. After an extended hiatus between satellite missions, the recently-launched AGILE mission and the upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) will allow gamma-ray tests of the theoretical models developed based on past discoveries. With its greatly improved sensitivity, better angular resolution, and larger energy reach than older instruments, GLAST LAT should detect dozens to hundreds of new gamma-ray pulsars and measure luminosities, light curves, and phase-resolved spectra with unprecedented resolution. It will also have the potential to find radio-quiet pulsars like Geminga, using blind search techniques. Cooperation with radio and X-ray pulsar astronomers is an important aspect of the LAT team's planning for pulsar studies.

  19. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies with GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D. J.

    2008-02-27

    Some pulsars have their maximum observable energy output in the gamma-ray band, offering the possibility of using these high-energy photons as probes of the particle acceleration and interaction processes in pulsar magnetospheres. After an extended hiatus between satellite missions, the recently-launched AGILE mission and the upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) will allow gamma-ray tests of the theoretical models developed based on past discoveries. With its greatly improved sensitivity, better angular resolution, and larger energy reach than older instruments, GLAST LAT should detect dozens to hundreds of new gamma-ray pulsars and measure luminosities, light curves, and phase-resolved spectra with unprecedented resolution. It will also have the potential to find radio-quiet pulsars like Geminga, using blind search techniques. Cooperation with radio and X-ray pulsar astronomers is an important aspect of the LAT team's planning for pulsar studies.

  20. Implications of Gamma-Ray Transparency Constraints in Blazars: Minimum Distances and Gamma-Ray Collimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Peter A.; Kafatos, Menas

    1995-01-01

    We develop a general expression for the gamma - gamma absorption coefficient, alpha(sub gamma(gamma)) for gamma-rays propagating in an arbitrary direction at an arbitrary point in space above an X-ray-emitting accretion disk. The X-ray intensity is assumed to vary as a power law in energy and radius between the outer disk radius, R(sub 0), and the inner radius, R(sub ms) which is the radius of marginal stability for a Schwarzschild black hole. We use our result for alpha(sub gamma(gamma)) to calculate the gamma - gamma optical depth, tau(sub gamma(gamma)) for gamma - rays created at height z and propagating at angle Phi relative to the disk axis, and we show that for Phi = 0 and z greater than or approx equal to R(sub 0), tau(sub gamma(gamma)) proportional to Epsilon(sup alpha)z(sup -2(alpha) - 3), where alpha is the X-ray spectral index and Epsilon is the gamma - ray energy. As an application, we use our formalism to compute the minimum distance between the central black hole and the site of production of the gamma-rays detected by EGRET during the 1991 June flare of 3C 279. In order to obtain an upper limit, we assume that all of the X-rays observed contemporaneously by Ginga were emitted by the disk. Our results suggest that the observed gamma - rays may have originated within less than or approx equal to 45 GM/sq c from a black hole of mass greater than or approx equal to 10(exp 9) solar mass, perhaps in active plasma located above the central funnel of the accretion disk. This raises the possibility of establishing a direct connection between the production of the observed gamma - rays and the accretion of material onto the black hole. We also consider the variation of the optical depth as a function of the angle of propagation Phi. Our results indicate that the "focusing" of the gamma - rays along the disk axis due to pair production is strong enough to explain the observed degree of alignment in blazar sources. If the gamma - rays are produced isotropically

  1. High energy gamma ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Michael Richard

    This thesis presents a design study into gamma ray collimation techniques for use in high energy radiation imaging devices for the nuclear industry. Such technology is required to provide information on the nature and location of isotopes within nuclear facilities that have reached the end of their useful life. The work has concentrated on the use of two different techniques, namely mechanical collimation using the Anger camera and electronic collimation using a Compton camera. The work has used computational models to evaluate the performance of such systems and thereby suggest optimal design parameters for use in prototype devices. Ray tracing models have been constructed to simulate both parallel hole and tapered bore diverging collimators. Investigations have been carried out to measure the effects on the spatial resolution of changing various design parameters of the collimators. The effects of varying the hole size, septal thickness and collimator length over a range of source to collimator distances likely to be encountered in an industrial scenario have been examined. Some new insight into the nature of the point spread function of mechanical collimators has been gained and the limitations of the conventional analytical approach to collimator evaluation have been highlighted. Modifications to the standard equations used in collimator design have subsequently been suggested. An analytical description of tapered bore collimators has been derived. Monte Carlo models have been developed to model a single scatter Compton camera. Germanium, silicon and sodium iodide have been investigated as candidates for the scattering detector in such a device. A model of a complete ring array Compton camera system has been used to evaluate performance. The data from the Monte Carlo model has been reconstructed to form images. The quality of the images generated have then been compared with images obtained from parallel hole and focusing mechanical collimators.

  2. Gamma-ray Albedo of the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Porter, Troy A.

    2007-06-14

    We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the gamma-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of gamma-rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 3 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disc). Since it is the only (almost) black spot in the gamma-ray sky, it provides a unique opportunity for calibration of gamma-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). The albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle. Therefore, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo gamma-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo -rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the GLAST LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of PAMELA.

  3. Detecting axionlike particles with gamma ray telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Dan; Serpico, Pasquale D

    2007-12-01

    We propose that axionlike particles (ALPs) with a two-photon vertex, consistent with all astrophysical and laboratory bounds, may lead to a detectable signature in the spectra of high-energy gamma-ray sources. This occurs as a result of gamma rays being converted into ALPs in the magnetic fields of efficient astrophysical accelerators according to the "Hillas criterion", such as jets of active galactic nuclei or hot spots of radio galaxies. The discovery of such an effect is possible by GLAST in the 1-100 GeV range and by ground-based gamma-ray telescopes in the TeV range. PMID:18233353

  4. Cosmic gamma-ray lines - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Ramaty, R.

    1980-01-01

    The various processes that lead to gamma-ray line emission and the possible astrophysical sources of such emission are reviewed. The processes of nuclear excitation, radiative capture, positron annihilation, and cyclotron radiation, which may produce gamma-ray line emission from such diverse sources as the interstellar medium, novas, supernovas, pulsars, accreting compact objects, the galactic nucleus and the nuclei of active galaxies are considered. The significance of the relative intensities, widths, and frequency shifts of the lines are also discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding those gamma-ray lines that have already been observed from astrophysical sources.

  5. Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie E.; Michelson, Peter F.; Paclesas, William S.; Ritz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, launched in June 2008, is an observatory designed to survey the high-energy gamma-ray sky. The primary instrument, the Large Area Telescope (LAT), provides observations from 20 MeV to greater than 300 GeV. A second instrument, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), provides observations of transients from less than 10 keV to 40 MeV. We describe the design and performance of the instruments and their subsystems, the spacecraft and the ground system.

  6. Interpretations and implications of gamma ray lines from solar flares, the galactic center in gamma ray transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Observations and theories of astrophysical gamma ray line emission are reviewed and prospects for future observations by the spectroscopy experiments on the planned Gamma Ray Observatory are discussed.

  7. Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries with the Swift Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Tueller, Jack

    2007-01-01

    There is a great synergy between the Swift and INTEGRAL missions. Swift provides wide-field hard x-ray monitoring and sensitive x-ray and UV/optical observations. INTEGRAL provides optical through gamma-ray coverage with emphasis on hard xray imaging and gamma-ray spectroscopy. For hard x-ray survey studies, the BAT and IBIS instruments are complementary with BAT covering the full sky every day and IBIS scanning the galactic plane. For GRBs, Swift follows up bursts detected by INTEGRAL. X-ray and optical observations give arcsecond positions and afterglow lightcurves. For IGR sources, X-ray observations identify counterparts. The joint BAT and IBIS survey data are giving the most complete picture of the hard x-ray sky ever obtained. This talk will review Swift capabilities and discuss joint observations that are taking place and planned

  8. Cosmic ray albedo gamma rays from the quiet sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seckel, D.; Stanev, T.; Gaisser, T. K.

    1992-01-01

    We estimate the flux of gamma-rays that result from collisions of high energy galactic cosmic rays with the solar atmosphere. An important aspect of our model is the propagation of cosmic rays through the magnetic fields of the inner solar systems. We use diffusion to model propagation down to the bottom of the corona. Below the corona we trace particle orbits through the photospheric fields to determine the location of cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere and evolve the resultant cascades. For our nominal choice of parameters, we predict an integrated flux of gamma rays (at 1 AU) of F(E(sub gamma) greater than 100 MeV) approximately = 5 x 10(exp -8)/sq cm sec. This can be an order of magnitude above the galactic background and should be observable by the Energetic Gamma Ray experiment telescope (EGRET).

  9. Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Edward C.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Prince, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is research in cosmic ray and gamma ray astrophysics at the Space Radiation Laboratory (SRL) of the California Institute of Technology. The primary activities discussed involve the development of new instrumentation and techniques for future space flight. In many cases these instrumentation developments were tested in balloon flight instruments designed to conduct new investigations in cosmic ray and gamma ray astrophysics. The results of these investigations are briefly summarized. Specific topics include a quantitative investigation of the solar modulation of cosmic ray protons and helium nuclei, a study of cosmic ray positron and electron spectra in interplanetary and interstellar space, the solar modulation of cosmic rays, an investigation of techniques for the measurement and interpretation of cosmic ray isotopic abundances, and a balloon measurement of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray boron, carbon, and nitrogen.

  10. Multiwavelength observations of unidentified high energy gamma ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.

    1993-01-01

    As was the case for COS B, the majority of high-energy (greater than 100 MeV) gamma-ray sources detected by the EGRET instrument on GRO are not immediately identifiable with cataloged objects at other wavelengths. These persistent gamma-ray sources are, next to the gamma-ray bursts, the least understood objects in the universe. Even a rudimentary understanding of their nature awaits identifications and follow-up work at other wavelengths to tell us what they are. The as yet unidentified sources are potentially the most interesting, since they may represent unrecognized new classes of astronomical objects, such as radio-quiet pulsars or new types of active galactic nuclei (AGN's). This two-year investigation is intended to support the analysis, correlation, and theoretical interpretation of data that we are obtaining at x ray, optical, and radio wavelengths in order to render the gamma-ray data interpretable. According to plan, in the first year concentration was on the identification and study of Geminga. The second year will be devoted to studies of similar unidentified gamma-ray sources which will become available in the first EGRET catalogs. The results obtained so far are presented in the two papers which are reproduced in the Appendix. In these papers, we discuss the pulse profiles of Geminga, the geometry and efficiency of the magnetospheric accelerator, the distance to Geminga, the implications for theories of polar cap heating, the effect of the magnetic field on the surface emission and environment of the neutron star, and possible interpretations of a radio-quiet Geminga. The implications of the other gamma-ray pulsars which were discovered to have high gamma-ray efficiency are also discussed, and the remaining unidentified COS B sources are attributed to a population of efficient gamma-ray sources, some of which may be radio quiet.

  11. Gamma-ray binaries and related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubus, Guillaume

    2013-08-01

    After initial claims and a long hiatus, it is now established that several binary stars emit high- (0.1-100 GeV) and very high-energy (>100 GeV) gamma rays. A new class has emerged called "gamma-ray binaries", since most of their radiated power is emitted beyond 1 MeV. Accreting X-ray binaries, novae and a colliding wind binary ( η Car) have also been detected—"related systems" that confirm the ubiquity of particle acceleration in astrophysical sources. Do these systems have anything in common? What drives their high-energy emission? How do the processes involved compare to those in other sources of gamma rays: pulsars, active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants? I review the wealth of observational and theoretical work that have followed these detections, with an emphasis on gamma-ray binaries. I present the current evidence that gamma-ray binaries are driven by rotation-powered pulsars. Binaries are laboratories giving access to different vantage points or physical conditions on a regular timescale as the components revolve on their orbit. I explain the basic ingredients that models of gamma-ray binaries use, the challenges that they currently face, and how they can bring insights into the physics of pulsars. I discuss how gamma-ray emission from microquasars provides a window into the connection between accretion-ejection and acceleration, while η Car and novae raise new questions on the physics of these objects—or on the theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Indeed, explaining the gamma-ray emission from binaries strains our theories of high-energy astrophysical processes, by testing them on scales and in environments that were generally not foreseen, and this is how these detections are most valuable.

  12. Gamma rays produce superior seedless citrus

    SciTech Connect

    Pyrah, D.

    1984-10-01

    Using gamma radiation, seedless forms of some varieties of oranges and grapefruit are being produced. Since it has long been known that radiation causes mutations in plants and animals, experiments were conducted to determine if seediness could be altered by exposing seeds or budwood to higher than natural doses of gamma radiation. Orange and grapefruit seeds and cuttings exposed to gamma rays in the early 1970's have produced trees that bear fruit superior to that now on the market.

  13. High-energy gamma rays from the intense 1993 January 31 gamma-ray burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommer, M.; Bertsch, D. L.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fishman, G. J.; Harding, A. K.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Hurley, K.; Kanbach, G.

    1994-01-01

    The intense gamma-ray burst of 1993 January 31 was detected by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Observatory. Sixteen gamma rays above 30 MeV were imaged in the telescope when only 0.04 gamma rays were expected by chance. Two of these gamma rays have energies of approximately 1 GeV, and the five bin spectrum of the 16 events is fitted by a power law of photon spectral index -2.0 +/- 0.4. The high-energy emission extends for at least 25 s. The most probable direction for this burst is determined from the directions of the 16 gamma rays observed by Egret and also by requiring the position to lie on annulus derived by the Interplanetary Network.

  14. Multilayer Monochromator For Hard X Rays And Gamma Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    Compact monochromator for hard x rays and gamma rays provides high spectral resolution with high throughput. Resembles instruments in "Compact X-Ray and Extreme-Ultraviolet Monochromator" (MFS-28499), "Scanning X-Ray or Extreme-Ultraviolet Monochromator" (MFS-28492), "Ultra-High-Spectral-Resolution X-Ray/EUV Monochromator" (MFS-28500), and "Four-Mirror X-Ray and Extreme-Ultraviolet Monochromator" (MFS-28498). Operates on principle of multilayer Bragg reflector. Used in nuclear, astronomical, and biomedical research, x-ray crystallography, research on processing materials, research in x-ray lasers, and x-ray lithography.

  15. POPULATION SYNTHESIS AND GAMMA RAY BURST PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. FREYER

    2000-12-11

    Population synthesis studies of binaries are always limited by a myriad of uncertainties from the poorly understood effects of binary mass transfer and common envelope evolution to the many uncertainties that still remain in stellar evolution. But the importance of these uncertainties depends both upon the objects being studied and the questions asked about these objects. Here I review the most critical uncertainties in the population synthesis of gamma-ray burst progenitors. With a better understanding of these uncertainties, binary population synthesis can become a powerful tool in understanding, and constraining, gamma-ray burst models. In turn, as gamma-ray bursts become more important as cosmological probes, binary population synthesis of gamma-ray burst progenitors becomes an important tool in cosmology.

  16. Positron annihilation gamma rays from novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leising, Mark D.; Clayton, Donald D.

    1987-01-01

    The potential for observing annihilation gamma rays from novae is investigated. These gamma rays, a unique signature of the thermonuclear runaway models of novae, would result from the annihilation of positrons emitted by beta(+)-unstable nuclei produced near the peak of the runaway and carried by rapid convection to the surface of the nova envelope. Simple models, which are extensions of detailed published models, of the expansion of the nova atmospheres are evolved. These models serve as input into investigations of the fate of nearby Galactic fast novae could yield detectable fluxes of electron-positron annihilation gamma rays produced by the decay of N-13 and F-18. Although nuclear gamma-ray lines are produced by other nuclei, it is unlikely that the fluxes at typical nova distances would be detectable to present and near-future instruments.

  17. Overview Animation of Gamma-ray Burst

    NASA Video Gallery

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the cosmos. Astronomers think most occur when the core of a massive star runs out of nuclear fuel, collapses under its own weight, and forms a b...

  18. Gamma-Rays from Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madejski, Greg

    2016-07-01

    In this presentation, I will overview the properties of radio galaxies gleaned from observations of their gamma-ray emission, including that arising from the nuclear, and extended components. The gamma-ray spectra of radio galaxies measured by the Fermi-LAT and ground based Air Cerenkov telescopes will be considered in the context of their broad-band emission. The presentation will cover the most compelling models for emission processes, and will attempt to constrain the location of the nuclear gamma-ray emission. This will be compared to the observational properties of blazars, which are believed to be radio galaxies with jets pointing along our line of sight. Finally, I will discuss our best estimates for the contribution of unresolved radio galaxies to the diffuse gamma-ray emission.

  19. Gamma-ray spectroscopy - Requirements and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The only previous space instrument which had sufficient spectral resolution and directionality for the resolution of astrophysical sources was the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer carried by HEAO-3. A broad variety of astrophysical investigations entail gamma-ray spectroscopy of E/Delta-E resolving power of the order of 500 at 1 MeV; it is presently argued that a sensitivity to narrow gamma-ray lines of a few millionths ph/sq cm, from about 10 keV to about 10 MeV, should typify the gamma-ray spectrometers of prospective missions. This performance is achievable with technology currently under development, and could be applied to the NASA's planned Nuclear Astrophysics Explorer.

  20. NEW FERMI-LAT EVENT RECONSTRUCTION REVEALS MORE HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA RAYS FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Bregeon, J.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Sgro, C.; Tinivella, M.; Bruel, P.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Granot, J.; Longo, F.; Razzaque, S.; Zimmer, S. E-mail: nicola.omodei@stanford.edu

    2013-09-01

    Based on the experience gained during the four and a half years of the mission, the Fermi-LAT Collaboration has undertaken a comprehensive revision of the event-level analysis going under the name of Pass 8. Although it is not yet finalized, we can test the improvements in the new event reconstruction with the special case of the prompt phase of bright gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), where the signal-to-noise ratio is large enough that loose selection cuts are sufficient to identify gamma rays associated with the source. Using the new event reconstruction, we have re-analyzed 10 GRBs previously detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) for which an X-ray/optical follow-up was possible and found four new gamma rays with energies greater than 10 GeV in addition to the seven previously known. Among these four is a 27.4 GeV gamma ray from GRB 080916C, which has a redshift of 4.35, thus making it the gamma ray with the highest intrinsic energy ({approx}147 GeV) detected from a GRB. We present here the salient aspects of the new event reconstruction and discuss the scientific implications of these new high-energy gamma rays, such as constraining extragalactic background light models, Lorentz invariance violation tests, the prompt emission mechanism, and the bulk Lorentz factor of the emitting region.

  1. Supernovae and gamma-ray bursts connection

    SciTech Connect

    Valle, Massimo Della

    2015-12-17

    I’ll review the status of the Supernova/Gamma-Ray Burst connection. Several pieces of evidence suggest that long duration Gamma-ray Bursts are associated with bright SNe-Ic. However recent works suggest that GRBs might be produced in tight binary systems composed of a massive carbon-oxygen cores and a neutron star companion. Current estimates of the SN and GRB rates yield a ratio GRB/SNe-Ibc in the range ∼ 0.4% − 3%.

  2. Supernovae and gamma-ray bursts connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle, Massimo Della

    2015-12-01

    I'll review the status of the Supernova/Gamma-Ray Burst connection. Several pieces of evidence suggest that long duration Gamma-ray Bursts are associated with bright SNe-Ic. However recent works suggest that GRBs might be produced in tight binary systems composed of a massive carbon-oxygen cores and a neutron star companion. Current estimates of the SN and GRB rates yield a ratio GRB/SNe-Ibc in the range ˜ 0.4% - 3%.

  3. Solar flare gamma-ray line spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, R. J.; Forrest, D. J.; Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.

    1985-01-01

    The techniques and the results of solar elemental abundance determinations using observations of gamma ray lines from the April 27 1981 olar flare were outlined. The techniques are elaborated on and observed and the best-fitting theoretical spectra are presented. Numerical values for the photon fluences and the total number of protons involved in the thick-target production of these gamma rays are derived.

  4. Gamma-ray constraints on supernova nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leising, Mark D.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy holds great promise for probing nucleosynthesis in individual supernova explosions via short-lived radioactivity, and for measuring current global Galactic supernova nucleosynthesis with longer-lived radioactivity. It was somewhat surprising that the former case was realized first for a Type II supernova, when both Co-56 and Co-57 were detected in SN 1987A. These provide unprecedented constraints on models of Type II explosions and nucleosynthesis. Live Al-26 in the Galaxy might come from Type II supernovae, and if it is eventually shown to be so, can constrain massive star evolution, supernova nucleosynthesis, and the Galactic Type II supernova rate. Type Ia supernovae, thought to be thermonuclear explosions, have not yet been detected in gamma-rays. This is somewhat surprising given current models and recent Co-56 detection attempts. Ultimately, gamma-ray measurements can confirm their thermonuclear nature, probe the nuclear burning conditions, and help evaluate their contributions to Galactic nucleosynthesis. Type Ib/c supernovae are poorly understood. Whether they are core collapse or thermonuclear events might be ultimately settled by gamma-ray observations. Depending on details of the nuclear processing, any of these supernova types might contribute to a detectable diffuse glow of Fe-60 gamma-ray lines. Previous attempts at detection have come very close to expected emission levels. Remnants of any type of age less that a few centuries might be detectable as individual spots of Ti-44 gamma-ray line emission. It is in fact quite surprising that previous surveys have not discovered such spots, and the constraints on the combination of nucleosynthesis yields and supernova rates are very interesting. All of these interesting limits and possibilities mean that the next mission, International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), if it has sufficient sensitivity, is very likely to lead to the realization of much of the great potential

  5. VHE Gamma-ray Supernova Remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, Stefan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-01-22

    Increasing observational evidence gathered especially in X-rays and {gamma}-rays during the course of the last few years support the notion that Supernova remnants (SNRs) are Galactic particle accelerators up to energies close to the ''knee'' in the energy spectrum of Cosmic rays. This review summarizes the current status of {gamma}-ray observations of SNRs. Shell-type as well as plerionic type SNRs are addressed and prospect for observations of these two source classes with the upcoming GLAST satellite in the energy regime above 100 MeV are given.

  6. Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Panagia, Nino; Sahu, Kailash

    2001-07-01

    Participants; Preface; Gamma-ray burst-supernova relation B. Paczynski; Observations of gamma-ray bursts G. Fishman; Fireballs T. Piran; Gamma-ray mechanisms M. Rees; Prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts R. Kehoe, C. Akerlof, R. Balsano, S. Barthelmy, J. Bloch, P. Butterworth, D. Casperson, T. Cline, S. Fletcher, F. Frontera, G. Gisler, J. Heise, J. Hills, K. Hurley, B. Lee, S. Marshall, T. McKay, A. Pawl, L. Piro, B. Priedhorsky, J. Szymanski and J. Wren; X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts L. Piro; The first year of optical-IR observations of SN1998bw I. Danziger, T. Augusteijn, J. Brewer, E. Cappellaro, V. Doublier, T. Galama, J. Gonzalez, O. Hainaut, B. Leibundgut, C. Lidman, P. Mazzali, K. Nomoto, F. Patat, J. Spyromilio, M. Turatto, J. Van Paradijs, P. Vreeswijk and J. Walsh; X-ray emission of Supernova 1998bw in the error box of GRB980425 E. Pian; Direct analysis of spectra of type Ic supernovae D. Branch; The interaction of supernovae and gamma-ray bursts with their surroundings R. Chevalier; Magnetars, soft gamma-ray repeaters and gamma-ray bursts A. Harding; Super-luminous supernova remnants Y. -H. Chu, C. -H. Chen and S. -P. Lai; The properties of hypernovae: SNe Ic 1998bw, 1997ef, and SN IIn 1997cy K. Nomoto, P. Mazzali, T. Nakamura, K. Iwanmoto, K. Maeda, T. Suzuki, M. Turatto, I. Danziger and F. Patat; Collapsars, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Supernovae S. Woosley, A. MacFadyen and A. Heger; Pre-supernova evolution of massive stars N. Panagia and G. Bono; Radio supernovae and GRB 980425 K. Weiler, N. Panagia, R. Sramek, S. Van Dyk, M. Montes and C. Lacey; Models for Ia supernovae and evolutionary effects P. Hoflich and I. Dominguez; Deflagration to detonation A. Khokhlov; Universality in SN Iae and the Phillips relation D. Arnett; Abundances from supernovae F. -K. Thielemann, F. Brachwitz, C. Freiburghaus, S. Rosswog, K. Iwamoto, T. Nakamura, K. Nomoto, H. Umeda, K. Langanke, G. Martinez-Pinedo, D. Dean, W. Hix and M. Strayer; Sne, GRBs, and the

  7. Gamma-ray pulsar studies with COMPTEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermsen, W.; Kuiper, L.; Diehl, R.; Lichti, G.; Schoenfelder, V.; Strong, A. W.; Connors, A.; Ryan, J.; Bennett, K.; Busetta, M.; Carraminana, A.; Buccheri, R.; Grenier, I. A.

    1994-06-01

    Since the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) the number of detected gamma-ray pulsars increased from two to six. COMPTEL, on-board CGRO and sensitive to gamma-rays with energies between approximately 0.7 and 30 MeV, detected three of these unambiguously. The classical Crab and Vela pulsars have been observed on several occasions and detailed pulse patterns and spectral parameters have been derived. The new CGRO gamma-ray pulsar PSR B1509-58 has been detected by COMPTEL at a significance level above 4 sigma, consistently in a timing and spatial analysis. A likely detection of Geminga has been obtained at an approximately 3 sigma level. This indication is found in a phase interval in which COS B data showed the presence of a new variable component, Interpeak 2, exhibiting a very soft spectrum above 50 MeV. The diversities in light-curve sphapes and spectral distributions, the apparent time variabilities, and the significant differences in the fractions of the spin-down power radiated at gamma-ray energies in this small sample of gamma-ray pulsars pose important constraints to pulsar modeling.

  8. Central Engine Memory of Gamma-Ray Bursts and Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Bing; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.

    2016-04-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bursts of γ-rays generated from relativistic jets launched from catastrophic events such as massive star core collapse or binary compact star coalescence. Previous studies suggested that GRB emission is erratic, with no noticeable memory in the central engine. Here we report a discovery that similar light curve patterns exist within individual bursts for at least some GRBs. Applying the Dynamic Time Warping method, we show that similarity of light curve patterns between pulses of a single burst or between the light curves of a GRB and its X-ray flare can be identified. This suggests that the central engine of at least some GRBs carries “memory” of its activities. We also show that the same technique can identify memory-like emission episodes in the flaring emission in soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), which are believed to be Galactic, highly magnetized neutron stars named magnetars. Such a phenomenon challenges the standard black hole central engine models for GRBs, and suggest a common physical mechanism behind GRBs and SGRs, which points toward a magnetar central engine of GRBs.

  9. Future directions in X-ray/gamma-ray observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kniffen, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Facilities available for X ray and gamma ray astronomical observations in the late 1980s are described, with an emphasis on NASA programs. Current European programs for launching Rosat and Exosat will provide coverage in the 0.4-60 keV energy range. The proposed NASA advanced X ray astrophysics facility is intended to cover the 0.1-8 keV range with higher than 0.5 arcsec resolution. The Japanese Astro-B, scheduled for launch in 1983, observes in the 1-60 keV range. X ray and gamma ray observations are also scheduled for Spacelab flights. The French-Soviet Gamma-1 spark chamber high energy gamma ray telescope is intended for LEO orbit and observations in the energy range above 50 MeV with a 2 deg, 1-5 arcmin resolution. The NASA gamma ray observatory is set for 1988 launch and will feature four instruments to monitor the 60 keV-300 GeV range. Balloon-borne instrumentation will also be launched, with attention given to the medium gamma ray energy range from 1-30 MeV.

  10. Future directions in X-ray/gamma-ray observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniffen, D. A.

    Facilities available for X ray and gamma ray astronomical observations in the late 1980s are described, with an emphasis on NASA programs. Current European programs for launching Rosat and Exosat will provide coverage in the 0.4-60 keV energy range. The proposed NASA advanced X ray astrophysics facility is intended to cover the 0.1-8 keV range with higher than 0.5 arcsec resolution. The Japanese Astro-B, scheduled for launch in 1983, observes in the 1-60 keV range. X ray and gamma ray observations are also scheduled for Spacelab flights. The French-Soviet Gamma-1 spark chamber high energy gamma ray telescope is intended for LEO orbit and observations in the energy range above 50 MeV with a 2 deg, 1-5 arcmin resolution. The NASA gamma ray observatory is set for 1988 launch and will feature four instruments to monitor the 60 keV-300 GeV range. Balloon-borne instrumentation will also be launched, with attention given to the medium gamma ray energy range from 1-30 MeV.

  11. The study of gamma-ray bursts on Prognoz spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estulin, I. V.

    A joint French-Soviet experiment to identify the sources of gamma-ray bursts in space is described. The main instrument used in the experiment was a SNEG-2MP gamma-ray detector array consisting of two scintillation proportional counters and a collimator with an aperture angle of 18 degrees. The position of the SNEG-2MP array on the Prognoz-6 spacecraft is illustrated. A total of 15 gama-ray bursts was observed in the energy range 30-50 keV. The positions of the burst sources were localized on a standard star map, and the results are presented in photographic form.

  12. Galaxies and gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bignami, G. F.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The nature of the high-energy spectra of several types of active galaxies and their contribution to the measured diffuse gamma-ray emission between 1 and 150 MeV are considered, using X-ray spectra of active galaxies and SAS 2 data regarding the intensity upper limits to the gamma-ray emission above 35 MeV. It is found that a substantial increase in slope of the photon energy spectrum must occur in the low energy gamma-ray region for Seyfert galaxies, BL Lac objects, and emission line galaxies; the power-law spectra observed in the X-ray range must steepen substantially between 50 keV and 50 MeV. In addition, a cosmological integration shows that Seyfert galaxies, BL Lac objects, and quasars may account for most of the 1-150 MeV diffuse background, even without significant evolution.

  13. Gamma ray astrophysics to the year 2000. Report of the NASA Gamma Ray Program Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Important developments in gamma-ray astrophysics up to energies of 100 GeV during the last decade are reviewed. Also, the report seeks to define the major current scientific goals of the field and proposes a vigorous program to pursue them, extending to the year 2000. The goals of gamma-ray astronomy include the study of gamma rays which provide the most direct means of studying many important problems in high energy astrophysics including explosive nucleosynthesis, accelerated particle interactions and sources, and high-energy processes around compact objects. The current research program in gamma-ray astronomy in the U.S. including the space program, balloon program and foreign programs in gamma-ray astronomy is described. The high priority recommendations for future study include an Explorer-class high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy mission and a Get Away Special cannister (GAS-can) or Scout class multiwavelength experiment for the study of gamma-ray bursts. Continuing programs include an extended Gamma Ray Observatory mission, continuation of the vigorous program of balloon observations of the nearby Supernova 1987A, augmentation of the balloon program to provide for new instruments and rapid scientific results, and continuation of support for theoretical research. Long term recommendations include new space missions using advanced detectors to better study gamma-ray sources, the development of these detectors, continued study for the assembly of large detectors in space, collaboration with the gamma-ray astronomy missions initiated by other countries, and consideration of the Space Station attached payloads for gamma-ray experiments.

  14. Found: A Galaxy's Missing Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Recent reanalysis of data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has resulted in the first detection of high-energy gamma rays emitted from a nearby galaxy. This discovery reveals more about how supernovae interact with their environments.Colliding Supernova RemnantAfter a stellar explosion, the supernovas ejecta expand, eventually encountering the ambient interstellar medium. According to models, this generates a strong shock, and a fraction of the kinetic energy of the ejecta is transferred into cosmic rays high-energy radiation composed primarily of protons and atomic nuclei. Much is still unknown about this process, however. One open question is: what fraction of the supernovas explosion power goes into accelerating these cosmic rays?In theory, one way to answer this is by looking for gamma rays. In a starburst galaxy, the collision of the supernova-accelerated cosmic rays with the dense interstellar medium is predicted to produce high-energy gamma rays. That radiation should then escape the galaxy and be visible to us.Pass 8 to the RescueObservational tests of this model, however, have beenstumped by Arp 220. This nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy is the product of a galaxy merger ~700 million years ago that fueled a frenzy of starbirth. Due to its dusty interior and extreme levels of star formation, Arp 220 has long been predicted to emit the gamma rays produced by supernova-accelerated cosmic rays. But though weve looked, gamma-ray emission has never been detected from this galaxy until now.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Fang-Kun Peng (Nanjing University) reprocessed 7.5 years of Fermi observations using the new Pass 8 analysis software. The resulting increase in resolution revealed the first detection of GeV emission from Arp 220!Acceleration EfficiencyGamma-ray luminosity vs. total infrared luminosity for LAT-detected star-forming galaxies and Seyferts. Arp 220s luminosities are consistent with the scaling relation. [Peng et al. 2016

  15. Mercuric iodine room temperature gamma-ray detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, Bradley E.; Markakis, Jeffrey M.; Gerrish, Vernon M.; Haymes, Robert C.; Trombka, Jacob I.

    1990-01-01

    high resolution mercuric iodide room temperature gamma-ray detectors have excellent potential as an essential component of space instruments to be used for high energy astrophysics. Mercuric iodide detectors are being developed both as photodetectors used in combination with scintillation crystals to detect gamma-rays, and as direct gamma-ray detectors. These detectors are highly radiation damage resistant. The list of applications includes gamma-ray burst detection, gamma-ray line astronomy, solar flare studies, and elemental analysis.

  16. The Pulsing Gamma-ray Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romani, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    The Fermi Space Telescope, with its discovery of nearly 150 gamma-ray pulsars has solidified and extended the suspicions of the EGRET era: energetic spin-powered pulsars are fantastic particle accelerators, they emit most of their photon energy in the GeV range and they paint their gamma-ray beams over much of the sky. I summarize here the suite of gamma-ray discoveries and what it has taught us about pulsar populations. Young, classical radio-detectable pulsars, gamma-ray only `Gemingas' and energetic millisecond pulsars are equally represented in the Fermi sky. This sample certainly reveals much about magnetospheric physics. However, by chasing down the pulsars responsible for Fermi sources we continue to discover exotic systems whose study impacts a wide range of high energy astrophysics. Gamma-ray pulsars are revealing details of close binary evolution, testing the equation of state of ultra-dense matter, helping us understand the cosmic ray positrons, and aiding in the search for ultra-low frequency gravitational radiation. I summarize recent progress on these fronts and the prospects for more exciting discoveries to come.

  17. New insights from cosmic gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, Diehl

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of gamma rays from cosmic sources at ~MeV energies is one of the key tools for nuclear astrophysics, in its study of nuclear reactions and their impacts on objects and phenomena throughout the universe. Gamma rays trace nuclear processes most directly, as they originate from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. Additionally, the unique gamma-ray signature from the annihilation of positrons falls into this astronomical window and is discussed here: Cosmic positrons are often produced from β-decays, thus also of nuclear physics origins. The nuclear reactions leading to radioactive isotopes occur inside stars and stellar explosions, which therefore constitute the main objects of such studies. In recent years, both thermonuclear and core-collapse supernova radioactivities have been measured though 56Ni, 56Co, and 44Ti lines, and a beginning has thus been made to complement conventional supernova observations with such measurements of the prime energy sources of supernova light created in their deep interiors. The diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in gamma rays is now being exploited towards astrophysical studies on how massive stars feed back their energy and ejecta into interstellar gas, as part of the cosmic cycle of matter through generations of stars enriching the interstellar gas and stars with metals. Large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be the dominating structures where new massive-star ejecta are injected, from 26Al gamma-ray spectroscopy. Also, constraints on the complex interiors of stars derive from the ratio of 60Fe/26Al gamma rays. Finally, the puzzling bulge-dominated intensity distribution of positron annihilation gamma rays is measured in greater detail, but still not understood; a recent microquasar flare provided evidence that such objects may be prime sources for positrons in interstellar space, rather than

  18. Ground-Based Gamma Ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, Jamie

    2014-10-01

    This paper is the write-up of a rapporteur talk given by the author at the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2013. It attempts to summarize results and developments in ground-based gamma-ray observations and instrumentation from among the ˜300 submissions to the gamma-ray sessions of the meeting. Satellite observations and theoretical developments were covered by a companion rapporteur (Stawarz, L., 33rd ICRC, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Rapporteur talk: Space-based Gamma-Ray Astronomy, 2013). Any review of this nature is unavoidably subjective and incomplete. Nevertheless, the article should provide a useful status report for those seeking an overview of this exciting and fast-moving field.

  19. Technology Needs for Gamma Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy is currently in an exciting period of multiple missions and a wealth of data. Results from INTEGRAL, Fermi, AGILE, Suzaku and Swift are making large contributions to our knowledge of high energy processes in the universe. The advances are due to new detector and imaging technologies. The steps to date have been from scintillators to solid state detectors for sensors and from light buckets to coded aperture masks and pair telescopes for imagers. A key direction for the future is toward focusing telescopes pushing into the hard X-ray regime and Compton telescopes and pair telescopes with fine spatial resolution for medium and high energy gamma rays. These technologies will provide finer imaging of gamma-ray sources. Importantly, they will also enable large steps forward in sensitivity by reducing background.

  20. Determination of the gamma-ray spectrum in a strong neutron/gamma-ray mixed field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan-Hao; Lin, Yi-Chun; Nievaart, Sander; Chou, Wen-Tsae; Liu, Hong-Ming; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2011-10-01

    The knowledge of gamma-ray spectrum highly affects the accuracy of the correspondingly derived gamma-ray dose and the correctness of calculated neutron dose in the neutron/gamma-ray mixed field dosimetry when using the paired ionization chambers technique. It is of our interest to develop a method to determine the gamma-ray spectrum in a strong neutron/gamma-ray mixed field. The current type detector, Mg(Ar) ionization chamber with 6 different thick caps incorporated with the unfolding technique, was used to determine the gamma-ray spectrum in the THOR epithermal neutron beam, which contains intense neutrons and gamma rays. The applied caps had nominal thicknesses from 1 to 6 mm. Detector response functions of the applied Mg(Ar) chamber with different caps were calculated using MCNP5 with a validated chamber model. The spectrum unfolding process was performed using the well-known SAND-II algorithm. The unfolded result was found much softer than the originally calculated spectrum at the design stage. A large portion of low energy continuum was shown in the adjusted spectrum. This work gave us a much deeper insight into the THOR epithermal neutron beam and also showed a way to determine the gamma-ray spectrum.

  1. PSR J2030+3641: RADIO DISCOVERY AND GAMMA-RAY STUDY OF A MIDDLE-AGED PULSAR IN THE NOW IDENTIFIED FERMI-LAT SOURCE 1FGL J2030.0+3641

    SciTech Connect

    Camilo, F.; Kerr, M.; Romani, R. W.; Ray, P. S.; Wood, K. S.; Ransom, S. M.; Johnston, S.; Keith, M.; Parent, D.; DeCesar, M. E.; Harding, A. K.; Ferrara, E. C.; Donato, D.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Freire, P. C. C.; Guillemot, L.; Kramer, M. E-mail: kerrm@stanford.edu

    2012-02-10

    In a radio search with the Green Bank Telescope of three unidentified low Galactic latitude Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) sources, we have discovered the middle-aged pulsar J2030+3641 associated with 1FGL J2030.0+3641 (2FGL J2030.0+3640). Following the detection of gamma-ray pulsations using a radio ephemeris, we have obtained a phase-coherent timing solution based on gamma-ray and radio pulse arrival times which spans the entire Fermi mission. With a rotation period of 0.2 s, a spin-down luminosity of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1}, and a characteristic age of 0.5 Myr, PSR J2030+3641 is a middle-aged neutron star with spin parameters similar to those of the exceedingly gamma-ray-bright and radio-undetected Geminga. Its gamma-ray flux is 1% that of Geminga, primarily because of its much larger distance, as suggested by the large integrated column density of free electrons, DM = 246 pc cm{sup -3}. We fit the gamma-ray light curve, along with limited radio polarimetric constraints, to four geometrical models of magnetospheric emission, and while none of the fits have high significance some are encouraging and suggest that further refinements of these models may be worthwhile. We argue that not many more non-millisecond radio pulsars may be detected along the Galactic plane that are responsible for LAT sources, but that modified methods to search for gamma-ray pulsations should be productive-PSR J2030+3641 would have been found blindly in gamma rays if only {approx}> 0.8 GeV photons had been considered, owing to its relatively flat spectrum and location in a region of high soft background.

  2. PSR J2030+364I: Radio Discovery and Gamma-ray Study of a Middle-aged Pulsar in the Now Identified Fermi-LAT Source 1FGL J2030.0+3641

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camilo, F.; Kerr, M.; Ray, P. S.; Ransom, S. M.; Johnston, S.; Romani, R. W.; Parent, D.; Decesar, M. E.; Harding, A. K.; Donato, D.; SazParkinson, P. M.; Ferrara, E. C.; Freire, P. C. C.; Guillemot, L; Keith, M.; Kramer, M.; Wood, K. S.

    2011-01-01

    In a radio search with the Green Bank Telescope of three unidentified low Galactic latitude Fermi-LAT sources, we have discovered the middle-aged pulsar J2030+3641, associated with IFGL J2030.0+3641 (2FGL J2030.0+3640). Following the detection of gamma-ray pulsations using a radio ephemeris, we have obtained a phase-coherent timing solution based on gamma-ray and radio pulse arrival times that spans the entire Fermi mission. With a rotation period of 0.28, spin-down luminosity of 3 x 10(exp 34) erg/s, and characteristic age of 0.5 Myr, PSR J2030+3641 is a middle-aged neutron star with spin parameters similar to those of the exceedingly gamma-ray-bright and radio-undetected Geminga. Its gamma-ray flux is 1 % that of Geminga, primarily because of its much larger distance, as suggested by the large integrated column density of free electrons, DM = 246 pc/cu cm. We fit the gamma-ray light curve, along with limited radio polarimetric constraints, to four geometrical models of magnetospheric emission, and while none of the fits have high significance some are encouraging and suggest that further refinements of these models may be worthwhile. We argue that not many more non-millisecond radio pulsars may be detected along the Galactic plane that are responsible for LAT sources, but that modified methods to search for gamma-ray pulsations should be productive - PSR J2030+364 I would have been found blindly in gamma rays if only > or approx. 0.8 GeV photons had been considered, owing to its relatively flat spectrum and location in a region of high soft background.

  3. Neutron and Gamma-ray Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasilnikov, Anatoly V.; Sasao, Mamiko; Kaschuck, Yuri A.; Kiptily, Vasily G.; Nishitani, Takeo; Popovichev, Sergey V.; Bertalot, Luciano

    2008-03-01

    Due to high neutron and gamma-ray yields and large size plasmas many future fusion reactor plasma parameters such as fusion power, fusion power density, ion temperature, fuel mixture, fast ion energy and spatial distributions can be well measured by various fusion product diagnostics. Neutron diagnostics provide information on fusion reaction rate, which indicates how close is the plasma to the ultimate goal of nuclear fusion and fusion power distribution in the plasma core, which is crucial for optimization of plasma breakeven and burn. Depending on the plasma conditions neutron and gamma-ray diagnostics can provide important information, namely about dynamics of fast ion energy and spatial distributions during neutral beam injection, ion cyclotron heating and generated by fast ions MHD instabilities. The influence of the fast particle population on the 2-D neutron source profile was clearly demonstrated in JET experiments. 2-D neutron and gamma-ray source measurements could be important for driven plasma heating profile optimization in fusion reactors. To meat the measurement requirements in ITER the planned set of neutron and gamma ray diagnostics includes radial and vertical neutron and gamma cameras, neutron flux monitors, neutron activation systems and neutron spectrometers. The necessity of using massive radiation shielding strongly influences the diagnostic designs in fusion reactor, determines angular fields of view of neutron and gamma-ray cameras and spectrometers and gives rise to unavoidable difficulties in the absolute calibration. The development, testing in existing tokomaks and a possible engineering integration of neuron and gamma-ray diagnostic systems into ITER are presented.

  4. Observing Gamma-ray Bursts with GLAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST) is a satellite-based observatory to study the high-energy gamma-ray sky. The Large Area Telescope, the main instrument, is a pair-conversion telescope which will survey the sky in the energy range 20 MeV to greater than 300 GeV. The LAT's wide field of view (greater than 2 sr), large effective area and low deadtime combine to provide excellent high-energy gamma-ray observations of GRB. To tie these frontier high-energy observations to the better-known properties at lower energies, a second instrument, the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will provide important spectra and timing in the 8 keV to 30 MeV range. Upon detection of a GRB by the LAT or the GBM, the spacecraft can autonomously repoint to keep the GRB location within the LAT field of view, allowing high-energy afterglow observations. We describe how the instruments, spacecraft, and ground system work together to provide observations of gamma-ray bursts from 8 keV to over 300 GeV and provide rapid notification of these observations to the wider gamma-ray burst community. Analysis and simulation tools dedicated to the GRB science have been developed. In this contribution we show the expected LAT sensitivity obtained with such simulations, and illustrate the results we expect from GLAST observations with spectral and temporal analysis of simulated GRB.

  5. Stellar Photon Archaeology with Gamma-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing deep surveys of galaxy luminosity distribution functions, spectral energy distributions and backwards evolution models of star formation rates can be used to calculate the past history of intergalactic photon densities and, from them, the present and past optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays from pair production interactions with these photons. The energy-redshift dependence of the optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays has become known as the Fazio-Stecker relation (Fazio & Stecker 1970). Stecker, Malkan & Scully have calculated the densities of intergalactic background light (IBL) photons of energies from 0.03 eV to the Lyman limit at 13.6 eV and for 0$ < z < $6, using deep survey galaxy observations from Spitzer, Hubble and GALEX and have consequently predicted spectral absorption features for extragalactic gamma-ray sources. This procedure can also be reversed. Determining the cutoff energies of gamma-ray sources with known redshifts using the recently launched Fermi gamma-ray space telescope may enable a more precise determination of the IBL photon densities in the past, i.e., the "archaeo-IBL.", and therefore allow a better measure of the past history of the total star formation rate, including that from galaxies too faint to be observed.

  6. Uncertainties in gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lépy, M. C.; Pearce, A.; Sima, O.

    2015-06-01

    High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry is a well-established metrological technique that can be applied to a large number of photon-emitting radionuclides, activity levels and sample shapes and compositions. Three kinds of quantitative information can be derived using this technique: detection efficiency calibration, radionuclide activity and photon emission intensities. In contrast to other radionuclide measurement techniques gamma-ray spectrometry provides unambiguous identification of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in addition to activity values. This extra information comes at a cost of increased complexity and inherently higher uncertainties when compared with other secondary techniques. The relative combined standard uncertainty associated with any result obtained by gamma-ray spectrometry depends not only on the uncertainties of the main input parameters but also on different correction factors. To reduce the uncertainties, the experimental conditions must be optimized in terms of the signal processing electronics and the physical parameters of the measured sample should be accurately characterized. Measurement results and detailed examination of the associated uncertainties are presented with a specific focus on the efficiency calibration, peak area determination and correction factors. It must be noted that some of the input values used in quantitative analysis calculation can be correlated, which should be taken into account in fitting procedures or calculation of the uncertainties associated with quantitative results. It is shown that relative combined standard uncertainties are rarely lower than 1% in gamma-ray spectrometry measurements.

  7. ADP study of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Don Q.; Wang, John C. L.; Heuter, Geoffry J.; Graziani, Carlo; Loredo, Tom; Freeman, Peter

    1991-01-01

    This grant supported study of cyclotron scattering lines in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts through analysis of Ginga and HEAO-1 archival data, and modeling of the results in terms of radiation transfer calculations of cyclotron scattering in a strong magnetic field. A Monte Carlo radiation transfer code with which we are able to calculate the expected properties of cyclotron scattering lines in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts was developed. The extensive software necessary in order to carry out fits of these model spectra to gamma-ray burst spectral data, including folding of the model spectra through the detector response functions was also developed. Fits to Ginga satellite data on burst GB880205 were completed and fits to Ginga satellite data on burst GB870303 are being carried out. These fits have allowed us to test our software, as well as to garner new scientific results. This work has demonstrated that cyclotron resonant scattering successfully accounts for the locations, strengths, and widths of the observed line features in GB870303 and GB880205. The success of the model provides compelling evidence that these gamma-ray bursts come from strongly magnetic neutron stars and are galactic in origin, resolving longstanding controversies about the nature and distance of the burst sources. These results were reported in two papers which are in press in the proceedings of the Taos Workshop on Gamma-Ray Bursts, and in a paper submitted for publication.

  8. LUMINOSITY EVOLUTION OF GAMMA-RAY PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Hirotani, Kouichi

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the electrodynamic structure of a pulsar outer-magnetospheric particle accelerator and the resulting gamma-ray emission. By considering the condition for the accelerator to be self-sustained, we derive how the trans-magnetic-field thickness of the accelerator evolves with the pulsar age. It is found that the thickness is small but increases steadily if the neutron-star envelope is contaminated by sufficient light elements. For such a light element envelope, the gamma-ray luminosity of the accelerator is kept approximately constant as a function of age in the initial 10,000 yr, forming the lower bound of the observed distribution of the gamma-ray luminosity of rotation-powered pulsars. If the envelope consists of only heavy elements, on the other hand, the thickness is greater, but it increases less rapidly than a light element envelope. For such a heavy element envelope, the gamma-ray luminosity decreases relatively rapidly, forming the upper bound of the observed distribution. The gamma-ray luminosity of a general pulsar resides between these two extreme cases, reflecting the envelope composition and the magnetic inclination angle with respect to the rotation axis. The cutoff energy of the primary curvature emission is regulated below several GeV even for young pulsars because the gap thickness, and hence the acceleration electric field, is suppressed by the polarization of the produced pairs.

  9. Gamma-ray limits on neutrino lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Yaguna, Carlos E.; Weniger, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Monochromatic neutrinos from dark matter annihilations (χχ→ νbar nu) are always produced in association with a gamma-ray spectrum generated by electroweak bremsstrahlung. Consequently, these neutrino lines can be searched for not only with neutrino detectors but also indirectly with gamma-ray telescopes. Here, we derive limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section into neutrinos based on recent Fermi-LAT and HESS data. We find that, for dark matter masses above 200 GeV, gamma-ray data actually set the most stringent constraints on neutrino lines from dark matter annihilation and, therefore, an upper bound on the dark matter total annihilation cross section. In addition, we point out that gamma-ray telescopes, unlike neutrino detectors, have the potential to distinguish the flavor of the final state neutrino. Our results indicate that we have already entered into a new era where gamma-ray telescopes are more sensitive than neutrino detectors to neutrino lines from dark matter annihilation.

  10. ADP study of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Don Q.; Wang, John C. L.; Heuter, Geoffry J.; Graziani, Carlo; Loredo, Tom; Freeman, Peter

    This grant supported study of cyclotron scattering lines in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts through analysis of Ginga and HEAO-1 archival data, and modeling of the results in terms of radiation transfer calculations of cyclotron scattering in a strong magnetic field. A Monte Carlo radiation transfer code with which we are able to calculate the expected properties of cyclotron scattering lines in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts was developed. The extensive software necessary in order to carry out fits of these model spectra to gamma-ray burst spectral data, including folding of the model spectra through the detector response functions was also developed. Fits to Ginga satellite data on burst GB880205 were completed and fits to Ginga satellite data on burst GB870303 are being carried out. These fits have allowed us to test our software, as well as to garner new scientific results. This work has demonstrated that cyclotron resonant scattering successfully accounts for the locations, strengths, and widths of the observed line features in GB870303 and GB880205. The success of the model provides compelling evidence that these gamma-ray bursts come from strongly magnetic neutron stars and are galactic in origin, resolving longstanding controversies about the nature and distance of the burst sources. These results were reported in two papers which are in press in the proceedings of the Taos Workshop on Gamma-Ray Bursts, and in a paper submitted for publication.

  11. The Most Remote Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    ESO Telescopes Observe "Lightning" in the Young Universe Summary Observations with telescopes at the ESO La Silla and Paranal observatories (Chile) have enabled an international team of astronomers [1] to measure the distance of a "gamma-ray burst", an extremely violent, cosmic explosion of still unknown physical origin. It turns out to be the most remote gamma-ray burst ever observed . The exceedingly powerful flash of light from this event was emitted when the Universe was very young, less than about 1,500 million years old, or only 10% of its present age. Travelling with the speed of light (300,000 km/sec) during 11,000 million years or more, the signal finally reached the Earth on January 31, 2000. The brightness of the exploding object was enormous, at least 1,000,000,000,000 times that of our Sun, or thousands of times that of the explosion of a single, heavy star (a "supernova"). The ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) was also involved in trail-blazing observations of another gamma-ray burst in May 1999, cf. ESO PR 08/99. PR Photo 28a/00 : Sky field near GRB 000131 . PR Photo 28b/00 : The fading optical counterpart of GRB 000131 . PR Photo 28c/00 : VLT spectrum of GRB 000131 . What are Gamma-Ray Bursts? One of the currently most active fields of astrophysics is the study of the mysterious events known as "gamma-ray bursts" . They were first detected in the late 1960's by instruments on orbiting satellites. These short flashes of energetic gamma-rays last from less than a second to several minutes. Despite much effort, it is only within the last few years that it has become possible to locate the sites of some of these events (e.g. with the Beppo-Sax satellite ). Since the beginning of 1997, astronomers have identified about twenty optical sources in the sky that are associated with gamma-ray bursts. They have been found to be situated at extremely large (i.e., "cosmological") distances. This implies that the energy release during a gamma-ray burst within a few

  12. Gamma-rays, cosmic rays, and galactic structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1976-01-01

    The relation of SAS-2 observations of galactic gamma-rays to the large scale distribution of cosmic rays and interstellar gas in the galaxy is reviewed. Starting with a discussion of production rates, the case for pion decay being the predominant production mechanism in the galactic disk above 100 MeV is reestablished, and it is also pointed out that Compton gamma-rays can be a significant source near l = 0. The concepts of four distinct galactic regions are defined, viz. the nebulodisk, ectodisk, radiodisk and exodisk. Bremsstrahlung and pion decay gamma-rays are associated with the first two (primarily the first) regions, and Compton gamma-rays and synchrotron radiation are associated with the latter two regions. On a large scale, the cosmic rays, interstellar gas (primarily H2 clouds in the inner galaxy) and gamma-ray emissivity all peak between 5 and 6 kpc from the galactic center. This correlation is related to correlation with other population I phenomena and is discussed in terms of the density wave concept of galactic structure.

  13. Relativistic feedback models of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and gamma-ray glows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Relativistic feedback discharges, also known as dark lightning, are capable of explaining many of the observed properties of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) and gamma-ray glows, both created within thunderstorms. During relativistic feedback discharges, the generation of energetic electrons is self-sustained via the production of backward propagating positrons and back-scattered x-rays, resulting in very larges fluxes of energetic radiation. In addition, ionization produces large electric currents that generate LF/VLF radio emissions and eventually discharge the electric field, terminating the gamma-ray production. In this presentation, new relativistic feedback model results will be presented and compared to recent observations.

  14. On Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffini, R.; Bernardini, M. G.; Bianco, C. L.; Caito, L.; Chardonnet, P.; Cherubini, C.; Dainotti, M. G.; Fraschetti, F.; Geralico, A.; Guida, R.; Patricelli, B.; Rotondo, M.; Rueda Hernandez, J. A.; Vereshchagin, G.; Xue, S.-S.

    2008-09-01

    We show by example how the uncoding of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) offers unprecedented possibilities to foster new knowledge in fundamental physics and in astrophysics. After recalling some of the classic work on vacuum polarization in uniform electric fields by Klein, Sauter, Heisenberg, Euler and Schwinger, we summarize some of the efforts to observe these effects in heavy ions and high energy ion collisions. We then turn to the theory of vacuum polarization around a Kerr-Newman black hole, leading to the extraction of the blackholic energy, to the concept of dyadosphere and dyadotorus, and to the creation of an electron-positron-photon plasma. We then present a new theoretical approach encompassing the physics of neutron stars and heavy nuclei. It is shown that configurations of nuclear matter in bulk with global charge neutrality can exist on macroscopic scales and with electric fields close to the critical value near their surfaces. These configurations may represent an initial condition for the process of gravitational collapse, leading to the creation of an electron-positron-photon plasma: the basic self-accelerating system explaining both the energetics and the high energy Lorentz factor observed in GRBs. We then turn to recall the two basic interpretational paradigms of our GRB model: 1) the Relative Space-Time Transformation (RSTT) paradigm and 2) the Interpretation of the Burst Structure (IBS) paradigm. These paradigms lead to a "canonical" GRB light curve formed from two different components: a Proper-GRB (P-GRB) and an extended afterglow comprising a raising part, a peak, and a decaying tail. When the P-GRB is energetically predominant we have a "genuine" short GRB, while when the afterglow is energetically predominant we have a so-called long GRB or a "fake" short GRB. We compare and contrast the description of the relativistic expansion of the electron-positron plasma within our approach and within the other ones in the current literature. We then turn

  15. Neutron and Gamma Ray Pulse Shape Discrimination with Polyvinyltoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Lintereur, Azaree T.; Ely, James H.; Stave, Jean A.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2012-03-01

    The goal of this was research effort was to test the ability of two poly vinyltoluene research samples to produce recordable, distinguishable signals in response to gamma rays and neutrons. Pulse shape discrimination was performed to identify if the signal was generated by a gamma ray or a neutron. A standard figure of merit for pulse shape discrimination was used to quantify the gamma-neutron pulse separation. Measurements were made with gamma and neutron sources with and without shielding. The best figure of merit obtained was 1.77; this figure of merit was achieved with the first sample in response to an un-moderated 252Cf source shielded with 5.08 cm of lead.

  16. Gravitational waves versus X-ray and gamma-ray emission in a short gamma-ray burst

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, F. G.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, R. E-mail: jorge.rueda@icra.it

    2014-06-01

    Recent progress in the understanding of the physical nature of neutron star equilibrium configurations and the first observational evidence of a genuinely short gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 090227B, allows us to give an estimate of the gravitational waves versus the X-ray and gamma-ray emission in a short GRB.

  17. Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Pak-Hin T.; Hui, Chung Y.; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few years, the data obtained using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided new insights on high-energy processes in globular clusters, particularly those involving compact objects such as MilliSecond Pulsars (MSPs). Gamma-ray emission in the 100 MeV to 10 GeV range has been detected from more than a dozen globular clusters in our galaxy, including 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. Based on a sample of known gammaray globular clusters, the empirical relations between gamma-ray luminosity and properties of globular clusters such as their stellar encounter rate, metallicity, and possible optical and infrared photon energy densities, have been derived. The measured gamma-ray spectra are generally described by a power law with a cut-off at a few gigaelectronvolts. Together with the detection of pulsed γ-rays from two MSPs in two different globular clusters, such spectral signature lends support to the hypothesis that γ-rays from globular clusters represent collective curvature emission from magnetospheres of MSPs in the clusters. Alternative models, involving Inverse-Compton (IC) emission of relativistic electrons that are accelerated close to MSPs or pulsar wind nebula shocks, have also been suggested. Observations at >100 GeV by using Fermi/LAT and atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S.-II, MAGIC-II, VERITAS, and CTA will help to settle some questions unanswered by current data.

  18. Gamma-Ray Imaging for Explosives Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deNolfo, G. A.; Hunter, S. D.; Barbier, L. M.; Link, J. T.; Son, S.; Floyd, S. R.; Guardala, N.; Skopec, M.; Stark, B.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a gamma-ray imaging camera (GIC) for active interrogation of explosives being developed by NASA/GSFC and NSWCICarderock. The GIC is based on the Three-dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) technology developed at GSFC for gamma-ray astrophysics. The 3-DTI, a large volume time-projection chamber, provides accurate, approx.0.4 mm resolution, 3-D tracking of charged particles. The incident direction of gamma rays, E, > 6 MeV, are reconstructed from the momenta and energies of the electron-positron pair resulting from interactions in the 3-DTI volume. The optimization of the 3-DTI technology for this specific application and the performance of the GIC from laboratory tests is presented.

  19. Solar gamma rays and neutron observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, E. L.; Forrest, D. J.; Suri, A. N.

    1972-01-01

    The present status of knowledge concerning the impulsive and the continuous emission of solar gamma rays and neutrons is reviewed in the light of the recent solar activity in early August 1972. The gamma ray spectrometer on OSO-7 has observed the sun continuously for most of the activity period except for occultation by the earth. In association with the 2B flare on 4 August 1972 and the 3B flare on 7 August 1972, the monitor provides evidence for solar gamma ray line emission in the energy range from 300 keV to 10 MeV. A summary of all the results available from preliminary analysis of the data will be given. Significant improvements in future experiments can be made with more sensitive instruments and more extensive time coverage of the sun.

  20. Gamma rays from pulsar wind shock acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    1990-01-01

    A shock forming in the wind of relativistic electron-positron pairs from a pulsar, as a result of confinement by surrounding material, could convert part of the pulsar spin-down luminosity to high energy particles through first order Fermi acceleration. High energy protons could be produced by this mechanism both in supernova remnants and in binary systems containing pulsars. The pion-decay gamma-rays resulting from interaction of accelerated protons with surrounding target material in such sources might be observable above 70 MeV with EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope) and above 100 GeV with ground-based detectors. Acceleration of protons and expected gamma-ray fluxes from SN1987A, Cyg X-3 type sources and binary pulsars are discussed.

  1. Gamma ray lines from buried supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Meyer, P.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the possibility that supernovae (SN), located in dense interstellar clouds, might become the sources of gamma ray lines. The SN progenitor, in such a case, has to be an O or B star so that its evolutionary lifetime is short, and an explosion inside the cloud is still possible. It is shown that, in principle, a measurement of the abundances in the ejecta is possible. Attention is given to the characteristics of a model, the expected luminosity of gamma-ray lines, and the study of specific numerical examples for testing the feasibility of the considered mechanism. On the basis of the obtained results, it is concluded that gamma-ray line production by collisional excitation in confined supernovae remnants may be quite important.

  2. Gamma-ray spectroscopy - Status and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Contemporary gamma-ray spectroscopy instruments and their results are reviewed. Sensitivities of 10 to the -4th to 10 to the -3rd ph/sq cm-sec have been achieved for steady sources and 10 to the -2nd to 1 ph/sq cm-sec for transient sources. This has led to the detection of gamma-ray lines from more than 40 objects representing 6 classes of astrophysical phenomena. The lines carry model-independent information and are of fundamental importance to theoretical modeling and our understanding of the objects. The objectives and anticipated results of future instruments are discussed. Several instruments in development will have a factor of 10 sensitivity improvement to certain phenomena over contemporary instruments. A factor of 100 improvement in sensitivity will allow the full potential of gamma-ray spectroscopy to be realized. Instrument concepts which would achieve this with both present and advanced techniques are discussed.

  3. Gamma-ray bursters at cosmological distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, B.

    1986-01-01

    It is proposed that some, perhaps most, gamma-ray bursters are at cosmological distances, like quasars, with a redshift of about 1 or 2. This proposition requires a release of supernova-like energy of about 10 to the 51st ergs within less than 1 s, making gamma-ray bursters the brightest objects known in the universe, many orders of magnitude brighter than any quasars. This power must drive a highly relativistic outflow of electron-positron plasma and radiation from the source. It is proposed that three gamma-ray bursts, all with identical spectra, detected from B1900 + 14 by Mazets, Golenetskii, and Gur'yan and reported in 1979, were all due to a single event multiply imaged by a gravitational lens. The time intervals between the successive bursts, 10 hr to 3 days, were due to differences in the light travel time for different images.

  4. Gamma-ray astronomy and the origin of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    New surveys of galactic gamma ray emission together with millimeter wave radio surveys indicated that cosmic rays were produced as the result of supernova explosions in our galaxy with the most intense production occurring in a Great Galactic Ring about 35,000 light years in diameter where supernova remnants and pulsars were concentrated.

  5. Gamma ray line production from cosmic ray spallation reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The gamma ray line intensities due to cosmic ray spallation reactions in clouds, the galactic disk and accreting binary pulsars are calculated. With the most favorable plausible assumptions, only a few lines may be detectable to the level of 0.0000001 per sq. cm per sec. The intensities are compared with those generated in nuclear excitation reactions.

  6. Comets, X-ray bursts, and gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. I.

    1986-01-01

    The proposal, revived by Tremaine and Zytkow (1985), that accretion of comets by neutron stars may be the origin of gamma-ray bursts is considered. This mechanism has difficulty accounting for the observed gamma-ray spectrum and optical counterparts of the bursts. The survival of comets near supernovae is investigated. Ablation rates and the thermal structure of an ablating surface layer are calculated. In some circumstances, mechanical disruption will erode a comet more rapidly than evaporation. The accretion of comets by neutron stars may produce a class of X-ray burst sources with novel properties.

  7. Design and Performance of the GAMMA-400 Gamma-Ray Telescope for Dark Matter Searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galper, A. M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gusakov, Yu V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Leonov, A. A.; Longo, F.; Mazets, E. P.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.; Mereminskiy, I. A.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu

    2012-01-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is designed to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons (+) positrons, which can be produced by annihilation or decay of the dark matter particles, as well as to survey the celestial sphere in order to study point and extended sources of gamma-rays, measure energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, gamma-ray bursts, and gamma-ray emission from the Sun. GAMMA-400 covers the energy range from 100 MeV to 3000 GeV. Its angular resolution is approximately 0.01deg (E(sub gamma) greater than 100 GeV), the energy resolution approximately 1% (E(sub gamma) greater than 10 GeV), and the proton rejection factor approximately 10(exp 6). GAMMA-400 will be installed on the Russian space platform Navigator. The beginning of observations is planned for 2018.

  8. Design and Performance of the GAMMA-400 Gamma-Ray Telescope for Dark Matter Searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galper, A.M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A.I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gusakov, Yu. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Leonov, A. A.; Longo, F.; Mazets, E. P.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.; Mereminskiy, I. A.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mocchiutti, E.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu.; Papini, P.; Picozza, P.; Rodin, V. G.; Runtso, M. F.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Suchkov, S. I.; Tavani, M.; Topchiev, N. P.; Vacchi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is designed to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons + positrons, which can be produced by annihilation or decay of the dark matter particles, as well as to survey the celestial sphere in order to study point and extended sources of gamma-rays, measure energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, gamma-ray bursts, and gamma-ray emission from the Sun. GAMMA-400 covers the energy range from 100 MeV to 3000 GeV. Its angular resolution is approx. 0.01 deg (E(sub gamma) > 100 GeV), the energy resolution approx. 1% (E(sub gamma) > 10 GeV), and the proton rejection factor approx 10(exp 6). GAMMA-400 will be installed on the Russian space platform Navigator. The beginning of observations is planned for 2018.

  9. Solar Gamma Rays Above 8 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, C. J.; Crannell, H.; Ramaty, R.

    1978-01-01

    Processes which lead to the production of gamma rays with energy greater than 8 MeV in solar flares are reviewed and evaluated. Excited states produced by inelastic scattering, charge exchange, and spallation reactions in the abundant nuclear species are considered in order to identify nuclear lines which may contribute to the Gamma ray spectrum of solar flares. The flux of 15.11 MeV Gamma rays relative to the flux of 4.44 MeV Gamma rays from the de-excitation of the corresponding states in C12 is calculated for a number of assumed distributions of exciting particles. This flux ratio is a sensitive diagnostic of accelerated particle spectra. Other high energy nuclear levels are not so isolated as the 15.11 MeV state and are not expected to be so strong. The spectrum of Gamma rays from the decay of Pi dey is sensitive to the energy distribution of particles accelerated to energies greater than 100 MeV.

  10. Internal energy dissipation of gamma-ray bursts observed with Swift: Precursors, prompt gamma-rays, extended emission, and late X-ray flares

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, You-Dong; Liang, En-Wei; Xi, Shao-Qiang; Peng, Fang-Kun; Lu, Rui-Jing; Lü, Lian-Zhong; Zhang, Bing E-mail: Zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-07-10

    We jointly analyze the gamma-ray burst (GRB) data observed with Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and X-ray Telescope on board the Swift mission to present a global view on the internal energy dissipation processes in GRBs, including precursors, prompt gamma-ray emission, extended soft gamma-ray emission, and late X-ray flares. The Bayesian block method is utilized to analyze the BAT light curves to identify various emission episodes. Our results suggest that these emission components likely share the same physical origin, which is the repeated activation of the GRB central engine. What we observe in the gamma-ray band may be a small part of more extended underlying activities. The precursor emission, which is detected in about 10% of Swift GRBs, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a massive star core-collapse origin. The soft extended emission tail, on the other hand, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a compact star merger origin. Bright X-ray emission is detected during the BAT quiescent phases prior to subsequent gamma-ray peaks, implying that X-ray emission may be detectable prior the BAT trigger time. Future GRB alert instruments with soft X-ray capability are essential for revealing the early stages of GRB central engine activities, and shedding light on jet composition and the jet launching mechanism in GRBs.

  11. The WISE Gamma-Ray Strip Parametrization: The Nature of the Gamma-Ray Active Galactic Nuclei of Uncertain Type

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Tosti, G.; Ajello, M.; Gasparrini, D.; Grindlay, J.E.; Smith, Howard A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2012-04-02

    Despite the large number of discoveries made recently by Fermi, the origins of the so called unidentified {gamma}-ray sources remain unknown. The large number of these sources suggests that among them there could be a population that significantly contributes to the isotropic gamma-ray background and is therefore crucial to understand their nature. The first step toward a complete comprehension of the unidentified {gamma}-ray source population is to identify those that can be associated with blazars, the most numerous class of extragalactic sources in the {gamma}-ray sky. Recently, we discovered that blazars can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources using the infrared (IR) WISE satellite colors. The blazar population delineates a remarkable and distinctive region of the IR color-color space, the WISE blazar strip. In particular, the subregion delineated by the {gamma}-ray emitting blazars is even narrower and we named it as the WISE Gamma-ray Strip (WGS). In this paper we parametrize the WGS on the basis of a single parameter s that we then use to determine if {gamma}-ray Active Galactic Nuclei of the uncertain type (AGUs) detected by Fermi are consistent with the WGS and so can be considered blazar candidates. We find that 54 AGUs out of a set 60 analyzed have IR colors consistent with the WGS; only 6 AGUs are outliers. This result implies that a very high percentage (i.e., in this sample about 90%) of the AGUs detected by Fermi are indeed blazar candidates.

  12. Statistics of cosmological gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermer, Charles D.

    1992-01-01

    A phenomenological model of gamma-ray burst spectra is used to calculate the statistics of gamma-ray bursts originating at cosmological distances. A model of bursters with no source evolution in a q sub 0 = 1/2 Friedmann cosmology is in accord with recent observations of the differential V/Vmax distribution. The data are best fit with an average peak-burst luminosity of (4 +/- 2) x 10 exp 51 ergs/s and a present-day source emissivity of 940 +/- 440 bursts/(10 exp 10 yr) cu Mpc. A spectral test of the cosmological hypothesis is proposed.

  13. Gamma ray spectrometer for Lunar Scout 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, C. E.; Burt, W. W.; Edwards, B. C.; Martin, R. A.; Nakano, George H.; Reedy, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    We review the current status of the Los Alamos program to develop a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer for the Lunar Scout-II mission, which is the second of two Space Exploration Initiative robotic precursor missions to study the Moon. This instrument will measure gamma rays in the energy range of approximately 0.1 - 10 MeV to determine the composition of the lunar surface. The instrument is a high-purity germanium crystal surrounded by an CsI anticoincidence shield and cooled by a split Stirling cycle cryocooler. It will provide the abundance of many elements over the entire lunar surface.

  14. Radioactivities and gamma-rays from supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woosley, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the implications of several calculations relevant to the estimation of gamma-ray signals from various explosive astronomical phenomena. After discussing efforts to constrain the amounts of Ni-57 and Ti-44 produced in SN 1987A, attention is given to the production of Al-27 in massive stars and SNs. A 'delayed detonation' model of type Ia SNs is proposed, and the gamma-ray signal which may be expected when a bare white dwarf collapses directly into a neutron star is discussed.

  15. Pulser injection with subsequent removal for gamma-ray spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Hartwell, Jack K.; Goodwin, Scott G.; Johnson, Larry O.; Killian, E. Wayne

    1990-01-01

    An improved system for gamma-ray spectroscopy characterized by an interface module that controls the injection of electronic pulses as well as separation logic that enables storage of pulser events in a region of the spectrum of a multichannel analyzer distinct from the region reserved for storage of gamma-ray events. The module accomplishes this by tagging pulser events (high or low) injected into the amplification circuitry, adding an offset to the events so identified at the time the events are at the output of the analog to digital converter, and storing such events in the upper portion of the spectrum stored in the multichannel analyzer. The module can be adapted for use with existing gamma-ray spectroscopy equipment to provide for automatic analyses of radioisotopes.

  16. Gamma-ray burst flares: X-ray flaring. II

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, C. A.; Roming, P. W. A.

    2014-06-10

    We present a catalog of 498 flaring periods found in gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves taken from the online Swift X-Ray Telescope GRB Catalogue. We analyzed 680 individual light curves using a flare detection method developed and used on our UV/optical GRB Flare Catalog. This method makes use of the Bayesian Information Criterion to analyze the residuals of fitted GRB light curves and statistically determines the optimal fit to the light curve residuals in an attempt to identify any additional features. These features, which we classify as flares, are identified by iteratively adding additional 'breaks' to the light curve. We find evidence of flaring in 326 of the analyzed light curves. For those light curves with flares, we find an average number of ∼1.5 flares per GRB. As with the UV/optical, flaring in our sample is generally confined to the first 1000 s of the afterglow, but can be detected to beyond 10{sup 5} s. Only ∼50% of the detected flares follow the 'classical' definition of Δt/t ≤ 0.5, with many of the largest flares exceeding this value.

  17. Pulses in gamma ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Norris, Jay P.; Bonnell, Jerry T.

    1996-04-01

    If typical GRBs have X-ray counterparts similar to those detected by GINGA, then existing focussing X-ray telescopes will be able to detect GRBs three orders of magnitude fainter than the detection limit of BATSE. The EINSTEIN Observatory observed nearby galaxies for approximately 2 million seconds, during which time only one burstlike X-ray transient occurred. From this result we determine that GRBs cannot originate in a Galactic halo population with a limiting radius between 150 and 400 kpc. Inasmuch as halos with limiting radii outside of this range are excluded by BATSE isotropy measurements, our result indicates that all halo models are excluded.

  18. Gamma-ray Astrophysics with AGILE

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, Francesco |; Tavani, M.; Barbiellini, G.; Argan, A.; Basset, M.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P.; Chen, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Foggetta, L.; Froysland, T.; Frutti, M.

    2007-07-12

    AGILE will explore the gamma-ray Universe with a very innovative instrument combining for the first time a gamma-ray imager and a hard X-ray imager. AGILE will be operational in spring 2007 and it will provide crucial data for the study of Active Galactic Nuclei, Gamma-Ray Bursts, unidentified gamma-ray sources. Galactic compact objects, supernova remnants, TeV sources, and fundamental physics by microsecond timing. The AGILE instrument is designed to simultaneously detect and image photons in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV and 15 - 45 keV energy bands with excellent imaging and timing capabilities, and a large field of view covering {approx} 1/5 of the entire sky at energies above 30 MeV. A CsI calorimeter is capable of GRB triggering in the energy band 0.3-50 MeV AGILE is now (March 2007) undergoing launcher integration and testing. The PLSV launch is planned in spring 2007. AGILE is then foreseen to be fully operational during the summer of 2007.

  19. The origin and implications of gamma rays from solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.

    1975-01-01

    Solar flares studied in the gamma ray region provide essential information on accelerated nuclei that can be obtained in no other way. A multitude of physical processes, such as particle acceleration, nuclear reactions, positron and neutron physics, and kinematical line broadening, come into consideration at gamma ray energies. Gamma ray observations are complementary to hard X ray observations, since both provide information on accelerated particles. It appears that only in the gamma ray region do these particles produce distinct spectral lines.

  20. Stirling Colgate and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Donald

    2014-10-01

    Even before the discovery of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), Stirling Colgate proposed that bursts of x rays and gamma rays might be produced by a relativistic shock created in the supernova explosion of a massive star. We trace the scientific story of GRBs from their detection to the present, highlighting along the way Stirling's interest in them and his efforts to understand them. We summarize our current understanding that short, soft, repeating bursts are produced by magnetic neutron stars; short, hard bursts are produced by the mergers of neutron star-neutron star binaries; and long, hard bursts are produced by the core collapse of massive stars that have lost their hydrogen and helium envelopes. We then discuss some important open questions about GRBs and how they might be answered. We conclude by describing the recent serendipitous discovery of an x-ray burst of exactly the kind he proposed, and the insights into core collapse supernovae and GRBs that it provided.

  1. Modelling Hard Gamma-Ray Emission from Supernova Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    1999-01-01

    The observation by the CANGAROO (Collaboration of Australia and Nippon Gamma Ray Observatory at Outback) experiment of TeV emission from SN 1006, in conjunction with several instances of non-thermal X-ray emission from supernova remnants, has led to inferences of super-TeV electrons in these extended sources. While this is sufficient to propel the theoretical community in their modelling of particle acceleration and associated radiation, the anticipated emergence in the next decade of a number of new experiments probing the TeV and sub-TeV bands provides further substantial motivation for modellers. In particular, the quest for obtaining unambiguous gamma-ray signatures of cosmic ray ion acceleration defines a "Holy Grail" for observers and theorists alike. This review summarizes theoretical developments in the prediction of MeV-TeV gamma-rays from supernova remnants over the last five years, focusing on how global properties of models can impact, and be impacted by, hard gamma-ray observational programs, thereby probing the supernova remnant environment. Properties of central consideration include the maximum energy of accelerated particles, the density of the unshocked interstellar medium, the ambient magnetic field, and the relativistic electron-to-proton ratio. Criteria for determining good candidate remnants for observability in the TeV band are identified.

  2. Pulsar searches: From radio to gamma-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Adam M.

    2003-08-01

    We report the results of four different pulsar searches, covering radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths. These searches targeted pulsars in virtually all of their guises: young and old, long-period and short-period, accretion-powered and rotation-powered. Ten new pulsars were discovered. There are very few known gamma-ray pulsars, all of which were found by folding gamma-ray data with a pulse period known from other wavelengths. Some emission models indicate that there may be a large number of gamma-ray pulsars that are undetectable at lower energies. We searched several of the brightest unidentified gamma-ray sources for pulsations. This was the first attempt to identify gamma-ray pulsars by directly searching gamma- ray data. No new identifications resulted; we report upper limits. Even more rare than gamma-ray pulsars are accreting millisecond pulsars. We searched for coherent pulsations from Aql X-1, a low-mass X-ray binary suspected of harboring such an object. No pulsations were detected, and we argue that the quiescent emission of this system has a thermal origin. The two radio searches included here were both designed to detect millisecond pulsars. First, we report the results of a large area survey from Arecibo. Five new slow pulsars were discovered, including an apparent orthogonal rotator and an extremely unusual bursting radio pulsar. No short-period pulsars were discovered and we place some of the first useful observational constraints on the limiting spin period of a neutron star. We also performed pointed searches of several globular clusters using the new Green Bank Telescope. Three new binary millisecond pulsars were found in M62. These were the first new objects found with the GBT, and they bring the total pulsar population in M62 to six. We also discovered two isolated pulsars, one each in NGC 6544 and NGC 6624. Many of the methods we developed will be relevant to future searches. Perhaps the most significant contribution is a dynamic power

  3. A Compton scatter attenuation gamma ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A Compton scatter attenuation gamma ray spectrometer conceptual design is discussed for performing gamma spectral measurements in monodirectional gamma fields from 100 R per hour to 1,000,000 R per hour. Selectable Compton targets are used to scatter gamma photons onto an otherwise heavily shielded detector with changeable scattering efficiencies such that the count rate is maintained between 500 and 10,000 per second. Use of two sum-Compton coincident detectors, one for energies up to 1.5 MeV and the other for 600 keV to 10 MeV, will allow good peak to tail pulse height ratios to be obtained over the entire spectrum and reduces the neutron recoil background rate.

  4. Nuclear isomer suitable for gamma ray laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jha, S.

    1979-01-01

    The operation of gamma ray lasers (gasers) are studied. It is assumed that the nuclear isomers mentioned in previously published papers have inherent limitations. It is further assumed that the judicious use of Bormann effect or the application of the total external reflection of low energy gamma radiation at grazing angle of incidence may permit the use of a gaser crystal sufficiently long to achieve observable stimulated emission. It is suggested that a long lived 0(+) isomer decaying by low energy gamma ray emission to a short lived 2(+) excited nuclear state would be an attractive gaser candidate. It is also suggested that the nuclear isomer be incorporated in a matrix of refractory material having an electrostatic field gradient whose principal axis lies along the length of the medium. This results in the preferential transmission of electric quadrupole radiation along the length of the medium.

  5. Propagation of Cosmic Rays and Diffuse Galactic Gamma Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskalenko, Igor V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the astrophysics of cosmic rays and diffuse gamma-rays and discusses some of the puzzles that have emerged recently due to more precise data and improved propagation models: the excesses in Galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, secondary antiprotons and positrons, and the flatter than expected gradient of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. These also involve the dark matter, a challenge to modern physics, through its indirect searches in cosmic rays. Though the final solutions are yet to be found, I discuss some ideas and results obtained mostly with the numerical propagation model GALPROP. A fleet of spacecraft and balloon experiments targeting these specific issues is set to lift off in a few years, imparting a feeling of optimism that a new era of exciting discoveries is just around the corner. A complete and comprehensive discussion of all the recent results is not attempted here due to the space limitations.

  6. Gamma Rays from Intergalactic Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshet, Uri; Waxman, Eli; Loeb, Abraham; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars

    2003-03-01

    Structure formation in the intergalactic medium (IGM) produces large-scale, collisionless shock waves, in which electrons can be accelerated to highly relativistic energies. Such electrons can Compton-scatter cosmic microwave background photons up to γ-ray energies. We study the radiation emitted in this process using a hydrodynamic cosmological simulation of a ΛCDM universe. The resulting radiation, extending beyond TeV energies, has roughly constant energy flux per decade in photon energy, in agreement with the predictions of Loeb & Waxman. Assuming that a fraction ξe=0.05 of the shock thermal energy is transferred to the population of accelerated relativistic electrons, as inferred from collisionless nonrelativistic shocks in the interstellar medium, we find that the energy flux of this radiation, ɛ2(dJ/dɛ)~=50-160 eV cm-2 s-1 sr-1, constitutes ~10% of the extragalactic γ-ray background flux. The associated γ-ray point sources are too faint to account for the ~60 unidentified EGRET γ-ray sources, but GLAST should detect and resolve several γ-ray sources associated with large-scale IGM structures for ξe~=0.03 and many more sources for larger ξe. The intergalactic origin of the shock-induced radiation can be verified through a cross-correlation with, e.g., the galaxy distribution that traces the same structure. Its shock origin may be tested by cross-correlating its properties with radio synchrotron radiation, emitted as the same accelerated electrons gyrate in postshock magnetic fields. We predict that GLAST and Cerenkov telescopes such as MAGIC, VERITAS, and HESS should resolve γ-rays from nearby (redshifts z<~0.01) rich galaxy clusters, perhaps in the form of a ~5-10 Mpc diameter ringlike emission tracing the cluster accretion shock, with luminous peaks where the ring intersects galaxy filaments detectable even at z~=0.025.

  7. GAMMA RAY IMAGING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research is a three year development program to apply high resolution gamma-ray imaging technologies to environmental remediation of radioactive hazards. High resolution, position-sensitive germanium detectors are being developed at the Naval Research Laboratory for space app...

  8. Gamma-Ray Telescope and Uncertainty Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is one of the important basic principles of quantum mechanics. In most of the books on quantum mechanics, this uncertainty principle is generally illustrated with the help of a gamma ray microscope, wherein neither the image formation criterion nor the lens properties are taken into account. Thus a better…

  9. Developments in mercuric iodide gamma ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, B. E.; Beyerle, A. G.; Dolin, R. C.; Ortale, C.

    A mercuric iodide gamma-ray imaging array and camera system previously described has been characterized for spatial and energy resolution. Based on this data a new camera is being developed to more fully exploit the potential of the array. Characterization results and design criterion for the new camera will be presented.

  10. Developments in mercuric iodide gamma ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, B. E.; Beyerle, A. G.; Dolin, R. C.; Ortale, C.

    1989-11-01

    A mercuric iodide (HgI2) gamma ray imaging array and camera system previously described have been characterized for spatial and energy resolution. Based on these data a new camera is being developed to more fully exploit the potential of the array. Characterization results and design criteria for the new camera will be presented.