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Sample records for identify influential individuals

  1. Identifying influential nodes in complex networks based on expansion factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Jing, Yun; Chang, Baofang

    2016-03-01

    Identifying the top influential spreaders in a network has practical significance. In this paper, we propose a novel centrality to identify influential spreaders based on expansion factor. Nodes with high expansion factor centrality (EFC) have strong spreading capability. During the course of the work, an improved strategy is proposed to reduce the time complexity of EFC. We discuss the correlations between EFC and the other five classical indicators. Simulation results on the Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model manifest that EFC can identify influential nodes and find some critical influential nodes neglected by other indicators.

  2. Identifying influential spreaders in complex networks based on gravity formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ling-ling; Ma, Chuang; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2016-06-01

    How to identify the influential spreaders in social networks is crucial for accelerating/hindering information diffusion, increasing product exposure, controlling diseases and rumors, and so on. In this paper, by viewing the k-shell value of each node as its mass and the shortest path distance between two nodes as their distance, then inspired by the idea of the gravity formula, we propose a gravity centrality index to identify the influential spreaders in complex networks. The comparison between the gravity centrality index and some well-known centralities, such as degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, and k-shell centrality, and so forth, indicates that our method can effectively identify the influential spreaders in real networks as well as synthetic networks. We also use the classical Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic model to verify the good performance of our method.

  3. Social network analysis in identifying influential webloggers: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasmuni, Noraini; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, second generation of internet-based services such as weblog has become an effective communication tool to publish information on the Web. Weblogs have unique characteristics that deserve users' attention. Some of webloggers have seen weblogs as appropriate medium to initiate and expand business. These webloggers or also known as direct profit-oriented webloggers (DPOWs) communicate and share knowledge with each other through social interaction. However, survivability is the main issue among DPOW. Frequent communication with influential webloggers is one of the way to keep survive as DPOW. This paper aims to understand the network structure and identify influential webloggers within the network. Proper understanding of the network structure can assist us in knowing how the information is exchanged among members and enhance survivability among DPOW. 30 DPOW were involved in this study. Degree centrality and betweenness centrality measurement in Social Network Analysis (SNA) were used to examine the strength relation and identify influential webloggers within the network. Thus, webloggers with the highest value of these measurements are considered as the most influential webloggers in the network.

  4. Identifying influential factors of business process performance using dependency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzstein, Branimir; Leitner, Philipp; Rosenberg, Florian; Dustdar, Schahram; Leymann, Frank

    2011-02-01

    We present a comprehensive framework for identifying influential factors of business process performance. In particular, our approach combines monitoring of process events and Quality of Service (QoS) measurements with dependency analysis to effectively identify influential factors. The framework uses data mining techniques to construct tree structures to represent dependencies of a key performance indicator (KPI) on process and QoS metrics. These dependency trees allow business analysts to determine how process KPIs depend on lower-level process metrics and QoS characteristics of the IT infrastructure. The structure of the dependencies enables a drill-down analysis of single factors of influence to gain a deeper knowledge why certain KPI targets are not met.

  5. Identifying influential nodes in weighted networks based on evidence theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Daijun; Deng, Xinyang; Zhang, Xiaoge; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2013-05-01

    The design of an effective ranking method to identify influential nodes is an important problem in the study of complex networks. In this paper, a new centrality measure is proposed based on the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. The proposed measure trades off between the degree and strength of every node in a weighted network. The influences of both the degree and the strength of each node are represented by basic probability assignment (BPA). The proposed centrality measure is determined by the combination of these BPAs. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Identify influential spreaders in complex networks, the role of neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Tang, Ming; Zhou, Tao; Do, Younghae

    2016-06-01

    Identifying the most influential spreaders is an important issue in controlling the spreading processes in complex networks. Centrality measures are used to rank node influence in a spreading dynamics. Here we propose a node influence measure based on the centrality of a node and its neighbors' centrality, which we call the neighborhood centrality. By simulating the spreading processes in six real-world networks, we find that the neighborhood centrality greatly outperforms the basic centrality of a node such as the degree and coreness in ranking node influence and identifying the most influential spreaders. Interestingly, we discover a saturation effect in considering the neighborhood of a node, which is not the case of the larger the better. Specifically speaking, considering the 2-step neighborhood of nodes is a good choice that balances the cost and performance. If further step of neighborhood is taken into consideration, there is no obvious improvement and even decrease in the ranking performance. The saturation effect may be informative for studies that make use of the local structure of a node to determine its importance in the network.

  7. Identifying influential directors in the United States corporate governance network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuqing; Vodenska, Irena; Wang, Fengzhong; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-10-01

    The influence of directors has been one of the most engaging topics recently, but surprisingly little research has been done to quantitatively evaluate the influence and power of directors. We analyze the structure of the US corporate governance network for the 11-year period 1996-2006 based on director data from the Investor Responsibility Research Center director database, and we develop a centrality measure named the influence factor to estimate the influence of directors quantitatively. The US corporate governance network is a network of directors with nodes representing directors and links between two directors representing their service on common company boards. We assume that information flows in the network through information-sharing processes among linked directors. The influence factor assigned to a director is based on the level of information that a director obtains from the entire network. We find that, contrary to commonly accepted belief that directors of large companies, measured by market capitalization, are the most powerful, in some instances, the directors who are influential do not necessarily serve on boards of large companies. By applying our influence factor method to identify the influential people contained in the lists created by popular magazines such as Fortune, Networking World, and Treasury and Risk Management, we find that the influence factor method is consistently either the best or one of the two best methods in identifying powerful people compared to other general centrality measures that are used to denote the significance of a node in complex network theory.

  8. Identifying influential directors in the United States corporate governance network.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuqing; Vodenska, Irena; Wang, Fengzhong; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-10-01

    The influence of directors has been one of the most engaging topics recently, but surprisingly little research has been done to quantitatively evaluate the influence and power of directors. We analyze the structure of the US corporate governance network for the 11-year period 1996-2006 based on director data from the Investor Responsibility Research Center director database, and we develop a centrality measure named the influence factor to estimate the influence of directors quantitatively. The US corporate governance network is a network of directors with nodes representing directors and links between two directors representing their service on common company boards. We assume that information flows in the network through information-sharing processes among linked directors. The influence factor assigned to a director is based on the level of information that a director obtains from the entire network. We find that, contrary to commonly accepted belief that directors of large companies, measured by market capitalization, are the most powerful, in some instances, the directors who are influential do not necessarily serve on boards of large companies. By applying our influence factor method to identify the influential people contained in the lists created by popular magazines such as Fortune, Networking World, and Treasury and Risk Management, we find that the influence factor method is consistently either the best or one of the two best methods in identifying powerful people compared to other general centrality measures that are used to denote the significance of a node in complex network theory. PMID:22181221

  9. Highlighting impact: Do editors' selections identify influential papers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    A recent trend in scientific publishing is that journal editors highlight each week a select set among the papers published (usually) in their respective journals. The highlighted papers are deemed of higher quality, importance, or interest than the 'average' paper and feature prominently in the publishers' websites. We perform a citation analysis of the highlighted papers for a number of journals from various publishers in physics. By comparing the performance of highlighted papers relative to (a) typical papers and (b) highly cited papers in their source journals and in other journals in the field, we explore whether, and to what extent, the selection process at the time of publication identifies papers that will turn out to be influential. We discuss the broader implications for research assessment.

  10. Identifying a set of influential spreaders in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Xiong; Chen, Duan-Bing; Dong, Qiang; Zhao, Zhi-Dan

    2016-01-01

    Identifying a set of influential spreaders in complex networks plays a crucial role in effective information spreading. A simple strategy is to choose top-r ranked nodes as spreaders according to influence ranking method such as PageRank, ClusterRank and k-shell decomposition. Besides, some heuristic methods such as hill-climbing, SPIN, degree discount and independent set based are also proposed. However, these approaches suffer from a possibility that some spreaders are so close together that they overlap sphere of influence or time consuming. In this report, we present a simply yet effectively iterative method named VoteRank to identify a set of decentralized spreaders with the best spreading ability. In this approach, all nodes vote in a spreader in each turn, and the voting ability of neighbors of elected spreader will be decreased in subsequent turn. Experimental results on four real networks show that under Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Infected (SI) models, VoteRank outperforms the traditional benchmark methods on both spreading rate and final affected scale. What’s more, VoteRank has superior computational efficiency. PMID:27296252

  11. Identifying a set of influential spreaders in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Xiong; Chen, Duan-Bing; Dong, Qiang; Zhao, Zhi-Dan

    2016-06-01

    Identifying a set of influential spreaders in complex networks plays a crucial role in effective information spreading. A simple strategy is to choose top-r ranked nodes as spreaders according to influence ranking method such as PageRank, ClusterRank and k-shell decomposition. Besides, some heuristic methods such as hill-climbing, SPIN, degree discount and independent set based are also proposed. However, these approaches suffer from a possibility that some spreaders are so close together that they overlap sphere of influence or time consuming. In this report, we present a simply yet effectively iterative method named VoteRank to identify a set of decentralized spreaders with the best spreading ability. In this approach, all nodes vote in a spreader in each turn, and the voting ability of neighbors of elected spreader will be decreased in subsequent turn. Experimental results on four real networks show that under Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Infected (SI) models, VoteRank outperforms the traditional benchmark methods on both spreading rate and final affected scale. What’s more, VoteRank has superior computational efficiency.

  12. Identifying a set of influential spreaders in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Xiong; Chen, Duan-Bing; Dong, Qiang; Zhao, Zhi-Dan

    2016-01-01

    Identifying a set of influential spreaders in complex networks plays a crucial role in effective information spreading. A simple strategy is to choose top-r ranked nodes as spreaders according to influence ranking method such as PageRank, ClusterRank and k-shell decomposition. Besides, some heuristic methods such as hill-climbing, SPIN, degree discount and independent set based are also proposed. However, these approaches suffer from a possibility that some spreaders are so close together that they overlap sphere of influence or time consuming. In this report, we present a simply yet effectively iterative method named VoteRank to identify a set of decentralized spreaders with the best spreading ability. In this approach, all nodes vote in a spreader in each turn, and the voting ability of neighbors of elected spreader will be decreased in subsequent turn. Experimental results on four real networks show that under Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Infected (SI) models, VoteRank outperforms the traditional benchmark methods on both spreading rate and final affected scale. What's more, VoteRank has superior computational efficiency. PMID:27296252

  13. Combination methods for identifying influential nodes in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chao; Zhong, Lu; Li, Xianghua; Zhang, Zili; Shi, Ning

    2015-11-01

    Identifying influential nodes is of theoretical significance in many domains. Although lots of methods have been proposed to solve this problem, their evaluations are under single-source attack in scale-free networks. Meanwhile, some researches have speculated that the combinations of some methods may achieve more optimal results. In order to evaluate this speculation and design a universal strategy suitable for different types of networks under the consideration of multi-source attacks, this paper proposes an attribute fusion method with two independent strategies to reveal the correlation of existing ranking methods and indicators. One is based on feature union (FU) and the other is based on feature ranking (FR). Two different propagation models in the fields of recommendation system and network immunization are used to simulate the efficiency of our proposed method. Experimental results show that our method can enlarge information spreading and restrain virus propagation in the application of recommendation system and network immunization in different types of networks under the condition of multi-source attacks.

  14. Using global diversity and local topology features to identify influential network spreaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yu-Hsiang; Huang, Chung-Yuan; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2015-09-01

    Identifying the most influential individuals spreading ideas, information, or infectious diseases is a topic receiving significant attention from network researchers, since such identification can assist or hinder information dissemination, product exposure, and contagious disease detection. Hub nodes, high betweenness nodes, high closeness nodes, and high k-shell nodes have been identified as good initial spreaders. However, few efforts have been made to use node diversity within network structures to measure spreading ability. The two-step framework described in this paper uses a robust and reliable measure that combines global diversity and local features to identify the most influential network nodes. Results from a series of Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic simulations indicate that our proposed method performs well and stably in single initial spreader scenarios associated with various complex network datasets.

  15. Identifying highly influential nodes in the complicated grief network.

    PubMed

    Robinaugh, Donald J; Millner, Alexander J; McNally, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    The network approach to psychopathology conceptualizes mental disorders as networks of mutually reinforcing nodes (i.e., symptoms). Researchers adopting this approach have suggested that network topology can be used to identify influential nodes, with nodes central to the network having the greatest influence on the development and maintenance of the disorder. However, because commonly used centrality indices do not distinguish between positive and negative edges, they may not adequately assess the nature and strength of a node's influence within the network. To address this limitation, we developed 2 indices of a node's expected influence (EI) that account for the presence of negative edges. To evaluate centrality and EI indices, we simulated single-node interventions on randomly generated networks. In networks with exclusively positive edges, centrality and EI were both strongly associated with observed node influence. In networks with negative edges, EI was more strongly associated with observed influence than was centrality. We then used data from a longitudinal study of bereavement to examine the association between (a) a node's centrality and EI in the complicated grief (CG) network and (b) the strength of association between change in that node and change in the remainder of the CG network from 6- to 18-months postloss. Centrality and EI were both correlated with the strength of the association between node change and network change. Together, these findings suggest high-EI nodes, such as emotional pain and feelings of emptiness, may be especially important to the etiology and treatment of CG. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27505622

  16. Identifying influential user communities on the social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Weishu; Gong, Zhiguo; Hou U, Leong; Guo, Jingzhi

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays social network services have been popularly used in electronic commerce systems. Users on the social network can develop different relationships based on their common interests and activities. In order to promote the business, it is interesting to explore hidden relationships among users developed on the social network. Such knowledge can be used to locate target users for different advertisements and to provide effective product recommendations. In this paper, we define and study a novel community detection problem that is to discover the hidden community structure in large social networks based on their common interests. We observe that the users typically pay more attention to those users who share similar interests, which enable a way to partition the users into different communities according to their common interests. We propose two algorithms to detect influential communities using common interests in large social networks efficiently and effectively. We conduct our experimental evaluation using a data set from Epinions, which demonstrates that our method achieves 4-11.8% accuracy improvement over the state-of-the-art method.

  17. Identifying influential data points in hydrological model calibration and their impact on streamflow predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, David; Thyer, Mark; Westra, Seth

    2015-04-01

    Highly influential data points are those that have a disproportionately large impact on model performance, parameters and predictions. However, in current hydrological modelling practice the relative influence of individual data points on hydrological model calibration is not commonly evaluated. This presentation illustrates and evaluates several influence diagnostics tools that hydrological modellers can use to assess the relative influence of data. The feasibility and importance of including influence detection diagnostics as a standard tool in hydrological model calibration is discussed. Two classes of influence diagnostics are evaluated: (1) computationally demanding numerical "case deletion" diagnostics; and (2) computationally efficient analytical diagnostics, based on Cook's distance. These diagnostics are compared against hydrologically orientated diagnostics that describe changes in the model parameters (measured through the Mahalanobis distance), performance (objective function displacement) and predictions (mean and maximum streamflow). These influence diagnostics are applied to two case studies: a stage/discharge rating curve model, and a conceptual rainfall-runoff model (GR4J). Removing a single data point from the calibration resulted in differences to mean flow predictions of up to 6% for the rating curve model, and differences to mean and maximum flow predictions of up to 10% and 17%, respectively, for the hydrological model. When using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency in calibration, the computationally cheaper Cook's distance metrics produce similar results to the case-deletion metrics at a fraction of the computational cost. However, Cooks distance is adapted from linear regression with inherit assumptions on the data and is therefore less flexible than case deletion. Influential point detection diagnostics show great potential to improve current hydrological modelling practices by identifying highly influential data points. The findings of this

  18. Identifying Educationally Influential Specialists: Issues Arising from the Use of "Classic" Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Frances C.; Ryan, David P.; Dodge, Jason E.; Last, Linda D.; Law, Calvin H. L.; Smith, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Educationally influential physicians (EIPs) are identified by their colleagues as people who (1) encourage learning and enjoy sharing their knowledge, (2) are clinical experts and always seem up to date, and (3) treat others as equals. We aimed to identify surgical and pathologist EIPs for colorectal cancer (CRC) in Ontario as part…

  19. Iterative resource allocation based on propagation feature of node for identifying the influential nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lin-Feng; Liu, Jian-Guo; Shang, Ming-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    The identification of the influential nodes in networks is one of the most promising domains. In this paper, we present an improved iterative resource allocation (IIRA) method by considering the centrality information of neighbors and the influence of spreading rate for a target node. Comparing with the results of the Susceptible Infected Recovered (SIR) model for four real networks, the IIRA method could identify influential nodes more accurately than the tradition IRA method. Specially, in the Erdös network, Kendall's tau could be enhanced 23% when the spreading rate is 0.12. In the Protein network, Kendall's tau could be enhanced 24% when the spreading rate is 0.08.

  20. An Examination of High School Graduates Who Identify Teachers as Influential in Their Choice of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozie-Ross, Yvette D.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study contributes to what is known about the college choice process by providing a quantitative comparative analysis to determine how high school graduates who identify teachers as influential in their choice of college differ from graduates who do not. Specifically, this study answers the following research question: How do…

  1. Identifying influential nodes in dynamic social networks based on degree-corrected stochastic block model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tingting; Dai, Weidi; Jiao, Pengfei; Wang, Wenjun

    2016-05-01

    Many real-world data can be represented as dynamic networks which are the evolutionary networks with timestamps. Analyzing dynamic attributes is important to understanding the structures and functions of these complex networks. Especially, studying the influential nodes is significant to exploring and analyzing networks. In this paper, we propose a method to identify influential nodes in dynamic social networks based on identifying such nodes in the temporal communities which make up the dynamic networks. Firstly, we detect the community structures of all the snapshot networks based on the degree-corrected stochastic block model (DCBM). After getting the community structures, we capture the evolution of every community in the dynamic network by the extended Jaccard’s coefficient which is defined to map communities among all the snapshot networks. Then we obtain the initial influential nodes of the dynamic network and aggregate them based on three widely used centrality metrics. Experiments on real-world and synthetic datasets demonstrate that our method can identify influential nodes in dynamic networks accurately, at the same time, we also find some interesting phenomena and conclusions for those that have been validated in complex network or social science.

  2. MIIB: A Metric to Identify Top Influential Bloggers in a Community

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Hikmat Ullah; Daud, Ali; Malik, Tahir Afzal

    2015-01-01

    Social networking has revolutionized the use of conventional web and has converted World Wide Web into the social web as users can generate their own content. This change has been possible due to social web platforms like forums, wikis, and blogs. Blogs are more commonly being used as a form of virtual communication to express an opinion about an event, product or experience and can reach a large audience. Users can influence others to buy a product, have certain political or social views, etc. Therefore, identifying the most influential bloggers has become very significant as this can help us in the fields of commerce, advertisement and product knowledge searching. Existing approaches consider some basic features, but lack to consider some other features like the importance of the blog on which the post has been created. This paper presents a new metric, MIIB (Metric for Identification of Influential Bloggers), based on various features of bloggers’ productivity and popularity. Productivity refers to bloggers’ blogging activity and popularity measures bloggers’ influence in the blogging community. The novel module of BlogRank depicts the importance of blog sites where bloggers create their posts. The MIIB has been evaluated against the standard model and existing metrics for finding the influential bloggers using dataset from the real-world blogosphere. The obtained results confirm that the MIIB is able to find the most influential bloggers in a more effective manner. PMID:26414063

  3. MIIB: A Metric to Identify Top Influential Bloggers in a Community.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hikmat Ullah; Daud, Ali; Malik, Tahir Afzal

    2015-01-01

    Social networking has revolutionized the use of conventional web and has converted World Wide Web into the social web as users can generate their own content. This change has been possible due to social web platforms like forums, wikis, and blogs. Blogs are more commonly being used as a form of virtual communication to express an opinion about an event, product or experience and can reach a large audience. Users can influence others to buy a product, have certain political or social views, etc. Therefore, identifying the most influential bloggers has become very significant as this can help us in the fields of commerce, advertisement and product knowledge searching. Existing approaches consider some basic features, but lack to consider some other features like the importance of the blog on which the post has been created. This paper presents a new metric, MIIB (Metric for Identification of Influential Bloggers), based on various features of bloggers' productivity and popularity. Productivity refers to bloggers' blogging activity and popularity measures bloggers' influence in the blogging community. The novel module of BlogRank depicts the importance of blog sites where bloggers create their posts. The MIIB has been evaluated against the standard model and existing metrics for finding the influential bloggers using dataset from the real-world blogosphere. The obtained results confirm that the MIIB is able to find the most influential bloggers in a more effective manner. PMID:26414063

  4. Identifying multiple influential spreaders in term of the distance-based coloring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-02-01

    Identifying influential nodes is of significance for understanding the dynamics of information diffusion process in complex networks. In this paper, we present an improved distance-based coloring method to identify the multiple influential spreaders. In our method, each node is colored by a kind of color with the rule that the distance between initial nodes is close to the average distance of a network. When all nodes are colored, nodes with the same color are sorted into an independent set. Then we choose the nodes at the top positions of the ranking list according to their centralities. The experimental results for an artificial network and three empirical networks show that, comparing with the performance of traditional coloring method, the improvement ratio of our distance-based coloring method could reach 12.82%, 8.16%, 4.45%, 2.93% for the ER, Erdős, Polblogs and Routers networks respectively.

  5. A new method of identifying influential nodes in complex networks based on TOPSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yuxian; Gao, Cai; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

    2014-04-01

    In complex networks, identifying influential nodes is the very important part of reliability analysis, which has been a key issue in analyzing the structural organization of a network. In this paper, a new evaluation method of node importance in complex networks based on technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) approach is proposed. TOPSIS as a multiple attribute decision making (MADM) technique has been an important branch of decision making since then. In addition, TOPSIS is first applied to identify influential nodes in a complex network in this open issue. In different types of networks in which the information goes by different ways, we consider several different centrality measures as the multi-attribute of complex network in TOPSIS application. TOPSIS is utilized to aggregate the multi-attribute to obtain the evaluation of node importance of each node. It is not limited to only one centrality measure, but considers different centrality measures, because every centrality measure has its own disadvantage and limitation. Then, we use the Susceptible-Infected (SI) model to evaluate the performance. Numerical examples are given to show the efficiency and practicability of the proposed method.

  6. A modified evidential methodology of identifying influential nodes in weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cai; Wei, Daijun; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

    2013-11-01

    How to identify influential nodes in complex networks is still an open hot issue. In the existing evidential centrality (EVC), node degree distribution in complex networks is not taken into consideration. In addition, the global structure information has also been neglected. In this paper, a new Evidential Semi-local Centrality (ESC) is proposed by modifying EVC in two aspects. Firstly, the Basic Probability Assignment (BPA) of degree generated by EVC is modified according to the actual degree distribution, rather than just following uniform distribution. BPA is the generation of probability in order to model uncertainty. Secondly, semi-local centrality combined with modified EVC is extended to be applied in weighted networks. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  7. PhysarumSpreader: A New Bio-Inspired Methodology for Identifying Influential Spreaders in Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zili; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Identifying influential spreaders in networks, which contributes to optimizing the use of available resources and efficient spreading of information, is of great theoretical significance and practical value. A random-walk-based algorithm LeaderRank has been shown as an effective and efficient method in recognizing leaders in social network, which even outperforms the well-known PageRank method. As LeaderRank is initially developed for binary directed networks, further extensions should be studied in weighted networks. In this paper, a generalized algorithm PhysarumSpreader is proposed by combining LeaderRank with a positive feedback mechanism inspired from an amoeboid organism called Physarum Polycephalum. By taking edge weights into consideration and adding the positive feedback mechanism, PhysarumSpreader is applicable in both directed and undirected networks with weights. By taking two real networks for examples, the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing with other standard centrality measures. PMID:26684194

  8. Can Criteria for Identifying Educational Influentials in Developed Countries Be Applied to Other Countries? A Study in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shokoohi, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Soltani, Akbar; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: There are published criteria for identifying educational influentials (EIs). These criteria are based on studies that have been performed in developed countries. This study was performed to identify criteria and characteristics of EIs in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted on residents, interns, and clerks at a major educational…

  9. A modified weighted TOPSIS to identify influential nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiantao; Du, Yuxian; Mo, Hongming; Wei, Daijun; Deng, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Identifying influential nodes in complex networks is still an open issue. Although various centrality measures have been proposed to address this problem, such as degree, betweenness, and closeness centralities, they all have some limitations. Recently, technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), as a tradeoff between the existing metrics, has been proposed to rank nodes effectively and efficiently. It regards the centrality measures as the multi-attribute of the complex network and connects the multi-attribute to synthesize the evaluation of node importance of each node. However, each attribute plays an equally important part in this method, which is not reasonable. In this paper, we improve the method to ranking the node's spreading ability. A new method, named as weighted technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (weighted TOPSIS) is proposed. In our method, we not only consider different centrality measures as the multi-attribute to the network, but also propose a new algorithm to calculate the weight of each attribute. To evaluate the performance of our method, we use the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model to do the simulation on four real networks. The experiments on four real networks show that the proposed method can rank the spreading ability of nodes more accurately than the original method.

  10. Identifying Influential Nodes in Large-Scale Directed Networks: The Role of Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Duan-Bing; Gao, Hui; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Identifying influential nodes in very large-scale directed networks is a big challenge relevant to disparate applications, such as accelerating information propagation, controlling rumors and diseases, designing search engines, and understanding hierarchical organization of social and biological networks. Known methods range from node centralities, such as degree, closeness and betweenness, to diffusion-based processes, like PageRank and LeaderRank. Some of these methods already take into account the influences of a node’s neighbors but do not directly make use of the interactions among it’s neighbors. Local clustering is known to have negative impacts on the information spreading. We further show empirically that it also plays a negative role in generating local connections. Inspired by these facts, we propose a local ranking algorithm named ClusterRank, which takes into account not only the number of neighbors and the neighbors’ influences, but also the clustering coefficient. Subject to the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) spreading model with constant infectivity, experimental results on two directed networks, a social network extracted from delicious.com and a large-scale short-message communication network, demonstrate that the ClusterRank outperforms some benchmark algorithms such as PageRank and LeaderRank. Furthermore, ClusterRank can also be applied to undirected networks where the superiority of ClusterRank is significant compared with degree centrality and k-core decomposition. In addition, ClusterRank, only making use of local information, is much more efficient than global methods: It takes only 191 seconds for a network with about nodes, more than 15 times faster than PageRank. PMID:24204833

  11. Identifying Influential Facilitators of Mathematics Professional Development: A Survey Analysis of Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Sandra M.; Eckhoff, Angela; Igo, Larry B.; Stegelin, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This paper builds on results from a previous phenomenological study examining characteristics of influential facilitators of elementary mathematics professional development. The current study utilized a survey design where results from the qualitative investigation were quantitized to develop an instrument that allowed participants to identify…

  12. An integrated approach to identify the influential priority of the factors governing anaerobic H2 production by mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Zeng, Raymond J; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2010-05-01

    An integrated approach incorporating response surface methodology, grey relational entropy, and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process is established to prioritize the influence of main factors governing the anaerobic H(2) production process and their influential priority. Response surface methodology is employed to design experiments, and the grey relational entropy is used to evaluate the influential grade of the three input factors, i.e., pH, temperature and initial substrate concentration (S(ini)), on the H(2) yield, maximum H(2) production rate and volatile fatty acid yield. In addition, through a combination of grey relational entropy, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, which is used to determine the weight, and accelerating genetic algorithm, which is employed to minimize the nonlinear function in fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, the overall H(2) production process performance could be comprehensively evaluated. The results show that pH is the most important factor influencing the yields of H(2) and volatile fatty acids, while S(ini) has the most significant effect on the maximum H(2) production rate. Compared to pH and S(ini), temperature has a less important effect on the overall H(2) production reactor performance. This approach provides an appropriate way to identify the influential priority of input factors and to evaluate the overall performance for the anaerobic H(2) production process, and it can also be used for other complex biological and non-biological wastewater treatment systems. PMID:20347115

  13. Loneliness in elderly individuals, level of dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and influential factors.

    PubMed

    Hacihasanoğlu, Rabia; Yildirim, Arzu; Karakurt, Papatya

    2012-01-01

    This study has been carried out to investigate the level of loneliness, determine the level of dependence in the ADL and influential factors in the elderly people. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Family Healthcare Centers (FHC) located in central Erzincan, Turkey between March and June 2010. The data of the research was collected using a questionnaire that determined the descriptive and UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). Mean score of the UCLA-LS was determined as 51.59 ± 4.44. It was determined that 2% of the elderly ADL were completely dependent, 14.5% were semi-dependent. Factors such as being old, a widow/divorced, having a lower level of education and/or income, living alone, having a chronic disease, poor self-perceived health, lack of visits by relatives or acquaintances, dissatisfaction with the place of living, and being fully dependent while performing daily activities were determined as factors which increased the level of loneliness. Furthermore, factors such as being old, a female, a widow/divorced, living together with a daughter/son, having a chronic disease and poor self-perceived health were found to be influential in dependency. Elderly people who are alone and dependent in fulfilling their ADL should be monitored more closely. PMID:21514680

  14. Advance to and Persistence in Graduate School: Identifying the Influential Factors and Major-Based Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yonghong Jade

    2014-01-01

    Structured within an expanded econometric theoretical framework, this study uses national data sources to identify the critical factors that influence college graduates' advance to and persistence in graduate education and to compare the systematic differences between students in the STEM and non-STEM majors. The findings indicate that there is a…

  15. Discrimination of SM-identified individuals.

    PubMed

    Wright, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The belief that sadomasochism (SM) is violence or abusive behavior has resulted in harassment, physical attacks, and discrimination against SM-identified individuals. Historically, they were often opposed by self-identified feminists. One reason the women who practiced SM were targeted was the official opposition to sadomasochistic practices promulgated by the National Organization for Women (NOW). Current statistics of incidents of discrimination, harassment and physical attacks against SM-identified individuals and SM groups are compiled by the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom (NCSF). PMID:16803765

  16. Identifying influential nodes in a wound healing-related network of biological processes using mean first-passage time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arodz, Tomasz; Bonchev, Danail

    2015-02-01

    In this study we offer an approach to network physiology, which proceeds from transcriptomic data and uses gene ontology analysis to identify the biological processes most enriched in several critical time points of wound healing process (days 0, 3 and 7). The top-ranking differentially expressed genes for each process were used to build two networks: one with all proteins regulating the transcription of selected genes, and a second one involving the proteins from the signaling pathways that activate the transcription factors. The information from these networks is used to build a network of the most enriched processes with undirected links weighted proportionally to the count of shared genes between the pair of processes, and directed links weighted by the count of relationships connecting genes from one process to genes from the other. In analyzing the network thus built we used an approach based on random walks and accounting for the temporal aspects of the spread of a signal in the network (mean-first passage time, MFPT). The MFPT scores allowed identifying the top influential, as well as the top essential biological processes, which vary with the progress in the healing process. Thus, the most essential for day 0 was found to be the Wnt-receptor signaling pathway, well known for its crucial role in wound healing, while in day 3 this was the regulation of NF-kB cascade, essential for matrix remodeling in the wound healing process. The MFPT-based scores correctly reflected the pattern of the healing process dynamics to be highly concentrated around several processes between day 0 and day 3, and becoming more diffuse at day 7.

  17. Identifying Influential Young People to Undertake Effective Peer-Led Health Promotion: the example of A Stop Smoking In Schools Trial (ASSIST)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Fenella; Audrey, Suzanne; Holliday, Jo; Moore, Laurence; Campbell, Rona

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop and evaluate an effective whole-community approach to identifying a diverse group of influential young people to effectively diffuse health promotion messages among their peers. A peer nomination questionnaire, developed through extensive piloting work, was completed by 10 730 Year 8 students (aged 12-13…

  18. "Disproportionately Influential?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses why the Lumina Foundation is considered so influential in higher education despite its small size and the fact that is is a relatively new foundation. Lumina approaches its 10th anniversary this month with a focused higher education funding mission targeting efforts aimed at expanding access and success beyond high school,…

  19. Identifying influential young people to undertake effective peer-led health promotion: the example of A Stop Smoking In Schools Trial (ASSIST).

    PubMed

    Starkey, Fenella; Audrey, Suzanne; Holliday, Jo; Moore, Laurence; Campbell, Rona

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the study was to develop and evaluate an effective whole-community approach to identifying a diverse group of influential young people to effectively diffuse health promotion messages among their peers. A peer nomination questionnaire, developed through extensive piloting work, was completed by 10 730 Year 8 students (aged 12-13 years) in 59 schools (30 intervention, 29 control) as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial. Influential students identified in 30 intervention schools were trained to disseminate smoke-free health promotion messages through informal contacts with peers. This approach successfully identified, recruited and retained a diverse group of students, broadly representative of their year group, to undertake the role of 'peer supporter'. Although students and staff expressed doubts about the suitability of some young people recruited as peer supporters, the intervention achieved a 22% reduction in the odds of being a regular smoker in intervention compared with control schools [odds ratio 0.78 (95% CI 0.64-0.96)]. Carefully designed and developed peer-led interventions have potential for delivering effective smoking prevention among adolescents. Paying close attention to the way in which peer educators are identified, and involving young people themselves in this process, may be the key to increasing the effectiveness of peer education. PMID:19684123

  20. Identifying Individual Differences: A Cognitive Styles Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Perry R.; Conti, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Although One-Stop Career Centers are mandated to promote client-centered services, patrons are ordinarily funneled through a standard procedure. Adult education principles suggest that these centers should be learner-centered and address individual differences. Therefore, the purpose of the this study was to describe the interaction of the…

  1. Soundwalk approach to identify urban soundscapes individually.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Hong, Joo Young; Lee, Pyoung Jik

    2013-07-01

    This study proposes a soundwalk procedure for evaluating urban soundscapes. Previous studies, which adopted soundwalk methodologies for investigating participants' responses to visual and acoustic environments, were analyzed considering type, evaluation position, measurement, and subjective assessment. An individual soundwalk procedure was then developed based on asking individual subjects to walk and select evaluation positions where they perceived any positive or negative characteristics of the urban soundscape. A case study was performed in urban spaces and the results were compared with those of the group soundwalk to validate the individual soundwalk procedure. Thirty subjects (15 architects and 15 acousticians) participated in the soundwalk. During the soundwalk, the subjects selected a total of 196 positions, and those were classified into 4 groups. It was found that soundscape perceptions were dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and openness. It was also revealed that perceived elements of the acoustic environment and visual image differed across classified soundscape groups, and there was a difference between architects and acousticians in terms of how they described their impressions of the soundscape elements. The results show that the individual soundwalk procedure has advantages for measuring diverse subjective responses and for obtaining the perceived elements of the urban soundscape. PMID:23862886

  2. Spotting Cheetahs: Identifying Individuals by Their Footprints

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Zoe C.; Alibhai, Sky K.; Weise, Florian; Munro, Stuart; Van Vuuren, Marlice; Van Vuuren, Rudie

    2016-01-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is Africa's most endangered large felid and listed as Vulnerable with a declining population trend by the IUCN1. It ranges widely over sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the Middle East. Cheetah conservationists face two major challenges, conflict with landowners over the killing of domestic livestock, and concern over range contraction. Understanding of the latter remains particularly poor2. Namibia is believed to support the largest number of cheetahs of any range country, around 30%, but estimates range from 2,9053 to 13,5204. The disparity is likely a result of the different techniques used in monitoring. Current techniques, including invasive tagging with VHF or satellite/GPS collars, can be costly and unreliable. The footprint identification technique5 is a new tool accessible to both field scientists and also citizens with smartphones, who could potentially augment data collection. The footprint identification technique analyzes digital images of footprints captured according to a standardized protocol. Images are optimized and measured in data visualization software. Measurements of distances, angles, and areas of the footprint images are analyzed using a robust cross-validated pairwise discriminant analysis based on a customized model. The final output is in the form of a Ward's cluster dendrogram. A user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI) allows the user immediate access and clear interpretation of classification results. The footprint identification technique algorithms are species specific because each species has a unique anatomy. The technique runs in a data visualization software, using its own scripting language (jsl) that can be customized for the footprint anatomy of any species. An initial classification algorithm is built from a training database of footprints from that species, collected from individuals of known identity. An algorithm derived from a cheetah of known identity is then able to classify free

  3. Spotting Cheetahs: Identifying Individuals by Their Footprints.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Zoe C; Alibhai, Sky K; Weise, Florian; Munro, Stuart; Van Vuuren, Marlice; Van Vuuren, Rudie

    2016-01-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is Africa's most endangered large felid and listed as Vulnerable with a declining population trend by the IUCN(1). It ranges widely over sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the Middle East. Cheetah conservationists face two major challenges, conflict with landowners over the killing of domestic livestock, and concern over range contraction. Understanding of the latter remains particularly poor(2). Namibia is believed to support the largest number of cheetahs of any range country, around 30%, but estimates range from 2,905(3) to 13,520(4). The disparity is likely a result of the different techniques used in monitoring. Current techniques, including invasive tagging with VHF or satellite/GPS collars, can be costly and unreliable. The footprint identification technique(5) is a new tool accessible to both field scientists and also citizens with smartphones, who could potentially augment data collection. The footprint identification technique analyzes digital images of footprints captured according to a standardized protocol. Images are optimized and measured in data visualization software. Measurements of distances, angles, and areas of the footprint images are analyzed using a robust cross-validated pairwise discriminant analysis based on a customized model. The final output is in the form of a Ward's cluster dendrogram. A user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI) allows the user immediate access and clear interpretation of classification results. The footprint identification technique algorithms are species specific because each species has a unique anatomy. The technique runs in a data visualization software, using its own scripting language (jsl) that can be customized for the footprint anatomy of any species. An initial classification algorithm is built from a training database of footprints from that species, collected from individuals of known identity. An algorithm derived from a cheetah of known identity is then able to classify

  4. Individual heterogeneity and identifiability in capture?recapture models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Individual heterogeneity in detection probabilities is a far more serious problem for capture?recapture modeling than has previously been recognized. In this note, I illustrate that population size is not an identifiable parameter under the general closed population mark?recapture model Mh. The problem of identifiability is obvious if the population includes individuals with pi= 0, but persists even when it is assumed that individual detection probabilities are bounded away from zero. Identifiability may be attained within parametric families of distributions for pi, but not among parametric families of distributions. Consequently, in the presence of individual heterogeneity in detection probability, capture?recapture analysis is strongly model dependent.

  5. Intelligence and Behavior among Individuals Identified with Attention Deficit Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Ronna F.; Osborne, Susan S.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we describe the nature of attention deficit disorders (ADDs) within an individual differences model of abilities. In so doing, a model-based explanation for the sources of learning and performance difficulties among individuals identified with ADDs is provided. Earlier models of ADDs are discussed, and the proposed loci of ADDs…

  6. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network. PMID:26776455

  7. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network.

  8. Finding Influential Spreaders from Human Activity beyond Network Location

    PubMed Central

    Min, Byungjoon; Liljeros, Fredrik; Makse, Hernán A.

    2015-01-01

    Most centralities proposed for identifying influential spreaders on social networks to either spread a message or to stop an epidemic require the full topological information of the network on which spreading occurs. In practice, however, collecting all connections between agents in social networks can be hardly achieved. As a result, such metrics could be difficult to apply to real social networks. Consequently, a new approach for identifying influential people without the explicit network information is demanded in order to provide an efficient immunization or spreading strategy, in a practical sense. In this study, we seek a possible way for finding influential spreaders by using the social mechanisms of how social connections are formed in real networks. We find that a reliable immunization scheme can be achieved by asking people how they interact with each other. From these surveys we find that the probabilistic tendency to connect to a hub has the strongest predictive power for influential spreaders among tested social mechanisms. Our observation also suggests that people who connect different communities is more likely to be an influential spreader when a network has a strong modular structure. Our finding implies that not only the effect of network location but also the behavior of individuals is important to design optimal immunization or spreading schemes. PMID:26323015

  9. Finding Influential Spreaders from Human Activity beyond Network Location.

    PubMed

    Min, Byungjoon; Liljeros, Fredrik; Makse, Hernán A

    2015-01-01

    Most centralities proposed for identifying influential spreaders on social networks to either spread a message or to stop an epidemic require the full topological information of the network on which spreading occurs. In practice, however, collecting all connections between agents in social networks can be hardly achieved. As a result, such metrics could be difficult to apply to real social networks. Consequently, a new approach for identifying influential people without the explicit network information is demanded in order to provide an efficient immunization or spreading strategy, in a practical sense. In this study, we seek a possible way for finding influential spreaders by using the social mechanisms of how social connections are formed in real networks. We find that a reliable immunization scheme can be achieved by asking people how they interact with each other. From these surveys we find that the probabilistic tendency to connect to a hub has the strongest predictive power for influential spreaders among tested social mechanisms. Our observation also suggests that people who connect different communities is more likely to be an influential spreader when a network has a strong modular structure. Our finding implies that not only the effect of network location but also the behavior of individuals is important to design optimal immunization or spreading schemes. PMID:26323015

  10. Identifying metabolically healthy but obese individuals in sedentary postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Messier, Virginie; Karelis, Antony D; Prud'homme, Denis; Primeau, Vanessa; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare different methods to identify metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) individuals in a cohort of obese postmenopausal women. We examined the anthropometric and metabolic characteristics of 113 obese (age: 57.3 +/- 4.8 years; BMI: 34.2 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2)), sedentary postmenopausal women. The following methods were used to identify MHO subjects: the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (MHO: upper quartile of glucose disposal rates); the Matsuda index (MHO: upper quartile of the Matsuda index); the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index (MHO: lower quartile of the HOMA index); having 0-1 cardiometabolic abnormalities (systolic/diastolic blood pressure > or =130/85 mm Hg, triglycerides (TG) > or =1.7 mmol/l, glucose > or =5.6 mmol/l, HOMA >5.13, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) >0.1 mg/l, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) <1.3 mmol/l); and meeting four out of five metabolic factors (HOMA < or =2.7, TG < or =1.7 mmol/l, HDL-C > or =1.3 mmol/l, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol < or =2.6 mmol/l, hsCRP < or =3.0 mg/l). Thereafter, we measured insulin sensitivity, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), body fat distribution (computed tomography scan), energy expenditure, plasma lipids, inflammation markers, resting blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness. We found significant differences in body composition (i.e., peripheral fat mass, central lean body mass (LBM)) and metabolic risk factors (i.e., HDL-C, hsCRP) between MHO and at risk individuals using the different methods to identify both groups. In addition, significant differences between MHO subjects using the different methods to identify MHO individuals were observed such as age, TG/HDL, hsCRP, and fasting insulin. However, independently of the methods used, we noted some recurrent characteristics that identify MHO subjects such as TG, apolipoprotein B, and ferritin. In conclusion, the present study shows variations in body composition

  11. Who is that? Brain networks and mechanisms for identifying individuals

    PubMed Central

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Abel, Taylor J.; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Petkov, Christopher I.

    2015-01-01

    Social animals can identify conspecifics by many forms of sensory input. However, whether the neuronal computations that support our ability to identify individuals rely on modality-independent convergence or involve ongoing synergistic interactions along the multiple sensory streams remains controversial. Direct neuronal measurements at relevant brain sites could address such questions, but this requires better bridging the work in humans and animal models. We overview recent studies in nonhuman primates on voice- and face-identity sensitive pathways and evaluate the correspondences to relevant findings in humans. This synthesis provides insights into converging sensory streams in the primate anterior temporal lobe for identity processing. Furthermore, we advance a model and suggest how alternative neuronal mechanisms could be tested. PMID:26454482

  12. Finding Influential Users in Social Media Using Association Rule Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandsson, Fredrik; Bródka, Piotr; Borg, Anton; Johnson, Henric

    2016-04-01

    Influential users play an important role in online social networks since users tend to have an impact on one other. Therefore, the proposed work analyzes users and their behavior in order to identify influential users and predict user participation. Normally, the success of a social media site is dependent on the activity level of the participating users. For both online social networking sites and individual users, it is of interest to find out if a topic will be interesting or not. In this article, we propose association learning to detect relationships between users. In order to verify the findings, several experiments were executed based on social network analysis, in which the most influential users identified from association rule learning were compared to the results from Degree Centrality and Page Rank Centrality. The results clearly indicate that it is possible to identify the most influential users using association rule learning. In addition, the results also indicate a lower execution time compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  13. Using Brief Assessments To Identify Effective Interventions for Individual Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noell, George H.; Freeland, Jennifer T.; Witt, Joseph C.; Gansle, Kristin A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the utility of brief teaching probes as an assessment for students referred due to poor academic performance. Reading-decoding skills as assessed by students' oral reading rate on probes containing letters, words, or prose were examined. Ten of the 12 assessments identified one or both interventions as promising, based on a 20% or greater…

  14. Identifying individual sperm whales acoustically using self-organizing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioup, Juliette W.; Ioup, George E.

    2005-09-01

    The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) is a consortium at Stennis Space Center comprising the University of New Orleans, the University of Southern Mississippi, the Naval Research Laboratory, and the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. LADC deployed three Environmental Acoustic Recording System (EARS) buoys in the northern Gulf of Mexico during the summer of 2001 to study ambient noise and marine mammals. Each LADC EARS was an autonomous, self-recording buoy capable of 36 days of continuous recording of a single channel at an 11.7-kHz sampling rate (bandwidth to 5859 Hz). The hydrophone selected for this analysis was approximately 50 m from the bottom in a water depth of 800 m on the continental slope off the Mississippi River delta. This paper contains recent analysis results for sperm whale codas recorded during a 3-min period. Results are presented for the identification of individual sperm whales from their codas, using the acoustic properties of the clicks within each coda. The recorded time series, the Fourier transform magnitude, and the wavelet transform coefficients are each used separately with a self-organizing map procedure for 43 codas. All show the codas as coming from four or five individual whales. [Research supported by ONR.

  15. Content Analysis of the 20 Most Influential Articles in "PIQ"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; Park, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine key research themes in human performance technology (HPT) through content analysis of the 20 most influential articles identified in Cho, Jo, Park, Kang, and Chen (2011). Three questions guiding this inquiry are: (1) What are the key themes of the 20 most influential articles in "PIQ", (2) What information…

  16. 49 CFR 1007.4 - Procedures for identifying the individual making the request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for identifying the individual making the request. 1007.4 Section 1007.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... CONTAINING INFORMATION ABOUT INDIVIDUALS § 1007.4 Procedures for identifying the individual making...

  17. 77 FR 58911 - Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated... identifying information for one individual whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant...

  18. The most influential investment.

    PubMed

    Summers, L

    1993-01-01

    Investment in women's education possibly has a greater return than investing in areas such as power generation. Education is an economic issue. When the self-fulfilling prophecy of girls' lack of education yielding lower economic worth is compared with the self-fulfilling prophecy of educated women having healthy children and greater earning ability, there is no doubt which scenario is more beneficial to the individual and society. Wages of educated female workers rise by 20%, and personal hygiene and public health improvements contribute to lower fertility and infant mortality. In Pakistan, educating an additional 1000 girls/year would cost $40,000 in 1990 prices. Each year of schooling would reduce the under-5 year child mortality rate by 10%. 1000 women with an extra year of schooling would prevent 60 infant deaths, which if prevented through health care interventions would cost an estimated $48,000. Female fertility would be reduced by about 10% for an extra year of schooling, and thus would avert 660 births or a saving $43,000. Social improvement alone is worth the extra cost. Investing in female education means establishing scholarship funds, providing more free books and other supplies, adapting curricula to cultural and practical concerns, and hiring female teachers. Increasing female primary school enrollment to equal boys enrollment in low income countries would mean educating an extra 25 million girls every/year at a total cost of about $938 million. Equalizing secondary school enrollment would entail educating an extra 21 million girls at a cost of $1.4 billion. The total cost of $2.4 billion constitutes less than .25% of the gross domestic product of low income countries, less than 1% of investment in new capital goods, and less than 10% of defense spending. Investment statistics on power plants in a sample of 57 developing countries showed a return on physical plant assets of less than 4% over the past 3 years and less than 6% over the past 10 years

  19. Using Medicare data to identify individuals who are electricity dependent to improve disaster preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    DeSalvo, Karen; Lurie, Nicole; Finne, Kristen; Worrall, Chris; Bogdanov, Alina; Dinkler, Ayame; Babcock, Sarah; Kelman, Jeffrey

    2014-07-01

    During a disaster or prolonged power outage, individuals who use electricity-dependent medical equipment are often unable to operate it and seek care in acute care settings or local shelters. Public health officials often report that they do not have proactive and systematic ways to rapidly identify and assist these individuals. In June 2013, we piloted a first-in-the-nation emergency preparedness drill in which we used Medicare claims data to identify individuals with electricity-dependent durable medical equipment during a disaster and securely disclosed it to a local health department. We found that Medicare claims data were 93% accurate in identifying individuals using a home oxygen concentrator or ventilator. The drill findings suggest that claims data can be useful in improving preparedness and response for electricity-dependent populations. PMID:24832404

  20. Using Medicare Data to Identify Individuals Who Are Electricity Dependent to Improve Disaster Preparedness and Response

    PubMed Central

    DeSalvo, Karen; Finne, Kristen; Worrall, Chris; Bogdanov, Alina; Dinkler, Ayame; Babcock, Sarah; Kelman, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    During a disaster or prolonged power outage, individuals who use electricity-dependent medical equipment are often unable to operate it and seek care in acute care settings or local shelters. Public health officials often report that they do not have proactive and systematic ways to rapidly identify and assist these individuals. In June 2013, we piloted a first-in-the-nation emergency preparedness drill in which we used Medicare claims data to identify individuals with electricity-dependent durable medical equipment during a disaster and securely disclosed it to a local health department. We found that Medicare claims data were 93% accurate in identifying individuals using a home oxygen concentrator or ventilator. The drill findings suggest that claims data can be useful in improving preparedness and response for electricity-dependent populations. PMID:24832404

  1. Identifying functional reorganization of spelling networks: an individual peak probability comparison approach

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Jeremy J.; Rapp, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that damage to the neural substrates of orthographic processing can lead to functional reorganization during reading (Tsapkini et al., 2011); in this research we ask if the same is true for spelling. To examine the functional reorganization of spelling networks we present a novel three-stage Individual Peak Probability Comparison (IPPC) analysis approach for comparing the activation patterns obtained during fMRI of spelling in a single brain-damaged individual with dysgraphia to those obtained in a set of non-impaired control participants. The first analysis stage characterizes the convergence in activations across non-impaired control participants by applying a technique typically used for characterizing activations across studies: Activation Likelihood Estimate (ALE) (Turkeltaub et al., 2002). This method was used to identify locations that have a high likelihood of yielding activation peaks in the non-impaired participants. The second stage provides a characterization of the degree to which the brain-damaged individual's activations correspond to the group pattern identified in Stage 1. This involves performing a Mahalanobis distance statistics analysis (Tsapkini et al., 2011) that compares each of a control group's peak activation locations to the nearest peak generated by the brain-damaged individual. The third stage evaluates the extent to which the brain-damaged individual's peaks are atypical relative to the range of individual variation among the control participants. This IPPC analysis allows for a quantifiable, statistically sound method for comparing an individual's activation pattern to the patterns observed in a control group and, thus, provides a valuable tool for identifying functional reorganization in a brain-damaged individual with impaired spelling. Furthermore, this approach can be applied more generally to compare any individual's activation pattern with that of a set of other individuals. PMID:24399981

  2. PedMine – A simulated annealing algorithm to identify maximally unrelated individuals in population isolates

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Julie A.; Sandefur, Conner I.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In family-based genetic studies, it is often useful to identify a subset of unrelated individuals. When such studies are conducted in population isolates, however, most if not all individuals are often detectably related to each other. To identify a set of maximally unrelated (or equivalently, minimally related) individuals, we have implemented simulated annealing, a general-purpose algorithm for solving difficult combinatorial optimization problems. We illustrate our method on data from a genetic study in the Old Order Amish of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, a population isolate derived from a modest number of founders. Given one or more pedigrees, our program automatically and rapidly extracts a fixed number of maximally unrelated individuals. PMID:18321883

  3. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    PubMed

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society. PMID:17340854

  4. Retroviral RNA identified in the cerebrospinal fluids and brains of individuals with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Håkan; Bachmann, Silke; Schröder, Johannes; McArthur, Justin; Torrey, E. Fuller; Yolken, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious brain disease of uncertain etiology. A role for retroviruses in the etiopathogenesis of some cases of schizophrenia has been postulated on the basis of clinical and epidemiological observations. We found sequences homologous to retroviral pol genes in the cell-free cerebrospinal fluids (CSFs) of 10 of 35 (29%) individuals with recent-onset schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Retroviral sequences also were identified in the CSFs of 1 of 20 individuals with chronic schizophrenia. However, retroviral sequences were not identified in any of the CSFs obtained from 22 individuals with noninflammatory neurological diseases or from 30 individuals without evidence of neurological or psychiatric diseases (χ2 = 19.25, P < 0.001). The nucleotide sequences identified in the CSFs of the individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were related to those of the human endogenous retroviral (HERV)-W family of endogenous retroviruses and to other retroviruses in the murine leukemia virus genus. Transcription of RNA homologous to members of the HERV-W family of retroviruses also was found to be up-regulated differentially in the frontal cortex regions of brains obtained postmortem from individuals with schizophrenia, as compared with corresponding tissue from individuals without psychiatric diseases. The transcriptional activation of certain retroviral elements within the central nervous system may be associated with the development of schizophrenia in at least some individuals. The further characterization of retroviral elements within the central nervous system of individuals with schizophrenia might lead to improved methods for the diagnosis and management of this disorder. PMID:11296294

  5. Identified ambivalence: When cognitive conflicts can help individuals overcome cognitive traps.

    PubMed

    Guarana, Cristiano L; Hernandez, Morela

    2016-07-01

    In this article we investigate the functional effects of ambivalence on decision-making processes. We build on the misattribution literature and recent work on ambivalence to propose that individuals who properly identify the causes of their ambivalence (i.e., identified ambivalence) can systematically process relevant situational cues to make more effective decisions. The results of 4 studies demonstrate that individuals experiencing identified ambivalence are less influenced by cognitive biases (i.e., the framing effect, availability bias, and conjunction bias) than individuals experiencing no ambivalence or felt ambivalence. Notably, we find that contextual awareness accounts for the effect of identified ambivalence on decision effectiveness. We then investigate the role of trait self-control as a specific contingency in our model; our results indicate that identified ambivalence leads to effective decisions when individuals are low in trait self-control. Taken together, we advance theory and offer robust, consistent empirical evidence that explains why and how ambivalence can result in functional outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963080

  6. Identifying real and perceived barriers to therapeutic education programs for individuals with inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bain, Lorna; Sangrar, Ruheena; Bornstein, Carolyn; Lukmanji, Sara; Hapuhennedige, Sandani; Thorne, Carter; Beattie, Karen A

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic Education Programs (TEPs) grounded in self-management principles have been shown to improve quality of life of patients with chronic conditions and reduce patient-related healthcare costs. Though these programs are becoming more readily available, patients often experience barriers in participating. This study sought to identify barriers faced by inflammatory arthritis (IA) patients in attending a TEP and understand how patients overcame perceived barriers. A mixed-method study design was used. Questionnaires were distributed to individuals with IA who were invited to attend a TEP between 2010 and 2013. Respondents were those that chose not to attend (group A), individuals who attended ≤4 of 10 sessions (group B), individuals who attended ≥5 of 10 sessions prior to May 2013 (group C), and individuals who attended ≥5 of 10 sessions from June 2013 to November 2013 (group D). Individuals in group D were also invited to participate in focus groups to discuss how they had overcome perceived barriers. Real barriers identified by individuals in groups A and B included time, distance, and cost associated with attendance. Individuals who overcame perceived barriers (groups C and D) discussed strategies they used to do so. Aspects of the overall program experience and access to clinic and program also contributed to patients being able to overcome barriers. Time, distance, and cost are external barriers that prevented individuals from utilizing self-management education opportunities. These barriers were overcome if and when individuals had resources available to them. Readiness for behavior change also influenced commitment to participate in the program. PMID:26511967

  7. The Human Genome Project and Eugenics: Identifying the Impact on Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuna, Jason

    2001-01-01

    This article explores the impact of the mapping work of the Human Genome Project on individuals with mental retardation and the negative effects of genetic testing. The potential to identify disabilities and the concept of eugenics are discussed, along with ethical issues surrounding potential genetic therapies. (Contains references.) (CR)

  8. Meeting the Needs of All Students: How Student Teachers Identify Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Derek L.; Lubig, Joe; Smith, Markisha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to examine how 64 student teachers at one mid-sized rural Midwestern university identified their students' needs and perceived the ways in which they met their students' individual needs. The authors used constant comparison methods and focused coding to examine, verify, and draw…

  9. Real-Time Detection Method And System For Identifying Individual Aerosol Particles

    DOEpatents

    Gard, Eric Evan; Fergenson, David Philip

    2005-10-25

    A method and system of identifying individual aerosol particles in real time. Sample aerosol particles are compared against and identified with substantially matching known particle types by producing positive and negative test spectra of an individual aerosol particle using a bipolar single particle mass spectrometer. Each test spectrum is compared to spectra of the same respective polarity in a database of predetermined positive and negative spectra for known particle types and a set of substantially matching spectra is obtained. Finally the identity of the individual aerosol particle is determined from the set of substantially matching spectra by determining a best matching one of the known particle types having both a substantially matching positive spectrum and a substantially matching negative spectrum associated with the best matching known particle type.

  10. Analysis of 589,306 genomes identifies individuals resilient to severe Mendelian childhood diseases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Shi, Lisong; Hakenberg, Jörg; Naughton, Brian; Sklar, Pamela; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhou, Hanlin; Tian, Lifeng; Prakash, Om; Lemire, Mathieu; Sleiman, Patrick; Cheng, Wei-Yi; Chen, Wanting; Shah, Hardik; Shen, Yulan; Fromer, Menachem; Omberg, Larsson; Deardorff, Matthew A; Zackai, Elaine; Bobe, Jason R; Levin, Elissa; Hudson, Thomas J; Groop, Leif; Wang, Jun; Hakonarson, Hakon; Wojcicki, Anne; Diaz, George A; Edelmann, Lisa; Schadt, Eric E; Friend, Stephen H

    2016-05-01

    Genetic studies of human disease have traditionally focused on the detection of disease-causing mutations in afflicted individuals. Here we describe a complementary approach that seeks to identify healthy individuals resilient to highly penetrant forms of genetic childhood disorders. A comprehensive screen of 874 genes in 589,306 genomes led to the identification of 13 adults harboring mutations for 8 severe Mendelian conditions, with no reported clinical manifestation of the indicated disease. Our findings demonstrate the promise of broadening genetic studies to systematically search for well individuals who are buffering the effects of rare, highly penetrant, deleterious mutations. They also indicate that incomplete penetrance for Mendelian diseases is likely more common than previously believed. The identification of resilient individuals may provide a first step toward uncovering protective genetic variants that could help elucidate the mechanisms of Mendelian diseases and new therapeutic strategies. PMID:27065010

  11. Functional connectome fingerprinting: Identifying individuals based on patterns of brain connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Emily S.; Shen, Xilin; Scheinost, Dustin; Rosenberg, Monica D.; Huang, Jessica; Chun, Marvin M.; Papademetris, Xenophon; Constable, R. Todd

    2015-01-01

    While fMRI studies typically collapse data from many subjects, brain functional organization varies between individuals. Here, we establish that this individual variability is both robust and reliable, using data from the Human Connectome Project to demonstrate that functional connectivity profiles act as a “fingerprint” that can accurately identify subjects from a large group. Identification was successful across scan sessions and even between task and rest conditions, indicating that an individual’s connectivity profile is intrinsic, and can be used to distinguish that individual regardless of how the brain is engaged during imaging. Characteristic connectivity patterns were distributed throughout the brain, but notably, the frontoparietal network emerged as most distinctive. Furthermore, we show that connectivity profiles predict levels of fluid intelligence; the same networks that were most discriminating of individuals were also most predictive of cognitive behavior. Results indicate the potential to draw inferences about single subjects based on functional connectivity fMRI. PMID:26457551

  12. Distribution patterns of individually identifiable West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, J.P.; Rathbun, G.B.; Wilcox, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Photographs of distinctively scarred manatees (Trichechus manatus) were taken at aggregation sites throughout Florida and assembled into a catalog for identifying individuals. Resightings of known manatees in different years or at different locations enabled us to document site fidelity and long-distance movements. Of the 891 individuals included in the catalog as of August 1986, 470 (53%) were resighted at least once. We documented 219 cases of seasonal returns to specific aggregation sites and 98 instances of movements between areas. Movements in excess of 820 km were documented for individuals on the east coast of Florida. Rapid movements south during early winter, as well as northerly spring movements, verify a seasonal migration pattern for many individuals along Florida's east coast. The wide-ranging migratory habits of manatees in Florida must be considered if meaningful management strategies are to be developed and implemented.

  13. Using focus groups to identify psychosocial issues of urban black individuals with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R M; Barr, P A; Edwards, G J; Funnell, M M; Fitzgerald, J T; Wisdom, K

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this focus group research was to identify issues that could serve as topics for a series of educational videos portraying psychosocial issues of urban black individuals with diabetes. Four focus groups involving 34 black adults were conducted in the Detroit area. Psychosocial issues were identified and rated in order of priority by an expert panel. The major psychosocial issues identified were the importance of food and eating in the black culture, the necessity for learning more about diabetes and its complications, learning to interact effectively with healthcare providers and systems, and the need for help and support in managing psychosocial issues related to diabetes. Black individuals with diabetes face unique psychosocial challenges. Focus groups are an effective method for obtaining relevant, culturally specific, in-depth information about living with diabetes from patients who are members of minority groups. PMID:8697953

  14. Identifying Core Affect in Individuals from fMRI Responses to Dynamic Naturalistic Audiovisual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wang, Jing; Wedell, Douglas H; Shinkareva, Svetlana V

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that affective states elicited by viewing pictures varying in valence and arousal are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Identification of affective states from more naturalistic stimuli has clinical relevance, but the feasibility of identifying these states on an individual trial basis from fMRI data elicited by dynamic multimodal stimuli is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether affective states can be similarly identified when participants view dynamic naturalistic audiovisual stimuli. Eleven participants viewed 5s audiovisual clips in a passive viewing task in the scanner. Valence and arousal for individual trials were identified both within and across participants based on distributed patterns of activity in areas selectively responsive to audiovisual naturalistic stimuli while controlling for lower level features of the stimuli. In addition, the brain regions identified by searchlight analyses to represent valence and arousal were consistent with previously identified regions associated with emotion processing. These findings extend previous results on the distributed representation of affect to multimodal dynamic stimuli. PMID:27598534

  15. Identification of discriminant proteins through antibody profiling, methods and apparatus for identifying an individual

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Vicki S; Lacey, Jeffrey A; Gentillon, Cynthia A; Apel, William A

    2015-03-03

    A method for determining a plurality of proteins for discriminating and positively identifying an individual based from a biological sample. The method may include profiling a biological sample from a plurality of individuals against a protein array including a plurality of proteins. The protein array may include proteins attached to a support in a preselected pattern such that locations of the proteins are known. The biological sample may be contacted with the protein array such that a portion of antibodies in the biological sample reacts with and binds to the proteins forming immune complexes. A statistical analysis method, such as discriminant analysis, may be performed to determine discriminating proteins for distinguishing individuals. Proteins of interest may be used to form a protein array. Such a protein array may be used, for example, to compare a forensic sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source.

  16. Identification of discriminant proteins through antibody profiling, methods and apparatus for identifying an individual

    DOEpatents

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Gentillon, Cynthia A.

    2016-08-09

    A method for determining a plurality of proteins for discriminating and positively identifying an individual based from a biological sample. The method may include profiling a biological sample from a plurality of individuals against a protein array including a plurality of proteins. The protein array may include proteins attached to a support in a preselected pattern such that locations of the proteins are known. The biological sample may be contacted with the protein array such that a portion of antibodies in the biological sample reacts with and binds to the proteins forming immune complexes. A statistical analysis method, such as discriminant analysis, may be performed to determine discriminating proteins for distinguishing individuals. Proteins of interest may be used to form a protein array. Such a protein array may be used, for example, to compare a forensic sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source.

  17. Molecular epidemiology identifies HIV transmission networks associated with younger age and heterosexual exposure among Korean individuals.

    PubMed

    Chin, Bum Sik; Chaillon, Antoine; Mehta, Sanjay R; Wertheim, Joel O; Kim, Gayeon; Shin, Hyoung-Shik; Smith, Davey M

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate if HIV transmission networks could be elucidated from data collected in a short time frame, 131 HIV-1 pol sequences were analyzed which were generated from treatment-naïve Korean individuals who were sequentially identified over 1 year. A transmission linkage was inferred when there was a genetic distance <1.5% and a total of 16 clusters, involving 39/131 (29.8%), were identified. Younger age and heterosexual exposure were independently related with clustering in the inferred network, which demonstrated that molecular epidemiology with currently generated data (i.e., drug resistance genotypes) can be used to identify local transmission networks, even over a short timeframe. J. Med. Virol. 88:1832-1835, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990771

  18. Identifying Effective Methods for Teaching Sex Education to Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Schaafsma, Dilana; Kok, Gerjo; Stoffelen, Joke M. T.; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Sex education for individuals with intellectual disabilities is important. However, our knowledge about effective methods for teaching sex education to this population is limited. We report the results of a systematic review identifying methods for sex education programs aimed at individuals with intellectual disabilities. In all, 20 articles were included that met the criteria set in terms of topic—the effectiveness of sex education programs—and population of interest—individuals with intellectual disabilities. In these articles, methods for increasing knowledge and for improving skills and attitudes were reported. However, the studies revealed that generalization of skills to real-life situations was often not achieved. There are indications that the maintenance of knowledge and skills still needs extra attention. Moreover, detailed descriptions of the program materials, program goals, and methods used in the programs were often lacking in the reports. Although there is some evidence for methods that may improve knowledge, attitudes, and skills with regard to sex education aimed at individuals with intellectual disabilities, due to the lack of detailed descriptions provided it is unclear under which conditions these methods work. We therefore suggest that authors provide additional detail about methods in future publications or in online supplements. PMID:25085114

  19. Individual Human Brain Areas Can Be Identified from Their Characteristic Spectral Activation Fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Keitel, Anne; Gross, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    The human brain can be parcellated into diverse anatomical areas. We investigated whether rhythmic brain activity in these areas is characteristic and can be used for automatic classification. To this end, resting-state MEG data of 22 healthy adults was analysed. Power spectra of 1-s long data segments for atlas-defined brain areas were clustered into spectral profiles ("fingerprints"), using k-means and Gaussian mixture (GM) modelling. We demonstrate that individual areas can be identified from these spectral profiles with high accuracy. Our results suggest that each brain area engages in different spectral modes that are characteristic for individual areas. Clustering of brain areas according to similarity of spectral profiles reveals well-known brain networks. Furthermore, we demonstrate task-specific modulations of auditory spectral profiles during auditory processing. These findings have important implications for the classification of regional spectral activity and allow for novel approaches in neuroimaging and neurostimulation in health and disease. PMID:27355236

  20. Individual Human Brain Areas Can Be Identified from Their Characteristic Spectral Activation Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Keitel, Anne; Gross, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The human brain can be parcellated into diverse anatomical areas. We investigated whether rhythmic brain activity in these areas is characteristic and can be used for automatic classification. To this end, resting-state MEG data of 22 healthy adults was analysed. Power spectra of 1-s long data segments for atlas-defined brain areas were clustered into spectral profiles (“fingerprints”), using k-means and Gaussian mixture (GM) modelling. We demonstrate that individual areas can be identified from these spectral profiles with high accuracy. Our results suggest that each brain area engages in different spectral modes that are characteristic for individual areas. Clustering of brain areas according to similarity of spectral profiles reveals well-known brain networks. Furthermore, we demonstrate task-specific modulations of auditory spectral profiles during auditory processing. These findings have important implications for the classification of regional spectral activity and allow for novel approaches in neuroimaging and neurostimulation in health and disease. PMID:27355236

  1. A CONCISE PANEL OF BIOMARKERS IDENTIFIES NEUROCOGNITIVE FUNCTIONING CHANGES IN HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

    PubMed Central

    Marcotte, Thomas D.; Deutsch, Reena; Michael, Benedict Daniel; Franklin, Donald; Cookson, Debra Rosario; Bharti, Ajay R.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Neurocognitive (NC) impairment (NCI) occurs commonly in people living with HIV. Despite substantial effort, no biomarkers have been sufficiently validated for diagnosis and prognosis of NCI in the clinic. The goal of this project was to identify diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for NCI in a comprehensively characterized HIV cohort. Methods Multidisciplinary case review selected 98 HIV-infected individuals and categorized them into four NC groups using normative data: stably normal (SN), stably impaired (SI), worsening (Wo), or improving (Im). All subjects underwent comprehensive NC testing, phlebotomy, and lumbar puncture at two timepoints separated by a median of 6.2 months. Eight biomarkers were measured in CSF and blood by immunoassay. Results were analyzed using mixed model linear regression and staged recursive partitioning. Results At the first visit, subjects were mostly middle-aged (median 45) white (58%) men (84%) who had AIDS (70%). Of the 73% who took antiretroviral therapy (ART), 54% had HIV RNA levels below 50 c/mL in plasma. Mixed model linear regression identified that only MCP-1 in CSF was associated with neurocognitive change group. Recursive partitioning models aimed at diagnosis (i.e., correctly classifying neurocognitive status at the first visit) were complex and required most biomarkers to achieve misclassification limits. In contrast, prognostic models were more efficient. A combination of three biomarkers (sCD14, MCP-1, SDF-1α) correctly classified 82% of Wo and SN subjects, including 88% of SN subjects. A combination of two biomarkers (MCP-1, TNF-α) correctly classified 81% of Im and SI subjects, including 100% of SI subjects. Conclusions This analysis of well-characterized individuals identified concise panels of biomarkers associated with NC change. Across all analyses, the two most frequently identified biomarkers were sCD14 and MCP-1, indicators of monocyte/macrophage activation. While the panels differed depending on

  2. Use of computerized algorithm to identify individuals in need of testing for celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Pathak, Jyotishman; Murphy, Sean; Durski, Matthew; Kirsch, Phillip S; Chute, Christophe G; Ryu, Euijung; Murray, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim Celiac disease (CD) is a lifelong immune-mediated disease with excess mortality. Early diagnosis is important to minimize disease symptoms, complications, and consumption of healthcare resources. Most patients remain undiagnosed. We developed two electronic medical record (EMR)-based algorithms to identify patients at high risk of CD and in need of CD screening. Methods (I) Using natural language processing (NLP), we searched EMRs for 16 free text (and related) terms in 216 CD patients and 280 controls. (II) EMRs were also searched for ICD9 (International Classification of Disease) codes suggesting an increased risk of CD in 202 patients with CD and 524 controls. For each approach, we determined the optimal number of hits to be assigned as CD cases. To assess performance of these algorithms, sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Results Using two hits as the cut-off, the NLP algorithm identified 72.9% of all celiac patients (sensitivity), and ruled out CD in 89.9% of the controls (specificity). In a representative US population of individuals without a prior celiac diagnosis (assuming that 0.6% had undiagnosed CD), this NLP algorithm could identify a group of individuals where 4.2% would have CD (positive predictive value). ICD9 code search using three hits as the cut-off had a sensitivity of 17.1% and a specificity of 88.5% (positive predictive value was 0.9%). Discussion and conclusions This study shows that computerized EMR-based algorithms can help identify patients at high risk of CD. NLP-based techniques demonstrate higher sensitivity and positive predictive values than algorithms based on ICD9 code searches. PMID:23956016

  3. Analyses to help identify individuals from a historical mass grave in Kassel, Germany.

    PubMed

    v Grumbkow, Philipp; Zipp, Anna; Grosskopf, Birgit; Fueldner, Kai; Hummel, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, the skeletal remains of more than 60 human individuals were found in a mass grave on the grounds of the University of Kassel, Germany. There was no evidence helping to identify them or throwing light on the cause of their death. Mainly due to 14C age determination and initial hints on age and sex distribution, historians hypothesized that they had been soldiers of Napoleon's army who died in an epidemic in the winter of 1813/14. To test this assumption, morphological and molecular analyses were carried out on a sample. The morphological analyses comprised an age and sex determination as well as a macro- and micro-morphological inspection for pathological deviations after the commingled bones had been assembled as individuals. The molecular investigations aimed to identify the geographic origin of the remains. For this, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplotypings were carried out. The results point to a group of mainly young men, some of them suffering from systemic inflammation of the periosteum. Others revealed severe aberrations in bone microstructure. The greatest similarities revealed by Y-haplogroup and -haplotype distribution were to populations that live in what are now the Benelux countries. All aspects support the thesis that these were soldiers of the Napoleonic army. PMID:22338792

  4. Mutations in WNT10B Are Identified in Individuals with Oligodontia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Yang, Wenli; Han, Dong; Wang, Xi; Guo, Sen; Li, Jinchen; Li, Fang; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Wong, Sing-Wai; Bai, Baojing; Liu, Yao; Du, Jie; Sun, Zhong Sheng; Shi, Songtao; Feng, Hailan; Cai, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Tooth agenesis is one of the most common developmental anomalies in humans. Oligodontia, a severe form of tooth agenesis, is genetically and phenotypically a heterogeneous condition. Although significant efforts have been made, the genetic etiology of dental agenesis remains largely unknown. In the present study, we performed whole-exome sequencing to identify the causative mutations in Chinese families in whom oligodontia segregates with dominant inheritance. We detected a heterozygous missense mutation (c.632G>A [p.Arg211Gln]) in WNT10B in all affected family members. By Sanger sequencing a cohort of 145 unrelated individuals with non-syndromic oligodontia, we identified three additional mutations (c.569C>G [p.Pro190Arg], c.786G>A [p.Trp262(∗)], and c.851T>G [p.Phe284Cys]). Interestingly, analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations revealed that mutations in WNT10B affect the development of permanent dentition, particularly the lateral incisors. Furthermore, a functional assay demonstrated that each of these mutants could not normally enhance the canonical Wnt signaling in HEPG2 epithelial cells, in which activity of the TOPFlash luciferase reporter was measured. Notably, these mutant WNT10B ligands could not efficiently induce endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells. Our findings provide the identification of autosomal-dominant WNT10B mutations in individuals with oligodontia, which increases the spectrum of congenital tooth agenesis and suggests attenuated Wnt signaling in endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells. PMID:27321946

  5. Expressed Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Horseradish Peroxidase Identifies Co-Clustering Molecules in Individual Lipid Raft Domains

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa-Yamaguchi, Arisa; Kotani, Norihiro; Honke, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Lipid rafts that are enriched in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins serve as a platform for important biological events. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of these events, identification of co-clustering molecules in individual raft domains is required. Here we describe an approach to this issue using the recently developed method termed enzyme-mediated activation of radical source (EMARS), by which molecules in the vicinity within 300 nm from horseradish peroxidase (HRP) set on the probed molecule are labeled. GPI-anchored HRP fusion proteins (HRP-GPIs), in which the GPI attachment signals derived from human decay accelerating factor and Thy-1 were separately connected to the C-terminus of HRP, were expressed in HeLa S3 cells, and the EMARS reaction was catalyzed by these expressed HRP-GPIs under a living condition. As a result, these different HRP-GPIs had differences in glycosylation and localization and formed distinct clusters. This novel approach distinguished molecular clusters associated with individual GPI-anchored proteins, suggesting that it can identify co-clustering molecules in individual raft domains. PMID:24671047

  6. Host Protein Biomarkers Identify Active Tuberculosis in HIV Uninfected and Co-infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Achkar, Jacqueline M.; Cortes, Laetitia; Croteau, Pascal; Yanofsky, Corey; Mentinova, Marija; Rajotte, Isabelle; Schirm, Michael; Zhou, Yiyong; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula; Kasprowicz, Victoria O.; Larsen, Michelle; Allard, René; Hunter, Joanna; Paramithiotis, Eustache

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers for active tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed to improve rapid TB diagnosis. The objective of this study was to identify serum protein expression changes associated with TB but not latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI), uninfected states, or respiratory diseases other than TB (ORD). Serum samples from 209 HIV uninfected (HIV−) and co-infected (HIV+) individuals were studied. In the discovery phase samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, and in the verification phase biologically independent samples were analyzed via a multiplex multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assay. Compared to LTBI and ORD, host proteins were significantly differentially expressed in TB, and involved in the immune response, tissue repair, and lipid metabolism. Biomarker panels whose composition differed according to HIV status, and consisted of 8 host proteins in HIV− individuals (CD14, SEPP1, SELL, TNXB, LUM, PEPD, QSOX1, COMP, APOC1), or 10 host proteins in HIV+ individuals (CD14, SEPP1, PGLYRP2, PFN1, VASN, CPN2, TAGLN2, IGFBP6), respectively, distinguished TB from ORD with excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.96 for HIV− TB, 0.95 for HIV+ TB). These results warrant validation in larger studies but provide promise that host protein biomarkers could be the basis for a rapid, blood-based test for TB. PMID:26501113

  7. Host Protein Biomarkers Identify Active Tuberculosis in HIV Uninfected and Co-infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Achkar, Jacqueline M; Cortes, Laetitia; Croteau, Pascal; Yanofsky, Corey; Mentinova, Marija; Rajotte, Isabelle; Schirm, Michael; Zhou, Yiyong; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula; Kasprowicz, Victoria O; Larsen, Michelle; Allard, René; Hunter, Joanna; Paramithiotis, Eustache

    2015-09-01

    Biomarkers for active tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed to improve rapid TB diagnosis. The objective of this study was to identify serum protein expression changes associated with TB but not latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI), uninfected states, or respiratory diseases other than TB (ORD). Serum samples from 209 HIV uninfected (HIV(-)) and co-infected (HIV(+)) individuals were studied. In the discovery phase samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, and in the verification phase biologically independent samples were analyzed via a multiplex multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assay. Compared to LTBI and ORD, host proteins were significantly differentially expressed in TB, and involved in the immune response, tissue repair, and lipid metabolism. Biomarker panels whose composition differed according to HIV status, and consisted of 8 host proteins in HIV(-) individuals (CD14, SEPP1, SELL, TNXB, LUM, PEPD, QSOX1, COMP, APOC1), or 10 host proteins in HIV(+) individuals (CD14, SEPP1, PGLYRP2, PFN1, VASN, CPN2, TAGLN2, IGFBP6), respectively, distinguished TB from ORD with excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.96 for HIV(-) TB, 0.95 for HIV(+) TB). These results warrant validation in larger studies but provide promise that host protein biomarkers could be the basis for a rapid, blood-based test for TB. PMID:26501113

  8. Novel variants identified in methyl-CpG-binding domain genes in autistic individuals

    PubMed Central

    Cukier, Holly N.; Rabionet, Raquel; Konidari, Ioanna; Rayner-Evans, Melissa Y.; Baltos, Mary L.; Wright, Harry H.; Abramson, Ruth K.; Martin, Eden R.; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.

    2010-01-01

    Misregulation of the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene has been found to cause a myriad of neurological disorders including autism, mental retardation, seizures, learning disabilities, and Rett syndrome. We hypothesized that mutations in other members of the methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) family may also cause autistic features in individuals. We evaluated 226 autistic individuals for alterations in the four genes most homologous to MECP2: MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, and MBD4. A total of 46 alterations were identified in the four genes, including ten missense changes and two deletions that alter coding sequence. Several are either unique to our autistic population or cosegregate with affected individuals within a family, suggesting a possible relation of these variations to disease etiology. Variants include a R23M alteration in two affected half brothers which falls within the MBD domain of the MBD3 protein, as well as a frameshift in MBD4 that is predicted to truncate almost half of the protein. These results suggest that rare cases of autism may be influenced by mutations in members of the dynamic MBD protein family. PMID:19921286

  9. Novel variants identified in methyl-CpG-binding domain genes in autistic individuals.

    PubMed

    Cukier, Holly N; Rabionet, Raquel; Konidari, Ioanna; Rayner-Evans, Melissa Y; Baltos, Mary L; Wright, Harry H; Abramson, Ruth K; Martin, Eden R; Cuccaro, Michael L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Gilbert, John R

    2010-07-01

    Misregulation of the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene has been found to cause a myriad of neurological disorders including autism, mental retardation, seizures, learning disabilities, and Rett syndrome. We hypothesized that mutations in other members of the methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) family may also cause autistic features in individuals. We evaluated 226 autistic individuals for alterations in the four genes most homologous to MECP2: MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, and MBD4. A total of 46 alterations were identified in the four genes, including ten missense changes and two deletions that alter coding sequence. Several are either unique to our autistic population or cosegregate with affected individuals within a family, suggesting a possible relation of these variations to disease etiology. Variants include a R23M alteration in two affected half brothers which falls within the MBD domain of the MBD3 protein, as well as a frameshift in MBD4 that is predicted to truncate almost half of the protein. These results suggest that rare cases of autism may be influenced by mutations in members of the dynamic MBD protein family. PMID:19921286

  10. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Individuals from a Founder Population Identifies Candidate Genes for Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Catarina D.; Mohajeri, Kiana; Malig, Maika; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Nelson, Benjamin; Du, Gaixin; Patterson, Kristen M.; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G.; Hu, Donglei; Herman, Catherine; Chong, Jessica X.; Ko, Arthur; O'Roak, Brian J.; Krumm, Niklas; Vives, Laura; Lee, Choli; Roth, Lindsey A.; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Davis, Adam; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael A.; Thyne, Shannon; Jackson, Daniel J.; Gern, James E.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Shendure, Jay; Abney, Mark; Burchard, Esteban G.; Ober, Carole; Eichler, Evan E.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a complex genetic disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. We sought to test classes of genetic variants largely missed by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including copy number variants (CNVs) and low-frequency variants, by performing whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 16 individuals from asthma-enriched and asthma-depleted families. The samples were obtained from an extended 13-generation Hutterite pedigree with reduced genetic heterogeneity due to a small founding gene pool and reduced environmental heterogeneity as a result of a communal lifestyle. We sequenced each individual to an average depth of 13-fold, generated a comprehensive catalog of genetic variants, and tested the most severe mutations for association with asthma. We identified and validated 1960 CNVs, 19 nonsense or splice-site single nucleotide variants (SNVs), and 18 insertions or deletions that were out of frame. As follow-up, we performed targeted sequencing of 16 genes in 837 cases and 540 controls of Puerto Rican ancestry and found that controls carry a significantly higher burden of mutations in IL27RA (2.0% of controls; 0.23% of cases; nominal p = 0.004; Bonferroni p = 0.21). We also genotyped 593 CNVs in 1199 Hutterite individuals. We identified a nominally significant association (p = 0.03; Odds ratio (OR) = 3.13) between a 6 kbp deletion in an intron of NEDD4L and increased risk of asthma. We genotyped this deletion in an additional 4787 non-Hutterite individuals (nominal p = 0.056; OR = 1.69). NEDD4L is expressed in bronchial epithelial cells, and conditional knockout of this gene in the lung in mice leads to severe inflammation and mucus accumulation. Our study represents one of the early instances of applying WGS to complex disease with a large environmental component and demonstrates how WGS can identify risk variants, including CNVs and low-frequency variants, largely untested in GWAS. PMID:25116239

  11. A sex-associated sequence identified by RAPD screening in gynogenetic individuals of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Vale, Luis; Dieguez, Rebeca; Sánchez, Laura; Martínez, Paulino; Viñas, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of sex determination mechanisms is essential for improving the productivity of farmed aquaculture fish species like turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). In culture conditions turbot males grow slower than females starting from eight months post-hatch, and this differential growth rate is maintained until sexual maturation is reached, being mature females almost twice as big as males of the same age. The goal of this study was to identify sex-specific DNA markers in turbot using comparative random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) profiles in males and females to get new insights of the genetic architecture related to sex determination. In order to do this, we analyzed 540 commercial 10-mer RAPD primers in male and female pools of a gynogenetic family because of its higher inbreeding, which facilitates the detection of associations across the genome. Two sex-linked RAPD markers were identified in the female pool and one in the male pool. After the analysis of the three markers on individual samples of each pool and also in unrelated individuals, only one RAPD showed significant association with females. This marker was isolated, cloned and sequenced, containing two sequences, a microsatellite (SEX01) and a minisatellite (SEX02), which were mapped in the turbot reference map. From this map position, through a comparative mapping approach, we identified Foxl2, a relevant gene related to initial steps of sex differentiation, and Wnt4, a gene related with ovarian development, close to the microsatellite and minisatellite markers, respectively. The position of Foxl2 and Wnt4 was confirmed by linkage mapping in the reference turbot map. PMID:24415295

  12. Identifying At-Risk Individuals for Insomnia Using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test

    PubMed Central

    Kalmbach, David A.; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J. Todd; Drake, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: A primary focus of the National Institute of Mental Health's current strategic plan is “predicting” who is at risk for disease. As such, the current investigation examined the utility of premorbid sleep reactivity in identifying a specific and manageable population at elevated risk for future insomnia. Methods: A community-based sample of adults (n = 2,892; 59.3% female; 47.9 ± 13.3 y old) with no lifetime history of insomnia or depression completed web-based surveys across three annual assessments. Participants reported parental history of insomnia, demographic characteristics, sleep reactivity on the Ford Insomnia in Response to Stress Test (FIRST), and insomnia symptoms. DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were used to determine insomnia classification. Results: Baseline FIRST scores were used to predict incident insomnia at 1-y follow-up. Two clinically meaningful FIRST cutoff values were identified: FIRST ≥ 16 (sensitivity 77%; specificity 50%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.88, P < 0.001); and FIRST ≥ 18 (sensitivity 62%; specificity 67%; OR = 3.32, P < 0.001). Notably, both FIRST cut-points outperformed known maternal (OR = 1.49–1.59, P < 0.01) and paternal history (P = NS) in predicting insomnia onset, even after controlling for stress exposure and demographic characteristics. Of the incident cases, insomniacs with highly reactive sleep systems reported longer sleep onset latencies (FIRST ≥ 16: 65 min; FIRST ≥ 18: 68 min) than participants with nonreactive insomnia (FIRST < 16: 37 min; FIRST < 18: 44 min); these groups did not differ on any other sleep parameters. Conclusions: The current study established a cost- and time-effective strategy for identifying individuals at elevated risk for insomnia based on trait sleep reactivity. The FIRST accurately identifies a focused target population in which the psychobiological processes complicit in insomnia onset and progression can be better investigated, thus improving future preventive efforts

  13. Platelet-Related Variants Identified by Exomechip Meta-analysis in 157,293 Individuals.

    PubMed

    Eicher, John D; Chami, Nathalie; Kacprowski, Tim; Nomura, Akihiro; Chen, Ming-Huei; Yanek, Lisa R; Tajuddin, Salman M; Schick, Ursula M; Slater, Andrew J; Pankratz, Nathan; Polfus, Linda; Schurmann, Claudia; Giri, Ayush; Brody, Jennifer A; Lange, Leslie A; Manichaikul, Ani; Hill, W David; Pazoki, Raha; Elliot, Paul; Evangelou, Evangelos; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Gao, He; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Mathias, Rasika A; Becker, Diane M; Becker, Lewis C; Burt, Amber; Crosslin, David R; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Nikus, Kjell; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Kähönen, Mika; Raitoharju, Emma; Mononen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Lehtimäki, Terho; Cushman, Mary; Zakai, Neil A; Nickerson, Deborah A; Raffield, Laura M; Quarells, Rakale; Willer, Cristen J; Peloso, Gina M; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Liu, Dajiang J; Deloukas, Panos; Samani, Nilesh J; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Fornage, Myriam; Richard, Melissa; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Rioux, John D; Dube, Marie-Pierre; de Denus, Simon; Lu, Yingchang; Bottinger, Erwin P; Loos, Ruth J F; Smith, Albert Vernon; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Velez Edwards, Digna R; Torstenson, Eric S; Liu, Yongmei; Tracy, Russell P; Rotter, Jerome I; Rich, Stephen S; Highland, Heather M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Li, Jin; Lange, Ethan; Wilson, James G; Mihailov, Evelin; Mägi, Reedik; Hirschhorn, Joel; Metspalu, Andres; Esko, Tõnu; Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Nalls, Mike A; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K; Engström, Gunnar; Orho-Melander, Marju; Melander, Olle; O'Donoghue, Michelle L; Waterworth, Dawn M; Wallentin, Lars; White, Harvey D; Floyd, James S; Bartz, Traci M; Rice, Kenneth M; Psaty, Bruce M; Starr, J M; Liewald, David C M; Hayward, Caroline; Deary, Ian J; Greinacher, Andreas; Völker, Uwe; Thiele, Thomas; Völzke, Henry; van Rooij, Frank J A; Uitterlinden, André G; Franco, Oscar H; Dehghan, Abbas; Edwards, Todd L; Ganesh, Santhi K; Kathiresan, Sekar; Faraday, Nauder; Auer, Paul L; Reiner, Alex P; Lettre, Guillaume; Johnson, Andrew D

    2016-07-01

    Platelet production, maintenance, and clearance are tightly controlled processes indicative of platelets' important roles in hemostasis and thrombosis. Platelets are common targets for primary and secondary prevention of several conditions. They are monitored clinically by complete blood counts, specifically with measurements of platelet count (PLT) and mean platelet volume (MPV). Identifying genetic effects on PLT and MPV can provide mechanistic insights into platelet biology and their role in disease. Therefore, we formed the Blood Cell Consortium (BCX) to perform a large-scale meta-analysis of Exomechip association results for PLT and MPV in 157,293 and 57,617 individuals, respectively. Using the low-frequency/rare coding variant-enriched Exomechip genotyping array, we sought to identify genetic variants associated with PLT and MPV. In addition to confirming 47 known PLT and 20 known MPV associations, we identified 32 PLT and 18 MPV associations not previously observed in the literature across the allele frequency spectrum, including rare large effect (FCER1A), low-frequency (IQGAP2, MAP1A, LY75), and common (ZMIZ2, SMG6, PEAR1, ARFGAP3/PACSIN2) variants. Several variants associated with PLT/MPV (PEAR1, MRVI1, PTGES3) were also associated with platelet reactivity. In concurrent BCX analyses, there was overlap of platelet-associated variants with red (MAP1A, TMPRSS6, ZMIZ2) and white (PEAR1, ZMIZ2, LY75) blood cell traits, suggesting common regulatory pathways with shared genetic architecture among these hematopoietic lineages. Our large-scale Exomechip analyses identified previously undocumented associations with platelet traits and further indicate that several complex quantitative hematological, lipid, and cardiovascular traits share genetic factors. PMID:27346686

  14. A concise panel of biomarkers identifies neurocognitive functioning changes in HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, Thomas D; Deutsch, Reena; Michael, Benedict Daniel; Franklin, Donald; Cookson, Debra Rosario; Bharti, Ajay R; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L

    2013-12-01

    Neurocognitive (NC) impairment (NCI) occurs commonly in people living with HIV. Despite substantial effort, no biomarkers have been sufficiently validated for diagnosis and prognosis of NCI in the clinic. The goal of this project was to identify diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for NCI in a comprehensively characterized HIV cohort. Multidisciplinary case review selected 98 HIV-infected individuals and categorized them into four NC groups using normative data: stably normal (SN), stably impaired (SI), worsening (Wo), or improving (Im). All subjects underwent comprehensive NC testing, phlebotomy, and lumbar puncture at two timepoints separated by a median of 6.2 months. Eight biomarkers were measured in CSF and blood by immunoassay. Results were analyzed using mixed model linear regression and staged recursive partitioning. At the first visit, subjects were mostly middle-aged (median 45) white (58 %) men (84 %) who had AIDS (70 %). Of the 73 % who took antiretroviral therapy (ART), 54 % had HIV RNA levels below 50 c/mL in plasma. Mixed model linear regression identified that only MCP-1 in CSF was associated with neurocognitive change group. Recursive partitioning models aimed at diagnosis (i.e., correctly classifying neurocognitive status at the first visit) were complex and required most biomarkers to achieve misclassification limits. In contrast, prognostic models were more efficient. A combination of three biomarkers (sCD14, MCP-1, SDF-1α) correctly classified 82 % of Wo and SN subjects, including 88 % of SN subjects. A combination of two biomarkers (MCP-1, TNF-α) correctly classified 81 % of Im and SI subjects, including 100 % of SI subjects. This analysis of well-characterized individuals identified concise panels of biomarkers associated with NC change. Across all analyses, the two most frequently identified biomarkers were sCD14 and MCP-1, indicators of monocyte/macrophage activation. While the panels differed depending on the outcome and on the

  15. Meta-analysis of 74,046 individuals identifies 11 new susceptibility loci for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J C; Ibrahim-Verbaas, C A; Harold, D; Naj, A C; Sims, R; Bellenguez, C; DeStafano, A L; Bis, J C; Beecham, G W; Grenier-Boley, B; Russo, G; Thorton-Wells, T A; Jones, N; Smith, A V; Chouraki, V; Thomas, C; Ikram, M A; Zelenika, D; Vardarajan, B N; Kamatani, Y; Lin, C F; Gerrish, A; Schmidt, H; Kunkle, B; Dunstan, M L; Ruiz, A; Bihoreau, M T; Choi, S H; Reitz, C; Pasquier, F; Cruchaga, C; Craig, D; Amin, N; Berr, C; Lopez, O L; De Jager, P L; Deramecourt, V; Johnston, J A; Evans, D; Lovestone, S; Letenneur, L; Morón, F J; Rubinsztein, D C; Eiriksdottir, G; Sleegers, K; Goate, A M; Fiévet, N; Huentelman, M W; Gill, M; Brown, K; Kamboh, M I; Keller, L; Barberger-Gateau, P; McGuiness, B; Larson, E B; Green, R; Myers, A J; Dufouil, C; Todd, S; Wallon, D; Love, S; Rogaeva, E; Gallacher, J; St George-Hyslop, P; Clarimon, J; Lleo, A; Bayer, A; Tsuang, D W; Yu, L; Tsolaki, M; Bossù, P; Spalletta, G; Proitsi, P; Collinge, J; Sorbi, S; Sanchez-Garcia, F; Fox, N C; Hardy, J; Deniz Naranjo, M C; Bosco, P; Clarke, R; Brayne, C; Galimberti, D; Mancuso, M; Matthews, F; Moebus, S; Mecocci, P; Del Zompo, M; Maier, W; Hampel, H; Pilotto, A; Bullido, M; Panza, F; Caffarra, P; Nacmias, B; Gilbert, J R; Mayhaus, M; Lannefelt, L; Hakonarson, H; Pichler, S; Carrasquillo, M M; Ingelsson, M; Beekly, D; Alvarez, V; Zou, F; Valladares, O; Younkin, S G; Coto, E; Hamilton-Nelson, K L; Gu, W; Razquin, C; Pastor, P; Mateo, I; Owen, M J; Faber, K M; Jonsson, P V; Combarros, O; O'Donovan, M C; Cantwell, L B; Soininen, H; Blacker, D; Mead, S; Mosley, T H; Bennett, D A; Harris, T B; Fratiglioni, L; Holmes, C; de Bruijn, R F; Passmore, P; Montine, T J; Bettens, K; Rotter, J I; Brice, A; Morgan, K; Foroud, T M; Kukull, W A; Hannequin, D; Powell, J F; Nalls, M A; Ritchie, K; Lunetta, K L; Kauwe, J S; Boerwinkle, E; Riemenschneider, M; Boada, M; Hiltuenen, M; Martin, E R; Schmidt, R; Rujescu, D; Wang, L S; Dartigues, J F; Mayeux, R; Tzourio, C; Hofman, A; Nöthen, M M; Graff, C; Psaty, B M; Jones, L; Haines, J L; Holmans, P A; Lathrop, M; Pericak-Vance, M A; Launer, L J; Farrer, L A; van Duijn, C M; Van Broeckhoven, C; Moskvina, V; Seshadri, S; Williams, J; Schellenberg, G D; Amouyel, P

    2013-12-01

    Eleven susceptibility loci for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) were identified by previous studies; however, a large portion of the genetic risk for this disease remains unexplained. We conducted a large, two-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry. In stage 1, we used genotyped and imputed data (7,055,881 SNPs) to perform meta-analysis on 4 previously published GWAS data sets consisting of 17,008 Alzheimer's disease cases and 37,154 controls. In stage 2, 11,632 SNPs were genotyped and tested for association in an independent set of 8,572 Alzheimer's disease cases and 11,312 controls. In addition to the APOE locus (encoding apolipoprotein E), 19 loci reached genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)) in the combined stage 1 and stage 2 analysis, of which 11 are newly associated with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24162737

  16. Real-time detection method and system for identifying individual aerosol particles

    DOEpatents

    Gard, Eric E.; Coffee, Keith R.; Frank, Matthias; Tobias, Herbert J.; Fergenson, David P.; Madden, Norm; Riot, Vincent J.; Steele, Paul T.; Woods, Bruce W.

    2007-08-21

    An improved method and system of identifying individual aerosol particles in real time. Sample aerosol particles are collimated, tracked, and screened to determine which ones qualify for mass spectrometric analysis based on predetermined qualification or selection criteria. Screening techniques include one or more of determining particle size, shape, symmetry, and fluorescence. Only qualifying particles passing all screening criteria are subject to desorption/ionization and single particle mass spectrometry to produce corresponding test spectra, which is used to determine the identities of each of the qualifying aerosol particles by comparing the test spectra against predetermined spectra for known particle types. In this manner, activation cycling of a particle ablation laser of a single particle mass spectrometer is reduced.

  17. Becoming pure: identifying generational classes of admixed individuals within lesser and greater scaup populations.

    PubMed

    Lavretsky, Philip; Peters, Jeffrey L; Winker, Kevin; Bahn, Volker; Kulikova, Irina; Zhuravlev, Yuri N; Wilson, Robert E; Barger, Chris; Gurney, Kirsty; McCracken, Kevin G

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the frequency of hybridization is important to understand its evolutionary consequences and its effects on conservation efforts. In this study, we examined the extent of hybridization in two sister species of ducks that hybridize. We used mitochondrial control region sequences and 3589 double-digest restriction-associated DNA sequences (ddRADseq) to identify admixture between wild lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and greater scaup (A. marila). Among 111 individuals, we found one introgressed mitochondrial DNA haplotype in lesser scaup and four in greater scaup. Likewise, based on the site-frequency spectrum from autosomal DNA, gene flow was asymmetrical, with higher rates from lesser into greater scaup. However, using ddRADseq nuclear DNA, all individuals were assigned to their respective species with >0.95 posterior assignment probability. To examine the power for detecting admixture, we simulated a breeding experiment in which empirical data were used to create F1 hybrids and nine generations (F2-F10) of backcrossing. F1 hybrids and F2, F3 and most F4 backcrosses were clearly distinguishable from pure individuals, but evidence of admixed histories was effectively lost after the fourth generation. Thus, we conclude that low interspecific assignment probabilities (0.011-0.043) for two lesser and nineteen greater scaup were consistent with admixed histories beyond the F3 generation. These results indicate that the propensity of these species to hybridize in the wild is low and largely asymmetric. When applied to species-specific cases, our approach offers powerful utility for examining concerns of hybridization in conservation efforts, especially for determining the generational time until admixed histories are effectively lost through backcrossing. PMID:26833858

  18. Stress, cortisol, and obesity: a role for cortisol responsiveness in identifying individuals prone to obesity.

    PubMed

    Hewagalamulage, S D; Lee, T K; Clarke, I J; Henry, B A

    2016-07-01

    There is a strong inter-relationship between activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and energy homeostasis. Patients with abdominal obesity have elevated cortisol levels. Furthermore, stress and glucocorticoids act to control both food intake and energy expenditure. In particular, glucocorticoids are known to increase the consumption of foods enriched in fat and sugar. It is well-known that, in all species, the cortisol response to stress or adrenocorticotropin is highly variable. It has now emerged that cortisol responsiveness is an important determinant in the metabolic sequelae to stress. Sheep that are characterized as high-cortisol responders (HRs) have greater propensity to weight gain and obesity than low-cortisol responders (LRs). This difference in susceptibility to become obese is associated with a distinct metabolic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral phenotype. In women and ewes, HR individuals eat more in response to stress than LR. Furthermore, HR sheep have impaired melanocortin signaling and reduced skeletal muscle thermogenesis. High-cortisol responder sheep exhibit reactive coping strategies, whereas LRs exhibit proactive coping strategies. This complex set of traits leads to increased food intake and reduced energy expenditure in HR and thus, predisposition to obesity. We predict that cortisol responsiveness may be used as a marker to identify individuals who are at risk of weight gain and subsequent obesity. PMID:27345309

  19. Community centrality for node's influential ranking in complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Biao; Tuo, Xian-Guo; Yang, Kai-Xue; Liu, Ming-Zhe

    2014-10-01

    Some tiny party of influential nodes may highly affect spread of information in complex networks. For the case of very high time complexity in the shortest path computation of global centralities, making use of local community centrality to identify influential nodes is an open and possible problem. Compared to degree and local centralities, a five-heartbeat forward community centrality is proposed in this paper, in which a five-step induced sub-graph of certain node in the network will be achieved. Next, we induce the minimal spanning tree (MMT) of the sub-graph. Finally, we take the sum of all weights of the MMT as community centrality measurement that needs to be the influential ranking of the node. We use the susceptible, infected and recovered (SIR) model to evaluate the performance of this method on several public test network data and explore the forward steps of community centrality by experiments. Simulative results show that our method with five steps can identify the influential ranking of nodes in complex network as well.

  20. Simulating Future Changes in Spatio-temporal Precipitation by Identifying and Characterizing Individual Rainstorm Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W.; Stein, M.; Wang, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Moyer, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that human-induced climate change may cause significant changes in precipitation patterns, which could in turn influence future flood levels and frequencies and water supply and management practices. Although climate models produce full three-dimensional simulations of precipitation, analyses of model precipitation have focused either on time-averaged distributions or on individual timeseries with no spatial information. We describe here a new approach based on identifying and characterizing individual rainstorms in either data or model output. Our approach enables us to readily characterize important spatio-temporal aspects of rainstorms including initiation location, intensity (mean and patterns), spatial extent, duration, and trajectory. We apply this technique to high-resolution precipitation over the continental U.S. both from radar-based observations (NCEP Stage IV QPE product, 1-hourly, 4 km spatial resolution) and from model runs with dynamical downscaling (WRF regional climate model, 3-hourly, 12 km spatial resolution). In the model studies we investigate the changes in storm characteristics under a business-as-usual warming scenario to 2100 (RCP 8.5). We find that in these model runs, rainstorm intensity increases as expected with rising temperatures (approximately 7%/K, following increased atmospheric moisture content), while total precipitation increases by a lesser amount (3%/K), consistent with other studies. We identify for the first time the necessary compensating mechanism: in these model runs, individual precipitation events become smaller. Other aspects are approximately unchanged in the warmer climate. Because these spatio-temporal changes in rainfall patterns would impact regional hydrology, it is important that they be accurately incorporated into any impacts assessment. For this purpose we have developed a methodology for producing scenarios of future precipitation that combine observational data and

  1. Advancing training to identify, intervene, and follow up with individuals at risk for suicide through research.

    PubMed

    Osteen, Philip J; Frey, Jodi J; Ko, Jungyai

    2014-09-01

    Research and training on suicide is critical given the fact that the majority of suicide deaths are preventable with accurate identification of risk and intervention by trained individuals. However, implementing and evaluating training is difficult because of the multiple factors involved, including, but not limited to, the heterogeneity of trainees, their diverse roles in suicide prevention, absence of clear guidelines for training content across settings, and limited methods for assessing outcomes. Here, three groups of trainees are discussed: community and professional gatekeepers and behavioral health providers. The roles each group plays in managing suicide risk and the training content it needs to be effective are addressed. A staged training approach is proposed, building on the core components of currently used suicide training: knowledge, attitudes, and skills/behaviors. Limitations of current assessment methods are identified and recommendations for alternative methods are provided. The article concludes with a discussion of next steps in moving the field forward, including overcoming challenges and identifying and engaging opportunities. PMID:25145742

  2. Quantitative Evaluation of an Instrument to Identify Chronic Pain in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Jessica S; Westfall, Andrew O; Chamot, Eric; Saag, Michael; Walcott, Melonie; Ritchie, Christine; Kertesz, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    A method to rapidly identify the presence of chronic pain would enhance the care of HIV-infected individuals, but such an instrument has not been assessed in this population to date. We assessed the construct validity of the two-question Brief Chronic Pain Questionnaire (BCPQ) in HIV-infected patients by assessing the association between BCPQ responses and known correlates of chronic pain. Participants in the University of Alabama Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems cohort completed the BCPQ, along with the EuroQOL to assess physical function, the PHQ-9 to assess depression, and the PHQ-anxiety module to assess anxiety. Among 100 participants, 25% were female, the mean age was 45 (SD 12), 63% were African American, 27% were publicly insured, the median CD4(+) T cell count was 572 cells/mm(3) (IQR 307-788), and 82% had an undetectable viral load. Participants with chronic pain were more likely to have impaired mobility (43% vs. 12%, p=0.001), difficulty with usual activities (47% vs. 12%, p<0.001), lower overall health state (70 vs. 84, p=0.002), pain today (80% vs. 27%, p<0.001), depression (30% vs. 15%, p=0.10), and anxiety (43% vs. 10%, p<0.001) than those without chronic pain. This study provides preliminary evidence for the BCPQ as a brief questionnaire to identify the presence of chronic pain in HIV care settings. PMID:25693683

  3. Detecting influential observations in nonlinear regression modeling of groundwater flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear regression is used to estimate optimal parameter values in models of groundwater flow to ensure that differences between predicted and observed heads and flows do not result from nonoptimal parameter values. Parameter estimates can be affected, however, by observations that disproportionately influence the regression, such as outliers that exert undue leverage on the objective function. Certain statistics developed for linear regression can be used to detect influential observations in nonlinear regression if the models are approximately linear. This paper discusses the application of Cook's D, which measures the effect of omitting a single observation on a set of estimated parameter values, and the statistical parameter DFBETAS, which quantifies the influence of an observation on each parameter. The influence statistics were used to (1) identify the influential observations in the calibration of a three-dimensional, groundwater flow model of a fractured-rock aquifer through nonlinear regression, and (2) quantify the effect of omitting influential observations on the set of estimated parameter values. Comparison of the spatial distribution of Cook's D with plots of model sensitivity shows that influential observations correspond to areas where the model heads are most sensitive to certain parameters, and where predicted groundwater flow rates are largest. Five of the six discharge observations were identified as influential, indicating that reliable measurements of groundwater flow rates are valuable data in model calibration. DFBETAS are computed and examined for an alternative model of the aquifer system to identify a parameterization error in the model design that resulted in overestimation of the effect of anisotropy on horizontal hydraulic conductivity.

  4. A simple risk score for identifying individuals with impaired fasting glucose in the Southern Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Tao; Qiu, Quan; Ding, Peng; He, Yan-Hui; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a simple risk score for detecting individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among the Southern Chinese population. A sample of participants aged ≥20 years and without known diabetes from the 2006-2007 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional survey was used to develop separate risk scores for men and women. The participants completed a self-administered structured questionnaire and underwent simple clinical measurements. The risk scores were developed by multiple logistic regression analysis. External validation was performed based on three other studies: the 2007 Zhuhai rural population-based study, the 2008-2010 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional study and the 2007 Tibet population-based study. Performance of the scores was measured with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and ROC c-statistic. Age, waist circumference, body mass index and family history of diabetes were included in the risk score for both men and women, with the additional factor of hypertension for men. The ROC c-statistic was 0.70 for both men and women in the derivation samples. Risk scores of ≥28 for men and ≥18 for women showed respective sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 56.6%, 71.7%, 13.0% and 96.0% for men and 68.7%, 60.2%, 11% and 96.0% for women in the derivation population. The scores performed comparably with the Zhuhai rural sample and the 2008-2010 Guangzhou urban samples but poorly in the Tibet sample. The performance of pre-existing USA, Shanghai, and Chengdu risk scores was poorer in our population than in their original study populations. The results suggest that the developed simple IFG risk scores can be generalized in Guangzhou city and nearby rural regions and may help primary health care workers to identify individuals with IFG in their practice. PMID:25625405

  5. Micro-Spectroscopic Chemical Imaging of Individual Identified Marine Biogenic and Ambient Organic Ice Nuclei (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopf, D. A.; Alpert, P. A.; Wang, B.; OBrien, R. E.; Moffet, R. C.; Aller, J. Y.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric ice formation represents one of the least understood atmospheric processes with important implications for the hydrological cycle and climate. Current freezing descriptions assume that ice active sites on the particle surface initiate ice nucleation, however, the nature of these sites remains elusive. Here, we present a new experimental method that allows us to relate physical and chemical properties of individual particles with observed water uptake and ice nucleation ability using a combination of micro-spectroscopic and optical single particle analytical techniques. We apply this method to field-collected particles and particles generated via bursting of bubbles produced by glass frit aeration and plunging water impingement jets in a mesocosm containing artificial sea water and bacteria and/or phytoplankton. The most efficient ice nuclei (IN) within a particle population are identified and characterized. Single particle characterization is achieved by computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. A vapor controlled cooling-stage coupled to an optical microscope is used to determine the onsets of water uptake, immersion freezing, and deposition ice nucleation of the individual particles as a function of temperature (T) as low as 200 K and relative humidity (RH) up to water saturation. In addition, we perform CCSEM/EDX to obtain on a single particle level the elemental composition of the entire particle population. Thus, we can determine if the IN are exceptional in nature or belong to a major particle type class with respect to composition and size. We find that ambient and sea spray particles are coated by organic material and can induce ice formation under tropospheric relevant conditions. Micro-spectroscopic single particle analysis of the investigated particle samples invokes a potential

  6. Influential input classification in probabilistic multimedia models

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Hsieh, Dennis P.H.; Geng, Shu

    1999-05-01

    Monte Carlo analysis is a statistical simulation method that is often used to assess and quantify the outcome variance in complex environmental fate and effects models. Total outcome variance of these models is a function of (1) the uncertainty and/or variability associated with each model input and (2) the sensitivity of the model outcome to changes in the inputs. To propagate variance through a model using Monte Carlo techniques, each variable must be assigned a probability distribution. The validity of these distributions directly influences the accuracy and reliability of the model outcome. To efficiently allocate resources for constructing distributions one should first identify the most influential set of variables in the model. Although existing sensitivity and uncertainty analysis methods can provide a relative ranking of the importance of model inputs, they fail to identify the minimum set of stochastic inputs necessary to sufficiently characterize the outcome variance. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate a novel sensitivity/uncertainty analysis method for assessing the importance of each variable in a multimedia environmental fate model. Our analyses show that for a given scenario, a relatively small number of input variables influence the central tendency of the model and an even smaller set determines the shape of the outcome distribution. For each input, the level of influence depends on the scenario under consideration. This information is useful for developing site specific models and improving our understanding of the processes that have the greatest influence on the variance in outcomes from multimedia models.

  7. Risk Assessment Tools for Identifying Individuals at Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Buijsse, Brian; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Griffin, Simon J.; Schulze, Matthias B.

    2011-01-01

    Trials have demonstrated the preventability of type 2 diabetes through lifestyle modifications or drugs in people with impaired glucose tolerance. However, alternative ways of identifying people at risk of developing diabetes are required. Multivariate risk scores have been developed for this purpose. This article examines the evidence for performance of diabetes risk scores in adults by 1) systematically reviewing the literature on available scores and 2) their validation in external populations; and 3) exploring methodological issues surrounding the development, validation, and comparison of risk scores. Risk scores show overall good discriminatory ability in populations for whom they were developed. However, discriminatory performance is more heterogeneous and generally weaker in external populations, which suggests that risk scores may need to be validated within the population in which they are intended to be used. Whether risk scores enable accurate estimation of absolute risk remains unknown; thus, care is needed when using scores to communicate absolute diabetes risk to individuals. Several risk scores predict diabetes risk based on routine noninvasive measures or on data from questionnaires. Biochemical measures, in particular fasting plasma glucose, can improve prediction of such models. On the other hand, usefulness of genetic profiling currently appears limited. PMID:21622851

  8. Four Individually Identified Paired Dopamine Neurons Signal Reward in Larval Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Rohwedder, Astrid; Wenz, Nana L; Stehle, Bernhard; Huser, Annina; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Zlatic, Marta; Truman, James W; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Saumweber, Timo; Gerber, Bertram; Thum, Andreas S

    2016-03-01

    Dopaminergic neurons serve multiple functions, including reinforcement processing during associative learning [1-12]. It is thus warranted to understand which dopaminergic neurons mediate which function. We study larval Drosophila, in which only approximately 120 of a total of 10,000 neurons are dopaminergic, as judged by the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme of dopamine biosynthesis [5, 13]. Dopaminergic neurons mediating reinforcement in insect olfactory learning target the mushroom bodies, a higher-order "cortical" brain region [1-5, 11, 12, 14, 15]. We discover four previously undescribed paired neurons, the primary protocerebral anterior medial (pPAM) neurons. These neurons are TH positive and subdivide the medial lobe of the mushroom body into four distinct subunits. These pPAM neurons are acutely necessary for odor-sugar reward learning and require intact TH function in this process. However, they are dispensable for aversive learning and innate behavior toward the odors and sugars employed. Optogenetical activation of pPAM neurons is sufficient as a reward. Thus, the pPAM neurons convey a likely dopaminergic reward signal. In contrast, DL1 cluster neurons convey a corresponding punishment signal [5], suggesting a cellular division of labor to convey dopaminergic reward and punishment signals. On the level of individually identified neurons, this uncovers an organizational principle shared with adult Drosophila and mammals [1-4, 7, 9, 10] (but see [6]). The numerical simplicity and connectomic tractability of the larval nervous system [16-19] now offers a prospect for studying circuit principles of dopamine function at unprecedented resolution. PMID:26877086

  9. Absorption in Music: Development of a Scale to Identify Individuals with Strong Emotional Responses to Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Russo, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rise in research investigating music and emotion over the last decade, there are no validated measures of individual differences in emotional responses to music. We created the Absorption in Music Scale (AIMS), a 34-item measure of individuals' ability and willingness to allow music to draw them into an emotional experience. It was…

  10. Identifying individuality and variability in team tactics by means of statistical shape analysis and multilayer perceptrons.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Jörg M; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I

    2012-04-01

    Offensive and defensive systems of play represent important aspects of team sports. They include the players' positions at certain situations during a match, i.e., when players have to be on specific positions on the court. Patterns of play emerge based on the formations of the players on the court. Recognition of these patterns is important to react adequately and to adjust own strategies to the opponent. Furthermore, the ability to apply variable patterns of play seems to be promising since they make it harder for the opponent to adjust. The purpose of this study is to identify different team tactical patterns in volleyball and to analyze differences in variability. Overall 120 standard situations of six national teams in women's volleyball are analyzed during a world championship tournament. Twenty situations from each national team are chosen, including the base defence position (start configuration) and the two players block with middle back deep (end configuration). The shapes of the defence formations at the start and end configurations during the defence of each national team as well as the variability of these defence formations are statistically analyzed. Furthermore these shapes data are used to train multilayer perceptrons in order to test whether artificial neural networks can recognize the teams by their tactical patterns. Results show significant differences between the national teams in both the base defence position at the start and the two players block with middle back deep at the end of the standard defence situation. Furthermore, the national teams show significant differences in variability of the defence systems and start-positions are more variable than the end-positions. Multilayer perceptrons are able to recognize the teams at an average of 98.5%. It is concluded that defence systems in team sports are highly individual at a competitive level and variable even in standard situations. Artificial neural networks can be used to recognize

  11. Postural-Stability Tests That Identify Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability

    PubMed Central

    Linens, Shelley W.; Ross, Scott E.; Arnold, Brent L.; Gayle, Richard; Pidcoe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Context: Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is characterized by repeated ankle sprains, which have been linked to postural instability. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to identify individuals with CAI who can benefit from rehabilitation. Objective: To assess the likelihood that CAI participants will exhibit impaired postural stability and that healthy control participants will exhibit better test performance values. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: People with CAI (n = 17, age = 23 ± 4 years, height = 168 ± 9 cm, weight = 68 ± 12 kg) who reported ankle “giving-way” sensations and healthy volunteers (n = 17, age = 23 ± 3 years, height = 168 ± 8 cm, weight = 66 ± 12 kg). Intervention(s): Participants performed 7 balance tests: Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), time in balance, foot lift, single-legged stance on a force plate, Star Excursion Balance Test, side hop, and figure-of-8 hop. Main Outcome Measure(s): Balance was quantified with errors (score) for the BESS, length of time balancing (seconds) for time-in-balance test, frequency of foot lifts (score) for foot-lift test, velocity (cm/s) for all center-of-pressure velocity measures, excursion (cm) for center-of-pressure excursion measures, area (cm2) for 95% confidence ellipse center-of-pressure area and center-of-pressure rectangular area, time (seconds) for anterior-posterior and medial-lateral time-to-boundary (TTB) measures, distance reached (cm) for Star Excursion Balance Test, and time (seconds) to complete side-hop and figure-of-8 hop tests. We calculated area-under-the-curve values and cutoff scores and used the odds ratio to determine if those with and without CAI could be distinguished using cutoff scores. Results: We found significant area-under-the-curve values for 4 static noninstrumented measures, 3 force-plate measures, and 3 functional measures. Significant cutoff scores were noted for the time-in-balance test (≤25.89 seconds

  12. 76 FR 59488 - Addition to the Identifying Information for an Individual Previously Designated Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... was previously designated pursuant to the Order: GRAJALES PUENTES, Diana Carolina, c/o AGRONILO S.A...) (individual) The listing now appears as follows: GRAJALES PUENTES, Diana Carolina, c/o AGRONILO S.A.,...

  13. Leveraging percolation theory to single out influential spreaders in networks.

    PubMed

    Radicchi, Filippo; Castellano, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Among the consequences of the disordered interaction topology underlying many social, technological, and biological systems, a particularly important one is that some nodes, just because of their position in the network, may have a disproportionate effect on dynamical processes mediated by the complex interaction pattern. For example, the early adoption of a commercial product by an opinion leader in a social network may change its fate or just a few superspreaders may determine the virality of a meme in social media. Despite many recent efforts, the formulation of an accurate method to optimally identify influential nodes in complex network topologies remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we present the exact solution of the problem for the specific, but highly relevant, case of the susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model for epidemic spreading at criticality. By exploiting the mapping between bond percolation and the static properties of the SIR model, we prove that the recently introduced nonbacktracking centrality is the optimal criterion for the identification of influential spreaders in locally tree-like networks at criticality. By means of simulations on synthetic networks and on a very extensive set of real-world networks, we show that the nonbacktracking centrality is a highly reliable metric to identify top influential spreaders also in generic graphs not embedded in space and for noncritical spreading. PMID:27415287

  14. Leveraging percolation theory to single out influential spreaders in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Castellano, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Among the consequences of the disordered interaction topology underlying many social, technological, and biological systems, a particularly important one is that some nodes, just because of their position in the network, may have a disproportionate effect on dynamical processes mediated by the complex interaction pattern. For example, the early adoption of a commercial product by an opinion leader in a social network may change its fate or just a few superspreaders may determine the virality of a meme in social media. Despite many recent efforts, the formulation of an accurate method to optimally identify influential nodes in complex network topologies remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we present the exact solution of the problem for the specific, but highly relevant, case of the susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model for epidemic spreading at criticality. By exploiting the mapping between bond percolation and the static properties of the SIR model, we prove that the recently introduced nonbacktracking centrality is the optimal criterion for the identification of influential spreaders in locally tree-like networks at criticality. By means of simulations on synthetic networks and on a very extensive set of real-world networks, we show that the nonbacktracking centrality is a highly reliable metric to identify top influential spreaders also in generic graphs not embedded in space and for noncritical spreading.

  15. 75 FR 42487 - Supplementary Identifying Information of Previously-Designated Individual, Foreign Narcotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Individual, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury... interests in property continue to be blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  16. Identifying Empirically Supported Treatments for Pica in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagopian, Louis P.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Rolider, Natalie U.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to critically examine the existing literature on the treatment of pica displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities. Criteria for empirically supported treatments as described by Divisions 12 and 16 of APA, and adapted for studies employing single-case designs were used to review this body of…

  17. Conceptualizing Masculinity in Female-to-Male Trans-Identified Individuals: A Qualitative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vegter, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    A non-normative gender identity raises questions concerning widely accepted theories of gender that prevail in Western society. These theories are founded upon dichotomous models of gender identity that are posited as having a direct relationship to binary biological sex. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how individuals who…

  18. Identifying Empirically Supported Treatments for Phobic Avoidance in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennett, Heather K.; Hagopian, Louis P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature regarding the treatment of phobic avoidance in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Criteria for classifying interventions as empirically supported, developed by the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 12 Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, were used. For…

  19. Using Administrative Health Data to Identify Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Comparison of Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, E.; Balogh, R.; Cobigo, V.; Ouellette-Kuntz, H.; Wilton, A. S.; Lunsky, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience high rates of physical and mental health problems; yet their health care is often inadequate. Information about their characteristics and health services needs is critical for planning efficient and equitable services. A logical source of such information is…

  20. Identifying Individuals at High Risk of Psychosis: Predictive Utility of Support Vector Machine using Structural and Functional MRI Data.

    PubMed

    Valli, Isabel; Marquand, Andre F; Mechelli, Andrea; Raffin, Marie; Allen, Paul; Seal, Marc L; McGuire, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The identification of individuals at high risk of developing psychosis is entirely based on clinical assessment, associated with limited predictive potential. There is, therefore, increasing interest in the development of biological markers that could be used in clinical practice for this purpose. We studied 25 individuals with an at-risk mental state for psychosis and 25 healthy controls using structural MRI, and functional MRI in conjunction with a verbal memory task. Data were analyzed using a standard univariate analysis, and with support vector machine (SVM), a multivariate pattern recognition technique that enables statistical inferences to be made at the level of the individual, yielding results with high translational potential. The application of SVM to structural MRI data permitted the identification of individuals at high risk of psychosis with a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 76%, resulting in an accuracy of 72% (p < 0.001). Univariate volumetric between-group differences did not reach statistical significance. By contrast, the univariate fMRI analysis identified between-group differences (p < 0.05 corrected), while the application of SVM to the same data did not. Since SVM is well suited at identifying the pattern of abnormality that distinguishes two groups, whereas univariate methods are more likely to identify regions that individually are most different between two groups, our results suggest the presence of focal functional abnormalities in the context of a diffuse pattern of structural abnormalities in individuals at high clinical risk of psychosis. PMID:27092086

  1. Identifying Individuals at High Risk of Psychosis: Predictive Utility of Support Vector Machine using Structural and Functional MRI Data

    PubMed Central

    Valli, Isabel; Marquand, Andre F.; Mechelli, Andrea; Raffin, Marie; Allen, Paul; Seal, Marc L.; McGuire, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The identification of individuals at high risk of developing psychosis is entirely based on clinical assessment, associated with limited predictive potential. There is, therefore, increasing interest in the development of biological markers that could be used in clinical practice for this purpose. We studied 25 individuals with an at-risk mental state for psychosis and 25 healthy controls using structural MRI, and functional MRI in conjunction with a verbal memory task. Data were analyzed using a standard univariate analysis, and with support vector machine (SVM), a multivariate pattern recognition technique that enables statistical inferences to be made at the level of the individual, yielding results with high translational potential. The application of SVM to structural MRI data permitted the identification of individuals at high risk of psychosis with a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 76%, resulting in an accuracy of 72% (p < 0.001). Univariate volumetric between-group differences did not reach statistical significance. By contrast, the univariate fMRI analysis identified between-group differences (p < 0.05 corrected), while the application of SVM to the same data did not. Since SVM is well suited at identifying the pattern of abnormality that distinguishes two groups, whereas univariate methods are more likely to identify regions that individually are most different between two groups, our results suggest the presence of focal functional abnormalities in the context of a diffuse pattern of structural abnormalities in individuals at high clinical risk of psychosis. PMID:27092086

  2. Meta-analysis of 375,000 individuals identifies 38 susceptibility loci for migraine.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Padhraig; Anttila, Verneri; Winsvold, Bendik S; Palta, Priit; Esko, Tonu; Pers, Tune H; Farh, Kai-How; Cuenca-Leon, Ester; Muona, Mikko; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Kurth, Tobias; Ingason, Andres; McMahon, George; Ligthart, Lannie; Terwindt, Gisela M; Kallela, Mikko; Freilinger, Tobias M; Ran, Caroline; Gordon, Scott G; Stam, Anine H; Steinberg, Stacy; Borck, Guntram; Koiranen, Markku; Quaye, Lydia; Adams, Hieab H H; Lehtimäki, Terho; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Wedenoja, Juho; Hinds, David A; Buring, Julie E; Schürks, Markus; Ridker, Paul M; Hrafnsdottir, Maria Gudlaug; Stefansson, Hreinn; Ring, Susan M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Färkkilä, Markus; Artto, Ville; Kaunisto, Mari; Vepsäläinen, Salli; Malik, Rainer; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Kurki, Mitja I; Kals, Mart; Mägi, Reedik; Pärn, Kalle; Hämäläinen, Eija; Huang, Hailiang; Byrnes, Andrea E; Franke, Lude; Huang, Jie; Stergiakouli, Evie; Lee, Phil H; Sandor, Cynthia; Webber, Caleb; Cader, Zameel; Muller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schreiber, Stefan; Meitinger, Thomas; Eriksson, Johan G; Salomaa, Veikko; Heikkilä, Kauko; Loehrer, Elizabeth; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Cherkas, Lynn; Pedersen, Linda M; Stubhaug, Audun; Nielsen, Christopher S; Männikkö, Minna; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Göbel, Hartmut; Esserlind, Ann-Louise; Christensen, Anne Francke; Hansen, Thomas Folkmann; Werge, Thomas; Kaprio, Jaakko; Aromaa, Arpo J; Raitakari, Olli; Ikram, M Arfan; Spector, Tim; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Metspalu, Andres; Kubisch, Christian; Strachan, David P; Ferrari, Michel D; Belin, Andrea C; Dichgans, Martin; Wessman, Maija; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Zwart, John-Anker; Boomsma, Dorret I; Smith, George Davey; Stefansson, Kari; Eriksson, Nicholas; Daly, Mark J; Neale, Benjamin M; Olesen, Jes; Chasman, Daniel I; Nyholt, Dale R; Palotie, Aarno

    2016-08-01

    Migraine is a debilitating neurological disorder affecting around one in seven people worldwide, but its molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. There is some debate about whether migraine is a disease of vascular dysfunction or a result of neuronal dysfunction with secondary vascular changes. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have thus far identified 13 independent loci associated with migraine. To identify new susceptibility loci, we carried out a genetic study of migraine on 59,674 affected subjects and 316,078 controls from 22 GWA studies. We identified 44 independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with migraine risk (P < 5 × 10(-8)) that mapped to 38 distinct genomic loci, including 28 loci not previously reported and a locus that to our knowledge is the first to be identified on chromosome X. In subsequent computational analyses, the identified loci showed enrichment for genes expressed in vascular and smooth muscle tissues, consistent with a predominant theory of migraine that highlights vascular etiologies. PMID:27322543

  3. Identifying and individuating cognitive systems: a task-based distributed cognition alternative to agent-based extended cognition.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jim; Michaelian, Kourken

    2016-08-01

    This article argues for a task-based approach to identifying and individuating cognitive systems. The agent-based extended cognition approach faces a problem of cognitive bloat and has difficulty accommodating both sub-individual cognitive systems ("scaling down") and some supra-individual cognitive systems ("scaling up"). The standard distributed cognition approach can accommodate a wider variety of supra-individual systems but likewise has difficulties with sub-individual systems and faces the problem of cognitive bloat. We develop a task-based variant of distributed cognition designed to scale up and down smoothly while providing a principled means of avoiding cognitive bloat. The advantages of the task-based approach are illustrated by means of two parallel case studies: re-representation in the human visual system and in a biomedical engineering laboratory. PMID:27033708

  4. A meta-analysis of 120 246 individuals identifies 18 new loci for fibrinogen concentration.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Paul S; Chasman, Daniel I; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Chen, Ming-Huei; Huffman, Jennifer E; Steri, Maristella; Tang, Weihong; Teumer, Alexander; Marioni, Riccardo E; Grossmann, Vera; Hottenga, Jouke J; Trompet, Stella; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brody, Jennifer A; Kleber, Marcus E; Guo, Xiuqing; Wang, Jie Jin; Auer, Paul L; Attia, John R; Yanek, Lisa R; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Lahti, Jari; Venturini, Cristina; Tanaka, Toshiko; Bielak, Lawrence F; Joshi, Peter K; Rocanin-Arjo, Ares; Kolcic, Ivana; Navarro, Pau; Rose, Lynda M; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Riess, Helene; Mazur, Johanna; Basu, Saonli; Goel, Anuj; Yang, Qiong; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Willemsen, Gonneke; Rumley, Ann; Fiorillo, Edoardo; de Craen, Anton J M; Grotevendt, Anne; Scott, Robert; Taylor, Kent D; Delgado, Graciela E; Yao, Jie; Kifley, Annette; Kooperberg, Charles; Qayyum, Rehan; Lopez, Lorna M; Berentzen, Tina L; Räikkönen, Katri; Mangino, Massimo; Bandinelli, Stefania; Peyser, Patricia A; Wild, Sarah; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Wright, Alan F; Marten, Jonathan; Zemunik, Tatijana; Morrison, Alanna C; Sennblad, Bengt; Tofler, Geoffrey; de Maat, Moniek P M; de Geus, Eco J C; Lowe, Gordon D; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Sattar, Naveed; Binder, Harald; Völker, Uwe; Waldenberger, Melanie; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Mcknight, Barbara; Huang, Jie; Jenny, Nancy S; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Qi, Lihong; Mcevoy, Mark G; Becker, Diane M; Starr, John M; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Hysi, Pirro G; Hernandez, Dena G; Jhun, Min A; Campbell, Harry; Hamsten, Anders; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Mcardle, Wendy L; Slagboom, P Eline; Zeller, Tanja; Koenig, Wolfgang; Psaty, Bruce M; Haritunians, Talin; Liu, Jingmin; Palotie, Aarno; Uitterlinden, André G; Stott, David J; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Polasek, Ozren; Rudan, Igor; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Wilson, James F; Kardia, Sharon L R; Ferrucci, Luigi; Spector, Tim D; Eriksson, Johan G; Hansen, Torben; Deary, Ian J; Becker, Lewis C; Scott, Rodney J; Mitchell, Paul; März, Winfried; Wareham, Nick J; Peters, Annette; Greinacher, Andreas; Wild, Philipp S; Jukema, J Wouter; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hayward, Caroline; Cucca, Francesco; Tracy, Russell; Watkins, Hugh; Reiner, Alex P; Folsom, Aaron R; Ridker, Paul M; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Smith, Nicholas L; Strachan, David P; Dehghan, Abbas

    2016-01-15

    Genome-wide association studies have previously identified 23 genetic loci associated with circulating fibrinogen concentration. These studies used HapMap imputation and did not examine the X-chromosome. 1000 Genomes imputation provides better coverage of uncommon variants, and includes indels. We conducted a genome-wide association analysis of 34 studies imputed to the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel and including ∼120 000 participants of European ancestry (95 806 participants with data on the X-chromosome). Approximately 10.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 1.2 million indels were examined. We identified 41 genome-wide significant fibrinogen loci; of which, 18 were newly identified. There were no genome-wide significant signals on the X-chromosome. The lead variants of five significant loci were indels. We further identified six additional independent signals, including three rare variants, at two previously characterized loci: FGB and IRF1. Together the 41 loci explain 3% of the variance in plasma fibrinogen concentration. PMID:26561523

  5. Individual variability in human blood metabolites identifies age-related differences

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Itsuo; Takada, Junko; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites present in human blood document individual physiological states influenced by genetic, epigenetic, and lifestyle factors. Using high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we performed nontargeted, quantitative metabolomics analysis in blood of 15 young (29 ± 4 y of age) and 15 elderly (81 ± 7 y of age) individuals. Coefficients of variation (CV = SD/mean) were obtained for 126 blood metabolites of all 30 donors. Fifty-five RBC-enriched metabolites, for which metabolomics studies have been scarce, are highlighted here. We found 14 blood compounds that show remarkable age-related increases or decreases; they include 1,5-anhydroglucitol, dimethyl-guanosine, acetyl-carnosine, carnosine, ophthalmic acid, UDP-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-arginine, N6-acetyl-lysine, pantothenate, citrulline, leucine, isoleucine, NAD+, and NADP+. Six of them are RBC-enriched, suggesting that RBC metabolomics is highly valuable for human aging research. Age differences are partly explained by a decrease in antioxidant production or increasing inefficiency of urea metabolism among the elderly. Pearson’s coefficients demonstrated that some age-related compounds are correlated, suggesting that aging affects them concomitantly. Although our CV values are mostly consistent with those CVs previously published, we here report previously unidentified CVs of 51 blood compounds. Compounds having moderate to high CV values (0.4–2.5) are often modified. Compounds having low CV values, such as ATP and glutathione, may be related to various diseases because their concentrations are strictly controlled, and changes in them would compromise health. Thus, human blood is a rich source of information about individual metabolic differences. PMID:27036001

  6. Environmental effects and individual body condition drive seasonal fecundity of rabbits: identifying acute and lagged processes.

    PubMed

    Wells, Konstans; O'Hara, Robert B; Cooke, Brian D; Mutze, Greg J; Prowse, Thomas A A; Fordham, Damien A

    2016-07-01

    The reproduction of many species is determined by seasonally-driven resource supply. But it is difficult to quantify whether the fecundity is sensitive to short- or long-term exposure to environmental conditions such as rainfall that drive resource supply. Using 25 years of data on individual fecundity of European female rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus, from semiarid Australia, we investigate the role of individual body condition, rainfall and temperature as drivers of seasonal and long-term and population-level changes in fecundity (breeding probability, ovulation rate, embryo survival). We built distributed lag models in a hierarchical Bayesian framework to account for both immediate and time-lagged effects of climate and other environmental drivers, and possible shifts in reproduction over consecutive seasons. We show that rainfall during summer, when rabbits typically breed only rarely, increased breeding probability immediately and with time lags of up to 10 weeks. However, an earlier onset of the yearly breeding period did not result in more overall reproductive output. Better body condition was associated with an earlier onset of breeding and higher embryo survival. Breeding probability in the main breeding season declined with increased breeding activity in the preceding season and only individuals in good body condition were able to breed late in the season. Higher temperatures reduce breeding success across seasons. We conclude that a better understanding of seasonal dynamics and plasticity (and their interplay) in reproduction will provide crucial insights into how lagomorphs are likely to respond and potentially adapt to the influence of future climate and other environmental change. PMID:27028444

  7. Individual variability in human blood metabolites identifies age-related differences.

    PubMed

    Chaleckis, Romanas; Murakami, Itsuo; Takada, Junko; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2016-04-19

    Metabolites present in human blood document individual physiological states influenced by genetic, epigenetic, and lifestyle factors. Using high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we performed nontargeted, quantitative metabolomics analysis in blood of 15 young (29 ± 4 y of age) and 15 elderly (81 ± 7 y of age) individuals. Coefficients of variation (CV = SD/mean) were obtained for 126 blood metabolites of all 30 donors. Fifty-five RBC-enriched metabolites, for which metabolomics studies have been scarce, are highlighted here. We found 14 blood compounds that show remarkable age-related increases or decreases; they include 1,5-anhydroglucitol, dimethyl-guanosine, acetyl-carnosine, carnosine, ophthalmic acid, UDP-acetyl-glucosamine,N-acetyl-arginine,N6-acetyl-lysine, pantothenate, citrulline, leucine, isoleucine, NAD(+), and NADP(+) Six of them are RBC-enriched, suggesting that RBC metabolomics is highly valuable for human aging research. Age differences are partly explained by a decrease in antioxidant production or increasing inefficiency of urea metabolism among the elderly. Pearson's coefficients demonstrated that some age-related compounds are correlated, suggesting that aging affects them concomitantly. Although our CV values are mostly consistent with those CVs previously published, we here report previously unidentified CVs of 51 blood compounds. Compounds having moderate to high CV values (0.4-2.5) are often modified. Compounds having low CV values, such as ATP and glutathione, may be related to various diseases because their concentrations are strictly controlled, and changes in them would compromise health. Thus, human blood is a rich source of information about individual metabolic differences. PMID:27036001

  8. A Study of the Educationally Influential Physician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, David M.; Ryan, Kurt; Hodder, Ian

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 172 family doctors found that they approached educationally influential (EI) physicians they knew through their hospitals; only 20% used e-mail and 40% the Internet for medical information; EI physicians helped extend their knowledge and validate innovations found in the literature; and health care reform was negatively affecting…

  9. The Effect of Eating Disorder Memoirs in Individuals With Self-Identified Eating Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Laura-Kate; Homewood, Judi

    2015-08-01

    As part of a larger, mixed-methods study, we posted an invitation to participate in a study on the effects of reading eating disorder memoirs on the website of an organization that provides support for people with eating disorders. Twenty-four women completed the questionnaire. Qualitative analysis of their responses indicated a recovery continuum, whereby the direction of memoir influence seemed to depend on an individual's recovery stage and motivation to recover. Individuals who reported that they were exposed to memoirs before, or during, their illness reported experiencing negative consequences including making unfavorable social comparisons, along with emulation and triggering of disordered behaviors, whereas those who reported being exposed when in recovery reported more positive outcomes including hope, validation, and social support. Findings have implications for the use of personal accounts as a means of facilitating patient recovery in eating disorder treatment settings. Future research should test the influence of memoirs using a larger eating disorder sample, and across different recovery stages. PMID:26230647

  10. An apparatus to manipulate and identify individual Ba ions from bulk liquid Xe.

    PubMed

    Twelker, K; Kravitz, S; Montero Díez, M; Gratta, G; Fairbank, W; Albert, J B; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Benitez-Medina, C; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Daugherty, S J; Davis, C G; DeVoe, R; Delaquis, S; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fabris, L; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Giroux, G; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Hall, C; Heffner, M; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Jiang, X S; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Leonard, F; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Ouellet, C; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Retiere, F; Rowson, P C; Rozo, M P; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tosi, D; Vuilleumier, J-L; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Yang, L; Yen, Y-R; Zhao, Y B

    2014-09-01

    We describe a system to transport and identify barium ions produced in liquid xenon, as part of R&D towards the second phase of a double beta decay experiment, nEXO. The goal is to identify the Ba ion resulting from an extremely rare nuclear decay of the isotope (136)Xe, hence providing a confirmation of the occurrence of the decay. This is achieved through Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS). In the test setup described here, Ba ions can be produced in liquid xenon or vacuum and collected on a clean substrate. This substrate is then removed to an analysis chamber under vacuum, where laser-induced thermal desorption and RIS are used with time-of-flight mass spectroscopy for positive identification of the barium decay product. PMID:25273779

  11. GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, Cornelius A; Medland, Sarah E; Derringer, Jaime; Yang, Jian; Esko, Tõnu; Martin, Nicolas W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Agrawal, Arpana; Albrecht, Eva; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Amin, Najaf; Barnard, John; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Benke, Kelly S; Bielak, Lawrence F; Boatman, Jeffrey A; Boyle, Patricia A; Davies, Gail; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Eklund, Niina; Evans, Daniel S; Ferhmann, Rudolf; Fischer, Krista; Gieger, Christian; Gjessing, Håkon K; Hägg, Sara; Harris, Jennifer R; Hayward, Caroline; Holzapfel, Christina; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Ingelsson, Erik; Jacobsson, Bo; Joshi, Peter K; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karjalainen, Juha; Kolcic, Ivana; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Sang H; Lin, Peng; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Loitfelder, Marisa; McMahon, George; Vidal, Pedro Marques; Meirelles, Osorio; Milani, Lili; Myhre, Ronny; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Oldmeadow, Christopher J; Petrovic, Katja E; Peyrot, Wouter J; Polasek, Ozren; Quaye, Lydia; Reinmaa, Eva; Rice, John P; Rizzi, Thais S; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Smith, Albert V; Smith, Jennifer A; Tanaka, Toshiko; Terracciano, Antonio; van der Loos, Matthijs J H M; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Wellmann, Jürgen; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Wei; Allik, Jüri; Attia, John R; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bastardot, François; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bierut, Laura J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bültmann, Ute; Campbell, Harry; Chabris, Christopher F; Cherkas, Lynn; Chung, Mina K; Cucca, Francesco; de Andrade, Mariza; De Jager, Philip L; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George V; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Eiríksdóttir, Guðny; Elderson, Martin F; Eriksson, Johan G; Evans, David M; Faul, Jessica D; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garcia, Melissa E; Grönberg, Henrik; Guðnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Per; Harris, Juliette M; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas D; Heath, Andrew C; Hernandez, Dena G; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Adriaan; Holle, Rolf; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Iacono, William G; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kirkpatrick, Robert M; Kowgier, Matthew; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Li, Jingmei; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C; Madden, Pamela A; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mäkinen, Tomi E; Masala, Marco; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mielck, Andreas; Miller, Michael B; Montgomery, Grant W; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Nyholt, Dale R; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Lyle J; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A; Preisig, Martin; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli T; Realo, Anu; Ring, Susan M; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schlessinger, David; Scott, Rodney J; Snieder, Harold; St Pourcain, Beate; Starr, John M; Sul, Jae Hoon; Surakka, Ida; Svento, Rauli; Teumer, Alexander; Tiemeier, Henning; van Rooij, Frank J A; Van Wagoner, David R; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma; Vollenweider, Peter; Vonk, Judith M; Waeber, Gérard; Weir, David R; Wichmann, H-Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F; Conley, Dalton; Davey-Smith, George; Franke, Lude; Groenen, Patrick J F; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Kardia, Sharon L R; Krueger, Robert F; Laibson, David; Martin, Nicholas G; Meyer, Michelle N; Posthuma, Danielle; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Visscher, Peter M; Benjamin, Daniel J; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D

    2013-06-21

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R(2) ≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics. PMID:23722424

  12. GWAS of 126,559 Individuals Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Medland, Sarah E.; Derringer, Jaime; Yang, Jian; Esko, Tõnu; Martin, Nicolas W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Agrawal, Arpana; Albrecht, Eva; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Amin, Najaf; Barnard, John; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Benke, Kelly S.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Boatman, Jeffrey A.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Davies, Gail; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Eklund, Niina; Evans, Daniel S.; Ferhmann, Rudolf; Fischer, Krista; Gieger, Christian; Gjessing, Håkon K.; Hägg, Sara; Harris, Jennifer R.; Hayward, Caroline; Holzapfel, Christina; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A.; Ingelsson, Erik; Jacobsson, Bo; Joshi, Peter K.; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karjalainen, Juha; Kolcic, Ivana; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Sang H.; Lin, Peng; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Loitfelder, Marisa; McMahon, George; Vidal, Pedro Marques; Meirelles, Osorio; Milani, Lili; Myhre, Ronny; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Oldmeadow, Christopher J.; Petrovic, Katja E.; Peyrot, Wouter J.; Polašek, Ozren; Quaye, Lydia; Reinmaa, Eva; Rice, John P.; Rizzi, Thais S.; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Smith, Albert V.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Terracciano, Antonio; van der Loos, Matthijs J.H.M.; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Wellmann, Jürgen; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Wei; Allik, Jüri; Attia, John R.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bastardot, François; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Bennett, David A.; Berger, Klaus; Bierut, Laura J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bültmann, Ute; Campbell, Harry; Chabris, Christopher F.; Cherkas, Lynn; Chung, Mina K.; Cucca, Francesco; de Andrade, Mariza; De Jager, Philip L.; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V.; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Elderson, Martin F.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, David M.; Faul, Jessica D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garcia, Melissa E.; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Per; Harris, Juliette M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Adriaan; Holle, Rolf; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Iacono, William G.; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Kowgier, Matthew; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Li, Jingmei; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C.; Madden, Pamela A.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mäkinen, Tomi E.; Masala, Marco; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mielck, Andreas; Miller, Michael B.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Preisig, Martin; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Ring, Susan M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schlessinger, David; Scott, Rodney J.; Snieder, Harold; Pourcain, Beate St; Starr, John M.; Sul, Jae Hoon; Surakka, Ida; Svento, Rauli; Teumer, Alexander; Tiemeier, Henning; Rooij, Frank JAan; Van Wagoner, David R.; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma; Vollenweider, Peter; Vonk, Judith M.; Waeber, Gérard; Weir, David R.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Conley, Dalton; Davey-Smith, George; Franke, Lude; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Krueger, Robert F.; Laibson, David; Martin, Nicholas G.; Meyer, Michelle N.; Posthuma, Danielle; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Visscher, Peter M.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.

    2013-01-01

    A genome-wide association study of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent SNPs are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (R2 ≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈ 2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics. PMID:23722424

  13. Genome-wide analysis of over 106 000 individuals identifies 9 neuroticism-associated loci

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D J; Escott-Price, V; Davies, G; Bailey, M E S; Colodro-Conde, L; Ward, J; Vedernikov, A; Marioni, R; Cullen, B; Lyall, D; Hagenaars, S P; Liewald, D C M; Luciano, M; Gale, C R; Ritchie, S J; Hayward, C; Nicholl, B; Bulik-Sullivan, B; Adams, M; Couvy-Duchesne, B; Graham, N; Mackay, D; Evans, J; Smith, B H; Porteous, D J; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Holmans, P; McIntosh, A M; Pell, J P; Deary, I J; O'Donovan, M C

    2016-01-01

    Neuroticism is a personality trait of fundamental importance for psychological well-being and public health. It is strongly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and several other psychiatric conditions. Although neuroticism is heritable, attempts to identify the alleles involved in previous studies have been limited by relatively small sample sizes. Here we report a combined meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) of neuroticism that includes 91 370 participants from the UK Biobank cohort, 6659 participants from the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) and 8687 participants from a QIMR (Queensland Institute of Medical Research) Berghofer Medical Research Institute (QIMR) cohort. All participants were assessed using the same neuroticism instrument, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R-S) Short Form's Neuroticism scale. We found a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability estimate for neuroticism of ∼15% (s.e.=0.7%). Meta-analysis identified nine novel loci associated with neuroticism. The strongest evidence for association was at a locus on chromosome 8 (P=1.5 × 10−15) spanning 4 Mb and containing at least 36 genes. Other associated loci included interesting candidate genes on chromosome 1 (GRIK3 (glutamate receptor ionotropic kainate 3)), chromosome 4 (KLHL2 (Kelch-like protein 2)), chromosome 17 (CRHR1 (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1) and MAPT (microtubule-associated protein Tau)) and on chromosome 18 (CELF4 (CUGBP elav-like family member 4)). We found no evidence for genetic differences in the common allelic architecture of neuroticism by sex. By comparing our findings with those of the Psychiatric Genetics Consortia, we identified a strong genetic correlation between neuroticism and MDD and a less strong but significant genetic correlation with schizophrenia, although not with bipolar disorder. Polygenic risk scores derived from the primary UK Biobank sample captured

  14. Genome-wide analysis of over 106 000 individuals identifies 9 neuroticism-associated loci.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; Escott-Price, V; Davies, G; Bailey, M E S; Colodro-Conde, L; Ward, J; Vedernikov, A; Marioni, R; Cullen, B; Lyall, D; Hagenaars, S P; Liewald, D C M; Luciano, M; Gale, C R; Ritchie, S J; Hayward, C; Nicholl, B; Bulik-Sullivan, B; Adams, M; Couvy-Duchesne, B; Graham, N; Mackay, D; Evans, J; Smith, B H; Porteous, D J; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Holmans, P; McIntosh, A M; Pell, J P; Deary, I J; O'Donovan, M C

    2016-06-01

    Neuroticism is a personality trait of fundamental importance for psychological well-being and public health. It is strongly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and several other psychiatric conditions. Although neuroticism is heritable, attempts to identify the alleles involved in previous studies have been limited by relatively small sample sizes. Here we report a combined meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) of neuroticism that includes 91 370 participants from the UK Biobank cohort, 6659 participants from the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) and 8687 participants from a QIMR (Queensland Institute of Medical Research) Berghofer Medical Research Institute (QIMR) cohort. All participants were assessed using the same neuroticism instrument, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R-S) Short Form's Neuroticism scale. We found a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability estimate for neuroticism of ∼15% (s.e.=0.7%). Meta-analysis identified nine novel loci associated with neuroticism. The strongest evidence for association was at a locus on chromosome 8 (P=1.5 × 10(-15)) spanning 4 Mb and containing at least 36 genes. Other associated loci included interesting candidate genes on chromosome 1 (GRIK3 (glutamate receptor ionotropic kainate 3)), chromosome 4 (KLHL2 (Kelch-like protein 2)), chromosome 17 (CRHR1 (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1) and MAPT (microtubule-associated protein Tau)) and on chromosome 18 (CELF4 (CUGBP elav-like family member 4)). We found no evidence for genetic differences in the common allelic architecture of neuroticism by sex. By comparing our findings with those of the Psychiatric Genetics Consortia, we identified a strong genetic correlation between neuroticism and MDD and a less strong but significant genetic correlation with schizophrenia, although not with bipolar disorder. Polygenic risk scores derived from the primary UK Biobank sample captured

  15. A novel approach to identifying the elemental composition of individual residue particles retained in single snow crystals.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chang-Jin; Hwang, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to describe the chemical characteristics of individual residual particles in hexagonal snow crystals, which can provide a clue to the aerosol removal mechanism during snowfall. In the present study, to collect snow crystal individually and to identify the elemental composition of individual residues retained in a hexagonal crystal, an orchestration of the replication technique and micro-particle induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) analysis was carried out. Information concerning the elemental compositions and their abundance in the snow crystals showed a severe crystal-to-crystal fluctuation. The residues retained in the hexagonal snow crystals were dominated primarily by mineral components, such as silica and calcium. Based on the elemental mask and the spectrum of micro-PIXE, it was possible to presume the chemical inner-structure as well as the elemental mixing state in and/or on the individual residues retained in single snow crystals. PMID:23934568

  16. Identifying individual changes in performance with composite quality indicators while accounting for regression to the mean.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Byron J; Dunton, Nancy

    2013-04-01

    Almost a decade ago Morton and Torgerson indicated that perceived medical benefits could be due to "regression to the mean." Despite this caution, the regression to the mean "effects on the identification of changes in institutional performance do not seem to have been considered previously in any depth" (Jones and Spiegelhalter). As a response, Jones and Spiegelhalter provide a methodology to adjust for regression to the mean when modeling recent changes in institutional performance for one-variable quality indicators. Therefore, in our view, Jones and Spiegelhalter provide a breakthrough methodology for performance measures. At the same time, in the interests of parsimony, it is useful to aggregate individual quality indicators into a composite score. Our question is, can we develop and demonstrate a methodology that extends the "regression to the mean" literature to allow for composite quality indicators? Using a latent variable modeling approach, we extend the methodology to the composite indicator case. We demonstrate the approach on 4 indicators collected by the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators. A simulation study further demonstrates its "proof of concept." PMID:23035127

  17. Predose and Postdose Blood Gene Expression Profiles Identify the Individuals Susceptible to Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Bin; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Cai; Fan, Xiaohui; Gao, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The extent of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) can vary greatly between different individuals. Thus, it is crucial to identify susceptible population to DILI. The aim of this study was to determine whether transcriptomics analysis of predose and postdose rat blood would allow prediction of susceptible individuals to DILI using the widely applied analgesic acetaminophen (APAP) as a model drug. Based on ranking in alanine aminotransferase levels, five most susceptible and five most resistant rats were identified as two sub-groups after APAP treatment. Predose and postdose gene expression profiles of blood samples from these rats were determined by microarray analysis. The expression of 158 genes innately differed in the susceptible rats from the resistant rats in predose data. In order to identify more reliable biomarkers related to drug responses for detecting individuals susceptibility to APAP-induced liver injury (AILI), the changes of these genes' expression posterior to APAP treatment were detected. Through the further screening method based on the trends of gene expression between the two sub-groups before and after drug treatment, 10 genes were identified as potential predose biomarkers to distinguish between the susceptible and resistant rats. Among them, four genes, Incenp, Rpgrip1, Sbf1, and Mmp12, were found to be reproducibly in real-time PCR with an independent set of animals. They were all innately higher expressed in resistant rats to AILI, which are closely related to cell proliferation and tissue repair functions. It indicated that rats with higher ability of cell proliferation and tissue repair prior to drug treatment might be more resistant to AILI. In this study, we demonstrated that combination of predose and postdose gene expression profiles in blood might identify the drug related inter-individual variation in DILI, which is a novel and important methodology for identifying susceptible population to DILI. PMID:26512990

  18. Is routine hospital episode data sufficient for identifying individuals with chronic kidney disease? A comparison study with laboratory data.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lynn M; Denadai, Lucas; Black, Corri; Fluck, Nicholas; Prescott, Gordon; Simpson, William; Wilde, Katie; Marks, Angharad

    2016-06-01

    Internationally, investment in the availability of routine health care data for improving health, health surveillance and health care is increasing. We assessed the validity of hospital episode data for identifying individuals with chronic kidney disease compared to biochemistry data in a large population-based cohort, the Grampian Laboratory Outcomes, Morbidity and Mortality Study-II (n = 70,435). Grampian Laboratory Outcomes, Morbidity and Mortality Study-II links hospital episode data to biochemistry data for all adults in a health region with impaired kidney function and random samples of individuals with normal and unmeasured kidney function in 2003. We compared identification of individuals with chronic kidney disease by hospital episode data (based on International Classification of Diseases-10 codes) to the reference standard of biochemistry data (at least two estimated glomerular filtration rates <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at least 90 days apart). Hospital episode data, compared to biochemistry data, identified a lower prevalence of chronic kidney disease and had low sensitivity (<10%) but high specificity (>97%). Using routine health care data from multiple sources offers the best opportunity to identify individuals with chronic kidney disease. PMID:25552482

  19. Usefulness of Some Current Balance Tests for Identifying Individuals with Disequilibrium Due to Vestibular Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Helen S.; Kimball, Kay T.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine which of several clinical balance tests best identifies patients with vestibular disorders. We compared the scores of normals and patients on the Berg Balance Scale (Berg), Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), Timed Up and Go (TUG), Computerized Dynamic Posturography Sensory Organization Test (SOT), and a new obstacle avoidance test: the Functional Mobility Test (FMT). The study was performed in an out-patient balance laboratory at a tertiary care center. Subjects were 40 normal adults, and 40 adults with vestibular impairments. The main outcome measures were the sensitivity of tests to patients and specificity to normals. When adjusted for age the Berg, TUG, DGI and FMT had moderate sensitivity and specificity. SOT had moderately high sensitivity and specificity. SOT and FMT, combined, had high sensitivity and moderate specificity. Therefore, the kinds of tests of standing and walking balance that clinicians may use to screen patients for falling are not as good for screening for vestibular disorders as SOT. SOT combined with FMT is better. When screening patients for vestibular disorders, when objective diagnostic tests of the vestibular system, itself, are unavailable, tests of both standing and walking balance, together, give the most information about community-dwelling patients. These tests may also indicate the presence of sub-clinical balance problems in community-dwelling, asymptomatic adults. PMID:19542603

  20. Diversity of the causal genes in hearing impaired Algerian individuals identified by whole exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ammar-Khodja, Fatima; Bonnet, Crystel; Dahmani, Malika; Ouhab, Sofiane; Lefèvre, Gaelle M; Ibrahim, Hassina; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Weil, Dominique; Louha, Malek; Petit, Christine

    2015-05-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of congenital hearing disorders makes molecular diagnosis expensive and time-consuming using conventional techniques such as Sanger sequencing of DNA. In order to design an appropriate strategy of molecular diagnosis in the Algerian population, we explored the diversity of the involved mutations by studying 65 families affected by autosomal recessive forms of nonsyndromic hearing impairment (DFNB forms), which are the most prevalent early onset forms. We first carried out a systematic screening for mutations in GJB2 and the recurrent p.(Arg34*) mutation in TMC1, which were found in 31 (47.7%) families and 1 (1.5%) family, respectively. We then performed whole exome sequencing in nine of the remaining families, and identified the causative mutations in all the patients analyzed, either in the homozygous state (eight families) or in the compound heterozygous state (one family): (c.709C>T: p.(Arg237*)) and (c.2122C>T: p.(Arg708*)) in OTOF, (c.1334T>G: p.(Leu445Trp)) in SLC26A4, (c.764T>A: p.(Met255Lys)) in GIPC3, (c.518T>A: p.(Cys173Ser)) in LHFPL5, (c.5336T>C: p.(Leu1779Pro)) in MYO15A, (c.1807G>T: p.(Val603Phe)) in OTOA, (c.6080dup: p.(Asn2027Lys*9)) in PTPRQ, and (c.6017del: p.(Gly2006Alafs*13); c.7188_7189ins14: p.(Val2397Leufs*2)) in GPR98. Notably, 7 of these 10 mutations affecting 8 different genes had not been reported previously. These results highlight for the first time the genetic heterogeneity of the early onset forms of nonsyndromic deafness in Algerian families. PMID:26029705

  1. Diversity of the causal genes in hearing impaired Algerian individuals identified by whole exome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ammar-Khodja, Fatima; Bonnet, Crystel; Dahmani, Malika; Ouhab, Sofiane; Lefèvre, Gaelle M; Ibrahim, Hassina; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Weil, Dominique; Louha, Malek; Petit, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of congenital hearing disorders makes molecular diagnosis expensive and time-consuming using conventional techniques such as Sanger sequencing of DNA. In order to design an appropriate strategy of molecular diagnosis in the Algerian population, we explored the diversity of the involved mutations by studying 65 families affected by autosomal recessive forms of nonsyndromic hearing impairment (DFNB forms), which are the most prevalent early onset forms. We first carried out a systematic screening for mutations in GJB2 and the recurrent p.(Arg34*) mutation in TMC1, which were found in 31 (47.7%) families and 1 (1.5%) family, respectively. We then performed whole exome sequencing in nine of the remaining families, and identified the causative mutations in all the patients analyzed, either in the homozygous state (eight families) or in the compound heterozygous state (one family): (c.709C>T: p.(Arg237*)) and (c.2122C>T: p.(Arg708*)) in OTOF, (c.1334T>G: p.(Leu445Trp)) in SLC26A4, (c.764T>A: p.(Met255Lys)) in GIPC3, (c.518T>A: p.(Cys173Ser)) in LHFPL5, (c.5336T>C: p.(Leu1779Pro)) in MYO15A, (c.1807G>T: p.(Val603Phe)) in OTOA, (c.6080dup: p.(Asn2027Lys*9)) in PTPRQ, and (c.6017del: p.(Gly2006Alafs*13); c.7188_7189ins14: p.(Val2397Leufs*2)) in GPR98. Notably, 7 of these 10 mutations affecting 8 different genes had not been reported previously. These results highlight for the first time the genetic heterogeneity of the early onset forms of nonsyndromic deafness in Algerian families. PMID:26029705

  2. Region of stability derived by center of mass acceleration better identifies individuals with difficulty in sit-to-stand movement.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Masahiro; Chou, Li-Shan

    2014-04-01

    Poor performance of sit-to-stand (STS) has been identified as one of the predictors of fall risk among elderly adults. This study examined differences in the whole body center of mass (COM) kinematic variables in relation to the regions of stability between elderly adults with difficulty in STS and healthy individuals. Whole body motion data while performing STS were collected from 10 young, 10 elderly and 10 elderly subjects with difficulty in STS. Young subjects were also asked to stand up with their trunk purposely bent forward. The regions of stability were defined with COM position at seat-off and its instantaneous velocity (ROSv) or peak acceleration (ROSa), using a single-link-plus-foot inverted pendulum model. Peak COM accelerations prior to seat-off differed significantly among groups; however, no significant differences were detected in its velocities at seat-off. The ROSa demonstrated a better ability to discriminate elderly adults with difficulty from healthy individuals. Although a similar COM momentum was observed at seat-off, how the momentum was controlled differed between healthy individuals and individuals with difficulty in STS. ROSa could provide insight into how the COM momentum is controlled prior to seat-off, which could be used to differentiate individuals with functional limitations from healthy individuals. PMID:24259008

  3. Improved system identification using artificial neural networks and analysis of individual differences in responses of an identified neuron.

    PubMed

    Costalago Meruelo, Alicia; Simpson, David M; Veres, Sandor M; Newland, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Mathematical modelling is used routinely to understand the coding properties and dynamics of responses of neurons and neural networks. Here we analyse the effectiveness of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) as a modelling tool for motor neuron responses. We used ANNs to model the synaptic responses of an identified motor neuron, the fast extensor motor neuron, of the desert locust in response to displacement of a sensory organ, the femoral chordotonal organ, which monitors movements of the tibia relative to the femur of the leg. The aim of the study was threefold: first to determine the potential value of ANNs as tools to model and investigate neural networks, second to understand the generalisation properties of ANNs across individuals and to different input signals and third, to understand individual differences in responses of an identified neuron. A metaheuristic algorithm was developed to design the ANN architectures. The performance of the models generated by the ANNs was compared with those generated through previous mathematical models of the same neuron. The results suggest that ANNs are significantly better than LNL and Wiener models in predicting specific neural responses to Gaussian White Noise, but not significantly different when tested with sinusoidal inputs. They are also able to predict responses of the same neuron in different individuals irrespective of which animal was used to develop the model, although notable differences between some individuals were evident. PMID:26717237

  4. Rapid identifying high-influence nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bo; Jiang, Guo-Ping; Song, Yu-Rong; Xia, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    A tiny fraction of influential individuals play a critical role in the dynamics on complex systems. Identifying the influential nodes in complex networks has theoretical and practical significance. Considering the uncertainties of network scale and topology, and the timeliness of dynamic behaviors in real networks, we propose a rapid identifying method (RIM) to find the fraction of high-influential nodes. Instead of ranking all nodes, our method only aims at ranking a small number of nodes in network. We set the high-influential nodes as initial spreaders, and evaluate the performance of RIM by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model. The simulations show that in different networks, RIM performs well on rapid identifying high-influential nodes, which is verified by typical ranking methods, such as degree, closeness, betweenness, and eigenvector centrality methods. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61374180 and 61373136), the Ministry of Education Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences Planning Fund Project, China (Grant No. 12YJAZH120), and the Six Projects Sponsoring Talent Summits of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. RLD201212).

  5. We Happy Few: Using Structured Population Models to Identify the Decisive Events in the Lives of Exceptional Individuals.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Robin E; Ellner, Stephen P

    2016-08-01

    In any population, some individuals make it big: they are among the few that produce many offspring, grow to large size, and so on. What distinguishes the lives of these happy few? We present three approaches for identifying what factors distinguish those "lucky" individuals who come to dominate reproduction in a population without fixed differences between individuals (genotype, site quality, etc.): comparing life-history trajectories for lucky and unlucky individuals and calculating the elasticity of the probability of becoming lucky to perturbations in demographic rates at a given size or a given age. As examples we consider published size-structured integral projection models for the tropical tree Dacrydium elatum and the semiarid shrub Artemisia ordosica and an age-size-structured matrix model for the tropical tree Cedrela ordosica. We find that good fortune (e.g., rapid growth) when small and young matters much more than good fortune when older and larger. Becoming lucky is primarily a matter of surviving while others die. For species with more variable growth (such as Cedrela and Ordosica), it is also a matter of growing fast. We focus on reproductive skew, but our methods are broadly applicable and can be used to investigate how individuals come to be exceptional in any aspect. PMID:27420793

  6. Lived experiences of self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Tomstad, Solveig T; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In a society where most older people live in their own homes, it may be expected of older individuals to exercise their potential to take care of themselves in daily life. Nutrition is a central aspect of self-care, and groups of older, home-dwelling people are at risk of undernutrition. Aim The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that influence health and self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition. Methods Qualitative interviews were performed with eleven home-dwelling individuals who had been identified as being at risk of undernutrition. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a descriptive phenomenological method. Findings Self-care as a lived experience among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition is about being aware of food choices and making decisions about taking healthy steps or not. In the presence of health problems, the appetite often decreases. Being able to take care of oneself in daily life is important, as is receiving help when needing it. Working at being physically and socially active and engaged may stimulate the appetite. Having company at meals is important and missed when living alone. Being present and taking each day by day, as well as considering oneself in the light of past time and previous experiences and looking ahead, is central, even when having fears for the future and the end of life. Conclusion Health care professionals should be aware of these findings in order to support self-care in older people, and they should pay attention to the social aspects at meals. PMID:23271914

  7. Identifying uranium particles using fission tracks and microsampling individual particles for analysis using thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Suzuki, Daisuke; Magara, Masaaki

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of isotope ratios in individual particles found in the environment is important to clarify the origins of the particles. In particular, the analysis of uranium particles in environmental samples from nuclear facilities is useful for detecting undeclared nuclear activities related to the production of nuclear weapons. Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) combined with a fission track technique is an efficient method for determining the isotope ratios of individual uranium particles, but has a drawback called "particle-mixing". When some uranium particles are measured as a single particle and an average isotope ratio for the particles is obtained, it is called "particle mixing". This may lead to erroneous conclusions in terms of the particle sources that are identified. In the present study, microsampling using a scanning electron microscope was added to the fission track-TIMS procedure. The analysis of a mixture of SRM 950a and CRM U100 reference materials containing uranium particles indicated that particle mixing was almost completely avoided using the proposed technique. The performance of the proposed method was sufficient for obtaining reliable data for the sources of individual particles to be identified reliably. PMID:25680068

  8. The individual-cell-based cryo-chip for the cryopreservation, manipulation and observation of spatially identifiable cells. I: Methodology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cryopreservation is the only widely applicable method of storing vital cells for nearly unlimited periods of time. Successful cryopreservation is essential for reproductive medicine, stem cell research, cord blood storage and related biomedical areas. The methods currently used to retrieve a specific cell or a group of individual cells with specific biological properties after cryopreservation are quite complicated and inefficient. Results The present study suggests a new approach in cryopreservation, utilizing the Individual Cell-based Cryo-Chip (i3C). The i3C is made of materials having appropriate durability for cryopreservation conditions. The core of this approach is an array of picowells, each picowell designed to maintain an individual cell during the severe conditions of the freezing - thawing cycle and accompanying treatments. More than 97% of cells were found to retain their position in the picowells throughout the entire freezing - thawing cycle and medium exchange. Thus the comparison between pre-freezing and post-thawing data can be achieved at an individual cell resolution. The intactness of cells undergoing slow freezing and thawing, while residing in the i3C, was found to be similar to that obtained with micro-vials. However, in a fast freezing protocol, the i3C was found to be far superior. Conclusions The results of the present study offer new opportunities for cryopreservation. Using the present methodology, the cryopreservation of individual identifiable cells, and their observation and retrieval, at an individual cell resolution become possible for the first time. This approach facilitates the correlation between cell characteristics before and after the freezing - thawing cycle. Thus, it is expected to significantly enhance current cryopreservation procedures for successful regenerative and reproductive medicine. PMID:20609216

  9. Methods to identify the lactate and glucose thresholds during resistance exercise for individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Sérgio R; Arsa, Gisela; Oliveira, Hildeamo B; Lima, Laila C J; Campbell, Carmen S G; Simões, Herbert G

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare different methods to identify the lactate threshold (LT) and glucose threshold (GT) on resistance exercise for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Nine men with type 2 diabetes (47.2 +/- 12.4 years, 87.6 +/- 20.0 kg, 174.9 +/- 5.9 cm, and 22.4 +/- 7.2% body fat) performed incremental tests (ITs) on the leg press (LP) and bench press (BP) at relative intensities of 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) at each 1-minute stage. During the 2-minute interval between stages, 25 mul of capillary blood were collected from the earlobe for blood lactate [Lac] and blood glucose [Gluc] analysis (YSI 2700S). The LT in the LP and BP was identified at IT by the inflexion in [Lac] response as well as by an equation originated from a polynomial adjustment (LTp) of the [Lac]/% 1RM ratio responses. The lowest [Gluc] during the IT identified the GT. The analysis of variance did not show differences among the 1RM at the thresholds identified by different methods in the LP (LTLP = 31.0% +/- 5.3% 1RM; GTLP = 32.1% +/- 6.1% 1RM; LTpLP = 36.7% +/- 5.6% 1RM; p > 0.05) and BP (LTBP = 29.9% +/- 8.5% 1RM; GTBP = 32.1% +/- 8.5% 1RM; LTpBP = 31.8% +/- 6.7% 1RM; p > 0.05). It was concluded that it was possible to identify the LT and GT in resistance exercise by different methods for individuals with type 2 diabetes with no differences between them. The intensities (kg) corresponding to these thresholds were between 46% and 60% of the body weight on the LP and between 18% and 26% of the body weight on the BP, in which the exercise prescription would be done to this intensity in 3 sets of 20 to 30 repetitions each and 1 minute of rest while alternating the muscle groups for blood glucose control for individuals with characteristics similar to the participants. PMID:18545200

  10. The development and application of a multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) system for identifying subspecies, individuals and sex in tigers.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zheng-Ting; Uphyrkina, Olga V; Fomenko, Pavel; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2015-07-01

    Poaching and trans-boundary trafficking of tigers and body parts are threatening the world's last remaining wild tigers. Development of an efficient molecular genetic assay for tracing the origins of confiscated specimens will assist in law enforcement and wildlife forensics for this iconic flagship species. We developed a multiplex genotyping system "tigrisPlex" to simultaneously assess 22 short tandem repeat (STR, or microsatellite) loci and a gender-identifying SRY gene, all amplified in 4 reactions using as little as 1 ng of template DNA. With DNA samples used for between-run calibration, the system generates STR genotypes that are directly compatible with voucher tiger subspecies genetic profiles, hence making it possible to identify subspecies via bi-parentally inherited markers. We applied "tigrisPlex" to 12 confiscated specimens from Russia and identified 6 individuals (3 females and 3 males), each represented by duplicated samples and all designated as Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) with high confidence. This STR multiplex system can serve as an effective and versatile approach for genetic profiling of both wild and captive tigers as well as confiscated tiger products, fulfilling various conservation needs for identifying the origins of tiger samples. PMID:25950598

  11. Secondary Variants in Individuals Undergoing Exome Sequencing: Screening of 572 Individuals Identifies High-Penetrance Mutations in Cancer-Susceptibility Genes

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Jennifer J.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Facio, Flavia M.; Ng, David; Singh, Larry N.; Teer, Jamie K.; Mullikin, James C.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2012-01-01

    Genome- and exome-sequencing costs are continuing to fall, and many individuals are undergoing these assessments as research participants and patients. The issue of secondary (so-called incidental) findings in exome analysis is controversial, and data are needed on methods of detection and their frequency. We piloted secondary variant detection by analyzing exomes for mutations in cancer-susceptibility syndromes in subjects ascertained for atherosclerosis phenotypes. We performed exome sequencing on 572 ClinSeq participants, and in 37 genes, we interpreted variants that cause high-penetrance cancer syndromes by using an algorithm that filtered results on the basis of mutation type, quality, and frequency and that filtered mutation-database entries on the basis of defined categories of causation. We identified 454 sequence variants that differed from the human reference. Exclusions were made on the basis of sequence quality (26 variants) and high frequency in the cohort (77 variants) or dbSNP (17 variants), leaving 334 variants of potential clinical importance. These were further filtered on the basis of curation of literature reports. Seven participants, four of whom were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent and three of whom did not meet family-history-based referral criteria, had deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. One participant had a deleterious SDHC mutation, which causes paragangliomas. Exome sequencing, coupled with multidisciplinary interpretation, detected clinically important mutations in cancer-susceptibility genes; four of such mutations were in individuals without a significant family history of disease. We conclude that secondary variants of high clinical importance will be detected at an appreciable frequency in exomes, and we suggest that priority be given to the development of more efficient modes of interpretation with trials in larger patient groups. PMID:22703879

  12. Using structural MRI to identify individuals at genetic risk for bipolar disorders: a 2-cohort, machine learning study

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Tomas; Cooke, Christopher; Kopecek, Miloslav; Novak, Tomas; Hoschl, Cyril; Alda, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Brain imaging is of limited diagnostic use in psychiatry owing to clinical heterogeneity and low sensitivity/specificity of between-group neuroimaging differences. Machine learning (ML) may better translate neuroimaging to the level of individual participants. Studying unaffected offspring of parents with bipolar disorders (BD) decreases clinical heterogeneity and thus increases sensitivity for detection of biomarkers. The present study used ML to identify individuals at genetic high risk (HR) for BD based on brain structure. Methods We studied unaffected and affected relatives of BD probands recruited from 2 sites (Halifax, Canada, and Prague, Czech Republic). Each participant was individually matched by age and sex to controls without personal or family history of psychiatric disorders. We applied support vector machines (SVM) and Gaussian process classifiers (GPC) to structural MRI. Results We included 45 unaffected and 36 affected relatives of BD probands matched by age and sex on an individual basis to healthy controls. The SVM of white matter distinguished unaffected HR from control participants (accuracy = 68.9%, p = 0.001), with similar accuracy for the GPC (65.6%, p = 0.002) or when analyzing data from each site separately. Differentiation of the more clinically heterogeneous affected familiar group from healthy controls was less accurate (accuracy = 59.7%, p = 0.05). Machine learning applied to grey matter did not distinguish either the unaffected HR or affected familial groups from controls. The regions that most contributed to between-group discrimination included white matter of the inferior/middle frontal gyrus, inferior/middle temporal gyrus and precuneus. Limitations Although we recruited 126 participants, ML benefits from even larger samples. Conclusions Machine learning applied to white but not grey matter distinguished unaffected participants at high and low genetic risk for BD based on regions previously implicated in the

  13. A panel of microsatellites to individually identify leopards and its application to leopard monitoring in human dominated landscapes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Leopards are the most widely distributed of the large cats, ranging from Africa to the Russian Far East. Because of habitat fragmentation, high human population densities and the inherent adaptability of this species, they now occupy landscapes close to human settlements. As a result, they are the most common species involved in human wildlife conflict in India, necessitating their monitoring. However, their elusive nature makes such monitoring difficult. Recent advances in DNA methods along with non-invasive sampling techniques can be used to monitor populations and individuals across large landscapes including human dominated ones. In this paper, we describe a DNA-based method for leopard individual identification where we used fecal DNA samples to obtain genetic material. Further, we apply our methods to non-invasive samples collected in a human-dominated landscape to estimate the minimum number of leopards in this human-leopard conflict area in Western India. Results In this study, 25 of the 29 tested cross-specific microsatellite markers showed positive amplification in 37 wild-caught leopards. These loci revealed varied levels of polymorphism (four-12 alleles) and heterozygosity (0.05-0.79). Combining data on amplification success (including non-invasive samples) and locus specific polymorphisms, we showed that eight loci provide a sibling probability of identity of 0.0005, suggesting that this panel can be used to discriminate individuals in the wild. When this microsatellite panel was applied to fecal samples collected from a human-dominated landscape, we identified 7 individuals, with a sibling probability of identity of 0.001. Amplification success of field collected scats was up to 72%, and genotype error ranged from 0-7.4%. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the selected panel of eight microsatellite loci can conclusively identify leopards from various kinds of biological samples. Our methods can be used to monitor leopards over small

  14. Identifying individual n- and p-type ZnO nanowires by the output voltage sign of piezoelectric nanogenerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, S. S.; Song, J. H.; Lu, Y. F.; Wang, Z. L.

    2009-09-01

    Based on a comparative study between the piezoelectric outputs of n-type nanowires (NWs) and n-core/p-shell NWs along with the previous study (Lu et al 2009 Nano. Lett. 9 1223), we demonstrate a one-step technique for identifying the conductivity type of individual ZnO nanowires (NWs) based on the output of a piezoelectric nanogenerator without destroying the sample. A negative piezoelectric output voltage indicates an NW is n-type and it appears after the tip scans across the center of the NW, while a positive output voltage reveals p-type conductivity and it appears before the tip scans across the central line of the NW. This atomic force microscopy based technique is reliable for statistically mapping the majority carrier type in ZnO NWs arrays. The technique may also be applied to other wurtzite semiconductors, such as GaN, CdS and ZnS.

  15. A Twelve-SNP Genetic Risk Score Identifies Individuals at Increased Risk for Future Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. Gustav; Sjögren, Marketa; Lubitz, Steven A.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Louie, Judy Z.; Catanese, Joseph J.; Engström, Gunnar; Devlin, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Atrial fibrillation (AF) is prevalent and there is a clinical need for biomarkers to identify individuals at higher risk for AF. Fixed throughout a life course and assayable early in life, genetic biomarkers may meet this need. Here, we investigate whether multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) together as an AF genetic risk score (AF-GRS) can improve prediction of one's risk for AF. Methods In 27,471 participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, a prospective, community-based cohort, we used Cox models that adjusted for established AF risk factors to assess the association of AF-GRS with incident AF and ischemic stroke. Median follow-up was 14.4 years for incident AF and 14.5 years for ischemic stroke. The AF-GRS comprised 12 SNPs that had been previously shown to be associated with AF at genome-wide significance. Results During follow-up, 2,160 participants experienced a first AF event and 1,495 had a first ischemic stroke event. Participants in the top AF-GRS quintile were at increased risk for incident AF (HR = 2.00; 95%CI = 1.73 to 2.31; P=2.7×10−21) and ischemic stroke (HR = 1.23; 95%CI = 1.04 to 1.46; P=0.02) when compared with the bottom quintile. Addition of the AF-GRS to established AF risk factors modestly improved both discrimination and reclassification (P<0.0001 for both). Conclusions An AF-GRS can identify 20% of individuals who are at approximately two-fold increased risk for incident AF and at 23% increased risk for ischemic stroke. Targeting diagnostic or therapeutic interventions to this subset may prove clinically useful. PMID:25123217

  16. Pre-Chemoradiotherapy FDG PET/CT cannot Identify Residual Metabolically-Active Volumes within Individual Esophageal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lu, W; Tan, S; Chen, W; Kligerman, S; Feigenberg, SJ; Zhang, H; Suntharalingam, M; Kang, M; D’Souza, WD

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study whether subvolumes with a high pre-chemoradiotherapy (CRT) FDG uptake could identify residual metabolically-active volumes (MAVs) post-CRT within individual esophageal tumors. Accurate identification will allow simultaneous integrated boost to these subvolumes at higher risk to improve clinical outcomes. Methods Twenty patients with esophageal cancer were treated with CRT plus surgery and underwent FDG PET/CT scans before and after CRT. The two scans were rigidly registered. Seven MAVs pre-CRT and four MAVs post-CRT within a tumor were defined with various SUV thresholds. The similarity and proximity between the MAVs pre-CRT and post-CRT were quantified with three metrics: fraction of post-CRT MAV included in pre-CRT MAV, volume overlap and centroid distance. Results Eight patients had no residual MAV. Six patients had local residual MAV (SUV ≥2.5 post-CRT) within or adjoining the original MAV (SUV ≥2.5 pre-CRT). On average, less than 65% of any post-CRT MAVs was included in any pre-CRT MAVs, with a low volume overlap <45%, and large centroid distance >8.6 mm. In general, subvolumes with higher FDG-uptake pre-CRT or post-CRT had lower volume overlap and larger centroid distance. Six patients had new distant MAVs that were determined to be inflammation from radiation therapy. Conclusions Pre-CRT PET/CT cannot reliably identify the residual MAVs within individual esophageal tumors. Simultaneous integrated boost to subvolumes with high FDG uptake pre-CRT may not be feasible. PMID:26594591

  17. Revisiting the Educationally Influential Physician: Development of a Simplified Nomination Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karwoski, Jane Belland

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: An educationally influential (EI) physician is one to whom colleagues look for informal clinical advice. The original nomination form created to identify EI physicians among general practitioners was published in 1978. The present research developed an updated and simplified nomination form based on a survey of specialists. Methods:…

  18. A meta-analysis identifies new loci associated with body mass index in individuals of African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Monda, Keri L; Chen, Gary K; Taylor, Kira C; Palmer, Cameron; Edwards, Todd L; Lange, Leslie A; Ng, Maggie C Y; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Allison, Matthew A; Bielak, Lawrence F; Chen, Guanjie; Graff, Mariaelisa; Irvin, Marguerite R; Rhie, Suhn K; Li, Guo; Liu, Yongmei; Liu, Youfang; Lu, Yingchang; Nalls, Michael A; Sun, Yan V; Wojczynski, Mary K; Yanek, Lisa R; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ademola, Adeyinka; Amos, Christopher I; Bandera, Elisa V; Bock, Cathryn H; Britton, Angela; Broeckel, Ulrich; Cai, Quiyin; Caporaso, Neil E; Carlson, Chris S; Carpten, John; Casey, Graham; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Chen, Yii-Der I; Chiang, Charleston W K; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Demerath, Ellen; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Driver, Ryan W; Dubbert, Patricia; Feitosa, Mary F; Feng, Ye; Freedman, Barry I; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Gottesman, Omri; Guo, Xiuqing; Haritunians, Talin; Harris, Tamara; Harris, Curtis C; Hennis, Anselm J M; Hernandez, Dena G; McNeill, Lorna H; Howard, Timothy D; Howard, Barbara V; Howard, Virginia J; Johnson, Karen C; Kang, Sun J; Keating, Brendan J; Kolb, Suzanne; Kuller, Lewis H; Kutlar, Abdullah; Langefeld, Carl D; Lettre, Guillaume; Lohman, Kurt; Lotay, Vaneet; Lyon, Helen; Manson, Joann E; Maixner, William; Meng, Yan A; Monroe, Kristine R; Morhason-Bello, Imran; Murphy, Adam B; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Nadukuru, Rajiv; Nathanson, Katherine L; Nayak, Uma; N'diaye, Amidou; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, M Cristina; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Neuhouser, Marian; Nyante, Sarah; Ochs-Balcom, Heather; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Palmer, Julie R; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Palmer, Nicholette D; Press, Michael F; Rampersaud, Evandine; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Salako, Babatunde; Schadt, Eric E; Schwartz, Ann G; Shriner, Daniel A; Siscovick, David; Smith, Shad B; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Spitz, Margaret R; Sucheston, Lara; Taylor, Herman; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tucker, Margaret A; Van Den Berg, David J; Edwards, Digna R Velez; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Winkler, Thomas W; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yang, James J; Levin, Albert M; Young, Taylor R; Zakai, Neil A; Cushman, Mary; Zanetti, Krista A; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Yonglan; Zhou, Jie; Ziegler, Regina G; Zmuda, Joseph M; Fernandes, Jyotika K; Gilkeson, Gary S; Kamen, Diane L; Hunt, Kelly J; Spruill, Ida J; Ambrosone, Christine B; Ambs, Stefan; Arnett, Donna K; Atwood, Larry; Becker, Diane M; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bowden, Donald W; Burke, Gregory; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; Ding, Jingzhong; Duggan, David; Evans, Michele K; Fox, Caroline; Garvey, W Timothy; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F A; Hsing, Ann; Chu, Lisa; Hu, Jennifer J; Huo, Dezheng; Ingles, Sue A; John, Esther M; Jordan, Joanne M; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kittles, Rick A; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Liu, Simin; McKnight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert C; Mosley, Thomas H; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Williams, L Keoki; Patel, Sanjay R; Peters, Ulrike; Pettaway, Curtis A; Peyser, Patricia A; Psaty, Bruce M; Redline, Susan; Rotimi, Charles N; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Sale, Michèle M; Schreiner, Pamela J; Signorello, Lisa B; Singleton, Andrew B; Stanford, Janet L; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Vitolins, Mara; Zheng, Wei; Moore, Jason H; Williams, Scott M; Ketkar, Shamika; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zonderman, Alan B; Kooperberg, Charles; Papanicolaou, George J; Henderson, Brian E; Reiner, Alex P; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Loos, Ruth J F; North, Kari E; Haiman, Christopher A

    2013-06-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 36 loci associated with body mass index (BMI), predominantly in populations of European ancestry. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the association of >3.2 million SNPs with BMI in 39,144 men and women of African ancestry and followed up the most significant associations in an additional 32,268 individuals of African ancestry. We identified one new locus at 5q33 (GALNT10, rs7708584, P = 3.4 × 10(-11)) and another at 7p15 when we included data from the GIANT consortium (MIR148A-NFE2L3, rs10261878, P = 1.2 × 10(-10)). We also found suggestive evidence of an association at a third locus at 6q16 in the African-ancestry sample (KLHL32, rs974417, P = 6.9 × 10(-8)). Thirty-two of the 36 previously established BMI variants showed directionally consistent effect estimates in our GWAS (binomial P = 9.7 × 10(-7)), five of which reached genome-wide significance. These findings provide strong support for shared BMI loci across populations, as well as for the utility of studying ancestrally diverse populations. PMID:23583978

  19. A Meta-Analysis Identifies New Loci Associated with Body Mass index in Individuals of African Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Monda, Keri L.; Chen, Gary K.; Taylor, Kira C.; Palmer, Cameron; Edwards, Todd L.; Lange, Leslie A.; Ng, Maggie C.Y.; Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; Allison, Matthew A.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Chen, Guanji; Graff, Mariaelisa; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Rhie, Suhn K.; Li, Guo; Liu, Yongmei; Liu, Youfang; Lu, Yingchang; Nalls, Michael A.; Sun, Yan V.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ademola, Adeyinka; Amos, Christopher I.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Britton, Angela; Broeckel, Ulrich; Cai, Quiyin; Caporaso, Neil E.; Carlson, Chris; Carpten, John; Casey, Graham; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Chiang, Charleston W.K.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Demerath, Ellen; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L.; Driver, Ryan W.; Dubbert, Patricia; Feitosa, Mary F.; Freedman, Barry I.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Gottesman, Omri; Guo, Xiuqing; Haritunians, Talin; Harris, Tamara; Harris, Curtis C.; Hennis, Anselm JM; Hernandez, Dena G.; McNeill, Lorna H.; Howard, Timothy D.; Howard, Barbara V.; Howard, Virginia J.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kang, Sun J.; Keating, Brendan J.; Kolb, Suzanne; Kuller, Lewis H.; Kutlar, Abdullah; Langefeld, Carl D.; Lettre, Guillaume; Lohman, Kurt; Lotay, Vaneet; Lyon, Helen; Manson, JoAnn E.; Maixner, William; Meng, Yan A.; Monroe, Kristine R.; Morhason-Bello, Imran; Murphy, Adam B.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Nadukuru, Rajiv; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Nayak, Uma; N’Diaye, Amidou; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, M. Cristina; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Neuhouser, Marian; Nyante, Sarah; Ochs-Balcom, Heather; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Ogundiran, Temidayo O.; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Palmer, Julie R.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Press, Michael F.; Rampersaud, Evandine; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Salako, Babatunde; Schadt, Eric E.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Shriner, Daniel A.; Siscovick, David; Smith, Shad B.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Sucheston, Lara; Taylor, Herman; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yang, James J.; Levin, Albert M.; Young, Taylor R.; Zakai, Neil A.; Cushman, Mary; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Yonglan; Zhou, Jie; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Fernandes, Jyotika K.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Kamen, Diane L.; Hunt, Kelly J.; Spruill, Ida J.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Ambs, Stefan; Arnett, Donna K.; Atwood, Larry; Becker, Diane M.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bowden, Donald W.; Burke, Gregory; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cooper, Richard S.; Ding, Jingzhong; Duggan, David; Evans, Michele K.; Fox, Caroline; Garvey, W. Timothy; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F.A.; Hsing, Ann; Chu, Lisa; Hu, Jennifer J.; Huo, Dezheng; Ingles, Sue A.; John, Esther M.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kittles, Rick A.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Klein, Eric A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Liu, Simin; McKnight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert C.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Williams, L. Keoki; Patel, Sanjay R.; Peters, Ulrike; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Peyser, Patricia A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Redline, Susan; Rotimi, Charles N.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Sale, Michèle M.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Stanford, Janet L.; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Vitolins, Mara; Zheng, Wei; Moore, Jason H.; Williams, Scott M.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zonderman, Alan B.; Kooperberg, Charles; Papanicolaou, George; Henderson, Brian E.; Reiner, Alex P.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Loos, Ruth JF; North, Kari E.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 36 loci associated with body mass index (BMI), predominantly in populations of European ancestry. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the association of >3.2 million SNPs with BMI in 39,144 men and women of African ancestry, and followed up the most significant associations in an additional 32,268 individuals of African ancestry. We identified one novel locus at 5q33 (GALNT10, rs7708584, p=3.4×10−11) and another at 7p15 when combined with data from the Giant consortium (MIR148A/NFE2L3, rs10261878, p=1.2×10−10). We also found suggestive evidence of an association at a third locus at 6q16 in the African ancestry sample (KLHL32, rs974417, p=6.9×10−8). Thirty-two of the 36 previously established BMI variants displayed directionally consistent effect estimates in our GWAS (binomial p=9.7×10−7), of which five reached genome-wide significance. These findings provide strong support for shared BMI loci across populations as well as for the utility of studying ancestrally diverse populations. PMID:23583978

  20. Micro-Spectroscopic Imaging and Characterization of Individually Identified Ice Nucleating Particles from a Case Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Knopf, Daniel A.; Alpert, Peter A.; Wang, Bingbing; O'Brien, Rachel E.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.; Moffet, Ryan C.

    2014-09-03

    The effect of anthropogenic and biogenic organic particles on atmospheric glaciation processes is poorly understood. We use an optical microscopy (OM) setup to identify the location of ice nuclei (IN) active in immersion freezing and deposition ice nucleation for temperatures of 200-273 K within a large population of particles sampled from an ambient environment. Applying multi-modal micro-spectroscopy methods we characterize the physicochemical properties of individual IN in particle populations collected in central California. Chemical composition and mixing state analysis of particle populations are performed to identify characteristic particle-type classes. All particle-types contained organic material. Particles in these samples take up water at subsaturated conditions, induce immersion freezing at subsaturated and saturated conditions above 226 K, and act as deposition IN below 226 K. The identified IN belong to the most common particle-type classes observed in the field samples: organic coated sea salt, Na-rich, and secondary and refractory carbonaceous particles. Based on these observations, we suggest that the IN are not always particles with unique chemical composition and exceptional ice nucleation propensity; rather, they are common particles in the ambient particle population. Thus, particle composition and morphology alone are insufficient to assess their potential to act as IN. The results suggest that particle-type abundance is also a crucial factor in determining the ice nucleation efficiency of specific IN types. These findings emphasize that ubiquitous organic particles can induce ice nucleation under atmospherically relevant conditions and that they may play an important role in atmospheric glaciation processes.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of individual stromal cell populations identifies stroma-tumor crosstalk in mouse lung cancer model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyejin; Sheng, Jianting; Gao, Dingcheng; Li, Fuhai; Durrans, Anna; Ryu, Seongho; Lee, Sharrell B; Narula, Navneet; Rafii, Shahin; Elemento, Olivier; Altorki, Nasser K; Wong, Stephen T C; Mittal, Vivek

    2015-02-24

    Emerging studies have begun to demonstrate that reprogrammed stromal cells play pivotal roles in tumor growth, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. However, the contribution of stromal cells to non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has remained underexplored. We used an orthotopic model of Kras-driven NSCLC to systematically dissect the contribution of specific hematopoietic stromal cells in lung cancer. RNA deep-sequencing analysis of individually sorted myeloid lineage and tumor epithelial cells revealed cell-type-specific differentially regulated genes, indicative of activated stroma. We developed a computational model for crosstalk signaling discovery based on ligand-receptor interactions and downstream signaling networks and identified known and novel tumor-stroma paracrine and tumor autocrine crosstalk-signaling pathways in NSCLC. We provide cellular and molecular insights into components of the lung cancer microenvironment that contribute to carcinogenesis. This study has the potential for development of therapeutic strategies that target tumor-stroma interactions and may complement conventional anti-cancer treatments. PMID:25704820

  2. Monoallelic and Biallelic Variants in EMC1 Identified in Individuals with Global Developmental Delay, Hypotonia, Scoliosis, and Cerebellar Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Tamar; Yesil, Gozde; Bayram, Yavuz; Coban-Akdemir, Zeynep; Charng, Wu-Lin; Karaca, Ender; Al Asmari, Ali; Eldomery, Mohammad K.; Hunter, Jill V.; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Pehlivan, Davut; El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Saleh, Mohammed A.; LeDuc, Charles A.; Muzny, Donna; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gibbs, Richard A.; Chung, Wendy K.; Yang, Yaping; Belmont, John W.; Lupski, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm of a single gene associated with one specific phenotype and mode of inheritance has been repeatedly challenged. Genotype-phenotype correlations can often be traced to different mutation types, localization of the variants in distinct protein domains, or the trigger of or escape from nonsense-mediated decay. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous variants in EMC1 that segregated with a phenotype of developmental delay, hypotonia, scoliosis, and cerebellar atrophy in three families. In addition, a de novo heterozygous EMC1 variant was seen in an individual with a similar clinical and MRI imaging phenotype. EMC1 encodes a member of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane protein complex (EMC), an evolutionarily conserved complex that has been proposed to have multiple roles in ER-associated degradation, ER-mitochondria tethering, and proper assembly of multi-pass transmembrane proteins. Perturbations of protein folding and organelle crosstalk have been implicated in neurodegenerative processes including cerebellar atrophy. We propose EMC1 as a gene in which either biallelic or monoallelic variants might lead to a syndrome including intellectual disability and preferential degeneration of the cerebellum. PMID:26942288

  3. Relating Science and Religion: An Ontology of Taxonomies and Development of a Research Tool for Identifying Individual Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasri, Pratchayapong; Arthur, Shagufta; Smith, Mike U.; Mancy, Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    Understanding how individuals view the relationship between science and religion shows promise for explaining a range of aspects of teaching and learning in science. Several taxonomies, consisting of different views by which people relate science and religion, can be found in the philosophical literature. However, most of the science education literature uses these taxonomies selectively and with limited justification, hindering comparison between existing and future studies. The first aim of this paper is therefore to provide a comprehensive review of the different taxonomies described in the literature and to organise the different views according to their similarities and differences. The second aim of the paper is to present a new research tool developed on the basis of the findings of the literature review. This tool consists of a short questionnaire allowing educational researchers to identify the different viewpoints held by pre-service teachers, undergraduates majoring in biology and school learners. We present the tool itself and demonstrate its usefulness and versatility for future science education research based on three empirical studies covering a range of geographical areas, religious backgrounds, educational levels, age groups and genders.

  4. Meta-analysis of 74,046 individuals identifies 11 new susceptibility loci for Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Jean-Charles; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Harold, Denise; Naj, Adam C; Sims, Rebecca; Bellenguez, Céline; Jun, Gyungah; DeStefano, Anita L; Bis, Joshua C; Beecham, Gary W; Grenier-Boley, Benjamin; Russo, Giancarlo; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A; Jones, Nicola; Smith, Albert V; Chouraki, Vincent; Thomas, Charlene; Ikram, M Arfan; Zelenika, Diana; Vardarajan, Badri N; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Gerrish, Amy; Schmidt, Helena; Kunkle, Brian; Dunstan, Melanie L; Ruiz, Agustin; Bihoreau, Marie-Thérèse; Choi, Seung-Hoan; Reitz, Christiane; Pasquier, Florence; Hollingworth, Paul; Ramirez, Alfredo; Hanon, Olivier; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Campion, Dominique; Crane, Paul K; Baldwin, Clinton; Becker, Tim; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cruchaga, Carlos; Craig, David; Amin, Najaf; Berr, Claudine; Lopez, Oscar L; De Jager, Philip L; Deramecourt, Vincent; Johnston, Janet A; Evans, Denis; Lovestone, Simon; Letenneur, Luc; Morón, Francisco J; Rubinsztein, David C; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sleegers, Kristel; Goate, Alison M; Fiévet, Nathalie; Huentelman, Matthew J; Gill, Michael; Brown, Kristelle; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Keller, Lina; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; McGuinness, Bernadette; Larson, Eric B; Green, Robert; Myers, Amanda J; Dufouil, Carole; Todd, Stephen; Wallon, David; Love, Seth; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Gallacher, John; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Clarimon, Jordi; Lleo, Alberto; Bayer, Anthony; Tsuang, Debby W; Yu, Lei; Tsolaki, Magda; Bossù, Paola; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Proitsi, Petroula; Collinge, John; Sorbi, Sandro; Sanchez-Garcia, Florentino; Fox, Nick C; Hardy, John; Deniz Naranjo, Maria Candida; Bosco, Paolo; Clarke, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Galimberti, Daniela; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Matthews, Fiona; Moebus, Susanne; Mecocci, Patrizia; Zompo, Maria Del; Maier, Wolfgang; Hampel, Harald; Pilotto, Alberto; Bullido, Maria; Panza, Francesco; Caffarra, Paolo; Nacmias, Benedetta; Gilbert, John R; Mayhaus, Manuel; Lannfelt, Lars; Hakonarson, Hakon; Pichler, Sabrina; Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Ingelsson, Martin; Beekly, Duane; Alvarez, Victoria; Zou, Fanggeng; Valladares, Otto; Younkin, Steven G; Coto, Eliecer; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L; Gu, Wei; Razquin, Cristina; Pastor, Pau; Mateo, Ignacio; Owen, Michael J; Faber, Kelley M; Jonsson, Palmi V; Combarros, Onofre; O’Donovan, Michael C; Cantwell, Laura B; Soininen, Hilkka; Blacker, Deborah; Mead, Simon; Mosley, Thomas H; Bennett, David A; Harris, Tamara B; Fratiglioni, Laura; Holmes, Clive; de Bruijn, Renee F A G; Passmore, Peter; Montine, Thomas J; Bettens, Karolien; Rotter, Jerome I; Brice, Alexis; Morgan, Kevin; Foroud, Tatiana M; Kukull, Walter A; Hannequin, Didier; Powell, John F; Nalls, Michael A; Ritchie, Karen; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Kauwe, John S K; Boerwinkle, Eric; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Boada, Mercè; Hiltunen, Mikko; Martin, Eden R; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rujescu, Dan; Wang, Li-san; Dartigues, Jean-François; Mayeux, Richard; Tzourio, Christophe; Hofman, Albert; Nöthen, Markus M; Graff, Caroline; Psaty, Bruce M; Jones, Lesley; Haines, Jonathan L; Holmans, Peter A; Lathrop, Mark; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Launer, Lenore J; Farrer, Lindsay A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Moskvina, Valentina; Seshadri, Sudha; Williams, Julie; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Amouyel, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Eleven susceptibility loci for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) were identified by previous studies; however, a large portion of the genetic risk for this disease remains unexplained. We conducted a large, two-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry. In stage 1, we used genotyped and imputed data (7,055,881 SNPs) to perform meta-analysis on 4 previously published GWAS data sets consisting of 17,008 Alzheimer’s disease cases and 37,154 controls. In stage 2,11,632 SNPs were genotyped and tested for association in an independent set of 8,572 Alzheimer’s disease cases and 11,312 controls. In addition to the APOE locus (encoding apolipoprotein E), 19 loci reached genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10−8) in the combined stage 1 and stage 2 analysis, of which 11 are newly associated with Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24162737

  5. Monoallelic and Biallelic Variants in EMC1 Identified in Individuals with Global Developmental Delay, Hypotonia, Scoliosis, and Cerebellar Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Harel, Tamar; Yesil, Gozde; Bayram, Yavuz; Coban-Akdemir, Zeynep; Charng, Wu-Lin; Karaca, Ender; Al Asmari, Ali; Eldomery, Mohammad K; Hunter, Jill V; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Pehlivan, Davut; El-Hattab, Ayman W; Saleh, Mohammed A; LeDuc, Charles A; Muzny, Donna; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gibbs, Richard A; Chung, Wendy K; Yang, Yaping; Belmont, John W; Lupski, James R

    2016-03-01

    The paradigm of a single gene associated with one specific phenotype and mode of inheritance has been repeatedly challenged. Genotype-phenotype correlations can often be traced to different mutation types, localization of the variants in distinct protein domains, or the trigger of or escape from nonsense-mediated decay. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous variants in EMC1 that segregated with a phenotype of developmental delay, hypotonia, scoliosis, and cerebellar atrophy in three families. In addition, a de novo heterozygous EMC1 variant was seen in an individual with a similar clinical and MRI imaging phenotype. EMC1 encodes a member of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane protein complex (EMC), an evolutionarily conserved complex that has been proposed to have multiple roles in ER-associated degradation, ER-mitochondria tethering, and proper assembly of multi-pass transmembrane proteins. Perturbations of protein folding and organelle crosstalk have been implicated in neurodegenerative processes including cerebellar atrophy. We propose EMC1 as a gene in which either biallelic or monoallelic variants might lead to a syndrome including intellectual disability and preferential degeneration of the cerebellum. PMID:26942288

  6. Scale-Free Correlations, Influential Neighbours and Speed Control in Flocks of Birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.; Hildenbrandt, Hanno

    2015-02-01

    Coordination of birds in large flocks is amazing, especially, since individual birds only interact with a few neighbors (the so-called `influential neighbours'). Yet, empirical data show that fluctuations of velocity and speed of different birds are correlated beyond the influential neighbours and are correlated over a larger distance in a larger flock. This correlation between the correlation length of velocity or speed and flock size was found to be linear, called a scale-free correlation. It depends on the way individuals interact in the flock, for instance, on the number of influential neighbours and speed control. It is unknown however, how exactly the number of influential neighbours affects this scale-free correlation. Recent empirical data show that different degrees of control of speed affect the scale-free correlation for speed fluctuations. Theoretically, based on statistical mechanics, it is predicted that at very high speed control, the correlation is no longer scale-free but saturates at a certain correlation length and this hampers coordination in flocks. We study these issues in a model, called StarDisplay, because its behavioural rules are biologically inspired and many of its flocking patterns resemble empirical data. Our results show that the correlation length of fluctuations of velocity as well as speed correlate with flock size in a scale-free manner. A higher number of influential neighbours causes a diminishing increase of the slope of the scale-free correlation with velocity, resulting thus in flocks that coordinate more uniformly. Similar to recent empirical data higher speed control reduces the correlation length of speed fluctuations in our model. As predicted theoretically, at very high speed control the model generates a non-scale free correlation, and although there are still flocks, they are in the process of disintegrating.

  7. Genome-Wide Association Analyses in 128,266 Individuals Identifies New Morningness and Sleep Duration Loci

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Samuel E.; Tyrrell, Jessica; Tuke, Marcus A.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Hu, Youna; Teder-Laving, Maris; Hayward, Caroline; Roenneberg, Till; Del Greco, Fabiola; Hicks, Andrew A.; Shin, Chol; Metspalu, Andres; Byrne, Enda M.; Gehrman, Philip R.; Tiemeier, Henning; Allebrandt, Karla V.; Murray, Anna; Hinds, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Disrupted circadian rhythms and reduced sleep duration are associated with several human diseases, particularly obesity and type 2 diabetes, but until recently, little was known about the genetic factors influencing these heritable traits. We performed genome-wide association studies of self-reported chronotype (morning/evening person) and self-reported sleep duration in 128,266 white British individuals from the UK Biobank study. Sixteen variants were associated with chronotype (P<5x10-8), including variants near the known circadian rhythm genes RGS16 (1.21 odds of morningness, 95% CI [1.15, 1.27], P = 3x10-12) and PER2 (1.09 odds of morningness, 95% CI [1.06, 1.12], P = 4x10-10). The PER2 signal has previously been associated with iris function. We sought replication using self-reported data from 89,283 23andMe participants; thirteen of the chronotype signals remained associated at P<5x10-8 on meta-analysis and eleven of these reached P<0.05 in the same direction in the 23andMe study. We also replicated 9 additional variants identified when the 23andMe study was used as a discovery GWAS of chronotype (all P<0.05 and meta-analysis P<5x10-8). For sleep duration, we replicated one known signal in PAX8 (2.6 minutes per allele, 95% CI [1.9, 3.2], P = 5.7x10-16) and identified and replicated two novel associations at VRK2 (2.0 minutes per allele, 95% CI [1.3, 2.7], P = 1.2x10-9; and 1.6 minutes per allele, 95% CI [1.1, 2.2], P = 7.6x10-9). Although we found genetic correlation between chronotype and BMI (rG = 0.056, P = 0.05); undersleeping and BMI (rG = 0.147, P = 1x10-5) and oversleeping and BMI (rG = 0.097, P = 0.04), Mendelian Randomisation analyses, with limited power, provided no consistent evidence of causal associations between BMI or type 2 diabetes and chronotype or sleep duration. Our study brings the total number of loci associated with chronotype to 22 and with sleep duration to three, and provides new insights into the biology of sleep and circadian

  8. Genome-Wide Association Analyses in 128,266 Individuals Identifies New Morningness and Sleep Duration Loci.

    PubMed

    Jones, Samuel E; Tyrrell, Jessica; Wood, Andrew R; Beaumont, Robin N; Ruth, Katherine S; Tuke, Marcus A; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Hu, Youna; Teder-Laving, Maris; Hayward, Caroline; Roenneberg, Till; Wilson, James F; Del Greco, Fabiola; Hicks, Andrew A; Shin, Chol; Yun, Chang-Ho; Lee, Seung Ku; Metspalu, Andres; Byrne, Enda M; Gehrman, Philip R; Tiemeier, Henning; Allebrandt, Karla V; Freathy, Rachel M; Murray, Anna; Hinds, David A; Frayling, Timothy M; Weedon, Michael N

    2016-08-01

    Disrupted circadian rhythms and reduced sleep duration are associated with several human diseases, particularly obesity and type 2 diabetes, but until recently, little was known about the genetic factors influencing these heritable traits. We performed genome-wide association studies of self-reported chronotype (morning/evening person) and self-reported sleep duration in 128,266 white British individuals from the UK Biobank study. Sixteen variants were associated with chronotype (P<5x10-8), including variants near the known circadian rhythm genes RGS16 (1.21 odds of morningness, 95% CI [1.15, 1.27], P = 3x10-12) and PER2 (1.09 odds of morningness, 95% CI [1.06, 1.12], P = 4x10-10). The PER2 signal has previously been associated with iris function. We sought replication using self-reported data from 89,283 23andMe participants; thirteen of the chronotype signals remained associated at P<5x10-8 on meta-analysis and eleven of these reached P<0.05 in the same direction in the 23andMe study. We also replicated 9 additional variants identified when the 23andMe study was used as a discovery GWAS of chronotype (all P<0.05 and meta-analysis P<5x10-8). For sleep duration, we replicated one known signal in PAX8 (2.6 minutes per allele, 95% CI [1.9, 3.2], P = 5.7x10-16) and identified and replicated two novel associations at VRK2 (2.0 minutes per allele, 95% CI [1.3, 2.7], P = 1.2x10-9; and 1.6 minutes per allele, 95% CI [1.1, 2.2], P = 7.6x10-9). Although we found genetic correlation between chronotype and BMI (rG = 0.056, P = 0.05); undersleeping and BMI (rG = 0.147, P = 1x10-5) and oversleeping and BMI (rG = 0.097, P = 0.04), Mendelian Randomisation analyses, with limited power, provided no consistent evidence of causal associations between BMI or type 2 diabetes and chronotype or sleep duration. Our study brings the total number of loci associated with chronotype to 22 and with sleep duration to three, and provides new insights into the biology of sleep and circadian

  9. Transient ischemic attacks from arterial gas embolism induced by glossopharyngeal insufflation and a possible method to identify individuals at risk.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Tomas A; Lindholm, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Breath-hold divers report transient, severe neurological symptoms that could be caused by arterial gas embolism after glossopharyngeal insufflation. This technique is often used to overinflate the lungs and stretch the chest prior to breath-holding and can increase the transpulmonary pressure to around 7-8 kPa, so introducing risk of pulmonary barotrauma. Airway pressure, blood pressure and static spirometry (nitrogen dilution) were measured simultaneously in ten subjects attempting to identify individuals at risk. Compared to baseline, total lung capacity (TLC) after glossopharyngeal insufflation increased by 19 % along with increased vital capacity (23 %) and residual volume (6 %) (P < 0.05), while mean relaxed airway pressure (P (aw)) at TLC increased from 3.62 ± 0.93 to 7.26 ± 2.04 kPa as a result of performing glossopharyngeal insufflation (P = 0.0001). Blood pressure fell during glossopharyngeal insufflation and attained relaxed airway pressure correlated positively to baseline mean arterial pressure in the subjects. Two of the subjects had glossopharyngeal insufflation-related accidents before the study and two subjects (with the highest P (aw) during GI; 9 and 10.3 kPa respectively) suffered glossopharyngeal insufflation-related accidents within 6 months after our study, with one suffering a non-fatal drowning accident. The principal finding of this study was that some subjects were able to use GI to reach P (aw) high enough to suggest a risk of pulmonary barotrauma, while other subjects would lose consciousness due to hypotension while still within safe limits of pulmonary pressure. This mechanism could offer an alternative explanation to drowning in breath-hold divers, and indicates that glossopharyngeal insufflation should be avoided or done with extreme caution. PMID:22983570

  10. Locating influential nodes via dynamics-sensitive centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-02-01

    With great theoretical and practical significance, locating influential nodes of complex networks is a promising issue. In this paper, we present a dynamics-sensitive (DS) centrality by integrating topological features and dynamical properties. The DS centrality can be directly applied in locating influential spreaders. According to the empirical results on four real networks for both susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected (SI) spreading models, the DS centrality is more accurate than degree, k-shell index and eigenvector centrality.

  11. A meta-analysis of 87,040 individuals identifies 23 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Berndt, Sonja I; Conti, David V; Schumacher, Fredrick; Han, Ying; Benlloch, Sara; Hazelett, Dennis J; Wang, Zhaoming; Saunders, Ed; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Lindstrom, Sara; Jugurnauth-Little, Sara; Dadaev, Tokhir; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Stram, Daniel O; Rand, Kristin; Wan, Peggy; Stram, Alex; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C; Park, Karen; Xia, Lucy; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Hoover, Robert N; Machiela, Mitchell J; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Goh, Chee; Ahmed, Mahbubl; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Auvinen, Anssi; Wahlfors, Tiina; Schleutker, Johanna; Visakorpi, Tapio; Leinonen, Katri A; Xu, Jianfeng; Aly, Markus; Donovan, Jenny; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Tim J; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Borge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Klarskov, Peter; Røder, Martin Andreas; Iversen, Peter; Thibodeau, Stephen N; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Stanford, Janet L; Kolb, Suzanne; Holt, Sarah; Knudsen, Beatrice; Coll, Antonio Hurtado; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L; Maier, Christiane; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Rinckleb, Antje E; Strom, Sara S; Pettaway, Curtis; Yeboah, Edward D; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B; Adjei, Andrew A; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Kluźniak, Wojciech; Park, Jong; Sellers, Thomas; Lin, Hui-Yi; Isaacs, William B; Partin, Alan W; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Stegmaier, Christa; Chen, Constance; Giovannucci, Edward L; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; Penney, Kathryn L; Mucci, Lorelei; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Kittles, Rick A; Murphy, Adam B; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Kierzek, Andrzej M; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm; Kibel, Adam S; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Zheng, S Lilly; Batra, Jyotsna; Clements, Judith; Spurdle, Amanda; Teixeira, Manuel R; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Witte, John S; Casey, Graham; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Seminara, Daniella; Riboli, Elio; Hamdy, Freddie C; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L; Hunter, David J; Muir, Kenneth; Gronberg, Henrik; Neal, David E; Southey, Melissa; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Cook, Michael B; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Wiklund, Fredrik; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J; Henderson, Brian E; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Rosalind A; Haiman, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of > 10 million SNPs in 43,303 prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three new susceptibility loci were identified at association P < 5 × 10(-8); 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 were identified in multi-ancestry analyses and 1 was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk for this disease in European-ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the usefulness of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease. PMID:25217961

  12. A novel HLA-B*40 allele, B*40:01:40, identified in a Chinese individual.

    PubMed

    Pei, Y F; Huang, H N; Li, H C; Shen, W D

    2016-08-01

    A new allele, officially named B*40:01:40, was detected in a Chinese individual by sequence-based typing (SBT). The new allele differs from B*40:01:01 by a single nucleotide exchange at position 99 in codon 9, which results in synonymous substitution and seems not to compromise the HLA complex and T-cell receptor interaction. PMID:27302621

  13. Analyzing Learner Characteristics, Undergraduate Experience and Individual Teamwork Knowledge, Skills and Abilities: Toward Identifying Themes to Promote Higher Workforce Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Consuelo V.

    2009-01-01

    With the world amidst globalization and economic flux affecting business, industry, and communities the need to work together becomes increasingly important. Higher education serves an important role in developing the individual teaming capabilities of the workforce. This environment is the time and place--opportunity for student personnel to…

  14. Relating Science and Religion: An Ontology of Taxonomies and Development of a Research Tool for Identifying Individual Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasri, Pratchayapong; Arthur, Shagufta; Smith, Mike U.; Mancy, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how individuals view the relationship between science and religion shows promise for explaining a range of aspects of teaching and learning in science. Several taxonomies, consisting of different views by which people relate science and religion, can be found in the philosophical literature. However, most of the science education…

  15. Systems Perturbation Analysis of a Large-Scale Signal Transduction Model Reveals Potentially Influential Candidates for Cancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Allen, Laura; Hochfelder, Colleen; Majumder, Mahbubul; Helikar, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation in signal transduction pathways can lead to a variety of complex disorders, including cancer. Computational approaches such as network analysis are important tools to understand system dynamics as well as to identify critical components that could be further explored as therapeutic targets. Here, we performed perturbation analysis of a large-scale signal transduction model in extracellular environments that stimulate cell death, growth, motility, and quiescence. Each of the model's components was perturbed under both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations. Using 1,300 simulations under both types of perturbations across various extracellular conditions, we identified the most and least influential components based on the magnitude of their influence on the rest of the system. Based on the premise that the most influential components might serve as better drug targets, we characterized them for biological functions, housekeeping genes, essential genes, and druggable proteins. The most influential components under all environmental conditions were enriched with several biological processes. The inositol pathway was found as most influential under inactivating perturbations, whereas the kinase and small lung cancer pathways were identified as the most influential under activating perturbations. The most influential components were enriched with essential genes and druggable proteins. Moreover, known cancer drug targets were also classified in influential components based on the affected components in the network. Additionally, the systemic perturbation analysis of the model revealed a network motif of most influential components which affect each other. Furthermore, our analysis predicted novel combinations of cancer drug targets with various effects on other most influential components. We found that the combinatorial perturbation consisting of PI3K inactivation and overactivation of IP3R1 can lead to increased activity levels of apoptosis

  16. Systems Perturbation Analysis of a Large-Scale Signal Transduction Model Reveals Potentially Influential Candidates for Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Allen, Laura; Hochfelder, Colleen; Majumder, Mahbubul; Helikar, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation in signal transduction pathways can lead to a variety of complex disorders, including cancer. Computational approaches such as network analysis are important tools to understand system dynamics as well as to identify critical components that could be further explored as therapeutic targets. Here, we performed perturbation analysis of a large-scale signal transduction model in extracellular environments that stimulate cell death, growth, motility, and quiescence. Each of the model’s components was perturbed under both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations. Using 1,300 simulations under both types of perturbations across various extracellular conditions, we identified the most and least influential components based on the magnitude of their influence on the rest of the system. Based on the premise that the most influential components might serve as better drug targets, we characterized them for biological functions, housekeeping genes, essential genes, and druggable proteins. The most influential components under all environmental conditions were enriched with several biological processes. The inositol pathway was found as most influential under inactivating perturbations, whereas the kinase and small lung cancer pathways were identified as the most influential under activating perturbations. The most influential components were enriched with essential genes and druggable proteins. Moreover, known cancer drug targets were also classified in influential components based on the affected components in the network. Additionally, the systemic perturbation analysis of the model revealed a network motif of most influential components which affect each other. Furthermore, our analysis predicted novel combinations of cancer drug targets with various effects on other most influential components. We found that the combinatorial perturbation consisting of PI3K inactivation and overactivation of IP3R1 can lead to increased activity levels of apoptosis

  17. A meta-analysis of 87,040 individuals identifies 23 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Berndt, Sonja I.; Conti, David V.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Han, Ying; Benlloch, Sara; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Wang, Zhaoming; Saunders, Ed; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Lindstrom, Sara; Jugurnauth-Little, Sara; Dadaev, Tokhir; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Stram, Daniel O.; Rand, Kristin; Wan, Peggy; Stram, Alex; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C.; Park, Karen; Xia, Lucy; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Hoover, Robert N.; Machiela, Mitchell J.; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C.; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Goh, Chee; Ahmed, Mahbubl; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Tammela, Teuvo L.J.; Auvinen, Anssi; Wahlfors, Tiina; Schleutker, Johanna; Visakorpi, Tapio; Leinonen, Katri A.; Xu, Jianfeng; Aly, Markus; Donovan, Jenny; Travis, Ruth C.; Key, Tim J.; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Klarskov, Peter; Røder, Martin Andreas; Iversen, Peter; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Stanford, Janet L.; Kolb, Suzanne; Holt, Sarah; Knudsen, Beatrice; Coll, Antonio Hurtado; Gapstur, Susan M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L.; Maier, Christiane; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Rinckleb, Antje E.; Strom, Sara S.; Pettaway, Curtis; Yeboah, Edward D.; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Kluźniak, Wojciech; Park, Jong; Sellers, Thomas; Lin, Hui-Yi; Isaacs, William B.; Partin, Alan W.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Stegmaier, Christa; Chen, Constance; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; Penney, Kathryn L.; Mucci, Lorelei; John, Esther M.; Ingles, Sue A.; Kittles, Rick A.; Murphy, Adam B.; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Kierzek, Andrzej M.; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B.; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm; Kibel, Adam S.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W.; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Klein, Eric A; Zheng, S. Lilly; Batra, Jyotsna; Clements, Judith; Spurdle, Amanda; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Witte, John S.; Casey, Graham; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Seminara, Daniella; Riboli, Elio; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L.; Hunter, David J.; Muir, Kenneth; Gronberg, Henrik; Neal, David E.; Southey, Melissa; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Cook, Michael B.; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Wiklund, Fredrik; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J.; Henderson, Brian E.; Easton, Douglas F.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of >10 million SNPs in 43,303prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three novel susceptibility loci were revealed at P<5×10-8; 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 from multiethnic analyses and one was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with the known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk of the disease in European ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the utility of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease. PMID:25217961

  18. A Data-Based Approach to Discovering Multi-Topic Influential Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xing; Miao, Qiguang; Yu, Shangshang; Quan, Yining

    2016-01-01

    Recently, increasing numbers of users have adopted microblogging services as their main information source. However, most of them find themselves drowning in the millions of posts produced by other users every day. To cope with this, identifying a set of the most influential people is paramount. Moreover, finding a set of related influential users to expand the coverage of one particular topic is required in real world scenarios. Most of the existing algorithms in this area focus on topology-related methods such as PageRank. These methods mine link structures to find the expected influential rank of users. However, because they ignore the interaction data, these methods turn out to be less effective in social networks. In reality, a variety of topics exist within the information diffusing through the network. Because they have different interests, users play different roles in the diffusion of information related to different topics. As a result, distinguishing influential leaders according to different topics is also worthy of research. In this paper, we propose a multi-topic influence diffusion model (MTID) based on traces acquired from historic information. We decompose the influential scores of users into two parts: the direct influence determined by information propagation along the link structure and indirect influence that extends beyond the restrictions of direct follower relationships. To model the network from a multi-topical viewpoint, we introduce topic pools, each of which represents a particular topic information source. Then, we extract the topic distributions from the traces of tweets, determining the influence propagation probability and content generation probability. In the network, we adopt multiple ground nodes representing topic pools to connect every user through bidirectional links. Based on this multi-topical view of the network, we further introduce the topic-dependent rank (TD-Rank) algorithm to identify the multi-topic influential users

  19. Accessing Individual Records from Personal Data Files Using Non-Unique Identifiers. Final Report. Computer Science & Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gwendolyn B.; And Others

    The Privacy Act of 1974 places restrictions on the Federal, state and local agencies' use of the Social Security account number as an identifier. For some agencies, compliance will involve changes in implementation of retrieval algorithms. This report describes methodology applicable to these changes in the more general context of the problem of…

  20. Genome-wide association analysis of more than 120,000 individuals identifies 15 new susceptibility loci for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Beesley, Jonathan; Lindstrom, Sara; Canisius, Sander; Dennis, Joe; Lush, Michael J; Maranian, Mel J; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Darabi, Hatef; Brand, Judith S; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Nielsen, Sune F; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; Gibson, Lorna; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Rudolph, Anja; Eilber, Ursula; Behrens, Sabine; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Ahsan, Habibul; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Whittemore, Alice S; John, Esther M; Malone, Kathleen E; Gammon, Marilie D; Santella, Regina M; Ursin, Giske; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Casey, Graham; Hunter, David J; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Diver, W Ryan; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loic; Berg, Christine D; Chanock, Stephen J; Figueroa, Jonine; Hoover, Robert N; Lambrechts, Diether; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; van Limbergen, Erik; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Verhoef, Senno; Cornelissen, Sten; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Hallberg, Emily; Vachon, Celine; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A; van der Luijt, Rob B; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Yoo, Keun-Young; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Mulot, Claire; Sanchez, Marie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Surowy, Harald; Sohn, Christof; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; González-Neira, Anna; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, M Pilar; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Tan, Gie-Hooi; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W M; Collée, J Margriet; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Cai, Qiuyin; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hou, Ming-Feng; Kristensen, Vessela N; Nord, Silje; Alnaes, Grethe I Grenaker; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; McLean, Catriona; Canzian, Federico; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra; Lund, Eiliv; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Gunter, Marc J; Palli, Domenico; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Dossus, Laure; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Sutter, Christian; Yang, Rongxi; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Chia, Kee Seng; Chan, Ching Wan; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Haeberle, Lothar; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Brinton, Louise; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Zheng, Wei; Halverson, Sandra L; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Brüning, Thomas; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bernard, Loris; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Dörk, Thilo; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Ambrosone, Christine B; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Neuhausen, Susan L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul P D P; Kraft, Peter; Dunning, Alison M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and large-scale replication studies have identified common variants in 79 loci associated with breast cancer, explaining ∼14% of the familial risk of the disease. To identify new susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 GWAS, comprising 15,748 breast cancer cases and 18,084 controls together with 46,785 cases and 42,892 controls from 41 studies genotyped on a 211,155-marker custom array (iCOGS). Analyses were restricted to women of European ancestry. We generated genotypes for more than 11 million SNPs by imputation using the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel, and we identified 15 new loci associated with breast cancer at P < 5 × 10(-8). Combining association analysis with ChIP-seq chromatin binding data in mammary cell lines and ChIA-PET chromatin interaction data from ENCODE, we identified likely target genes in two regions: SETBP1 at 18q12.3 and RNF115 and PDZK1 at 1q21.1. One association appears to be driven by an amino acid substitution encoded in EXO1. PMID:25751625

  1. Genome-wide association analysis of more than 120,000 individuals identifies 15 new susceptibility loci for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Beesley, Jonathan; Lindstrom, Sara; Canisius, Sander; Dennis, Joe; Lush, Michael; Maranian, Mel J; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Darabi, Hatef; Brand, Judith S; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Nielsen, Sune F; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; Gibson, Lorna; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Rudolph, Anja; Eilber, Ursula; Behrens, Sabine; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Ahsan, Habibul; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Whittemore, Alice S; John, Esther M; Malone, Kathleen E; Gammon, Marilie D; Santella, Regina M; Ursin, Giske; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Casey, Graham; Hunter, David J; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Diver, W Ryan; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loic; Berg, Christine D; Chanock, Stephen; Figueroa, Jonine; Hoover, Robert N; Lambrechts, Diether; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; van Limbergen, Erik; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Verhoef, Senno; Cornelissen, Sten; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Hallberg, Emily; Vachon, Celine; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A; van der Luijt, Rob B; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Yoo, Keun-Young; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Mulot, Claire; Sanchez, Marie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Surowy, Harald; Sohn, Christof; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; González-Neira, Anna; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, M Pilar; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm WR; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; TAN, Gie-Hooi; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John WM; Collée, J Margriet; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Cai, Qiuyin; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hou, Ming-Feng; Kristensen, Vessela N; Nord, Silje; Alnaes, Grethe I Grenaker; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; McLean, Catriona; Canzian, Federico; Trichopoulos, Dmitrios; Peeters, Petra; Lund, Eiliv; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Gunter, Marc J; Palli, Domenico; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Dossus, Laure; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Sutter, Christian; Yang, Rongxi; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Chia, Kee Seng; Chan, Ching Wan; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Haeberle, Lothar; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Brinton, Louise; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Zheng, Wei; Halverson, Sandra L; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Brüning, Thomas; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bernard, Loris; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Dörk, Thilo; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert AEM; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Ambrosone, Christine B; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Neuhausen, Susan L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul PDP; Kraft, Peter; Dunning, Alison M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) and large scale replication studies have identified common variants in 79 loci associated with breast cancer, explaining ~14% of the familial risk of the disease. To identify new susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 GWAS comprising of 15,748 breast cancer cases and 18,084 controls, and 46,785 cases and 42,892 controls from 41 studies genotyped on a 200K custom array (iCOGS). Analyses were restricted to women of European ancestry. Genotypes for more than 11M SNPs were generated by imputation using the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. We identified 15 novel loci associated with breast cancer at P<5×10−8. Combining association analysis with ChIP-Seq data in mammary cell lines and ChIA-PET chromatin interaction data in ENCODE, we identified likely target genes in two regions: SETBP1 on 18q12.3 and RNF115 and PDZK1 on 1q21.1. One association appears to be driven by an amino-acid substitution in EXO1. PMID:25751625

  2. Are facial image analysis experts any better than the general public at identifying individuals from CCTV images?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Caroline; Evans, Raymond

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy and reliability of a small group of facial imagery experts, and compare their abilities with members of the general public, to ascertain whether or not training and experience will affect the ability to identify faces from CCTV footage. A number of clips from CCTV footage were utilised alongside face pools. The participants were asked to identify the actor in each CCTV clip and provide a level of confidence in the decision. The experts tested in this study were consistently better at identification than the public, with almost double the identification rates and half the errors. These results suggest that training and experience in facial analysis will produce more reliable and accurate facial identification. PMID:19839418

  3. High-density genotyping of immune-related loci identifies new SLE risk variants in individuals with Asian ancestry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Celi; Molineros, Julio E; Looger, Loren L; Zhou, Xu-Jie; Kim, Kwangwoo; Okada, Yukinori; Ma, Jianyang; Qi, Yuan-Yuan; Kim-Howard, Xana; Motghare, Prasenjeet; Bhattarai, Krishna; Adler, Adam; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kang, Young Mo; Suh, Chang-Hee; Chung, Won Tae; Park, Yong-Beom; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Shim, Seung Cheol; Kochi, Yuta; Suzuki, Akari; Kubo, Michiaki; Sumida, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Lee, Shin-Seok; Kim, Young Jin; Han, Bok-Ghee; Dozmorov, Mikhail; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Wren, Jonathan D; Harley, John B; Shen, Nan; Chua, Kek Heng; Zhang, Hong; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Nath, Swapan K

    2016-02-24

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a strong but incompletely understood genetic architecture. We conducted an association study with replication in 4,478 SLE cases and 12,656 controls from six East Asian cohorts to identify new SLE susceptibility loci and better localize known loci. We identified ten new loci and confirmed 20 known loci with genome-wide significance. Among the new loci, the most significant locus was GTF2IRD1-GTF2I at 7q11.23 (rs73366469, Pmeta = 3.75 × 10(-117), odds ratio (OR) = 2.38), followed by DEF6, IL12B, TCF7, TERT, CD226, PCNXL3, RASGRP1, SYNGR1 and SIGLEC6. We identified the most likely functional variants at each locus by analyzing epigenetic marks and gene expression data. Ten candidate variants are known to alter gene expression in cis or in trans. Enrichment analysis highlights the importance of these loci in B cell and T cell biology. The new loci, together with previously known loci, increase the explained heritability of SLE to 24%. The new loci share functional and ontological characteristics with previously reported loci and are possible drug targets for SLE therapeutics. PMID:26808113

  4. A 1-year lifestyle intervention for weight loss in individuals with type 2 diabetes reduces high C-reactive protein levels and identifies metabolic predictors of change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: We examined whether a 1-year intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss reduced elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in obese individuals with diabetes and identified metabolic and fitness predictors of hs-CRP change. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Look A...

  5. The Development of a Preference for Cocaine over Food Identifies Individual Rats with Addiction-Like Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Adam N.; Westenbroek, Christel; Becker, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Cocaine dependence is characterized by compulsive drug taking that supercedes other recreational, occupational or social pursuits. We hypothesized that rats vulnerable to addiction could be identified within the larger population based on their preference for cocaine over palatable food rewards. Objectives To validate the choice self-administration paradigm as a preclinical model of addiction, we examined changes in motivation for cocaine and recidivism to drug seeking in cocaine-preferring and pellet-preferring rats. We also examined behavior in males and females to identify sex differences in this “addicted” phenotype. Methods Preferences were identified during self-administration on a fixed-ratio schedule with cocaine-only, pellet-only and choice sessions. Motivation for each reward was probed early and late during self-administration using a progressive-ratio schedule. Reinstatement of cocaine- and pellet-seeking was examined following exposure to their cues and non-contingent delivery of each reward. Results Cocaine preferring rats increased their drug intake at the expense of pellets, displayed increased motivation for cocaine, attenuated motivation for pellets and greater cocaine and cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Females were more likely to develop cocaine preferences and recidivism of cocaine- and pellet-seeking was sexually dimorphic. Conclusions The choice self-administration paradigm is a valid preclinical model of addiction. The unbiased selection criteria also revealed sex-specific vulnerability factors that could be differentiated from generalized sex differences in behavior, which has implications for the neurobiology of addiction and effective treatments in each sex. PMID:24260227

  6. High-density genotyping of immune-related loci identifies new SLE risk variants in individuals with Asian ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Celi; Molineros, Julio E.; Looger, Loren L.; Zhou, Xu-jie; Kim, Kwangwoo; Okada, Yukinori; Ma, Jianyang; Qi, Yuan-yuan; Kim-Howard, Xana; Motghare, Prasenjeet; Bhattarai, Krishna; Adler, Adam; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kang, Young Mo; Suh, Chang-Hee; Chung, Won Tae; Park, Yong-Beom; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Shim, Seung Cheol; Kochi, Yuta; Suzuki, Akari; Kubo, Michiaki; Sumida, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Lee, Shin-Seok; Kim, Young Jin; Han, Bok-Ghee; Dozmorov, Mikhail; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Wren, Jonathan D.; Harley, John B.; Shen, Nan; Chua, Kek Heng; Zhang, Hong; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Nath, Swapan K.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a strong but incompletely understood genetic architecture. We conducted an association study with replication in 4,492 SLE cases and 12,675 controls from six East-Asian cohorts, to identify novel and better localize known SLE susceptibility loci. We identified 10 novel loci as well as 20 known loci with genome-wide significance. Among the novel loci, the most significant was GTF2IRD1-GTF2I at 7q11.23 (rs73366469, Pmeta=3.75×10−117, OR=2.38), followed by DEF6, IL12B, TCF7, TERT, CD226, PCNXL3, RASGRP1, SYNGR1 and SIGLEC6. We localized the most likely functional variants for each locus by analyzing epigenetic marks and gene regulation data. Ten putative variants are known to alter cis- or trans-gene expression. Enrichment analysis highlights the importance of these loci in B- and T-cell biology. Together with previously known loci, the explained heritability of SLE increases to 24%. Novel loci share functional and ontological characteristics with previously reported loci, and are possible drug targets for SLE therapeutics. PMID:26808113

  7. Locating influential nodes via dynamics-sensitive centrality.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    With great theoretical and practical significance, locating influential nodes of complex networks is a promising issue. In this paper, we present a dynamics-sensitive (DS) centrality by integrating topological features and dynamical properties. The DS centrality can be directly applied in locating influential spreaders. According to the empirical results on four real networks for both susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected (SI) spreading models, the DS centrality is more accurate than degree, k-shell index and eigenvector centrality. PMID:26905891

  8. Locating influential nodes via dynamics-sensitive centrality

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    With great theoretical and practical significance, locating influential nodes of complex networks is a promising issue. In this paper, we present a dynamics-sensitive (DS) centrality by integrating topological features and dynamical properties. The DS centrality can be directly applied in locating influential spreaders. According to the empirical results on four real networks for both susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected (SI) spreading models, the DS centrality is more accurate than degree, k-shell index and eigenvector centrality. PMID:26905891

  9. Comparison of methods to identify aberrant expression patterns in individual patients: augmenting our toolkit for precision medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient-specific aberrant expression patterns in conjunction with functional screening assays can guide elucidation of the cancer genome architecture and identification of therapeutic targets. Since most statistical methods for expression analysis are focused on differences between experimental groups, the performance of approaches for patient-specific expression analyses are currently less well characterized. A comparison of methods for the identification of genes that are dysregulated relative to a single sample in a given set of experimental samples, to our knowledge, has not been performed. Methods We systematically evaluated several methods including variations on the nearest neighbor based outlying degree method, as well as the Zscore and a robust variant for their suitability to detect patient-specific events. The methods were assessed using both simulations and expression data from a cohort of pediatric acute B lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Results We first assessed power and false discovery rates using simulations and found that even under optimal conditions, high effect sizes (>4 unit differences) were necessary to have acceptable power for any method (>0.9) though high false discovery rates (>0.1) were pervasive across simulation conditions. Next we introduced a technical factor into the simulation and found that performance was reduced for all methods and that using weights with the outlying degree could provide performance gains depending on the number of samples and genes affected by the technical factor. In our use case that highlights the integration of functional assays and aberrant expression in a patient cohort (the identification of gene dysregulation events associated with the targets from a siRNA screen), we demonstrated that both the outlying degree and the Zscore can successfully identify genes dysregulated in one patient sample. However, only the outlying degree can identify genes dysregulated across several patient samples

  10. Meta-Analysis of 28,141 Individuals Identifies Common Variants within Five New Loci That Influence Uric Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Serena; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Perola, Markus; Mangino, Massimo; Albrecht, Eva; Wallace, Chris; Farrall, Martin; Johansson, Åsa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Aulchenko, Yurii; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Campbell, Harry; Connell, John; Dominiczak, Anna; Homuth, Georg; Lamina, Claudia; McCarthy, Mark I.; Meitinger, Thomas; Mooser, Vincent; Munroe, Patricia; Nauck, Matthias; Peden, John; Prokisch, Holger; Salo, Perttu; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Waterworth, Dawn; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Wright, Alan F.; Adamski, Jerzy; Whitfield, John B.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Pramstaller, Peter; Watkins, Hugh; Doering, Angela; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Spector, Tim D.; Peltonen, Leena; Völzke, Henry; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Vollenweider, Peter; Caulfield, Mark; Illig, Thomas; Gieger, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Elevated serum uric acid levels cause gout and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To investigate the polygenetic basis of serum uric acid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans from 14 studies totalling 28,141 participants of European descent, resulting in identification of 954 SNPs distributed across nine loci that exceeded the threshold of genome-wide significance, five of which are novel. Overall, the common variants associated with serum uric acid levels fall in the following nine regions: SLC2A9 (p = 5.2×10−201), ABCG2 (p = 3.1×10−26), SLC17A1 (p = 3.0×10−14), SLC22A11 (p = 6.7×10−14), SLC22A12 (p = 2.0×10−9), SLC16A9 (p = 1.1×10−8), GCKR (p = 1.4×10−9), LRRC16A (p = 8.5×10−9), and near PDZK1 (p = 2.7×10−9). Identified variants were analyzed for gender differences. We found that the minor allele for rs734553 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in lowering uric acid levels in women and the minor allele of rs2231142 in ABCG2 elevates uric acid levels more strongly in men compared to women. To further characterize the identified variants, we analyzed their association with a panel of metabolites. rs12356193 within SLC16A9 was associated with DL-carnitine (p = 4.0×10−26) and propionyl-L-carnitine (p = 5.0×10−8) concentrations, which in turn were associated with serum UA levels (p = 1.4×10−57 and p = 8.1×10−54, respectively), forming a triangle between SNP, metabolites, and UA levels. Taken together, these associations highlight additional pathways that are important in the regulation of serum uric acid levels and point toward novel potential targets for pharmacological intervention to prevent or treat hyperuricemia. In addition, these findings strongly support the hypothesis that transport proteins are key in regulating serum uric acid levels. PMID:19503597

  11. Genome-wide association analysis identifies novel loci for chronotype in 100,420 individuals from the UK Biobank.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jacqueline M; Vlasac, Irma; Anderson, Simon G; Kyle, Simon D; Dixon, William G; Bechtold, David A; Gill, Shubhroz; Little, Max A; Luik, Annemarie; Loudon, Andrew; Emsley, Richard; Scheer, Frank A J L; Lawlor, Deborah A; Redline, Susan; Ray, David W; Rutter, Martin K; Saxena, Richa

    2016-01-01

    Our sleep timing preference, or chronotype, is a manifestation of our internal biological clock. Variation in chronotype has been linked to sleep disorders, cognitive and physical performance, and chronic disease. Here we perform a genome-wide association study of self-reported chronotype within the UK Biobank cohort (n=100,420). We identify 12 new genetic loci that implicate known components of the circadian clock machinery and point to previously unstudied genetic variants and candidate genes that might modulate core circadian rhythms or light-sensing pathways. Pathway analyses highlight central nervous and ocular systems and fear-response-related processes. Genetic correlation analysis suggests chronotype shares underlying genetic pathways with schizophrenia, educational attainment and possibly BMI. Further, Mendelian randomization suggests that evening chronotype relates to higher educational attainment. These results not only expand our knowledge of the circadian system in humans but also expose the influence of circadian characteristics over human health and life-history variables such as educational attainment. PMID:26955885

  12. GWAS of 89,283 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with self-reporting of being a morning person

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Youna; Shmygelska, Alena; Tran, David; Eriksson, Nicholas; Tung, Joyce Y.; Hinds, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are a nearly universal feature of living organisms and affect almost every biological process. Our innate preference for mornings or evenings is determined by the phase of our circadian rhythms. We conduct a genome-wide association analysis of self-reported morningness, followed by analyses of biological pathways and related phenotypes. We identify 15 significantly associated loci, including seven near established circadian genes (rs12736689 near RGS16, P=7.0 × 10−18; rs9479402 near VIP, P=3.9 × 10−11; rs55694368 near PER2, P=2.6 × 10−9; rs35833281 near HCRTR2, P=3.7 × 10−9; rs11545787 near RASD1, P=1.4 × 10−8; rs11121022 near PER3, P=2.0 × 10−8; rs9565309 near FBXL3, P=3.5 × 10−8. Circadian and phototransduction pathways are enriched in our results. Morningness is associated with insomnia and other sleep phenotypes; and is associated with body mass index and depression but we did not find evidence for a causal relationship in our Mendelian randomization analysis. Our findings reinforce current understanding of circadian biology and will guide future studies. PMID:26835600

  13. Genome-wide association analysis identifies novel loci for chronotype in 100,420 individuals from the UK Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Jacqueline M.; Vlasac, Irma; Anderson, Simon G.; Kyle, Simon D.; Dixon, William G.; Bechtold, David A.; Gill, Shubhroz; Little, Max A.; Luik, Annemarie; Loudon, Andrew; Emsley, Richard; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Lawlor, Deborah A.; Redline, Susan; Ray, David W.; Rutter, Martin K.; Saxena, Richa

    2016-01-01

    Our sleep timing preference, or chronotype, is a manifestation of our internal biological clock. Variation in chronotype has been linked to sleep disorders, cognitive and physical performance, and chronic disease. Here we perform a genome-wide association study of self-reported chronotype within the UK Biobank cohort (n=100,420). We identify 12 new genetic loci that implicate known components of the circadian clock machinery and point to previously unstudied genetic variants and candidate genes that might modulate core circadian rhythms or light-sensing pathways. Pathway analyses highlight central nervous and ocular systems and fear-response-related processes. Genetic correlation analysis suggests chronotype shares underlying genetic pathways with schizophrenia, educational attainment and possibly BMI. Further, Mendelian randomization suggests that evening chronotype relates to higher educational attainment. These results not only expand our knowledge of the circadian system in humans but also expose the influence of circadian characteristics over human health and life-history variables such as educational attainment. PMID:26955885

  14. Does Vitamin D Supplementation Enhance Musculoskeletal Performance in Individuals Identified as Vitamin D Deficient through Blood Spot Testing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Kellie A.

    This thesis investigated possible changes in performance after one month of vitamin D supplementation in individuals found to be vitamin D deficient or insufficient through blood spot testing. Thirty-two males, ages 18-32, participated. Each subject visited the lab three times in one-month, completing four performance tests each session, including an isometric mid-thigh pull and a vertical jump on a force plate, a isometric 90-degree elbow flexion test using a load cell, and a psychomotor vigilance test on a palm pilot. The initial lab included blood spot tests to find vitamin D levels. In a single blind manner, 16 subjects were assigned vitamin D and 16 the placebo. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=2.626, p=0.364), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=1.282, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F=0.304, p=0.999) for maximum force production during an isometric mid-thigh pull. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=1.323, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=0.510, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 1.625, p=0.860) for rate of force production during a vertical jump. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=0.194, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=2.452, p=0.513), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 1.179, p=0.999) for maximal force production during a 90-degree isometric elbow flexion. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=1.710, p=0.804), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=1.471, p=0.94), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 0.293, p=0.999) for mean reaction time to random stimuli during the psychomotor vigilance test. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=0.530, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=0.141, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F=0.784 p=0

  15. Exploring the influential factors in incident clearance time: Disentangling causation from self-selection bias.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chuan; Ma, Xiaolei; Wang, Yinhai; Wang, Yunpeng

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the relationships between influential factors and incident clearance time is crucial to make effective countermeasures for incident management agencies. Although there have been a certain number of achievements on incident clearance time modeling, limited effort is made to investigate the relative role of incident response time and its self-selection in influencing the clearance time. To fill this gap, this study uses the endogenous switching model to explore the influential factors in incident clearance time, and aims to disentangle causation from self-selection bias caused by response process. Under the joint two-stage model framework, the binary probit model and switching regression model are formulated for both incident response time and clearance time, respectively. Based on the freeway incident data collected in Washington State, full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method is utilized to estimate the endogenous switching model parameters. Significant factors affecting incident response time and clearance time can be identified, including incident, temporal, geographical, environmental, traffic and operational attributes. The estimate results reveal the influential effects of incident, temporal, geographical, environmental, traffic and operational factors on incident response time and clearance time. In addition, the causality of incident response time itself and its self-selection correction on incident clearance time are found to be indispensable. These findings suggest that the causal effect of response time on incident clearance time will be overestimated if the self-selection bias is not considered. PMID:26373988

  16. [Which are the most influential journals, books and scientists in Latin American biology?].

    PubMed

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Benavides-Varela, Catalina; Morera, Bernal

    2004-03-01

    A survey was distributed by e-mail to 553 biologists who study the Neotropics, in order to identify the journals, books and researchers with the greatest influence over Latin American biology. The biologists' database of the Revista de Biología Tropical was used to obtain their addresses. One third of them answered. The Revista de Biología Tropical is considered the most influential journal in the region. The majority of other influential journals are published in developed countries. The thematic distribution of answers, as well as independent assessments found in the literature, indicate that these and other survey results are not biased by the use of the journal's database. By subject, marine and ecological journals are the most influential. In contrast with American science, there are no researchers or books that clearly dominate the field. These results hint to the subjectivity of many awards and qualifications and possibly reflect a lack of tradition regarding appearance of local scientists in the mass media, the small capacity of world wide diffusion for local research and the low priority of science in the Iberoamerican culture. Latin American journals should improve, specially through efficient communication with authors, stringent rejection of inferior manuscripts and through widespread and timely distribution. The marked dominance by male researchers may reflect the lower number of women in the field, and social inequality. Despite the absence of "superstars", there was a correlation: most scientists in the "list of outstanding researchers" were from large countries. The publication of the most influential journal in one of the smallest countries of the region might reflect the relatively long period of existence of the Revista (half a century), the lack of other alternatives in the region and the journal's inclusion in international indices. Recommendations for Latin American science include a selection of the best journals to receive financial

  17. Teaching Children To Read and Write: Becoming an Influential Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruddell, Robert B.; Ruddell, Martha Rapp

    Designed to include a broad base of information about how children acquire and develop literacy, this book discusses the knowledge that is necessary to be an influential teacher of reading and writing. Each chapter in the book begins and ends with a "Double Entry Journal" (DEJ)--an interactive strategy designed to stimulate thinking and to draw…

  18. Ten Lives in Mine: Creating Portraits of Influential Chinese Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhoe, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    This is an essay about research methodology, particularly the use of narrative method, in a project which depicts portraits of 10 influential educators of China. The essay begins with reflections on the dialogue of civilizations and the potential future influence of Chinese civilization in the global community. It then goes on to consider the…

  19. Two Influential Primate Classifications Logically Aligned

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Nico M.; Pier, Naomi M.; Reeder, Deeann M.; Chen, Mingmin; Yu, Shizhuo; Kianmajd, Parisa; Bowers, Shawn; Ludäscher, Bertram

    2016-01-01

    treatments—in the sense of the same name identifying congruent taxonomic meanings. The RCC-5 alignment approach is potentially widely applicable in systematics and can achieve scalable, precise resolution of semantically evolving name usages in synthetic, next-generation biodiversity, and phylogeny data platforms. PMID:27009895

  20. Two Influential Primate Classifications Logically Aligned.

    PubMed

    Franz, Nico M; Pier, Naomi M; Reeder, Deeann M; Chen, Mingmin; Yu, Shizhuo; Kianmajd, Parisa; Bowers, Shawn; Ludäscher, Bertram

    2016-07-01

    -in the sense of the same name identifying congruent taxonomic meanings. The RCC-5 alignment approach is potentially widely applicable in systematics and can achieve scalable, precise resolution of semantically evolving name usages in synthetic, next-generation biodiversity, and phylogeny data platforms. PMID:27009895

  1. Identifying Individual Risk Factors and Documenting the Pattern of Heat-Related Illness through Analyses of Hospitalization and Patterns of Household Cooling

    PubMed Central

    Schmeltz, Michael T.; Sembajwe, Grace; Marcotullio, Peter J.; Grassman, Jean A.; Himmelstein, David U.; Woolhandler, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background As climate change increases the frequency and intensity of extreme heat events researchers and public health officials must work towards understanding the causes and outcomes of heat-related morbidity and mortality. While there have been many studies on both heat-related illness (HRI), there are fewer on heat-related morbidity than on heat-related mortality. Objective To identify individual and environmental risk factors for hospitalizations and document patterns of household cooling. Methods We performed a pooled cross-sectional analysis of secondary U.S. data, the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Risk ratios were calculated from multivariable models to identify risk factors for hospitalizations. Hierarchical modeling was also employed to identify relationships between individual and hospital level predictors of hospitalizations. Patterns of air conditioning use were analyzed among the vulnerable populations identified. Results Hospitalizations due to HRI increased over the study period compared to all other hospitalizations. Populations at elevated risk for HRI hospitalization were blacks, males and all age groups above the age of 40. Those living in zip-codes in the lowest income quartile and the uninsured were also at an increased risk. Hospitalizations for HRI in rural and small urban clusters were elevated, compared to urban areas. Conclusions Risk factors for HRI include age greater than 40, male gender and hospitalization in rural areas or small urban clusters. Our analysis also revealed an increasing pattern of HRI hospitalizations over time and decreased association between common comorbidities and heat illnesses which may be indicative of underreporting. PMID:25742021

  2. Mutations in FGF17, IL17RD, DUSP6, SPRY4, and FLRT3 are identified in individuals with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Miraoui, Hichem; Dwyer, Andrew A; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P; Plummer, Lacey; Chung, Wilson; Feng, Bihua; Beenken, Andrew; Clarke, Jeff; Pers, Tune H; Dworzynski, Piotr; Keefe, Kimberley; Niedziela, Marek; Raivio, Taneli; Crowley, William F; Seminara, Stephanie B; Quinton, Richard; Hughes, Virginia A; Kumanov, Philip; Young, Jacques; Yialamas, Maria A; Hall, Janet E; Van Vliet, Guy; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Rubenstein, John; Mohammadi, Moosa; Tsai, Pei-San; Sidis, Yisrael; Lage, Kasper; Pitteloud, Nelly

    2013-05-01

    Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) and its anosmia-associated form (Kallmann syndrome [KS]) are genetically heterogeneous. Among the >15 genes implicated in these conditions, mutations in FGF8 and FGFR1 account for ~12% of cases; notably, KAL1 and HS6ST1 are also involved in FGFR1 signaling and can be mutated in CHH. We therefore hypothesized that mutations in genes encoding a broader range of modulators of the FGFR1 pathway might contribute to the genetics of CHH as causal or modifier mutations. Thus, we aimed to (1) investigate whether CHH individuals harbor mutations in members of the so-called "FGF8 synexpression" group and (2) validate the ability of a bioinformatics algorithm on the basis of protein-protein interactome data (interactome-based affiliation scoring [IBAS]) to identify high-quality candidate genes. On the basis of sequence homology, expression, and structural and functional data, seven genes were selected and sequenced in 386 unrelated CHH individuals and 155 controls. Except for FGF18 and SPRY2, all other genes were found to be mutated in CHH individuals: FGF17 (n = 3 individuals), IL17RD (n = 8), DUSP6 (n = 5), SPRY4 (n = 14), and FLRT3 (n = 3). Independently, IBAS predicted FGF17 and IL17RD as the two top candidates in the entire proteome on the basis of a statistical test of their protein-protein interaction patterns to proteins known to be altered in CHH. Most of the FGF17 and IL17RD mutations altered protein function in vitro. IL17RD mutations were found only in KS individuals and were strongly linked to hearing loss (6/8 individuals). Mutations in genes encoding components of the FGF pathway are associated with complex modes of CHH inheritance and act primarily as contributors to an oligogenic genetic architecture underlying CHH. PMID:23643382

  3. Mutations in FGF17, IL17RD, DUSP6, SPRY4, and FLRT3 Are Identified in Individuals with Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Miraoui, Hichem; Dwyer, Andrew A.; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P.; Plummer, Lacey; Chung, Wilson; Feng, Bihua; Beenken, Andrew; Clarke, Jeff; Pers, Tune H.; Dworzynski, Piotr; Keefe, Kimberley; Niedziela, Marek; Raivio, Taneli; Crowley, William F.; Seminara, Stephanie B.; Quinton, Richard; Hughes, Virginia A.; Kumanov, Philip; Young, Jacques; Yialamas, Maria A.; Hall, Janet E.; Van Vliet, Guy; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Rubenstein, John; Mohammadi, Moosa; Tsai, Pei-San; Sidis, Yisrael; Lage, Kasper; Pitteloud, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) and its anosmia-associated form (Kallmann syndrome [KS]) are genetically heterogeneous. Among the >15 genes implicated in these conditions, mutations in FGF8 and FGFR1 account for ∼12% of cases; notably, KAL1 and HS6ST1 are also involved in FGFR1 signaling and can be mutated in CHH. We therefore hypothesized that mutations in genes encoding a broader range of modulators of the FGFR1 pathway might contribute to the genetics of CHH as causal or modifier mutations. Thus, we aimed to (1) investigate whether CHH individuals harbor mutations in members of the so-called “FGF8 synexpression” group and (2) validate the ability of a bioinformatics algorithm on the basis of protein-protein interactome data (interactome-based affiliation scoring [IBAS]) to identify high-quality candidate genes. On the basis of sequence homology, expression, and structural and functional data, seven genes were selected and sequenced in 386 unrelated CHH individuals and 155 controls. Except for FGF18 and SPRY2, all other genes were found to be mutated in CHH individuals: FGF17 (n = 3 individuals), IL17RD (n = 8), DUSP6 (n = 5), SPRY4 (n = 14), and FLRT3 (n = 3). Independently, IBAS predicted FGF17 and IL17RD as the two top candidates in the entire proteome on the basis of a statistical test of their protein-protein interaction patterns to proteins known to be altered in CHH. Most of the FGF17 and IL17RD mutations altered protein function in vitro. IL17RD mutations were found only in KS individuals and were strongly linked to hearing loss (6/8 individuals). Mutations in genes encoding components of the FGF pathway are associated with complex modes of CHH inheritance and act primarily as contributors to an oligogenic genetic architecture underlying CHH. PMID:23643382

  4. The Art of Athlete Leadership: Identifying High-Quality Athlete Leadership at the Individual and Team Level Through Social Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Katrien; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef; Loughead, Todd M; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip

    2015-06-01

    This research aimed to introduce social network analysis as a novel technique in sports teams to identify the attributes of high-quality athlete leadership, both at the individual and at the team level. Study 1 included 25 sports teams (N = 308 athletes) and focused on athletes' general leadership quality. Study 2 comprised 21 sports teams (N = 267 athletes) and focused on athletes' specific leadership quality as a task, motivational, social, and external leader. The extent to which athletes felt connected with their leader proved to be most predictive for athletes' perceptions of that leader's quality on each leadership role. Also at the team level, teams with higher athlete leadership quality were more strongly connected. We conclude that social network analysis constitutes a valuable tool to provide more insight in the attributes of high-quality leadership both at the individual and at the team level. PMID:26265340

  5. Using Local Climate Science to Educate "Key Influentials" and their Communities in the San Diego Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Estrada, M.; Anders, S.; Silva-Send, N. J.; Yin, Z.; Schultz, P.; Young, E.

    2012-12-01

    The San Diego Regional Climate Education Partnership has formed an innovative and collaborative team whose mission is to implement a research-based climate science education and communications program to increase knowledge about climate science among highly-influential leaders and their communities and foster informed decision making based on climate science and impacts. The team includes climate scientists, behavioral psychologists, formal and informal educators and communication specialists. The Partnership's strategic plan has three major goals: (1) raise public understanding of the causes and consequences of climate change; (2) identify the most effective educational methods to educate non-traditional audiences (Key Influentials) about the causes and consequences of climate change; and (3) develop and implement a replicable model for regional climate change education. To implement this strategic plan, we have anchored our project on three major pillars: (1) Local climate science (causes, impacts and long-term consequences); (2) theoretical, research-based evaluation framework (TIMSI); and (3) Key! Influentials (KI) as primary audience for messages (working w! ith and through them). During CCEP-I, the Partnership formed and convened an advisory board of Key Influentials, completed interviews with a sample of Key Influentials, conducted a public opinion survey, developed a website (www.sandiego.edu/climate) , compiled inventories on literature of climate science education resources and climate change community groups and local activities, hosted stakeholder forums, and completed the first phase of on an experiment to test the effects of different messengers delivering the same local climate change message via video. Results of 38 KI Interviews provided evidence of local climate knowledge, strong concern about climate change, and deeply held values related to climate change education and regional leadership. The most intriguing result was that while 90% of Key

  6. Application and Validation of Case-Finding Algorithms for Identifying Individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus from Administrative Data in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Nosyk, Bohdan; Colley, Guillaume; Yip, Benita; Chan, Keith; Heath, Katherine; Lima, Viviane D.; Gilbert, Mark; Hogg, Robert S.; Harrigan, P. Richard; Montaner, Julio S. G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To define a population-level cohort of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the province of British Columbia from available registries and administrative datasets using a validated case-finding algorithm. Methods Individuals were identified for possible cohort inclusion from the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (CfE) drug treatment program (antiretroviral therapy) and laboratory testing datasets (plasma viral load (pVL) and CD4 diagnostic test results), the BC Centre for Disease Control (CDC) provincial HIV surveillance database (positive HIV tests), as well as databases held by the BC Ministry of Health (MoH); the Discharge Abstract Database (hospitalizations), the Medical Services Plan (physician billing) and PharmaNet databases (additional HIV-related medications). A validated case-finding algorithm was applied to distinguish true HIV cases from those likely to have been misclassified. The sensitivity of the algorithms was assessed as the proportion of confirmed cases (those with records in the CfE, CDC and MoH databases) positively identified by each algorithm. A priori hypotheses were generated and tested to verify excluded cases. Results A total of 25,673 individuals were identified as having at least one HIV-related health record. Among 9,454 unconfirmed cases, the selected case-finding algorithm identified 849 individuals believed to be HIV-positive. The sensitivity of this algorithm among confirmed cases was 88%. Those excluded from the cohort were more likely to be female (44.4% vs. 22.5%; p<0.01), had a lower mortality rate (2.18 per 100 person years (100PY) vs. 3.14/100PY; p<0.01), and had lower median rates of health service utilization (days of medications dispensed: 9745/100PY vs. 10266/100PY; p<0.01; days of inpatient care: 29/100PY vs. 98/100PY; p<0.01; physician billings: 602/100PY vs. 2,056/100PY; p<0.01). Conclusions The application of validated case-finding algorithms and subsequent hypothesis

  7. Real-time PCR/DNA melting curve-based assay to identify individual strongylid larvae recovered from ovine faecal cultures.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jacqueline S; Bisset, Stewart A

    2015-12-15

    A closed-tube real-time PCR (RT PCR) method was developed to identify individual strongylid nematode larvae recovered from ovine faecal cultures. The method builds on an earlier conventional PCR assay established by our group and similarly targets species-specific sequence motifs in the ITS-2 region of ribosomal DNA. The new procedure combines RT PCR with DNA melting curve analyses to identify species-specific amplicons, thus avoiding the need to undertake gel electrophoresis. As with the earlier method, it involves two sets of species-specific reactions. The first targets Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Nematodirus spathiger and Oesophagostomum venulosum while the second targets Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus vitrinis, Cooperia curticei and Chabertia ovina. With two exceptions, all the DNA primers employed in the new assay were among those described and tested in developing the earlier assay. The exceptions are the forward "generic" primer, which was re-designed to generate smaller amplicon sizes more suitable for melting curve analyses, and the T. axei-specific primer, which was modified to achieve a higher amplicon melt temperature to enable larvae of this species to be more readily differentiated from those of C. curticei. The melt temperature range for amplicons representing each of the species targeted was determined using lysates derived from both microscopically identified adult male worms (2-12/species), as well as 30 larvae of each of the species which were derived from at least 6 different geographical locations throughout New Zealand. The new assay potentially provides a simpler, faster method to identify individual ovine strongylid larvae for downstream applications than was provided by the earlier conventional PCR assay. PMID:26526096

  8. Gene-centric Meta-analysis in 87,736 Individuals of European Ancestry Identifies Multiple Blood-Pressure-Related Loci

    PubMed Central

    Tragante, Vinicius; Barnes, Michael R.; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Guo, Wei; Franceschini, Nora; Smith, Erin N.; Johnson, Toby; Holmes, Michael V.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Almoguera, Berta; Barnard, John; Baumert, Jens; Chang, Yen-Pei Christy; Elbers, Clara C.; Farrall, Martin; Fischer, Mary E.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Gho, Johannes M.I.H.; Gieger, Christian; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Yan; Isaacs, Aaron; Kleber, Marcus E.; Leach, Irene Mateo; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Meijs, Matthijs F.L.; Melander, Olle; Nelson, Christopher P.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Pankratz, Nathan; Price, Tom S.; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shah, Sonia; Tomaszewski, Maciej; van der Most, Peter J.; Van Iperen, Erik P.A.; Vonk, Judith M.; Witkowska, Kate; Wong, Caroline O.L.; Zhang, Li; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Brown, Morris; Burt, Amber; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Connell, John M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Curtis, Sean P.; Davey-Smith, George; Delles, Christian; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Guo, Xiuqing; Haiqing, Shen; Hastie, Claire E.; Hofker, Marten H.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kim, Daniel S.; Kirkland, Susan A.; Klein, Barbara E.; Klein, Ronald; Li, Yun R.; Maiwald, Steffi; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O’Brien, Eoin T.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Palmas, Walter; Parsa, Afshin; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pettinger, Mary; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Ranchalis, Jane E.; M Ridker, Paul; Rose, Lynda M.; Sever, Peter; Shimbo, Daichi; Steele, Laura; Stolk, Ronald P.; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Verschuren, W. Monique; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wyatt, Sharon; Young, J. Hunter; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Casas, Juan P.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I.; Davidson, Karina W.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Gums, John G.; Fornage, Myriam; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halder, Indrani; Hillege, Hans L.; Illig, Thomas; Jarvik, Gail P.; Johnson, Julie A.; Kastelein, John J.P.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kumari, Meena; März, Winfried; Murray, Sarah S.; O’Connell, Jeffery R.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Pankow, James S.; Rader, Daniel J.; Redline, Susan; Reilly, Muredach P.; Schadt, Eric E.; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Snieder, Harold; Snyder, Michael; Stanton, Alice V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Watkins, Hugh; Johnson, Andrew D.; Reiner, Alex P.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Levy, Daniel; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Keating, Brendan J.

    2014-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ∼50,000 SNPs in up to 87,736 individuals of European ancestry and combined these in a meta-analysis. We replicated findings in an independent set of 68,368 individuals of European ancestry. Our analyses identified 11 previously undescribed associations in independent loci containing 31 genes including PDE1A, HLA-DQB1, CDK6, PRKAG2, VCL, H19, NUCB2, RELA, HOXC@ complex, FBN1, and NFAT5 at the Bonferroni-corrected array-wide significance threshold (p < 6 × 10−7) and confirmed 27 previously reported associations. Bioinformatic analysis of the 11 loci provided support for a putative role in hypertension of several genes, such as CDK6 and NUCB2. Analysis of potential pharmacological targets in databases of small molecules showed that ten of the genes are predicted to be a target for small molecules. In summary, we identified previously unknown loci associated with BP. Our findings extend our understanding of genes involved in BP regulation, which may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention or drug response stratification. PMID:24560520

  9. Gene-centric meta-analysis in 87,736 individuals of European ancestry identifies multiple blood-pressure-related loci.

    PubMed

    Tragante, Vinicius; Barnes, Michael R; Ganesh, Santhi K; Lanktree, Matthew B; Guo, Wei; Franceschini, Nora; Smith, Erin N; Johnson, Toby; Holmes, Michael V; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Karczewski, Konrad J; Almoguera, Berta; Barnard, John; Baumert, Jens; Chang, Yen-Pei Christy; Elbers, Clara C; Farrall, Martin; Fischer, Mary E; Gaunt, Tom R; Gho, Johannes M I H; Gieger, Christian; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Yan; Isaacs, Aaron; Kleber, Marcus E; Mateo Leach, Irene; McDonough, Caitrin W; Meijs, Matthijs F L; Melander, Olle; Nelson, Christopher P; Nolte, Ilja M; Pankratz, Nathan; Price, Tom S; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shah, Sonia; Tomaszewski, Maciej; van der Most, Peter J; Van Iperen, Erik P A; Vonk, Judith M; Witkowska, Kate; Wong, Caroline O L; Zhang, Li; Beitelshees, Amber L; Berenson, Gerald S; Bhatt, Deepak L; Brown, Morris; Burt, Amber; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Connell, John M; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Curtis, Sean P; Davey-Smith, George; Delles, Christian; Gansevoort, Ron T; Guo, Xiuqing; Haiqing, Shen; Hastie, Claire E; Hofker, Marten H; Hovingh, G Kees; Kim, Daniel S; Kirkland, Susan A; Klein, Barbara E; Klein, Ronald; Li, Yun R; Maiwald, Steffi; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O'Brien, Eoin T; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Palmas, Walter; Parsa, Afshin; Penninx, Brenda W; Pettinger, Mary; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Ranchalis, Jane E; M Ridker, Paul; Rose, Lynda M; Sever, Peter; Shimbo, Daichi; Steele, Laura; Stolk, Ronald P; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Verschuren, W Monique; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wyatt, Sharon; Young, J Hunter; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Bezzina, Connie R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Casas, Juan P; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I; Davidson, Karina W; Doevendans, Pieter A; Dominiczak, Anna F; FitzGerald, Garret A; Gums, John G; Fornage, Myriam; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halder, Indrani; Hillege, Hans L; Illig, Thomas; Jarvik, Gail P; Johnson, Julie A; Kastelein, John J P; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kumari, Meena; März, Winfried; Murray, Sarah S; O'Connell, Jeffery R; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pankow, James S; Rader, Daniel J; Redline, Susan; Reilly, Muredach P; Schadt, Eric E; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Snieder, Harold; Snyder, Michael; Stanton, Alice V; Tobin, Martin D; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Samani, Nilesh J; Watkins, Hugh; Johnson, Andrew D; Reiner, Alex P; Zhu, Xiaofeng; de Bakker, Paul I W; Levy, Daniel; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Munroe, Patricia B; Keating, Brendan J

    2014-03-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ~50,000 SNPs in up to 87,736 individuals of European ancestry and combined these in a meta-analysis. We replicated findings in an independent set of 68,368 individuals of European ancestry. Our analyses identified 11 previously undescribed associations in independent loci containing 31 genes including PDE1A, HLA-DQB1, CDK6, PRKAG2, VCL, H19, NUCB2, RELA, HOXC@ complex, FBN1, and NFAT5 at the Bonferroni-corrected array-wide significance threshold (p < 6 × 10(-7)) and confirmed 27 previously reported associations. Bioinformatic analysis of the 11 loci provided support for a putative role in hypertension of several genes, such as CDK6 and NUCB2. Analysis of potential pharmacological targets in databases of small molecules showed that ten of the genes are predicted to be a target for small molecules. In summary, we identified previously unknown loci associated with BP. Our findings extend our understanding of genes involved in BP regulation, which may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention or drug response stratification. PMID:24560520

  10. Alternative effector-function profiling identifies broad HIV-specific T-cell responses in highly HIV-exposed individuals who remain uninfected.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Riol, Marta; Llano, Anuska; Ibarrondo, Javier; Zamarreño, Jennifer; Yusim, Karina; Bach, Vanessa; Mothe, Beatriz; Perez-Alvarez, Susana; Fernandez, Marco A; Requena, Gerard; Meulbroek, Michael; Pujol, Ferran; Leon, Agathe; Cobarsi, Patricia; Korber, Bette T; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ganoza, Carmela; Sanchez, Jorge; Coll, Josep; Brander, Christian

    2015-03-15

    The characterization of host immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV controllers and individuals with high exposure but seronegativity to HIV (HESN) is needed to guide the development of effective preventive and therapeutic vaccine candidates. However, several technical hurdles severely limit the definition of an effective virus-specific T-cell response. By using a toggle-peptide approach, which takes HIV sequence diversity into account, and a novel, boosted cytokine staining/flow cytometry strategy, we here describe new patterns of T-cell responses to HIV that would be missed by standard assays. Importantly, this approach also allows detection of broad and strong virus-specific T-cell responses in HESN individuals that are characterized by a T-helper type 1 cytokine-like effector profile and produce cytokines that have been associated with potential control of HIV infection, including interleukin 10, interleukin 13, and interleukin 22. These results establish a novel approach to improve the current understanding of HIV-specific T-cell immunity and identify cellular immune responses and individual cytokines as potential markers of relative HIV resistance. As such, the findings also help develop similar strategies for more-comprehensive assessments of host immune responses to other human infections and immune-mediated disorders. PMID:25249264

  11. The individual-cell-based cryo-chip for the cryopreservation, manipulation and observation of spatially identifiable cells. II: Functional activity of cryopreserved cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The cryopreservation and thawing processes are known to induce many deleterious effects in cells and might be detrimental to several cell types. There is an inherent variability in cellular responses among cell types and within individual cells of a given population with regard to their ability to endure the freezing and thawing process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of cryopreserved cells within an optical cryo apparatus, the individual-cell-based cryo-chip (i3C), by monitoring several basic cellular functional activities at the resolution of individual cells. Results In the present study, U937 cells underwent the freezing and thawing cycle in the i3C device. Then a panel of vital tests was performed, including the number of dead cells (PI staining), apoptotic rate (Annexin V staining), mitochondrial membrane potential (TMRM staining), cytoplasm membrane integrity and intracellular metabolism (FDA staining), as well as post-thawing cell proliferation assays. Cells that underwent the freezing - thawing cycle in i3C devices exhibited the same functional activity as control cells. Moreover, the combination of the multi-parametric analysis at a single cell resolution and the optical and biological features of the device enable an accurate determination of the functional status of individual cells and subsequent retrieval and utilization of the most valuable cells. Conclusions The means and methodologies described here enable the freezing and thawing of spatially identifiable cells, as well as the efficient detection of viable, specific, highly biologically active cells for future applications. PMID:20973993

  12. A novel biochemical method to identify target genes of individual microRNAs: Identification of a new Caenorhabditis elegans let-7 target

    PubMed Central

    Andachi, Yoshiki

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are roughly 22-nucleotide regulatory RNAs that play important roles in many developmental and physiological processes. Animal miRNAs down-regulate target genes by forming imperfect base pairs with 3′ untranslated regions (3′ UTRs) of their mRNAs. Thousands of miRNAs have been discovered in several organisms. However, the target genes of almost all of these miRNAs remain to be identified. Here, we describe a method for isolating cDNA clones of target mRNAs that form base pairs in vivo with an endogenous miRNA of interest, in which the cDNAs are synthesized from the mRNAs using the miRNA as a reverse-transcription primer. The application of this method to Caenorhabditis elegans miRNA lin-4 under test conditions yielded many clones of the known target gene lin-14 that correspond to partial sequences 5′ to lin-4 binding sites in the 3′ UTR. The method was also applied to C. elegans miRNA let-7 and a new target gene responsible for the lethal phenotype in let-7 mutants was identified. These results demonstrate that the method is a useful way to identify targets on the basis of base pairing with individual miRNAs. PMID:18824511

  13. A generalized Grubbs-Beck test statistic for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in flood series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, T. A.; England, J. F.; Berenbrock, C. E.; Mason, R. R.; Stedinger, J. R.; Lamontagne, J. R.

    2013-08-01

    The Grubbs-Beck test is recommended by the federal guidelines for detection of low outliers in flood flow frequency computation in the United States. This paper presents a generalization of the Grubbs-Beck test for normal data (similar to the Rosner (1983) test; see also Spencer and McCuen (1996)) that can provide a consistent standard for identifying multiple potentially influential low flows. In cases where low outliers have been identified, they can be represented as "less-than" values, and a frequency distribution can be developed using censored-data statistical techniques, such as the Expected Moments Algorithm. This approach can improve the fit of the right-hand tail of a frequency distribution and provide protection from lack-of-fit due to unimportant but potentially influential low flows (PILFs) in a flood series, thus making the flood frequency analysis procedure more robust.

  14. A generalized Grubbs-Beck test statistic for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in flood series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, T.A.; England, J.F.; Berenbrock, C.E.; Mason, R.R.; Stedinger, J.R.; Lamontagne, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    he Grubbs-Beck test is recommended by the federal guidelines for detection of low outliers in flood flow frequency computation in the United States. This paper presents a generalization of the Grubbs-Beck test for normal data (similar to the Rosner (1983) test; see also Spencer and McCuen (1996)) that can provide a consistent standard for identifying multiple potentially influential low flows. In cases where low outliers have been identified, they can be represented as “less-than” values, and a frequency distribution can be developed using censored-data statistical techniques, such as the Expected Moments Algorithm. This approach can improve the fit of the right-hand tail of a frequency distribution and provide protection from lack-of-fit due to unimportant but potentially influential low flows (PILFs) in a flood series, thus making the flood frequency analysis procedure more robust.

  15. An empirical comparison of meta-analysis and mega-analysis of individual participant data for identifying gene-environment interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yun Ju; Schwander, Karen; Arnett, Donna K.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Bouchard, Claude; Boerwinkle, Eric; Hunt, Steven C.; Rao, Dabeeru C

    2015-01-01

    For analysis of the main effects of SNPs, meta-analysis of summary results from individual studies has been shown to provide comparable results as “mega-analysis” that jointly analyzes the pooled participant data from the available studies. This fact revolutionized the genetic analysis of complex traits through large GWAS consortia. Investigations of gene-environment (G×E) interactions are on the rise since they can potentially explain a part of the missing heritability and identify individuals at high risk for disease. However, for analysis of gene-environment interactions, it is not known whether these methods yield comparable results. In this empirical study, we report that the results from both methods were largely consistent for all four tests; the standard 1 degree of freedom (df) test of main effect only, the 1 df test of the main effect (in the presence of interaction effect), the 1 df test of the interaction effect, and the joint 2 df test of main and interaction effects. They provided similar effect size and standard error estimates, leading to comparable p-values. The genomic inflation factors and the number of SNPs with various thresholds were also comparable between the two approaches. Mega-analysis is not always feasible especially in very large and diverse consortia since pooling of raw data may be limited by the terms of the informed consent. Our study illustrates that meta-analysis can be an effective approach also for identifying interactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report investigating meta- versus mega-analyses for interactions. PMID:24719363

  16. Identifying risk factors for progression to critical care admission and death among individuals with acute pancreatitis: a record linkage analysis of Scottish healthcare databases

    PubMed Central

    Mole, Damian J; Gungabissoon, Usha; Johnston, Philip; Cochrane, Lynda; Hopkins, Leanne; Wyper, Grant M A; Skouras, Christos; Dibben, Chris; Sullivan, Frank; Morris, Andrew; Ward, Hester J T; Lawton, Andrew M; Donnan, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Acute pancreatitis (AP) can initiate systemic complications that require support in critical care (CC). Our objective was to use the unified national health record to define the epidemiology of AP in Scotland, with a specific focus on deterministic and prognostic factors for CC admission in AP. Setting Health boards in Scotland (n=4). Participants We included all individuals in a retrospective observational cohort with at least one episode of AP (ICD10 code K85) occurring in Scotland from 1 April 2009 to 31 March 2012. 3340 individuals were coded as AP. Methods Data from 16 sources, spanning general practice, community prescribing, Accident and Emergency attendances, hospital in-patient, CC and mortality registries, were linked by a unique patient identifier in a national safe haven. Logistic regression and gamma models were used to define independent predictive factors for severe AP (sAP) requiring CC admission or leading to death. Results 2053 individuals (61.5% (95% CI 59.8% to 63.2%)) met the definition for true AP (tAP). 368 patients (17.9% of tAP (95% CI 16.2% to 19.6%)) were admitted to CC. Predictors of sAP were pre-existing angina or hypertension, hypocalcaemia and age 30–39 years, if type 2 diabetes mellitus was present. The risk of sAP was lower in patients with multiple previous episodes of AP. In-hospital mortality in tAP was 5.0% (95% CI 4.1% to 5.9%) overall and 21.7% (95% CI 19.9% to 23.5%) in those with tAP necessitating CC admission. Conclusions National record-linkage analysis of routinely collected data constitutes a powerful resource to model CC admission and prognosticate death during AP. Mortality in patients with AP who require CC admission remains high. PMID:27311912

  17. Identifying Individual, Cultural and Asthma-Related Risk and Protective Factors Associated With Resilient Asthma Outcomes in Urban Children and Families

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Jandasek, Barbara; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Seifer, Ronald; Klein, Robert B.; Potter, Christina; Fritz, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study is to identify individual, family/cultural, and illness-related protective factors that may minimize asthma morbidity in the context of multiple urban risks in a sample of inner-city children and families. Methods Participating families are from African-American (33), Latino (51) and non-Latino white (47) backgrounds. A total of 131 children with asthma (56% male), ages 6–13 years and their primary caregivers were included. Results Analyses supported the relationship between cumulative risks and asthma morbidity across children of the sample. Protective processes functioned differently by ethnic group. For example, Latino families exhibited higher levels of family connectedness, and this was associated with lower levels of functional limitation due to asthma, in the context of risks. Conclusions This study demonstrates the utility of examining multilevel protective processes that may guard against urban risks factors to decrease morbidity. Intervention programs for families from specific ethnic groups can be tailored to consider individual, family-based/cultural and illness-related supports that decrease stress and enhance aspects of asthma treatment. PMID:22408053

  18. Identifying the Barriers to Early Diagnosis and Treatment in Underserved Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Their Families: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Elder, Jennifer Harrison; Brasher, Susan; Alexander, Beverly

    2016-06-01

    Clinical accounts indicate that disparities exist among families of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), and that these disparities impede timely diagnosis and intervention. Furthermore, families living in rural areas are more likely to have reduced access to proper care and use alternative, unproven, and potentially harmful treatments. The purpose of this project was to begin addressing these needs by engaging providers and families of children with ASD living in rural and typically underserved areas. The investigators established a Community Advisory Board (CAB) of ASD professionals (e.g., community-based healthcare and service providers, director of a center for disabilities, psychologist, autism researcher, and special education professional). Next, they conducted four focus groups comprised of a total of 35 major stakeholders (e.g., individuals with ASD, parents of individuals with ASD, community-based healthcare and service providers, school teachers) to determine potential resources, barriers to early diagnosis/treatment, and alternative treatment use in children with ASD. Focus group sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by three trained independent coders. Community participants identified several barriers to early diagnosis and intervention, as well as a variety of alternative treatments used in children with ASD. Thematic analysis of focus group transcripts showed several overarching themes regarding barriers to early diagnosis and treatment. Findings from this study have implications for practice and future research. PMID:27070190

  19. The "Genetic Program": Behind the Genesis of an Influential Metaphor.

    PubMed

    Peluffo, Alexandre E

    2015-07-01

    The metaphor of the "genetic program," indicating the genome as a set of instructions required to build a phenotype, has been very influential in biology despite various criticisms over the years. This metaphor, first published in 1961, is thought to have been invented independently in two different articles, one by Ernst Mayr and the other by François Jacob and Jacques Monod. Here, after a detailed analysis of what both parties meant by "genetic program," I show, using unpublished archives, the strong resemblance between the ideas of Mayr and Monod and suggest that their idea of genetic program probably shares a common origin. I explore the possibility that the two men met before 1961 and also exchanged their ideas through common friends and colleagues in the field of molecular biology. Based on unpublished correspondence of Jacob and Monod, I highlight the important events that influenced the preparation of their influential paper, which introduced the concept of the genetic program. Finally, I suggest that the genetic program metaphor may have preceded both papers and that it was probably used informally before 1961. PMID:26170444

  20. Tail paradox, partial identifiability, and influential priors in Bayesian branch length inference.

    PubMed

    Rannala, Bruce; Zhu, Tianqi; Yang, Ziheng

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have observed that Bayesian analyses of sequence data sets using the program MrBayes sometimes generate extremely large branch lengths, with posterior credibility intervals for the tree length (sum of branch lengths) excluding the maximum likelihood estimates. Suggested explanations for this phenomenon include the existence of multiple local peaks in the posterior, lack of convergence of the chain in the tail of the posterior, mixing problems, and misspecified priors on branch lengths. Here, we analyze the behavior of Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms when the chain is in the tail of the posterior distribution and note that all these phenomena can occur. In Bayesian phylogenetics, the likelihood function approaches a constant instead of zero when the branch lengths increase to infinity. The flat tail of the likelihood can cause poor mixing and undue influence of the prior. We suggest that the main cause of the extreme branch length estimates produced in many Bayesian analyses is the poor choice of a default prior on branch lengths in current Bayesian phylogenetic programs. The default prior in MrBayes assigns independent and identical distributions to branch lengths, imposing strong (and unreasonable) assumptions about the tree length. The problem is exacerbated by the strong correlation between the branch lengths and parameters in models of variable rates among sites or among site partitions. To resolve the problem, we suggest two multivariate priors for the branch lengths (called compound Dirichlet priors) that are fairly diffuse and demonstrate their utility in the special case of branch length estimation on a star phylogeny. Our analysis highlights the need for careful thought in the specification of high-dimensional priors in Bayesian analyses. PMID:21890479

  1. Referral outcomes of individuals identified at high risk of cardiovascular disease by community health workers in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, Naomi S.; Puoane, Thandi; Denman, Catalina A.; Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika; Surka, Sam; Mendoza, Carlos; Khanam, Masuma; Alam, Sartaj; Gaziano, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Background We have found that community health workers (CHWs) with appropriate training are able to accurately identify people at high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the community who would benefit from the introduction of preventative management, in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa. This paper examines the attendance pattern for those individuals who were so identified and referred to a health care facility for further assessment and management. Design Patient records from the health centres in each site were reviewed for data on diagnoses made and treatment commenced. Reasons for non-attendance were sought from participants who had not attended after being referred. Qualitative data were collected from study coordinators regarding their experiences in obtaining the records and conducting the record reviews. The perspectives of CHWs and community members, who were screened, were also obtained. Results Thirty-seven percent (96/263) of those referred attended follow-up: 36 of 52 (69%) were urgent and 60 of 211 (28.4%) were non-urgent referrals. A diagnosis of hypertension (HTN) was made in 69% of urgent referrals and 37% of non-urgent referrals with treatment instituted in all cases. Reasons for non-attendance included limited self-perception of risk, associated costs, health system obstacles, and lack of trust in CHWs to conduct CVD risk assessments and to refer community members into the health system. Conclusions The existing barriers to referral in the health care systems negatively impact the gains to be had through screening by training CHWs in the use of a simple risk assessment tool. The new diagnoses of HTN and commencement on treatment in those that attended referrals underscores the value of having persons at the highest risk identified in the community setting and referred to a clinic for further evaluation and treatment. PMID:25854780

  2. Salmonella enterica Infections in the United States and Assessment of Coefficients of Variation: A Novel Approach to Identify Epidemiologic Characteristics of Individual Serotypes, 1996–2011

    PubMed Central

    Boore, Amy L.; Hoekstra, R. Michael; Iwamoto, Martha; Fields, Patricia I.; Bishop, Richard D.; Swerdlow, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite control efforts, salmonellosis continues to cause an estimated 1.2 million infections in the United States (US) annually. We describe the incidence of salmonellosis in the US and introduce a novel approach to examine the epidemiologic similarities and differences of individual serotypes. Methods Cases of salmonellosis in humans reported to the laboratory-based National Salmonella Surveillance System during 1996–2011 from US states were included. Coefficients of variation were used to describe distribution of incidence rates of common Salmonella serotypes by geographic region, age group and sex of patient, and month of sample isolation. Results During 1996–2011, more than 600,000 Salmonella isolates from humans were reported, with an average annual incidence of 13.1 cases/100,000 persons. The annual reported rate of Salmonella infections did not decrease during the study period. The top five most commonly reported serotypes, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport, Heidelberg, and Javiana, accounted for 62% of fully serotyped isolates. Coefficients of variation showed the most geographically concentrated serotypes were often clustered in Gulf Coast states and were also more frequently found to be increasing in incidence. Serotypes clustered in particular months, age groups, and sex were also identified and described. Conclusions Although overall incidence rates of Salmonella did not change over time, trends and epidemiological factors differed remarkably by serotype. A better understanding of Salmonella, facilitated by this comprehensive description of overall trends and unique characteristics of individual serotypes, will assist in responding to this disease and in planning and implementing prevention activities. PMID:26701276

  3. Psoriasin, one of several new proteins identified in nasal lavage fluid from allergic and non-allergic individuals using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Bryborn, Malin; Adner, Mikael; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2005-01-01

    Background Extravasation and luminal entry of plasma occurs continuously in the nose. This process is markedly facilitated in patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis, resulting in an increased secretion of proteins. Identification of these proteins is an important step in the understanding of the pathological mechanisms in allergic diseases. DNA microarrays have recently made it possible to compare mRNA profiles of lavage fluids from healthy and diseased patients, whereas information on the protein level is still lacking. Methods Nasal lavage fluid was collected from 11 patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis and 11 healthy volunteers. 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to separate proteins in the lavage fluids. Protein spots were picked from the gels and identified using mass spectrometry and database search. Selected proteins were confirmed with western blot. Results 61 spots were identified, of which 21 were separate proteins. 6 of these proteins (psoriasin, galectin-3, alpha enolase, intersectin-2, Wnt-2B and hypothetical protein MGC33648) had not previously been described in nasal lavage fluids. The levels of psoriasin were markedly down-regulated in allergic individuals. Prolactin-inducible protein was also found to be down-regulated, whereas different fragments of albumin together with Ig gamma 2 chain c region, transthyretin and splice isoform 1 of Wnt-2B were up-regulated among the allergic patients. Conclusion The identification of proteins in nasal lavage fluid with 2-dimensional gelelectrophoresis in combination with mass spectrometry is a novel tool to profile protein expression in allergic rhinitis and it might prove useful in the hunt for new therapeutic targets or diagnostic markers for allergic diseases. Psoriasin is a potent chemotactic factor and its down-regulation during inflammation might be of importance for the outcome of the disease. PMID:16236163

  4. A new approach for identifying non-pathogenic mutations. An analysis of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene in normal individuals.

    PubMed

    Bombieri, C; Giorgi, S; Carles, S; de Cid, R; Belpinati, F; Tandoi, C; Pallares-Ruiz, N; Lazaro, C; Ciminelli, B M; Romey, M C; Casals, T; Pompei, F; Gandini, G; Claustres, M; Estivill, X; Pignatti, P F; Modiano, G

    2000-02-01

    Given q as the global frequency of the alleles causing a disease, any allele with a frequency higher than q minus the cumulative frequency of the previously known disease-causing mutations (threshold) cannot be the cause of that disease. This principle was applied to the analysis of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations in order to decide whether they are the cause of cystic fibrosis. A total of 191 DNA samples from random individuals from Italy, France, and Spain were investigated by DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) analysis of all the coding and proximal non-coding regions of the gene. The mutations detected by DGGE were identified by sequencing. The sample size was sufficient to select essentially all mutations with a frequency of at least 0.01. A total of 46 mutations was detected, 20 of which were missense mutations. Four new mutations were identified: 1341+28 C/T, 2082 C/T, L1096R, and I11131V. Thirteen mutations (125 G/C, 875+40 A/G, TTGAn, IVS8-6 5T, IVS8-6 9T, 1525-61 A/G, M470V, 2694 T/G, 3061-65 C/A, 4002 A/G, 4521 G/A, IVS8 TG10, IVS8 TG12) were classified as non-CF-causing alleles on the basis of their frequency. The remaining mutations have a cumulative frequency far exceeding q; therefore, most of them cannot be CF-causing mutations. This is the first random survey capable of detecting all the polymorphisms of the coding sequence of a gene. PMID:10746558

  5. Investigation of influential parameters for zone-refinement of germanium crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gang; Govani, Jayesh; Guan, Yutong; Huang, Mianliang; Mei, Hao; Wang, Guojian; Mei, Dongming

    2014-03-01

    In zone-refining of high-purity germanium crystals, the influential parameters include vacuum level, container of germanium ingot, ambient gases, zone travel speed, zone length, etc. In the present work, the influences of zone length and zone travel speed on the purity level of the zone-refined ingot have been investigated with many experiments. The impurity level in the zone-refined ingot was characterized by van der pauw hall measurement. The shallow impurities are measured with a photothermal ionization spectroscopy (PTIS), which identifies existence of boron, aluminum and phosphor as three main impurities, in the zone-refined germanium ingot. Utilizing the multiple experiments, we have optimized the zone length and zone travel speed. We demonstrate our experimental results with solidification theory of metals.

  6. "It's Too Crowded": A Qualitative Study of the Physical Environment Factors That Adolescent Girls Perceive to Be Important and Influential on Their PE Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niven, Ailsa; Henretty, Joan; Fawkner, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Many adolescent girls do not achieve a health-enhancing level of physical activity. This study aimed to identify the school physical environment factors that adolescent girls perceive to be important and influential regarding their physical education (PE) behaviour. Adolescent girls (n = 38; aged 13-16) participated in eight moderated focus…

  7. microRNA expression profiling on individual breast cancer patients identifies novel panel of circulating microRNA for early detection

    PubMed Central

    Hamam, Rimi; Ali, Arwa M.; Alsaleh, Khalid A.; Kassem, Moustapha; Alfayez, Musaed; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Alajez, Nehad M.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer type and the second cause of cancer-related death among women. Therefore, better understanding of breast cancer tumor biology and the identification of novel biomarkers is essential for the early diagnosis and for better disease stratification and management choices. Herein we developed a novel approach which relies on the isolation of circulating microRNAs through an enrichment step using speed-vacuum concentration which resulted in 5-fold increase in microRNA abundance. Global miRNA microarray expression profiling performed on individual samples from 23 BC and 9 normals identified 18 up-regulated miRNAs in BC patients (p(corr) < 0.05). Nine miRNAs (hsa-miR-4270, hsa-miR-1225-5p, hsa-miR-188-5p, hsa-miR-1202, hsa-miR-4281, hsa-miR-1207-5p, hsa-miR-642b-3p, hsa-miR-1290, and hsa-miR-3141) were subsequently validated using qRT-PCR in a cohort of 46 BC and 14 controls. The expression of those microRNAs was overall higher in patients with stage I, II, and III, compared to stage IV, with potential utilization for early detection. The expression of this microRNA panel was slightly higher in the HER2 and TN compared to patients with luminal subtype. Therefore, we developed a novel approach which led to the identification of a novel microRNA panel which was upregulated in BC patients with potential utilization in disease diagnosis and stratification. PMID:27180809

  8. An Individual with Both MUTYH-Associated Polyposis and Lynch Syndrome Identified by Multi-Gene Hereditary Cancer Panel Testing: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Stephanie A.; Tan, Christopher A.; Bisson, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of next-generation sequencing technology to interrogate multiple genes simultaneously is being utilized more frequently in hereditary cancer testing. While this has benefits of reducing cost and allowing clinicians to cast a wide net in the elucidation of their patient's cancer, panel testing has the potential to reveal unexpected information. We report on a proband with pathogenic variants resulting in two different hereditary colon cancer syndromes. A 39-year-old male with a history of colon cancer, more than 20 colon polyps and a family history of colon cancer presented for genetic counseling. Testing with a 7-gene high-risk hereditary colon cancer panel identified a homozygous pathogenic variant, c.1187G>A (p.Gly396Asp) in MUTYH, and a likely pathogenic duplication of exon 7 in MSH2. Since this test result, the proband's mother was diagnosed with colon cancer; subsequent genetic testing confirmed she also carries the likely pathogenic duplication in the MSH2 gene. Although the cancer risk in individuals who carry multiple pathogenic variants has not been established for combined biallelic MUTYH-associated polyposis and Lynch syndrome, the identification of multiple pathogenic variants does allow for screening for cancers associated with both syndromes and has implications for cancer risk for family members. In particular, this has significant impact on those who test negative for a known familial pathogenic variant, yet could be still be at risk for cancer due to a second pathogenic variant in a family. More information is needed on the frequency of occurrence of multiple pathogenic variants, as well as the phenotypic spectrum when multiple pathogenic variants are present. PMID:27014339

  9. An Individual with Both MUTYH-Associated Polyposis and Lynch Syndrome Identified by Multi-Gene Hereditary Cancer Panel Testing: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Stephanie A; Tan, Christopher A; Bisson, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of next-generation sequencing technology to interrogate multiple genes simultaneously is being utilized more frequently in hereditary cancer testing. While this has benefits of reducing cost and allowing clinicians to cast a wide net in the elucidation of their patient's cancer, panel testing has the potential to reveal unexpected information. We report on a proband with pathogenic variants resulting in two different hereditary colon cancer syndromes. A 39-year-old male with a history of colon cancer, more than 20 colon polyps and a family history of colon cancer presented for genetic counseling. Testing with a 7-gene high-risk hereditary colon cancer panel identified a homozygous pathogenic variant, c.1187G>A (p.Gly396Asp) in MUTYH, and a likely pathogenic duplication of exon 7 in MSH2. Since this test result, the proband's mother was diagnosed with colon cancer; subsequent genetic testing confirmed she also carries the likely pathogenic duplication in the MSH2 gene. Although the cancer risk in individuals who carry multiple pathogenic variants has not been established for combined biallelic MUTYH-associated polyposis and Lynch syndrome, the identification of multiple pathogenic variants does allow for screening for cancers associated with both syndromes and has implications for cancer risk for family members. In particular, this has significant impact on those who test negative for a known familial pathogenic variant, yet could be still be at risk for cancer due to a second pathogenic variant in a family. More information is needed on the frequency of occurrence of multiple pathogenic variants, as well as the phenotypic spectrum when multiple pathogenic variants are present. PMID:27014339

  10. Size-exclusion chromatography as a stand-alone methodology identifies novel markers in mass spectrometry analyses of plasma-derived vesicles from healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Sáez, María José Fidalgo; Lozano-Ramos, Inés; Segui-Barber, Joan; Martin-Jaular, Lorena; Ullate, Josep M. Estanyol; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Borrás, Francesc E.; del Portillo, Hernando A.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma-derived vesicles hold a promising potential for use in biomedical applications. Two major challenges, however, hinder their implementation into translational tools: (a) the incomplete characterization of the protein composition of plasma-derived vesicles, in the size range of exosomes, as mass spectrometric analysis of plasma sub-components is recognizably troublesome and (b) the limited reach of vesicle-based studies in settings where the infrastructural demand of ultracentrifugation, the most widely used isolation/purification methodology, is not available. In this study, we have addressed both challenges by carrying-out mass spectrometry (MS) analyses of plasma-derived vesicles, in the size range of exosomes, from healthy donors obtained by 2 alternative methodologies: size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) on sepharose columns and Exo-Spin™. No exosome markers, as opposed to the most abundant plasma proteins, were detected by Exo-Spin™. In contrast, exosomal markers were present in the early fractions of SEC where the most abundant plasma proteins have been largely excluded. Noticeably, after a cross-comparative analysis of all published studies using MS to characterize plasma-derived exosomes from healthy individuals, we also observed a paucity of “classical exosome markers.” Independent of the isolation method, however, we consistently identified 2 proteins, CD5 antigen-like (CD5L) and galectin-3-binding protein (LGALS3BP), whose presence was validated by a bead-exosome FACS assay. Altogether, our results support the use of SEC as a stand-alone methodology to obtain preparations of extracellular vesicles, in the size range of exosomes, from plasma and suggest the use of CD5L and LGALS3BP as more suitable markers of plasma-derived vesicles in MS. PMID:26154623

  11. microRNA expression profiling on individual breast cancer patients identifies novel panel of circulating microRNA for early detection.

    PubMed

    Hamam, Rimi; Ali, Arwa M; Alsaleh, Khalid A; Kassem, Moustapha; Alfayez, Musaed; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Alajez, Nehad M

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer type and the second cause of cancer-related death among women. Therefore, better understanding of breast cancer tumor biology and the identification of novel biomarkers is essential for the early diagnosis and for better disease stratification and management choices. Herein we developed a novel approach which relies on the isolation of circulating microRNAs through an enrichment step using speed-vacuum concentration which resulted in 5-fold increase in microRNA abundance. Global miRNA microarray expression profiling performed on individual samples from 23 BC and 9 normals identified 18 up-regulated miRNAs in BC patients (p(corr) < 0.05). Nine miRNAs (hsa-miR-4270, hsa-miR-1225-5p, hsa-miR-188-5p, hsa-miR-1202, hsa-miR-4281, hsa-miR-1207-5p, hsa-miR-642b-3p, hsa-miR-1290, and hsa-miR-3141) were subsequently validated using qRT-PCR in a cohort of 46 BC and 14 controls. The expression of those microRNAs was overall higher in patients with stage I, II, and III, compared to stage IV, with potential utilization for early detection. The expression of this microRNA panel was slightly higher in the HER2 and TN compared to patients with luminal subtype. Therefore, we developed a novel approach which led to the identification of a novel microRNA panel which was upregulated in BC patients with potential utilization in disease diagnosis and stratification. PMID:27180809

  12. Identification of influential events concerning the Antarctic ozone hole over southern Brazil and the biological effects induced by UVB and UVA radiation in an endemic treefrog species.

    PubMed

    Passaglia Schuch, André; Dos Santos, Mauricio Beux; Mendes Lipinski, Victor; Vaz Peres, Lucas; Dos Santos, Caroline Peripolli; Zanini Cechin, Sonia; Jorge Schuch, Nelson; Kirsh Pinheiro, Damaris; da Silva Loreto, Elgion Lúcio

    2015-08-01

    The increased incidence of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) due to ozone depletion has been affecting both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and it may help to explain the enigmatic decline of amphibian populations in specific localities. In this work, influential events concerning the Antarctic ozone hole were identified in a dataset containing 35 years of ozone measurements over southern Brazil. The effects of environmental doses of UVB and UVA radiation were addressed on the morphology and development of Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpole (Anura: Hylidae), as well as on the induction of malformation after the conclusion of metamorphosis. These analyzes were complemented by the detection of micronucleus formation in blood cells. 72 ozone depletion events were identified from 1979 to 2013. Surprisingly, their yearly frequency increased three-fold during the last 17 years. The results clearly show that H. pulchellus tadpole are much more sensitive to UVB than UVA light, which reduces their survival and developmental rates. Additionally, the rates of micronucleus formation by UVB were considerably higher compared to UVA even after the activation of photolyases enzymes by a further photoreactivation treatment. Consequently, a higher occurrence of malformation was observed in UVB-irradiated individuals. These results demonstrate the severe genotoxic impact of UVB radiation on this treefrog species and its importance for further studies aimed to assess the impact of the increased levels of solar UVB radiation on declining species of the Hylidae family. PMID:25957080

  13. Transmissibility of the Ice Bucket Challenge among globally influential celebrities: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Brandford H Y; Leung, Gabriel M; Lau, Eric H Y; Pang, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the transmissibility of the Ice Bucket Challenge among globally influential celebrities and to identify associated risk factors. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Social media (YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram). Participants David Beckham, Cristiano Ronaldo, Benedict Cumberbatch, Stephen Hawking, Mark Zuckerberg, Oprah Winfrey, Homer Simpson, and Kermit the Frog were defined as index cases. We included contacts up to the fifth generation seeded from each index case and enrolled a total of 99 participants into the cohort. Main outcome measures Basic reproduction number R0, serial interval of accepting the challenge, and odds ratios of associated risk factors based on fully observed nomination chains; R0 is a measure of transmissibility and is defined as the number of secondary cases generated by a single index in a fully susceptible population. Serial interval is the duration between onset of a primary case and onset of its secondary cases. Results Based on the empirical data and assuming a branching process we estimated a mean R0 of 1.43 (95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.65) and a mean serial interval for accepting the challenge of 2.1 days (median 1 day). Higher log (base 10) net worth of the participants was positively associated with transmission (odds ratio 1.63, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 2.50), adjusting for age and sex. Conclusions The Ice Bucket Challenge was moderately transmissible among a group of globally influential celebrities, in the range of the pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza. The challenge was more likely to be spread by richer celebrities, perhaps in part reflecting greater social influence. PMID:25514905

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study with Targeted and Non-targeted NMR Metabolomics Identifies 15 Novel Loci of Urinary Human Metabolic Individuality

    PubMed Central

    Raffler, Johannes; Friedrich, Nele; Arnold, Matthias; Kacprowski, Tim; Rueedi, Rico; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Bergmann, Sven; Budde, Kathrin; Gieger, Christian; Homuth, Georg; Pietzner, Maik; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Strauch, Konstantin; Völzke, Henry; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Nauck, Matthias; Völker, Uwe; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Suhre, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies with metabolic traits (mGWAS) uncovered many genetic variants that influence human metabolism. These genetically influenced metabotypes (GIMs) contribute to our metabolic individuality, our capacity to respond to environmental challenges, and our susceptibility to specific diseases. While metabolic homeostasis in blood is a well investigated topic in large mGWAS with over 150 known loci, metabolic detoxification through urinary excretion has only been addressed by few small mGWAS with only 11 associated loci so far. Here we report the largest mGWAS to date, combining targeted and non-targeted 1H NMR analysis of urine samples from 3,861 participants of the SHIP-0 cohort and 1,691 subjects of the KORA F4 cohort. We identified and replicated 22 loci with significant associations with urinary traits, 15 of which are new (HIBCH, CPS1, AGXT, XYLB, TKT, ETNPPL, SLC6A19, DMGDH, SLC36A2, GLDC, SLC6A13, ACSM3, SLC5A11, PNMT, SLC13A3). Two-thirds of the urinary loci also have a metabolite association in blood. For all but one of the 6 loci where significant associations target the same metabolite in blood and urine, the genetic effects have the same direction in both fluids. In contrast, for the SLC5A11 locus, we found increased levels of myo-inositol in urine whereas mGWAS in blood reported decreased levels for the same genetic variant. This might indicate less effective re-absorption of myo-inositol in the kidneys of carriers. In summary, our study more than doubles the number of known loci that influence urinary phenotypes. It thus allows novel insights into the relationship between blood homeostasis and its regulation through excretion. The newly discovered loci also include variants previously linked to chronic kidney disease (CPS1, SLC6A13), pulmonary hypertension (CPS1), and ischemic stroke (XYLB). By establishing connections from gene to disease via metabolic traits our results provide novel hypotheses about molecular mechanisms

  15. Influential Factors of Z-pin Bridging Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chenghu; Wu, Zhe; Meng, Zhijun; Li, Muchen

    2014-08-01

    The nine-pin bridging force experiments are conducted at room temperature (20 °C) and at 75 °C. A three-dimensional z-pin unit cell for finite element analysis is established to study the influential factors of the z-pin bridging force. The experimental results show that the z-pin bridging force at 75 °C is smaller than at 20 °C. The z-pin bridging force is highly dependent on the surface area of z-pin. Therefore, it is feasible that the bridging force can be enhanced by changing the surface area of z-pin. The study also shows that the lay-up sequences of laminates have an impact on the z-pin bridging force, and the maximum bridging force of z-pin rises with the increase elastic modules of the resin. The z-pin bridging force reduces with rise of temperature for two reasons: The elastic modulus and shear strength of the resin decrease with rise of temperature, forcing the bridging force to reduce and the resin makes some clamping effect on z-pin, pushing the bridging force to increase.

  16. Influential parameters on particle exposure of pedestrians in urban microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonanno, G.; Fuoco, F. C.; Stabile, L.

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to particle concentrations in urban areas was evaluated in several studies since airborne particles are considered to bring about adverse health effects. Transportation modes and urban microenvironments account for the highest contributions to the overall daily particle exposure concentration. In the present study an evaluation of the influential parameters affecting particle exposure of pedestrian in urban areas is reported. Street geometry, traffic mode, wind speed and direction effects were analyzed through an experimental campaign performed in different streets of an Italian town. To this purpose a high-resolution time measurement apparatus was used in order to capture the dynamic of the freshly emitted particles. Number, surface area and mass concentrations and distributions were measured continuously along both the sides of street canyons and avenue canyons during 10-minutes walking routes. The combined effect of street geometry and wind direction may contribute strongly to dilute the fresh particles emitted by vehicles. In particular, street canyons are characterized by lower ventilation phenomena which lead to similar concentration values on both the side of the street. Higher wind speed was found to decrease concentrations in the canyon. Traffic mode also seems to influence exposure concentrations. In particular, submicrometer particle mass concentration was higher as the traffic is more congested; otherwise, coarse fraction dominates mass exposure concentration along street characterized by a more fluent traffic, showing a typical resuspension modality.

  17. The 100 Most Influential Articles in Cervical Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Steinberger, Jeremy; Guzman, Javier Z.; Overley, Samuel C.; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Caridi, John M.; Cho, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To identify and analyze the top 100 cited articles in cervical spine surgery. Methods The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was searched for citations of all articles relevant to cervical spine surgery. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country of publication, and institution were recorded for each article. Results The most cited article was the classic from 1991 by Vernon and Mior that described the Neck Disability Index. The second most cited was Smith's 1958 article describing the anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion procedure. The third most cited article was Hilibrand's 1999 publication evaluating the incidence, prevalence, and radiographic progression of symptomatic adjacent segment disease following anterior cervical arthrodesis. The majority of the articles originated in the United States (65), and most were published in Spine (39). Most articles were published in the 1990s (34), and the three most common topics were cervical fusion (17), surgical complications (9), and biomechanics (9), respectively. Author Abumi had four articles in the top 100 list, and authors Goffin, Panjabi, and Hadley had three each. The Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan, had five articles in the top 100 list. Conclusion This report identifies the top 100 articles in cervical spine surgery and acknowledges those individuals who have contributed the most to the advancement of the study of the cervical spine and the body of knowledge used to guide evidence-based clinical decision making in cervical spine surgery today. PMID:26835204

  18. The 100 Most Influential Articles in Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Skovrlj, Branko; Steinberger, Jeremy; Guzman, Javier Z; Overley, Samuel C; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Caridi, John M; Cho, Samuel K

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To identify and analyze the top 100 cited articles in cervical spine surgery. Methods The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was searched for citations of all articles relevant to cervical spine surgery. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country of publication, and institution were recorded for each article. Results The most cited article was the classic from 1991 by Vernon and Mior that described the Neck Disability Index. The second most cited was Smith's 1958 article describing the anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion procedure. The third most cited article was Hilibrand's 1999 publication evaluating the incidence, prevalence, and radiographic progression of symptomatic adjacent segment disease following anterior cervical arthrodesis. The majority of the articles originated in the United States (65), and most were published in Spine (39). Most articles were published in the 1990s (34), and the three most common topics were cervical fusion (17), surgical complications (9), and biomechanics (9), respectively. Author Abumi had four articles in the top 100 list, and authors Goffin, Panjabi, and Hadley had three each. The Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan, had five articles in the top 100 list. Conclusion This report identifies the top 100 articles in cervical spine surgery and acknowledges those individuals who have contributed the most to the advancement of the study of the cervical spine and the body of knowledge used to guide evidence-based clinical decision making in cervical spine surgery today. PMID:26835204

  19. The impact of objective function selection on the influence of individual data points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, David; Thyer, Mark; Westra, Seth; McInerney, David

    2016-04-01

    Across the field of hydrology practitioners apply a range of objective functions which are selected based upon the intended model application and suitability of the objective function assumptions to the data in question. Despite most objective functions providing fundamentally different calibration results there are currently limited methods for comparison of alternatives. Influence diagnostics quantify the impact of individual data points on model performance, parameters and predictions. The goal of this study is to use compare four commonly applied objective functions in hydrology using influence diagnostics to provide insights on how objective function selection changes the influence of individual data points on model calibration. The specific aims are to: 1) explore the impact on magnitude of influence of objective functions, 2) investigate similarities between influential points identified by objective functions and, 3) categorise flows that are influential under objective functions. We use case-deletion influence diagnostics to examine four objective functions: Standard Least Squares (SLS), Weighted Least Squares (WLS), Log transformed flows (LOG) and the Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE). We apply these objective functions to six scenarios: two conceptual hydrological models (GR4J and IHACRES) across three catchment case studies with varying runoff coefficients (0.14 to 0.57). We quantify influence using the case-deletion relative change in flow metrics: mean flow prediction, maximum flow prediction, and the 10th percentile low flow prediction. The results show that when using objective functions SLS and KGE influential data points have larger magnitude influence (maximum of 10% change in the flow metrics across all data points for both objective functions) than heteroscedastic WLS and LOG (WLS maximum of 8% and LOG maximum of 6% change in the flow metrics). SLS and KGE identify similar influential points (75% of the most influential points are common to both

  20. Distribution of individual members of the mosquito Anopheles maculipennis complex in Germany identified by newly developed real-time PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Lühken, R; Czajka, C; Steinke, S; Jöst, H; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Pfitzner, W; Becker, N; Kiel, E; Krüger, A; Tannich, E

    2016-06-01

    Owing to their role as vectors of malaria parasites, species of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) Meigen were intensively studied in the past, but with the disappearance of malaria in Germany in the middle of the last century, the interest in this field of research declined. A comprehensive ecological analysis of the current species distribution for Germany is lacking. Between 2010 and 2013, a total of 1445 mosquitoes of the An. maculipennis complex were collected at 72 different sites in Germany. The samples comprise 722 single individuals as well as 723 individuals in 90 pools of up to 25 mosquitoes. All samples were analysed with newly developed species-specific qPCR assays for the identification of the four German species using nucleotide differences within the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) ribosomal DNA. All gathered data were used for species distribution modelling. The overall prevalence of An. messeae s.l. was highest with 98.89% of all pools; An. daciae with 6.93% of all individuals and An. messeae s.s. with 69.53%. The prevalence of the other two species was relatively low: An. maculipennis s.s. with 13.30% of all individuals (6.67% of all pools) and An. atroparvus with 1.80% of all individuals (1.11% of all pools). PMID:26787387

  1. IDENTIFYING AND MEETING THE INDIVIDUAL NEEDS OF CHILDREN IN READING, STATE-WIDE READING WORKSHOP (LINCOLN, NEBRASKA, MARCH 31 - APRIL 1, 1967). FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAREFOOT, JUDITH

    DURING EACH OF THE FOUR SESSIONS REPORTED, A READING EXPERT SPOKE ON ONE OF THE FOLLOWING TOPICS--(1) REMEDIAL READING, (2) THE MID-CONTINENTAL REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL LABORATORY READING PROGRAM AND MEETING INDIVIDUAL NEEDS, (3) READING AS REASONING, AND (4) THE CONTROVERSY OVER INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES. THE PARTICIPANTS DISCUSSED EACH TOPIC…

  2. Identification of the most influential factors in the Norwegian guidelines for risk assessment of dispersion of contaminants from sediments.

    PubMed

    Saloranta, Tuomo M; Ruus, Anders; Borgå, Katrine

    2011-10-01

    The Norwegian guidelines for risk assessment of contaminated sediments are used to identify areas of concern where remediation may be needed to meet the governmental long-term goal of clean fjords and harbors along the Norwegian coastline. By a thorough sensitivity analysis, this study identifies the most influential factors and parameters for the Tier 2A model in this risk guideline, which are used to estimate fluxes of contaminants from sediments due to diffusion and bioturbation (F(diff)), resuspension caused by ship traffic (F(skipnorm)), and uptake and predation of benthic biota (F(org)). The sensitivity analysis is run for 36 different scenarios combining 3 different sizes of contaminated area, 3 harbor types, and 3 persistent organic pollutants, namely lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane), benzo[a]pyrene, and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153), as well as the metal mercury (Hg). The most influential parameters vary from scenario to scenario, but generally 5 parameters appear to be particularly influential for the fluxes and transport estimated by the Tier 2A model: flux of organic carbon to sediment (OC(sed)), factor for increased diffusion due to bioturbation (a), sediment-water partitioning coefficient (K(d)), benthic biota-water bioconcentration factor (BCF(fisk)), and mass of resuspended fine sediment during arrival or departure of a ship (m(sed)). We also quantify which of the 3 fluxes (F(diff), F(skipnorm), and F(org)) dominate in the different scenarios. Our sensitivity analysis results can be used by authorities, problem owners, consultants, and environmental managers involved in contaminated sediment management to gain insight on the key processes and parameters and to focus their site-specific or laboratory-based measurement efforts on the key parameters and thus increase efficiency and reliability in the contaminated sediment risk assessment. PMID:21384542

  3. Establishing a Framework of Influential Factors on Empowering Primary School Students in Peer Mediation

    PubMed Central

    Jorbozeh, Hamideh; Dehdari, Tahereh; Ashoorkhani, Mahnaz; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Empowerment of children and adolescents in terms of social skills is critical for promoting their social health. Objectives: This study attempts to explore a framework of influential factors on empowering primary school students by means of peer mediation from the stakeholders' point of view, as a qualitative content analysis design. Patients and Methods: This study was a qualitative content analysis (conventional method). Seven focused group discussions and six in-depth interviews were conducted with schoolchildren, parents and education authorities. Following each interview, recordings were entered to an open code software and analyzed. Data collection was continued up to data saturation. Results: Within the provided framework, the participants' views and comments were classified into two major categories “educational empowerment” and “social empowerment”, and into two themes; “program” and “advocacy”. The “program” theme included factors such as design and implementation, development, maintenance and improvement, and individual and social impact. The “advocacy” theme included factors such as social, emotional and physical support. Conclusions: The explained framework components regarding peer mediation are useful to design peace education programs and to empower school-age children in peer mediation. PMID:25763191

  4. Using the Social Communication Questionnaire to Identify "Autistic Spectrum" Disorders Associated with Other Genetic Conditions: Findings from a Study of Individuals with Cohen Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlin, Patricia; Karpf, Janne

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly, recent research has identified relatively high rates of autistic types of symptoms in a variety of genetic conditions, such as fragile X (Turk and Graham, 1997), tuberous sclerosis (Bolton and Griffiths, 1997), Angelman syndrome (Trillingsgaard and Ostergaard, this issue) and others (see Gillberg and Coleman, 2000). Detailed…

  5. Identifying the major bacteria causing intramammary infections in individual milk samples of sheep and goats using traditional bacteria culturing and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Rovai, M; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Jubert, A; Lázaro, B; Lázaro, M; Leitner, G

    2014-09-01

    Use of DNA-based methods, such as real-time PCR, has increased the sensitivity and shortened the time for bacterial identification, compared with traditional bacteriology; however, results should be interpreted carefully because a positive PCR result does not necessarily mean that an infection exists. One hundred eight lactating dairy ewes (56 Manchega and 52 Lacaune) and 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used for identifying the main bacteria causing intramammary infections (IMI) using traditional bacterial culturing and real-time PCR and their effects on milk performance. Udder-half milk samples were taken for bacterial culturing and somatic cell count (SCC) 3 times throughout lactation. Intramammary infections were assessed based on bacteria isolated in ≥2 samplings accompanied by increased SCC. Prevalence of subclinical IMI was 42.9% in Manchega and 50.0% in Lacaune ewes and 41.7% in goats, with the estimated milk yield loss being 13.1, 17.9, and 18.0%, respectively. According to bacteriology results, 87% of the identified single bacteria species (with more than 3 colonies/plate) or culture-negative growth were identical throughout samplings, which agreed 98.9% with the PCR results. Nevertheless, the study emphasized that 1 sampling may not be sufficient to determine IMI and, therefore, other inflammatory responses such as increased SCC should be monitored to identify true infections. Moreover, when PCR methodology is used, aseptic and precise milk sampling procedures are key for avoiding false-positive amplifications. In conclusion, both PCR and bacterial culture methods proved to have similar accuracy for identifying infective bacteria in sheep and goats. The final choice will depend on their response time and cost analysis, according to the requirements and farm management strategy. PMID:24996276

  6. Mostly Plants. Individualized Biology Activities on: I. Investigating Bread Mold; II. Transpiration; III. Botany Project; IV. Collecting/Preserving/Identifying Leaves; [and] V. Student Science Laboratory Write-Ups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Paul R.

    Individualized biology activities for secondary students are presented in this teaching guide. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) investigating bread mold; (2) investigating transpiration; (3) completing a botany project; (4) collecting, preserving, and identifying leaves; and (5) writing up science laboratory investigations. The…

  7. Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability Assessment Identifies Individual Differences in Fear Response Magnitudes to Earthquake, Free Fall, and Air Puff in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z.; Zhao, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Fear behaviors and fear memories in rodents have been traditionally assessed by the amount of freezing upon the presentation of conditioned cues or unconditioned stimuli. However, many experiences, such as encountering earthquakes or accidental fall from tree branches, may produce long-lasting fear memories but are behaviorally difficult to measure using freezing parameters. Here, we have examined changes in heartbeat interval dynamics as physiological readout for assessing fearful reactions as mice were subjected to sudden air puff, free-fall drop inside a small elevator, and a laboratory-version earthquake. We showed that these fearful events rapidly increased heart rate (HR) with simultaneous reduction of heart rate variability (HRV). Cardiac changes can be further analyzed in details by measuring three distinct phases: namely, the rapid rising phase in HR, the maximum plateau phase during which HRV is greatly decreased, and the recovery phase during which HR gradually recovers to baseline values. We showed that durations of the maximum plateau phase and HR recovery speed were quite sensitive to habituation over repeated trials. Moreover, we have developed the fear resistance index based on specific cardiac response features. We demonstrated that the fear resistance index remained largely consistent across distinct fearful events in a given animal, thereby enabling us to compare and rank individual mouse’s fear responsiveness among the group. Therefore, the fear resistance index described here can represent a useful parameter for measuring personality traits or individual differences in stress-susceptibility in both wild-type mice and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) models. PMID:24667366

  8. Influential psychotherapy figures, authors, and books: An Internet survey of over 2,000 psychotherapists.

    PubMed

    Cook, Joan M; Biyanova, Tatyana; Coyne, James C

    2009-03-01

    In a partial replication and extension of a survey conducted 25 years ago (Smith, 1982), over 2,400 North American psychotherapists completed a Web-based survey in which they identified prominent figures in the psychotherapy field who have most influenced their practice and the best psychotherapy books they had read in the past 3 years. There is a continued prominence to leaders of the field from 25 years ago but who are now deceased, notably the top-ranked Carl Rogers. Three books on the top-10 list represent empirically supported therapies (ESTs); two are treatment manuals for an EST, and one is a self-help book derived from an EST that has itself been shown to be efficacious bibliotherapy. Differences between psychologist and nonpsychologist therapists in the choice of influential figures, authors, and books are negligible. Implications are discussed in terms of the contemporary context into which therapeutic innovations are disseminated, as well as the conditions that may be necessary for successful dissemination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122569

  9. Discovering the influential users oriented to viral marketing based on online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhiguo

    2013-08-01

    The target of viral marketing on the platform of popular online social networks is to rapidly propagate marketing information at lower cost and increase sales, in which a key problem is how to precisely discover the most influential users in the process of information diffusion. A novel method is proposed in this paper for helping companies to identify such users as seeds to maximize information diffusion in the viral marketing. Firstly, the user trust network oriented to viral marketing and users’ combined interest degree in the network including isolated users are extensively defined. Next, we construct a model considering the time factor to simulate the process of information diffusion in viral marketing and propose a dynamic algorithm description. Finally, experiments are conducted with a real dataset extracted from the famous SNS website Epinions. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm has better scalability and is less time-consuming. Compared with the classical model, the proposed algorithm achieved a better performance than does the classical method on the two aspects of network coverage rate and time-consumption in our four sub-datasets.

  10. [Shrimp community structure and its influential factors in the Jiaojiang River estuary during spring and autumn].

    PubMed

    Qi, Hai-Ming; Sun, Yue; Xu, Zhao-Li; Sun, Lu-Feng; Gao, Qian; Que, Jiang-Long; Tian, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Based on the data from two oceanographic surveys during April and October 2010, the spatial and seasonal variations in composition, dominance, and diversity of shrimp communities, as well as the influential factors in the Jiaojiang River estuary were analyzed. A total of 16 species of shrimp were found, which belonged to 12 families under 8 genera. 14 species of shrimp were found in spring (April) and 12 species in autumn (October). With the employment of index of relative importance (IRI), in spring 6 dominant species were identified, as Acetes chinensis, Alpheus distinguendus, Parapenaeopsis hardwickii, Leptochela gracilis, Alpheus juponicus and Palaemon gravieri, and in autumn 3 dominant species were found as Solenocera crassicornis, Parapenaeopsis hardwickii and Metapenaeus joyneri. Eurythermal and eurysaline shrimp community prevailed in the Jiaojiang River estuary, followed by eurythermal and hyposaline shrimp community. Margalef index (D), Shannon index (H) and Pielou's evenness index were used to evaluate the diversity of shrimp community in the studied area. The stations with higher value of D and H were mainly located in the west of the Dachen Island, whereas the Pielou's evenness index was stable all across the Jiaojiang River estuary. By hierarchical cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) method, the results indicated that shrimp communities had significant seasonal and spatial variations. Depth was the most important factor that affected variations in the shrimp community structure in the Jiaojiang River estuary. PMID:24697077