These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

A Survey to Identify Potential Outcome Indicators for a Hospital Blood Glucose Monitoring Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A survey of operators of a bedside blood glucose monitoring (BGM) program at a tertiary health care institution was performed to identify potential outcome indicators for our quality assurance program.Design and Methods: 170 surveys were randomly distributed to each nursing unit. The survey consisted of 20 questions on 4 pages. At the time of the survey, the BGM program

Christine P Collier; Robyn L Houlden; Karen A Gleeson; Aleksander Patrzykat; Susan L Rhymer

1998-01-01

2

Asia: Using Indicators of Water Conflict in Identifying Water Conflict Potential By  

E-print Network

influence on the river basin regime is becoming crucial to elaborate meaningful and workable framework to provide resolution to the growing water conflict. The Syr Darya and Amu Darya Basins in Central Asia have been long known as “hot spots” where the potential for escalating existing tensions over water

Promoter Prof; Marc Pallemaerts; Valery Votrin

3

Identifying unintended consequences of quality indicators: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background For the first 5 years of the UK primary care pay for performance scheme, the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), quality indicators were introduced without piloting. However, in 2009, potential new indicators were piloted in a nationally representative sample of practices. This paper describes an in-depth exploration of family physician, nurse and other primary-care practice staff views of the

H. E. Lester; K. L. Hannon; S. M. Campbell

2011-01-01

4

Identifying Node Role in Social Network Based on Multiple Indicators  

PubMed Central

It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role. PMID:25089823

Huang, Shaobin; Lv, Tianyang; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Yange; Zheng, Weimin; Wen, Chao

2014-01-01

5

Identifying the Potential Biosphere of Mars  

E-print Network

Our current knowledge of life on Earth indicates a basic requirement for liquid water. The locations of present liquid water are therefore the logical sites to search for current life on Mars. We develop a picture of where on Mars the regions with the highest potential near-surface liquid water abundance can be found through a study of gullies. We also use rampart craters to sound the depth of water ice on Mars and where the highest concentrations of water ice occur. We estimate that low latitude gullies and rampart craters with depths greater than 100 m at 30 degrees (absolute) latitude, greater than 1.3 km at 35 degrees and greater than 2.6 km at 40 degrees latitude will give access to current liquid water environments capable of supporting microbial life. Our data is most consistent with the formation of these gullies through shallow aquifer discharge. These features should therefore be high priority targets for further study and high-resolution imaging with HiRISE.

Jones, Eriita G

2008-01-01

6

Identifying the Potential Biosphere of Mars  

E-print Network

Our current knowledge of life on Earth indicates a basic requirement for liquid water. The locations of present liquid water are therefore the logical sites to search for current life on Mars. We develop a picture of where on Mars the regions with the highest potential near-surface liquid water abundance can be found through a study of gullies. We also use rampart craters to sound the depth of water ice on Mars and where the highest concentrations of water ice occur. We estimate that low latitude gullies and rampart craters with depths greater than 100 m at 30 degrees (absolute) latitude, greater than 1.3 km at 35 degrees and greater than 2.6 km at 40 degrees latitude will give access to current liquid water environments capable of supporting microbial life. Our data is most consistent with the formation of these gullies through shallow aquifer discharge. These features should therefore be high priority targets for further study and high-resolution imaging with HiRISE.

Eriita G. Jones; Charles H. Lineweaver

2008-12-01

7

Debulking procedures: potential device specific indications.  

PubMed

During the past decade, the endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial disease has become more widespread due to the impressive extension of the endovascular toolbox to include different atherectomy technologies. The promise of atherectomy is to avoid the "barotraumas" defined as complications of traditional angioplasty such as dissection, elastic recoil, and disruption of the internal elastic lamina resulting in overwhelming neointima and smooth muscle cell proliferation. The oldest atherectomy technologies are the excimer laser and the Rotablator. The excimer laser technology is based on the principle of photoablation converting occlusive material into microbubbles being immediately dissolved into the blood. The Rotablator and the newer diamondback device are high speed rotational "sanding" devices particularly developed for the treatment of highly calcified plaque particularly in small vessel lesions, such as the popliteal and infrapopliteal segments. The Silverhawk system, currently the most widespread used device, is a directional atherectomy device particularly designed for eccentric and not severely calcified infrainguinal lesions whereas a variation of this device, the Rockhawk, is dedicated for the treatment of calcified plaques. The Jetstream system is the latest approved rotational atherectomy device focusing on native arteries with a reference vessel diameter of 4-6 mm in its current version; uniquely this device also has an aspiration capability making the device not only an atherectomy device but potentially also a thrombectomy device. This article will review the different indications for the use of these atherectomy devices including tips and specific device limitations. PMID:20123432

Schwarzwälder, Uwe; Zeller, Thomas

2010-03-01

8

Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic…

Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

2013-01-01

9

Identifying Quality Indicators of SAE and FFA: A Delphi Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine quality indicators for SAE and FFA according to 36 experts across the United States. This is a part of a larger study looking at all components of the traditional three-circle model. The study utilized the Delphi technique to garner expert opinion about quality indicators in Agricultural Education. For…

Jenkins, Charles Cordell, III; Kitchel, Tracy

2009-01-01

10

Identifying mechanistic indicators of childhood asthma from blood gene expression  

EPA Science Inventory

Asthmatic individuals have been identified as a susceptible subpopulation for air pollutants. However, asthma represents a syndrome with multiple probable etiologies, and the identification of these asthma endotypes is critical to accurately define the most susceptible subpopula...

11

Identifying indicators through modified Delphi technique in polytechnics system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to examine how the panel has been selected as experts in assessing indicators of innovative instructional leadership (IIL) administrator in polytechnics based on 222 items were obtained through previous studies. A total of eleven people were selected as the expert panels in a study where expert selection criteria based on their background in the leadership. Experts were interviewed separately. Interviews were carried out for a half hour in their offices. The data obtained were analyzed using Atlas Ti. Overall findings indicate experts agree that a total of 188 items and 14 indicators should be maintained in this innovative instructional leadership instruments and next by using Modified Delphi Technique. The instrument will then be analyzed to obtain findings on the perception of lecturers on every administrator innovative instructional leadership in their respective polytechnics.

Nashir, Irdayanti Mat; Mustapha, Ramlee; Yusoff, Abdullah

2015-02-01

12

Selection indices to identify drought-tolerant grain sorghum cultivars.  

PubMed

Twenty-five cultivars of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] were examined under both drought stress and normal conditions in 4 experiments. In each condition, genotypes were evaluated in a factorial experiment using a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Eight drought tolerance indices including stability tolerance index, mean productivity (MP), geometric MP, harmonic mean, stress susceptibility index, tolerance index, yield index, and yield stability index were estimated for each genotype based on grain yield under drought (Ys) and irrigated conditions (Yp). The results indicated that there were positive and significant correlations among Yp and Ys with geometric MP, MP, harmonic mean, and stability tolerance index, indicating that these factors are better predictors of Yp and Ys than tolerance index, stress susceptibility index, yield stability index, and yield index. Based on adjusted means at Yp and Ys, indices geometric MP, MP, harmonic mean, and stability tolerance index, unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster and biplot analysis, the most tolerant cultivars were '9929020', '9929034', and 'N 95B'. PMID:25501191

Menezes, C B; Ticona-Benavente, C A; Tardin, F D; Cardoso, M J; Bastos, E A; Nogueira, D W; Portugal, A F; Santos, C V; Schaffert, R E

2014-01-01

13

Accomplishing structural change: Identifying intermediate indicators of success  

PubMed Central

Coalitions are routinely employed across the United States as a method of mobilizing communities to improve local conditions that impact on citizens’ well-being. Success in achieving specific objectives for environmental or structural community change may not quickly translate into improved population outcomes in the community, posing a dilemma for coalitions that pursue changes that focus on altering community conditions. Considerable effort by communities to plan for and pursue structural change objectives, without evidence of logical and appropriate intermediate markers of success could lead to wasted effort. Yet, the current literature provides little guidance on how coalitions might select intermediate indicators of achievement to judge their progress and the utility of their effort. The current paper explores the strengths and weaknesses of various indicators of intermediate success in creating structural changes among a sample of 13 coalitions organized to prevent exposure to HIV among high-risk adolescents in their local communities. PMID:22875684

Miller, Robin Lin; Reed, Sarah J.; Francisco, Vincent

2012-01-01

14

Identifying indicators of reactivity for chemical reductants in sediments.  

PubMed

To conduct site-specific exposure assessments for contaminants containing reducible functional groups, it is imperative to know the identity and reactivity of chemical reductants in natural sediments and to associate their reactivity with easily measurable sediment properties. For this purpose the reactivity, as defined by pseudofirst order reduction rate constants for p-cyanonitrobenzene (pCNB), was measured in twenty-one natural sediments of different origins that were incubated to attain both anoxic (less reducing) and anaerobic (microbially reducing) conditions. The reactivity of the anoxic sediments increased with pH and an increasing amount of Fe(II) added. A good electron balance between pCNB reduction and Fe(II) consumption was observed for anaerobic sediments of high solids loading (50 g/L), but not when solids loading was 5 g/L. Based on cluster and regression analysis, pCNB reactivity in the anaerobic sediments correlates strongly with aqueous Fe(II) concentrations for sediments with low organic carbon (OC) content (<4.2%), but with dissolved OC concentrations (DOC) for the sediments with high OC content (>6.4%). These observations indicate surface-associated Fe(II) and reduced DOC are the predominant reductants in the anaerobic sediments, and that aqueous Fe(II) and DOC will serve as readily measurable indicators of pCNB reactivity in these systems. PMID:23088410

Zhang, Huichun; Weber, Eric J

2013-07-01

15

10.1177/0739456X04267717Galster et al.Identifying Neighborhood Indicators Identifying Robust, Parsimonious  

E-print Network

or technical capacities of the vast majority of American communities. 265 Journal of Planning Education; and public assistance and health. Through factor analysis, they identify four to six neighbor- hood

Baskaran, Mark

16

SELECTING INDICATORS OF BIODIVERSITY FOR CONSERVATION PLANNING: IDENTIFYING THE MECHANISMS BEHIND INDICATOR GROUP PERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Most conservation planning is constrained by time and funding. In particular, the selection of areas to protect biodiversity must often be completed with limited data on species distributions. Consequently, different groups of species have been proposed as indicators or surroga...

17

Identify potentially eligible participants | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Your institution’s information system is an obvious starting point for identifying potential clinical trial participants. If your medical records are electronic, then the process may be simpler. No matter which tools you use, it is important to know all the potentially eligible participants are being identified.

18

A potential method to identify poor breast screening performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the UK all breast screeners undertake the PERFORMS scheme where they annually read case sets of challenging cases. From the subsequent data it is possible to identify any individual who is performing significantly lower than their peers. This can then facilitate them being offered further targeted training to improve performance. However, currently this under-performance can only be calculated once all screeners have taken part, which means the feedback can potentially take several months. To determine whether such performance outliers could usefully be identified approximately much earlier the data from the last round of the scheme were re-analysed. From the information of 283 participants, 1,000 groups of them were selected randomly for fixed group sizes varying from four to 50 individuals. After applying bootstrapping on 1,000 groups, a distribution of low performance threshold values was constructed. Then the accuracy of estimation was determined by calculating the median value and standard error of this distribution as compared with the known actual results. Data indicate that increasing sample sizes improved the estimation of the median and decreased the standard error. Using information from as few as 25 individuals allowed an approximation of the known outlier cut off value and this improved with larger sample sizes. This approach is now implemented in the PERFORMS scheme to enable individuals who have difficulties, as compared to their peers, to be identified very early after taking part which can then help them to improve their performance.

Dong, Leng; Chen, Yan; Gale, Alastair G.; Chakraborty, Dev P.

2012-02-01

19

Identifying indicators of illegal behaviour: carnivore killing in human-managed landscapes  

PubMed Central

Managing natural resources often depends on influencing people's behaviour, however effectively targeting interventions to discourage environmentally harmful behaviours is challenging because those involved may be unwilling to identify themselves. Non-sensitive indicators of sensitive behaviours are therefore needed. Previous studies have investigated people's attitudes, assuming attitudes reflect behaviour. There has also been interest in using people's estimates of the proportion of their peers involved in sensitive behaviours to identify those involved, since people tend to assume that others behave like themselves. However, there has been little attempt to test the potential of such indicators. We use the randomized response technique (RRT), designed for investigating sensitive behaviours, to estimate the proportion of farmers in north-eastern South Africa killing carnivores, and use a modified logistic regression model to explore relationships between our best estimates of true behaviour (from RRT) and our proposed non-sensitive indicators (including farmers' attitudes, and estimates of peer-behaviour). Farmers' attitudes towards carnivores, question sensitivity and estimates of peers' behaviour, predict the likelihood of farmers killing carnivores. Attitude and estimates of peer-behaviour are useful indicators of involvement in illicit behaviours and may be used to identify groups of people to engage in interventions aimed at changing behaviour. PMID:21795272

St John, Freya A. V.; Keane, Aidan M.; Edwards-Jones, Gareth; Jones, Lauren; Yarnell, Richard W.; Jones, Julia P. G.

2012-01-01

20

Indicators of ecosystem function identify alternate states in the sagebrush steppe.  

PubMed

Models of ecosystem change that incorporate nonlinear dynamics and thresholds, such as state-and-transition models (STMs), are increasingly popular tools for land management decision-making. However, few models are based on systematic collection and documentation of ecological data, and of these, most rely solely on structural indicators (species composition) to identify states and transitions. As STMs are adopted as an assessment framework throughout the United States, finding effective and efficient ways to create data-driven models that integrate ecosystem function and structure is vital. This study aims to (1) evaluate the utility of functional indicators (indicators of rangeland health, IRH) as proxies for more difficult ecosystem function measurements and (2) create a data-driven STM for the sagebrush steppe of Colorado, USA, that incorporates both ecosystem structure and function. We sampled soils, plant communities, and IRH at 41 plots with similar clayey soils but different site histories to identify potential states and infer the effects of management practices and disturbances on transitions. We found that many IRH were correlated with quantitative measures of functional indicators, suggesting that the IRH can be used to approximate ecosystem function. In addition to a reference state that functions as expected for this soil type, we identified four biotically and functionally distinct potential states, consistent with the theoretical concept of alternate states. Three potential states were related to management practices (chemical and mechanical shrub treatments and seeding history) while one was related only to ecosystem processes (erosion). IRH and potential states were also related to environmental variation (slope, soil texture), suggesting that there are environmental factors within areas with similar soils that affect ecosystem dynamics and should be noted within STMs. Our approach generated an objective, data-driven model of ecosystem dynamics for rangeland management. Our findings suggest that the IRH approximate ecosystem processes and can distinguish between alternate states and communities and identify transitions when building data-driven STMs. Functional indicators are a simple, efficient way to create data-driven models that are consistent with alternate state theory. Managers can use them to improve current model-building methods and thus apply state-and-transition models more broadly for land management decision-making. PMID:22073659

Kachergis, Emily; Rocca, Monique E; Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria E

2011-10-01

21

Imaging, Diagnosis, Prognosis Gene Expression Analysis Identifies Potential Biomarkers of  

E-print Network

Imaging, Diagnosis, Prognosis Gene Expression Analysis Identifies Potential Biomarkers microarray gene expression analysis to define 92 genes that encode putative secreted proteins in neurofibroma sera. Results: Of 13 candidate genes evaluated, only adrenomedullin (ADM) was confirmed

Hammerton, James

22

Identifying the potential organ donor: an audit of hospital deaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To quantify the potential for organ donation in Victoria and identify missed opportunities for organ donation. Design and setting Prospective medical record audit of all deaths in 12 Victorian hospitals. Measurements Data on deaths, total potential donors, organ donors and outcome of requests for organ donation were collected. Patients in whom brain death was confirmed or likely to occur

Helen Ingrid Opdam; William Silvester

2004-01-01

23

Potential Identifiability and Preventability of Adverse Events Using Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study ObjectiveTo evaluate the potential ability of computerized information systems (ISs) to identify and prevent adverse events in medical patients.DesignClinical descriptions of all 133 adverse events identified through chart review for a cohort of 3,138 medical patients were evaluated by two reviewers.MeasurementsFor each adverse event, three hierarchical levels of IS sophistication were considered: Level 1--demographics, results for all diagnostic tests,

David W Bates; Anne C ONeil; Deborah Boyle; Jonathan Teich; Glenn M Chertow; Anthony L Komaroff; Troyen A Brennan

1994-01-01

24

LEAN ENERGY ANALYSIS: IDENTIFYING, DISCOVERING AND TRACKING ENERGY SAVINGS POTENTIAL  

E-print Network

of lean manufacturing. In terms of lean manufacturing, "any activity that does not add valueLEAN ENERGY ANALYSIS: IDENTIFYING, DISCOVERING AND TRACKING ENERGY SAVINGS POTENTIAL KELLY KISSOCK AND RESOURCE SOLUTIONS HAVERHILL, MASSECHUTSETTS ABSTRACT Energy in manufacturing facilities is used for direct

Kissock, Kelly

25

Collaboration Indices for Monitoring Potential Problems in Online Small Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to test the validity and reliability of three collaboration indices ("quantity", "equality", "and shareness") proposed by Jahng et al. (2010). The present study repeated the quantitative assessment of Jahng et al., and performed a further qualitative analysis to identify possible factors that might be associated with…

Jahng, Namsook

2013-01-01

26

ORIGINAL PAPER Soil enzyme activities as potential indicators  

E-print Network

, and biodegradability (Burton et al. 2007a). Thus, the mechanisms responsible for generating soil SON include complexORIGINAL PAPER Soil enzyme activities as potential indicators of soluble organic nitrogen pools on soil nitrogen status. As a major process affecting the soil-soluble organic nitrogen pool, degradation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

27

COLIPHAGES AS POTENTIAL VIRAL INDICATORS OF FECAL POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Friedman, Stephanie D. In press. Coliphages as Potential Viral Indicators of Fecal Pollution (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems of the Gulf of Mexico and Southeastern United States, 6-9 October ...

28

Identifying indicators of early functional decline in community-dwelling older people: a review.  

PubMed

Functional decline is an insidious-onset manifestation of aging, which can be overlooked in its early stages. Current screening measures for incipient functional decline are generally applied at one point-in-time, in hospital wards or emergency departments when older people are in health crisis. This potentially provides an imprecise estimate of the situation. In line with internationally recognized challenges of dealing with the needs of aging populations, it is essential that sensitive screening for incipient functional decline occurs much earlier, in familiar community settings. The present review presents an evidence-based synthesis of features, measures and/or manifestations of early functional decline in community-dwelling older individuals. A systematic search was carried out to collate indicators of early functional decline. These were then organized into constructs, which reflected the principal measurement intent as identified by the author of each article. A total of 146 articles (reporting 195 psychometrically sound measurement tools, representing 107 constructs) were included in the review. The constructs were then clustered into six broad health domains: medical status, performance capacity, participation, demographics, anthropometry and relationships with health providers. These domains were developed after consultation with a range of allied health professionals and a consumer representative. The present review provides the first known evidence-based synthesis of indicators of early functional decline in older community-dwelling people, and shows the range of constructs that need to be considered in assessment for early functional decline. PMID:25303103

Beaton, Kate; McEvoy, Claire; Grimmer, Karen

2015-02-01

29

Discovering Potential Pathogens among Fungi Identified as Nonsporulating Molds?  

PubMed Central

Fungal infections are increasing, particularly among immunocompromised hosts, and a rapid diagnosis is essential to initiate antifungal therapy. Often fungi cannot be identified by conventional methods and are classified as nonsporulating molds (NSM).We sequenced internal transcribed spacer regions from 50 cultures of NSM and found 16 potential pathogens that can be associated with clinical disease. In selected clinical settings, identification of NSM could prove valuable and have an immediate impact on patient management. PMID:17135442

Pounder, June I.; Simmon, Keith E.; Barton, Claudia A.; Hohmann, Sheri L.; Brandt, Mary E.; Petti, Cathy A.

2007-01-01

30

Water quality studies in Kranji Catchment, Singapore : use of organic tracer and PEDs for identifying potential sewage sources  

E-print Network

The objective of this study was to identify organic compounds that could serve as indicators of potential human fecal contamination sources to the Kranji Reservoir in Singapore that could be used as confirmation indicators ...

Mendez Sagel, Adriana (Adriana Raquel)

2010-01-01

31

Identifying psychophysiological indices of expert vs. novice performance in deadly force judgment and decision making  

PubMed Central

Objective: To demonstrate that psychophysiology may have applications for objective assessment of expertise development in deadly force judgment and decision making (DFJDM). Background: Modern training techniques focus on improving decision-making skills with participative assessment between trainees and subject matter experts primarily through subjective observation. Objective metrics need to be developed. The current proof of concept study explored the potential for psychophysiological metrics in deadly force judgment contexts. Method: Twenty-four participants (novice, expert) were recruited. All wore a wireless Electroencephalography (EEG) device to collect psychophysiological data during high-fidelity simulated deadly force judgment and decision-making simulations using a modified Glock firearm. Participants were exposed to 27 video scenarios, one-third of which would have justified use of deadly force. Pass/fail was determined by whether the participant used deadly force appropriately. Results: Experts had a significantly higher pass rate compared to novices (p < 0.05). Multiple metrics were shown to distinguish novices from experts. Hierarchical regression analyses indicate that psychophysiological variables are able to explain 72% of the variability in expert performance, but only 37% in novices. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) using psychophysiological metrics was able to discern between experts and novices with 72.6% accuracy. Conclusion: While limited due to small sample size, the results suggest that psychophysiology may be developed for use as an objective measure of expertise in DFDJM. Specifically, discriminant function measures may have the potential to objectively identify expert skill acquisition. Application: Psychophysiological metrics may create a performance model with the potential to optimize simulator-based DFJDM training. These performance models could be used for trainee feedback, and/or by the instructor to assess performance objectively. PMID:25100966

Johnson, Robin R.; Stone, Bradly T.; Miranda, Carrie M.; Vila, Bryan; James, Lois; James, Stephen M.; Rubio, Roberto F.; Berka, Chris

2014-01-01

32

Costa Rican data synthesis indicates oil, gas potential  

SciTech Connect

The hydrocarbon exploration data base in Costa Rica, gathered through various recent periods, indicates promising hydrocarbon potential in the country. During 1980--94, Recope SA, the state petroleum company, performed a series of studies to evaluate the petroleum potential in the whole Costa Rican territory. As a first step, the information compiled during previous studies was re-evaluated, and later new information was collected with the aid of foreign governments and cooperating institutions. A new exploratory era began with the Costa Rican Congress` approval in 1994 of the Hydrocarbon Law, which allows private companies to participate in hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. This article brings together some highlights about Costa Rica oil potential and gives basic information on future hydrocarbon exploration and development under the regulation of the new Hydrocarbon Law.

Barrientos, J.; Bottazzi, G.; Fernandez, A.; Barboza, G. [Ministry of Environment and Energy, San Jose (Costa Rica). Hydrocarbons Directorate

1997-05-12

33

Community- versus Individual-Level Indicators to Identify Pediatric Health Care Need  

PubMed Central

Increasingly, geographic information systems employing spatial data are being used to identify communities with poorer health care status. Since health care indicators are strongly linked to income, could these data, usually based on adult indicators, be used for pediatric health care need? We hypothesized that individual-level indicators such as quality of life scales (QOL) would be better than community-level indicators at identifying families with poorer health care practices. Surveys and medical record reviews were used for a sample of 174 caregivers of young children. Lower level of income was associated with poorer scores on several QOL domains, and on the primary health practices (i.e., non-urgent emergency room use and lack of age-appropriate immunization status). One community-level indicator, the medically underserved area (MUA), was almost as good as the best individual-level indicators at predicting primary health care practices. The community-level indicator of MUA appears to meet its initial intent, providing information on the location of very low-income individuals with high health care need even among a sample of Medicaid-insured children with an identified health care provider. PMID:17146711

2006-01-01

34

Potentials for Soil Enzyme as Indicators of Ecological Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activity measurements of selected soil enzymes (cellulase, glucosidase, amidohydrolase, phosphatase, arylsulfatase) involved in carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur cycling in the biosphere, hold potential as early and sensitive indicators of soil ecological stress and restoration, These measurements are advantageous because the procedures are simple, rapid, and reproducible over time. Enzyme activities are sensitive to short-term changes in soil and kind-use management. Enzyme activities have also been observed to be closely related to soil organic matter proposed as an index of soil quality.

Senwo, Z. N.; Manu, A.; Coleman, T. L.

1997-01-01

35

Identifying potential cancer driver genes by genomic data integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cancer is a genomic disease associated with a plethora of gene mutations resulting in a loss of control over vital cellular functions. Among these mutated genes, driver genes are defined as being causally linked to oncogenesis, while passenger genes are thought to be irrelevant for cancer development. With increasing numbers of large-scale genomic datasets available, integrating these genomic data to identify driver genes from aberration regions of cancer genomes becomes an important goal of cancer genome analysis and investigations into mechanisms responsible for cancer development. A computational method, MAXDRIVER, is proposed here to identify potential driver genes on the basis of copy number aberration (CNA) regions of cancer genomes, by integrating publicly available human genomic data. MAXDRIVER employs several optimization strategies to construct a heterogeneous network, by means of combining a fused gene functional similarity network, gene-disease associations and a disease phenotypic similarity network. MAXDRIVER was validated to effectively recall known associations among genes and cancers. Previously identified as well as novel driver genes were detected by scanning CNAs of breast cancer, melanoma and liver carcinoma. Three predicted driver genes (CDKN2A, AKT1, RNF139) were found common in these three cancers by comparative analysis.

Chen, Yong; Hao, Jingjing; Jiang, Wei; He, Tong; Zhang, Xuegong; Jiang, Tao; Jiang, Rui

2013-12-01

36

Identifying potential programs and platforms to deliver multiple micronutrient interventions.  

PubMed

This article reviews the potential of four broad types of platforms, health, agriculture, market-based, and social protection programs, to deliver multiple micronutrient (MMN) interventions (supplementation, fortification, and dietary modification). We assessed the platforms' potential based on seven performance criteria related to programs within these platforms: 1) targeting, 2) efficacy of interventions, 3) quality of implementation, 4) utilization, 5) impact, 6) coverage, and 7) sustainability. We highlight one type of program per platform to illustrate strengths and weaknesses for delivering MMN interventions, identify critical knowledge gaps, and highlight what is needed to increase effectiveness for delivering MMN interventions. We found that all four platforms have the potential to effectively deliver MMN interventions if the following key program elements are addressed: 1) strong behavior change communication strategies to increase demand and proper utilization of services/products; 2) supply side interventions to ensure consistent availability of high quality interventions, products, and well-trained staff; 3) rigorous evaluations of effectiveness, quality of delivery, and impact pathways to generate best practices for replication and scale-up; and 4) timely dissemination of evaluation results to ensure use by program implementers and policy makers. The diversification of delivery platforms, which simultaneously addresses multiple determinants of MMN deficiencies and expands coverage, is needed to accelerate progress in reducing MMN deficiencies. PMID:22131548

Olney, Deanna K; Rawat, Rahul; Ruel, Marie T

2012-01-01

37

Potential Vocational Education Indicators: Vital Statistics for Planning, Review and Public Information about Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An initial set of potential indicators for use in planning, reviewing, and providing puplic information about vocational education in Minnesota was identified. A list of approximately 70 characteristics of vocational education was submitted for review by secondary, postsecondary, and adult vocational education program administrators and the staff…

Copa, George H.; Salem, M. Nagi

38

Source rock, maturity data indicate potential off Namibia  

SciTech Connect

Namibia`s territorial waters occupy a large portion of West Africa`s continental shelf. The area to the 1,000 m isobath is comparable in size to the combined offshore areas of Gabon, Congo, Zaire, and Angola. Around half as much again lies in 1,000--2,500 m of water. The whole unlicensed part of this area will be open for bidding when the Third Licensing Round starts Oct. 1, 1998. Offshore Namibia is underexplored by drilling with only seven exploration wells drilled. Shell`s Kudu field represents a considerable gas resource with reserves of around 3 tcf and is presently the only commercial discovery.Namibia`s offshore area holds enormous exploration potential. Good quality sandstone reservoirs are likely to be distributed widely, and a number of prospective structural and stratigraphic traps have been identified. The recognition of Cretaceous marine oil-prone source rocks combined with the results of new thermal history reconstruction and maturity modeling studies are particularly significant in assessment of the oil potential. The paper discusses resource development and structures, oil source potential, maturity, and hydrocarbon generation.

Bray, R.; Lawrence, S. [Exploration Consultants Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom); Swart, R. [National Petroleum Corp. of Namibia Pty. Ltd., Windhoek (Namibia)

1998-08-10

39

Potential Anti-cancer Drugs Commonly Used for Other Indications.  

PubMed

An increasing resistance of mammalian tumor cells to chemotherapy along with the severe side effects of commonly used cytostatics has raised the urgency in the search for new anti-cancer agents. Several drugs originally approved for indications other than cancer treatment have recently been found to have a cytostatic effect on cancer cells. These drugs could be expediently repurposed as anti-cancer agents, since they have already been tested for toxicity in humans and animals. The groups of newly recognized potential cytostatics discussed in this review include benzimidazole anthelmintics (albendazole, mebendazole, flubendazole), anti-hypertensive drugs (doxazosin, propranolol), psychopharmaceuticals (chlorpromazine, clomipramine) and antidiabetic drugs (metformin, pioglitazone). All these drugs have a definite potential to be used especially in combinations with other cytostatics; the chemotherapy targeting of multiple sites now represents a promising approach in cancer treatment. The present review summarizes recent information about the anti-cancer effects of selected drugs commonly used for other medical indications. Our aim is not to collect all the reported results, but to present an overview of various possibilities. Advantages, disadvantages and further perspectives regarding individual drugs are discussed and evaluated. PMID:25544649

Hanusova, Veronika; Skalova, Lenka; Kralova, Vera; Matouskova, Petra

2015-01-01

40

Revisiting property crime and economic conditions: An exploratory study to identify predictive indicators beyond unemployment rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous researchers have questioned the use of the unemployment rate as an explanatory factor in econometric studies which address the relationship between the economy and crime. This paper presents the findings from an exploratory study which sought to test the efficacy of the unemployment rate for predicting reported property crime rates and to identify other economic indicators which may also

Douglas L. Yearwood; Gerry Koinis

2011-01-01

41

Revisting Property Crime and Economic Conditions: An Exploratory Study to Identify Predictive Indicators beyond Unemployment Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous researchers have questioned the use of the unemployment rate as an explanatory factor in econometric studies which address the relationship between the economy and crime. This paper presents the findings from an exploratory study which sought to test the efficacy of the unemployment rate for predicting reported property crime rates and to identify other economic indicators which may also

Douglas L. Yearwood; Gerry Koinis

2009-01-01

42

A Method to Identify Estuarine Macroinvertebrate Pollution Indicator Species in the Virginian Biogeogarphic Province  

EPA Science Inventory

Macroinvertebrates are commonly used as biomonitors to detect pollution impacts in estuaries. The goal of this research was to identify estuarine benthic invertebrates that could be used as indicator species to detect presence or absence of pollution in the Virginian Biogeograph...

43

Identifying and Characterizing Dominant Plants as an Indicator of Community Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dominant species play key roles in shaping community structure, but their behavior is far from uniform. We speculated that recognition of different behaviors (determined objectively) would be an indicator of the condition of plant communities. We developed a species dominance index (SDI) to identify dominant species and compare their behavior across multiple spatial scales. The SDI is based on three

Christin B. Frieswyk; Carol A. Johnston; Joy B. Zedler

2007-01-01

44

Biologically controlled minerals as potential indicators of life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Minerals can be produced and deposited either by abiotic or biologic means. Regardless of their origin, mineral crystals reflect the environment conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, chemical composition, and redox potential) present during crystal formation. Biologically-produced mineral crystals are grown or reworked under the control of their host organism and reflect an environment different from the abiotic environment. In addition, minerals of either biologic or abiotic origin have great longevities. For these reasons, biologically produced minerals have been proposed as biomarkers. Biomarkers are key morphological, chemical, and isotopic signatures of living systems that can be used to determine if life processes have occurred. Studies of biologically controlled minerals produced by the protist, Paramecium tetraurelia, were initiated since techniques have already been developed to culture them and isolate their crystalline material, and methods are already in place to analyze this material. Two direct crystalline phases were identified. One phase, whose chemical composition is high in Mg, was identified as struvite. The second phase, whose chemical composition is high in Ca, has not been previously found occurring naturally and may be considered a newly discovered material. Analyses are underway to determine the characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of minerals formed abiotically, but with the same chemical composition.

Schwartz, D. E.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Kaneshiro, E.

1991-01-01

45

Kernel density surface modelling as a means to identify significant concentrations of vulnerable marine ecosystem indicators.  

PubMed

The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61/105, concerning sustainable fisheries in the marine ecosystem, calls for the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VME) from destructive fishing practices. Subsequently, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) produced guidelines for identification of VME indicator species/taxa to assist in the implementation of the resolution, but recommended the development of case-specific operational definitions for their application. We applied kernel density estimation (KDE) to research vessel trawl survey data from inside the fishing footprint of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) Regulatory Area in the high seas of the northwest Atlantic to create biomass density surfaces for four VME indicator taxa: large-sized sponges, sea pens, small and large gorgonian corals. These VME indicator taxa were identified previously by NAFO using the fragility, life history characteristics and structural complexity criteria presented by FAO, along with an evaluation of their recovery trajectories. KDE, a non-parametric neighbour-based smoothing function, has been used previously in ecology to identify hotspots, that is, areas of relatively high biomass/abundance. We present a novel approach of examining relative changes in area under polygons created from encircling successive biomass categories on the KDE surface to identify "significant concentrations" of biomass, which we equate to VMEs. This allows identification of the VMEs from the broader distribution of the species in the study area. We provide independent assessments of the VMEs so identified using underwater images, benthic sampling with other gear types (dredges, cores), and/or published species distribution models of probability of occurrence, as available. For each VME indicator taxon we provide a brief review of their ecological function which will be important in future assessments of significant adverse impact on these habitats here and elsewhere. PMID:25289667

Kenchington, Ellen; Murillo, Francisco Javier; Lirette, Camille; Sacau, Mar; Koen-Alonso, Mariano; Kenny, Andrew; Ollerhead, Neil; Wareham, Vonda; Beazley, Lindsay

2014-01-01

46

Kernel Density Surface Modelling as a Means to Identify Significant Concentrations of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystem Indicators  

PubMed Central

The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61/105, concerning sustainable fisheries in the marine ecosystem, calls for the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VME) from destructive fishing practices. Subsequently, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) produced guidelines for identification of VME indicator species/taxa to assist in the implementation of the resolution, but recommended the development of case-specific operational definitions for their application. We applied kernel density estimation (KDE) to research vessel trawl survey data from inside the fishing footprint of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) Regulatory Area in the high seas of the northwest Atlantic to create biomass density surfaces for four VME indicator taxa: large-sized sponges, sea pens, small and large gorgonian corals. These VME indicator taxa were identified previously by NAFO using the fragility, life history characteristics and structural complexity criteria presented by FAO, along with an evaluation of their recovery trajectories. KDE, a non-parametric neighbour-based smoothing function, has been used previously in ecology to identify hotspots, that is, areas of relatively high biomass/abundance. We present a novel approach of examining relative changes in area under polygons created from encircling successive biomass categories on the KDE surface to identify “significant concentrations” of biomass, which we equate to VMEs. This allows identification of the VMEs from the broader distribution of the species in the study area. We provide independent assessments of the VMEs so identified using underwater images, benthic sampling with other gear types (dredges, cores), and/or published species distribution models of probability of occurrence, as available. For each VME indicator taxon we provide a brief review of their ecological function which will be important in future assessments of significant adverse impact on these habitats here and elsewhere. PMID:25289667

Kenchington, Ellen; Murillo, Francisco Javier; Lirette, Camille; Sacau, Mar; Koen-Alonso, Mariano; Kenny, Andrew; Ollerhead, Neil; Wareham, Vonda; Beazley, Lindsay

2014-01-01

47

Identifying and Quantifying Heterogeneity in High Content Analysis: Application of Heterogeneity Indices to Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

One of the greatest challenges in biomedical research, drug discovery and diagnostics is understanding how seemingly identical cells can respond differently to perturbagens including drugs for disease treatment. Although heterogeneity has become an accepted characteristic of a population of cells, in drug discovery it is not routinely evaluated or reported. The standard practice for cell-based, high content assays has been to assume a normal distribution and to report a well-to-well average value with a standard deviation. To address this important issue we sought to define a method that could be readily implemented to identify, quantify and characterize heterogeneity in cellular and small organism assays to guide decisions during drug discovery and experimental cell/tissue profiling. Our study revealed that heterogeneity can be effectively identified and quantified with three indices that indicate diversity, non-normality and percent outliers. The indices were evaluated using the induction and inhibition of STAT3 activation in five cell lines where the systems response including sample preparation and instrument performance were well characterized and controlled. These heterogeneity indices provide a standardized method that can easily be integrated into small and large scale screening or profiling projects to guide interpretation of the biology, as well as the development of therapeutics and diagnostics. Understanding the heterogeneity in the response to perturbagens will become a critical factor in designing strategies for the development of therapeutics including targeted polypharmacology. PMID:25036749

Gough, Albert H.; Chen, Ning; Shun, Tong Ying; Lezon, Timothy R.; Boltz, Robert C.; Reese, Celeste E.; Wagner, Jacob; Vernetti, Lawrence A.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Lee, Adrian V.; Stern, Andrew M.; Schurdak, Mark E.; Taylor, D. Lansing

2014-01-01

48

Sigma-2 Receptor as Potential Indicator of Stem Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Purpose The sigma-2 (?2) receptor is a potential biomarker of proliferative status of solid tumors. Specific synthetic probes using N-substituted-9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3?-yl carbamate analogs have been designed and implemented for experimental cancer diagnosis and therapy. Procedures We employed the fluorescently-labeled ?2 receptor probe, SW120, to evaluate ?2 receptor expression in human stem cells (SC), including: bone marrow stromal (BMSC), neural progenitor (NPC), amniotic fluid (AFSC), hematopoetic (HSC) and embryonic stem cells (ESC). We concurrently evaluated the intensity of SW120 and 5-ethynyl-2?-deoxyuridine (EdU) relative to passage number and multipotency. Results We substantiated significantly higher ?2 receptor density among proliferating SC relative to lineage-restricted cell types. Additionally, cellular internalization of the ?2 receptor in SC was consistent with receptor-mediated endocytosis and confocal microscopy indicated SW120 specific co-localization with a fluorescent marker of lysosomes in all SC imaged. Conclusion These results suggest that ?2 receptors may serve to monitor stem cell differentiation in future experimental studies. PMID:21614680

Haller, Jodi L.; Panyutin, Irina; Chaudhry, Aneeka; Zeng, Chenbo; Mach, Robert H.; Frank, Joseph A.

2011-01-01

49

7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false How are potential market participants identified for...FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? Potential market participants are...

2010-01-01

50

Examine existing ULS access services to identify potential avenues of  

E-print Network

. Promote an organizational culture· that emphasizes continuous improvement through learning and identify, and the establishment of trusted repositories for the research output of the University. Organizational Agility 5Encourage initiatives that will identify areas for innovative changes in our organizational and operational

Jiang, Huiqiang

51

Identifying indicators of harmful and problem gambling in a Canadian sample through receiver operating characteristic analysis.  

PubMed

Many gamblers would prefer to reduce gambling on their own rather than to adopt an abstinence approach within the context of a gambling treatment program. Yet responsible gambling guidelines lack quantifiable markers to guide gamblers in wagering safely. To address these issues, the current investigation implemented receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify behavioral indicators of harmful and problem gambling. Gambling involvement was assessed in 503 participants (275 psychiatric outpatients and 228 community gamblers) with the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Overall gambling frequency, duration, and expenditure were able to distinguish harmful and problematic gambling at a moderate level. Indicators of harmful gambling were generated for engagement in specific gambling activities: frequency of tickets and casino; duration of bingo, casino, and investments; and expenditures on bingo, casino, sports betting, games of skill, and investments. Indicators of problem gambling were similarly produced for frequency of tickets and casino, and expenditures on bingo, casino, games of skill, and investments. Logistic regression analyses revealed that overall gambling frequency uniquely predicted the presence of harmful and problem gambling. Furthermore, frequency indicators for tickets and casino uniquely predicted the presence of both harmful and problem gambling. Together, these findings contribute to the development of an empirically based method enabling the minimization of harmful or problem gambling through self-control rather than abstinence. PMID:23647158

Quilty, Lena C; Avila Murati, Daniela; Bagby, R Michael

2014-03-01

52

IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL SOURCES OF BACKGROUND CONTAMINATION IN RT-PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

Extraction of nucleic acids from low biomass samples, such as drinking water, is particularly sensitive to potential background contamination because the contaminating material is minimally diluted by the sample. The presence of bacterial DNA in Taq DNA polymerase is wel...

53

MODELING POTENTIAL PATHOGEN INFECTED WATERS UTILIZING LANDSCAPE INDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The federal Clean Water Act (CWA) requires states, territories and tribal lands to assess their waters on a biennial schedule and identify, list and prioritize impaired waters not meeting water quality standards. Once a water body is listed, the state is required to develop Tota...

54

Coupling groundwater modeling and biological indicators for identifying river/aquifer exchanges.  

PubMed

Future climate changes and the resulting modifications in anthropogenic activities will alter the interactions between rivers and groundwater. The quantification of these hydraulic interactions is absolutely necessary for achieving sustainable water use and requires accurate analytical methodologies. This report proposes an interdisciplinary approach to the quantitative and qualitative characterization of hydraulic interactions between rivers and shallow aquifers, wherein it outlines the advantages of coupling groundwater modeling with biological markers. As a first step, we built independent diagnostic maps of hydrological exchanges at the sector scale on the basis of hydrogeological modeling and biological indicators. In a second step, these maps were compared to provide a quantitative and qualitative understanding of exchanges between groundwater and surface water. This comparison significantly improved the calibration of groundwater models through a better assessment of boundary zones. Our approach enabled us to identify the conditions under which it could be possible to use biological indicators instead of a large set of piezometric measures. The integration of such combined tools in a future decision support system will assist governmental authorities in proposing appropriate long-term water policies for the preservation of groundwater resources, such as for supplying potable water and/or mitigating pollution risks. PMID:24567877

Graillot, Didier; Paran, Frédéric; Bornette, Gudrun; Marmonier, Pierre; Piscart, Christophe; Cadilhac, Laurent

2014-01-01

55

AN INDICATOR OF POTENTIAL STREAM WOOD CONTRIBUTION FOR RIPARIAN FORESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

In northwestern Oregon a key function of riparian forests is to provide wood to the stream network. This function is a prominent feature of Federal and State forest practices in the region. Thus, defining indicators which are associated with this function are important for desi...

56

Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a wealth of published research on salinity tolerance of plants, neither the metabolic sites at which salt stress damages plants nor the adaptive mechanisms utilized by plants to survive under saline conditions are well understood. As a result, there are no well-defined indicators for salinity tolerance available to assist plant breeders in the improvement of salinity tolerance of important

M. Ashraf; P. J. C. Harris

2004-01-01

57

Biofilms as potential indicators of macrophyte-dominated lake health.  

PubMed

The structural and functional attributes of biofilms from Lake Baiyangdian, China, were tested to evaluate the utility of biofilms as indicators of macrophyte-dominated lake health. Biofilms on artificial substrata were sampled at 8 sites in the lake during different seasons. The responses of biofilms to land use and water quality changes were analyzed. The biofilm structural and functional attributes fluctuated seasonally. All attributes we tested differed significantly with different land use. Generally, biomass and enzyme activities increased, whereas chl c/a decreased with human disturbance. Attributes were strongly correlated to environmental variables, especially the trophic status of the lake. Overall, biofilms were good indicators of macrophyte-dominated lake health. The proportions of Bacillariophyta and Cyanophyta, Chlorophyll-a, b, chlorophyll-b/a, chlorophyll-c/a, algal density, ?-glucosidase, aminopeptidase and ash-free dry weight of biofilms are recommended as tools for assessing responses to land use changes, and for monitoring the effectiveness of ecosystem rehabilitation. PMID:21503613

Ma, Muyuan; Liu, Jingling; Wang, Xuemei

2011-07-01

58

Geochemical Indicators and Diatoms Identify the Inundation Limit of the 2010 Maule Tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been known that tsunamis inundate further than the limit of the sand deposit they leave behind, and that relying on the extent of the sandy sedimentary evidence is likely to result in an under-estimation of event magnitude and risk. However, the question remains about how to identify the real limit of tsunami inundation, particularly several months or more after the event. Here we report on a study carried out at a site on the Pacific coast of Chile south of Constitución in August 2010, nearly 6 months after the Mw 8.8 Maule tsunami. Eight pits were dug along a 480 m long shore-perpendicular transect, incorporating the area covered by tsunami sediment, a zone covered by a discontinuous and decomposing debris scatter up to the point of maximum inundation, and an area further landward from this point. The tsunami sand deposit extended from ~160 to 260 m inland and ranged in thickness from 22 to less than 1 cm at the limit of sediment deposition. It consisted of dark, generally well-sorted, coarse to medium sand. Logs, pumice and various organic debris were found up to a limit of tsunami inundation (380 m inland - confirmed by a local eye witness). New grass growth also covered the tsunami deposit and the field further inland. While the chemical composition of the tsunami deposit differed to that of the underlying soil, indicators of saltwater inundation were low in the sandy units, reflecting downward leaching and dilution by rainfall in the porous material in the 6 months since the tsunami. Concentrations of saltwater indicators (e.g. chloride, sulphate, bromide) were however elevated in the area covered by scattered debris up to the limit of tsunami inundation, suggesting preferential retention in organic-rich material. Marine and brackish-marine diatoms were found both in the sandy units and beyond, at the surface of the grass field, and occurred in higher concentrations than in the underlying soil. Both diatom assemblages and geochemical marine proxies are indicative of tsunami inundation well beyond the sediment limit. While sea spray and associated wind cannot be totally excluded as the source of soluble salts and wind-blown diatoms, chloride concentrations do not decrease landward within the area of tsunami inundation. A decrease in chloride would have been expected if it was solely due to sea spray. While further research is required to allow us to distinguish the effects of marine inundation from sea spray, the use of geochemical proxies and diatoms provides a means to identify the limit of tsunami inundation beyond the limit of sand deposition, and as previous studies have shown, even after debris marking it have decayed. This is of importance for tsunami risk assessment and mitigation.

Chague-Goff, C.; Goff, J. R.; Wong, H. K.; Cisternas, M.

2013-05-01

59

Characterization of potential mineralization in Afghanistan: four permissive areas identified using imaging spectroscopy data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan, four permissive areas for mineralization, Bamyan 1, Farah 1, Ghazni 1, and Ghazni 2, have been identified using imaging spectroscopy data. To support economic development, the areas of potential mineralization were selected on the occurrence of selected mineral assemblages mapped using the HyMap™ data (kaolinite, jarosite, hydrated silica, chlorite, epidote, iron-bearing carbonate, buddingtonite, dickite, and alunite) that may be indicative of past mineralization processes in areas with limited or no previous mineral resource studies. Approximately 30 sites were initially determined to be candidates for areas of potential mineralization. Additional criteria and material used to refine the selection and prioritization process included existing geologic maps, Landsat Thematic Mapper data, and published literature. The HyMapTM data were interpreted in the context of the regional geologic and tectonic setting and used the presence of alteration mineral assemblages to identify areas with the potential for undiscovered mineral resources. Further field-sampling, mapping, and supporting geochemical analyses are necessary to fully substantiate and verify the specific deposit types in the four areas of potential mineralization.

King, Trude V.V.; Berger, Byron R.; Johnson, Michaela R.

2014-01-01

60

Identifying and Evaluating Field Indicators of Urogenital Schistosomiasis-Related Morbidity in Preschool-Aged Children  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have been conducted quantifying the impact of schistosome infections on health and development in school-aged children. In contrast, relatively little is known about morbidity levels in preschool-aged children (?5 years) who have been neglected in terms of schistosome research and control. The aim of this study was to compare the utility of available point-of-care (POC) morbidity diagnostic tools in preschool versus primary school-aged children (6–10 years) and determine markers which can be used in the field to identify and quantify Schistosoma haematobium-related morbidity. Methods/Principal Findings A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the performance of currently available POC morbidity diagnostic tools on Zimbabwean children aged 1–5 years (n=104) and 6–10 years (n=194). Morbidity was determined using the POC diagnostics questionnaire-based reporting of haematuria and dysuria, clinical examination, urinalysis by dipsticks, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). Attributable fractions were used to quantify the proportion of morbidity attributable to S. haematobium infection. Based on results of attributable fractions, UACR was identified as the most reliable tool for detecting schistosome-related morbidity, followed by dipsticks, visual urine inspection, questionnaires, and lastly clinical examination. The results of urine dipstick attributes showed that proteinuria and microhaematuria accounted for most differences between schistosome egg-positive and negative children (T=-50.1; p<0.001). These observations were consistent in preschool vs. primary school-aged children. Conclusions/Significance Preschool-aged children in endemic areas can be effectively screened for schistosome-related morbidity using the same currently available diagnostic tools applicable to older children. UACR for detecting albuminuria is recommended as the best choice for rapid assessment of morbidity attributed to S. haematobium infection in children in the field. The use of dipstick microhaematuria and proteinuria as additional indicators of schistosome-related morbidity would improve the estimation of disease burden in young children. PMID:25793584

Wami, Welcome M.; Nausch, Norman; Midzi, Nicholas; Gwisai, Reggis; Mduluza, Takafira; Woolhouse, Mark; Mutapi, Francisca

2015-01-01

61

Fragmentation patterns of evergreen oak woodlands in Southwestern Iberia: identifying key spatial indicators.  

PubMed

Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands (composed of Quercus suber L. and Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) are becoming increasingly fragmented in the human-modified landscapes of Southwestern Portugal and Spain. Previous studies have largely neglected to assess the spatial changes of oak woodlands in relation to their surrounding landscape matrix, and to characterize and quantify woodland boundaries and edges. The present study aims to fill this gap by analyzing fragmentation patterns of oak woodlands over a 50-year period (1958-2007) in three landscapes. Using archived aerial imagery from 1958, 1995 and 2007, for two consecutive periods (1958-1995 and 1995-2007), we calculated a set of landscape metrics to compare woodland fragmentation over time. Our results indicated a continuous woodland fragmentation characterized by their edge dynamics. From 1958 to 2007, the replacement of open farmland by shrubland and by new afforestation areas in the oak woodland landscape surrounding matrix, led to the highest values for edge contrast length trends of 5.0 and 12.3, respectively. Linear discriminant analysis was performed to delineate fragmented woodland structures and identify metric variables that characterize woodland spatial configuration. The edge contrast length with open farmland showed a strong correlation with F1 (correlations ranging between 0.55 and 0.98) and may be used as a proxy for oak woodland mixedness in landscape matrix. The edge dynamics of oak woodlands may result in different patterns of oak recruitment and therefore, its study may be helpful in highlighting future baselines for the sustainable management of oak woodlands. PMID:24355688

Costa, Augusta; Madeira, Manuel; Lima Santos, José; Plieninger, Tobias; Seixas, Júlia

2014-01-15

62

Establishing and testing the "reuse potential" indicator for managing wastes as resources.  

PubMed

This study advances contemporary ideas promoting the importance of managing wastes as resources such as closed-loop or circular material economies, and sustainable materials management by reinforcing the notion of a resource-based paradigm rather than a waste-based one. It features the creation of a quantitative tool, the "reuse potential indicator" to specify how "resource-like" versus how "waste-like" specific materials are on a continuum. Even with increasing attention to waste reuse and resource conservation, constant changes in product composition and complexity have left material managers without adequate guidance to make decisions about what is technically feasible to recover from the discard stream even before markets can be considered. The reuse potential indicator is developed to aid management decision-making about waste based not on perception but more objectively on the technical ability of the materials to be reused in commerce. This new indicator is based on the extent of technological innovation and commercial application of actual reuse approaches identified and cataloged. Coal combustion by-products (CCBs) provide the test case for calculating the reuse potential indicator. While CCBs are often perceived as wastes and then isolated in landfills or surface impoundments, there is also a century-long history in the industry of developing technologies to reuse CCBs. The recent statistics show that most CCBs generated in Europe and Japan are reused (90-95%), but only 40-45% of CCBs are used in the United States. According to the reuse potential calculation, however, CCBs in the United States have high technical reusability. Of the four CCBs examined under three different regulatory schemes, reuse potential for boiler slag and flue-gas desulfurization gypsum maintains a value greater than 0.8 on a 0-1 scale, indicating they are at least 80% resource-like. Under current regulation in the United States, both fly ash and bottom ash are 80-90% resource-like. Very strict regulation would remove many reuse options decreasing potential for these two CCBs to 30% resource-like. A more holistic view of waste and broad application of the new indicator would make clear what technologies are available and assist public and private decision makers in setting quantitative material reuse targets from a new knowledge base that reinforces a resource-based paradigm. PMID:24594758

Park, Joo Young; Chertow, Marian R

2014-05-01

63

Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data (DEM) were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight against malaria in Zambia and other regions with seasonal transmission. This work shows that, in areas of seasonal malaria transmission, incorporating terrain-based landscape models to the planning stages of vector control allows for the exclusion of significant portions of landscape that would be unsuitable for water to accumulate and for mosquito larvae occupation. With increasing free availability of satellite imagery such as SRTM and LandSat, the development of satellite imagery-based prediction models is becoming more accessible to vector management coordinators. PMID:21050496

2010-01-01

64

Cluster analysis for identifying sub-groups and selecting potential discriminatory variables in human encephalitis  

PubMed Central

Background Encephalitis is an acute clinical syndrome of the central nervous system (CNS), often associated with fatal outcome or permanent damage, including cognitive and behavioural impairment, affective disorders and epileptic seizures. Infection of the central nervous system is considered to be a major cause of encephalitis and more than 100 different pathogens have been recognized as causative agents. However, a large proportion of cases have unknown disease etiology. Methods We perform hierarchical cluster analysis on a multicenter England encephalitis data set with the aim of identifying sub-groups in human encephalitis. We use the simple matching similarity measure which is appropriate for binary data sets and performed variable selection using cluster heatmaps. We also use heatmaps to visually assess underlying patterns in the data, identify the main clinical and laboratory features and identify potential risk factors associated with encephalitis. Results Our results identified fever, personality and behavioural change, headache and lethargy as the main characteristics of encephalitis. Diagnostic variables such as brain scan and measurements from cerebrospinal fluids are also identified as main indicators of encephalitis. Our analysis revealed six major clusters in the England encephalitis data set. However, marked within-cluster heterogeneity is observed in some of the big clusters indicating possible sub-groups. Overall, the results show that patients are clustered according to symptom and diagnostic variables rather than causal agents. Exposure variables such as recent infection, sick person contact and animal contact have been identified as potential risk factors. Conclusions It is in general assumed and is a common practice to group encephalitis cases according to disease etiology. However, our results indicate that patients are clustered with respect to mainly symptom and diagnostic variables rather than causal agents. These similarities and/or differences with respect to symptom and diagnostic measurements might be attributed to host factors. The idea that characteristics of the host may be more important than the pathogen is also consistent with the observation that for some causes, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV), encephalitis is a rare outcome of a common infection. PMID:21192831

2010-01-01

65

Research Questions to Identify Ecological Indicators Most Useful for Linking Ecosystems and Human Wellbeing  

EPA Science Inventory

Background/Question/Methods While the desirability of ecological indicators that foster social science interpretation and use as well as public comprehension is well established, guidelines for developing indicators that meet these needs are not as well developed. In the past f...

66

DRAFT LIST OF KEY INDICATORS IDENTIFIED BY THE SOCIOECONOMIC AND INSTITUTIONAL WORKING GROUP  

E-print Network

Political and Social Participation Voter eligibility, registration, and participation Awareness indicators of RVDs More accurate measurements of people at one time Lakefront access New and Emerging Economic Mortgage risk indicators Open space and scenic affectors (location) Seasonal housing Rental use Owner

Standiford, Richard B.

67

Identifying potential recommendation domains for conservation agriculture in ethiopia, kenya, and Malawi.  

PubMed

Conservation agriculture (CA) is being promoted as an option for reducing soil degradation, conserving water, enhancing crop productivity, and maintaining yield stability. However, CA is a knowledge- and technology-intensive practice, and may not be feasible or may not perform better than conventional agriculture under all conditions and farming systems. Using high resolution (?1 km(2)) biophysical and socioeconomic geospatial data, this study identified potential recommendation domains (RDs) for CA in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Malawi. The biophysical variables used were soil texture, surface slope, and rainfall while the socioeconomic variables were market access and human and livestock population densities. Based on feasibility and comparative performance of CA over conventional agriculture, the biophysical and socioeconomic factors were first used to classify cultivated areas into three biophysical and three socioeconomic potential domains, respectively. Combinations of biophysical and socioeconomic domains were then used to develop potential RDs for CA based on adoption potential within the cultivated areas. About 39, 12, and 5 % of the cultivated areas showed high biophysical and socioeconomic potential while 50, 39, and 21 % of the cultivated areas showed high biophysical and medium socioeconomic potential for CA in Malawi, Kenya, and Ethiopia, respectively. The results indicate considerable acreages of land with high CA adoption potential in the mixed crop-livestock systems of the studied countries. However, there are large differences among countries depending on biophysical and socio-economic conditions. The information generated in this study could be used for targeting CA and prioritizing CA-related agricultural research and investment priorities in the three countries. PMID:25331642

Tesfaye, Kindie; Jaleta, Moti; Jena, Pradyot; Mutenje, Munyaradzi

2015-02-01

68

Identifying Potential Recommendation Domains for Conservation Agriculture in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Malawi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conservation agriculture (CA) is being promoted as an option for reducing soil degradation, conserving water, enhancing crop productivity, and maintaining yield stability. However, CA is a knowledge- and technology-intensive practice, and may not be feasible or may not perform better than conventional agriculture under all conditions and farming systems. Using high resolution (?1 km2) biophysical and socioeconomic geospatial data, this study identified potential recommendation domains (RDs) for CA in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Malawi. The biophysical variables used were soil texture, surface slope, and rainfall while the socioeconomic variables were market access and human and livestock population densities. Based on feasibility and comparative performance of CA over conventional agriculture, the biophysical and socioeconomic factors were first used to classify cultivated areas into three biophysical and three socioeconomic potential domains, respectively. Combinations of biophysical and socioeconomic domains were then used to develop potential RDs for CA based on adoption potential within the cultivated areas. About 39, 12, and 5 % of the cultivated areas showed high biophysical and socioeconomic potential while 50, 39, and 21 % of the cultivated areas showed high biophysical and medium socioeconomic potential for CA in Malawi, Kenya, and Ethiopia, respectively. The results indicate considerable acreages of land with high CA adoption potential in the mixed crop-livestock systems of the studied countries. However, there are large differences among countries depending on biophysical and socio-economic conditions. The information generated in this study could be used for targeting CA and prioritizing CA-related agricultural research and investment priorities in the three countries.

Tesfaye, Kindie; Jaleta, Moti; Jena, Pradyot; Mutenje, Munyaradzi

2015-02-01

69

Automatic Feature Extraction from Airborne Lidar Measurements to Identify Cross-Shore Morphologies Indicative of Beach Erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne lidar data were acquired along St. Augustine Beach, Florida seven times between August 2003 and February 2007. To identify sub-aerial morphologies indicative to beach erosion, the data sets were mined extensively by extracting several morphological features using cross-shore profile sampling. For each profile, the features were grouped into erosion or accretion classes dependent on shoreline change measured and their class-conditional probability density functions (PDFs) estimated via Parzen windowing. PDF separability was ranked using symmetric and normalized measures of probability divergence. The more interclass separation provided by a feature, the stronger the relationship with shoreline change variation and greater its potential as an indicator for erosion or accretion. Over short time periods (>1 month), beach slope and beach width ranked highest by providing the most separation and therefore high potential as indicators for erosion. Over longer time periods (>1 year), deviation-from-trend, which is the shoreline's deviation from the natural strike of the beach, ranked highest. This is significant in that the pier region's deviation from the natural trend is believed by coastal researchers to be a strong contributing factor to it being an erosion "hot spot". Furthermore, shoreline deviation appears implicitly within the widely used CERC equation for longshore transport. To test the potential of certain morphologies for predicting where a segment of beach might be more prone to erosion or accretion, a Bayesian classifier was implemented and tested on the data set. The highest ranking features selected by the divergence method outperformed those selected by a simple median metric and the correlation coefficient. Overall, high classification rates were achieved supporting the utility of certain features for erosion monitoring. In addition, an analytical diffusion model fit to the ALSM data was used to simulate spreading rate of a beach nourishment, and results were compared to measured change. The method developed provides a framework to mine high-resolution airborne lidar data over beaches and quantify relationships between alongshore variation in morphology and patterns in erosion or accretion.

Starek, M. J.; Vemula, R. K.; Slatton, K.; Shrestha, R. L.; Carter, B.

2007-12-01

70

A simple contact mapping algorithm for identifying potential peptide mimetics in protein–protein interaction partners  

PubMed Central

A simple, static contact mapping algorithm has been developed as a first step at identifying potential peptide biomimetics from protein interaction partner structure files. This rapid and simple mapping algorithm, “OpenContact” provides screened or parsed protein interaction files based on specified criteria for interatomic separation distances and interatomic potential interactions. The algorithm, which uses all-atom Amber03 force field models, was blindly tested on several unrelated cases from the literature where potential peptide mimetics have been experimentally developed to varying degrees of success. In all cases, the screening algorithm efficiently predicted proposed or potential peptide biomimetics, or close variations thereof, and provided complete atom-atom interaction data necessary for further detailed analysis and drug development. In addition, we used the static parsing/mapping method to develop a peptide mimetic to the cancer protein target, epidermal growth factor receptor. In this case, secondary, loop structure for the peptide was indicated from the intra-protein mapping, and the peptide was subsequently synthesized and shown to exhibit successful binding to the target protein. The case studies, which all involved experimental peptide drug advancement, illustrate many of the challenges associated with the development of peptide biomimetics, in general. Proteins 2014; 82:2253–2262. © 2014 The Authors. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24756879

Krall, Alex; Brunn, Jonathan; Kankanala, Spandana; Peters, Michael H

2014-01-01

71

Michigan study finds new indicator may help identify patients with increased risk from throat cancer:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of Michigan Health System have found a new indicator that may predict which patients with a common type of throat cancer are most likely have the cancer spread to other parts of their bodies.

72

A Program Evaluation Model: Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Identify Outcome Indicators in Outcomes-Based Program Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outcomes-based program evaluation is a systematic approach to identifying outcome indicators and measuring results against those indicators. One dimension of program evaluation is assessing the level of learner acquisition to determine if learning objectives were achieved as intended. The purpose of the proposed model is to use Bloom's Taxonomy to…

McNeil, Rita C.

2011-01-01

73

EVOKED POTENTIALS AS INDICES OF ADAPTATION IN THE SOMATOSENSORY SYSTEM IN HUMANS: A REVIEW AND PROSPECTUS  

EPA Science Inventory

Population-level behavior of large neural aggregates can be efficiently monitored by corresponding population-level indices such as somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). The literature reviewed clearly indicates that SEPs undergo systematic and often marked changes under condit...

74

Gangs in Our Schools: Identifying Gang Indicators in Our School Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although teachers used to teach in the communities where they resided, they now commute to schools in other districts. For teachers who teach in districts that are culturally or ethnically different than their own, it may be a new experience of which to become aware or identify issues such as dealing with gang behavior. For other teachers, there…

Struyk, Ruth

2006-01-01

75

Identifying Early Numeracy Indicators for Kindergarten and First-Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have documented positive effects for early intervention in improving the mathematics performance of low-achieving children. Consequently, educators need technically sound mathematics screening measures to identify children at risk and then intervene to improve achievement. In this article, we describe preliminary technical adequacy…

Lembke, Erica; Foegen, Anne

2009-01-01

76

A complementary approach to identifying and assessing the remediation potential of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria.  

PubMed

The isolation and assessment of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria often represents a key strategy in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. However the isolation and assessment of such bacteria is often a lengthy and expensive procedure. The aim of this study was to identify potential isolates for use in the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites using a combination of selective isolation plating, the Biolog system and subsequent multivariate analyses. The use of weathered oil as the main C source restricted the number of isolates growing to 5×10(2)CFUg soil(-1). Isolates (n=96) were then assessed individually using Biolog MT2 plates with seven different hydrocarbons (dodecane, tridecane, hexadecane, octadecane, eicosane, naphthalene and phenanthrene). The results indicated that all isolates were able to grow on at least one hydrocarbon from the seven chosen. This confirmed that the isolation media developed was selective in isolating hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria only. Cluster analysis of Biolog data separated the isolates into two discrete clusters with cluster 2 identifying hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria that are effective in degrading a variety of contaminants. Further study on the isolates from cluster 2 was carried out based on their phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 bacterial isolates from cluster 2 based on the 1500bp sequences from 16S rDNA genes using MRBAYES confirmed all isolates as being hydrocarbonoclastic, providing supportive evidence that isolates from cluster 2 have a potential use in bioremediation. This approach could improve both the speed and efficiency of the commercial bioremediation process. PMID:22245375

Kadali, Krishna K; Simons, Keryn L; Skuza, Pawel P; Moore, Robert B; Ball, Andrew S

2012-03-01

77

Identifying Important Career Indicators of Undergraduate Geoscience Students Upon Completion of Their Degree  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Geosciences Institute (AGI) decided to create the National Geoscience Student Exit Survey in order to identify the initial pathways into the workforce for these graduating students, as well as assess their preparedness for entering the workforce upon graduation. The creation of this survey stemmed from a combination of experiences with the AGI/AGU Survey of Doctorates and discussions at the following Science Education Research Center (SERC) workshops: "Developing Pathways to Strong Programs for the Future", "Strengthening Your Geoscience Program", and "Assessing Geoscience Programs". These events identified distinct gaps in understanding the experiences and perspectives of geoscience students during one of their most profound professional transitions. Therefore, the idea for the survey arose as a way to evaluate how the discipline is preparing and educating students, as well as identifying the students' desired career paths. The discussions at the workshops solidified the need for this survey and created the initial framework for the first pilot of the survey. The purpose of this assessment tool is to evaluate student preparedness for entering the geosciences workforce; identify student decision points for entering geosciences fields and remaining in the geosciences workforce; identify geosciences fields that students pursue in undergraduate and graduate school; collect information on students' expected career trajectories and geosciences professions; identify geosciences career sectors that are hiring new graduates; collect information about salary projections; overall effectiveness of geosciences departments regionally and nationally; demonstrate the value of geosciences degrees to future students, the institutions, and employers; and establish a benchmark to perform longitudinal studies of geosciences graduates to understand their career pathways and impacts of their educational experiences on these decisions. AGI's Student Exit Survey went through a second pilot testing with Spring 2012 graduates from 45 departments across the United States. These graduating students from undergraduate and graduate programs answered questions about their earth science education experiences at the high school, community college, and university levels; their quantitative skills; their research and internship experiences and their immediate plans after graduation. Out of the 294 complete responses to the survey, 233 were from undergraduate students. This presentation will focus on the responses of these undergraduate students. AGI hopes to fully deploy this survey broadly to geosciences departments across the country in Spring 2013. AGI will also begin longitudinally participants from the previous Exit Survey efforts in order to understand their progression through their chosen career paths.

Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C. M.; Houlton, H. R.

2012-12-01

78

Identifying critical limits for soil quality indicators in agro-ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maintenance of soil quality is critical to environmental sustainability. Although, several papers have been published on this subject, progress in soil quality monitoring has been slow. Knowledge and assessment of changes (positive or negative) in its status with time is needed to evaluate the impact of different management practices. Selection of key indicators and their critical limits (threshold values),

M. A. Arshad; S. Martin

2002-01-01

79

Predictive performance of the Short Time Exposure test for identifying eye irritation potential of chemical mixtures.  

PubMed

The Short Time Exposure (STE) test is an in vitro eye irritation test based on the cytotoxicity in SIRC cells (rabbit corneal cell line) following a 5min treatment of chemicals. This study evaluated the predictive performance of the STE test to identify the globally harmonized system (GHS) Not Classified category and other irritant categories (i.e., GHS Category 1 or 2) when used to test 40 chemical mixtures that included irritants. The STE test correctly identified 30 tested mixtures classified as GHS irritant categories and 5 out of 10 tested mixtures classified as GHS Not Classified. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictivity, negative predictivity, and overall accuracy of the STE test were 100% (30/30), 50% (5/10), 86% (25/30), 100% (5/5), and 88% (35/40), respectively. These predictive performances were comparative to or greater than those in other in vitro eye irritation tests that have been accepted as test guideline by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. This suggests that the STE test has sufficient predictivity for identifying the eye irritation potential of chemical mixtures. Since no false negatives in this study were found, this indicates that the STE test is applicable as a part of the bottom-up approach. PMID:25681760

Saito, Kazutoshi; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Nukada, Yuko; Ei, Kyo; Abo, Takayuki; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi

2015-04-01

80

Identifying Potential Areas for Siting Interim Nuclear Waste Facilities Using Map Algebra and Optimization Approaches  

SciTech Connect

The renewed interest in siting new nuclear power plants in the United States has brought to the center stage, the need to site interim facilities for long-term management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In this paper, a two-stage approach for identifying potential areas for siting interim SNF facilities is presented. In the first stage, the land area is discretized into grids of uniform size (e.g., 100m x 100m grids). For the continental United States, this process resulted in a data matrix of about 700 million cells. Each cell of the matrix is then characterized as a binary decision variable to indicate whether an exclusion criterion is satisfied or not. A binary data matrix is created for each of the 25 siting criteria considered in this study. Using map algebra approach, cells that satisfy all criteria are clustered and regarded as potential siting areas. In the second stage, an optimization problem is formulated as a p-median problem on a rail network such that the sum of the shortest distance between nuclear power plants with SNF and the potential storage sites from the first stage is minimized. The implications of obtained results for energy policies are presented and discussed.

Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit [ORNL; Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Tuttle, Mark A [ORNL

2013-01-01

81

Identifying indicator species for post-release monitoring of genetically modified, herbicide resistant crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, regulations for release and placing-on-the-market of genetically modified (GM) crops require post-release monitoring\\u000a of their impact on the environment. Monitoring potential adverse effects of GM crops includes direct effects as well as indirect\\u000a effects, e.g. GM crop specific changes in land and pest management. Currently, there is a gap in the pre-release risk assessments\\u000a conducted for regulatory approval

Angelika Hilbeck; Matthias Meier; Armin Benzler

2008-01-01

82

Researchers Identify Biological Markers that May Indicate Poor Breast Cancer Prognosis  

Cancer.gov

A team of researchers has found an association between breast cancer survival and two proteins that, when present in the blood in high levels, are indicators of inflammation. Using data from the Health, Eating, Activity and Lifestyle (HEAL) study sponsored by the NCI, the researchers found that breast cancer patients with elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) were approximately two to three times more likely to die sooner or have their cancer return than those patients who had lower levels of these proteins, regardless of the patient's age, tumor stage, race, body mass index, or history of previous cardiovascular issues.

83

The potential value of indicator groups in the selection of marine reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to systematically select networks of marine reserves to conserve biodiversity may be constrained by limited information on the distribution of biodiversity. A potential solution is the use of surrogates, such as indicator groups, that effectively represent other elements of biodiversity. The potential of macroalgae and molluscs to act as indicator groups for all species in the selection of intertidal

William Gladstone

2002-01-01

84

Haplotypes at ATM Identify Coding-Sequence Variation and Indicate a Region of Extensive Linkage Disequilibrium  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation in the human population may lead to functional variants of genes that contribute to risk for common chronic diseases such as cancer. In an effort to detect such possible predisposing variants, we constructed haplotypes for a candidate gene and tested their efficacy in association studies. We developed haplotypes consisting of 14 biallelic neutral-sequence variants that span 142 kb of the ATM locus. ATM is the gene responsible for the autosomal recessive disease ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). These ATM noncoding single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in nine CEPH families (89 individuals) and in 260 DNA samples from four different ethnic origins. Analysis of these data with an expectation-maximization algorithm revealed 22 haplotypes at this locus, with three major haplotypes having frequencies ?.10. Tests for recombination and linkage disequilibrium (LD) show reduced recombination and extensive LD at the ATM locus, in all four ethnic groups studied. The most striking example was found in the study population of European ancestry, in which no evidence for recombination could be discerned. The potential of ATM haplotypes for detection of genetic variants through association studies was tested by analysis of 84 individuals carrying one of three ATM coding SNPs. Each coding SNP was detected by association with an ATM haplotype. We demonstrate that association studies with haplotypes for candidate genes have significant potential for the detection of genetic backgrounds that contribute to disease. PMID:11078475

Bonnen, Penelope E.; Story, Michael D.; Ashorn, Cheryl L.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Weil, Michael M.; Nelson, David L.

2000-01-01

85

Value of platelet indices in identifying complete resolution of thrombus in deep venous thrombosis patients.  

PubMed

We aimed to evaluate whether mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) are helpful to identify complete thrombus resolution (CTR) after acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Patients who had first-time episode of acute proximal DVT were included in this retrospective study. 100 patients with DVT were divided into two groups according to absence (group 1; n = 68) or presence (group 2; n = 32) of CTR on doppler ultrasonography at month 6. There were no significant difference in admission MPV and PDW levels between group 1 and group 2. MPV (p = 0.03) and PDW (p < 0.001) levels at month 6 were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2. CTR showed a moderate negative correlation with PDW at month 6 (? = -0.47) and a weak negative correlation with MPV at month 6 (? = -0.26). Logistic regression analysis showed that PDW (OR, 2.2; p = 0.004) at month 6 was an independent risk factor for the presence of residual venous thrombosis in DVT patients. Receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed that a 8.4 % decrease in admission MPV at month 6 provided 62 % sensitivity and 62 % specificity (AUC: 0.64) and a 15.4 % decrease in admission PDW at month 6 provided 87 % sensitivity and 94 % specificity (AUC: 0.89) for prediction of CTR in DVT patients. Percent change in admission MPV and PDW levels at month 6 may be used to identify the patients with CTR after a first episode of acute proximal DVT. PMID:25548449

Sevuk, Utkan; Altindag, Rojhat; Bahadir, Mehmet Veysi; Ay, Nurettin; Demirtas, Ertan; Ayaz, F?rat

2015-03-01

86

Indication  

PubMed Central

Should the indications for therapies differ from one nation to the next? What are the reasons behind controversial therapeutic variations? What roles do cultural history and authoritarian conflict among clinicians play in the adoption of therapies? When I worked at a rural hospital in Kenya, a woman experiencing obstructed labor made me ponder many questions—but only after our emergency ended in the death of her newborn son. In recounting and learning from this episode, I listened to the disparate Kenyan voices of the patient, the hospital’s director, the consultant obstetrician, and to the even more controversial voices of evidence-based medicine. In reflecting on this process, I have learned at least 3 lessons—about the transmissibility of arrogance, the role of guests in other countries, and the nature of science. PMID:22230834

Pust, Ronald E.

2012-01-01

87

A methodology for identifying potential locations for bus priority treatments in the London Network  

E-print Network

Bus priority strategies provide preferential treatment to buses operating in mixed traffic. This thesis aims at developing a methodology for identifying locations for potential bus priority implementation, referred to as ...

Machlab, Farah J. (Farah Jacinthe)

2014-01-01

88

ABSTRACT Genomics and bioinformatics have the vast potential to identify genes that cause disease by investigating  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Genomics and bioinformatics have the vast potential to identify genes that cause disease and organic acids. In cre- ating integrative databases of metabolites for bioinformatic investigation, bioinformatics, agriculture, medicine, nutrition INTRODUCTION There is little doubt that improving

Hammock, Bruce D.

89

Transcript and protein profiling identify candidate gene sets of potential adaptive significance in New Zealand Pachycladon  

PubMed Central

Background Transcript profiling of closely related species provides a means for identifying genes potentially important in species diversification. However, the predictive value of transcript profiling for inferring downstream-physiological processes has been unclear. In the present study we use shotgun proteomics to validate inferences from microarray studies regarding physiological differences in three Pachycladon species. We compare transcript and protein profiling and evaluate their predictive value for inferring glucosinolate chemotypes characteristic of these species. Results Evidence from heterologous microarrays and shotgun proteomics revealed differential expression of genes involved in glucosinolate hydrolysis (myrosinase-associated proteins) and biosynthesis (methylthioalkylmalate isomerase and dehydrogenase), the interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate (carbonic anhydrases), water use efficiency (ascorbate peroxidase, 2 cys peroxiredoxin, 20 kDa chloroplastic chaperonin, mitochondrial succinyl CoA ligase) and others (glutathione-S-transferase, serine racemase, vegetative storage proteins, genes related to translation and photosynthesis). Differences in glucosinolate hydrolysis products were directly confirmed. Overall, prediction of protein abundances from transcript profiles was stronger than prediction of transcript abundance from protein profiles. Protein profiles also proved to be more accurate predictors of glucosinolate profiles than transcript profiles. The similarity of species profiles for both transcripts and proteins reflected previously inferred phylogenetic relationships while glucosinolate chemotypes did not. Conclusions We have used transcript and protein profiling to predict physiological processes that evolved differently during diversification of three Pachycladon species. This approach has also identified candidate genes potentially important in adaptation, which are now the focus of ongoing study. Our results indicate that protein profiling provides a valuable tool for validating transcript profiles in studies of adaptive divergence. PMID:20482888

2010-01-01

90

Land surface temperature as potential indicator of burn severity in forest Mediterranean ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are one of the most important causes of environmental alteration in Mediterranean countries. Discrimination of different degrees of burn severity is critical for improving management of fire-affected areas. This paper aims to evaluate the usefulness of land surface temperature (LST) as potential indicator of burn severity. We used a large convention-dominated wildfire, which occurred on 19-21 September, 2012 in Northwestern Spain. From this area, a 1-year series of six LST images were generated from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data using a single channel algorithm. Further, the Composite Burn Index (CBI) was measured in 111 field plots to identify the burn severity level (low, moderate, and high). Evaluation of the potential relationship between post-fire LST and ground measured CBI was performed by both correlation analysis and regression models. Correlation coefficients were higher in the immediate post-fire LST images, but decreased during the fall of 2012 and increased again with a second maximum value in summer, 2013. A linear regression model between post-fire LST and CBI allowed us to represent spatially predicted CBI (R-squaredadj > 85%). After performing an analysis of variance (ANOVA) between post-fire LST and CBI, a Fisher's least significant difference test determined that two burn severity levels (low-moderate and high) could be statistically distinguished. The identification of such burn severity levels is sufficient and useful to forest managers. We conclude that summer post-fire LST from moderate resolution satellite data may be considered as a valuable indicator of burn severity for large fires in Mediterranean forest ecosytems.

Quintano, C.; Fernández-Manso, A.; Calvo, L.; Marcos, E.; Valbuena, L.

2015-04-01

91

Drag reducing polymers as simple indicators of hemolytic potential in biomechanical devices  

E-print Network

An experimental study was carried out to determine if drag reducing polymers can be simple indicators of hemolytic potential in biomechanical devices. Specifically, three different blood pumps, known as a left ventricle ...

Shieh, Sarah

2009-01-01

92

A systems biology strategy to identify molecular mechanisms of action and protein indicators of traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

The multifactorial nature of traumatic brain injury (TBI), especially the complex secondary tissue injury involving intertwined networks of molecular pathways that mediate cellular behavior, has confounded attempts to elucidate the pathology underlying the progression of TBI. Here, systems biology strategies are exploited to identify novel molecular mechanisms and protein indicators of brain injury. To this end, we performed a meta-analysis of four distinct high-throughput gene expression studies involving different animal models of TBI. By using canonical pathways and a large human protein-interaction network as a scaffold, we separately overlaid the gene expression data from each study to identify molecular signatures that were conserved across the different studies. At 24 hr after injury, the significantly activated molecular signatures were nonspecific to TBI, whereas the significantly suppressed molecular signatures were specific to the nervous system. In particular, we identified a suppressed subnetwork consisting of 58 highly interacting, coregulated proteins associated with synaptic function. We selected three proteins from this subnetwork, postsynaptic density protein 95, nitric oxide synthase 1, and disrupted in schizophrenia 1, and hypothesized that their abundance would be significantly reduced after TBI. In a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury rat model of severe TBI, Western blot analysis confirmed our hypothesis. In addition, our analysis recovered 12 previously identified protein biomarkers of TBI. The results suggest that systems biology may provide an efficient, high-yield approach to generate testable hypotheses that can be experimentally validated to identify novel mechanisms of action and molecular indicators of TBI. PMID:25399920

Yu, Chenggang; Boutté, Angela; Yu, Xueping; Dutta, Bhaskar; Feala, Jacob D; Schmid, Kara; Dave, Jitendra; Tawa, Gregory J; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

2015-01-01

93

A systems biology strategy to identify molecular mechanisms of action and protein indicators of traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

The multifactorial nature of traumatic brain injury (TBI), especially the complex secondary tissue injury involving intertwined networks of molecular pathways that mediate cellular behavior, has confounded attempts to elucidate the pathology underlying the progression of TBI. Here, systems biology strategies are exploited to identify novel molecular mechanisms and protein indicators of brain injury. To this end, we performed a meta-analysis of four distinct high-throughput gene expression studies involving different animal models of TBI. By using canonical pathways and a large human protein-interaction network as a scaffold, we separately overlaid the gene expression data from each study to identify molecular signatures that were conserved across the different studies. At 24 hr after injury, the significantly activated molecular signatures were nonspecific to TBI, whereas the significantly suppressed molecular signatures were specific to the nervous system. In particular, we identified a suppressed subnetwork consisting of 58 highly interacting, coregulated proteins associated with synaptic function. We selected three proteins from this subnetwork, postsynaptic density protein 95, nitric oxide synthase 1, and disrupted in schizophrenia 1, and hypothesized that their abundance would be significantly reduced after TBI. In a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury rat model of severe TBI, Western blot analysis confirmed our hypothesis. In addition, our analysis recovered 12 previously identified protein biomarkers of TBI. The results suggest that systems biology may provide an efficient, high-yield approach to generate testable hypotheses that can be experimentally validated to identify novel mechanisms of action and molecular indicators of TBI. PMID:25399920

Yu, Chenggang; Boutté, Angela; Yu, Xueping; Dutta, Bhaskar; Feala, Jacob D; Schmid, Kara; Dave, Jitendra; Tawa, Gregory J; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

2015-02-01

94

Development of evidence-based Australian medication-related indicators of potentially preventable hospitalisations: a modified RAND appropriateness method  

PubMed Central

Objective Indicators of potentially preventable hospitalisations have been adopted internationally as a measure of health system performance; however, few assess appropriate processes of care around medication use, that if followed may prevent hospitalisation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate evidence-based medication-related indicators of potentially preventable hospitalisations. Setting Australian primary healthcare. Participants Medical specialists, general practitioners and pharmacists. A modified RAND appropriateness method was used for the development of medication-related indicators of potentially preventable hospitalisations, which included a literature review, assessment of the strength of the supporting evidence base, an initial face and content validity by an expert panel, followed by an independent assessment of indicators by an expert clinical panel across various disciplines, using an online survey. Primary outcome measure Analysis of ratings was performed on the four key elements of preventability; the medication-related problem must be recognisable, the adverse outcomes foreseeable and the causes and outcomes identifiable and controllable. Results A total of 48 potential indicators across all major disease groupings were developed based on level III evidence or greater, that were independently assessed by 78 expert clinicians (22.1% response rate). The expert panel considered 29 of these (60.4%) sufficiently valid. Of these, 21 (72.4%) were based on level I evidence. Conclusions This study provides a set of face and content validated indicators of medication-related potentially preventable hospitalisations, linking suboptimal processes of care and medication use with subsequent hospitalisation. Further analysis is required to establish operational validity in a population-based sample, using an administrative health database. Implementation of these indicators within routine monitoring of healthcare systems will highlight those conditions where hospitalisations could potentially be avoided through improved medication management. PMID:24776711

Caughey, Gillian E; Kalisch Ellett, Lisa M; Wong, Te Ying

2014-01-01

95

Release of genetically engineered insects: a framework to identify potential ecological effects  

PubMed Central

Genetically engineered (GE) insects have the potential to radically change pest management worldwide. With recent approvals of GE insect releases, there is a need for a synthesized framework to evaluate their potential ecological and evolutionary effects. The effects may occur in two phases: a transitory phase when the focal population changes in density, and a steady state phase when it reaches a new, constant density. We review potential effects of a rapid change in insect density related to population outbreaks, biological control, invasive species, and other GE organisms to identify a comprehensive list of potential ecological and evolutionary effects of GE insect releases. We apply this framework to the Anopheles gambiae mosquito – a malaria vector being engineered to suppress the wild mosquito population – to identify effects that may occur during the transitory and steady state phases after release. Our methodology reveals many potential effects in each phase, perhaps most notably those dealing with immunity in the transitory phase, and with pathogen and vector evolution in the steady state phase. Importantly, this framework identifies knowledge gaps in mosquito ecology. Identifying effects in the transitory and steady state phases allows more rigorous identification of the potential ecological effects of GE insect release. PMID:24198955

David, Aaron S; Kaser, Joe M; Morey, Amy C; Roth, Alexander M; Andow, David A

2013-01-01

96

Analytical approaches to identify potential migrants in polyester-polyurethane can coatings.  

PubMed

The safety of a polyester-polyurethane can coating has been assessed using a suite of complementary analytical methods to identify and estimate the concentrations of potential chemical migrants. The polyester was based on phthalic acids and aliphatic diols. The polyisocyanate cross-linking agent was 1-isocyanato-3-isocyanatomethyl-3,5,5-trimethyl cyclohexane homopolymer (IPDI) blocked with methylethylketone oxime (MEKO) to make a one-part formulation. The overall migrate, obtained using solvent extraction of cured films, comprised almost completely of 12 cyclic and one linear polyester oligomer up to molecular weight 800 and containing up to six monomer units. These 13 oligomers covered a total of 28 isomeric forms. Other minor components detected were plasticisers and surfactants as well as impurities present in the starting materials. There was no detectable residue of either the blocked isocyanate (<0.01 microg/dm(2)) used as the starting substance or the unblocked isocyanate (<0.02 microg/dm(2)). The level of extractable IPDI was used as an indicator of the completeness of cure in experimental coatings. These studies revealed that there was an influence of time, temperature and catalyst content. Polymerisation was also influenced by the additives used and by the ageing of the wet coating formulation over several months. These studies allow parameters to be specified to ensure that commercial production coatings receive a full cure giving low migration characteristics. PMID:19787516

Louise Bradley, Emma; Driffield, Malcolm; Guthrie, James; Harmer, Nick; Thomas Oldring, Peter Kenneth; Castle, Laurence

2009-12-01

97

Identifying the potential extracellular electron transfer pathways from a c-type cytochrome network.  

PubMed

Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is the key feature of some bacteria, such as Geobacter sulfurreducens and Shewanella oneidensis. Via EET processes, these bacteria can grow on electrode surfaces and make current output of microbial fuel cells. c-Type cytochromes can be used as carriers to transfer electrons, which play an important role in EET processes. Typically, from the inner (cytoplasmic) membrane through the periplasm to the outer membrane, they could form EET pathways. Recent studies suggest that a group of c-type cytochromes could form a network which extended the well-known EET pathways. We obtained the protein interaction information for all 41 c-type cytochromes in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, constructed a large-scale protein interaction network, and studied its structural characteristics and functional significance. Centrality analysis has identified the top 10 key proteins of the network, and 7 of them are associated with electricity production in the bacteria, which suggests that the ability of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to produce electricity might be derived from the unique structure of the c-type cytochrome network. By modularity analysis, we obtained 5 modules from the network. The subcellular localization study has shown that the proteins in these modules all have diversiform cellular compartments, which reflects their potential to form EET pathways. In particular, combination of protein subcellular localization and operon analysis, the well-known and new candidate EET pathways are obtained from the Mtr-like module, indicating that potential EET pathways could be obtained from such a c-type cytochrome network. PMID:25227320

Ding, De-Wu; Xu, Jun; Li, Ling; Xie, Jian-Ming; Sun, Xiao

2014-12-01

98

Potential Biomarkers of Fatigue Identified by Plasma Metabolome Analysis in Rats  

PubMed Central

In the present study, prior to the establishment of a method for the clinical diagnosis of chronic fatigue in humans, we validated the utility of plasma metabolomic analysis in a rat model of fatigue using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS). In order to obtain a fatigued animal group, rats were placed in a cage filled with water to a height of 2.2 cm for 5 days. A food-restricted group, in which rats were limited to 10 g/d of food (around 50% of the control group), was also assessed. The food-restricted group exhibited weight reduction similar to that of the fatigued group. CE-MS measurements were performed to evaluate the profile of food intake-dependent metabolic changes, as well as the profile in fatigue loading, resulting in the identification of 48 metabolites in plasma. Multivariate analyses using hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis revealed that the plasma metabolome in the fatigued group showed clear differences from those in the control and food-restricted groups. In the fatigued group, we found distinctive changes in metabolites related to branched-chain amino acid metabolism, urea cycle, and proline metabolism. Specifically, the fatigued group exhibited significant increases in valine, leucine, isoleucine, and 2-oxoisopentanoate, and significant decreases in citrulline and hydroxyproline compared with the control and food-restricted groups. Plasma levels of total nitric oxide were increased in the fatigued group, indicating systemic oxidative stress. Further, plasma metabolites involved in the citrate cycle, such as cis-aconitate and isocitrate, were reduced in the fatigued group. The levels of ATP were significantly decreased in the liver and skeletal muscle, indicative of a deterioration in energy metabolism in these organs. Thus, this comprehensive metabolic analysis furthered our understanding of the pathophysiology of fatigue, and identified potential diagnostic biomarkers based on fatigue pathophysiology. PMID:25793974

Kume, Satoshi; Yamato, Masanori; Tamura, Yasuhisa; Jin, Guanghua; Nakano, Masayuki; Miyashige, Yukiharu; Eguchi, Asami; Ogata, Yoshiyuki; Goda, Nobuhito; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Kataoka, Yosky

2015-01-01

99

Water Mites (Acari: Hydrachnida) of Ozark Streams - Abundance, Species Richness, and Potential as Environmental Indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because water mites are tightly linked to other stream metazoans through parasitism and predation, they are potentially effective indicators of environmental quality. Meiofauna (80 ?m to 1 mm) were sampled from headwater riffles of 11 Ozark streams to determine relative abundance and densities of major meiofauna taxa. Water mites comprised 15.3% of the organisms collected exceeded only by chironomids (50.2%) and oligochaetes (17.8%), and mean water mite density among the 11 streams was 265 organisms per liter. The two streams that differed the most in environmental quality were sampled using techniques suitable for identification of species. An estimated 32 species from 20 genera and 13 families were found in the least disturbed stream; an estimated 19 species from 13 genera and 8 families were found in the most disturbed stream. This preliminary finding supports the notion that water mite species richness declines in response to environmental disturbance. Many species could only be identified as morphospecies of particular genera, but the ongoing taxonomic revision of Hydrachnida is expected to provide needed information. A collaborative effort between those interested in taxonomy/systematics of water mites and ecologists interested in the significance of water mites in aquatic communities could prove mutually beneficial.

Radwell, A. J.; Brown, A. V.

2005-05-01

100

Identifying potential adverse effects using the web: a new approach to medical hypothesis generation  

PubMed Central

Medical message boards are online resources where users with a particular condition exchange information, some of which they might not otherwise share with medical providers. Many of these boards contain a large number of posts and contain patient opinions and experiences that would be potentially useful to clinicians and researchers. We present an approach that is able to collect a corpus of medical message board posts, de-identify the corpus, and extract information on potential adverse drug effects discussed by users. Using a corpus of posts to breast cancer message boards, we identified drug event pairs using co-occurrence statistics. We then compared the identified drug event pairs with adverse effects listed on the package labels of tamoxifen, anastrozole, exemestane, and letrozole. Of the pairs identified by our system, 75–80% were documented on the drug labels. Some of the undocumented pairs may represent previously unidentified adverse drug effects. PMID:21820083

Benton, Adrian; Ungar, Lyle; Hill, Shawndra; Hennessy, Sean; Mao, Jun; Chung, Annie; Leonard, Charles E.; Holmes, John H.

2011-01-01

101

Identifying potential adverse effects using the web: a new approach to medical hypothesis generation.  

PubMed

Medical message boards are online resources where users with a particular condition exchange information, some of which they might not otherwise share with medical providers. Many of these boards contain a large number of posts and contain patient opinions and experiences that would be potentially useful to clinicians and researchers. We present an approach that is able to collect a corpus of medical message board posts, de-identify the corpus, and extract information on potential adverse drug effects discussed by users. Using a corpus of posts to breast cancer message boards, we identified drug event pairs using co-occurrence statistics. We then compared the identified drug event pairs with adverse effects listed on the package labels of tamoxifen, anastrozole, exemestane, and letrozole. Of the pairs identified by our system, 75-80% were documented on the drug labels. Some of the undocumented pairs may represent previously unidentified adverse drug effects. PMID:21820083

Benton, Adrian; Ungar, Lyle; Hill, Shawndra; Hennessy, Sean; Mao, Jun; Chung, Annie; Leonard, Charles E; Holmes, John H

2011-12-01

102

Hundreds of alterations and potential drug targets to starve tumors identified  

Cancer.gov

A massive study analyzing gene expression data from 22 tumor types has identified multiple metabolic expression changes associated with cancer. The analysis, conducted by researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (home of the Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center), also identified hundreds of potential drug targets that could cut off a tumor’s fuel supply or interfere with its ability to synthesize essential building blocks. The study was published in the online edition of Nature Biotechnology.

103

Understanding Internal IS Customer Models of Firm Performance to Identify Potential High-Impact Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CIO faces competing demands from internal customers for a variety of services, such as consulting, development, maintenance, and operations. S\\/he is also responsible for identifying new projects that will increase firm value. How can s\\/he identify potentially high-impact projects, in the face of a deluge of requests, many for politically motivated, suboptimal projects? We adapt a personal constructs theory

Ken Peffers; Charles E. Gengler

2000-01-01

104

Robust global identifiability theory using potentials-Application to compartmental models.  

PubMed

This paper presents a global practical identifiability theory for analyzing and identifying linear and nonlinear compartmental models. The compartmental system is prolonged onto the potential jet space to formulate a set of input-output equations that are integrals in terms of the measured data, which allows for robust identification of parameters without requiring any simulation of the model differential equations. Two classes of linear and non-linear compartmental models are considered. The theory is first applied to analyze the linear nitrous oxide (N2O) uptake model. The fitting accuracy of the identified models from differential jet space and potential jet space identifiability theories is compared with a realistic noise level of 3% which is derived from sensor noise data in the literature. The potential jet space approach gave a match that was well within the coefficient of variation. The differential jet space formulation was unstable and not suitable for parameter identification. The proposed theory is then applied to a nonlinear immunological model for mastitis in cows. In addition, the model formulation is extended to include an iterative method which allows initial conditions to be accurately identified. With up to 10% noise, the potential jet space theory predicts the normalized population concentration infected with pathogens, to within 9% of the true curve. PMID:25660327

Wongvanich, N; Hann, C E; Sirisena, H R

2015-04-01

105

City of Hope study identifies potential therapy targeting leukemia stem cells  

Cancer.gov

New research takes aim at stubborn cancer stem cells that are thought to be responsible for treatment resistance and relapse. The study, published by Cell Press in the February 14 issue of the journal Cancer Cell, provides insight into mechanisms associated with the survival of leukemia stem cells and identifies a potential therapeutic target that is specific for these dangerously persistent cells.

106

Leadership Succession in New South Wales Catholic Schools: Identifying Potential Principals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on research conducted on leadership succession in New South Wales Catholic schools in order to identify potential principals using data collected from middle and senior management staff (n=943). Explains that short-term targeting of this population may be helpful, but impediments to leadership succession need to be addressed. (CMK)

Dorman, Jeffrey P.; D'Arbon, Tony

2003-01-01

107

Statistical analysis of relations between petrographic and geochemical indices of oil generation potential in organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish reliable indices for the synthetic assessment of petroleum potential using reworked sediment from mixed datasets,\\u000a multivariate statistical analysis and cross-plots were used. New guidelines for improved assessment of generative potential\\u000a and thermal maturity are suggested. Based on statistical analysis and cross-plots of HI, QI and BI versus the vitrinite reflectance\\u000a (%Ro) and T\\u000a max (°C), the HImax, QImax

Hsien-Tsung Lee

2010-01-01

108

A spatial modeling approach to identify potential butternut restoration sites in Mammoth Cave National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Incorporation of disease resistance is nearly complete for several important North American hardwood species threatened by exotic fungal diseases. The next important step toward species restoration would be to develop reliable tools to delineate ideal restoration sites on a landscape scale. We integrated spatial modeling and remote sensing techniques to delineate potential restoration sites for Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) trees, a hardwood species being decimated by an exotic fungus, in Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP), Kentucky. We first developed a multivariate habitat model to determine optimum Butternut habitats within MCNP. Habitat characteristics of 54 known Butternut locations were used in combination with eight topographic and land use data layers to calculate an index of habitat suitability based on Mahalanobis distance (D2). We used a bootstrapping technique to test the reliability of model predictions. Based on a threshold value for the D2 statistic, 75.9% of the Butternut locations were correctly classified, indicating that the habitat model performed well. Because Butternut seedlings require extensive amounts of sunlight to become established, we used canopy cover data to refine our delineation of favorable areas for Butternut restoration. Areas with the most favorable conditions to establish Butternut seedlings were limited to 291.6 ha. Our study provides a useful reference on the amount and location of favorable Butternut habitat in MCNP and can be used to identify priority areas for future Butternut restoration. Given the availability of relevant habitat layers and accurate location records, our approach can be applied to other tree species and areas. ?? 2006 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

Thompson, L.M.; Van Manen, F.T.; Schlarbaum, S.E.; DePoy, M.

2006-01-01

109

Evaluation of Potential Indicators of Viral Contamination in Shellfish and Their Applicability to Diverse Geographical Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of the concentration of potential indicators of fecal viral pollution in shellfish was analyzed under diverse conditions over 18 months in diverse geographical areas. These microorganisms have been evaluated in relation to contamination by human viral pathogens detected in parallel in the analyzed shellfish samples. Thus, significant shellfish-growing areas from diverse countries in the north and south of

M. Formiga-Cruz; A. K. Allard; A.-C. Conden-Hansson; K. Henshilwood; B. E. Hernroth; J. Jofre; D. N. Lees; F. Lucena; M. Papapetropoulou; R. E. Rangdale; A. Tsibouxi; A. Vantarakis; R. Girones

2003-01-01

110

IAEA-CN-80/29 EXCESS AIR IN GROUNDWATER AS A POTENTIAL INDICATOR  

E-print Network

IAEA-CN-80/29 EXCESS AIR IN GROUNDWATER AS A POTENTIAL INDICATOR OF PAST ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES W of Technology (ETH), Zürich, Switzerland Abstract. Dissolved noble gases in groundwater are used to reconstruct quantities can be derived from groundwater noble gas data sets: The initial air/water ratio and the pressure

Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

111

Identifying potential marine pests--a deductive approach applied to Australia.  

PubMed

Introduced marine organisms continue to threaten coastal resources around the world. Many agencies rely on lists of potentially harmful species for risk assessment and to prioritise management responses to an incursion. This study outlines a deductive hazard assessment technique to identify potential marine pests that may arrive via ballast water and/or hull fouling. This technique is then applied in an Australian context to identify potential "next pests" for this region. An extensive literature review identified 851 introduced marine species from around the world. The following selection criteria were then applied to develop a next pest list: (a) the species has been reported in a shipping vector or has a ship-mediated invasion history; (b) the vector still exists; (c) the species is responsible for economic or environmental harm; and, (d) it is exotic to Australia or present in Australia but subject to official control. The selection criteria are transparent and consistent with other international and national biosecurity initiatives. Thirty three of the species identified in the initial literature review satisfied all four selection criteria. These species are described here together with their associated vectors and impacts. PMID:12535974

Hayes, Keith R; Sliwa, Cathryn

2003-01-01

112

Riverine Threat Indices to Assess Watershed Condition and Identify Primary Management Capacity of Agriculture Natural Resource Management Agencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managers can improve conservation of lotic systems over large geographies if they have tools to assess total watershed conditions for individual stream segments and can identify segments where conservation practices are most likely to be successful (i.e., primary management capacity). The goal of this research was to develop a suite of threat indices to help agriculture resource management agencies select and prioritize watersheds across Missouri River basin in which to implement agriculture conservation practices. We quantified watershed percentages or densities of 17 threat metrics that represent major sources of ecological stress to stream communities into five threat indices: agriculture, urban, point-source pollution, infrastructure, and all non-agriculture threats. We identified stream segments where agriculture management agencies had primary management capacity. Agriculture watershed condition differed by ecoregion and considerable local variation was observed among stream segments in ecoregions of high agriculture threats. Stream segments with high non-agriculture threats were most concentrated near urban areas, but showed high local variability. 60 % of stream segments in the basin were classified as under U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) primary management capacity and most segments were in regions of high agricultural threats. NRCS primary management capacity was locally variable which highlights the importance of assessing total watershed condition for multiple threats. Our threat indices can be used by agriculture resource management agencies to prioritize conservation actions and investments based on: (a) relative severity of all threats, (b) relative severity of agricultural threats, and (c) and degree of primary management capacity.

Fore, Jeffrey D.; Sowa, Scott P.; Galat, David L.; Annis, Gust M.; Diamond, David D.; Rewa, Charles

2014-03-01

113

Structured methods for identifying and correcting potential human errors in aviation operations  

SciTech Connect

Human errors have been identified as the source of approximately 60% of the incidents and accidents that occur in commercial aviation. It can be assumed that a very large number of human errors occur in aviation operations, even though in most cases the redundancies and diversities built into the design of aircraft systems prevent the errors from leading to serious consequences. In addition, when it is acknowledged that many system failures have their roots in human errors that occur in the design phase, it becomes apparent that the identification and elimination of potential human errors could significantly decrease the risks of aviation operations. This will become even more critical during the design of advanced automation-based aircraft systems as well as next-generation systems for air traffic management. Structured methods to identify and correct potential human errors in aviation operations have been developed and are currently undergoing testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL).

Nelson, W.R.

1997-10-01

114

MGH Cancer Center team identifies potential treatment target for KRAS-mutated colon cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cancer Center have identified a new potential strategy for treating colon tumors driven by mutations in the KRAS gene, which usually resist both conventional and targeted treatments. In a paper appearing in the Feb. 17 issue of Cell, the team reports that targeting a later step in the pathway leading from KRAS activation to tumor growth may be able to halt the process.

115

Automated system for identifying potential dosage problems at a large university hospital.  

PubMed

A hospital's experience with an automated system for screening drug orders for potential dosage problems is described. DoseChecker was developed by the hospital pharmacy department in collaboration with a local university. Pharmacy, laboratory, and patient demographic data are transferred nightly from the hospital's mainframe system to a database server; DoseChecker uses these data and user-defined rules to (1) identify patients receiving any of 35 targeted medications, (2) evaluate the appropriateness of current dosages, and (3) generate alerts for patients potentially needing dosage adjustments. The alert reports are distributed to satellite pharmacists, who evaluate each patient's condition and make recommendations to physicians as needed. One of the system's primary purposes is to calculate creatinine clearance and verify that dosages are properly adjusted for renal function. Between May and October 1995, the system electronically screened 28,528 drug orders and detected potential dosage problems in 2859 (10%). The system recommended a lower daily dose in 1992 cases (70%) and a higher daily dose in 867 (30%). Pharmacists contacted physicians concerning 1163 (41%) of the 2859 alerts; in 868 cases (75%), the physicians agreed to adjust the dosage. The most common dosage problem identified was failure to adjust dosages on the basis of declining renal function. An automated system provided an efficient method of identifying inappropriate dosages at a large university hospital. PMID:9066863

McMullin, S T; Reichley, R M; Kahn, M G; Dunagan, W C; Bailey, T C

1997-03-01

116

Potential ligand-binding residues in rat olfactory receptors identified by correlated mutation analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A family of G-protein-coupled receptors is believed to mediate the recognition of odor molecules. In order to identify potential ligand-binding residues, we have applied correlated mutation analysis to receptor sequences from the rat. This method identifies pairs of sequence positions where residues remain conserved or mutate in tandem, thereby suggesting structural or functional importance. The analysis supported molecular modeling studies in suggesting several residues in positions that were consistent with ligand-binding function. Two of these positions, dominated by histidine residues, may play important roles in ligand binding and could confer broad specificity to mammalian odor receptors. The presence of positive (overdominant) selection at some of the identified positions provides additional evidence for roles in ligand binding. Higher-order groups of correlated residues were also observed. Each group may interact with an individual ligand determinant, and combinations of these groups may provide a multi-dimensional mechanism for receptor diversity.

Singer, M. S.; Oliveira, L.; Vriend, G.; Shepherd, G. M.

1995-01-01

117

Manual and automated methods for identifying potentially preventable readmissions: a comparison in a large healthcare system  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of potentially preventable readmissions is typically accomplished through manual review or automated classification. Little is known about the concordance of these methods. Methods We manually reviewed 459 30-day, all-cause readmissions at 18 Kaiser Permanente Northern California hospitals, determining potential preventability through a four-step manual review process that included a chart review tool, interviews with patients, their families, and treating providers, and nurse reviewer and physician evaluation of findings and determination of preventability on a five-point scale. We reassessed the same readmissions with 3 M’s Potentially Preventable Readmission (PPR) software. We examined between-method agreement and the specificity and sensitivity of the PPR software using manual review as the reference. Results Automated classification and manual review respectively identified 78% (358) and 47% (227) of readmissions as potentially preventable. Overall, the methods agreed about the preventability of 56% (258) of readmissions. Using manual review as the reference, the sensitivity of PPR was 85% and specificity was 28%. Conclusions Concordance between methods was not high enough to replace manual review with automated classification as the primary method of identifying preventable 30-day, all-cause readmission for quality improvement purposes. PMID:24708889

2014-01-01

118

Potential for diamond in kimberlites from Michigan and Montana as indicated by garnet xenocryst compositions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Williams kimberlite in north-central Montana and the Lake Ellen kimberlite in northern Michigan contain diagnostic xenoliths and xenocrysts which indicate that diamonds may be present. To date, however, no diamonds have been reported from either locality. In this study, particular compositions of garnet xenocrysts which are associated with diamond elsewhere were sought as an indication of the potential for diamond in the Williams and Lake Ellen kimberlites. For this study, garnets were carefully selected for purple color in order to increase the chance of finding the subcalcic chrome-rich compositions that are associated with the presence of diamond. -Author

McGee, E.S.

1988-01-01

119

A genomic strategy for the functional validation of colorectal cancer genes identifies potential therapeutic targets  

PubMed Central

Summary/Abstract Genes that are highly overexpressed in tumor cells can be required for tumor cell survival, and have the potential to be selective therapeutic targets. In an attempt to identify such targets, we combined a functional genomics and a systems biology approach to assess the consequences of RNAi-mediated silencing of overexpressed genes that were selected from 140 gene expression profiles from colorectal cancers (CRC) and matched normal mucosa. In order to identify credible models for in-depth functional analysis, we first confirmed the overexpression of these genes in 25 different CRC cell lines. We then identified five candidate genes that profoundly reduced the viability of CRC cell lines when silenced with either siRNAs or shRNAs, i.e., HMGA1, TACSTD2, RRM2, RPS2, and NOL5A. These genes were further studied by systematic analysis of comprehensive gene expression profiles generated following siRNA-mediated silencing. Exploration of these RNAi-specific gene expression signatures allowed the identification of the functional space in which the five genes operate, and showed enrichment for cancer specific signaling pathways, some known to be involved in CRC. By comparing the expression of the RNAi signature genes with their respective expression levels in an independent set of primary rectal carcinomas we could recapitulate these defined RNAi signatures, therefore establishing the biologically relevance of our observations. This strategy identified the signaling pathways that are affected by the prominent oncogenes HMGA1 and TACSTD2, established a yet unknown link between RRM2 and PLK1, and identified RPS2 and NOL5A as promising potential therapeutic targets in CRC. PMID:20473941

Grade, Marian; Hummon, Amanda B.; Camps, Jordi; Emons, Georg; Spitzner, Melanie; Gaedcke, Jochen; Hoermann, Patrick; Ebner, Reinhard; Becker, Heinz; Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Beissbarth, Tim; Caplen, Natasha J.; Ried, Thomas

2010-01-01

120

Slow negative potential shifts indicating verbal cognitive learning in a concept formation task.  

PubMed

It is well-known clinically that patients with left frontal lesions are impaired in their verbal-cognitive learning ability. Starting from such observations, it is of particular interest whether the event-related cerebral potential shifts recorded in healthy human subjects would indicate a left frontal lobe involvement in verbal-cognitive learning tasks. In a concept formation paradigm, subjects learned by trial and error to transform letters into Morse codes. This cognitive performance was accompanied by a slow negative potential shift (SP) that in frontal recordings was lateralized towards the left hemisphere. off results show in a later stage of learning, in which the experience of the preceding trial and error learning could be integrated, an increasing slow negativity over the frontal cortex. Ss also participated in a control task with already known letter/Morse code combinations. Again, a negative potential shift occurred within the stimulus-response interval, however, it was smaller in amplitude. PMID:3449487

Lang, M; Lang, W; Uhl, F; Kornhuber, A; Deecke, L; Kornhuber, H H

1987-01-01

121

The Potential for Spatial Distribution Indices to Signal Thresholds in Marine Fish Biomass  

PubMed Central

The frequently observed positive relationship between fish population abundance and spatial distribution suggests that changes in distribution can be indicative of trends in abundance. If contractions in spatial distribution precede declines in spawning stock biomass (SSB), spatial distribution reference points could complement the SSB reference points that are commonly used in marine conservation biology and fisheries management. When relevant spatial distribution information is integrated into fisheries management and recovery plans, risks and uncertainties associated with a plan based solely on the SSB criterion would be reduced. To assess the added value of spatial distribution data, we examine the relationship between SSB and four metrics of spatial distribution intended to reflect changes in population range, concentration, and density for 10 demersal populations (9 species) inhabiting the Scotian Shelf, Northwest Atlantic. Our primary purpose is to assess their potential to serve as indices of SSB, using fisheries independent survey data. We find that metrics of density offer the best correlate of spawner biomass. A decline in the frequency of encountering high density areas is associated with, and in a few cases preceded by, rapid declines in SSB in 6 of 10 populations. Density-based indices have considerable potential to serve both as an indicator of SSB and as spatially based reference points in fisheries management. PMID:25789624

Reuchlin-Hugenholtz, Emilie

2015-01-01

122

Identifying frailty: do the Frailty Index and Groningen Frailty Indicator cover different clinical perspectives? a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Early identification of frailty is important for proactive primary care. Currently, however, there is no consensus on which measure to use. Therefore, we examined whether a Frailty Index (FI), based on ICPC-coded primary care data, and the Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI) questionnaire identify the same older people as frail. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study of 1,580 patients aged???60?years in a Dutch primary care center. Patients received a GFI questionnaire and were surveyed on their baseline characteristics. Frailty-screening software calculated their FI score. The GFI and FI scores were compared as continuous and dichotomised measures. Results FI data were available for 1549 patients (98%). 663 patients (42%) returned their GFI questionnaire. Complete GFI and FI scores were available for 638 patients (40.4%), mean age 73.4?years, 52.8% female. There was a positive correlation between the GFI and the FI (Pearson’s correlation coefficient 0.544). Using dichotomised scores, 84.3% of patients with a low FI score also had a low GFI score. In patients with a high FI score, 55.1% also had a high GFI score. A continuous FI score accurately predicted a dichotomised GFI score (AUC 0.78, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.82). Being widowed or divorced was an independent predictor of both a high GFI score in patients with a low FI score, and a high FI score in patients with a low GFI score. Conclusions The FI and the GFI moderately overlap in identifying frailty in community-dwelling older patients. To provide optimal proactive primary care, we suggest an initial FI screening in routine healthcare data, followed by a GFI questionnaire for patients with a high FI score or otherwise at high risk as the preferred two-step frailty screening process in primary care. PMID:23692735

2013-01-01

123

Bacterial Targets as Potential Indicators of Diesel Fuel Toxicity in Subantarctic Soils  

PubMed Central

Appropriate remediation targets or universal guidelines for polar regions do not currently exist, and a comprehensive understanding of the effects of diesel fuel on the natural microbial populations in polar and subpolar soils is lacking. Our aim was to investigate the response of the bacterial community to diesel fuel and to evaluate if these responses have the potential to be used as indicators of soil toxicity thresholds. We set up short- and long-exposure tests across a soil organic carbon gradient. Utilizing broad and targeted community indices, as well as functional genes involved in the nitrogen cycle, we investigated the bacterial community structure and its potential functioning in response to special Antarctic blend (SAB) diesel fuel. We found the primary effect of diesel fuel toxicity was a reduction in species richness, evenness, and phylogenetic diversity, with the resulting community heavily dominated by a few species, principally Pseudomonas. The decline in richness and phylogenetic diversity was linked to disruption of the nitrogen cycle, with species and functional genes involved in nitrification significantly reduced. Of the 11 targets we evaluated, we found the bacterial amoA gene indicative of potential ammonium oxidation, the most suitable indicator of toxicity. Dose-response modeling for this target generated an average effective concentration responsible for 20% change (EC20) of 155 mg kg?1, which is consistent with previous Macquarie Island ecotoxicology assays. Unlike traditional single-species tolerance testing, bacterial targets allowed us to simultaneously evaluate more than 1,700 species from 39 phyla, inclusive of rare, sensitive, and functionally relevant portions of the community. PMID:24771028

van Dorst, Josie; Siciliano, Steven D.; Winsley, Tristrom; Snape, Ian

2014-01-01

124

Using Helicopter Electromagnetic Surveys to Identify Potential Hazards at Mine Waste Impoundments  

SciTech Connect

In July 2003, helicopter electromagnetic surveys were conducted at 14 coal waste impoundments in southern West Virginia. The purpose of the surveys was to detect conditions that could lead to impoundment failure either by structural failure of the embankment or by the flooding of adjacent or underlying mine works. Specifically, the surveys attempted to: 1) identify saturated zones within the mine waste, 2) delineate filtrate flow paths through the embankment or into adjacent strata and receiving streams, and 3) identify flooded mine workings underlying or adjacent to the waste impoundment. Data from the helicopter surveys were processed to generate conductivity/depth images. Conductivity/depth images were then spatially linked to georeferenced air photos or topographic maps for interpretation. Conductivity/depth images were found to provide a snapshot of the hydrologic conditions that exist within the impoundment. This information can be used to predict potential areas of failure within the embankment because of its ability to image the phreatic zone. Also, the electromagnetic survey can identify areas of unconsolidated slurry in the decant basin and beneath the embankment. Although shallow, flooded mineworks beneath the impoundment were identified by this survey, it cannot be assumed that electromagnetic surveys can detect all underlying mines. A preliminary evaluation of the data implies that helicopter electromagnetic surveys can provide a better understanding of the phreatic zone than the piezometer arrays that are typically used.

Hammack, R.W.

2008-01-01

125

Mass General study identifies potential treatment target in an animal model of pancreatic cancer  

Cancer.gov

Detailed analysis of genes expressed in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) -- cells that break off from solid tumors and travel through the bloodstream -- has identified a potential treatment target in metastatic pancreatic cancer. In a report that will appear in Nature and has received advance online publication, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cancer Center investigators describe finding increased expression of WNT2, a member of a known family of oncogenes, in CTCs from a mouse model of the deadly tumor and from human patients. The Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center is made up of seven member institutions, including Massachusetts General Hospital.

126

Development of biological indices for identifying and evaluating impacts of pollutants on freshwater ecosystems. Final report, June 1975-October 1980  

SciTech Connect

The ten Research Areas reported included: (1) the development of functional indices for identifying and evaluating impacts of pollutants on Aufwuchs communities, (2) relationship of protozoan colonization rates to the eutrophication process, (3) testing of methods to determine the functioning of zooplankton communities subjected to entrainment stress, (4) the use of the first steps of detritus processing (microbial decomposition) as a technique for assessing pollutional stress on aquatic communities in a river system, (5) relationship of protozoan invasion and extinction rate to the eutrophication process, (6) extension of present early colonization studies to the simultaneous evaluation of natural environmental parameters and power plant effluents and application of the early colonization approach to microbial communities in streams of the New River drainage, (7) testing of single species-community responses of protozoans from selected heavy metals, (8) the effects of selected power plant pollutants on grazer utilization of Aufwuchs, (9) investigation of bioconcentration and bioaccumulation mechanisms of the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) populations in field artificial streams and laboratory microcosms with reference to physical chemistry and diet alterations, and (10) investigation of the homeostatic regulation in bluegill sunfish following acute hypothermal shock and to other power plant related effluents.

Cairns, J. Jr.; Cherry, D.S.

1980-09-30

127

An Empirical Comparison of Key Statistical Attributes Among Potential ICU Quality Indicators*  

PubMed Central

Objective Good quality indicators should have face validity, relevance to patients, and be able to be measured reliably. Beyond these general requirements, good quality indicators should also have certain statistical properties, including sufficient variability to identify poor performers, relative insensitivity to severity adjustment, and the ability to capture what providers do rather than patients' characteristics. We assessed the performance of candidate indicators of ICU quality on these criteria. Indicators included ICU readmission, mortality, several length of stay outcomes, and the processes of venous-thromboembolism and stress ulcer prophylaxis provision. Design Retrospective cohort study Setting One hundred thirty-eight U.S. ICUs from 2001-2008 in the Project IMPACT database. Patients Two hundred sixty-eight thousand eight hundred twenty-four patients discharged from U.S. ICUs. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results We assessed indicators' (1) variability across ICU-years; (2) degree of influence by patient vs. ICU and hospital characteristics using the Omega statistic; (3) sensitivity to severity adjustment by comparing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) between models including vs. excluding patient variables, and (4) correlation between risk adjusted quality indicators using a Spearman correlation. Large ranges of among-ICU variability were noted for all quality indicators, particularly for prolonged length of stay (4.7–71.3%) and the proportion of patients discharged home (30.6–82.0%), and ICU and hospital characteristics outweighed patient characteristics for stress ulcer prophylaxis (?, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.34–0.54), venous thromboembolism prophylaxis (?, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.53–0.61), and ICU readmissions (?, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52–0.90). Mortality measures were the most sensitive to severity adjustment (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve % difference, 29.6%); process measures were the least sensitive (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve % differences: venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, 3.4%; stress ulcer prophylaxis, 2.1%). None of the 10 indicators was clearly and consistently correlated with a majority of the other nine indicators. Conclusions No indicator performed optimally across assessments. Future research should seek to define and operationalize quality in a way that is relevant to both patients and providers. PMID:24717464

Brown, Sydney E. S.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Halpern, Scott D.

2014-01-01

128

Accuracy of a screening instrument to identify potential child abuse in emergency departments.  

PubMed

Although screening for child abuse at emergency departments (EDs) increases the detection rate of potential child abuse, an accurate instrument is lacking. This study was designed to measure the accuracy of a screening instrument for detection of potential child abuse used in EDs. In a prospective cohort study at three Dutch EDs, a 6-item screening instrument for child abuse, Escape, was completed for each child visiting the ED. The data from the completed Escape instrument was used to calculate sensitivity, specificity, and the positive/negative predictive value per item. The clinical notes and conclusions of the screen instruments of all potentially abused children reported to the hospitals' Child Abuse Teams were collected and reviewed by an expert panel. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the predictors of potential abuse. Completed Escape instruments were available for 18,275 ED visits. Forty-four of the 420 children with a positive screening result, and 11 of the 17,855 children with a negative result were identified as potentially abused. Sensitivity of the Escape instrument was 0.80 and specificity was 0.98. Univariate logistic regression showed that potentially abused children were significantly more likely to have had an aberrant answer to at least one of the items, OR=189.8, 95% CI [97.3, 370.4]. Most of the children at high risk for child abuse were detected through screening. The Escape instrument is a useful tool for ED staff to support the identification of those at high risk for child abuse. PMID:24325939

Louwers, Eveline C F M; Korfage, Ida J; Affourtit, Marjo J; Ruige, Madelon; van den Elzen, Annette P M; de Koning, Harry J; Moll, Henriëtte A

2014-07-01

129

Photoacoustic imaging: a potential tool to detect early indicators of metastasis  

PubMed Central

The metastasis of cancer is a multistage process involving complex biological interactions and difficult to predict outcomes. Accurate assessment of the extent of metastasis is critical for clinical practice; unfortunately, medical imaging methods capable of identifying the early stages of invasion and metastasis are lacking. Photoacoustic imaging is capable of providing noninvasive, real-time imaging of significant anatomical and physiological changes. indicating the progression of cancer invasion and metastasis. Preclinically, photoacoustic methods have been used to image lymphatic anatomy, including the sentinel lymph nodes, to identify circulating tumor cells within vasculature and to detect micrometastases. Progress has begun toward the development of clinically applicable photoacoustic imaging systems to assist with the determination of cancer stage and likelihood of metastatic invasion. PMID:23278229

Bayer, Carolyn L; Joshi, Pratixa P; Emelianov, Stanislav Y

2013-01-01

130

Human Neutrophil Heterogeneity Identified Using Flow Microfluorometry to Monitor Membrane Potential  

PubMed Central

Previous studies of neutrophil nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction in response to endotoxin and rosetting of IgG-coated erythryocytes have suggested functional heterogeneity of peripheral blood neutrophils. In the following study we utilized flow microfluorometry and the membrane potential-sensitive fluorescent dye 3-3?-dipentyloxacarbocyanine to assess the heterogeneity of neutrophils upon activation by a variety of stimuli. Unstimulated neutrophils from normal subjects exhibited a unimodal distribution of fluorescence, suggesting that all the cells possessed the same resting membrane potential. As neutrophils aged (>5 h), some cells lost fluorescence producing a bimodal distribution. In studies with fresh cells, the secretagogue phorbol myristate acetate (20 ng/ml) stimulated a uniform loss of fluorescence (apparent depolarization). The chemoattractant N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-Met-Leu-Phe) (0.1 ?M) caused the neutrophils to assume and maintain (for > 30 min) a bimodal fluorescence distribution in which 65±5% of the neutrophils first decreased and then increased fluorescence (apparent depolarization/partial repolarization), and 35±5% of the cells exhibited either an increase in fluorescence (apparent hyperpolarization) or no change. Treatment of neutrophils with cytochalasin B before stimulation caused the cells to respond homogeneously to f-Met-Leu-Phe. Additional studies using neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease, which exhibit abnormal membrane potential responses, indicated that this defect affected all such neutrophils uniformly. These observations demonstrate the need to investigate the physiological significance of the heterogeneity of neutrophil function and indicate that the f-Met-Leu-Phe-induced changes in membrane potential observed in bulk population cell studies are the summation of two different responses. PMID:7298844

Seligmann, Bruce; Chused, Thomas M.; Gallin, John I.

1981-01-01

131

Structured methods for identifying and correcting potential human errors in space operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human performance plays a significant role in the development and operation of any complex system, and human errors are significant contributors to degraded performance, incidents, and accidents for technologies as diverse as medical systems, commercial aircraft, offshore oil platforms, nuclear power plants, and space systems. To date, serious accidents attributed to human error have fortunately been rare in space operations. However, as flight rates go up and the duration of space missions increases, the accident rate could increase unless proactive action is taken to identify and correct potential human errors in space operations. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has developed and applied structured methods of human error analysis to identify potential human errors, assess their effects on system performance, and develop strategies to prevent the errors or mitigate their consequences. These methods are being applied in NASA-sponsored programs to the domain of commercial aviation, focusing on airplane maintenance and air traffic management. The application of human error analysis to space operations could contribute to minimize the risks associated with human error in the design and operation of future space systems.

Nelson, William R.; Haney, Lon N.; Ostrom, Lee T.; Richards, Robert E.

132

Using Market Research to Characterize College Students and Identify Potential Targets for Influencing Health Behaviors.  

PubMed

Marketing campaigns, such as those developed by the tobacco industry, are based on market research, which defines segments of a population by assessing psychographic characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests). This study uses a similar approach to define market segments of college smokers, to examine differences in their health behaviors (smoking, drinking, binge drinking, exercise, diet), and to determine the validity of these segments. A total of 2,265 undergraduate students aged 18-25 years completed a 108-item online survey in fall 2008 assessing demographic, psychographic (i.e., attitudes, interests), and health-related variables. Among the 753 students reporting past 30-day smoking, cluster analysis was conducted using 21 psychographic questions and identified three market segments - Stoic Individualists, Responsible Traditionalists, and Thrill-Seeking Socializers. We found that segment membership was related to frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, and limiting dietary fat. We then developed three messages targeting each segment and conducted message testing to validate the segments on a subset of 73 smokers representing each segment in spring 2009. As hypothesized, each segment indicated greater relevance and salience for their respective message. These findings indicate that identifying qualitatively different subgroups of young adults through market research may inform the development of engaging interventions and health campaigns targeting college students. PMID:25264429

Berg, Carla J; Ling, Pamela M; Guo, Hongfei; Windle, Michael; Thomas, Janet L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; An, Lawrence C

2010-12-01

133

Evaluating stakeholder participation in water management: intermediary outcomes as potential indicators for future resource management outcomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of participation programmes, projects and activities is essential to identify whether stakeholder involvement has been successful in achieving its aims. Aims may include an improvement in water resource management such as enhanced ecological functioning, an improvement in human wellbeing and economic conditions, or overcoming a conflict between interest groups. Evaluating against "interest-based" resource management criteria requires that a desirable outcome can be identified, agreed upon and be measured at the time of evaluation. In many water management situations where collaborative approaches are applied, multiple interests and objectives are present, or stakeholders have not yet identified their own positions and priorities. Even if a resource management objective has been identified and strategy agreed upon, resource management changes tend to emerge over longer timescales and evaluation frequently takes place before they can be recognised. Evaluating against resource management criteria may lead evaluators to conclude that a programme has failed because it has not achieved a resource management objective at the time of evaluation. This presents a critical challenge to researchers assessing the effectiveness of stakeholder participation programmes. One strategy to overcome this is to conduct "goal-free" evaluation to identify what the programme is actually achieving. An evaluation framework that includes intermediary outcomes that are both tangible achievements such as innovation, creation of new organisations, and shared information and knowledge, as well as intangible achievements such as trust and network development can be applied to more broadly assess a programme's success. Analysis of case-studies in the published literature for which a resource management outcome has been achieved shows that intermediary outcomes frequently precede resource management outcomes. They seem to emerge over shorter timescales than resource management outcomes. Furthermore, failure to achieve intermediary outcomes correlates to failure to achieve resource management outcomes. Evaluating intermediary outcomes leads to both a broader assessment of a programme's achievements at the time of evaluation, and can indicate whether a programme will go on to achieve resource management objectives in the future.

Carr, Gemma; Bloeschl, Guenter; Loucks, Daniel Pete

2013-04-01

134

Transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials as a prognostic indicator for motor recovery in stroke patients.  

PubMed Central

Transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials (MEP) were examined in 33 patients within three days after stroke. Normal values for MEP and motor central conduction time (CCT) were obtained in 46 healthy controls whose MEPs were evaluated during slight voluntary muscle contraction and at rest. Two months later 23 patients were re-examined clinically and electrophysiologically. Motor function change was correlated with MEP results. Two months after stroke the patients with normal or prolonged CCT had an improved motor function compared with those with absent CCT. MEP may be a valuable prognostic indicator in the acute stage of paralytic stroke for recovery of motor function. PMID:2174076

Dominkus, M; Grisold, W; Jelinek, V

1990-01-01

135

Potential of calcium isotopes to identify fractionations in vegetation: experimental approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to better understand the role of vegetation on the Ca cycle at the level of the critical zone of the Earth, in order to specify the mechanisms controlling the Ca absorption by plants at the rock/plant interface. To do this, we performed experiments using hydroponic plant cultures in a way that we could control the cooccuring geochemical and biological processes and determine the impact of the nutritive solution on the Ca cycle within plants. A dicotyledon and calcicole plant with rapid growth, the French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), has been chosen to have access to one complete growth cycle. Several experiments have been conducted with two Ca concentrations, 5 (L) and 60 (H) ppm and two pH values (4 and 6) in the nutritive solution, for which the Ca concentration was maintained constant, so its Ca content is considered to be infinite. We determined Ca concentrations and isotopic ratios in the nutritive solution and in different organs (main roots, secondary roots, old and young stems, old and young leaves and fruits) at two different growth stages (10 days and 6 weeks). Our results show, in accord with previously published field studies, that the bean organs are all enriched in the light 40Ca isotope compared to the nutritive solution (e.g. Wigand et al., 2005; Page et al., 2008; Cenki-Tok et al., 2009; Holmden and Bélanger, 2010). We identify two fractionation levels. The first occurs during the uptake of the nutrient elements by the lateral roots. This implies that the main mechanisms of light isotope enrichments in the plant are due to electrochemical gradient transport processes taking place at this interface. The second fractionation can be observed within the plant itself and is due to the nature of the considered organ itself. Indeed structural reservoirs (primary roots, stem, reproductive organs) incorporate more the light 40Ca isotope compared to the transfer reservoirs (lateral roots, xylem sap, leaves). This could be linked to ion-exchange reactions with the pectins in the cell walls of the conducting xylem. However, we also observe that bean organs from L4 experiment growing in nutrient solutions with lower Ca concentrations and low pH behave slightly differently and show reduced Ca isotopic fractionations compared with beans from the other experiments. All these results indicate that there is no simple correlation between Ca isotopic variations, Ca content and pH of the nutrient solution, and that also biological effects have to be involved. The data confirm the potential of the Ca isotopic system for tracing biological fractionations in natural ecosystems. Wiegand et al., (2005). Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L11404 Page et al., (2008). Biogeochemistry, 88, 1-13 Cenki-Tok et al,. (2009). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 73, 2215-2228 Holmden and Bélanger(2010). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 74, 995-1015

Cobert, F.; Schmitt, A.; Bourgade, P.; Stille, P.; Chabaux, F. J.; Badot, P.; Jaegler, T.

2010-12-01

136

Leveraging Concept-based Approaches to Identify Potential Phyto-therapies  

PubMed Central

The potential of plant-based remedies has been documented in both traditional and contemporary biomedical literature. Such types of text sources may thus be sources from which one might identify potential plant-based therapies (“phyto-therapies”). Concept-based analytic approaches have been shown to uncover knowledge embedded within biomedical literature. However, to date there has been limited attention towards leveraging such techniques for the identification of potential phyto-therapies. This study presents concept-based analytic approaches for the retrieval and ranking of associations between plants and human diseases. Focusing on identification of phyto-therapies described in MEDLINE, both MeSH descriptors used for indexing and MetaMap inferred UMLS concepts are considered. Furthermore, the identification and ranking consider both direct (i.e., plant concepts directly correlated with disease concepts) and inferred (i.e., plant concepts associated with disease concepts based on shared signs and symptoms) relationships. Based on the two scoring methodologies used in this study, it was found that a vector space model approach outperformed probabilistic reliability based inferences. An evaluation of the approach is provided based on therapeutic interventions catalogued in both ClinicalTrials.gov and NDF-RT. The promising findings from this feasibility study highlight the challenges and applicability of concept-based analytic strategies for distilling phyto-therapeutic knowledge from text based knowledge sources like MEDLINE. PMID:23665360

Sharma, Vivekanand; Sarkar, Indra Neil

2013-01-01

137

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jj of... - List of VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJ of Part 63...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry CAS No. Chemical name EPA de minimis... 0.2 75092 Methylene chloride 4.0 79469 2-Nitropropane 1.0...

2012-07-01

138

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jj of... - List of VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJ of Part 63...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry CAS No. Chemical name EPA de minimis... 0.2 75092 Methylene chloride 4.0 79469 2-Nitropropane 1.0...

2014-07-01

139

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jj of... - List of VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJ of Part 63...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry CAS No. Chemical name EPA de minimis... 0.2 75092 Methylene chloride 4.0 79469 2-Nitropropane 1.0...

2013-07-01

140

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jj of... - List of VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJ of Part 63...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry CAS No. Chemical name EPA de minimis... 0.2 75092 Methylene chloride 4.0 79469 2-Nitropropane 1.0...

2010-07-01

141

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jj of... - List of VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJ of Part 63...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry CAS No. Chemical name EPA de minimis... 0.2 75092 Methylene chloride 4.0 79469 2-Nitropropane 1.0...

2011-07-01

142

Potential Coastal Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage Locations Identified using GIS-based Topographic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale electrical energy storage could accommodate variable, weather dependent energy resources such as wind and solar. Pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHS) and compressed energy storage area (CAES) have life cycle energy and financial costs that are an order of magnitude lower than conventional electrochemical storage technologies. However PHS and CAES storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Conventional PHS requires an upper and lower reservoir separated by at least 100 m of head, but no more than 10 km in horizontal distance. Conventional PHS also impacts fresh water supplies, riparian ecosystems, and hydrologic environments. A PHS facility that uses the ocean as the lower reservoir benefits from a smaller footprint, minimal freshwater impact, and the potential to be located near off shore wind resources and population centers. Although technologically nascent, today one coastal PHS facility exists. The storage potential for coastal PHS is unknown. Can coastal PHS play a significant role in augmenting future power grids with a high faction of renewable energy supply? In this study we employ GIS-based topographic analysis to quantify the coastal PHS potential of several geographic locations, including California, Chile and Peru. We developed automated techniques that seek local topographic minima in 90 m spatial resolution shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) digital elevation models (DEM) that satisfy the following criteria conducive to PHS: within 10 km from the sea; minimum elevation 150 m; maximum elevation 1000 m. Preliminary results suggest the global potential for coastal PHS could be very significant. For example, in northern Chile we have identified over 60 locations that satisfy the above criteria. Two of these locations could store over 10 million cubic meters of water or several GWh of energy. We plan to report a global database of candidate coastal PHS locations and to estimate their energy storage capacity.

Parsons, R.; Barnhart, C. J.; Benson, S. M.

2013-12-01

143

Ecosystem greenspots: identifying potential drought, fire, and climate-change micro-refuges.  

PubMed

In response to climate change and other threatening processes there is renewed interest in the role of refugia and refuges. In bioregions that experience drought and fire, micro-refuges can play a vital role in ensuring the persistence of species. We develop and apply an approach to identifying potential micro-refuges based on a time series of remotely sensed vegetation greenness (fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by the sunlit canopy; fPAR). The primary data for this analysis were NASA MODIS 16-day L3 Global 250 m (MOD13Q1) satellite imagery. This method draws upon relevant ecological theory (source sink habitats, habitat templet) to calculate a micro-refuge index, which is analyzed for each of the major vegetation ecosystems in the case-study region (the Great Eastern Ranges of New South Wales, Australia). Potential ecosystem greenspots were identified, at a range of thresholds, based on an index derived from: the mean and coefficient of variance (COV) of fPAR over the 10-year time series; the minimum mean annual fPAR; and the COV of the 12 values of mean monthly fPAR. These greenspots were mapped and compared with (1) an index of vascular plant species composition, (2) environmental variables, and (3) protected areas. Potential micro-refuges were found within all vegetation ecosystem types. The total area of ecosystem greenspots within the upper 25% threshold was 48 406 ha; around 0.2% of the total area of native vegetation (23.9 x 10(6) ha) in the study region. The total area affected by fire was 3.4 x 10(6) ha. The results of the environmental diagnostic analysis suggest deterministic controls on the geographical distribution of potential micro-refuges that may continue to function under climate change. The approach is relevant to other regions of the world where the role of micro-refuges in the persistence of species is recognized, including across the world's arid zones and, in particular, for the Australian, southern African, and South American continents. Micro-refuge networks may play an important role in maintaining beta-diversity at the bio-region scale and contribute to the stability, resilience, and adaptive capacity of ecosystems in the face of ever-growing pressures from human-forced climate change, land use, and other threatening processes. PMID:23092021

Mackey, Brendan; Berry, Sandra; Hugh, Sonia; Ferrier, Simon; Harwood, Thomas D; Williams, Kristen J

2012-09-01

144

Indications for acceleration-dependent changes of membrane potential in the flagellate Euglena gracilis.  

PubMed

The effects of the calcium sequester EGTA on gravitactic orientation and membrane potential changes in the unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis were investigated during a recent parabolic-flight experiment aboard of an Airbus A300. In the course of a flight parabola, an acceleration profile is achieved which yields subsequently about 20 s of hypergravity (1.8 g(n)), about 20 s of microgravity, and another 20 s of hypergravity phases. The movement behavior of the cells was investigated with real-time, computer-based image analysis. Membrane potential changes were detected with a newly developed photometer which measures absorption changes of the membrane potential-sensitive probe oxonol VI. To test whether the data obtained by the oxonol device were reliable, the signal of non-oxonol-labelled cells was recorded. In these samples, no absorption shift was detected. Changes of the oxonol VI signals indicate that the cells depolarize during acceleration (very obvious in the step from microgravity to hypergravity) and slightly hyperpolarize in microgravity, which can possibly be explained with the action of Ca-ATPases. These signals (mainly the depolarization) were significantly suppressed in the presence of EGTA (5 mM). Gravitaxis in parallel was also inhibited after addition of EGTA. Initially, negative gravitaxis was inverted into a positive one. Later, gravitaxis was almost undetectable. PMID:17180490

Richter, P R; Schuster, M; Meyer, I; Lebert, M; Häder, D-P

2006-12-01

145

Exome Sequencing of Only Seven Qataris Identifies Potentially Deleterious Variants in the Qatari Population  

PubMed Central

The Qatari population, located at the Arabian migration crossroads of African and Eurasia, is comprised of Bedouin, Persian and African genetic subgroups. By deep exome sequencing of only 7 Qataris, including individuals in each subgroup, we identified 2,750 nonsynonymous SNPs predicted to be deleterious, many of which are linked to human health, or are in genes linked to human health. Many of these SNPs were at significantly elevated deleterious allele frequency in Qataris compared to other populations worldwide. Despite the small sample size, SNP allele frequency was highly correlated with a larger Qatari sample. Together, the data demonstrate that exome sequencing of only a small number of individuals can reveal genetic variations with potential health consequences in understudied populations. PMID:23139751

Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L.; Fuller, Jennifer; Hackett, Neil R.; Salit, Jacqueline; Malek, Joel A.; Al-Dous, Eman; Chouchane, Lotfi; Zirie, Mahmoud; Jayoussi, Amin; Mahmoud, Mai A.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Mezey, Jason G.

2012-01-01

146

Positive selection moments identify potential functional residues in human olfactory receptors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Correlated mutation analysis and molecular models of olfactory receptors have provided evidence that residues in the transmembrane domains form a binding pocket for odor ligands. As an independent test of these results, we have calculated positive selection moments for the alpha-helical sixth transmembrane domain (TM6) of human olfactory receptors. The moments can be used to identify residues that have been preferentially affected by positive selection and are thus likely to interact with odor ligands. The results suggest that residue 622, which is commonly a serine or threonine, could form critical H-bonds. In some receptors a dual-serine subsite, formed by residues 622 and 625, could bind hydroxyl determinants on odor ligands. The potential importance of these residues is further supported by site-directed mutagenesis in the beta-adrenergic receptor. The findings should be of practical value for future physiological studies, binding assays, and site-directed mutagenesis.

Singer, M. S.; Weisinger-Lewin, Y.; Lancet, D.; Shepherd, G. M.

1996-01-01

147

Identifying potential sources of Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits over its growth period.  

PubMed

Sudan dyes in spices are often assumed to arise from cross-contamination or malicious addition. Here, experiments were carried out to identify the potential source of Sudan I-IV in Capsicum fruits through investigation of their contents in native Capsicum tissues, soils and associated agronomic materials. Sudan II-IV was not detected in any of the tested samples. Sudan I was found in almost all samples except for the mulching film. Sudan I concentrations decreased from stems to leaves and then to fruits or roots. Sudan I levels in soils were significantly elevated by vegetation treatment. These results exclude the possibility of soil as the main source for Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits. Further study found out pesticide and fertilizer constitutes the major source of Sudan I contamination. This work represents a preliminary step for a detailed Sudan I assessment to support Capsicum management and protection in the studied region. PMID:25466000

Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Li, Fengfei; Han, Wenjie

2015-04-15

148

Identifying At-Risk Employees: Modeling Psychosocial Precursors of Potential Insider Threats  

SciTech Connect

In many insider crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they can be assessed. A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employee's behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. To test the model's agreement with human resources and management professionals, we conducted an experiment with positive results. If implemented in an operational setting, the model would be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment to identify employees who pose a greater insider threat.

Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Dalton, Angela C.; Hohimer, Ryan E.

2012-01-04

149

Integrative analysis of chromatin states in Arabidopsis identified potential regulatory mechanisms for natural antisense transcript production.  

PubMed

Genome-wide analyses of epigenomic and transcriptomic profiles provide extensive resources for discovering epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. However, the construction of functionally relevant hypotheses from correlative patterns and the rigorous testing of these hypotheses may be challenging. We combined bioinformatics-driven hypothesis building with mutant analyses to identify potential epigenetic mechanisms using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome-wide maps of nine histone modifications produced by ChIP-seq were used together with a strand-specific RNA-seq dataset to profile the epigenome and transcriptome of Arabidopsis. Combinatorial chromatin patterns were described by 42 major chromatin states with selected states validated using the re-ChIP assay. The functional relevance of chromatin modifications was analyzed using the ANchored CORrelative Pattern (ANCORP) method and a newly developed state-specific effects analysis (SSEA) method, which interrogates individual chromatin marks in the context of combinatorial chromatin states. Based on results from these approaches, we propose the hypothesis that cytosine methylation (5mC) and histone methylation H3K36me may synergistically repress production of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) in the context of actively expressed genes. Mutant analyses supported this proposed model at a significant proportion of the tested loci. We further identified polymerase-associated factor as a potential repressor for NAT abundance. Although the majority of tested NATs were found to localize to the nucleus, we also found evidence for cytoplasmically partitioned NATs. The significance of the subcellular localization of NATs and their biological functions remain to be defined. PMID:22962860

Luo, Chongyuan; Sidote, David J; Zhang, Yi; Kerstetter, Randall A; Michael, Todd P; Lam, Eric

2012-09-11

150

Integrative molecular profiling of triple negative breast cancers identifies amplicon drivers and potential therapeutic targets  

PubMed Central

Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) have a relatively poor prognosis and cannot be effectively treated with current targeted therapies. We searched for genes that have the potential to be therapeutic targets by identifying genes consistently over-expressed when amplified. Fifty-six TNBCs were subjected to high-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH), of which 24 were subjected to genome-wide gene expression analysis. TNBCs were genetically heterogeneous; no individual focal amplification was present at high frequency, although 78.6% of TNBCs harboured at least one focal amplification. Integration of aCGH and expression data revealed 40 genes significantly overexpressed when amplified, including the known oncogenes and potential therapeutic targets, FGFR2 (10q26.3), BUB3 (10q26.3), RAB20 (13q34), PKN1 (19p13.12), and NOTCH3 (19p13.12). We identified two TNBC cell lines with FGFR2 amplification, which both had constitutive activation of FGFR2. Amplified cell lines were highly sensitive to FGFR inhibitor PD173074, and to RNAi silencing of FGFR2. Treatment with PD173074 induced apoptosis resulting partly from inhibition of PI3K-AKT signalling. Independent validation using publicly available aCGH datasets revealed FGFR2 gene was amplified in 4% (6/165) of TNBC, but not in other subtypes (0/214, p=0.0065). Our analysis demonstrates that TNBCs are heterogeneous tumours with amplifications of FGFR2 in a subgroup of tumours. PMID:20101236

Turner, Nicholas; Lambros, Maryou B; Horlings, Hugo M.; Pearson, Alex; Sharpe, Rachel; Natrajan, Rachael; Geyer, Felipe C; van Kouwenhove, Marieke; Kreike, Bas; Mackay, Alan; Ashworth, Alan; van de Vijver, Marc J; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

2009-01-01

151

Dipole potentials indicate restructuring of the membrane interface induced by gadolinium and beryllium ions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dipole component of the membrane boundary potential, phi(d), is an integral parameter that may report on the conformational state of the lipid headgroups and their hydration. In this work, we describe an experimental approach to measurements of the dipole potential changes, Deltaphi(d), and apply it in studies of Be(2+) and Gd(3+) interactions with membranes composed of phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and their mixtures. Deltaphi(d) is determined as the difference between the changes of the total boundary potential, phi(b), measured by the IFC method in planar lipid membranes and the surface potential, phi(s), determined from the electrophoretic mobility of liposomes. The Gouy-Chapman-Stern formalism, combined with the condition of mass balance, well describes the ion equilibria for these high-affinity cations. For the adsorption of Be(2+) and Gd(3+) to PC membranes, and of Mg(2+) to PS membranes, the values of Deltaphi(b) and Deltaphi(s) are the same, indicative of no change of phi(d). Binding of Gd(3+) to PS-containing membranes induces changes of phi(d) of opposite signs depending on the density of ionized PS headgroups in the bilayer. At low density, the induced Deltaphi(d) is negative (-30 mV), consistent with the effect of dehydration of the surface. At maximal density (pure PS, neutral pH), adsorption of Be(2+) or Gd(3+) induces an increase of phi(d) of 35 or 140 mV, respectively. The onset of the strong positive dipole effect on PS membranes with Gd(3+) is observed near the zero charge point and correlates with a six-fold increase of membrane tension. The observed phenomena may reflect concerted reorientation of dipole moments of PS headgroups as a result of ion adsorption and lipid condensation. Their possible implications to in-vivo effects of these high-affinity ions are discussed.

Ermakov, Y. A.; Averbakh, A. Z.; Yusipovich, A. I.; Sukharev, S.

2001-01-01

152

Assessing urban potential flooding risk and identifying effective risk-reduction measures.  

PubMed

Flood protection is one of the traditional functions of any drainage system, and it remains a major issue in many cities because of economic and health impact. Heavy rain flooding has been well studied and existing simulation software can be used to predict and improve level of protection. However, simulating minor flooding remains highly complex, due to the numerous possible causes related to operational deficiencies or negligent behaviour. According to the literature, causes of blockages vary widely from one case to another: it is impossible to provide utility managers with effective recommendations on how to improve the level of protection. It is therefore vital to analyse each context in order to define an appropriate strategy. Here we propose a method to represent and assess the flooding risk, using GIS and data gathered during operation and maintenance. Our method also identifies potential management responses. The approach proposed aims to provide decision makers with clear and comprehensible information. Our method has been successfully applied to the Urban Community of Bordeaux (France) on 4895 interventions related to flooding recorded during the 2009-2011 period. Results have shown the relative importance of different issues, such as human behaviour (grease, etc.) or operational deficiencies (roots, etc.), and lead to identify corrective and proactive. This study also confirms that blockages are not always directly due to the network itself and its deterioration. Many causes depend on environmental and operating conditions on the network and often require collaboration between municipal departments in charge of roads, green spaces, etc. PMID:25682359

Cherqui, Frédéric; Belmeziti, Ali; Granger, Damien; Sourdril, Antoine; Le Gauffre, Pascal

2015-05-01

153

Identifying potential misfit items in cognitive process of learning engineering mathematics based on Rasch model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The students learning outcomes clarify what students should know and be able to demonstrate after completing their course. So, one of the issues on the process of teaching and learning is how to assess students' learning. This paper describes an application of the dichotomous Rasch measurement model in measuring the cognitive process of engineering students' learning of mathematics. This study provides insights into the perspective of 54 engineering students' cognitive ability in learning Calculus III based on Bloom's Taxonomy on 31 items. The results denote that some of the examination questions are either too difficult or too easy for the majority of the students. This analysis yields FIT statistics which are able to identify if there is data departure from the Rasch theoretical model. The study has identified some potential misfit items based on the measurement of ZSTD where the removal misfit item was accomplished based on the MNSQ outfit of above 1.3 or less than 0.7 logit. Therefore, it is recommended that these items be reviewed or revised to better match the range of students' ability in the respective course.

Ataei, Sh; Mahmud, Z.; Khalid, M. N.

2014-04-01

154

A feasibility study on the influence of the geomorphological feature in identifying the potential landslide hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we focused on identifying geomorphological features that control the location of landslides. The representation of these features is based on a high resolution DEM (Digital Elevation Model) derived from airborne laser altimetry (LiDAR) and evaluated by statistical analysis of axial orientation data. The main principle of this analysis is generating eigenvalues from axial orientation data and comparing them. The Planarity, a ratio of eigenvalues, would tell the degree of roughness on ground surface based on their ratios. Results are compared to the recent landslide case in Korea in order to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methodology in identifying the potential landslide hazard. The preliminary landslide assessment based on the Planarity analysis well discriminates features between stable and unstable domain in the study area especially in the landslide initiation zones. Results also show it is beneficial to build the preliminary landslide hazard especially inventory mapping where none of information on historical records of landslides is existed. By combining other physical procedures such as geotechnical monitoring, the landslide hazard assessment using geomorphological features will promise a better understanding of landslides and their mechanisms, and provide an enhanced methodology to evaluate their hazards and appropriate actions.

Baek, M. H.; Kim, T. H.

2014-11-01

155

Network Analysis Identifies SOD2 mRNA as a Potential Biomarker for Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence indicates that Parkinson's disease (PD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) share dysregulated molecular networks. We identified 84 genes shared between PD and T2DM from curated disease-gene databases. Nitric oxide biosynthesis, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, insulin secretion and inflammation were identified as common dysregulated pathways. A network prioritization approach was implemented to rank genes according to their distance to seed genes and their involvement in common biological pathways. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays revealed that a highly ranked gene, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), is upregulated in PD patients compared to healthy controls in 192 whole blood samples from two independent clinical trials, the Harvard Biomarker Study (HBS) and the Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers in Parkinson's disease (PROBE). The results from this study reinforce the idea that shared molecular networks between PD and T2DM provides an additional source of biologically meaningful biomarkers. Evaluation of this biomarker in de novo PD patients and in a larger prospective longitudinal study is warranted. PMID:25279756

Santiago, Jose A.; Scherzer, Clemens R.; Potashkin, Judith A.

2014-01-01

156

Identifying the potential loss of monitoring wells using an uncertainty analysis.  

PubMed

From the mid-1940s through the 1980s, large volumes of waste water were discharged at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, causing a large-scale rise (>20 m) in the water table. When waste water discharges ceased in 1988, ground water mounds began to dissipate. This caused a large number of wells to go dry and has made it difficult to monitor contaminant plume migration. To identify monitoring wells that will need replacement, a methodology has been developed using a first-order uncertainty analysis with UCODE, a nonlinear parameter estimation code. Using a three-dimensional, finite-element ground water flow code, key parameters were identified by calibrating to historical hydraulic head data. Results from the calibration period were then used to check model predictions by comparing monitoring wells' wet/dry status with field data. This status was analyzed using a methodology that incorporated the 0.3 cumulative probability derived from the confidence and prediction intervals. For comparison, a nonphysically based trend model was also used as a predictor of wells' wet/dry status. Although the numerical model outperformed the trend model, for both models, the central value of the intervals was a better predictor of a wet well status. The prediction interval, however, was more successful at identifying dry wells. Predictions made through the year 2048 indicated that 46% of the wells in the monitoring well network are likely to go dry in areas near the river and where the ground water mound is dissipating. PMID:16324012

Freedman, Vicky L; Waichler, Scott R; Cole, Charles R; Vermeul, Vince R; Bergeron, Marcel P

2005-01-01

157

Omen: identifying potential spear-phishing targets before the email is sent.  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a two year project focused on a common social engineering attack method called %22spear phishing%22. In a spear phishing attack, the user receives an email with information specifically focused on the user. This email contains either a malware-laced attachment or a link to download the malware that has been disguised as a useful program. Spear phishing attacks have been one of the most effective avenues for attackers to gain initial entry into a target network. This project focused on a proactive approach to spear phishing. To create an effective, user-specific spear phishing email, the attacker must research the intended recipient. We believe that much of the information used by the attacker is provided by the target organization's own external website. Thus when researching potential targets, the attacker leaves signs of his research in the webserver's logs. We created tools and visualizations to improve cybersecurity analysts' abilities to quickly understand a visitor's visit patterns and interests. Given these suspicious visitors and log-parsing tools, analysts can more quickly identify truly suspicious visitors, search for potential spear-phishing targeted users, and improve security around those users before the spear phishing email is sent.

Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

2013-07-01

158

Predicting Fish Growth Potential and Identifying Water Quality Constraints: A Spatially-Explicit Bioenergetics Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic impairment of water bodies represents a global environmental concern, yet few attempts have successfully linked fish performance to thermal habitat suitability and fewer have distinguished co-varying water quality constraints. We interfaced fish bioenergetics, field measurements, and Thermal Remote Imaging to generate a spatially-explicit, high-resolution surface of fish growth potential, and next employed a structured hypothesis to detect relationships among measures of fish performance and co-varying water quality constraints. Our thermal surface of fish performance captured the amount and spatial-temporal arrangement of thermally-suitable habitat for three focal species in an extremely heterogeneous reservoir, but interpretation of this pattern was initially confounded by seasonal covariation of water residence time and water quality. Subsequent path analysis revealed that in terms of seasonal patterns in growth potential, catfish and walleye responded to temperature, positively and negatively, respectively; crappie and walleye responded to eutrophy (negatively). At the high eutrophy levels observed in this system, some desired fishes appear to suffer from excessive cultural eutrophication within the context of elevated temperatures whereas others appear to be largely unaffected or even enhanced. Our overall findings do not lead to the conclusion that this system is degraded by pollution; however, they do highlight the need to use a sensitive focal species in the process of determining allowable nutrient loading and as integrators of habitat suitability across multiple spatial and temporal scales. We provide an integrated approach useful for quantifying fish growth potential and identifying water quality constraints on fish performance at spatial scales appropriate for whole-system management.

Budy, Phaedra; Baker, Matthew; Dahle, Samuel K.

2011-10-01

159

Transcriptome analysis of Burkholderia pseudomallei T6SS identifies Hcp1 as a potential serodiagnostic marker.  

PubMed

Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is able to survive extreme environments and utilizes various virulence factors for survival and pathogenicity. To compete and survive within these different ecological niches, B. pseudomallei has evolved specialized pathways, including the Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs), that have a role in pathogenesis as well as interbacterial interactions. We examined the expression profile of B. pseudomallei T6SS six gene clusters during infection of U937 macrophage cells. T6SS-5 was robustly transcribed while the other five clusters were not significantly regulated proposing the utility of T6SS-5 as a potential biomarker of exposure to B. pseudomallei. Transcription of T6SS regulators VirAG and BprB was also not significant during infection when compared to bacteria grown in culture. Guided by these findings, three highly expressed T6SS genes, tssJ-4, hcp1 and tssE-5, were expressed as recombinant proteins and screened against melioidosis patient sera by western analysis and ELISA. Only Hcp1 was reactive by both types of analysis. The recombinant Hcp1 protein was further evaluated against a cohort of melioidosis patients (n = 32) and non-melioidosis individuals (n = 20) sera and the data clearly indicates a higher sensitivity (93.7%) and specificity (100%) for Hcp1 compared to bacterial lysate. The detection of anti-Hcp1 antibodies in patients' sera indicating the presence of B. pseudomallei highlights the potential of Hcp1 to be further developed as a serodiagnostic marker for melioidosis. PMID:25616255

Chieng, Sylvia; Mohamed, Rahmah; Nathan, Sheila

2015-02-01

160

Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at the beach, as indicated by an increase in the specific conductance of beach water. Understanding the dynamics of FIB sources (sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora) and transport mechanisms (dispersion and erosion from storm energy, and swash-zone groundwater discharge) is important for improving predictions of potential health risks from FIB in beach water.

Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

2013-01-01

161

Measuring Quality in Higher Education: Can a Performance Indicator Approach Be Extended to Identifying the Quality of Students' Union Provision?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The desire to enhance the quality of the services provided by higher education institutions in the UK has led to the development of a series of benchmarking performance indicators to aid the quality management process. This paper examines whether or not similar indicators could be developed for use as tools in the management of quality within…

Rodgers, Timothy

2008-01-01

162

Antioxidant Potential of a Polyherbal Antimalarial as an Indicator of Its Therapeutic Value  

PubMed Central

Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods and, in vivo, Nefang (100 and 500?mg?kg?1) activity was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation by the malondialdehyde and total proteins assays were carried out. P. guajava, M. indica leaf, and bark extracts had the highest antioxidant properties in all three assays, with no statistically significant difference. Rats treated with the carbon tetrachloride had a statistically significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (P < 0.05) and increase in malondialdehyde activity, total protein levels, and liver and renal function markers, whereas rats treated with Nefang showed increased levels in the former and dose-dependent decrease towards normal levels in the later. These results reveal the constituent plants of Nefang that contribute to its in vivo antioxidant potential. This activity is a good indication of the therapeutic potential of Nefang. PMID:24454347

Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Nwachiban Atchan, Achille Parfait; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Okalebo, Faith Apoelot; Guantai, Anastasia Nkatha; Agbor, Gabriel Agbor

2013-01-01

163

Antioxidant potential of a polyherbal antimalarial as an indicator of its therapeutic value.  

PubMed

Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods and, in vivo, Nefang (100 and 500?mg?kg(-1)) activity was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation by the malondialdehyde and total proteins assays were carried out. P. guajava, M. indica leaf, and bark extracts had the highest antioxidant properties in all three assays, with no statistically significant difference. Rats treated with the carbon tetrachloride had a statistically significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (P < 0.05) and increase in malondialdehyde activity, total protein levels, and liver and renal function markers, whereas rats treated with Nefang showed increased levels in the former and dose-dependent decrease towards normal levels in the later. These results reveal the constituent plants of Nefang that contribute to its in vivo antioxidant potential. This activity is a good indication of the therapeutic potential of Nefang. PMID:24454347

Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Nwachiban Atchan, Achille Parfait; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Okalebo, Faith Apoelot; Guantai, Anastasia Nkatha; Agbor, Gabriel Agbor

2013-01-01

164

Comparative evaluation of potential indicators and temporal sampling protocols for monitoring genetic erosion  

PubMed Central

Genetic biodiversity contributes to individual fitness, species' evolutionary potential, and ecosystem stability. Temporal monitoring of the genetic status and trends of wild populations' genetic diversity can provide vital data to inform policy decisions and management actions. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding which genetic metrics, temporal sampling protocols, and genetic markers are sufficiently sensitive and robust, on conservation-relevant timescales. Here, we tested six genetic metrics and various sampling protocols (number and arrangement of temporal samples) for monitoring genetic erosion following demographic decline. To do so, we utilized individual-based simulations featuring an array of different initial population sizes, types and severity of demographic decline, and DNA markers [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites] as well as decline followed by recovery. Number of alleles markedly outperformed other indicators across all situations. The type and severity of demographic decline strongly affected power, while the number and arrangement of temporal samples had small effect. Sampling 50 individuals at as few as two time points with 20 microsatellites performed well (good power), and could detect genetic erosion while 80–90% of diversity remained. This sampling and genotyping effort should often be affordable. Power increased substantially with more samples or markers, and we observe that power of 2500 SNPs was nearly equivalent to 250 microsatellites, a result of theoretical and practical interest. Our results suggest high potential for using historic collections in monitoring programs, and demonstrate the need to monitor genetic as well as other levels of biodiversity. PMID:25553062

Hoban, Sean; Arntzen, Jan A; Bruford, Michael W; Godoy, José A; Rus Hoelzel, A; Segelbacher, Gernot; Vilà, Carles; Bertorelle, Giorgio

2014-01-01

165

Phenology of Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on cranberry and blueberry indicates potential for gene flow.  

PubMed

Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a pest of cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon (Aiton) (Ericales: Ericaceae), and highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum (L.) (Ericales: Ericaceae), in North America. In British Columbia, Canada, D. oxycoccana was first found on highbush blueberry in 1991 and then on cranberry seven years later. Because many cranberry and highbush blueberry farms are adjacent to one another, we hypothesized that D. oxycoccana was moving from highbush blueberry onto cranberry. Cranberry and highbush blueberry differ in phenology, and adaptation to these different phenologies may result in host races or cryptic species on these two crops. We recognized the alternative hypothesis that D. oxycoccana had arrived as immature stages with cranberry vines imported from another region of North America. During spring and summer, we recorded the phenology of D. oxycoccana and the development of plant shoots from three cranberry and three highbush blueberry farms to determine whether the opportunity exists for successful movement of D. oxycoccana between the two crops. Our results show that D. oxycoccana from cranberry and highbush blueberry overlap in phenology for much of the season, indicating a high potential for movement and gene flow. However, differences were seen in number of larvae per shoot, location of pupae, and heat unit accumulation during larval development suggesting that instead there may be the potential for host race or cryptic species formation. PMID:22928299

Cook, Melissa A; Fitzpatrick, Sheila M; Roitberg, Bernard D

2012-08-01

166

Potential for early warning of maalria in India using NOAA-AVHRR based vegetation health indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malaria is still a major public health problem in India with about 1 82 million cases annually and 1000 deaths As per World Health Organization WHO estimates about 1 3 million Disability Adjusted Life Years DALYs are lost annually due to malaria in India Central peninsular region of India is prone to malaria outbreaks Meteorological parameters changes in ecological conditions development of resistance in mosquito vectors development of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasite and lack of surveillance are the likely reasons of outbreaks Based on satellite data and climatic factors efforts have been made to develop Early Warning System EWS in Africa but there is no headway in this regard in India In order to find out the potential of NOAA satellite AVHRR derived Vegetation Condition Index VCI Temperature Condition Index TCI and a cumulative indicator Vegetation Health Index VHI were attempted to find out their potential for development of EWS Studies were initiated by analysing epidemiological data of malaria vis-a-vis VCI TCI and VHI from Bikaner and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan and Tumkur and Raichur districts of Karnataka Correlation coefficients between VCI and monthly malaria cases for epidemic years were computed Positive correlation 0 67 has been found with one-month lag between VCI and malaria incidence in respect of Tumkur while a negative correlation with TCI -0 45 is observed In Bikaner VCI is found to be negatively related -0 71 with malaria cases in epidemic year of 1994 Weekly

Dhiman, R. C.; Kogan, Felix; Singh, Neeru; Singh, R. P.; Dash, A. P.

167

Comparative evaluation of potential indicators and temporal sampling protocols for monitoring genetic erosion.  

PubMed

Genetic biodiversity contributes to individual fitness, species' evolutionary potential, and ecosystem stability. Temporal monitoring of the genetic status and trends of wild populations' genetic diversity can provide vital data to inform policy decisions and management actions. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding which genetic metrics, temporal sampling protocols, and genetic markers are sufficiently sensitive and robust, on conservation-relevant timescales. Here, we tested six genetic metrics and various sampling protocols (number and arrangement of temporal samples) for monitoring genetic erosion following demographic decline. To do so, we utilized individual-based simulations featuring an array of different initial population sizes, types and severity of demographic decline, and DNA markers [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites] as well as decline followed by recovery. Number of alleles markedly outperformed other indicators across all situations. The type and severity of demographic decline strongly affected power, while the number and arrangement of temporal samples had small effect. Sampling 50 individuals at as few as two time points with 20 microsatellites performed well (good power), and could detect genetic erosion while 80-90% of diversity remained. This sampling and genotyping effort should often be affordable. Power increased substantially with more samples or markers, and we observe that power of 2500 SNPs was nearly equivalent to 250 microsatellites, a result of theoretical and practical interest. Our results suggest high potential for using historic collections in monitoring programs, and demonstrate the need to monitor genetic as well as other levels of biodiversity. PMID:25553062

Hoban, Sean; Arntzen, Jan A; Bruford, Michael W; Godoy, José A; Rus Hoelzel, A; Segelbacher, Gernot; Vilà, Carles; Bertorelle, Giorgio

2014-11-01

168

National valuation of monarch butterflies indicates an untapped potential for incentive-based conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The annual migration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) has high cultural value and recent surveys indicate monarch populations are declining. Protecting migratory species is complex because they cross international borders and depend on multiple regions. Understanding how much, and where, humans place value on migratory species can facilitate market-based conservation approaches. We performed a contingent valuation study of monarchs to understand the potential for such approaches to fund monarch conservation. The survey asked U.S. respondents about the money they would spend, or have spent, growing monarch-friendly plants, and the amount they would donate to monarch conservation organizations. Combining planting payments and donations, the survey indicated U.S. households valued monarchs as a total one-time payment of $4.78–$6.64 billion, levels similar to many endangered vertebrate species. The financial contribution of even a small percentage of households through purchases or donations could generate new funding for monarch conservation through market-based approaches.

Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Loomis, John B.; Ries, Leslie; Oberhauser, Karen; Semmens, Darius; Semmens, Brice; Butterfield, Bruce; Bagstad, Ken; Goldstein, Josh; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

2013-01-01

169

Identifiers Identifiers  

E-print Network

, July 1998. . Tim Berners­Lee: Cool URIs don't change. [http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI] Stefan://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url­primer.html] . T. Berners­Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC Names. RFC 1737, December 1994, 7 pages. . T. Berners­Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill: Uniform Resource

Brass, Stefan

170

Identifiers Identifiers  

E-print Network

, July 1998. . Tim Berners­Lee: Cool URIs don't change. [http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI] . Uniform://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url­primer.html] . T. Berners­Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC Names. RFC 1737, December 1994, 7 pages. . T. Berners­Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill: Uniform Resource

Brass, Stefan

171

ABSTRACT: In this paper we seek to identify historical indicators of international freshwater conflict and cooperation and to create a  

E-print Network

at multiple spatial and temporal scales from GIS datasets of international basins and associated countries indicator ­ including cli- mate, water stress, government type, and dependence on water for agriculture

Wolf, Aaron

172

A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Potential Susceptibility Loci for Hirschsprung Disease  

PubMed Central

Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital and heterogeneous disorder characterized by the absence of intramural nervous plexuses along variable lengths of the hindgut. Although RET is a well-established risk factor, a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HSCR has identified NRG1 as an additional susceptibility locus. To discover additional risk loci, we performed a GWAS of 123 sporadic HSCR patients and 432 unaffected controls using a large-scale platform with coverage of over 1 million polymorphic markers. The result was that our study replicated the findings of RET-CSGALNACT2-RASGEF1A genomic region (rawP?=?5.69×10?19 before a Bonferroni correction; corrP?=?4.31×10?13 after a Bonferroni correction) and NRG1 as susceptibility loci. In addition, this study identified SLC6A20 (adjP?=?2.71×10?6), RORA (adjP?=?1.26×10?5), and ABCC9 (adjP?=?1.86×10?5) as new potential susceptibility loci under adjusting the already known loci on the RET-CSGALNACT2-RASGEF1A and NRG1 regions, although none of the SNPs in these genes passed the Bonferroni correction. In further subgroup analysis, the RET-CSGALNACT2-RASGEF1A genomic region was observed to have different significance levels among subgroups: short-segment (S-HSCR, corrP?=?1.71×10?5), long-segment (L-HSCR, corrP?=?6.66×10?4), and total colonic aganglionosis (TCA, corrP>0.05). This differential pattern in the significance level suggests that other genomic loci or mechanisms may affect the length of aganglionosis in HSCR subgroups during enteric nervous system (ENS) development. Although functional evaluations are needed, our findings might facilitate improved understanding of the mechanisms of HSCR pathogenesis. PMID:25310821

Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Sul, Jae Hoon; Seo, Jeong-Meen; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Oh, Jung-Tak; Park, Kwi-Won; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jung, Soo-Min; Jung, Kyuwhan; Cho, Min Jeng; Bae, Joon Seol; Shin, Hyoung Doo

2014-01-01

173

Plasma Sphingolipids as Potential Indicators of Hepatic Necroinflammation in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase Level  

PubMed Central

Accurate estimation of hepatic necroinflammation caused by chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is crucial for prediction of prognosis and design of therapeutic strategy, which is particularly true for CHC patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Recent studies have shown that sphingolipids have a close relationship with hepatitis C virus infection. The present study aimed to identify plasma sphingolipids related to hepatic necroinflammation. We included 120 treatment-naïve CHC patients and 64/120 had normal ALT levels (<40 U/L). CHC patients who underwent liver biopsies were subjected to Scheuer scoring analysis for scope of hepatic inflammation. Plasma sphingolipids were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed 44 plasma sphingolipids were detected altogether. Of all detected sphingolipids, hexosylceramide (HexCer) (d18?1/22?0) and HexCer (d18?1/24?0) showed a significant difference among G0/G1, G2, and G3/G4 (P<0.05). For identifying hepatic necroinflammation (G?2), after adjusting other factors, the odds ratio (OR) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) reached 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00–1.02). Furthermore, the area under the curve (AUC) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was 0.7 (P?=?0.01) and approached that of ALT (AUC?=?0.78). However, in CHC patients with normal ALT, HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was an independent factor (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01–1.03) to identify the hepatic necroinflammation (G?2). HexCer (d18?1/22?0) not only showed the largest AUC (0.78, P?=?0.001), but also exhibited the highest specificity of all indicators. These results indicate that plasma HexCer (d18?1/22?0) is a potential indicator to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation in CHC patients. For CHC with normal ALT, the ability of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation might be superior to conventional serum indicators. PMID:24736528

Ren, Jin-Yu; Wu, Hui-Li; Liu, Mei; Liu, Hui; Ren, Feng; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Duan, Zhong-Ping

2014-01-01

174

Cheap and Nasty? The Potential Perils of Using Management Costs to Identify Global Conservation Priorities  

PubMed Central

The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity. PMID:24260502

McCreless, Erin; Visconti, Piero; Carwardine, Josie; Wilcox, Chris; Smith, Robert J.

2013-01-01

175

Cheap and nasty? The potential perils of using management costs to identify global conservation priorities.  

PubMed

The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity. PMID:24260502

McCreless, Erin; Visconti, Piero; Carwardine, Josie; Wilcox, Chris; Smith, Robert J

2013-01-01

176

What data should we collect? A framework for identifying indicators of ecosystem contributions to human well being  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological data enable a range of policy relevant analyses; the right ecological data enable ecosystem analyses to be linked to human well being making them more relevant and useful. The challenge we address is how to identify the right data. Our approach, founded on the ?final e...

177

Immunoproteomically identified GBAA_0345, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C is a potential target for multivalent anthrax vaccine.  

PubMed

Anthrax is caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which has been used as a weapon for bioterrorism. Although current vaccines are effective, they involve prolonged dose regimens and often cause adverse reactions. High rates of mortality associated with anthrax have made the development of an improved vaccine a top priority. To identify novel vaccine candidates, we applied an immunoproteomics approach. Using sera from convalescent guinea pigs or from human patients with anthrax, we identified 34 immunogenic proteins from the virulent B. anthracis H9401. To evaluate vaccine candidates, six were expressed as recombinant proteins and tested in vivo. Two proteins, rGBAA_0345 (alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C) and rGBAA_3990 (malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase), have afforded guinea pigs partial protection from a subsequent virulent-spore challenge. Moreover, combined vaccination with rGBAA_0345 and rPA (protective antigen) exhibited an enhanced ability to protect against anthrax mortality. Finally, we demonstrated that GBAA_0345 localizes to anthrax spores and bacilli. Our results indicate that rGBAA_0345 may be a potential component of a multivalent anthrax vaccine, as it enhances the efficacy of rPA vaccination. This is the first time that sera from patients with anthrax have been used to interrogate the proteome of virulent B. anthracis vegetative cells. PMID:24273028

Kim, Yeon Hee; Kim, Kyung Ae; Kim, Yu-Ri; Choi, Min Kyung; Kim, Hye Kyeong; Choi, Ki Ju; Chun, Jeong-Hoon; Cha, Kiweon; Hong, Kee-Jong; Lee, Na Gyong; Yoo, Cheon-Kwon; Oh, Hee-Bok; Kim, Tae Sung; Rhie, Gi-eun

2014-01-01

178

Identifying cognitive preferences for attractive female faces: an event-related potential experiment using a study-test paradigm.  

PubMed

In this experiment, sensitivity to female facial attractiveness was examined by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to attractive and unattractive female faces within a study-test paradigm. Fourteen heterosexual participants (age range 18-24 years, mean age 21.67 years) were required to judge 84 attractive and 84 unattractive face images as either "attractive" or "unattractive." They were then asked whether they had previously viewed each face in a recognition task in which 50% of the images were novel. Analyses indicated that attractive faces elicited more enhanced ERP amplitudes than did unattractive faces in judgment (N300 and P350-550 msec) and recognition (P160 and N250-400 msec and P400-700 msec) tasks on anterior locations. Moreover, longer reaction times and higher accuracy rate were observed in identifying attractive faces than unattractive faces. In sum, this research identified neural and behavioral bases related to cognitive preferences for judging and recognizing attractive female faces. Explanations for the results are that attractive female faces arouse more intense positive emotions in participants than do unattractive faces, and they also represent reproductive fitness and mating value from the evolutionary perspective. PMID:21805493

Zhang, Yan; Kong, Fanchang; Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd; Han, Li; Meng, Jing; Yang, Zhou; Gao, Jianguo; Najam ul Hasan, Abbasi

2011-11-01

179

Identifying Chemicals with Potential Therapy of HIV Based on Protein-Protein and Protein-Chemical Interaction Network  

PubMed Central

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a severe infectious disease that causes a large number of deaths every year. Traditional anti-AIDS drugs directly targeting the HIV-1 encoded enzymes including reverse transcriptase (RT), protease (PR) and integrase (IN) usually suffer from drug resistance after a period of treatment and serious side effects. In recent years, the emergence of numerous useful information of protein-protein interactions (PPI) in the HIV life cycle and related inhibitors makes PPI a new way for antiviral drug intervention. In this study, we identified 26 core human proteins involved in PPI between HIV-1 and host, that have great potential for HIV therapy. In addition, 280 chemicals that interact with three HIV drugs targeting human proteins can also interact with these 26 core proteins. All these indicate that our method as presented in this paper is quite promising. The method may become a useful tool, or at least plays a complementary role to the existing method, for identifying novel anti-HIV drugs. PMID:23762317

Chen, Lei; Wei, Ze-Jun; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Min; Lu, Jing; Zheng, Ming-Yue; Kong, Xiang-Yin; Cai, Yu-Dong

2013-01-01

180

On the use of the resting potential and level set methods for identifying ischemic heart disease: An inverse problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical activity in the heart is modeled by a complex, nonlinear, fully coupled system of differential equations. Several scientists have studied how this model, referred to as the bidomain model, can be modified to incorporate the effect of heart infarctions on simulated ECG (electrocardiogram) recordings. We are concerned with the associated inverse problem; how can we use ECG recordings and mathematical models to identify the position, size and shape of heart infarctions? Due to the extreme CPU efforts needed to solve the bidomain equations, this model, in its full complexity, is not well-suited for this kind of problems. In this paper we show how biological knowledge about the resting potential in the heart and level set techniques can be combined to derive a suitable stationary model, expressed in terms of an elliptic PDE, for such applications. This approach leads to a nonlinear ill-posed minimization problem, which we propose to regularize and solve with a simple iterative scheme. Finally, our theoretical findings are illuminated through a series of computer simulations for an experimental setup involving a realistic heart in torso geometry. More specifically, experiments with synthetic ECG recordings, produced by solving the bidomain model, indicate that our method manages to identify the physical characteristics of the ischemic region(s) in the heart. Furthermore, the ill-posed nature of this inverse problem is explored, i.e. several quantitative issues of our scheme are explored.

Nielsen, Bjørn Fredrik; Lysaker, Marius; Tveito, Aslak

2007-01-01

181

RNAi phenotype profiling of kinases identifies potential therapeutic targets in Ewing's sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Background Ewing's sarcomas are aggressive musculoskeletal tumors occurring most frequently in the long and flat bones as a solitary lesion mostly during the teen-age years of life. With current treatments, significant number of patients relapse and survival is poor for those with metastatic disease. As part of novel target discovery in Ewing's sarcoma, we applied RNAi mediated phenotypic profiling to identify kinase targets involved in growth and survival of Ewing's sarcoma cells. Results Four Ewing's sarcoma cell lines TC-32, TC-71, SK-ES-1 and RD-ES were tested in high throughput-RNAi screens using a siRNA library targeting 572 kinases. Knockdown of 25 siRNAs reduced the growth of all four Ewing's sarcoma cell lines in replicate screens. Of these, 16 siRNA were specific and reduced proliferation of Ewing's sarcoma cells as compared to normal fibroblasts. Secondary validation and preliminary mechanistic studies highlighted the kinases STK10 and TNK2 as having important roles in growth and survival of Ewing's sarcoma cells. Furthermore, knockdown of STK10 and TNK2 by siRNA showed increased apoptosis. Conclusion In summary, RNAi-based phenotypic profiling proved to be a powerful gene target discovery strategy, leading to successful identification and validation of STK10 and TNK2 as two novel potential therapeutic targets for Ewing's sarcoma. PMID:20718987

2010-01-01

182

In silico analysis for identifying potential vaccine candidates against Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Purpose Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important causes of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The increasing incidence of multiple antibiotic-resistant S. aureus strains and the emergence of vancomycin resistant S. aureus strains have placed renewed interest on alternative means of prevention and control of infection. S. aureus produces a variety of virulence factors, so a multi-subunit vaccine will be more successful for preventing S. aureus infections than a mono-subunit vaccine. Materials and Methods We selected three important virulence factors of S. aureus, clumping factor A (ClfA), iron-regulated surface determinant (IsdB), and gamma hemolysin (Hlg) that are potential candidates for vaccine development. We designed synthetic genes encoding the clfA, isdB, and hlg and used bioinformatics tools to predict structure of the synthetic construct and its stabilities. VaxiJen analysis of the protein showed a high antigenicity. Linear and conformational B-cell epitopes were identified. Results The proteins encoded by these genes were useful as vaccine candidates against S. aureus infections. Conclusion In silico tools are highly suited to study, design, and evaluate vaccine strategies. PMID:25649548

Sedighian, Hamid

2015-01-01

183

Potential High-Temperature Shape-Memory Alloys Identified in the Ti(Ni,Pt) System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Shape memory" is a unique property of certain alloys that, when deformed (within certain strain limits) at low temperatures, will remember and recover to their original predeformed shape upon heating. It occurs when an alloy is deformed in the low-temperature martensitic phase and is then heated above its transformation temperature back to an austenitic state. As the material passes through this solid-state phase transformation on heating, it also recovers its original shape. This behavior is widely exploited, near room temperature, in commercially available NiTi alloys for connectors, couplings, valves, actuators, stents, and other medical and dental devices. In addition, there are limitless applications in the aerospace, automotive, chemical processing, and many other industries for materials that exhibit this type of shape-memory behavior at higher temperatures. But for high temperatures, there are currently no commercial shape-memory alloys. Although there are significant challenges to the development of high-temperature shape-memory alloys, at the NASA Glenn Research Center we have identified a series of alloy compositions in the Ti-Ni-Pt system that show great promise as potential high-temperature shape-memory materials.

Noebe, Ronald D.; Biles, Tiffany A.; Garg, Anita; Nathal, Michael V.

2004-01-01

184

Correlation Analysis between SNP and Expression Arrays in Gliomas Identify Potentially Relevant Targets Genes1  

PubMed Central

Primary brain tumors are a major cause of cancer mortality in the United States. Therapy for gliomas, the most common type of primary brain tumors, remains suboptimal. The development of improved therapeutics will require greater knowledge of the biology of gliomas at both the genomic and transcriptional levels. We have previously reported whole genome profiling of chromosome copy number alterations (CNA) in gliomas, and now present our findings on how those changes may affect transcription of genes that may be involved in tumor induction and progression. By calculating correlation values of mRNA expression vs. DNA copy number average in a moving window around a given RNA probeset, biologically relevant information can be gained that is obscured by the analysis of a single data type. Correlation coefficients ranged from ?0.6 to 0.7; highly significant when compared to previously studies. Most correlated genes are located on chromosomes 1, 7, 9, 10, 13, 14, 19, 20 and 22, chromosomes known to have genomic alterations in gliomas. Additionally, we were able to identify CNAs whose gene expression correlation suggests possible epigenetic regulation. This analysis revealed a number of interesting candidates such as CXCL12, PTER, LRRN6C, among others. The results have been verified using real-time PCR and methylation sequencing assays. These data will further help differentiate genes involved in the induction and/or maintenance of the tumorigenic process from those that are mere passenger mutations, thereby enriching for a population of potentially new therapeutic molecular targets. PMID:19190341

Kotliarov, Yuri; Kotliarova, Svetlana; Charong, Nurdina; Li, Aiguo; Walling, Jennifer; Aquilanti, Elisa; Ahn, Susie; Steed, Mary Ellen; Su, Qin; Center, Angela; Zenklusen, Jean C; Fine, Howard A.

2008-01-01

185

UCSF mouse and human studies indicate that cancer prognosis may be related to newly identified immune cell  

Cancer.gov

A newly discovered population of immune cells in tumors is associated with less severe cancer outcomes in humans, and may have therapeutic potential, according to a new UC San Francisco study of 3,600 human tumors of 12 types, as well as mouse experiments.

186

Potential New Genes for Resistance to Mycosphaerella Graminicola Identified in Triticum Aestivum x Lophopyrum Elongatum Disomic Substitution Lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lophopyrum species carry many desirable agronomic traits, including disease resistance, which can be transferred to wheat by interspecific hybridizations. To identify potentially new genes for disease and insect resistance carried by individual Lophopyrum chromosomes, 19 of 21 possible wheat cultiv...

187

Glycines: Role in ?-Helical Membrane Protein Structures and a Potential Indicator for Native Conformation  

PubMed Central

Among the growing number of membrane protein structures in the Protein Data Bank, there are many transmembrane domains that appear to be native-like; at the same time there are others that appear to have less than complete native-like character. Hence there is an increasing need for validation tools that distinguish native-like from nonnative-like structures. Membrane mimetics used in protein structural characterizations differ in numerous physicochemical properties from native membranes and provide many opportunities for introducing nonnative-like features into membrane protein structures. One possible approach for validating membrane protein structures is based on the use of glycine residues in transmembrane domains. Here, we have reviewed the membrane protein structure database and identified a set of benchmark proteins that appear to be native like. In these structures, conserved glycine residues rarely face the lipid interstices, and many of them participate in close helix-helix packing. Glycine-based validation allowed the identification of nonnative-like features in several membrane proteins and also shows the potential for verifying the native-like character for numerous other membrane protein structures. PMID:22650985

Dong, Hao; Sharma, Mukesh; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Cross, Timothy A.

2012-01-01

188

Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs): developing survey items to measure awareness  

PubMed Central

Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs) with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1) the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2) the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented. PMID:19840394

Bogen, Karen; Biener, Lois; Garrett, Catherine A; Allen, Jane; Cummings, K Michael; Hartman, Anne; Marcus, Stephen; McNeill, Ann; O'Connor, Richard J; Parascandola, Mark; Pederson, Linda

2009-01-01

189

Indications for Potential Parent-of-Origin Effects within the FTO Gene  

PubMed Central

Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) were successfully applied to discover associations with obesity. However, the GWAS design is usually based on unrelated individuals and inheritance information on the parental origin of the alleles is missing. Taking into account parent-of-origin may provide further insights into the genetic mechanisms contributing to obesity. We hypothesized that there may be variants within the robustly replicated fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene that may confer different risk for obesity depending on transmission from mother or father. Genome-wide genotypes and pedigree information from the Sorbs population were used. Phased genotypes among 525 individuals were generated by AlphaImpute. Subsequently, 22 SNPs within FTO introns 1 to 3 were selected and parent-of-origin specific association analyses were performed using PLINK. Interestingly, we identified several SNPs conferring different genetic effects (P?0.05) depending on parental origin—among them, rs1861868, rs1121980 and rs9939973 (all in intron 1). To confirm our findings, we investigated the selected variants in 705 German trios comprising an (extremely) obese child or adolescent and both parents. Again, we observed evidence for POE effects in intron 2 and 3 (P?0.05) as indicated by the parental asymmetry test. Our results suggest that the obesity risk transmitted by several FTO variants may depend on the parental origin of the allele. Larger family-based studies are warranted to replicate our findings. PMID:25793382

Liu, Xuanshi; Hinney, Anke; Scholz, Markus; Scherag, André; Tönjes, Anke; Stumvoll, Michael; Stadler, Peter F.; Hebebrand, Johannes; Böttcher, Yvonne

2015-01-01

190

Indications for Potential Parent-of-Origin Effects within the FTO Gene.  

PubMed

Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) were successfully applied to discover associations with obesity. However, the GWAS design is usually based on unrelated individuals and inheritance information on the parental origin of the alleles is missing. Taking into account parent-of-origin may provide further insights into the genetic mechanisms contributing to obesity. We hypothesized that there may be variants within the robustly replicated fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene that may confer different risk for obesity depending on transmission from mother or father. Genome-wide genotypes and pedigree information from the Sorbs population were used. Phased genotypes among 525 individuals were generated by AlphaImpute. Subsequently, 22 SNPs within FTO introns 1 to 3 were selected and parent-of-origin specific association analyses were performed using PLINK. Interestingly, we identified several SNPs conferring different genetic effects (P?0.05) depending on parental origin-among them, rs1861868, rs1121980 and rs9939973 (all in intron 1). To confirm our findings, we investigated the selected variants in 705 German trios comprising an (extremely) obese child or adolescent and both parents. Again, we observed evidence for POE effects in intron 2 and 3 (P?0.05) as indicated by the parental asymmetry test. Our results suggest that the obesity risk transmitted by several FTO variants may depend on the parental origin of the allele. Larger family-based studies are warranted to replicate our findings. PMID:25793382

Liu, Xuanshi; Hinney, Anke; Scholz, Markus; Scherag, André; Tönjes, Anke; Stumvoll, Michael; Stadler, Peter F; Hebebrand, Johannes; Böttcher, Yvonne

2015-01-01

191

The Potential Use of DNA Methylation Biomarkers to Identify Risk and Progression of Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a slowly progressive disease that can be postponed or even avoided through lifestyle changes. Recent data demonstrate highly significant correlations between DNA methylation and the most important risk factors of T2D, including age and body mass index, in blood and human tissues relevant to insulin resistance and T2D. Also, T2D patients and individuals with increased risk of the disease display differential DNA methylation profiles and plasticity compared to controls. Accordingly, the novel clues to DNA methylation fingerprints in blood and tissues with deteriorated metabolic capacity indicate that blood-borne epigenetic biomarkers of T2D progression might become a reality. This Review will address the most recent associations between DNA methylation and diabetes-related traits in human tissues and blood. The overall focus is on the potential of future epigenome-wide studies, carried out across tissues and populations with correlations to pre-diabetes and T2D risk factors, to build up a library of epigenetic markers of risk and early progression of T2D. These markers may, tentatively in combination with other predictors of T2D development, increase the possibility of individual-based lifestyle prevention of T2D and associated metabolic diseases. PMID:25870586

Gillberg, Linn; Ling, Charlotte

2015-01-01

192

Event-related potentials indicate context effect in reading ambiguous words.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was a comparison of lexical and contextual factors in understanding ambiguous words in German. First, a sample of native speakers selected 56 words having maximally strong differences between a dominant and a subordinate meaning. After this, another sample from the same population was visually presented with sentences that activated dominant or subordinate meanings of the words and were accompanied by probes associated with dominant or subordinate meanings. This resulted in a crossed design with two factors: sentence dominant vs. sentence subordinate and probe dominant vs. probe subordinate. An analysis of event-related brain potentials revealed a large, long-lasting and highly-significant N400 wave whenever the meaning of the probe was incongruent with the meaning of the sentence and the lack of this wave whenever the two meanings were congruent. In the typical N400 space and time, the effect was independent of whether the lexical word meaning was dominant or subordinate. At other sites and times, however (e.g., at lateral frontal electrodes F7/F8, and after 700ms), the congruence effect was significant after dominant sentences only. The data indicate that lexical factors have a rather limited influence on the activation of a particular meaning of ambiguous words. A strong context can virtually override even a very strong difference in the preference for different meanings. PMID:25463139

Kotchoubey, Boris; El-Khoury, Sylvain

2014-10-29

193

Trehalose as an indicator of desiccation stress in Drosophila melanogaster larvae: a potential marker of anhydrobiosis.  

PubMed

In the current scenario of global climate change, desiccation is considered as one of the major environmental stressors for the biota exposed to altered levels of ambient temperature and humidity. Drosophila melanogaster, a cosmopolitan terrestrial insect has been chosen as a humidity-sensitive bioindicator model for the present study since its habitat undergoes frequent stochastic and/or seasonally aggravated dehydration regimes. We report here for the first time the occurrence of anhydrobiosis in D. melanogaster larvae by subjecting them to desiccation stress under laboratory conditions. Larvae desiccated for ten hours at <5% relative humidity could enter anhydrobiosis and could revive upon rehydration followed by resumption of active metabolism. As revealed by FTIR and HPLC analyzes, our findings strongly indicated the synthesis and accumulation of trehalose in the desiccating larvae. Biochemical measurements pointed out the desiccation-responsive trehalose metabolic pathway that was found to be coordinated in concert with the enzymes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase and trehalase. Further, an inhibitor-based experimental approach using deoxynojirimycin, a specific trehalase inhibitor, demonstrated the pivotal role of trehalose in larval anhydrobiosis of D. melanogaster. We therefore propose trehalose as a potential marker for the assessment of anhydrobiosis in Drosophila. The present findings thus add to the growing list of novel biochemical markers in specific bioindicator organisms for fulfilling the urgent need of environmental biomonitoring of climate change. PMID:22387478

Thorat, Leena J; Gaikwad, Sushama M; Nath, Bimalendu B

2012-03-23

194

Comparative Proteomic Approach Identifies Pkm2 and Cofilin-1 as Potential Diagnostic, Prognostic and Therapeutic Targets for Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Non-small cell lung carcinomas (Non-SCLC) account for almost 80% of lung cancers, of which 40% were adenocarcinomas. For a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the development and progression of lung cancer, particularly lung adenocarcinoma, we have used proteomics technology to search for candidate prognostic and therapeutic targets in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. The protein profile changes between human pulmonary adenocarcinoma tissue and paired surrounding normal tissue were analyzed using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) based approach. Differentially expressed protein-spots were identified with ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS instruments. As a result, thirty two differentially expressed proteins (over 2-fold, p<0.05) were identified in pulmonary adenocarcinoma compared to normal tissues. Among them, two proteins (PKM2 and cofilin-1), significantly up-regulated in adenocarcinoma, were selected for detailed analysis. Immunohistochemical examination indicated that enhanced expression of PKM2 and cofilin-1 were correlated with the severity of epithelial dysplasia, as well as a relatively poor prognosis. Knockdown of PKM2 expression by RNA interference led to a significant suppression of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in pulmonary adenocarcinoma SPC-A1 cells in vitro, and tumor growth inhibition in vivo xenograft model (P<0.05). In addition, the shRNA expressing plasmid targeting cofilin-1 significantly inhibited tumor metastases and prolonged survival in LL/2 metastatic model. While additional works are needed to elucidate the biological significance and molecular mechanisms of these altered proteins identified in this study, PKM2 and cofilin-1 may serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets for pulmonary adenocarcinoma. PMID:22087286

Zhou, Liang-xue; Xie, Ying-wei; Liao, Hong-li; Lin, Hong-jun; Li, Zhi-yong; Tang, Ming-hai; Tong, Ai-ping

2011-01-01

195

Quantification of Impervious Surfaces Along the Wasatch Front, Utah: AN Object-Based Image Analysis Approach to Identifying AN Indicator for Wetland Stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Remote Sensing/GIS Laboratory at Utah State University, in cooperation with the United States Environmental Protection Agency, is quantifying impervious surfaces for three watershed sub-basins in Utah. The primary objective of developing watershed-scale quantifications of impervious surfaces is to provide an indicator of potential impacts to wetlands that occur within the Wasatch Front and along the Great Salt Lake. A geospatial layer of impervious surfaces can assist state agencies involved with Utah's Wetlands Program Plan (WPP) in understanding the impacts of impervious surfaces on wetlands, as well as support them in carrying out goals and actions identified in the WPP. The three watershed sub-basins, Lower Bear-Malad, Lower Weber, and Jordan, span the highly urbanized Wasatch Front and are consistent with focal areas in need of wetland monitoring and assessment as identified in Utah's WPP. Geospatial layers of impervious surface currently exist in the form of national and regional land cover datasets; however, these datasets are too coarse to be utilized in fine-scale analyses. In addition, the pixel-based image processing techniques used to develop these coarse datasets have proven insufficient in smaller scale or detailed studies, particularly when applied to high-resolution satellite imagery or aerial photography. Therefore, object-based image analysis techniques are being implemented to develop the geospatial layer of impervious surfaces. Object-based image analysis techniques employ a combination of both geospatial and image processing methods to extract meaningful information from high-resolution imagery. Spectral, spatial, textural, and contextual information is used to group pixels into image objects and then subsequently used to develop rule sets for image classification. eCognition, an object-based image analysis software program, is being utilized in conjunction with one-meter resolution National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) aerial photography from 2011.

Leydsman-McGinty, E. I.; Ramsey, R. D.; McGinty, C.

2013-12-01

196

Joint spatial modeling to identify shared patterns among chronic related potentially preventable hospitalizations  

PubMed Central

Background Rates of Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations (PPH) are used to evaluate access of territorially delimited populations to high quality ambulatory care. A common geographic pattern of several PPH would reflect the performance of healthcare providers. This study is aimed at modeling jointly the geographical variation in six chronic PPH conditions in one Spanish Autonomous Community for describing common and discrepant patterns, and to assess the relative weight of the common pattern on each condition. Methods Data on the 39,970 PPH hospital admissions for diabetes short term complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure, dehydration, angina admission and adult asthma, between 2007 and 2009 were extracted from the Hospital Discharge Administrative Databases and assigned to one of the 240 Basic Health Zones. Rates and Standardized Hospitalization Ratios per geographic unit were estimated. The spatial analysis was carried out jointly for PPH conditions using Shared Component Models (SCM). Results The component shared by the six PPH conditions explained about the 36% of the variability of each PPH condition, ranging from the 25.9 for dehydration to 58.7 for COPD. The geographical pattern found in the latent common component identifies territorial clusters with particularly high risk. The specific risk pattern that each isolated PPH does not share with the common pattern for all six conditions show many non-significant areas for most PPH, but with some exceptions. Conclusions The geographical distribution of the risk of the PPH conditions is captured in a 36% by a unique latent pattern. The SCM modeling may be useful to evaluate healthcare system performance. PMID:24899214

2014-01-01

197

Identifying populations potentially exposed to agricultural pesticides using remote sensing and a Geographic Information System.  

PubMed Central

Pesticides used in agriculture may cause adverse health effects among the population living near agricultural areas. However, identifying the populations most likely to be exposed is difficult. We conducted a feasibility study to determine whether satellite imagery could be used to reconstruct historical crop patterns. We used historical Farm Service Agency records as a source of ground reference data to classify a late summer 1984 satellite image into crop species in a three-county area in south central Nebraska. Residences from a population-based epidemiologic study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were located on the crop maps using a geographic information system (GIS). Corn, soybeans, sorghum, and alfalfa were the major crops grown in the study area. Eighty-five percent of residences could be located, and of these 22% had one of the four major crops within 500 m of the residence, an intermediate distance for the range of drift effects from pesticides applied in agriculture. We determined the proximity of residences to specific crop species and calculated crop-specific probabilities of pesticide use based on available data. This feasibility study demonstrated that remote sensing data and historical records on crop location can be used to create historical crop maps. The crop pesticides that were likely to have been applied can be estimated when information about crop-specific pesticide use is available. Using a GIS, zones of potential exposure to agricultural pesticides and proximity measures can be determined for residences in a study. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10622770

Ward, M H; Nuckols, J R; Weigel, S J; Maxwell, S K; Cantor, K P; Miller, R S

2000-01-01

198

Potential risk indicators of retained placenta and other diseases in multiparous cows.  

PubMed

Retained placenta (RP), defined as fetal membranes not being expelled within 24 h after calving, is a costly disease in multiparous dairy cows that has been linked to immune suppression, infections, elevated lipid mobilization, and depleted status of antioxidants including ?-tocopherol, and that increases the risk of other diseases (OD) in early lactation. Early detection of cows at increased risk of developing RP, OD, or both in early lactation could improve treatment success and result in improved milk production and reproductive performance. To identify risk indicators of RP, OD, or both, we used a nested case-control design and compared multiparous dairy cows that developed RP (n=32) with cows that remained healthy (H; n=32) or cows that developed OD (n=32) in early lactation. We compared peripartal body condition score (BCS) as well as serum concentrations of ?-tocopherol, metabolites [?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), cholesterol, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and urea N], haptoglobin, and macrominerals (i.e., calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) on d -21, -14, -7, -3, -1, 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 postpartum. In addition, average serum concentrations were calculated for each cow for the last 3 wk prepartum, for 3 and 2 wk prepartum combined, for the last week prepartum, and for the morning after calving and compared between groups. The RP cows had lower BCS than the H or OD cows until 2 wk postpartum. During the prepartal periods, RP and OD cows had lower ?-tocopherol concentrations (corrected or not for cholesterol concentration) and higher NEFA and BHBA concentrations than H cows. Thus, lower prepartal BCS could be an early predictor for RP risk, and lower ?-tocopherol concentrations and higher NEFA and BHBA concentrations could be early predictors for disease. PMID:24792789

Qu, Y; Fadden, A N; Traber, M G; Bobe, G

2014-07-01

199

A robust decision making framework for identifying dominant controls on indicators of hydrologic alteration under environmental change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projecting streamflow under environmental change (including climate and land use change) has become increasingly important for decision making related to long-term water resources planning. Most strategies for estimating these projections simply propagate downscaled climate change projections through hydrologic models. While such approaches shed light on possible changes in future streamflow, several studies have now pointed out that uncertainty is under-estimated in most cases. Moreover, studies provide conflicting results on the importance of different sources of uncertainty - parametric, downscaling approach, GCM projections used etc. Finally, inclusion of all possible sources of uncertainty may render any projection to be of limited practical value. In order to address these problems, we explore an alternative strategy for robust decision-making. Rather than analyzing forward projections of individual scenarios, we search the feasible climate-land cover space for conditions that exceed critical societally relevant thresholds defined by carefully chosen hydrologic indicators. Using available downscaled climate change data, we evaluate the probability of watersheds to transition into such vulnerable regimes with respect to the different indicators studied. This strategy allows for a better consideration of uncertainty and therefore is likely to provide information of greater value for decision-making compared to currently applied strategies. We test the proposed strategy in a medium-size watershed in the north-eastern USA.

Singh, Riddhi; Wagener, Thorsten; van Werkhoven, Kathryn; Mann, Michael E.; Crane, Robert; Ning, Liang

2013-04-01

200

Frequency-dependent attenuation as a potential indicator of oil saturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At seismic frequencies, wave-induced fluid flow is a major cause of P-wave attenuation in partially saturated porous rocks. Attenuation is of great importance for the oil industry in the interpretation of seismic field data. Here, the effects on P-wave attenuation resulting from changes in oil saturation are studied for media with coexisting water, oil, and gas. For that, creep experiments are numerically simulated by solving Biot's equations for consolidation of poroelastic media with the finite-element method. The experiments yield time-dependent stress-strain relations that are used to calculate the complex P-wave modulus from which frequency-dependent P-wave attenuation is determined. The models are layered media with periodically alternating triplets of layers. Models consisting of triplets of layers having randomly varying layer thicknesses are also considered. The layers in each triplet are fully saturated with water, oil, and gas. The layer saturated with water has lower porosity and permeability than the layers saturated with oil and gas. These models represent hydrocarbon reservoirs in which water is the wetting fluid preferentially saturating regions of lower porosity. The results from the numerical experiments showed that increasing oil saturation, connected to a decrease in gas saturation, resulted in a significant increase of attenuation at low frequencies (lower than 2 Hz). Furthermore, replacing the oil with water resulted in a distinguishable behavior of the frequency-dependent attenuation. These results imply that, according to the physical mechanism of wave-induced fluid flow, frequency-dependent attenuation in media saturated with water, oil, and gas is a potential indicator of oil saturation.

Quintal, Beatriz

2012-07-01

201

Trehalose as an indicator of desiccation stress in Drosophila melanogaster larvae: A potential marker of anhydrobiosis  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report confirming anhydrobiosis in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis and accumulation in larvae that hydrolyzed on rehydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis in concert with the enzymes involved in trehalose metabolism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of trehalose hydrolysis in presence of a specific trehalase inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose proposed as a reliable marker for biomonitoring of climate change studies. -- Abstract: In the current scenario of global climate change, desiccation is considered as one of the major environmental stressors for the biota exposed to altered levels of ambient temperature and humidity. Drosophila melanogaster, a cosmopolitan terrestrial insect has been chosen as a humidity-sensitive bioindicator model for the present study since its habitat undergoes frequent stochastic and/or seasonally aggravated dehydration regimes. We report here for the first time the occurrence of anhydrobiosis in D. melanogaster larvae by subjecting them to desiccation stress under laboratory conditions. Larvae desiccated for ten hours at <5% relative humidity could enter anhydrobiosis and could revive upon rehydration followed by resumption of active metabolism. As revealed by FTIR and HPLC analyzes, our findings strongly indicated the synthesis and accumulation of trehalose in the desiccating larvae. Biochemical measurements pointed out the desiccation-responsive trehalose metabolic pathway that was found to be coordinated in concert with the enzymes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase and trehalase. Further, an inhibitor-based experimental approach using deoxynojirimycin, a specific trehalase inhibitor, demonstrated the pivotal role of trehalose in larval anhydrobiosis of D. melanogaster. We therefore propose trehalose as a potential marker for the assessment of anhydrobiosis in Drosophila. The present findings thus add to the growing list of novel biochemical markers in specific bioindicator organisms for fulfilling the urgent need of environmental biomonitoring of climate change.

Thorat, Leena J. [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)] [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Gaikwad, Sushama M. [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India)] [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Nath, Bimalendu B., E-mail: bbnath@unipune.ac.in [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

2012-03-23

202

Cortical EEG oscillations and network connectivity as efficacy indices for assessing drugs with cognition enhancing potential.  

PubMed

Synchronization of electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations represents a core mechanism for cortical and subcortical networks, and disturbance in neural synchrony underlies cognitive processing deficits in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the effects of cognition enhancers (donepezil, rivastigmine, tacrine, galantamine and memantine), which are approved for symptomatic treatment of dementia, on EEG oscillations and network connectivity in conscious rats chronically instrumented with epidural electrodes in different cortical areas. Next, EEG network indices of cognitive impairments with the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine were modeled. Lastly, we examined the efficacy of cognition enhancers to normalize those aberrant oscillations. Cognition enhancers elicited systematic ("fingerprint") enhancement of cortical slow theta (4.5-6 Hz) and gamma (30.5-50 Hz) oscillations correlated with lower activity levels. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a compact cluster that corresponds to shared underlying mechanisms as compared to different drug classes. Functional network connectivity revealed consistent elevated coherent slow theta activity in parieto-occipital and between interhemispheric cortical areas. In rats instrumented with depth hippocampal CA1-CA3 electrodes, donepezil elicited similar oscillatory and coherent activities in cortico-hippocampal networks. When combined with scopolamine, the cognition enhancers attenuated the leftward shift in coherent slow delta activity. Such a consistent shift in EEG coherence into slow oscillations associated with altered slow theta and gamma oscillations may underlie cognitive deficits in scopolamine-treated animals, whereas enhanced coherent slow theta and gamma activity may be a relevant mechanism by which cognition enhancers exert their beneficial effect on plasticity and cognitive processes. The findings underscore that PCA and network connectivity are valuable tools to assess efficacy of novel therapeutic drugs with cognition enhancing potential. PMID:25181033

Ahnaou, A; Huysmans, H; Jacobs, T; Drinkenburg, W H I M

2014-11-01

203

The stability of adenosine deaminase and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase as potential spoilage indicators for postmortem ice stored shrimp  

E-print Network

THE STABILITY OF ADENOSINE DEAMINASE AND ADENOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE (AMP) DEAMINASE AS POTENTIAL SPOILAGE INDICATORS FOR POSTMORTEM ICE STORED SHRIMP A Thesis by WAI LUN CHEUK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology THE STABILITY OF ADENOSINE DEAMINASE AND ADENOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE (AMP) DEAMINASE AS POTENTIAL SPOILAGE INDICATORS FOR POSTMORTEM...

Cheuk, Wai Lun

1978-01-01

204

The Health Informatics Trial Enhancement Project (HITE): Using routinely collected primary care data to identify potential participants for a depression trial  

PubMed Central

Background Recruitment to clinical trials can be challenging. We identified anonymous potential participants to an existing pragmatic randomised controlled depression trial to assess the feasibility of using routinely collected data to identify potential trial participants. We discuss the strengths and limitations of this approach, assess its potential value, report challenges and ethical issues encountered. Methods Swansea University's Health Information Research Unit's Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) database of routinely collected health records was interrogated, using Structured Query Language (SQL). Read codes were used to create an algorithm of inclusion/exclusion criteria with which to identify suitable anonymous participants. Two independent clinicians rated the eligibility of the potential participants' identified. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using the kappa statistic and inter-class correlation. Results The study population (N = 37263) comprised all adults registered at five general practices in Swansea UK. Using the algorithm 867 anonymous potential participants were identified. The sensitivity and specificity results > 0.9 suggested a high degree of accuracy from the algorithm. The inter-rater reliability results indicated strong agreement between the confirming raters. The Intra Class Correlation Coefficient (Cronbach's Alpha) > 0.9, suggested excellent agreement and Kappa coefficient > 0.8; almost perfect agreement. Conclusions This proof of concept study showed that routinely collected primary care data can be used to identify potential participants for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of folate augmentation of antidepressant therapy for the treatment of depression. Further work will be needed to assess generalisability to other conditions and settings and the inclusion of this approach to support Electronic Enhanced Recruitment (EER). PMID:20398303

2010-01-01

205

Electrical potentials indicate stimulus expectancy in the brains of ants and bees.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, and in humans in particular, so-called 'omitted stimulus potentials' can be electrically recorded from the brain or scalp upon repeated stimulation with simple stimuli such as light flashes. While standard evoked potentials follow each stimulus in a series, 'omitted stimulus potentials' occur when an additional stimulus is expected after the end of a stimulus series. These potentials represent neuronal plasticity and are assumed to be involved in basic cognitive processes. We recorded electroretinograms from the eyes and visually evoked potentials from central brain areas of honey bees and ants, social insects to which cognitive abilities have been ascribed and whose rich-behavioral repertoires include navigation, learning and memory. We demonstrate that omitted stimulus potentials occur in these insects. Omitted stimulus potentials in bees and ants show similar temporal characteristics to those found in crayfish and vertebrates, suggesting that common mechanisms may underlie this form of short-term neuronal plasticity. PMID:16047544

Ramón, Fidel; Gronenberg, Wulfila

2005-03-01

206

Use of medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a model teleost to identify reproductive endpoints indicative of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research is to identify effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals on the reproductive system of fish at various stages of sexual differentiation and development. The model teleost used was the d-rR strain of medaka (Oryzias latipes) which has a heritable sex-linked color gene. In medaka, sex differences are first detected at the cellular level at hatch. In males, the mitotic activity of the primordial germ cells (PGC) is arrested while the PGCs of the females continue to divide. The germ cells of the gonochoristic medaka have been demonstrated to be totipotent with respective to gonia production. Because endogenous sex steroid hormones are believed to regulate this early process of sexual differentiation, the authors have hypothesized that mitotic activity in males and females exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals will be different than unexposed individuals. Results are presented for tests conducted by injecting medaka eggs within 36 hours post-hatch with 3 doses of 2,3,7,8-TCDD (nominally 2.3, 1.3, 0.2 pg/embryo), a known anti-estrogen, dissolved in triolein.

Papoulias, D.M.; Tillitt, D.; Jones, S. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States); Noltie, D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

1995-12-31

207

Seasonal variation of Fatty acids and stable carbon isotopes in sponges as indicators for nutrition: biomarkers in sponges identified.  

PubMed

To get a better understanding of sponge feeding biology and efficiencies, the fatty acid (FA) composition and (13)C natural abundance of sponges and of suspended particulate matter (SPM) from surrounding seawater was studied in different seasons at three locations. Haliclona oculata and Haliclona xena from the Oosterschelde, the Netherlands, Halichondria panicea and H. xena from Lake Veere, the Netherlands, and Aplysina aerophoba and Dysidea avara from the Mediterranean, Spain, were studied. Several FA biomarkers for different algal groups, bacteria and sponge biomass were identified in all sponges. The FA concentration variation in sponges was related to changes in fatty acid concentration in SPM. Stable carbon isotopic ratios (?(13)C) in sponge specific FAs showed very limited seasonal variation at all sites. Algal FAs in sponges were mainly acquired from the SPM through active filtration in all seasons. At the two sites in the Netherlands only in May (spring), the sponge specific FAs had similar ?(13)C ratios as algal FAs, suggesting that sponges were mainly growing during spring and probably summer. During autumn and winter, they were still actively filtering, but the food collected during this period had little effect on sponge ?(13)C values suggesting limited incorporation of filtered material into the sponge body. The sponge A. aerophoba relied mostly on the symbiotic bacteria. In conclusion, fatty acid composition in combination with stable carbon isotope analysis can be used to analyze the food source of sponges. PMID:25107690

Koopmans, Marieke; van Rijswijk, Pieter; Boschker, Henricus T S; Marco, Houtekamer; Martens, Dirk; Wijffels, Rene H

2015-02-01

208

Evaluation of potential health risk of arsenic-affected groundwater using indicator kriging and dose response model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed the potential health risk associated with the ingestion of arsenic-affected groundwater in the arseniasis-endemic Lanyang plain of northeastern Taiwan. Indicator kriging was used to estimate arsenic concentrations in groundwater. Target cancer risk (TR) and dose response functions were adopted to evaluate the potential health risk based on the estimated arsenic concentration distributions. The estimated arsenic concentrations in

Jin-Jing Lee; Cheng-Shin Jang; Sheng-Wei Wang; Chen-Wuing Liu

2007-01-01

209

Evaluating indicators for the relative responsibility for climate change - alternatives to the Brazilian proposal and global warming potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, several indicators to describe the responsibility for climate change are discussed and evaluated. During the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, the delegation of Brazil proposed to use the impact of historical emissions on the current temperature. The Kyoto Protocol uses current emissions weighted by 100-year global warming potentials (GWPs) as the basis. As a powerful indicator historical

N. Höhne; J. Harnisch

2002-01-01

210

Relevant magnetic and soil parameters as potential indicators of soil conservation status of Mediterranean agroecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main sources of magnetic minerals in soils unaffected by anthropogenic pollution are iron oxides and hydroxides derived from parent materials through soil formation processes. Soil magnetic minerals can be used as indicators of environmental factors including soil forming processes, degree of pedogenesis, weathering processes and biological activities. In this study measurements of magnetic susceptibility are used to detect the presence and the concentration of soil magnetic minerals in topsoil and bulk samples in a small cultivated field, which forms a hydrological unit that can be considered to be representative of the rainfed agroecosystems of Mediterranean mountain environments. Additional magnetic studies such as isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and thermomagnetic measurements are used to identify and characterize the magnetic mineralogy of soil minerals. The objectives were to analyse the spatial variability of the magnetic parameters to assess whether topographic factors, soil redistribution processes, and soil properties such as soil texture, organic matter and carbonate contents analysed in this study, are related to the spatial distribution pattern of magnetic properties. The medians of mass specific magnetic susceptibility at low frequency (?lf) were 36.0 and 31.1 × 10-8 m3 kg-1 in bulk and topsoil samples respectively. High correlation coefficients were found between the ?lf in topsoil and bulk core samples (r = 0.951, p < 0.01). In addition, volumetric magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ in the field (?is) and values varied from 13.3 to 64.0 × 10-5 SI. High correlation coefficients were found between ?lf in topsoil measured in the laboratory and volumetric magnetic susceptibility field measurements (r = 0.894, p < 0.01). The results obtained from magnetic studies such as IRM, ARM and thermomagnetic measurements show the presence of magnetite, which is the predominant magnetic carrier, and hematite. The predominance of superparamagnetic minerals in upper soil layers suggests enrichment in pedogenic minerals. The finer soil particles, the organic matter content and the magnetic susceptibility values are statistically correlated and their spatial variability is related to similar physical processes. Runoff redistributes soil components including magnetic minerals and exports fine particles out the field. This research contributed to further knowledge on the application of soil magnetic properties to derive useful information on soil processes in Mediterranean cultivated soils.

Quijano, Laura; Chaparro, Marcos A. E.; Marié, Débora C.; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

2014-09-01

211

Carbamazepine as indicator for potential short-term contamination of karst springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karst aquifers are complex systems which vulnerability is very difficult to assess mainly because of the duality of recharge processes and duality of flow. Recharge to a karst aquifer occurs as diffuse or concentrated (sinkholes and dolines). Moreover, karst aquifers are formed by an unsaturated zone comprising soil, epikarst and unsaturated rock matrix, and a saturated zone formed of highly permeable conduits and low permeability matrix storage. In the case of contamination of groundwater by wastewater effluent polluted water can be either transported rapidly and have short term major risk on spring water quality or infiltrate into fractured rock matrix and therefore have a long term effect on the water quality. In order to identify the risk of wastewater infiltrating into an aquifer, researches have focused to date on the identification of indicative wastewater markers. Carbamazepine (CBZ) was frequently detected in surface water as well as in effluents of sewage treatment plants, as less than 10% of carbamazepine are usually eliminated during sewage treatment. Moreover, CBZ is not attenuated in aquifers (Heberer, 2002), is unlikely degradable or adsorbed, and can be detected in groundwater (Clara et al., 2004). Therefore, CBZ is considered to be fairly persistent in groundwater (Tixier et al., 2003), and is consequently regarded as an effective wastewater marker. In this case study, the Jeita spring in Lebanon (spring discharge: 1-20 m3/s) was monitored and sampled for major ions and micro-pollutants following a combined precipitation/snowmelt events. A total of 28 samples (major ions and micro-pollutants) were taken over a total sampling time of 16 days at interval varying between 4 and 24 hours. Based on the variation with time of discharge and electrical conductivity (monitored every 20 minutes) as well as the concentrations of the major ions, a conceptual model showing the response of the aquifer compartments to the precipitation event was generated. A breakthrough curve of the persistent micro-pollutant carbamazepine shows that CBZ enters the aquifer system through rapid flow pathways, whereas it is heavily diluted with old CBZ free waters stored in the soil/ epikarst zone released as a response to the precipitation event. Furthermore, based on travel times estimated from artificial tracer tests, the distance to the contamination source was estimated and reveals to be relatively small.

Doummar, J.; Baierl, M.; Noedler, K.; Licha, T.; Sauter, M.; Geyer, T.

2012-04-01

212

Use of AIRSAR to identify woody shrub invasion and other indicators of desertification in the Jornada LTER  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The replacement of semidesert grassland by woody shrubland is a widespread form of desertification. This change in physiognomy and species composition tends to sharply reduce the productivity of the land for grazing by domestic livestock, increase soil erosion and reduce soil fertility, and greatly alter many other aspects of ecosystem structure and functioning. Remote sensing methods are needed to assess and monitor shrubland encroachment. Detection of woody shrubs at low density would provide a particularly useful baseline on which to access changes, because an initially low shrub density often tends to increase even after cessation of the disturbance (e.g., overgrazing, drought, or fire suppression) responsible for triggering the initial stages of the invasion (Grover and Musick, 1990). Limited success has been achieved using optical remote sensing. In contrast to other forms of desertification, biomass does not consistently decrease with a shift from grassland to shrubland. Estimation of green vegetation amount (e.g., by NDVI) is thus of limited utility, unless the shrubs and herbaceous plants differ consistently in phenology and the area can be viewed during a season when only one of these is green. The objective of this study was to determine if the potential sensitivity of active microwave remote sensing to vegetation structure could be used to assess the degree of shrub invasion of grassland. Polarimetric Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) data were acquired for a semiarid site containing varied mixtures of shrubs and herbaceous vegetation and compared with ground observations of vegetation type and other landsurface characteristics. In this preliminary report we examine the response of radar backscatter intensity to shrub density. The response of other multipolarization parameters will be examined in future work.

Musick, H. Brad; Schaber, Gerald G.; Breed, Carol S.

1995-01-01

213

Combined single channel and single molecule detection identifies subunit composition of STIM1-activated transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels.  

PubMed

Depletion of intracellular calcium ion stores initiates a rapid cascade of events culminating with the activation of the so-called Store-Operated Channels (SOC) at the plasma membrane. Calcium influx via SOC is essential in the initiation of calcium-dependent intracellular signaling and for the refilling of internal calcium stores, ensuring the regeneration of the signaling cascade. In spite of the significance of this evolutionary conserved mechanism, the molecular identity of SOC has been the center of a heated controversy spanning over the last 20 years. Initial studies positioned some members of the transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel superfamily of channels (with the more robust evidence pointing to TRPC1) as a putative SOC. Recent evidence indicates that Stromal Interacting Molecule 1 (STIM1) activates some members from the TRPC family of channels. However, the exact subunit composition of TRPC channels remains undetermined to this date. To identify the subunit composition of STIM1-activated TRPC channels, we developed novel method, which combines single channel electrophysiological measurements based on the patch clamp technique with single molecule fluorescence imaging. We termed this method Single ion Channel Single Molecule Detection technique (SC-SMD). Using SC-SMD method, we have obtained direct evidence of the subunit composition of TRPC channels activated by STIM1. Furthermore, our electrophysiological-imaging SC-SMD method provides evidence at the molecular level of the mechanism by which STIM1 and calmodulin antagonize to modulate TRPC channel activity. PMID:25465892

Asanov, Alexander; Sampieri, Alicia; Moreno, Claudia; Pacheco, Jonathan; Salgado, Alfonso; Sherry, Ryan; Vaca, Luis

2015-01-01

214

UNAIDS ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator: promoting sexual networks to reduce potential biases  

PubMed Central

UNAIDS proposed a set of core indicators for monitoring changes in the worldwide AIDS epidemic. This paper explores the validity and effectiveness of the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator, which is only partially captured with current available data. The paper also suggests an innovative approach for collecting more informative data that can be used to provide an accurate measure of the UNAIDS’s ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator. Specifically, the paper addresses three major limitations associated with the indicator when it is measured with respondents’ sexual behaviors. First, the indicator assumes that a person’s risk of contracting HIV/AIDS/STIs is merely a function of his/her own sexual behavior. Second, the indicator does not account for a partner’s sexual history, which is very important in assessing an individual’s risk level. Finally, the 12-month period used to define a person’s risks can be misleading, especially because HIV/AIDS theoretically has a period of latency longer than a year. The paper concludes that, programmatically, improvements in data collection are a top priority for reducing the observed bias in the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator. PMID:24647127

Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Emina, Jacques B.O.; Sankoh, Osman

2014-01-01

215

Identifying putative drug targets and potential drug leads: starting points for virtual screening and docking.  

PubMed

The availability of 3D models of both drug leads (small molecule ligands) and drug targets (proteins) is essential to molecular docking and computational drug discovery. This chapter describes a simple approach that can be used to identify both drug leads and drug targets using two popular Web-accessible databases: (1) DrugBank and (2) The Human Metabolome Database. First, it is illustrated how putative drug targets and drug leads for exogenous diseases (i.e., infectious diseases) can be readily identified and their 3D structures selected using only the genomic sequences from pathogenic bacteria or viruses as input. The second part illustrates how putative drug targets and drug leads for endogenous diseases (i.e., noninfectious diseases or chronic conditions) can be identified using similar databases and similar sequence input. This chapter is intended to illustrate how bioinformatics and cheminformatics can work synergistically to help provide the necessary inputs for computer-aided drug design. PMID:25330974

Wishart, David S

2015-01-01

216

Biominerals on Mars: the potential for carbonates to be life indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of life on Mars remains open today because recent data provided by the Mars Express orbiter, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity seem to indicate a past environment of Mars, with liquid water and mild temperatures, favourable for life. We also suggest that a better understanding of the biomineral formation processes, and the discrimination between them and their abiotic counterparts (i.e. minerals with the same chemical and mineralogical composition but formed by abiotic processes) should be considered as a promising approach in order to detect possible traces of a past Martian life. Moreover, biominerals may constitute fossil records of biological activities, which can survive for several millions or billions years, because they are among the oldest know traces of the biological activity on Earth. One of the properties of the biominerals, compared with their abiotic counterparts, is their faster crystalline speed of growing. The higher this speed is, the more the mineral crystallinity decreases, i.e. its crystal lattice will incorporate a significant number of impurities (crystalline defects, trace/minor elements and maybe organic matter). These impurities increase the crystal entropy and also the required energy to stabilize it: the crystal is then thermodynamically less stable. We then propose that the crystallinity differences between the biominerals and their abiotic counterparts induce specific physico-chemical behaviours. Among the analytical techniques capable to characterize this mineral property, we selected DTA-TG analysis (thermogravimetry coupled to differential thermal analysis). We suggest that the crystallinity is an influent parameter for the mineral thermal resistance. The temperature increase could be a "stressing" agent for the crystal lattices and it could involve behaviour differences between the biominerals and their abiotic counterparts. We then quantify this difference by comparing thermal resistance of various calcite and aragonite samples in order to observe a possible discrimination between a biological thermal degradation "domain" and an abiotic one. The carbonates were selected because they are among the oldest biominerals on Earth, widely produced by the terrestrial biological activity, and potentially present at Mars. The studied samples are biogenic, abiotic and diagenetic ones (combining a biological origin and an abiotic evolution). We started this study with calcite samples, including current biogenic samples, fossil biogenic samples, sedimentary samples and abiotic samples. We observed that the thermal resistance temperatures of all the current biogenic calcite samples are at least 15 ° C lower compared to those of abiotic calcite samples. The second part of the study was based on aragonite samples, including current biogenic samples, fossil biogenic samples and abiotic samples. We also observed a 23 ° C difference between the biological domain and the abiotic domain.. This demonstrates that the simple technique we chose is capable to differentiate the biotic minerals from the abiotic ones. We then have access to a non-ambiguous biological signature via the thermal resistance comparison of biogenic and abiotic carbonates. This discriminatory method could be used in the framework of several in situ Mars exploration mission: directly by differential thermal analysis (TEGA instrument, Phoenix Lander mission, 2007) or indirectly by analysis in gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (SAM experiment on MSL 2009 or MOMA experiment on ExoMars 2013).

Stalport, Fabien; Person, Alain; Cabane, Michel; Ausset, Patrick; Coll, Patrice; Szopa, Cyril; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael

217

Discovery of Inhibitors of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase: A Target with Multiple Potential Therapeutic Indications  

E-print Network

Indications Hong C. Shen*, and Bruce D. Hammock*, RY800-C114, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Merck been detected in prokaryotes and eukaryotes ranging from plants to mammals.1-3 In mammals these include

Hammock, Bruce D.

218

A review of potential techniques for identifying individual stoats (Mustela erminea) visiting control or monitoring stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review ways of individually identifying stoats (Mustela erminea) and similar small mammals from visits to bait stations or to monitoring devices in the field. Tracking devices are the cheapest and most practical method currently available of measuring the presence of a particular species, but there has been little research on the recognition of individuals. Elongation of tracking tunnels, or

Christopher Jones; Henrik Moller; William Hamilton

2004-01-01

219

Identifying Carcinogenic Potentials of Drinking Water Disinfection Byproducts using Normal Human Colonocyte Cultures  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of disinfected surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Approximately 600 byproducts (DBPs) have been identified for the major disinfectants currently in use and represent less than half of the total organic car...

220

Identifying Leadership Potential: The Process of Principals within a Charter School Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of strong educational leadership for American K-12 schools cannot be overstated. As such, school districts need to actively recruit and develop leaders. One way to do so is for school officials to become more strategic in leadership identification and development. If contemporary leaders are strategic about whom they identify and…

Waidelich, Lynn A.

2012-01-01

221

Development of Normal Human Colonocyte Cultures to Identify a Carcinogenic Potential for Priority Disinfection Byproducts  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of disinfected surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Of the approximately >600 disinfection byproducts (DBPs) identified, the US EPA regulates 11 DBPS for an increased risk of cancer. An in-depth mechanism-ba...

222

Exploiting Literature-derived Knowledge and Semantics to Identify Potential Prostate Cancer Drugs  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report on the performance of an automated approach to discovery of potential prostate cancer drugs from the biomedical literature. We used the semantic relationships in SemMedDB, a database of structured knowledge extracted from all MEDLINE citations using SemRep, to extract potential relationships using knowledge of cancer drugs pathways. Two cancer drugs pathway schemas were constructed using these relationships extracted from SemMedDB. Through both pathway schemas, we found drugs already used for prostate cancer therapy and drugs not currently listed as the prostate cancer medications. Our study demonstrates that the appropriate linking of relevant structured semantic relationships stored in SemMedDB can support the discovery of potential prostate cancer drugs. PMID:25392688

Zhang, Rui; Cairelli, Michael J; Fiszman, Marcelo; Kilicoglu, Halil; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Melton, Genevieve B

2014-01-01

223

Identifying the Potential Organizational Impact of an Educational Peer Review Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on educational peer review (EPR) has focused on evaluating EPR's impact on faculty and/or student learning outcomes; no literature exists on the potential organizational impact. A qualitative (case study) research design explored perceptions of 17 faculty and 10 administrators within a school of nursing in an Ontario university…

Toth, Kate E.; McKey, Colleen A.

2010-01-01

224

Identifying potential environmental impacts of large-scale deployment of dedicated bioenergy crops in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract There is momentum, globally, to increase the use of plant biomass for the production of heat, power and liquid transport fuels. This review assesses the evidence base for potential impacts of large-scale bioenergy crop deployment principally within the UK context, but with wider implications for Europe, the USA and elsewhere. We focus on second generation, dedicated lignocellulosic crops, but

Rebecca L. Rowe; Gail Taylor

2007-01-01

225

Identifying potential environmental impacts of large-scale deployment of dedicated bioenergy crops in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is momentum, globally, to increase the use of plant biomass for the production of heat, power and liquid transport fuels. This review assesses the evidence base for potential impacts of large-scale bioenergy crop deployment principally within the UK context, but with wider implications for Europe, the USA and elsewhere. We focus on second generation, dedicated lignocellulosic crops, but where

Rebecca L. Rowe; Gail Taylor

2009-01-01

226

A Comparison between Survey and Verbal Choice Methods of Identifying Potential Reinforcers among Employees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two methods of assessing preference for stimuli (i.e., potential reinforcers) were compared for adult administrative assistant employees. During Phase 1, a survey method and a verbal choice method of assessing preference for 6 stimuli were administered. During Phase 2, a coupon system was used to determine which categories of stimuli actually…

Wilder, David A; Therrien, Kelly; Wine, Byron

2006-01-01

227

NYU researchers identify new potential therapeutic target for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from the NYU Cancer Institute, an NCI-designated cancer center at NYU Langone Medical Center, have discovered a new potential therapeutic target for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), the most aggressive and common type of lymphoma in adults. The new study, published in the November 23 issue of Nature, reveals the underlying molecular mechanism contributing to the development of lymphomagenesis.

228

Utilization of solar energy in developing countries: Identifying some potential markets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential use of solar electricity generated from photovoltaic cells is examined for nineteen developing nations. Energy and economic profiles are summarized for each country. A comparison is made between the use of autogeneration and photovoltaics in a rural area of Haiti.

Hein, G. F.; Siddiqi, T. A.

1978-01-01

229

Identifying potential adverse effects using the web: A new approach to medical hypothesis generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical message boards are online resources where users with a particular condition exchange information, some of which they might not otherwise share with medical providers. Many of these boards contain a large number of posts and contain patient opinions and experiences that would be potentially useful to clinicians and researchers. We present an approach that is able to collect a

Adrian Benton; Lyle Ungar; Shawndra Hill; Sean Hennessy; Jun Mao; Annie Chung; Charles E. Leonard; John H. Holmes

230

A NEW HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY TECHNIQUE FOR IDENTIFYING PHARMACEUTICALS AND POTENTIAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS IN DRINKING WATER SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

A New High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Technique for Identifying Pharmaceuticals and Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Drinking Water Sources Andrew H. Grange and G. Wayne Sovocool U.S.EPA, ORD, NERL, ESD, ECB, P.O. Box 93478, Las Vegas, NV 891933478 Mass spectra...

231

USE OF qRTPCR TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL BIOMARKERS OF BROMATE EXPOSURE IN F344 MALE RAT KIDNEYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is a drinking water disinfection by-product that is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. To identify potential biomarkers of carcinogenicity, male F344 rats were chronically exposed to a carcinogenic dose (400mg/l) of KBrO3 in their drinking water. Kidneys were...

232

Identifying the global potential for baobab tree cultivation using ecological niche modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits provided by underutilised fruit tree species such as baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in combating increasing malnutrition and poverty become more apparent as awareness grows regarding concerns of climate\\u000a change and food security. Due to its multiple uses, its high nutritional and medicinal value, drought tolerance and relatively\\u000a easy cultivation, baobab has been identified as one of the most

Aida Cuni Sanchez; Patrick E. Osborne; Nazmul Haq

2010-01-01

233

Drug screening in Scn1a zebrafish mutant identifies clemizole as a potential Dravet Syndrome treatment  

PubMed Central

Dravet syndrome (DS) is a catastrophic pediatric epilepsy with severe intellectual disability, impaired social development and persistent drug-resistant seizures. One of its primary monogenic causes are mutations in Nav1.1 (SCN1A), a voltage-gated sodium channel. Here we characterise zebrafish Nav1.1 (scn1Lab) mutants originally identified in a chemical mutagenesis screen. Mutants exhibit spontaneous abnormal electrographic activity, hyperactivity and convulsive behaviors. Although scn1Lab expression is reduced, microarray analysis is remarkable for the small fraction of differentially expressed genes (~3%) and lack of compensatory expression changes in other scn subunits. Ketogenic diet, diazepam, valproate, potassium bromide and stiripentol attenuate mutant seizure activity; seven other antiepileptic drugs have no effect. A phenotype-based screen of 320 compounds identifies a US Food and Drug Administration-approved compound (clemizole) that inhibits convulsive behaviors and electrographic seizures. This approach represents a new direction in modeling pediatric epilepsy and could be used to identify novel therapeutics for any monogenic epilepsy disorder. PMID:24002024

Baraban, Scott C.; Dinday, Matthew T.; Hortopan, Gabriela A.

2013-01-01

234

Identifying potential engaging leaders within medical education: The role of positive influence on peers.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Previous research has paid little to no attention towards exploring methods of identifying existing medical student leaders. Aim: Focusing on the role of influence and employing the tenets of the engaging leadership model, this study examines demographic and academic performance-related differences of positive influencers and if students who have been peer-identified as positive influencers also demonstrate high levels of genuine concern for others. Methods: Three separate fourth-year classes were asked to designate classmates that had significant positive influences on their professional and personal development. The top 10% of those students receiving positive influence nominations were compared with the other students on demographics, academic performance, and genuine concern for others. Results: Besides age, no demographic differences were found between positive influencers and other students. High positive influencers were not found to have higher standardized exam scores but did receive significantly higher clinical clerkship ratings. High positive influencers were found to possess a higher degree of genuine concern for others. Conclusion: The findings lend support to (a) utilizing the engaging model to explore leaders and leadership within medical education, (b) this particular method of identifying existing medical student leaders, and (c) return the focus of leadership research to the power of influence. PMID:25155553

Michalec, Barret; Veloski, J Jon; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Tykocinski, Mark L

2014-08-26

235

Comparative Genomics Identifies a Potential Marker of Human-Virulent Anaplasma phagocytophilum  

PubMed Central

We have previously described a comparative genome analysis of nine strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum that showed similarity between strains infecting humans and U.S. dogs and a more distant relationship with horse and ruminant strains. This suggested that it may be possible to distinguish human-infective strains using simple DNA sequence-based diagnostic tests. This would be of epidemiologic significance in identifying and tracking the presence of virulent strains in tick vector populations. Further analysis identified a gene that was present in several strains, including U.S. Ap-variant 1 (ruminant), MRK (horse), and European sheep, but was deleted in strains infecting U.S. humans and dogs, suggesting that it could be a useful marker of human virulence. A simple PCR test was developed to identify the presence/absence of this gene. The PCR test discriminated A. phagocytophilum strains from clinically affected humans and U.S. dogs from the strains more distantly related in genome sequence. This warrants further testing of globally diverse A. phagocytophilum strains to examine world-wide conservation of this gene. PMID:25437606

Al-Khedery, Basima; Barbet, Anthony F.

2014-01-01

236

Potential Regrowth and Recolonization of Salmonellae and Indicators in Biosolids and Biosolid-Amended Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the potential for conversion of Class B to Class A biosolids with respect to salmonellae and fecal coliforms during solar drying in concrete lined drying beds. Anaerobically (8% solids) and aerobically (2% solids) digested Class B biosolids were pumped into field-scale drying beds, and microbial populations and environmental conditions were monitored. Numbers of fecal coliforms and salmonellae

Kathleen J. Zaleski; Karen L. Josephson; Charles P. Gerba; Ian L. Pepper

2005-01-01

237

MACROCLIMATIC INDICES TO DEFINE POTENTIAL SOIL ORGANIC CARBON STORAGE WITH NO TILLAGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

No tillage has become an accepted cropping practice throughout the USA. Potential climate change has prompted great interest in conservation tillage as a practice to help sequester CO2 from the atmosphere into the soil. Numerous reports published in recent years about the effect of no tillage compar...

238

Ammonium accumulation during a silicate-limited diatom bloom indicates the potential for ammonia emission events  

E-print Network

). As the predominant naturally occurring base in the atmosphere, ammonia is important in neutralization reactions in the atmosphere, ammonia neutralizes acidity and in doing so plays a potentially significant role in climate, particularly with acidic sulfate aerosol. It has been shown that new particle formation from sulfuric acid gas

Hansell, Dennis

239

Trophic signature of coral reef fish assemblages: Towards a potential indicator of ecosystem disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Face to the increasing anthropogenic disturbances that affect coral reef ecosystems, it becomes urgent to define appropriate ecological indicators for monitoring purposes. One useful approach is to search for a simplified description of the structure of biological communities that are highly diverse and complex on coral reefs. To this end, we propose to represent the trophic structure of coral reef

Yves-Marie Bozec; Michel Kulbicki; Emmanuel Chassot; Didier Gascuel

2005-01-01

240

Assessing indices for predicting potential N mineralization in pedogenically distinct soils under different tillage management systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A reliable laboratory index of nitrogen availability would be useful for making N recommendations but no single approach has received broad acceptance across a wide range of soils. We compared several indices over a range of soil conditions to test the possibility of determining the best combination...

241

Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC) Brain Potential Changes  

PubMed Central

Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes). This study investigated brain direct current (DC) potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed. PMID:25264675

Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

2014-01-01

242

Program development to identify and characterize potential emergency situations at a petroleum refinery and determination of industrial hygiene emergency responses  

SciTech Connect

In the modern world the field of industrial hygiene continues to grow beyond the traditional definition of the profession. This case study documents the problem solving approach used to identify potential exposures and evaluate industrial hygiene preparedness to handle emergencies due to fire or major spill at a complex multi-process petroleum refinery. In the recent past an environmental engineer and industrial hygiene consulting firm was retained by a mature, multi-process petroleum refinery to assist in the program development to identify and characterize potential emergency situations due to a fire, major release, or spill. This study would assist the refinery in compliance with the process safety and emergency response standards and to protect refinery operations and fire fighting personnel by minimizing potential exposures and risk when responding to such a major incident.

Oransky, J.J.; Delp, S.N.; Deppen, E.A. [Spotts, Stevens and McCoy, Inc., Reading, PA (United States); Barrett, D. [BP Oil Co., Marcus Hook, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

243

Onset Dynamics of Action Potentials in Rat Neocortical Neurons and Identified Snail Neurons: Quantification of the Difference  

PubMed Central

The generation of action potentials (APs) is a key process in the operation of nerve cells and the communication between neurons. Action potentials in mammalian central neurons are characterized by an exceptionally fast onset dynamics, which differs from the typically slow and gradual onset dynamics seen in identified snail neurons. Here we describe a novel method of analysis which provides a quantitative measure of the onset dynamics of action potentials. This method captures the difference between the fast, step-like onset of APs in rat neocortical neurons and the gradual, exponential-like AP onset in identified snail neurons. The quantitative measure of the AP onset dynamics, provided by the method, allows us to perform quantitative analyses of factors influencing the dynamics. PMID:18398478

Volgushev, Maxim; Malyshev, Aleksey; Balaban, Pavel; Chistiakova, Marina; Volgushev, Stanislav; Wolf, Fred

2008-01-01

244

Onset dynamics of action potentials in rat neocortical neurons and identified snail neurons: quantification of the difference.  

PubMed

The generation of action potentials (APs) is a key process in the operation of nerve cells and the communication between neurons. Action potentials in mammalian central neurons are characterized by an exceptionally fast onset dynamics, which differs from the typically slow and gradual onset dynamics seen in identified snail neurons. Here we describe a novel method of analysis which provides a quantitative measure of the onset dynamics of action potentials. This method captures the difference between the fast, step-like onset of APs in rat neocortical neurons and the gradual, exponential-like AP onset in identified snail neurons. The quantitative measure of the AP onset dynamics, provided by the method, allows us to perform quantitative analyses of factors influencing the dynamics. PMID:18398478

Volgushev, Maxim; Malyshev, Aleksey; Balaban, Pavel; Chistiakova, Marina; Volgushev, Stanislav; Wolf, Fred

2008-01-01

245

Predicting Fish Growth Potential and Identifying Water Quality Constraints: A Spatially-Explicit Bioenergetics Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic impairment of water bodies represents a global environmental concern, yet few attempts have successfully linked\\u000a fish performance to thermal habitat suitability and fewer have distinguished co-varying water quality constraints. We interfaced\\u000a fish bioenergetics, field measurements, and Thermal Remote Imaging to generate a spatially-explicit, high-resolution surface\\u000a of fish growth potential, and next employed a structured hypothesis to detect relationships among

Phaedra Budy; Matthew Baker; Samuel K. Dahle

2011-01-01

246

Identifying potential sites for energy production from woody biomass. Final research report  

SciTech Connect

This study examined the economic potential of producing short-rotation hybrid poplar on agricultural lands enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) to support biomass requirements of two proposed power plants and to supplement industrial timber requirements in Minnesota. Timber product demands at six aggregated traditional forest markets and biomass demands at two power plant locations currently under consideration were considered over a hundred year planning horizon.

Rose, D.W.; Husain, S.A.

1997-05-01

247

New Potential Ligand-Receptor Signaling Loops in Ovarian Cancer Identified in Multiple Gene Expression Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the hypothesis that gene products involved in the same biological process would be coupled at transcriptional level, a previous study analyzed the correlation of the gene expression patterns of ligand-receptor (L-R) pairs to discover potential autocrine\\/paracrine signaling loops in different cancers (Graeber and Eisenberg. Nat Genet 2001; 29:295). By refining the starting database, a list of 511 L-R

Giancarlo Castellano; James F. Reid; Paola Alberti; Maria Luisa Carcangiu; Antonella Tomassetti; Silvana Canevari

248

Bioinformatic processing to identify single nucleotide polymorphism that potentially affect Ape1 function.  

PubMed

Inactivation of DNA damage response mechanisms is associated with several disease syndromes, including cancer, aging and neurodegeneration. A major corrective pathway for alkylation or oxidative DNA damage is base excision repair (BER). As part of an effort to identify variation in DNA repair genes, we used the expressed sequence tag (EST) database to identify amino acid variation in Ape1, an essential gene in the BER repair pathway. Nucleotide substitutions were considered valid only if the amino acid changes were observed in at least two independent EST sequencing runs (i.e. two independent EST reports). In total eighty amino acid variants were identified for the Ape1 gene. Using software tools SIFT and PolyPhen, which predict impacts of amino acid substitutions on protein structure and function, twenty-six variants were predicted by both algorithms to be deleterious to protein function. Majority of these intolerant mutations such as V206C and F240S, lie within the core of the protein and may affect the stability and folding of Ape1, or in the case of N212H, N212K, and Y171N, are close to the enzyme's active site and could drastically affect its function. A few of the intolerant mutations, i.e., G178V and E217R, are surface residues and are far from the active site, and as such, the predicted effect on Ape1 stability or function is not evident. These variants are reagents for further protein function studies and molecular epidemiology studies of cancer susceptibility. PMID:20633698

Yu, Eizadora T; Hadi, Masood Z

2011-06-17

249

Startle Reflex Potentiation During Aversive Picture Viewing as an Indicator of Trait Fear  

PubMed Central

Measures of fearfulness and measures of psychopathy show positive and negative associations, respectively, with startle reflex potentiation during unpleasant picture viewing. We tested the hypothesis that a common bipolar trait dimension underlies these differing associations. Blink responses to noise probes were recorded during pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures in 88 undergraduates assessed with a battery of self-report scales indexing fear and psychopathy/fearlessness. A significant positive association was found between an omnibus index of fear, consisting of scores on the first component from a PCA of these various scales, and startle potentiation during aversive picture viewing. This association was most robust, across participants overall and within gender subgroups, for scenes that were most directly threatening. Implications for psychophysiological research on individual differences and psychopathology are discussed. PMID:19055499

Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J.; Bernat, Edward M.

2009-01-01

250

Effect of cooking on meat proteins: mapping hydrothermal protein modification as a potential indicator of bioavailability.  

PubMed

Thermal treatment of meat proteins induces a range of observable and molecular-level changes. In order to understand and track these heat-induced modifications at the amino acid level, various analytical techniques were used. Changes were observed both in the soluble and in the insoluble fractions after hydrothermal treatment of minced beef samples. Redox proteomics clearly indicated increasing oxidative modification of proteins with increased heat exposure. Collagens in the soluble fraction and myosin in the insoluble fraction were found to be highly susceptible to such modifications. Maillard reaction products in the insoluble and pyrrolidone formation in the soluble fraction steadily increased with increased heat exposure. Fluorescence studies indicated a rapid increase in fluorescence with heat, suggesting the formation of advanced glycation end products. Overall these results provide a deeper understanding of the effect of cooking on meat proteins and the possible relationship to processing conditions in meat-derived food. PMID:25033321

Deb-Choudhury, Santanu; Haines, Stephen; Harland, Duane; Clerens, Stefan; van Koten, Chikako; Dyer, Jolon

2014-08-13

251

Algal growth potential as an indicator of eutrophication degree in coastal areas under sewage disposal influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algal growth potential was used to quantify the degree of eutrophication of three coastal regions in São Paulo, Brazil which are subject to sewage disposal. Surface water was collected in Praia Grande, Santos, Guarujá and São Sebastião during two surveys (low tourist season—October 1997 and high tourist season—March 1998). Water was filtered and used in chlorophyll-a and nutrient analyses and

G. A. O. Moser; T. C. S. Sigaud-Kutner; C. O. Cattena; S. M. F. Gianesella; E. S. Braga; K. P. Schinke; E. Aidar

2004-01-01

252

Event-related brain potentials as indices of mental workload and attentional allocation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past decade considerable strides were made in explicating the antecedant conditions necessary for the elicitation, and the modulation of the amplitude and latency, of a number of components of the event-related brain potential (ERP). The focus of this report is on P300. The degree to which the psychophysiological measures contribute to issues in two real-world domains (communication devices for the motor impaired and the assessment of mental workload of aircraft pilots) are examined.

Kramer, Arthur F.; Donchin, Emanuel; Wickens, Christopher D.

1988-01-01

253

Heavy metal indicator potential of the Asiatic clam ( Corbicula fluminea ) in artificial stream systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea, as a bioindicator of cadmium, copper, and zinc was studied during 28-day exposures in field artificial streams receiving river water on a once-through basis. Copper, at aquatic concentrations of 0.016 and 0.057 mg l-1, showed the greatest degree of tissue uptake and had bioconcentration factors (BCF) of 22 571 and 17 720,

Robert L. Graney; Donald S. Cherry; John Cairns

1983-01-01

254

A potential to monitor nutrients as an indicator of rangeland quality using space borne remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global change consisting of land use and climate change could have huge impacts on food security and the health of various ecosystems. Leaf nitrogen (N) is one of the key factors limiting agricultural production and ecosystem functioning. Leaf N can be used as an indicator of rangeland quality which could provide information for the farmers, decision makers, land planners and managers. Leaf N plays a crucial role in understanding the feeding patterns and distribution of wildlife and livestock. Assessment of this vegetation parameter using conventional methods at landscape scale level is time consuming and tedious. Remote sensing provides a synoptic view of the landscape, which engenders an opportunity to assess leaf N over wider rangeland areas from protected to communal areas. Estimation of leaf N has been successful during peak productivity or high biomass and limited studies estimated leaf N in dry season. The objective of this study is to monitor leaf N as an indicator of rangeland quality using WorldView 2 satellite images in the north-eastern part of South Africa. Series of field work to collect samples for leaf N were undertaken in the beginning of May (end of wet season) and July (dry season). Several conventional and red edge based vegetation indices were computed. Simple regression was used to develop prediction model for leaf N. Using bootstrapping, indicator of precision and accuracy were analyzed to select a best model for the combined data sets (May and July). The may model for red edge based simple ratio explained over 90% of leaf N variations. The model developed from the combined data sets with normalized difference vegetation index explained 62% of leaf N variation, and this is a model used to estimate and map leaf N for two seasons. The study demonstrated that leaf N could be monitored using high spatial resolution with the red edge band capability.

Ramoelo, A.; Cho, M. A.; Madonsela, S.; Mathieu, R.; van der Korchove, R.; Kaszta, Z.; Wolf, E.

2014-02-01

255

Gremlin 1 identifies a skeletal stem cell with bone, cartilage, and reticular stromal potential.  

PubMed

The stem cells that maintain and repair the postnatal skeleton remain undefined. One model suggests that perisinusoidal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) give rise to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, marrow stromal cells, and adipocytes, although the existence of these cells has not been proven through fate-mapping experiments. We demonstrate here that expression of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist gremlin 1 defines a population of osteochondroreticular (OCR) stem cells in the bone marrow. OCR stem cells self-renew and generate osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and reticular marrow stromal cells, but not adipocytes. OCR stem cells are concentrated within the metaphysis of long bones not in the perisinusoidal space and are needed for bone development, bone remodeling, and fracture repair. Grem1 expression also identifies intestinal reticular stem cells (iRSCs) that are cells of origin for the periepithelial intestinal mesenchymal sheath. Grem1 expression identifies distinct connective tissue stem cells in both the bone (OCR stem cells) and the intestine (iRSCs). PMID:25594183

Worthley, Daniel L; Churchill, Michael; Compton, Jocelyn T; Tailor, Yagnesh; Rao, Meenakshi; Si, Yiling; Levin, Daniel; Schwartz, Matthew G; Uygur, Aysu; Hayakawa, Yoku; Gross, Stefanie; Renz, Bernhard W; Setlik, Wanda; Martinez, Ashley N; Chen, Xiaowei; Nizami, Saqib; Lee, Heon Goo; Kang, H Paco; Caldwell, Jon-Michael; Asfaha, Samuel; Westphalen, C Benedikt; Graham, Trevor; Jin, Guangchun; Nagar, Karan; Wang, Hongshan; Kheirbek, Mazen A; Kolhe, Alka; Carpenter, Jared; Glaire, Mark; Nair, Abhinav; Renders, Simon; Manieri, Nicholas; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Fox, James G; Reichert, Maximilian; Giraud, Andrew S; Schwabe, Robert F; Pradere, Jean-Phillipe; Walton, Katherine; Prakash, Ajay; Gumucio, Deborah; Rustgi, Anil K; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Friedman, Richard A; Gershon, Michael D; Sims, Peter; Grikscheit, Tracy; Lee, Francis Y; Karsenty, Gerard; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Wang, Timothy C

2015-01-15

256

Antibody microarray profiling of osteosarcoma cell serum for identifying potential biomarkers.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to identify biomarkers in osteosarcoma (OS) cell serum by antibody microarray profiling, which may be used for OS diagnosis and therapy. An antibody microarray was used to detect the expression levels of cytokines in serum samples from 20 patients with OS and 20 healthy individuals. Significantly expressed cytokines in OS serum were selected when P<0.05 and fold change >2. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to validate the antibody microarray results. Finally, classification accuracy was calculated by cluster analysis. Twenty one cytokines were significantly upregulated in OS cell serum samples compared with control samples. Expression of inteleukin?6, monocyte chemoattractant protein?1, tumor growth factor??, growth-related oncogene, hepatocyte grwoth factor, chemokine ligand 16, Endoglin, matrix metalloproteinase?9 and platelet-derived growth factor-AA was validated by ELISAs. OS serum samples and control samples were distinguished by significantly expressed cytokines with an accuracy of 95%. The results demonstrated that expressed cytokines identified by antibody microarray may be used as biomarkers for OS diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25815525

Zhu, Zi-Qiang; Tang, Jin-Shan; Gang, Duan; Wang, Ming-Xing; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Lei, Zhou; Feng, Zhou; Fang, Ming-Liang; Yan, Lin

2015-07-01

257

A new strategy to identify potentially dangerous coronary arterial patterns before percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation.  

PubMed

Despite advances in surgical techniques, right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) conduits are prone to fail over time. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation was introduced to expand the lifetime of these conduits and to decrease the number of open heart operations during a patient's lifetime. The procedure can be performed with excellent results; however, serious complications such as coronary arterial compression and conduit rupture have been reported. We present percutaneous treatment of a patient after Ross-Konno operation with RVOT conduit dysfunction and a potentially problematic course of the left anterior descending artery. PMID:25489326

Góreczny, Sebastian; Eicken, Andreas; Ewert, Peter; Morgan, Gareth John; Fratz, Sohrab

2014-01-01

258

A new strategy to identify potentially dangerous coronary arterial patterns before percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in surgical techniques, right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) conduits are prone to fail over time. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation was introduced to expand the lifetime of these conduits and to decrease the number of open heart operations during a patient's lifetime. The procedure can be performed with excellent results; however, serious complications such as coronary arterial compression and conduit rupture have been reported. We present percutaneous treatment of a patient after Ross-Konno operation with RVOT conduit dysfunction and a potentially problematic course of the left anterior descending artery. PMID:25489326

Eicken, Andreas; Ewert, Peter; Morgan, Gareth John; Fratz, Sohrab

2014-01-01

259

Novel Peptide Marker Corresponding to Salivary Protein gSG6 Potentially Identifies Exposure to Anopheles Bites  

PubMed Central

Background In order to improve malaria control, and under the aegis of WHO recommendations, many efforts are being devoted to developing new tools for identifying geographic areas with high risk of parasite transmission. Evaluation of the human antibody response to arthropod salivary proteins could be an epidemiological indicator of exposure to vector bites, and therefore to risk of pathogen transmission. In the case of malaria, which is transmitted only by anopheline mosquitoes, maximal specificity could be achieved through identification of immunogenic proteins specific to the Anopheles genus. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the IgG response to the Anopheles gambiae gSG6 protein, from its recombinant form to derived synthetic peptides, could be an immunological marker of exposure specific to Anopheles gambiae bites. Methodology/Principal Findings Specific IgG antibodies to recombinant gSG6 protein were observed in children living in a Senegalese area exposed to malaria. With the objective of optimizing Anopheles specificity and reproducibility, we designed five gSG6-based peptide sequences using a bioinformatic approach, taking into consideration i) their potential antigenic properties and ii) the absence of cross-reactivity with protein sequences of other arthropods/organisms. The specific anti-peptide IgG antibody response was evaluated in exposed children. The five gSG6 peptides showed differing antigenic properties, with gSG6-P1 and gSG6-P2 exhibiting the highest antigenicity. However, a significant increase in the specific IgG response during the rainy season and a positive association between the IgG level and the level of exposure to Anopheles gambiae bites was significant only for gSG6-P1. Conclusions/Significance This step-by-step approach suggests that gSG6-P1 could be an optimal candidate marker for evaluating exposure to Anopheles gambiae bites. This marker could be employed as a geographic indicator, like remote sensing techniques, for mapping the risk of malaria. It could also represent a direct criterion of efficacy in evaluation of vector control strategies. PMID:18575604

Poinsignon, Anne; Cornelie, Sylvie; Mestres-Simon, Montserrat; Lanfrancotti, Alessandra; Rossignol, Marie; Boulanger, Denis; Cisse, Badara; Sokhna, Cheikh; Arcà, Bruno; Simondon, François; Remoue, Franck

2008-01-01

260

SELECTION OF A WATER EXTRACTABLE PHOSPHORUS TEST FOR MANURES AND BIOSOLIDS AS AN INDICATOR OF RUNOFF LOSS POTENTIAL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water extractable P (WEP) is increasingly used as an indicator of the potential for manure and biosolids to release dissolved P to runoff. No consensus has existed on whether a single WEP method is sufficient to meet the analytical standards and production requirements of commercial laboratories whi...

261

Molecular markers and imaging tools to identify malignant potential in Barrett's esophagus  

PubMed Central

Due to its rapidly rising incidence and high mortality, esophageal adenocarcinoma is a major public health concern, particularly in Western countries. The steps involved in the progression from its predisposing condition, gastroesophageal reflux disease, to its premalignant disorder, Barrett’s esophagus, and to cancer, are incompletely understood. Current screening and surveillance methods are limited by the lack of population-wide utility, incomplete sampling of standard biopsies, and subjectivity of evaluation. Advances in endoscopic ablation have raised the hope of effective therapy for eradication of high-risk Barrett’s lesions, but improvements are needed in determining when to apply this treatment and how to follow patients clinically. Researchers have evaluated numerous potential molecular biomarkers with the goal of detecting dysplasia, with varying degrees of success. The combination of biomarker panels with epidemiologic risk factors to yield clinical risk scoring systems is promising. New approaches to sample tissue may also be combined with these biomarkers for less invasive screening and surveillance. The development of novel endoscopic imaging tools in recent years has the potential to markedly improve detection of small foci of dysplasia in vivo. Current and future efforts will aim to determine the combination of markers and imaging modalities that will most effectively improve the rate of early detection of high-risk lesions in Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:25400987

Bennett, Michael; Mashimo, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

262

Urban liveability: emerging lessons from Australia for exploring the potential for indicators to measure the social determinants of health.  

PubMed

It has long been recognised that urban form impacts on health outcomes and their determinants. There is growing interest in creating indicators of liveability to measure progress towards achieving a wide range of policy outcomes, including enhanced health and wellbeing, and reduced inequalities. This review aimed to: 1) bring together the concepts of urban 'liveability' and social determinants of health; 2) synthesise the various liveability indicators developed to date; and 3) assess their quality using a health and wellbeing lens. Between 2011 and 2013, the research team reviewed 114 international academic and policy documents, as well as reports related to urban liveability. Overall, 233 indicators were found. Of these, 61 indicators were regarded as promising, 57 indicators needed further development, and 115 indicators were not useful for our purposes. Eleven domains of liveability were identified that likely contribute to health and wellbeing through the social determinants of health. These were: crime and safety; education; employment and income; health and social services; housing; leisure and culture; local food and other goods; natural environment; public open space; transport; and social cohesion and local democracy. Many of the indicators came from Australian sources; however most remain relevant from a 'global north' perspective. Although many indicators were identified, there was inconsistency in how these domains were measured. Few have been validated to assess their association with health and wellbeing outcomes, and little information was provided for how they should be applied to guide urban policy and practice. There is a substantial opportunity to further develop these measures to create a series of robust and evidence-based liveability indices, which could be linked with existing health and wellbeing data to better inform urban planning policies within Australia and beyond. PMID:24762261

Badland, Hannah; Whitzman, Carolyn; Lowe, Melanie; Davern, Melanie; Aye, Lu; Butterworth, Iain; Hes, Dominique; Giles-Corti, Billie

2014-06-01

263

Use of laboratory and field testing to identify potential production problems in the Troll field  

SciTech Connect

The areal extent of the oil found in Troll made it clear at a very early stage in the field's appraisal that subsea wells would be required if the oil were developed. Owing to cooling in the subsea flowline, subsea wells can be expected to pose more production chemistry problems than would be expected with conventional platform wells. Consequently, a number of laboratory tests were carried out during the appraisal campaign to identify problems to be expected with scaling, foaming, emulsification, wax deposition, and hydrates. Dehydration and wax deposition tests were also carried out offshore during appraisal-well testing. These tests are described, together with the methods subsequently adopted to minimize future production problems.

Hartley, R.; Jadid, M.B.

1989-02-01

264

Potential Lung Nodules Identification for Characterization by Variable Multistep Threshold and Shape Indices from CT Images  

PubMed Central

Computed tomography (CT) is an important imaging modality. Physicians, surgeons, and oncologists prefer CT scan for diagnosis of lung cancer. However, some nodules are missed in CT scan. Computer aided diagnosis methods are useful for radiologists for detection of these nodules and early diagnosis of lung cancer. Early detection of malignant nodule is helpful for treatment. Computer aided diagnosis of lung cancer involves lung segmentation, potential nodules identification, features extraction from the potential nodules, and classification of the nodules. In this paper, we are presenting an automatic method for detection and segmentation of lung nodules from CT scan for subsequent features extraction and classification. Contribution of the work is the detection and segmentation of small sized nodules, low and high contrast nodules, nodules attached with vasculature, nodules attached to pleura membrane, and nodules in close vicinity of the diaphragm and lung wall in one-go. The particular techniques of the method are multistep threshold for the nodule detection and shape index threshold for false positive reduction. We used 60 CT scans of “Lung Image Database Consortium-Image Database Resource Initiative” taken by GE medical systems LightSpeed16 scanner as dataset and correctly detected 92% nodules. The results are reproducible. PMID:25506388

Iqbal, Saleem; Iqbal, Khalid; Shaukat, Arslan; Khanum, Aasia

2014-01-01

265

Web-based Tool Identifies and Quantifies Potential Cost Savings Measures at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The Technical Improvement system is an approachable web-based tool that is available to Hanford DOE staff, site contractors, and general support service contractors as part of the baseline optimization effort underway at the Hanford Site. Finding and implementing technical improvements are a large part of DOE’s cost savings efforts. The Technical Improvement dashboard is a key tool for brainstorming and monitoring the progress of submitted baseline optimization and potential cost/schedule efficiencies. The dashboard is accessible to users over the Hanford Local Area Network (HLAN) and provides a highly visual and straightforward status to management on the ideas provided, alleviating the need for resource intensive weekly and monthly reviews.

Renevitz, Marisa J. [Mission Support Alliance, Richland, WA (United States); Peschong, Jon C. [USDOE Richland Operations Office, Richland, WA (United States); Charboneau, Briant L. [USDOE Richland Operations Office, Richland, WA (United States); Simpson, Brett C. [Mission Support Alliance, Richland, WA (United States)

2014-01-09

266

Mid-infrared prediction of lactoferrin content in bovine milk: potential indicator of mastitis.  

PubMed

Lactoferrin (LTF) is a milk glycoprotein favorably associated with the immune system of dairy cows. Somatic cell count is often used as an indicator of mastitis in dairy cows, but knowledge on the milk LTF content could aid in mastitis detection. An inexpensive, rapid and robust method to predict milk LTF is required. The aim of this study was to develop an equation to quantify the LTF content in bovine milk using mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry. LTF was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and all milk samples were analyzed by MIR. After discarding samples with a coefficient of variation between 2 ELISA measurements of more than 5% and the spectral outliers, the calibration set consisted of 2499 samples from Belgium (n = 110), Ireland (n = 1658) and Scotland (n = 731). Six statistical methods were evaluated to develop the LTF equation. The best method yielded a cross-validation coefficient of determination for LTF of 0.71 and a cross-validation standard error of 50.55 mg/l of milk. An external validation was undertaken using an additional dataset containing 274 Walloon samples. The validation coefficient of determination was 0.60. To assess the usefulness of the MIR predicted LTF, four logistic regressions using somatic cell score (SCS) and MIR LTF were developed to predict the presence of mastitis. The dataset used to build the logistic regressions consisted of 275 mastitis records and 13 507 MIR data collected in 18 Walloon herds. The LTF and the interaction SCS × LTF effects were significant (P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively). When only the predicted LTF was included in the model, the prediction of the presence of mastitis was not accurate despite a moderate correlation between SCS and LTF (r = 0.54). The specificity and the sensitivity of models were assessed using Walloon data (i.e. internal validation) and data collected from a research herd at the University of Wisconsin - Madison (i.e. 5886 Wisconsin MIR records related to 93 mastistis events - external validation). Model specificity was better when LTF was included in the regression along with SCS when compared with SCS alone. Correct classification of non-mastitis records was 95.44% and 92.05% from Wisconsin and Walloon data, respectively. The same conclusion was formulated from the Hosmer and Lemeshow test. In conclusion, this study confirms the possibility to quantify an LTF indicator from milk MIR spectra. It suggests the usefulness of this indicator associated to SCS to detect the presence of mastitis. Moreover, the knowledge of milk LTF could also improve the milk nutritional quality. PMID:22717388

Soyeurt, H; Bastin, C; Colinet, F G; Arnould, V M-R; Berry, D P; Wall, E; Dehareng, F; Nguyen, H N; Dardenne, P; Schefers, J; Vandenplas, J; Weigel, K; Coffey, M; Théron, L; Detilleux, J; Reding, E; Gengler, N; McParland, S

2012-11-01

267

An assessment indicator for air ventilation and pollutant dispersion potential in an urban canopy with complex natural terrain and significant wind variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an urban planning context, an assessment indicator for evaluating a city's dispersion potential is beneficial, especially if the city has a complex natural terrain and significant wind variations. A study was conducted to implement an urban canopy drag indicator, taking site wind variation into account by involving both wind speed and direction in the calculations. Hong Kong (HK) was taken as an example due to its complicated natural topography and wind characteristics. A spatial distribution of an urban canopy drag over HK was determined based on wind data from 2004. The urban canopy drag values in three highly urbanized areas in HK, including Kowloon West, Kowloon East and Hong Kong Island North, were obtained and are discussed in detail. A fluid particle tracking program was developed and applied to identify the major wind paths in Kowloon West, with an area of approximately 5.5 × 6 km as an example. We analyzed the diurnal variation in the dispersion times and the major wind paths in the region during both summer and winter. Our results estimated that the horizontal dispersion times of Kowloon West during both winter and summer were approximately 20 min. By combining the wind paths from both seasons, we identified several major wind paths and critical ventilation areas in Kowloon West. This paper demonstrates the potential use of an urban canopy drag indicator for assessing air ventilation and pollutant dispersion in a city planning context.

Yim, S. H. L.; Fung, J. C. H.; Ng, E. Y. Y.

2014-09-01

268

Drainage network extraction of Brazilian semiarid region with potential flood indication areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This region has the particularity of, at the same time, coexisting with sporadic floods and scarcity of water. This situation requires complex studies involving water resources based on runoff of rain waters and on the courses of the rivers. For the extraction of drainage was carried out by using of the system for hydrological modeling treatment TerraHidro, developed by INPE's Image Processing Division. This system uses the PFS method for extraction of drainage, which has provided good results, enabling the reduction of the time spent on manual editing of drainage errors. TerraHidro has a tool called Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND) which gives information on potential flood areas. Elevation data were used in the Aster GDEM with spatial resolution of 30 meters for drainage extraction. A qualitative comparison was performed between drainage extracted by TerraHidro and drainage manually extracted by a specialist.

Rosim, Sergio; de Freitas Oliveira, João. Ricardo; de Oliveira Ortiz, Jussara; Cuellar, Miguel Zanic; Jardim, Alexandre Copertino

2014-10-01

269

Complete mitogenome of the foxface rabbitfish Siganus vulpinus (Perciformes, Siganidae): indication of potential interbreeding in rabbitfishes.  

PubMed

Abstract In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the foxface rabbitfish Siganus vulpinus (Perciformes, Siganidae) is determined. The entire sequence is 16,505?bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. The genome organization is similar to those found in other rabbitfishes. Apart from ND6 and 8 tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Overall base compositions of mitogenome are 29.3% of A, 29.3% of C, 25.7% of T, and 15.7% of G, showing an obvious anti-G bias which is commonly found in fishes. The high similarity of mitochondrial genome between S. vulpinus and S. unimaculatus indicate that natural interbreeding might exist in breeding season. PMID:25329262

Yan, Shuai; Wang, Ming; Yang, Tingbao

2014-10-20

270

RARE EARTH ELEMENTS IN FLY ASHES AS POTENTIAL INDICATORS OF ANTHROPOGENIC SOIL CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect

Studies of rare earth element (REE) content of disposed fly ashes and their potential mobility were neglected for decades because these elements were believed to be environmentally benign. A number of recent studies have now shown that REE may pose a long-term risk to the biosphere. Therefore, there is a critical need to study the REE concentrations in fly ash and their potential mobilization and dispersal upon disposal in the environment. We analyzed the REE content of bulk, size fractionated, and density separated fractions of three fly ash samples derived from combustion of sub bituminous coals from the western United States and found that the concentrations of these elements in bulk ashes were within the range typical of fly ashes derived from coals from the North American continent. The concentrations of light rare earth elements (LREE) such as La, Ce, and Nd, however, tended towards the higher end of the concentration range whereas, the concentrations of middle rare earth elements (MREE) (Sm and Eu) and heavy rare earth elements (HREE) (Lu) were closer to the lower end of the observed range for North American fly ashes. The concentrations of REE did not show any significant enrichment with decreasing particle size, this is typical of nonvolatile lithophilic element behavior during the combustion process. The lithophilic nature of REE was also confirmed by their concentrations in heavy density fractions of these fly ashes being on average about two times more enriched than the concentrations in the light density fractions. Shale normalized average of REE concentrations of fly ashes and coals revealed significant positive anomalies for Eu and Dy. Because of these distinctive positive anomalies of Eu and Dy, we believe that fly ash contamination of soils can be fingerprinted and distinguished from other sources of anthropogenic REE inputs in to the environment.

Mattigod, Shas V.

2003-08-01

271

Using self-organizing maps to identify potential halo white dwarfs.  

PubMed

We present the results of an unsupervised classification of the disk and halo white dwarf populations in the solar neighborhood. The classification is done by merging the results of detailed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, which reproduce very well the characteristics of the white dwarf populations in the solar neighborhood, with a catalogue of real stars. The resulting composite catalogue is analyzed using a competitive learning algorithm. In particular we have used the so-called self-organized map. The MC simulated stars are used as tracers and help in identifying the resulting clusters. The results of such an strategy turn out to be quite satisfactory, suggesting that this approach can provide an useful framework for analyzing large databases of white dwarfs with well determined kinematical, spatial and photometric properties once they become available in the next decade. Moreover, the results are of astrophysical interest as well, since a straightforward interpretation of several recent astronomical observations, like the detected microlensing events in the direction of the Magellanic Clouds, the possible detection of high proper motion white dwarfs in the Hubble Deep Field and the discovery of high velocity white dwarfs in the solar neighborhood, suggests that a fraction of the baryonic dark matter component of our galaxy could be in the form of old and dim halo white dwarfs. PMID:12672435

García-Berro, Enrique; Torres, Santiago; Isern, Jordi

2003-01-01

272

Seasonally and regionally determined indication potential of bioassays in contaminated river sediments.  

PubMed

River sediments are a dynamic system, especially in areas where floods occur frequently. In the present study, an integrative approach is used to investigate the seasonal and spatial dynamics of contamination of sediments from a regularly flooded industrial area in the Czech Republic, which presents a suitable model ecosystem for pollutant distribution research at a regional level. Surface sediments were sampled repeatedly to represent two different hydrological situations: spring (after the peak of high flow) and autumn (after longer period of low flow). Samples were characterized for abiotic parameters and concentrations of priority organic pollutants. Toxicity was assessed by Microtox test; genotoxicity by SOS-chromotest and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-yeast test; and the presence of compounds with specific mode of action by in vitro bioassays for dioxin-like activity, anti-/androgenicity, and anti-/estrogenicity. Distribution of organic contaminants varied among regions and seasonally. Although the results of Microtox and genotoxicity tests were relatively inconclusive, all other specific bioassays led to statistically significant regional and seasonal differences in profiles and allowed clear separation of upstream and downstream regions. The outcomes of these bioassays indicated an association with concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as master variables. There were significant interrelations among dioxin-like activity, antiandrogenicity and content of organic carbon, clay, and concentration of PAHs and PCBs, which documents the significance of abiotic factors in accumulation of pollutants. The study demonstrates the strength of the specific bioassays in indicating the changes in contamination and emphasizes the crucial role of a well-designed sampling plan, in which both spatial and temporal dynamics should be taken into account, for the correct interpretations of information in risk assessments. PMID:20821474

Hilscherová, Klára; Dusek, Ladislav; Sídlová, Tereza; Jálová, Veronika; Cupr, Pavel; Giesy, John P; Nehyba, Slavomír; Jarkovský, Jirí; Klánová, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

2010-03-01

273

Identifying the Potential for Robotics to Assist Older Adults in Different Living Environments.  

PubMed

As the older adult population grows and becomes more diverse, so will their needs and preferences for living environments. Many adults over 65 years of age require some assistance [1, 2]; yet it is important for their feelings of well-being that the assistance not restrict their autonomy [3]. Not only is autonomy correlated with quality of life [4], autonomy enhancement may improve functionality [2, 5]. The goal of this paper is to provide guidance for the development of technology to enhance autonomy and quality of life for older adults. We explore the potential for robotics to meet these needs. We evaluated older adults' diverse living situations and the predictors of residential moves to higher levels of care in the United States. We also examined older adults' needs for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and medical conditions when living independently or in a long-term care residence. By providing support for older adults, mobile manipulator robots may reduce need-driven, undesired moves from residences with lower levels of care (i.e., private homes, assisted living) to those with higher levels of care (i.e., skilled nursing). PMID:24729800

Mitzner, Tracy L; Chen, Tiffany L; Kemp, Charles C; Rogers, Wendy A

2014-04-01

274

Identifying the Potential for Robotics to Assist Older Adults in Different Living Environments  

PubMed Central

As the older adult population grows and becomes more diverse, so will their needs and preferences for living environments. Many adults over 65 years of age require some assistance [1, 2]; yet it is important for their feelings of well-being that the assistance not restrict their autonomy [3]. Not only is autonomy correlated with quality of life [4], autonomy enhancement may improve functionality [2, 5]. The goal of this paper is to provide guidance for the development of technology to enhance autonomy and quality of life for older adults. We explore the potential for robotics to meet these needs. We evaluated older adults' diverse living situations and the predictors of residential moves to higher levels of care in the United States. We also examined older adults' needs for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and medical conditions when living independently or in a long-term care residence. By providing support for older adults, mobile manipulator robots may reduce need-driven, undesired moves from residences with lower levels of care (i.e., private homes, assisted living) to those with higher levels of care (i.e., skilled nursing). PMID:24729800

Mitzner, Tracy L.; Chen, Tiffany L.; Kemp, Charles C.; Rogers, Wendy A.

2014-01-01

275

Identifying Potential Clinical Syndromes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using PSO-Based Hierarchical Feature Selection Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. Clinical symptoms attributable to HCC are usually absent, thus often miss the best therapeutic opportunities. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plays an active role in diagnosis and treatment of HCC. In this paper, we proposed a particle swarm optimization-based hierarchical feature selection (PSOHFS) model to infer potential syndromes for diagnosis of HCC. Firstly, the hierarchical feature representation is developed by a three-layer tree. The clinical symptoms and positive score of patient are leaf nodes and root in the tree, respectively, while each syndrome feature on the middle layer is extracted from a group of symptoms. Secondly, an improved PSO-based algorithm is applied in a new reduced feature space to search an optimal syndrome subset. Based on the result of feature selection, the causal relationships of symptoms and syndromes are inferred via Bayesian networks. In our experiment, 147 symptoms were aggregated into 27 groups and 27 syndrome features were extracted. The proposed approach discovered 24 syndromes which obviously improved the diagnosis accuracy. Finally, the Bayesian approach was applied to represent the causal relationships both at symptom and syndrome levels. The results show that our computational model can facilitate the clinical diagnosis of HCC. PMID:24745007

Ji, Zhiwei; Wang, Bing

2014-01-01

276

Identifying at-risk employees: A behavioral model for predicting potential insider threats  

SciTech Connect

A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employee’s behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. In many of these crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they could be assessed by a person experienced in psychosocial evaluations. We have developed a model using a Bayesian belief network with the help of human resources staff, experienced in evaluating behaviors in staff. We conducted an experiment to assess its agreement with human resources and management professionals, with positive results. If implemented in an operational setting, the model would be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment that can raise an alarm about employees who pose higher insider threat risks. In separate work, we combine this psychosocial model’s assessment with computer workstation behavior to raise the efficacy of recognizing an insider crime in the making.

Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Dalton, Angela C.

2010-09-01

277

Potential use of indices of disease severity in the evaluation and design of medical technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been argued that technology is a major driver of health care costs. However, it is possible that the inappropriate use of technology accounts for some of this rise in costs. Thus, the development of tools for assessing the outcomes of patient care in many dimensions could lead to a more appropriate use of technology with attendant cost savings. However, the determination of outcomes is dependent on controlling for the severity of patients' primary and comorbid diseases. Recently, a variety of instruments have been developed and validated for the assessment of disease severity. These instruments, coupled with data regarding definitive and surrogate outcomes, provide a means for analyzing and perfecting the use of technology. Moreover, when these techniques are coupled with economic analysis it appears possible to model the health care interaction for any given disease condition and to identify figures of merit for technologies which, if developed, would provide cost savings while maintaining or improving the quality of care. Thus, the development of appropriate measures of outcomes and disease severity offer the opportunity to more properly and efficiently employ the technology of today, while pointing the way to technology which, if developed, would provide a greater cost savings tomorrow.

Re, Richard N.; Krousel-Wood, M. A.

1995-10-01

278

The utility of stream habitat and biota for identifying potential conflicting forest land uses: Montane riparian areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rinne, J.N., 1990. The utility of stream habitat and biota for identifying potential conflicting forest land uses: Montane riparian areas. For. Ecol. Manage., 33\\/34: 363-383. Investigations since 1960 on the effects of land-management practices on riparian-stream systems often have produced contradictory results. Inconsistencies have occurred, in part, because of efforts that have not been totally comprehensive and, in part, because

John N. Rinne

1990-01-01

279

GAS6 expression identifies high-risk adult AML patients: potential implications for therapy.  

PubMed

Emerging data demonstrate important roles for the TYRO3/AXL/MERTK receptor tyrosine kinase (TAM RTK) family in diverse cancers. We investigated the prognostic relevance of GAS6 expression, encoding the common TAM RTK ligand, in 270 adults (n=71 aged<60 years; n=199 aged ?60 years) with de novo cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). Patients expressing GAS6 (GAS6+), especially those aged ?60 years, more often failed to achieve a complete remission (CR). In all patients, GAS6+ patients had shorter disease-free (DFS) and overall (OS) survival than patients without GAS6 expression (GAS6-). After adjusting for other prognostic markers, GAS6+ predicted CR failure (P=0.02), shorter DFS (P=0.004) and OS (P=0.04). To gain further biological insights, we derived a GAS6-associated gene-expression signature (P<0.001) that in GAS6+ patients included overexpressed BAALC and MN1, known to confer adverse prognosis in CN-AML, and overexpressed CXCL12, encoding stromal cell-derived factor, and its receptor genes, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) and CXCR7. This study reports for the first time that GAS6 expression is an adverse prognostic marker in CN-AML. Although GAS6 decoy receptors are not yet available in the clinic for GAS6+ CN-AML therapy, potential alternative therapies targeting GAS6+-associated pathways, for example, CXCR4 antagonists, may be considered for GAS6+ patients to sensitize them to chemotherapy. PMID:24326683

Whitman, S P; Kohlschmidt, J; Maharry, K; Volinia, S; Mrózek, K; Nicolet, D; Schwind, S; Becker, H; Metzeler, K H; Mendler, J H; Eisfeld, A-K; Carroll, A J; Powell, B L; Carter, T H; Baer, M R; Kolitz, J E; Park, I-K; Stone, R M; Caligiuri, M A; Marcucci, G; Bloomfield, C D

2014-06-01

280

COSMO-SkyMed potentiality to identify crop-specific behavior and monitor phenological parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aims at investigating the capability of COSMO-SkyMed® (CSK®) constellation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system to monitor the Leaf Area Index (LAI) of different crops. The experiment was conducted in the Marchfeld Region, an agricultural Austrian area, and focused on five crop species: sugar beet, soybean, potato, pea and corn. A linear regression analysis was carried out to assess the sensitivity of CSK® backscattering coefficients to crops changes base on LAI values. CSK® backscattering coefficients were averaged at a field scale () and were compared to the DEIMOS-1 derived values of estimated LAI. LAI were as well averaged over the corresponding fields (). CSK® data acquired at three polarizations (HH, VV and VH), four incidence angles (23°, 33°, 40° and 57°) and at different pixel spacings (2.5 m and 10 m) were tested to assess whether spatial resolution may influence results at a field scale and to find the best combination of polarizations and CSK® acquisition beams which indicate the highest sensitivity to crop LAI values. The preliminary results show that sugar beet can be well monitored (r = 0.72 - 0.80) by CSK® by using any of the polarization acquisition modes, at moderate to shallow incidence angles (33° - 57°). Slightly weaker correlations were found, at VH polarization only, between CSK® < ?°dB> and for potato (r = 0.65), pea (r = 0.65) and soybean (r = -0.83). Shallower view incidence angles seem to be preferable to steep ones in most cases. CSK® backscattering coefficients were no sensitive at all to LAI changes for already developed corn fields.

Guarini, Rocchina; Segalini, Federica; Mastronardi, Giovanni; Notarnicola, Claudia; Vuolo, Francesco; Dini, Luigi

2014-10-01

281

Stimulators and Activators of Soluble Guanylate Cyclase: Review and Potential Therapeutic Indications  

PubMed Central

The heme-protein soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the intracellular receptor for nitric oxide (NO). sGC is a heterodimeric enzyme with ? and ? subunits and contains a heme moiety essential for binding of NO and activation of the enzyme. Stimulation of sGC mediates physiologic responses including smooth muscle relaxation, inhibition of inflammation, and thrombosis. In pathophysiologic states, NO formation and bioavailability can be impaired by oxidative stress and that tolerance to NO donors develops with continuous use. Two classes of compounds have been developed that can directly activate sGC and increase cGMP formation in pathophysiologic conditions when NO formation and bioavailability are impaired or when NO tolerance has developed. In this report, we review current information on the pharmacology of heme-dependent stimulators and heme-independent activators of sGC in animal and in early clinical studies and the potential role these compounds may have in the management of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22482042

Nossaman, Bobby; Pankey, Edward; Kadowitz, Philip

2012-01-01

282

Complex forest dynamics indicate potential for slowing carbon accumulation in the southeastern United States  

PubMed Central

Over the past century forest regrowth in Europe and North America expanded forest carbon (C) sinks and offset C emissions but future C accumulation is uncertain. Policy makers need insights into forest C dynamics as they anticipate emissions futures and goals. We used land use and forest inventory data to estimate how forest C dynamics have changed in the southeastern United States and attribute changes to land use, management, and disturbance causes. From 2007-2012, forests yielded a net sink of C because of net land use change (+6.48?Tg C yr?1) and net biomass accumulation (+75.4?Tg C yr?1). Forests disturbed by weather, insect/disease, and fire show dampened yet positive forest C changes (+1.56, +1.4, +5.48?Tg C yr?1, respectively). Forest cutting caused net decreases in C (?76.7?Tg C yr?1) but was offset by forest growth (+143.77?Tg C yr?1). Forest growth rates depend on age or stage of development and projected C stock changes indicate a gradual slowing of carbon accumulation with anticipated forest aging (a reduction of 9.5% over the next five years). Additionally, small shifts in land use transitions consistent with economic futures resulted in a 40.6% decrease in C accumulation. PMID:25614123

Coulston, John W.; Wear, David N.; Vose, James M.

2015-01-01

283

Complex forest dynamics indicate potential for slowing carbon accumulation in the southeastern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past century forest regrowth in Europe and North America expanded forest carbon (C) sinks and offset C emissions but future C accumulation is uncertain. Policy makers need insights into forest C dynamics as they anticipate emissions futures and goals. We used land use and forest inventory data to estimate how forest C dynamics have changed in the southeastern United States and attribute changes to land use, management, and disturbance causes. From 2007-2012, forests yielded a net sink of C because of net land use change (+6.48 Tg C yr-1) and net biomass accumulation (+75.4 Tg C yr-1). Forests disturbed by weather, insect/disease, and fire show dampened yet positive forest C changes (+1.56, +1.4, +5.48 Tg C yr-1, respectively). Forest cutting caused net decreases in C (-76.7 Tg C yr-1) but was offset by forest growth (+143.77 Tg C yr-1). Forest growth rates depend on age or stage of development and projected C stock changes indicate a gradual slowing of carbon accumulation with anticipated forest aging (a reduction of 9.5% over the next five years). Additionally, small shifts in land use transitions consistent with economic futures resulted in a 40.6% decrease in C accumulation.

Coulston, John W.; Wear, David N.; Vose, James M.

2015-01-01

284

Foliar phenolics in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) as a potential indicator of tropospheric ozone pollution.  

PubMed

Tropospheric O3 has been implicated in the declining health of forest ecosystems in Europe and North America and has been shown to have negative consequences on human health. We have measured tropospheric ozone (O3) in the lower canopy through the use of passive monitors located in five woodlots along a 150 km urban-rural transect, originating in the large urban complex of Toronto, Canada. We also sampled foliage from 10 mature sugar maple trees in each woodlot and measured the concentration of a number of phenolic compounds and macronutrients. O3 concentrations were highest in the two rural woodlots, located approximately 150 km downwind of Toronto, when compared to the woodlots found within the Greater Toronto Area. Foliar concentrations of three flavonoids, avicularin, isoquercitrin, and quercitrin, were significantly greater and nitrogen concentrations significantly lower at these same rural woodlots, suggesting some physiological disruption is occurring in those sites where exposure to tropospheric O3 is greater. We suggest that foliar phenolics of sugar maple may be a biochemical indicator of tropospheric ozone exposure. PMID:15952532

Sager, E P S; Hutchinson, T C; Croley, T R

2005-06-01

285

Complex forest dynamics indicate potential for slowing carbon accumulation in the southeastern United States.  

PubMed

Over the past century forest regrowth in Europe and North America expanded forest carbon (C) sinks and offset C emissions but future C accumulation is uncertain. Policy makers need insights into forest C dynamics as they anticipate emissions futures and goals. We used land use and forest inventory data to estimate how forest C dynamics have changed in the southeastern United States and attribute changes to land use, management, and disturbance causes. From 2007-2012, forests yielded a net sink of C because of net land use change (+6.48?Tg C yr(-1)) and net biomass accumulation (+75.4?Tg C yr(-1)). Forests disturbed by weather, insect/disease, and fire show dampened yet positive forest C changes (+1.56, +1.4, +5.48?Tg C yr(-1), respectively). Forest cutting caused net decreases in C (-76.7?Tg C yr(-1)) but was offset by forest growth (+143.77?Tg C yr(-1)). Forest growth rates depend on age or stage of development and projected C stock changes indicate a gradual slowing of carbon accumulation with anticipated forest aging (a reduction of 9.5% over the next five years). Additionally, small shifts in land use transitions consistent with economic futures resulted in a 40.6% decrease in C accumulation. PMID:25614123

Coulston, John W; Wear, David N; Vose, James M

2015-01-01

286

Parasites of the grouper fish Epinephelus coioides (Serranidae) as potential environmental indicators in Indonesian coastal ecosystems.  

PubMed

A total of 195 Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) were studied for fish parasites from Javanese (Segara Anakan lagoon) and Balinese waters. Up to 25 different parasite species belonging to the following taxa: one Ciliata, one Microsporea, five Digenea, one Monogenea, four Cestoda, four Nematoda, one Acanthocephala, one Hirudinea and seven Crustacea were identified with four new host and locality records. The dominant parasites included the monogenean Pseudorhabdosynochus lantauensis (53.3-97.1%), the nematode Spirophilometra endangae (23.3-42.9%), the digenean Didymodiclinus sp. (2.9-40.0%), the nematodes Philometra sp. (22.6-34.3%) and Raphidascaris sp. (2.9-28.6%), and the isopod Alcirona sp. (6.7-31.4%). Regional differences for E. coioides were found in terms of endoparasite diversity, total diversity according to Shannon-Wiener, Simpson index and Evenness. A comparison with published data from Sumatera revealed highest endoparasite diversity (Shannon-Wiener: 1.86/1.67-2.04) and lowest ectoparasite/endoparasite ratio (0.73/0.57-0.88) off the Balinese coast, followed by Lampung Bay, Sumatera (1.84; 0.67), off the coast of Segara Anakan lagoon (1.71; 0.71), and in the lagoon (0.30/0.19-0.66; 0.85/0.67-1.00). The presented data demonstrate the natural range of these parameters and parasite prevalences according to habitat and region, allowing adjustment of the scale that has been used in the visual integration of the parasite parameters into a star graph. The parasite fauna of E. coioides in Segara Anakan lagoon 'improved' from 2004 until 2008/09, possibly related to earlier oil spill events in 2002 and 2004. The use of grouper fish parasites as an early warning system for environmental change in Indonesian coastal ecosystems is discussed. PMID:24018181

Kleinertz, S; Palm, H W

2013-09-10

287

Potential impact of climate change and reindeer density on tundra indicator species in the Barents Sea region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is expected to alter the distribution of habitats and thus the distribution of species connected with these\\u000a habitats in the terrestrial Barents Sea region. It was hypothesised that wild species connected with the tundra and open-land\\u000a biome may be particularly at risk as forest area expands. Fourteen species of birds were identified as useful indicators for\\u000a the biodiversity

Christoph Zöckler; Lera Miles; Lucy Fish; Annett Wolf; Gareth Rees; Fiona Danks

2008-01-01

288

Correlation between geomagnetic indices and cross polar cap potential measurements from SuperDARN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cross polar cap potential, or phiPC, is a global measure of the Magnetosphere---Ionosphere system, applicable in studying the coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere, magnetic reconnection and magnetospheric convection. phiPC can be determined by the line- of-sight (LOS) Doppler velocity measurements from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) in a time period as small as a minute. Recent additions of radars to this network in the middle latitudes have been shown to improve the underestimation of the phiPC solutions in strong geomagnetic periods. This study aims to update the derivation technique of phiPC with more experimental data from the middle latitude radars and examine the statistical dependence of phiPC on the planetary K-index Kp and the auroral electrojet AE index in the Northern Hemisphere between January 01, 2009 and August 31, 2012. We use more than 89,500 high-quality measurements of phiPC for this investigation. In weak-moderate geomagnetic conditions (Kp ? 4 and AE ? 1000 nT), we found a linear correlation between phi PC and Kp, phiPC = 9.6 Kp+25.9 [kV], while the dependence of phiPC on AE is shown to be non-linear using the same dataset. For stronger geomagnetic disturbances (Kp > 4), a larger coverage of the SuperDARN network is required to justify any possible instrumental saturation of phiPC values in this range. Further, we examine the dependence of the phiPC values on the dipole tilts and discuss possible physical and instrumental saturation in phiPC estimates from SuperDARN using the Kp index in this report.

Nguyen, Dat P.

289

Mycobacterium bovis DNA detection in colostrum as a potential indicator of vaccination effectiveness against bovine tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a problem on many dairy farms in Mexico, as well as a public health risk. We previously found a high frequency of Mycobacterium bovis DNA in colostrum from dairy cows using a nested PCR to detect mpb70. Since there are no reliable in vivo tests to determine the effectiveness of booster Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against bTB, in this work we monitored M. bovis DNA in colostrum by using this nested PCR. In order to decrease the risk of adverse reactions in animals likely containing viable M. bovis, a single application of BCG and a subunit vaccine (EEP-1) formulated with M. bovis culture filtrate proteins (CFP) and a copolymer as the adjuvant was performed in tuberculin skin test-negative cattle (TST(-)), while TST reactor animals (TST(+)) received EEP-1 only. Booster immunization using EEP-1 was applied to both groups, 2 months after primary vaccination to whole herds and 12 months later to lactating cows. Colostrum samples were collected from 6 farms where the cows were vaccinated over a 12-month period postvaccination and, for comparison, from one control farm where the cows were not vaccinated with comparable bTB prevalence. We observed an inverse relationship between the frequency of M. bovis DNA detection and time postvaccination at the first (P < 0.001) and second (P < 0.0001) 6-month periods. Additionally, the concentration of gamma interferon (IFN-?) was higher in mpb70 PCR-positive colostrum samples (P = 0.0003). These results suggest that M. bovis DNA frequency in colostrum could be a potentially useful biomarker for bTB vaccine efficacy on commercial dairy farms. PMID:23425597

Herrera-Rodríguez, Sara E; Gordiano-Hidalgo, María Alejandra; López-Rincón, Gonzálo; Bojorquez-Narváez, Luis; Padilla-Ramírez, Francisco Javier; Pereira-Suárez, Ana Laura; Flores-Valdez, Mario Alberto; Estrada-Chávez, Ciro

2013-04-01

290

Mycobacterium bovis DNA Detection in Colostrum as a Potential Indicator of Vaccination Effectiveness against Bovine Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a problem on many dairy farms in Mexico, as well as a public health risk. We previously found a high frequency of Mycobacterium bovis DNA in colostrum from dairy cows using a nested PCR to detect mpb70. Since there are no reliable in vivo tests to determine the effectiveness of booster Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against bTB, in this work we monitored M. bovis DNA in colostrum by using this nested PCR. In order to decrease the risk of adverse reactions in animals likely containing viable M. bovis, a single application of BCG and a subunit vaccine (EEP-1) formulated with M. bovis culture filtrate proteins (CFP) and a copolymer as the adjuvant was performed in tuberculin skin test-negative cattle (TST?), while TST reactor animals (TST+) received EEP-1 only. Booster immunization using EEP-1 was applied to both groups, 2 months after primary vaccination to whole herds and 12 months later to lactating cows. Colostrum samples were collected from 6 farms where the cows were vaccinated over a 12-month period postvaccination and, for comparison, from one control farm where the cows were not vaccinated with comparable bTB prevalence. We observed an inverse relationship between the frequency of M. bovis DNA detection and time postvaccination at the first (P < 0.001) and second (P < 0.0001) 6-month periods. Additionally, the concentration of gamma interferon (IFN-?) was higher in mpb70 PCR-positive colostrum samples (P = 0.0003). These results suggest that M. bovis DNA frequency in colostrum could be a potentially useful biomarker for bTB vaccine efficacy on commercial dairy farms. PMID:23425597

Herrera-Rodríguez, Sara E.; Gordiano-Hidalgo, María Alejandra; López-Rincón, Gonzálo; Bojorquez-Narváez, Luis; Padilla-Ramírez, Francisco Javier; Pereira-Suárez, Ana Laura; Flores-Valdez, Mario Alberto

2013-01-01

291

Can inbound and domestic medical tourism improve your bottom line? Identifying the potential of a U.S. tourism market.  

PubMed

In large part due to current economic conditions and the political uncertainties of healthcare reform legislation, hospitals need to identify new sources of revenue. Two potentially untapped sources are inbound (international) and domestic (within the United States) medical tourists. This case study uses data from a large, urban healthcare system in the southeastern United States to quantify its potential market opportunities for medical tourism. The data were mined from electronic health records, and descriptive frequency analysis was used to provide a preliminary market assessment. This approach permits healthcare systems to move beyond anecdotal information and assess the relative market potential of their particular geographic area and the diagnostic services they offer for attracting inbound and domestic medical tourists. Implications for healthcare executives and guidance on how they can focus marketing efforts are discussed. PMID:24611426

Fottler, Myron D; Malvey, Donna; Asi, Yara; Kirchner, Sarah; Warren, Natalia A

2014-01-01

292

Correctness of protein identifications of Bacillus subtilis proteome with the indication on potential false positive peptides supported by predictions of their retention times.  

PubMed

The predictive capability of the retention time prediction model based on quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) was tested. QSRR model was derived with the use of set of peptides identified with the highest scores and originated from 8 known proteins annotated as model ones. The predictive ability of the QSRR model was verified with the use of a Bacillus subtilis proteome digest after separation and identification of the peptides by LC-ESI-MS/MS. That ability was tested with three sets of testing peptides assigned to the proteins identified with different levels of confidence. First, the set of peptides identified with the highest scores achieved in the search were considered. Hence, proteins identified on the basis of more than one peptide were taken into account. Furthermore, proteins identified on the basis of just one peptide were also considered and, depending on the possessed scores, both above and below the assumed threshold, were analyzed in two separated sets. The QSRR approach was applied as the additional constraint in proteomic research verifying results of MS/MS ion search and confirming the correctness of the peptides identifications along with the indication of the potential false positives. PMID:20069061

Macur, Katarzyna; Baczek, Tomasz; Kaliszan, Roman; Temporini, Caterina; Corana, Federica; Massolini, Gabriella; Grzenkowicz-Wydra, Jolanta; Obuchowski, Micha?

2010-01-01

293

The environmental "risky" region: identifying land degradation processes through integration of socio-economic and ecological indicators in a multivariate regionalization model.  

PubMed

Although several studies have assessed Land Degradation (LD) states in the Mediterranean basin through the use of composite indices, relatively few have evaluated the impact of specific LD drivers at the local scale. In this work, a computational strategy is introduced to define homogeneous areas at risk and the main factors acting as determinants of LD. The procedure consists of three steps and is applied to a set of ten environmental indicators available at the municipality scale in Latium, central Italy. A principal component analysis extracting latent patterns and simplifying data complexity was carried out on the original data matrix. Subsequently, a k-means cluster analysis was applied on a restricted number of meaningful, latent factors extracted by PCA in order to produce a classification of the study area into homogeneous regions. Finally, a stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to determine which indicators contributed the most to the definition of homogeneous regions. Three classes of "risky" regions were identified according to the main drivers of LD acting at the local scale. These include: (i) soil sealing (coupled with landscape fragmentation, fire risk, and related processes), (ii) soil salinization due to agricultural intensification, and (iii) soil erosion due to farmland depopulation and land abandonment in sloping areas. Areas at risk for LD covered 56 and 63% of the investigated areas in 1970 and 2000, respectively. PMID:19787396

Salvati, Luca; Zitti, Marco

2009-11-01

294

The Environmental ``Risky'' Region: Identifying Land Degradation Processes Through Integration of Socio-Economic and Ecological Indicators in a Multivariate Regionalization Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although several studies have assessed Land Degradation (LD) states in the Mediterranean basin through the use of composite indices, relatively few have evaluated the impact of specific LD drivers at the local scale. In this work, a computational strategy is introduced to define homogeneous areas at risk and the main factors acting as determinants of LD. The procedure consists of three steps and is applied to a set of ten environmental indicators available at the municipality scale in Latium, central Italy. A principal component analysis extracting latent patterns and simplifying data complexity was carried out on the original data matrix. Subsequently, a k-means cluster analysis was applied on a restricted number of meaningful, latent factors extracted by PCA in order to produce a classification of the study area into homogeneous regions. Finally, a stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to determine which indicators contributed the most to the definition of homogeneous regions. Three classes of “risky” regions were identified according to the main drivers of LD acting at the local scale. These include: (i) soil sealing (coupled with landscape fragmentation, fire risk, and related processes), (ii) soil salinization due to agricultural intensification, and (iii) soil erosion due to farmland depopulation and land abandonment in sloping areas. Areas at risk for LD covered 56 and 63% of the investigated areas in 1970 and 2000, respectively.

Salvati, Luca; Zitti, Marco

2009-11-01

295

Identifying Potential Giftedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators, by making aspects of school other than academic achievement desirable, can motivate children to achieve in diverse areas. We need not, and we must not, limit the feeling of school success to the top two-percenters in academic accomplishment. (Author)

Meeker, Mary N.

1971-01-01

296

Secretome analysis identifies potential virulence factors of Diplodia corticola, a fungal pathogen involved in cork oak (Quercus suber) decline.  

PubMed

The characterisation of the secretome of phytopathogenic fungi may contribute to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. This is particularly relevant for Diplodia corticola, a fungal plant pathogen belonging to the family Botryosphaeriaceae, whose genome remains unsequenced. This phytopathogenic fungus is recognised as one of the most important pathogens of cork oak, being related to the decline of cork oak forests in the Iberian Peninsula. Unfortunately, secretome analysis of filamentous fungi is limited by the low protein concentration and by the presence of many interfering substances, such as polysaccharides, which affect the separation and analysis by 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis. We compared six protein extraction protocols concerning their suitability for further application with proteomic workflows. The protocols involving protein precipitation were the most efficient, with emphasis on TCA-acetone protocol, allowing us to identify the most abundant proteins on the secretome of this plant pathogen. Approximately 60% of the spots detected were identified, all corresponding to extracellular proteins. Most proteins identified were carbohydrate degrading enzymes and proteases that may be related to D. corticola pathogenicity. Although the secretome was assessed in a noninfection environment, potential virulence factors such as the putative glucan-?-glucosidase, neuraminidase, and the putative ferulic acid esterase were identified. The data obtained forms a useful basis for a deeper understanding of the pathogenicity and infection biology of D. corticola. Moreover, it will contribute to the development of proteomics studies on other members of the Botryosphaeriaceae. PMID:24863480

Fernandes, Isabel; Alves, Artur; Correia, António; Devreese, Bart; Esteves, Ana Cristina

2014-01-01

297

Exome Sequencing Identifies DLG1 as a Novel Gene for Potential Susceptibility to Crohn's Disease in a Chinese Family Study  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic variants make some contributions to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). More than 100 susceptibility loci were identified in Western IBD studies, but susceptibility gene has not been found in Chinese IBD patients till now. Sequencing of individuals with an IBD family history is a powerful approach toward our understanding of the genetics and pathogenesis of IBD. The aim of this study, which focuses on a Han Chinese CD family, is to identify high-risk variants and potentially novel loci using whole exome sequencing technique. Methods Exome sequence data from 4 individuals belonging to a same family were analyzed using bioinformatics methods to narrow down the variants associated with CD. The potential risk genes were further analyzed by genotyping and Sanger sequencing in family members, additional 401 healthy controls (HC), 278 sporadic CD patients, 123 UC cases, a pair of monozygotic CD twins and another Chinese CD family. Results From the CD family in which the father and daughter were affected, we identified a novel single nucleotide variant (SNV) c.374T>C (p.I125T) in exon 4 of discs large homolog 1 (DLG1), a gene has been reported to play mutiple roles in cell proliferation, T cell polarity and T cell receptor signaling. After genotyping among case and controls, a PLINK analysis showed the variant was of significance (P<0.05). 4 CD patients of the other Chinese family bore another non-synonymous variant c.833G>A (p.R278Q) in exon 9 of DLG1. Conclusions We have discovered novel genetic variants in the coding regions of DLG1 gene, the results support that DLG1 is a novel potential susceptibility gene for CD in Chinese patients. PMID:24937328

Song, Lu; NG, Siew Chien; Wang, Xiaobing; Chen, Liping; Yi, Fengming; Ran, Zhihua; Zhou, Rui; Xia, Bing

2014-01-01

298

Potential Drug-Like Inhibitors of Group 1 Influenza Neuraminidase Identified through Computer-Aided Drug Design  

PubMed Central

Pandemic (H1N1) influenza poses an imminent threat. Nations have stockpiled inhibitors of the influenza protein neuraminidase in hopes of protecting their citizens, but drug-resistant strains have already emerged, and novel therapeutics are urgently needed. In the current work, the computer program AutoGrow is used to generate novel predicted neuraminidase inhibitors. Given the great flexibility of the neuraminidase active site, protein dynamics are also incorporated into the computer-aided drug-design process. Several potential inhibitors are identified that are predicted to bind neuraminidase better than currently approved drugs. PMID:20427241

Durrant, Jacob D.; McCammon, J. Andrew

2010-01-01

299

Assessing the potential hazard of chemical substances for the terrestrial environment. Development of hazard classification criteria and quantitative environmental indicators.  

PubMed

Hazard assessment constitutes an essential tool in order to evaluate the potential effects of chemical substances on organisms and ecosystems. It includes as a first step, hazard identification, which must detect the potential dangers of the substance (i.e. the kind of effects that the substance may produce), and a second step to quantify each danger and to set the expected dose/response relationships. Hazard assessment plays a key role in the regulation of chemical substances, including pollution control and sustainable development. However, the aquatic environment has largely received more attention than terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents the extrapolation of several basic concepts from the aquatic to the terrestrial compartment, and suggests possibilities for their regulatory use. Two specific proposals are discussed. The first focuses on the scientific basis of the hazard identification-classification criteria included in the EU regulations and their extrapolation to the terrestrial environment. The second focuses on the OECD programme for environmental indicators and the development of a soil pollution pressure indicator to quantify the potential hazards for the soil compartment and its associated terrestrial ecosystem related to the toxic chemicals applied deliberately (i.e. pesticides) or not (i.e. heavy metals in sludge-based fertilisers; industrial spills) to the soil. PMID:10803544

Tarazona, J V; Fresno, A; Aycard, S; Ramos, C; Vega, M M; Carbonell, G

2000-03-20

300

Entering a New Era of Body Indices: The Feasibility of a Body Shape Index and Body Roundness Index to Identify Cardiovascular Health Status  

PubMed Central

Background The Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) are well-used anthropometric predictors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but their validity is regularly questioned. Recently, A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) were introduced as alternative anthropometric indices that may better reflect health status. Objective This study assessed the capacity of ABSI and BRI in identifying cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular disease risk factors and determined whether they are superior to BMI and WC. Design and Methods 4627 Participants (54±12 years) of the Nijmegen Exercise Study completed an online questionnaire concerning CVD health status (defined as history of CVD or CVD risk factors) and anthropometric characteristics. Quintiles of ABSI, BRI, BMI, and WC were used regarding CVD prevalence. Odds ratios (OR), adjusted for age, sex, and smoking, were calculated per anthropometric index. Results 1332 participants (27.7%) reported presence of CVD or CVD risk factors. The prevalence of CVD increased across quintiles for BMI, ABSI, BRI, and WC. Comparing the lowest with the highest quintile, adjusted OR (95% CI) for CVD were significantly different for BRI 3.2 (1.4–7.2), BMI 2.4 (1.9–3.1), and WC 3.0 (1.6–5.6). The adjusted OR (95% CI) for CVD risk factors was for BRI 2.5 (2.0–3.3), BMI 3.3 (1.6–6.8), and WC 2.0 (1.6–2.5). No association was observed for ABSI in both groups. Conclusions BRI, BMI, and WC are able to determine CVD presence, while ABSI is not capable. Nevertheless, the capacity of BRI as a novel body index to identify CVD was not superior compared to established anthropometric indices like BMI and WC. PMID:25229394

Maessen, Martijn F. H.; Eijsvogels, Thijs M. H.; Verheggen, Rebecca J. H. M.; Hopman, Maria T. E.; Verbeek, André L. M.; de Vegt, Femmie

2014-01-01

301

A tree-based statistical classification algorithm (CHAID) for identifying variables responsible for the occurrence of faecal indicator bacteria during waterworks operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial contamination of groundwater used for drinking water can affect public health and is of major concern to local water authorities and water suppliers. Potential hazards need to be identified in order to protect raw water resources. We propose a non-parametric data mining technique for exploring the presence of total coliforms (TC) in a groundwater abstraction well and its relationship to readily available, continuous time series of hydrometric monitoring parameters (seven year records of precipitation, river water levels, and groundwater heads). The original monitoring parameters were used to create an extensive generic dataset of explanatory variables by considering different accumulation or averaging periods, as well as temporal offsets of the explanatory variables. A classification tree based on the Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) recursive partitioning algorithm revealed statistically significant relationships between precipitation and the presence of TC in both a production well and a nearby monitoring well. Different secondary explanatory variables were identified for the two wells. Elevated water levels and short-term water table fluctuations in the nearby river were found to be associated with TC in the observation well. The presence of TC in the production well was found to relate to elevated groundwater heads and fluctuations in groundwater levels. The generic variables created proved useful for increasing significance levels. The tree-based model was used to predict the occurrence of TC on the basis of hydrometric variables.

Bichler, Andrea; Neumaier, Arnold; Hofmann, Thilo

2014-11-01

302

A Systematic In Silico Search for Target Similarity Identifies Several Approved Drugs with Potential Activity against the Plasmodium falciparum Apicoplast  

PubMed Central

Most of the drugs in use against Plasmodium falciparum share similar modes of action and, consequently, there is a need to identify alternative potential drug targets. Here, we focus on the apicoplast, a malarial plastid-like organelle of algal source which evolved through secondary endosymbiosis. We undertake a systematic in silico target-based identification approach for detecting drugs already approved for clinical use in humans that may be able to interfere with the P. falciparum apicoplast. The P. falciparum genome database GeneDB was used to compile a list of ?600 proteins containing apicoplast signal peptides. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target and its predicted sequence was used to interrogate three different freely available databases (Therapeutic Target Database, DrugBank and STITCH3.1) that provide synoptic data on drugs and their primary or putative drug targets. We were able to identify several drugs that are expected to interact with forty-seven (47) peptides predicted to be involved in the biology of the P. falciparum apicoplast. Fifteen (15) of these putative targets are predicted to have affinity to drugs that are already approved for clinical use but have never been evaluated against malaria parasites. We suggest that some of these drugs should be experimentally tested and/or serve as leads for engineering new antimalarials. PMID:23555651

Bispo, Nadlla Alves; Culleton, Richard; Silva, Lourival Almeida; Cravo, Pedro

2013-01-01

303

Ecology of testate amoebae and their potential use as palaeohydrologic indicators from peatland in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Testate amoebae are sensitive indicators of substrate moisture in peatlands. Over the last decades, they have been studied to reconstruct hydrological changes since the Holocene. However, these studies have been geographically restricted to North America and Europe. We conducted the first investigation of testate amoebae on the largest continental fresh water wetland in the Sanjiang Plain, China. The objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the ecology of testate amoebae in the peatlands of Northeast China and to assess the potential of using them as environmental indicators in this ecosystem. We examined modern testate amoeba assemblages and species-environmental relationships at 46 microsites within 5 waterlogged depressions. The environmental parameters measured included: depth to water table, pH, and loss on ignition. The results showed that the dominant species were Trinema complanatum type, Euglypha rotunda type, Euglypha strigosa type, and Centropyxis cassis type. Redundancy analysis demonstrates that water table depth has the most important effect on testate amoeba assemblages, explaining 16.7% ( p = 0.002) of the total variance. pH was not a statistically significant factor for testate amoeba assemblages. Weighted averaging and weighted averaging partial least squares models were used to build transfer functions for depth to water table. The best performing transfer function was generated by the weighted averaging partial least squares model with an r 2 LOSO of 0.62 and RMSEPLOSO of 6.96 cm. Results indicate that testate amoebae in waterlogged depression peatland have the potential to be used as indicators for hydrological changes and for palaeohydrologic reconstructions in the Sanjiang Plain.

Song, Lihong; Li, Hongkai; Wang, Kehong; Wu, Donghui; Wu, Haitao

2014-12-01

304

A chemical biology approach identified PI3K as a potential therapeutic target for neurofibromatosis type 2  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the merlin tumor suppressor gene cause Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), which is a disease characterized by development of multiple benign tumors in the nervous system. The current standard of care for NF2 calls for surgical resection of the characteristic tumors, often with devastating neurological consequences. There are currently no approved non-surgical therapies for NF2. In an attempt to identify much needed targets and therapeutically active compounds for NF2 treatment, we employed a chemical biology approach using ultra-high-throughput screening. To support this goal, we created a merlin-null mouse Schwann cell (MSC) line to screen for compounds that selectively decrease their viability and proliferation. We optimized conditions for 384-well plate assays and executed a proof-of-concept screen of the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds. Further confirmatory and selectivity assays identified phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) as a potential NF2 drug target. Notably, loss of merlin function is associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway in human schwannomas. We report that AS605240, a PI3K inhibitor, decreased merlin-null MSC viability in a dose-dependent manner without significantly decreasing viability of control Schwann cells. AS605240 exerted its action on merlin-null MSCs by promoting caspase-dependent apoptosis and inducing autophagy. Additional PI3K inhibitors tested also decreased viability of merlin-null MSCs in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, our chemical genomic screen and subsequent hit validation studies have identified PI3K as potential target for NF2 therapy. PMID:25360213

Petrilli, Alejandra M; Fuse, Marisa A; Donnan, Mathew S; Bott, Marga; Sparrow, Nicklaus A; Tondera, Daniel; Huffziger, Julia; Frenzel, Corina; Malany, C Siobhan; Echeverri, Christophe J; Smith, Layton; Fernández-Valle, Cristina

2014-01-01

305

Zebrafish: an emerging technology for in vivo pharmacological assessment to identify potential safety liabilities in early drug discovery  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish is a well-established model organism used in developmental biology. In the last decade, this technology has been extended to the generation of high-value knowledge on safety risks of novel drugs. Indeed, the larval zebrafish appear to combine advantages of whole organism phenotypic assays and those (rapid production of results with minimal resource engagement) of in vitro high-throughput screening techniques. Thus, if appropriately evaluated, it can offer undeniable advantages in drug discovery for identification of target and off-target effects. Here, we review some applications of zebrafish to identify potential safety liabilities, particularly before lead/candidate selection. For instance, zebrafish cardiovascular system can be used to reveal decreases in heart rate and atrial–ventricular dissociation, which may signal human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel blockade. Another main area of interest is the CNS, where zebrafish behavioural assays have been and are further being developed into screening platforms for assessment of locomotor activity, convulsant and proconvulsant liability, cognitive impairment, drug dependence potential and impaired visual and auditory functions. Zebrafish also offer interesting possibilities for evaluating effects on bone density and gastrointestinal function. Furthermore, available knowledge of the renal system in larval zebrafish can allow identification of potential safety issues of drug candidates on this often neglected area in early development platforms. Although additional validation is certainly needed, the zebrafish is emerging as a versatile in vivo animal model to identify off-target effects that need investigation and further clarification early in the drug discovery process to reduce the current, high degree of attrition in development. PMID:18552866

Barros, T P; Alderton, W K; Reynolds, H M; Roach, A G; Berghmans, S

2008-01-01

306

Integration of photomosaics and stratigraphy in the Western Appalachian Basin as an aid to identify potential hydrocarbon reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Paleozoic stratigraphy of the southern Lake Erie region is commonly interpreted as being dominated by flat-lying sedimentary rocks. Recent surface stratigraphic studies in New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio have revealed the widespread presence of NW- and NE-trending folds and faults exposed along stream beds, and in bluffs along the southern Lake Erie shoreline. A black shale unit, previously unknown in northwestern Pennsylvania, was also discovered and its lateral continuity mapped. The shale forms a disconformable contact with the overlying Northeast Shale. Ship-based photomosaics were made of bluffs along Lake Erie, and integrated with land-based stratigraphic sections to map the continuity of units, identify displacement zones, and identify low amplitude folds. The black shale unit aided identification of offset and folding. Faults observed at the surface off-set Devonian and Mississippian rocks, and unconsolidated Quaternary sediments. Subsurface wrench faults, apparently extending into Precambrian rocks, have been identified by others. These wrench faults are generally perpendicular to the strike of the Appalachian Mountains, and are known as cross-strike discontinuities (CSDs). Principle zones of displacement associated with the CSDs can be recognized at the surface by numerous fractures having little offset, aligned drainage systems, and zones of increased hydrocarbon productivity and fluid migration. Increased hydrocarbons production occurs where reservoirs are cross-cut by the faults. The faults offset various reservoirs in Pennsylvania and Ohio in the subsurface. Identifying the location of these faults at the surface may provide information that leads top the discovery of new potential reservoirs.

Wegweiser, M.D. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-09-01

307

Potential of using satellite based vegetation indices and biophysical variables for the assessment of the water footprint of crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite remote sensing techniques play an important role in crop identification, acreage and production estimation, disease and stress detection, and soil and water resources characterization because they provide spatially explicit information and access to remote locations. The main objective of the study is to highlight the potential of using remote sensing techniques in the research field of water management, especially for "water footprint" assessment. In this paper, several vegetation indices (NDVI, NDWI, etc) and biophysical variables (LAI, fAPAR) are key variables to potentially be estimated by remote sensing and used in water footprint studies. The combination of these input parameters brings several limitations regarding the discrepancies in temporal and spatial resolution and data availability, which are described and discussed in detail. MODIS, Landsat, SPOT Vegetation and Meteosat data were used in order to estimate evapotranspiration and vegetation indices. The results of this study show the usefulness of satellite data for water footprint assessment and were obtained by the Remote Sensing Working Group in the framework of the ESSEM COST Action ES1106, "Assessment of EUROpean AGRIculture WATer use and trade under climate change" (EUROAGRIWAT).

Stancalie, Gh.; Nertan, A. T.; Toulios, L.; Spiliotopoulos, M.

2014-08-01

308

Clinical Proteomics Identifies Urinary CD14 as a Potential Biomarker for Diagnosis of Stable Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

Inflammation plays a key role in coronary artery disease (CAD) and other manifestations of atherosclerosis. Recently, urinary proteins were found to be useful markers for reflecting inflammation status of different organs. To identify potential biomarker for diagnosis of CAD, we performed one-dimensional SDS-gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Among the proteins differentially expressed in urine samples, monocyte antigen CD14 was found to be consistently expressed in higher amounts in the CAD patients as compared to normal controls. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to analyze the concentrations of CD14 in urine and serum, we confirmed that urinary CD14 levels were significantly higher in patients (n = 73) with multi-vessel and single vessel CAD than in normal control (n = 35) (P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis further showed that urinary CD14 concentration level is associated with severity or number of diseased vessels and SYNTAX score after adjustment for potential confounders. Concomitantly, the proportion of CD14+ monocytes was significantly increased in CAD patients (59.7 ± 3.6%) as compared with healthy controls (14.9 ± 2.1%) (P < 0.001), implicating that a high level of urinary CD14 may be potentially involved in mechanism(s) leading to CAD pathogenesis. By performing shotgun proteomics, we further revealed that CD14-associated inflammatory response networks may play an essential role in CAD. In conclusion, the current study has demonstrated that release of CD14 in urine coupled with more CD14+ monocytes in CAD patients is significantly correlated with severity of CAD, pointing to the potential application of urinary CD14 as a novel noninvasive biomarker for large-scale diagnostic screening of susceptible CAD patients. PMID:25668619

Lee, Min-Yi; Huang, Chun-Hao; Kuo, Chao-Jen; Lin, Chen-Lung Steve; Lai, Wen-Ter; Chiou, Shyh-Horng

2015-01-01

309

Profiling of the Tox21 Chemical Collection for Mitochondrial Function to Identify Compounds that Acutely Decrease Mitochondrial Membrane Potential  

PubMed Central

Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Understanding whether different environmental chemicals and druglike molecules impact mitochondrial function represents an initial step in predicting exposure-related toxicity and defining a possible role for such compounds in the onset of various diseases. Objectives: We sought to identify individual chemicals and general structural features associated with changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Methods: We used a multiplexed [two end points in one screen; MMP and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content] quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) approach combined with informatics tools to screen the Tox21 library of 10,000 compounds (~ 8,300 unique chemicals) at 15 concentrations each in triplicate to identify chemicals and structural features that are associated with changes in MMP in HepG2 cells. Results: Approximately 11% of the compounds (913 unique compounds) decreased MMP after 1 hr of treatment without affecting cell viability (ATP content). In addition, 309 compounds decreased MMP over a concentration range that also produced measurable cytotoxicity [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) in MMP assay/IC50 in viability assay ? 3; p < 0.05]. More than 11% of the structural clusters that constitute the Tox21 library (76 of 651 clusters) were significantly enriched for compounds that decreased the MMP. Conclusions: Our multiplexed qHTS approach allowed us to generate a robust and reliable data set to evaluate the ability of thousands of drugs and environmental compounds to decrease MMP. The use of structure-based clustering analysis allowed us to identify molecular features that are likely responsible for the observed activity. Citation: Attene-Ramos MS, Huang R, Michael S, Witt KL, Richard A, Tice RR, Simeonov A, Austin CP, Xia M. 2015. Profiling of the Tox21 chemical collection for mitochondrial function to identify compounds that acutely decrease mitochondrial membrane potential. Environ Health Perspect 123:49–56;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408642 PMID:25302578

Attene-Ramos, Matias S.; Huang, Ruili; Michael, Sam; Witt, Kristine L.; Richard, Ann; Tice, Raymond R.; Simeonov, Anton; Austin, Christopher P.

2014-01-01

310

Sorptive behavior of nitro-PAHs in street runoff and their potential as indicators of diesel vehicle exhaust particles.  

PubMed

This is the first report to reveal the particle-water distribution of nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and to discuss their potential risks and utility as indicators of diesel vehicle exhaust particles (DEP). Time-series samples of runoff were collected from a highway, and NPAHs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to study their dynamic behavior. The concentrations of total NPAHs ranged from 11 to 73 ng/L in particulate phase (>0.7 mcirom) and from 2.3 to 4.9 ng/L in dissolved phase (<0.7 microm). Like their PAH analogs, most (81-97%) NPAHs were associated with particulate matter. The organic carbon-normalized in situ partition coefficients (Koc') of NPAHs observed in runoff events (10(5.8-6.3) for 2-nitrofluoranthene and 10(5.8-6.2) for 1-nitropyrene [1-NP]) were more than 1 order of magnitude higher than those expected from their Kow, indicating great affinity for particulate matter such as soot. Concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs adjusted by potency equivalency factors and induction equivalency factors showed that the potential risks of NPAHs were smaller than those of PAHs by a factor of more than a hundred for the particulate phase and morethan fourforthe dissolved phase. Comparison of concentrations and compositions of NPAHs and PAHs among runoff, DEP, gasoline vehicle exhaust particles, boiler exhaust particles, and aerosols suggested that the ratio of 1-NP to total PAHs (1-NP/PAH) is a useful indicator of DEP for source apportionment of PAHs among traffic-related sources. Source-apportionment of PAHs in the runoff by 1-NP/PAH and methylphenanthrene/phenanthrene ratios suggested that most PAHs in the runoff except the second flush peak were derived from DEP but that other pyrogenic sources contributed to the particles at the second flush and thus to the overall runoff particles. PMID:18351085

Murakami, Michio; Yamada, Junya; Kumata, Hidetoshi; Takada, Hideshige

2008-02-15

311

Leaching of Zinc Sulfide by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Experiments with a Controlled Redox Potential Indicate No Direct Bacterial Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The role of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in bacterial leaching of mineral sulfides is controversial. Much of the controversy is due to the fact that the solution conditions, especially the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions, change during experiments. The role of the bacteria would be more easily discernible if the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions were maintained at set values throughout the experimental period. In this paper we report results obtained by using the constant redox potential apparatus described previously (P. I. Harvey and F. K. Crundwell, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:2586–2592, 1997). This apparatus is designed to control the redox potential in the leaching compartment of an electrolytic cell by reduction or oxidation of dissolved iron. By controlling the redox potential the apparatus maintains the concentrations of ferrous and ferric ions at their initial values. Experiments were conducted in the presence of T. ferrooxidans and under sterile conditions. Analysis of the conversion of zinc sulfide in the absence of the bacteria and analysis of the conversion of zinc sulfate in the presence of the bacteria produced the same results. This indicates that the only role of the bacteria under the conditions used is regeneration of ferric ions in solution. In this work we found no evidence that there is a direct mechanism for bacterial leaching. PMID:9758769

Fowler, T. A.; Crundwell, F. K.

1998-01-01

312

Indicators of hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological integrity for estimating potential loss of ecosystem services from wetlands on domesticated landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands are being lost at an alarming rate in the prairie pothole landscape of North America. The full consequence of this loss is not fully understood or recognized due to (1) inadequate or incomplete wetland inventories (with mapping emphasizing permanent and not ephemeral wetlands, and only capturing "easy to observe" wetland area defined by open water and not the true dynamic wetland extent defined by saturated soils), and (2) lack of appropriate theoretical frameworks to assess the functions and benefits of these wetlands. We present a theoretical framework that integrates indicators to estimate functions and benefits of wetland integrity in central Alberta. We establish indicators using the principles that are representative of the dominant processes operating on the landscape, are simple and are scalable. While some of these indicators may be widely recognized, their implementation is often not comprehensive or complete. First, we develop an automated method for fine scale mapping of permanent and ephemeral wetlands from a fusion of high-resolution elevation data and aerial photography. Second, we estimate historic wetland loss over the past 50 years during which intensive domestication of the landscape occurred by modeling the distribution of wetlands in an undisturbed landscape using area-frequency power functions and calculating the difference in the actual wetland inventory. Third, we define relative wetland assessment units using cluster analysis of hydrological and ecological variables, including climate, geology, topography, soils and land use/land covers. Fourth, for each assessment unit we define indicators of functions and benefits of aquatic ecosystem services including water storage (surface and subsurface), phosphorus retention, nitrate removal, sediment retention, ecological health/biodiversity and human use, and then use practical strategies rooted in the fusion of digital terrain analysis and remote sensing techniques to measure and monitor these indicators over the past years. For a time series of wetlands loss we derive these indicators of functions and benefits to estimate changes in the provision of specific aquatic ecosystem services on the landscape. Last, we develop formulae for integrating these indicators to determine whether a specific wetland or wetland complex should be prioritized for conservation, exemplifying potential trade-offs among ecosystem services in setting conservation targets on this wetland dominated landscapes. The proposed theoretical framework evolved from close collaboration between scientists and resource managers, and will inform those engaged in developing wetland policies for a broad range of jurisdictions.

Creed, I. F.; Aldred, D.; Spargo, A.; Bayley, S.

2012-12-01

313

A cell-based fascin bioassay identifies compounds with potential anti-metastasis or cognition-enhancing functions  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The actin-bundling protein fascin is a key mediator of tumor invasion and metastasis and its activity drives filopodia formation, cell-shape changes and cell migration. Small-molecule inhibitors of fascin block tumor metastasis in animal models. Conversely, fascin deficiency might underlie the pathogenesis of some developmental brain disorders. To identify fascin-pathway modulators we devised a cell-based assay for fascin function and used it in a bidirectional drug screen. The screen utilized cultured fascin-deficient mutant Drosophila neurons, whose neurite arbors manifest the ‘filagree’ phenotype. Taking a repurposing approach, we screened a library of 1040 known compounds, many of them FDA-approved drugs, for filagree modifiers. Based on scaffold distribution, molecular-fingerprint similarities, and chemical-space distribution, this library has high structural diversity, supporting its utility as a screening tool. We identified 34 fascin-pathway blockers (with potential anti-metastasis activity) and 48 fascin-pathway enhancers (with potential cognitive-enhancer activity). The structural diversity of the active compounds suggests multiple molecular targets. Comparisons of active and inactive compounds provided preliminary structure-activity relationship information. The screen also revealed diverse neurotoxic effects of other drugs, notably the ‘beads-on-a-string’ defect, which is induced solely by statins. Statin-induced neurotoxicity is enhanced by fascin deficiency. In summary, we provide evidence that primary neuron culture using a genetic model organism can be valuable for early-stage drug discovery and developmental neurotoxicity testing. Furthermore, we propose that, given an appropriate assay for target-pathway function, bidirectional screening for brain-development disorders and invasive cancers represents an efficient, multipurpose strategy for drug discovery. PMID:22917928

Kraft, Robert; Kahn, Allon; Medina-Franco, José L.; Orlowski, Mikayla L.; Baynes, Cayla; López-Vallejo, Fabian; Barnard, Kobus; Maggiora, Gerald M.; Restifo, Linda L.

2013-01-01

314

In silico repositioning-chemogenomics strategy identifies new drugs with potential activity against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Morbidity and mortality caused by schistosomiasis are serious public health problems in developing countries. Because praziquantel is the only drug in therapeutic use, the risk of drug resistance is a concern. In the search for new schistosomicidal drugs, we performed a target-based chemogenomics screen of a dataset of 2,114 proteins to identify drugs that are approved for clinical use in humans that may be active against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target, and its amino acid sequence was used to interrogate three databases: Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), DrugBank and STITCH. Predicted drug-target interactions were refined using a combination of approaches, including pairwise alignment, conservation state of functional regions and chemical space analysis. To validate our strategy, several drugs previously shown to be active against Schistosoma species were correctly predicted, such as clonazepam, auranofin, nifedipine, and artesunate. We were also able to identify 115 drugs that have not yet been experimentally tested against schistosomes and that require further assessment. Some examples are aprindine, gentamicin, clotrimazole, tetrabenazine, griseofulvin, and cinnarizine. In conclusion, we have developed a systematic and focused computer-aided approach to propose approved drugs that may warrant testing and/or serve as lead compounds for the design of new drugs against schistosomes. PMID:25569258

Neves, Bruno J; Braga, Rodolpho C; Bezerra, José C B; Cravo, Pedro V L; Andrade, Carolina H

2015-01-01

315

Potential Immunogenic Polypeptides of Burkholderia pseudomallei Identified by Shotgun Expression Library and Evaluation of Their Efficacy for Serodiagnosis of Melioidosis  

PubMed Central

The search for novel immunogenic polypeptides to improve the accuracy and reliability of serologic diagnostic methods for Burkholderia pseudomallei infection is ongoing. We employed a rapid and efficient approach to identify such polypeptides with sera from melioidosis patients using a small insert genomic expression library created from clinically confirmed local virulent isolates of B. pseudomallei. After 2 rounds of immunoscreening, 6 sero-positive clones expressing immunogenic peptides were sequenced and their identities were: benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit, a putative 200 kDa antigen p200, phosphotransferase enzyme family protein, short chain dehydrogenase and 2 hypothetical proteins. These immunogens were then transferred to an ELISA platform for further large scale screening. By combining shotgun expression library and ELISA assays, we identified 2 polypeptides BPSS1904 (benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit) and BPSL3130 (hypothetical protein), which had sensitivities of 78.9% and 79.4% and specificities of 88.1% and 94.8%, respectively in ELISA test, thus suggesting that both are potential candidate antigens for the serodiagnosis of infections caused by B. pseudomallei. PMID:23532805

Puah, Suat Moi; Puthucheary, SD; Chua, Kek Heng

2013-01-01

316

Phosphotyrosine profiling identifies ephrin receptor A2 as a potential therapeutic target in esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common malignancies in Asia. Currently, surgical resection of early-stage tumor is the best available treatment. However, most patients present late when surgery is not an option. Data suggest that chemotherapy regimens are inadequate for clinical management of advanced cancer. Targeted therapy has emerged as one of the most promising approaches to treat several malignancies. A prerequisite for developing targeted therapy is prior knowledge of proteins and pathways that drive proliferation in malignancies. We carried out phosphotyrosine profiling across four different ESCC cell lines and compared it to non-neoplastic Het-1A cell line to identify activated tyrosine kinase signaling pathways in ESCC. A total of 278 unique phosphopeptides were identified across these cell lines. This included several tyrosine kinases and their substrates that were hyperphosphorylated in ESCC. Ephrin receptor A2 (EPHA2), a receptor tyrosine kinase, was hyperphosphorylated in all the ESCC cell lines used in the study. EPHA2 is reported to be oncogenic in several cancers and is also known to promote metastasis. Immunohistochemistry-based studies have revealed EPHA2 is overexpressed in nearly 50% of ESCC. We demonstrated EPHA2 as a potential therapeutic target in ESCC by carrying out siRNA-based knockdown studies. Knockdown of EPHA2 in ESCC cell line TE8 resulted in significant decrease in cell proliferation and invasion, suggesting it is a promising therapeutic target in ESCC that warrants further evaluation. PMID:25366905

Syed, Nazia; Barbhuiya, Mustafa A; Pinto, Sneha M; Nirujogi, Raja Sekhar; Renuse, Santosh; Datta, Keshava K; Khan, Aafaque Ahmad; Srikumar, Kotteazeth; Prasad, T S Keshava; Kumar, M Vijaya; Kumar, Rekha Vijay; Chatterjee, Aditi; Pandey, Akhilesh; Gowda, Harsha

2015-01-01

317

Phosphotyrosine profiling identifies ephrin receptor A2 as a potential therapeutic target in esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common malignancies in Asia. Currently, surgical resection of early-stage tumor is the best available treatment. However, most patients present late when surgery is not an option. Data suggest that chemotherapy regimens are inadequate for clinical management of advanced cancer. Targeted therapy has emerged as one of the most promising approaches to treat several malignancies. A prerequisite for developing targeted therapy is prior knowledge of proteins and pathways that drive proliferation in malignancies. We carried out phosphotyrosine profiling across four different ESCC cell lines and compared it to non-neoplastic Het-1A cell line to identify activated tyrosine kinase signaling pathways in ESCC. A total of 278 unique phosphopeptides were identified across these cell lines. This included several tyrosine kinases and their substrates that were hyperphosphorylated in ESCC. Ephrin receptor A2 (EPHA2), a receptor tyrosine kinase, was hyperphosphorylated in all the ESCC cell lines used in the study. EPHA2 is reported to be oncogenic in several cancers and is also known to promote metastasis. Immunohistochemistry-based studies have revealed EPHA2 is overexpressed in nearly 50% of ESCC. We demonstrated EPHA2 as a potential therapeutic target in ESCC by carrying out siRNA-based knockdown studies. Knockdown of EPHA2 in ESCC cell line TE8 resulted in significant decrease in cell proliferation and invasion, suggesting it is a promising therapeutic target in ESCC that warrants further evaluation. PMID:25366905

Syed, Nazia; Barbhuiya, Mustafa A; Pinto, Sneha M; Nirujogi, Raja Sekhar; Renuse, Santosh; Datta, Keshava K; Khan, Aafaque Ahmad; Srikumar, Kotteazeth; Prasad, T S Keshava; Kumar, M Vijaya; Kumar, Rekha Vijay; Chatterjee, Aditi; Pandey, Akhilesh; Gowda, Harsha

2015-01-01

318

In Silico Repositioning-Chemogenomics Strategy Identifies New Drugs with Potential Activity against Multiple Life Stages of Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Morbidity and mortality caused by schistosomiasis are serious public health problems in developing countries. Because praziquantel is the only drug in therapeutic use, the risk of drug resistance is a concern. In the search for new schistosomicidal drugs, we performed a target-based chemogenomics screen of a dataset of 2,114 proteins to identify drugs that are approved for clinical use in humans that may be active against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target, and its amino acid sequence was used to interrogate three databases: Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), DrugBank and STITCH. Predicted drug-target interactions were refined using a combination of approaches, including pairwise alignment, conservation state of functional regions and chemical space analysis. To validate our strategy, several drugs previously shown to be active against Schistosoma species were correctly predicted, such as clonazepam, auranofin, nifedipine, and artesunate. We were also able to identify 115 drugs that have not yet been experimentally tested against schistosomes and that require further assessment. Some examples are aprindine, gentamicin, clotrimazole, tetrabenazine, griseofulvin, and cinnarizine. In conclusion, we have developed a systematic and focused computer-aided approach to propose approved drugs that may warrant testing and/or serve as lead compounds for the design of new drugs against schistosomes. PMID:25569258

Neves, Bruno J.; Braga, Rodolpho C.; Bezerra, José C. B.; Cravo, Pedro V. L.; Andrade, Carolina H.

2015-01-01

319

Experimental antibiotic treatment identifies potential pathogens of white band disease in the endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis  

PubMed Central

Coral diseases have been increasingly reported over the past few decades and are a major contributor to coral decline worldwide. The Caribbean, in particular, has been noted as a hotspot for coral disease, and the aptly named white syndromes have caused the decline of the dominant reef building corals throughout their range. White band disease (WBD) has been implicated in the dramatic loss of Acropora cervicornis and Acropora palmata since the 1970s, resulting in both species being listed as critically endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red list. The causal agent of WBD remains unknown, although recent studies based on challenge experiments with filtrate from infected hosts concluded that the disease is probably caused by bacteria. Here, we report an experiment using four different antibiotic treatments, targeting different members of the disease-associated microbial community. Two antibiotics, ampicillin and paromomycin, arrested the disease completely, and by comparing with community shifts brought about by treatments that did not arrest the disease, we have identified the likely candidate causal agent or agents of WBD. Our interpretation of the experimental treatments is that one or a combination of up to three specific bacterial types, detected consistently in diseased corals but not detectable in healthy corals, are likely causal agents of WBD. In addition, a histophagous ciliate (Philaster lucinda) identical to that found consistently in association with white syndrome in Indo-Pacific acroporas was also consistently detected in all WBD samples and absent in healthy coral. Treatment with metronidazole reduced it to below detection limits, but did not arrest the disease. However, the microscopic disease signs changed, suggesting a secondary role in disease causation for this ciliate. In future studies to identify a causal agent of WBD via tests of Henle–Koch's postulates, it will be vital to experimentally control for populations of the other potential pathogens identified in this study. PMID:24943374

Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

2014-01-01

320

Experimental antibiotic treatment identifies potential pathogens of white band disease in the endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis.  

PubMed

Coral diseases have been increasingly reported over the past few decades and are a major contributor to coral decline worldwide. The Caribbean, in particular, has been noted as a hotspot for coral disease, and the aptly named white syndromes have caused the decline of the dominant reef building corals throughout their range. White band disease (WBD) has been implicated in the dramatic loss of Acropora cervicornis and Acropora palmata since the 1970s, resulting in both species being listed as critically endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red list. The causal agent of WBD remains unknown, although recent studies based on challenge experiments with filtrate from infected hosts concluded that the disease is probably caused by bacteria. Here, we report an experiment using four different antibiotic treatments, targeting different members of the disease-associated microbial community. Two antibiotics, ampicillin and paromomycin, arrested the disease completely, and by comparing with community shifts brought about by treatments that did not arrest the disease, we have identified the likely candidate causal agent or agents of WBD. Our interpretation of the experimental treatments is that one or a combination of up to three specific bacterial types, detected consistently in diseased corals but not detectable in healthy corals, are likely causal agents of WBD. In addition, a histophagous ciliate (Philaster lucinda) identical to that found consistently in association with white syndrome in Indo-Pacific acroporas was also consistently detected in all WBD samples and absent in healthy coral. Treatment with metronidazole reduced it to below detection limits, but did not arrest the disease. However, the microscopic disease signs changed, suggesting a secondary role in disease causation for this ciliate. In future studies to identify a causal agent of WBD via tests of Henle-Koch's postulates, it will be vital to experimentally control for populations of the other potential pathogens identified in this study. PMID:24943374

Sweet, M J; Croquer, A; Bythell, J C

2014-08-01

321

Genetic Analysis of Fin Development in Zebrafish Identifies Furin and Hemicentin1 as Potential Novel Fraser Syndrome Disease Genes  

PubMed Central

Using forward genetics, we have identified the genes mutated in two classes of zebrafish fin mutants. The mutants of the first class are characterized by defects in embryonic fin morphogenesis, which are due to mutations in a Laminin subunit or an Integrin alpha receptor, respectively. The mutants of the second class display characteristic blistering underneath the basement membrane of the fin epidermis. Three of them are due to mutations in zebrafish orthologues of FRAS1, FREM1, or FREM2, large basement membrane protein encoding genes that are mutated in mouse bleb mutants and in human patients suffering from Fraser Syndrome, a rare congenital condition characterized by syndactyly and cryptophthalmos. Fin blistering in a fourth group of zebrafish mutants is caused by mutations in Hemicentin1 (Hmcn1), another large extracellular matrix protein the function of which in vertebrates was hitherto unknown. Our mutant and dose-dependent interaction data suggest a potential involvement of Hmcn1 in Fraser complex-dependent basement membrane anchorage. Furthermore, we present biochemical and genetic data suggesting a role for the proprotein convertase FurinA in zebrafish fin development and cell surface shedding of Fras1 and Frem2, thereby allowing proper localization of the proteins within the basement membrane of forming fins. Finally, we identify the extracellular matrix protein Fibrillin2 as an indispensable interaction partner of Hmcn1. Thus we have defined a series of zebrafish mutants modelling Fraser Syndrome and have identified several implicated novel genes that might help to further elucidate the mechanisms of basement membrane anchorage and of the disease's aetiology. In addition, the novel genes might prove helpful to unravel the molecular nature of thus far unresolved cases of the human disease. PMID:20419147

Carney, Thomas J.; Feitosa, Natália Martins; Sonntag, Carmen; Slanchev, Krasimir; Kluger, Johannes; Kiyozumi, Daiji; Gebauer, Jan M.; Coffin Talbot, Jared; Kimmel, Charles B.; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Wagener, Raimund; Schwarz, Heinz; Ingham, Phillip W.; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

2010-01-01

322

Naphthenic acids in coastal sediments after the Hebei Spirit oil spill: a potential indicator for oil contamination.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NAs) as toxic components in most petroleum sources are suspected to be one of the major pollutants in the aquatic environment following oil spills, and the polarity and persistence of NAs make it a potential indicator for oil contamination. However, the contamination and potential effects of pollutants in oil spill affected areas remain unknown. To investigate NAs in oil spill affected areas, a sensitive method was first established for analysis of NAs, together with oxy-NAs in sediment samples by UPLC-QTOF-MS. Then the method was applied to determine the NA mixtures in crude oil, weathered oil, and sediments from the spilled sites after the Hebei Spirit oil spill, Taean, South Korea (Dec. 2007). Concentrations of NAs, O3-NAs, and O4-NAs were found to be 7.8-130, 3.6-44, and 0.8-20 mg kg(-1) dw in sediments from the Taean area, respectively, which were much greater than those measured in the reference sites of Manlipo and Anmyundo beaches. Concentrations of NAs were 50-100 times greater than those (0.077-2.5 mg kg(-1) dw) of PAHs in the same sediment samples, thus the ecological risk of NAs in oil spill affected areas deserves more attention. The sedimentary profiles of oil-derived NAs and background NAs centered around compounds with 21-35 and 12-21 carbons, respectively, indicating that the crude-derived NA mixtures originating from the 2007 oil spill were persistent. Acyclic NAsn=5-20 were easily degraded compared to cyclic NAsn=21-41 during the oil weathering processes, and the ratio of oxy-NAsn=21-41 relative to NAsn=21-41 could be a novel index to estimate the degree of oil weathering in sediments. Altogether, the persistent oil-derived NAsn=21-41 could be used as a potential indicator for oil-specific contamination, as such compounds would not be much affected by the properties of coastal sediments possibly due to the high sorption of the negatively charged compounds (NAs) in sediment. PMID:24579908

Wan, Yi; Wang, Beili; Khim, Jong Seong; Hong, Seongjin; Shim, Won Joon; Hu, Jianying

2014-04-01

323

Why is it so difficult to identify a single indicator of water stress in plants? A proposal for a multivariate analysis to assess emergent properties.  

PubMed

Because of the complexity of plant responses to water deficit, researchers have attempted to identify simplified models to understand critical aspects of the problem by searching for single indicators that would enable evaluations of the effects of environmental changes on the entire plant. However, this reductionist approach, which is often used in plant sciences, makes it difficult to distinguish systemic emergent behaviours. Currently, a new class of models and epistemology have called attention to the fundamental properties of complex systems. These properties, termed 'emergent', are observed at a large scale of the system (top hierarchical level) but cannot be observed or inferred from smaller scales of observation in the same system. We propose that multivariate statistical analysis can provide a suitable tool to quantify global responses to water deficit, allowing a specific and partially quantitative assessment of emergent properties. Based on an experimental study, our results showed that the classical approach of the individual analysis of different data sets might provide different interpretations for the observed effects of water deficit. These results support the hypothesis that a cross-scale multivariate analysis is an appropriate method to establish models for systemic understanding of the interactions between plants and their changing environment. PMID:24127942

Bertolli, S C; Mazzafera, P; Souza, G M

2014-05-01

324

Overall multi-media persistence as an indicator of potential for population-level intake of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Although it is intuitively apparent that population-level exposure to contaminants dispersed in the environment must related to the persistence of the contaminant, there has been little effort to formally quantify this link. In this paper we investigate the relationship between overall persistence in a multimedia environment and the population-level exposure as expressed by intake fraction (iF), which is the cumulative fraction of chemical emitted to the environment that is taken up by members of the population. We first confirm that for any given chemical contaminant and emission scenario the definition of iF implies that it is directly proportional to the overall multi-media persistence, P{sub OV}. We show that the proportionality constant has dimensions of time and represents the characteristic time for population intake (CTI) of the chemical from the environment. We then apply the CalTOX fate and exposure model to explore how P{sub OV} and CTI combine to determine the magnitude of iF. We find that CTI has a narrow range of possible values relative to P{sub OV} across multiple chemicals and emissions scenarios. We use data from the Canadian Environmental Protection Act Priority Substance List (PSL1) Assessments to show that exposure assessments based on empirical observation are consistent with interpretations from the model. The characteristic time for intake along different dominant exposure pathways is discussed. Results indicate that P{sub OV} derived from screening-level assessments of persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT) is a useful indicator of the potential for population-level exposure.

MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.

2003-06-01

325

What's down below? Current and potential future applications of geophysical techniques to identify subsurface permafrost conditions (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For infrastructure design, operations, and maintenance requirements in the North the ability to accurately and efficiently detect the presence (or absence) of ground ice in permafrost terrains is a serious challenge. Ground ice features including ice wedges, thermokarst cave-ice, and segregation ice are present in a variety of spatial scales and patterns. Currently, most engineering applications use borehole logging and sampling to extrapolate conditions at the point scale. However, there is high risk of over or under estimating the presence of frozen or unfrozen features when relying on borehole information alone. In addition, boreholes are costly, especially for planning linear structures like roads or runways. Predicted climate warming will provide further challenges for infrastructure development and transportation operations where permafrost degradation occurs. Accurately identifying the subsurface character in permafrost terrains will allow engineers and planners to cost effectively create novel infrastructure designs to withstand the changing environment. There is thus a great need for a low cost rapidly deployable, spatially extensive means of 'measuring' subsurface conditions. Geophysical measurements, both terrestrial and airborne, have strong potential to revolutionize our way of mapping subsurface conditions. Many studies in continuous and discontinuous permafrost have used geophysical measurements to identify discrete features and repeatable patterns in the subsurface. The most common measurements include galvanic and capacitive coupled resistivity, ground penetrating radar, and multi frequency electromagnetic induction techniques. Each of these measurements has strengths, weaknesses, and limitations. By combining horizontal geophysical measurements, downhole geophysics, multispectral remote sensing images, LiDAR measurements, and soil and vegetation mapping we can start to assemble a holistic view of how surface conditions and standoff measurements can be used to delineate subsurface permafrost geomorphology. This presentation will include examples of projects in Alaska and Greenland where a combination of geophysical and other measurement techniques have been used to identify subsurface conditions. These include projects at multiple locations around Interior Alaska where a variety of ground based and standoff measurements are being used to identify subsurface conditions, and infrastructure projects at Thule, Greenland, where geophysical measurements are being used to cut costs for new construction and maintenance. The expansion of the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratories' Fox Permafrost Tunnel is to provide a three dimensional test bed for geophysical measurements, and construction is aided by geophysical measurements. The array of geophysical research tools used to interrogate the subsurface in permafrost terrains can likely provide worthwhile information in non-frozen ground terrains to support sensor development and geomorphological interpretation.

Douglas, T. A.; Bjella, K.; Campbell, S. W.

2013-12-01

326

Relative abundance and treatment reduction of viruses during wastewater treatment processes--identification of potential viral indicators.  

PubMed

Waterborne pathogenic viruses discharged from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) pose potential public health risks. In the present study, we investigated the relative abundance, occurrence, and reduction of eleven different viruses at two WWTPs in southern Arizona over a 12-month period, from August 2011 to July 2012. Influent and effluent samples from the two WWTPs were collected monthly. Viruses were concentrated using an electronegative filter method and quantified using TaqMan-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for each of the virus types (i.e., genogroup I, II and IV noroviruses, sapovirus, enterovirus, group A rotavirus, Aichi virus, pepper mild mottle virus, adenovirus, and JC and BK polyomaviruses), with murine norovirus internal control for the monitoring of extraction-RT-qPCR efficiencies. The pepper mild mottle virus, a plant virus, was found to be the most prevalent virus in both influent and effluent wastewater (annual mean concentration of 3.7-4.4×10(6) copies/L and 4.6-6.3×10(5) copies/L in influent and effluent wastewater, respectively), showing a low reduction by the treatment processes (0.76-0.99 annual mean log10 reduction), and no significant seasonal change in concentration. Aichi virus, a human enteric virus, was also found in greater abundance, and showed lower reduction during wastewater treatment than other human enteric viruses. Our results suggest that these viruses could be used as potential indicators of wastewater reclamation system performance, with respect to virus occurrence and removal. PMID:24836386

Kitajima, Masaaki; Iker, Brandon C; Pepper, Ian L; Gerba, Charles P

2014-08-01

327

Ceriodaphnia dubia as a Potential Bio-Indicator for Assessing Acute Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticle Toxicity in Fresh Water Environment  

PubMed Central

Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h) in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h) puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake) as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES) analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system. PMID:24040143

Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Humayun, Ahmed; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

2013-01-01

328

Volatile fingerprint of Brazilian defective coffee seeds: corroboration of potential marker compounds and identification of new low quality indicators.  

PubMed

In the present work, the volatile profiles of green and roasted Brazilian defective coffee seeds and their controls were characterised, totalling 159 compounds. Overall, defective seeds showed higher number and concentration of volatile compounds compared to those of control seeds, especially pyrazines, pyrroles and phenols. Corroborating our previous results, butyrolactone and hexanoic acid, previously considered as potential defective seeds' markers, were observed only in raw and roasted defective seeds, respectively, and not in control seeds. New compounds were suggested as potential defective seeds' markers: hexanoic acid (for raw and roasted defective seeds in general), butyrolactone (for raw defective seeds in general), and 3-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-hexadiene (for raw black seeds); ?-linalool and 2-butyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (for roasted defective seeds in general), and 2-pentylfuran (for roasted black seeds). Additional compounds suggested as low quality indicators were 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine,2,3-butanediol and 4-ethylguaiacol, ?-linalool, 2-,3-dimethylbutyl butanoate, 2-phenylethyl acetate, 2,3-butanedione, hexanedioic acid, guaiacol, 2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-1H-benzopyrrol, 3-methylpiperidine, 2-pentylpiperidine, 3-octen-2-one, 2-octenal, 2-pentylfuran and 2-butyl-3-methylpyrazine. PMID:24491734

Toci, Aline T; Farah, Adriana

2014-06-15

329

Hormone variations in serum and milk of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) as potential indicators of treatment with recombinant bovine somatotropin.  

PubMed

Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is used to increase milk yield in cows, but it has been forbidden in some countries and in the EU. However, rbST misuse represents a concern in both bovine and buffalo dairy production. A number of studies on rbST treatment have been performed on bovines, but there are few data on buffaloes. In this study, we treated eight lactating buffaloes with biweekly injections of a slow-release formulation of rbST, for five cycles of administration, and analysed total ST and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) variations in serum and IGF-1 in milk. The aim was to assess their power as potential indicators of rbST-treatment. Blood was collected on days 2, 5, 9 and 14 of each cycle, and milk on days 2, 9 and 14 of cycles 2 and 5. Results showed an extraordinary increase in ST levels on day 2 in treated animals, followed by a rapid decrease over the following days, while a significant increase in IGF-1 was observed both in serum and in milk throughout most of each cycle. These results suggest that serum ST levels are a good indicator of treatment. However, the rapid decrease after the peak limits the useful period of sample collection. PMID:21843393

Castigliego, Lorenzo; Li, Xiao Ning; Armani, Andrea; Grifoni, Goffredo; Boselli, Carlo; Rosati, Remo; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Guidi, Alessandra

2011-11-01

330

In lumbosacral plexus injuries can we identify indicators that predict spontaneous recovery or the need for surgical treatment? Results from a clinical study on 72 patients  

PubMed Central

Background Post-traumatic lumbosacral plexus injuries seem to be rare events, spontaneously recovering in high percentage: as surgery is often challenging and results in poor outcome, many Authors have advocated conservative treatment only. Nevertheless surgery should not be ruled out: in invalidating injuries, it can restore basic function in the lower extremities. Therefore, it might be necessary to establish guidelines for the management and the indication to surgery in such cases. This study aims to identify indicators predicting spontaneous recovery or the need for surgery. Method The clinical and radiological data of 72 patients with a post-traumatic lumbosacral plexus injury were reviewed. A follow up equal or superior to 3 years is available in 42 cases. Results Lumbosacral plexus injuries mostly occurred during road accidents. The incidence of associated lesions was relevant: bone injuries were found in 85% of patients, internal lesions in 30% and vascular injuries in 8%. Lumbosacral trunk and sacral plexus palsies were the most frequent injury patterns. Root avulsions were revealed in 23% of cases and only in sacral plexus and complete lumbosacral plexus injuries: L5 and S1 were the roots more prone to avulsions. About 70% of cases recovered spontaneously, mostly in 18 months. Spontaneous recovery was the rule in lumbar plexus and lumbosacral trunk injuries (where root avulsions never occurred) or in sacral and complete lumbosacral plexus palsies due to compression injuries. The causative mechanism correlated with the injury pattern, the associated bone injury being often predictive of the severity of the nerve injury. Lumbosacral plexus injuries occurred in car crashes were generally associated with fractures causing compression on the nerves, thus resulting in injuries often amenable of spontaneous recovery. Motorcycle accidents implied high kinetic energy traumas where traction played an important role, as the high percentage of sacroiliac joint separations demonstrated (found in more than 50% of cases and always associated to root avulsions). Loss of sphincteral control and excruciating leg pain were also invariably associated with avulsions. Conclusions Clinical and radiological data can help to predict the occurrence of spontaneous recovery or the need for surgery in post-traumatic lumbosacral plexus injuries. PMID:24410760

2014-01-01

331

Genetic screening test for psoriatic arthritis and UVB irradiation potential responders: A new tool to identify psoriasis subpopulation patients?  

PubMed Central

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a psoriasis-associated inflammatory disease of the joints and enthuses. The occurrence of PsA is linked to the complex interplay of gene environment, and immune system. Genetic factors have long been recognized to play an important role in PsA. Genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region have been shown to be associated with PsA. These include genes coded in the HLA region, (especially Class I antigens) and non-HLA genes (i.e., MHC class I chain-related antigen A, MICA, and TNF-? genes). Association studies in PsA have also identified a number of genes outside MHC region, including interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene cluster, killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), and IL-23R genes. Established systemic treatments for moderate-severe psoriasis and PsA may be potentially dangerous and usually time consuming for the patient and often expensive for the National Health Systems. Tests which could predict which subset of psoriatic patients could develop the most severe forms of the disease (i.e., PsA) or will respond to well-established (UVB irradiation) or other systemic treatments are now required. The goal of genetic test screening is to rapidly and safely identify subjects for preventive or early treatment or extended surveillance prior to the onset of signs and symptoms. Genetic tests today represent a reliable investigation procedure which could rapidly and consistently improve the diagnostic ability of the dermatologist and contribute to the early and correct treatment of the different subsets of PsA. PMID:23130225

Lotti, Torello; Tognetti, Linda; Galeone, Massimiliano; Bruscino, Nicola; Moretti, Silvia; Giorgini, Simonetta

2011-01-01

332

Subtractive Phage Display Selection from Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Identifies Novel Epitopes That Mimic Leishmania infantum Antigens with Potential Serodiagnosis Applications  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease that is endemic to Brazil, where dogs are the main domestic parasite reservoirs, and the percentages of infected dogs living in regions where canine VL (CVL) is endemic have ranged from 10% to 62%. Despite technological advances, some problems have been reported with CVL serodiagnosis. The present study describes a sequential subtractive selection through phage display technology from polyclonal antibodies of negative and positive sera that resulted in the identification of potential bacteriophage-fused peptides that were highly sensitive and specific to antibodies of CVL. A negative selection was performed in which phage clones were adhered to purified IgGs from healthy and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs to eliminate cross-reactive phages. The remaining supernatant nonadhered phages were submitted to positive selection against IgG from the blood serum of dogs that were infected with Leishmania infantum. Phage clones that adhered to purified IgGs from the CVL-infected serum samples were selected. Eighteen clones were identified and their reactivities tested by a phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (phage-ELISA) against the serum samples from infected dogs (n = 31) compared to those from vaccinated dogs (n = 21), experimentally infected dogs with cross-reactive parasites (n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 17). Eight clones presented sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 100%, and they showed no cross-reactivity with T. cruzi- or Ehrlichia canis-infected dogs or with dogs vaccinated with two different commercial CVL vaccines in Brazil. Our study identified eight mimotopes of L. infantum antigens with 100% accuracy for CVL serodiagnosis. The use of these mimotopes by phage-ELISA proved to be an excellent assay that was reproducible, simple, fast, and inexpensive, and it can be applied in CVL-monitoring programs. PMID:24256622

Costa, Lourena E.; Lima, Mayara I. S.; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A.; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Martins, Vivian T.; Duarte, Mariana C.; Lage, Paula S.; Lopes, Eliane G. P.; Lage, Daniela P.; Ribeiro, Tatiana G.; Andrade, Pedro H. R.; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle F.; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A. P.; Goulart, Luiz R.

2014-01-01

333

Identifying Conservation Successes, Failures and Future Opportunities; Assessing Recovery Potential of Wild Ungulates and Tigers in Eastern Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Conservation investment, particularly for charismatic and wide-ranging large mammal species, needs to be evidence-based. Despite the prevalence of this theme within the literature, examples of robust data being generated to guide conservation policy and funding decisions are rare. We present the first published case-study of tiger conservation in Indochina, from a site where an evidence-based approach has been implemented for this iconic predator and its prey. Despite the persistence of extensive areas of habitat, Indochina's tiger and ungulate prey populations are widely supposed to have precipitously declined in recent decades. The Seima Protection Forest (SPF), and broader Eastern Plains Landscape, was identified in 2000 as representing Cambodia's best hope for tiger recovery; reflected in its designation as a Global Priority Tiger Conservation Landscape. Since 2005 distance sampling, camera-trapping and detection-dog surveys have been employed to assess the recovery potential of ungulate and tiger populations in SPF. Our results show that while conservation efforts have ensured that small but regionally significant populations of larger ungulates persist, and density trends in smaller ungulates are stable, overall ungulate populations remain well below theoretical carrying capacity. Extensive field surveys failed to yield any evidence of tiger, and we contend that there is no longer a resident population within the SPF. This local extirpation is believed to be primarily attributable to two decades of intensive hunting; but importantly, prey densities are also currently below the level necessary to support a viable tiger population. Based on these results and similar findings from neighbouring sites, Eastern Cambodia does not currently constitute a Tiger Source Site nor meet the criteria of a Global Priority Tiger Landscape. However, SPF retains global importance for many other elements of biodiversity. It retains high regional importance for ungulate populations and potentially in the future for Indochinese tigers, given adequate prey and protection. PMID:23077476

O'Kelly, Hannah J.; Evans, Tom D.; Stokes, Emma J.; Clements, Tom J.; Dara, An; Gately, Mark; Menghor, Nut; Pollard, Edward H. B.; Soriyun, Men; Walston, Joe

2012-01-01

334

Assessing the Connection Between Health and Education: Identifying Potential Leverage Points for Public Health to Improve School Attendance  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined multiple variables influencing school truancy to identify potential leverage points to improve school attendance. Methods A cross-sectional observational design was used to analyze inner-city data collected in Los Angeles County, California, during 2010 to 2011. We constructed an ordinal logistic regression model with cluster robust standard errors to examine the association between truancy and various covariates. Results The sample was predominantly Hispanic (84.3%). Multivariable analysis revealed greater truancy among students (1) with mild (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 2.01) and severe (AOR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.13) depression (referent: no depression), (2) whose parents were neglectful (AOR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.21, 4.03) or indulgent (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.82; referent: authoritative parents), (3) who perceived less support from classes, teachers, and other students regarding college preparation (AOR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.81, 0.95), (4) who had low grade point averages (AOR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.49, 4.38), and (5) who reported using alcohol (AOR = 3.47; 95% CI = 2.34, 5.14) or marijuana (AOR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.38) during the past month. Conclusions Study findings suggest depression, substance use, and parental engagement as potential leverage points for public health to intervene to improve school attendance. PMID:25033134

Gase, Lauren N.; Kuo, Tony; Coller, Karen; Guerrero, Lourdes R.; Wong, Mitchell D.

2014-01-01

335

Temperature Dependence of Magnetic Susceptibility as a Potential indicator of fine-scale oxyexsolution in igneous rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rock magnetic characterization is an essential prerequisite for paleomagnetic research. David Dunlop's contributions in rock magnetism have provided a better understanding of the fundamental physical processes related to natural remanent magnetizations, greatly facilitating the application of such magnetizations to geological and geophysical questions. Here we report an apparent conflict between scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and magnetic analyses of mafic dikes cutting the ~3.2 Ga Kaap Valley Pluton (South Africa). At face value, the SEM data suggest that the magnetic remanence carrier is homogeneous titanomagnetite of intermediate composition (x ~ 0.4-0.5). Such a carrier should have Curie temperatures of ~350-400 degrees C. In contrast, the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility (k) reveals the presence of a magnetic phase with a Curie temperature close to 585 C, consistent with pure magnetite. A characteristic peak observed at -153 C, associated with the Verwey transition, further indicates high magnetite stoichiometry. Irreversibility of k(T) curves was observed upon heating and cooling in argon. On heating, the samples show a gradual increase of k with a pronounced Hopkinson peak, followed by a sharp decrease to the Curie temperature. However, on cooling, the Hopkinson peak disappears and the k(T) values trace a curve lower than the heating curve, with a broad maximum at 350-450 C. We interpret the observed k(T) behavior as reflecting the presence of very fine magnetite-ilmenite intergrowths produced by oxyexsolution. We speculate that the k(T) irreversibility may be caused by partial homogenization of the intergrowths upon heating. We suggest that the intergrowths were not identified using conventional SEM analysis because of their very small (<50 nm) size. This interpretation is supported by analyses using a high-resolution field-emission gun scanning electron microscope. Because of the characteristic changes with heating, we further propose that k(T) data may be a sensitive indicator of fine-scale oxyexsolution in some igneous rocks.

Smirnov, A. V.; Bauch, D. G.; Tarduno, J. A.

2005-12-01

336

Potential groundwater age tracer found: Halon-1301 (CF3Br), as previously identified as CFC-13 (CF3Cl)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater dating using anthropogenic and natural tracer substances is a powerful tool for understanding groundwater dynamics for improved management of groundwater resources. Due to limitations in individual dating methods, often multiple tracers are used to reduce ambiguities. It is commonly accepted that there is a need for further complementary age tracers, in addition to current ones (e.g., tritium, SF6, and CFCs). We propose a potential new groundwater age tracer, Halon-1301 (CF3Br), which can easily be determined using gas chromatography with an attached electron capture detector (GC/ECD) developed by Busenberg and Plummer (2008). Its peak was noted by Busenberg and Plummer (2008), but they believed it to be CFC-13 (CF3Cl) at that time. We performed rigorous tests on gases containing or excluding Halon-1301 and CFC-13 and modern water samples and concluded that the two compounds have extremely similar retention times. Additionally, we found that the ECD response of CFC-13 is far too low to be detected in groundwater or air using standard volumes and sampling techniques. However, the peak areas and concentrations Busenberg and Plummer (2008) reported are in line with what would be expected for Halon-1301. Thus, we are confident that the peak formerly identified as CFC-13 is actually Halon-1301. Busenberg agrees with our findings. We further suggest that Halon-1301 has potential as a (complementary) age tracer, due to its established atmospheric history, and could hypothetically be used to date groundwater recharged in the 1970s or onward. We discuss known relevant properties, such as solubility and stability of Halon-1301 in the context of how these effect its potential application as a groundwater age tracer. Some open questions remain concerning how conservative Halon-1301 is—is it subject to degradation, retardation, and/or local contamination in groundwater. We are confident that Halon-1301 possesses important tracer relevant properties, but further work is required to fully assess its applicability and reliability as a groundwater age tracer in different groundwater environments.

Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna

2014-09-01

337

Spatial prediction of habitat overlap of introduced and native thistles to identify potential areas of nontarget activity of biological control agents.  

PubMed

Nontarget feeding of Rhinocyllus conicus Fröelich and Trichosirocalus horridus (Panzer) on native North American thistles in the genus Cirsium has been documented. Some species of these native thistles have shown greater infestation levels of R. conicus in populations that are in close proximity to the target plant species, Carduus nutans L. In 2005 a study was initiated to identify areas of potential nontarget feeding by R. conicus and T. horridus on thistle species by predicting habitats of two known introduced hosts [C. nutans and Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore] and two native species [Cirsium carolinianum (Walter) Fernald and Schubert and C. discolor (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Sprengel] using Mahalanobis distance (D(2)). Cumulative frequency graphs showed that the D(2) models for all four plant species effectively identified site conditions that contribute to the presence of the respective species. Poisson regression showed an association between D(2) values and plant counts at field-test sites for C. nutans and C. carolinianum. However, negative binomial regression detected no association between D(2) values and plant counts for C. discolor or C. vulgare. Chi-square analysis indicated associations between both weevil species and sites where C. vulgare and Carduus nutans were found, but not between the weevil and native thistle species. Habitats of C. nutans and Cirsium carolinianum overlapped in ?12% of the study area. Data-based habitat models may provide a powerful tool for land managers and scientists to monitor native plant populations for nontarget feeding by introduced biological control agents. PMID:22182552

Wiggins, G J; Grant, J F; Lambdin, P L; Ranney, Jack W; Wilkerson, J B; van Manen, F T

2010-12-01

338

Connecting the Dots: Potential of Data Integration to Identify Regulatory SNPs in Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease GWAS Findings  

PubMed Central

Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is a multifactorial disorder with over twenty loci associated with disease risk. Given the number of genome-wide significant variants that fall outside of coding regions, it is possible that some of these variants alter some function of gene expression rather than tagging coding variants that alter protein structure and/or function. RegulomeDB is a database that annotates regulatory functions of genetic variants. In this study, we utilized RegulomeDB to investigate potential regulatory functions of lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in five genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of risk and age-at onset (AAO) of LOAD, as well as SNPs in LD (r2?0.80) with the lead GWAS SNPs. Of a total 614 SNPs examined, 394 returned RegulomeDB scores of 1–6. Of those 394 variants, 34 showed strong evidence of regulatory function (RegulomeDB score <3), and only 3 of them were genome-wide significant SNPs (ZCWPW1/rs1476679, CLU/rs1532278 and ABCA7/rs3764650). This study further supports the assumption that some of the non-coding GWAS SNPs are true associations rather than tagged associations and demonstrates the application of RegulomeDB to GWAS data. PMID:24743338

Rosenthal, Samantha L.; Barmada, M. Michael; Wang, Xingbin; Demirci, F. Yesim; Kamboh, M. Ilyas

2014-01-01

339

Gene expression profiling of precursor T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma identifies oncogenic pathways that are potential therapeutic targets.  

PubMed

We compared the gene expression pattern of thymic tumors from precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (pre-T LBL) that arose in transgenic mice that overexpressed SCL, LMO1 or NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) with that of thymocytes from normal littermates. Only two genes, Ccl8 and Mrpl38, were consistently more than fourfold overexpressed in pre-T LBL from all three genotypes analyzed, and a single gene, Prss16 was consistently underexpressed. However, we identified a number of genes, such as Cfl1, Tcra, Tcrb, Pbx3, Eif4a, Eif4b and Cox8b that were over or under-expressed in pre-T LBL that arose in specific transgenic lines. Similar to the situation seen with human pre-T LBL, the SCL/LMO1 leukemias displayed an expression profile consistent with mature, late cortical thymocytes, whereas the NHD13 leukemias displayed an expression profile more consistent with immature thymocytes. We evaluated two of the most differentially regulated genes as potential therapeutic targets. Cfl1 was specifically overexpressed in SCL-LMO1 tumors; inactivation of Cfl1 using okadaic acid resulted in suppression of leukemic cell growth. Overexpression of Ccl8 was a consistent finding in all three transgenic lines, and an antagonist for the Ccl8 receptor-induced death of leukemic cell lines, suggesting a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:17429429

Lin, Y-W; Aplan, P D

2007-06-01

340

Potential sources of Triatoma infestans reinfesting peridomiciles identified by morphological characterization in Los Llanos, La Rioja, Argentina  

PubMed Central

The presence of Triatoma infestans in habitats treated with insecticides constitutes a frequent problem in endemic areas. Basing our study on the hypothesis that descendants of a residual population should be more similar to the pre-treatment population than to any other, we compared the indications of two quantitative morphological approaches. This study seeks to find the origin of 247 T. infestans from three populations found in two chicken coops and a goat corral after treatment with insecticides. The results obtained by quantitative morphology suggest that the T. infestans found between three-34 months after the application of insecticides formed mixed populations with insects derived from residual foci and neighbouring habitats. Our analyses also showed the presence of a phenotype which does not resemble neither the pre-treatment phenotype nor the one from neighbouring populations, suggesting the presence of a particular post-treatment phenotype. The heads size showed some variations in males from different populations and remained unchanged in females, which reinforces the hypothesis of an intraspecific competition for food with priority for females. This article presents, for the first time, the combined analysis of geometric morphometry of heads and antennal phenotypes to identify the composition of reinfesting populations. PMID:23440121

Hernández, María Laura; Dujardin, Jean Pierre; Gorla, David Eladio; Catalá, Silvia Susana

2013-01-01

341

Bioavailability and soil-to-plant transfer factors as indicators of potentially toxic element contamination in agricultural soils.  

PubMed

Soil pollution in agricultural lands poses a serious threat to food safety, and suggests the need for consolidated methods providing advisory indications for soil management and crop production. In this work, the three-step extraction procedure developed by the EU Measurement and Testing Programme and two soil-to-plant transfer factors (relative to total and bioavailable concentration of elements in soil) were applied on polluted agricultural soils from southern Italy to obtain information on the retention mechanisms of metals in soils and on their level of translocation to edible vegetables. The study was carried out in the Sarno river plain of Campania, an area affected by severe environmental degradation potentially impacting the health of those consuming locally produced vegetables. Soil samples were collected in 36 locations along the two main rivers flowing into the plain. In 11 sites, lettuce plants were collected at the normal stage of consumption. According to Italian environmental law governing residential soils, and on the basis of soil background reference values for the study area, we found diffuse pollution by Be, Sn and Tl, of geogenic origin, Cr and Cu from anthropogenic sources such as tanneries and intensive agriculture, and more limited pollution by Pb, Zn and V. It was found that metals polluting soils as a result of human activities were mainly associated to residual, oxidizable and reducible phases, relatively immobile and only potentially bioavailable to plants. By contrast, the essential elements Zn and Cu showed a tendency to become more readily mobile and bioavailable as their total content in soil increased and were more easily transported to the edible parts of lettuce than other pollutants. According to our results, current soil pollution in the studied area does not affect the proportion of metals taken up by lettuce plants and there is a limited health risk incurred. PMID:25217740

Adamo, Paola; Iavazzo, Pietro; Albanese, Stefano; Agrelli, Diana; De Vivo, Benedetto; Lima, Annamaria

2014-12-01

342

Histopathological and ultrastructural perturbations in tilapia liver as potential indicators of pollution in Lake Al-Asfar, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Lake Al-Asfar (Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia) is under threat from contaminants released through human activities such as agriculture and urban and industrial developments. In the present study, histopathologic and ultrastructural changes in liver of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were analyzed to monitor the possible impact of pollution in Al-Asfar estuary. Heavy metals such as Ni, Fe, Zn, Co, Ba, Pb, and Cd were predominant in the lake water and far exceeded the international permissible limits. In fish samples, high prevalences of preneoplastic changes (50 %) and one case of cholangiocarcinoma were revealed in liver tissues. Cytological damage in fish hepatocytes included glycogen exhaustion, deformation of nuclear envelope, heterochromatin condensation, mitochondrial degeneration, vesiculation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, augmentation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and lysosomal proliferation. In conclusion, the observed biomarker responses were potential indicators of health impairment or disease in field fish populations, although there was no direct proof of a simple cause-effect relationship. This is the first biological effect assessment in Lake Al-Asfar using tilapia as suitable target species. PMID:24323321

Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M

2014-03-01

343

Marsh soils as potential sinks for Bacteroides fecal indicator bacteria, Waccamaw National Wildlife Refuge, Georgetown, SC, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A soil core collected in a tidal freshwater marsh in the Waccamaw National Wildlife Refuge (Georgetown, SC) exuded a particularly strong odor of cow manure upon extrusion. In order to test for manure and determine its provenance, we carried out microbial source tracking using DNA markers for Bacteroides, a noncoliform, anaerobic bacterial group that represents a broad group of the fecal population. Three core sections from 0-3 cm, 9-12 cm and 30-33 were analyzed for the presence of Bacteroides. The ages of core sediments were estimated using 210Pb and 137Cs dating. All three core sections tested positive for Bacteroides DNA markers related to cow or deer feces. Because cow manure is stockpiled, used as fertilizer, and a source of direct contamination in the Great Pee Dee River/Winyah Bay watershed, it is very likely the source of the Bacteroides that was deposited on the marsh. The mid-points of the core sections were dated as follows: 0-3 cm: 2009; 9-12 cm: 1999, and 30-33 cm: 1961. The presence of Bacteroides at different depths/ages in the soil profile indicates that soils in tidal freshwater marshes are, at the least, capable of being short-term sinks for Bacteroides and, may have the potential to be long-term sinks of stable, naturalized populations.

Drexler, Judith; Johnson, Heather E.; Duris, Joseph W.; Krauss, Ken W.

2014-01-01

344

Laparoscopic surgical skills training: an investigation of the potential of using surgeons' visual search behaviour as a performance indicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laparoscopic surgery is a difficult perceptual-motor task and effective and efficient training in the technique is important. Viewing previously recorded laparoscopic operations is a possible available training technique for surgeons to increase their knowledge of such minimal access surgery (MAS). It is not well known whether this is a useful technique, how effective it is or what effect it has on the surgeon watching the recorded video. As part of an on-going series of studies into laparoscopic surgery, an experiment was conducted to examine whether surgical skill level has an effect on the visual search behaviour of individuals of different surgical experience when they examine such imagery. Medically naive observers, medical students, junior surgeons and experienced surgeons viewed a laparoscopic recording of a recent operation. Initial examination of the recorded eye movement data indicated commonalities between all observers, largely irrespective of surgical experience. This, it is argued, is due to visual search in this situation largely being driven by the dynamic nature of the images. The data were then examined in terms of surgical steps and also in terms of interventions when differences were found related to surgical experience. Consequently, it is argued that monitoring the eye movements of trainee surgeons whilst they watch pre-recorded operations is a potential useful adjunct to existing training regimes.

Chen, Yan; Dong, Leng; Gale, Alastair G.; Rees, Benjamin; Maxwell-Armstrong, Charles

2014-03-01

345

You've Got a Sponsor (maybe); Now What Do You Do? What to Do Once You Have Identified Potential Sponsors OSP strongly encourages  

E-print Network

You've Got a Sponsor (maybe); Now What Do You Do? - 1 - /**/ /**/ What to Do Once You Have Identified Potential Sponsors OSP strongly encourages the Principal Investigator or Project Director (PI that may be relatively immature. Next Steps in Proposal Developmentt After having identified a sponsor

Mather, Patrick T.

346

Potential hazards to embryo implantation: A human endometrial in vitro model to identify unwanted antigestagenic actions of chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Embryo implantation is a crucial step in human reproduction and depends on the timely development of a receptive endometrium. The human endometrium is unique among adult tissues due to its dynamic alterations during each menstrual cycle. It hosts the implantation process which is governed by progesterone, whereas 17?-estradiol regulates the preceding proliferation of the endometrium. The receptors for both steroids are targets for drugs and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Chemicals with unwanted antigestagenic actions are potentially hazardous to embryo implantation since many pharmaceutical antiprogestins adversely affect endometrial receptivity. This risk can be addressed by human tissue-specific in vitro assays. As working basis we compiled data on chemicals interacting with the PR. In our experimental work, we developed a flexible in vitro model based on human endometrial Ishikawa cells. Effects of antiprogestin compounds on pre-selected target genes were characterized by sigmoidal concentration–response curves obtained by RT-qPCR. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) was identified as the most responsive target gene by microarray analysis. The agonistic effect of progesterone on SULT1E1 mRNA was concentration-dependently antagonized by RU486 (mifepristone) and ZK137316 and, with lower potency, by 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin. The negative control methyl acetoacetate showed no effect. The effects of progesterone and RU486 were confirmed on the protein level by Western blotting. We demonstrated proof of principle that our Ishikawa model is suitable to study quantitatively effects of antiprogestin-like chemicals on endometrial target genes in comparison to pharmaceutical reference compounds. This test is useful for hazard identification and may contribute to reduce animal studies. -- Highlights: ? We compare progesterone receptor-mediated endometrial effects of chemicals and drugs. ? 4-Nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin exert weak antigestagenic activity. ? SULT1E1 is a significant marker for endometrial antiprogestin effects. ? Ishikawa cells are a tissue-specific approach for characterization of SPRMs. ? Chemicals acting as progesterone receptor antagonists may exert antifertility effects.

Fischer, L.; Deppert, W.R. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Pfeifer, D. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)] [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Stanzel, S.; Weimer, M. [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)] [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Hanjalic-Beck, A.; Stein, A.; Straßer, M.; Zahradnik, H.P. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Schaefer, W.R., E-mail: wolfgang.schaefer@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)

2012-05-01

347

A Murine Model for Retinopathy of Prematurity Identifies Endothelial Cell Proliferation as a Potential Mechanism for Plus Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To characterize the features and possible mechanism of plus disease in the mouse oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model for retinopathy of prematurity. Methods. Wild-type and Adam (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase) knockout mice were exposed to 75% oxygen from postnatal day 7 to 12 (P7 to P12) (hyperoxia), then returned to normal air (relative hypoxia). Live fundus imaging and fluorescein angiography at P17 were compared to immunofluorescence analysis of flat-mounted retinas. Two hallmarks of plus disease, arterial tortuosity and venous dilation, were analyzed on fixed retinas (P12–P17). The length of tortuous vessels was compared to a straight line between two points; the diameter of retinal vessels was determined using ImageJ software, and bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling was used to visualize proliferation of retinal vascular cells. Results. Mice developed retinal arterial tortuosity and venous dilation after exposure to OIR, which was visible in live fundus images and fixed whole-mounted retinas. Vein dilation, arterial tortuosity, and BrdU incorporation gradually increased over time. Moreover, Adam8?/? and Adam9?/? mice and mice lacking Adam10 in endothelial cells were partially protected from plus disease compared to controls. Conclusions. The mouse OIR model can be used to study the pathogenesis of plus disease and identify potential therapeutic targets. The severity of plus disease increases over time following OIR and correlates with increased proliferation of endothelial cells, suggesting that proliferation of vascular cells may be a mechanism underlying the development of plus disease. Moreover, our findings suggest that ADAMs 8, 9, and 10 could be targets for treatment of plus disease. PMID:23833070

Guaiquil, Victor H.; Hewing, Nina J.; Chiang, Michael F.; Rosenblatt, Mark I.; Chan, R. V. Paul; Blobel, Carl P.

2013-01-01

348

Identifying potentially active volcanoes in the Andes: Radiometric evidence for late Pleistocene-early Holocene eruptions at Volcán Imbabura, Ecuador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent eruptions from volcanoes with no previously known historical activity in Chile and Indonesia have raised the importance of the early identification of potentially active centers for the purpose of hazard assessment. Here we bring radiometric evidence ( 14 C, 39Ar- 40Ar) of previously unrecognized but significant magmatic activity at partly eroded Imbabura volcano (Ecuador) in late Pleistocene to early Holocene times, on whose perimeter live more than 300,000 persons. Following an effusive stage from 50 to 30 ka with the emplacement of andesitic lava flows on different flanks of its edifice, the activity became explosive with the generation of andesitic block-and-ash flows on its eastern side, beginning at ~ 35 ka cal BP. Subsequently a flank collapse associated with a volcanic blast occurred on the volcano's SW flank at ~ 30 ka cal BP. The resulting debris avalanche and blast breccias cover an area now heavily populated around San Pablo Lake and its source was later concealed by successive dome building episodes at Huarmi which produced ~ 2.8 km 3 of silicic andesite. Renewed dome activity at the edifice's Taita summit occurred at ~ 17 ka cal BP and continued intermittently into early Holocene times, as indicated by pyroclastic flow deposits overlying a palaeosoil dated at ~ 9 ka cal BP. In summary, this study reveals an eruptive behavior characterized by a low recurrence rate but with quite large eruptions, a pattern which is also observed at other silicic volcanoes of Ecuador's Western Cordillera. It is now imperative to reconsider the origin and source of the many tephra layers catalogued in Holocene lacustrine sediments in the Imbabura area. Tephra and lava volume estimates for Imbabura volcano converted to Dense Rock Equivalent values yield a minimum magmatic output rate of 0.13 km 3/ka in the past 35,000 years, which argues for sustained magma production for this volcano in recent geological times. The Imbabura example thus raises the question of how to improve population preparedness for volcanoes with infrequent eruptions, and how to guide authorities' decisions concerning the development of urban areas and infrastructures near presently inactive but potentially highly dangerous volcanoes.

Le Pennec, J. L.; Ruiz, A. G.; Eissen, J. P.; Hall, M. L.; Fornari, M.

2011-09-01

349

IDENTIFYING SUITABLE INDICATORS FOR MEASURING SUSTAINABILITY OF BIOENERGY PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM PINE FORESTS IN THE U.S. SOUTH (PHASE-1)  

EPA Science Inventory

In this phase of the project, a sustainability framework was developed for four sustainability indices namely: 1) economic; 2) biodiversity; 3) greenhouse gas emission reduction and net energy ratio; and 4) soil and water quali...

350

Identifying potential areas for biofuel production and evaluating the environmental effects: a case study of the James River Basin in the Midwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biofuels are now an important resource in the United States because of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Both increased corn growth for ethanol production and perennial dedicated energy crop growth for cellulosic feedstocks are potential sources to meet the rising demand for biofuels. However, these measures may cause adverse environmental consequences that are not yet fully understood. This study 1) evaluates the long-term impacts of increased frequency of corn in the crop rotation system on water quantity and quality as well as soil fertility in the James River Basin and 2) identifies potential grasslands for cultivating bioenergy crops (e.g. switchgrass), estimating the water quality impacts. We selected the soil and water assessment tool, a physically based multidisciplinary model, as the modeling approach to simulate a series of biofuel production scenarios involving crop rotation and land cover changes. The model simulations with different crop rotation scenarios indicate that decreases in water yield and soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration along with an increase in NO3-N load to stream water could justify serious concerns regarding increased corn rotations in this basin. Simulations with land cover change scenarios helped us spatially classify the grasslands in terms of biomass productivity and nitrogen loads, and we further derived the relationship of biomass production targets and the resulting nitrogen loads against switchgrass planting acreages. The suggested economically efficient (planting acreage) and environmentally friendly (water quality) planting locations and acreages can be a valuable guide for cultivating switchgrass in this basin. This information, along with the projected environmental costs (i.e. reduced water yield and increased nitrogen load), can contribute to decision support tools for land managers to seek the sustainability of biofuel development in this region.

Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Zhengpeng

2012-01-01

351

Aqueous and lipid nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomic profiles of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa show potential as an indicator species for environmental metabolomics.  

PubMed

The common pasture earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa has often been neglected in environmental metabolomics in favor of species easily bred in the laboratory. The present study assigns aqueous metabolites in A. caliginosa using high-resolution 1- and 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In total, 51 aqueous metabolites were identified, including typical amino acids (alanine, leucine, asparagine, phenylalanine), sugars (maltose, glucose), the dominant earthworm-specific 2-hexyl-5-ethyl-furansulfonate, and several previously unreported metabolites (oxoglutarate, putrescine). Examining the lesser-known earthworm lipid metabolome showed various lipid fatty acyl chains, cholesterol, and phosphatidylcholine. To briefly test if the NMR metabolomic techniques could differentiate A. caliginosa from different sites, earthworms were collected from 2 adjacent farms. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis detected metabolomic differences, suggesting the worms from the 2 sites differed in their energy metabolism, as indicated by altered levels of alanine, glutamine, glutamate, malate, fumarate, and lipids. Evidence of greater utilization of lipid energy reserves and onset of protein catabolism was also present. While the precise cause of the metabolomic differences could not be determined, the results show the potential of this species for further environmental metabolomic studies. PMID:24995628

Brown, Jeffrey N; Samuelsson, Linda; Bernardi, Giuliana; Gooneratne, Ravi; Larsson, D G Joakim

2014-10-01

352

Integrated biomarker responses of the invasive species Corbicula fluminea in relation to environmental abiotic conditions: A potential indicator of the likelihood of clam's summer mortality syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the variation of several biomarkers in wild populations of Corbicula fluminea in relation to abiotic condition changes to identify environmental factors associated with increased stress in this species potentially leading to massive mortality events. The study was carried out from July to October in the freshwater tidal areas of the estuaries of Minho and Lima Rivers (NW Iberian Peninsula). Monthly, 7 biomarkers (biotransformation, energy production, anti-oxidant defenses and lipid peroxidation damages) were determined in C. fluminea and 17 abiotic parameters were determined in water or sediments in 4 sampling sites: M1, M2 and M3 in Minho (up=> downstream); and L in Lima estuaries. The results of biomarkers were integrated using the Integrated Biomarker Response (IBR), Index and also analysed in relation to environmental parameters by Redundancy Analysis (RDA). Overall, the findings of the present study indicate that July and August are particularly stressful months for the studied C. fluminea populations, especially at downstream sites; the increase of nutrients and ammonium water concentrations, water temperature and conductivity are major contributors for this increased stress; the biomarkers indicated that in July/August C. fluminea is exposed to oxidative stress inducers, environmental chemical contaminants biotransformed by esterases and glutathione S-transferase enzymes, and that organisms need additional energy to cope with the chemical and/or thermally-induced stress. The findings of the present study stress the importance of biomonitoring the health condition of C. fluminea because it may allow determining the likelihood of summer/post summer mortality syndrome in this species. PMID:25499240

Oliveira, Cristiana; Vilares, Pedro; Guilhermino, Lúcia

2015-04-01

353

Presynaptic Membrane Potential Affects Transmitter Release in an Identified Neuron in Aplysia by Modulating the Ca2+ and K+ Currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have examined the relationships between the modulation of transmitter release and of specific ionic currents by membrane potential in the cholinergic interneuron L10 of the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica. The presynaptic cell body was voltage-clamped under various pharmacological conditions and transmitter release from the terminals was assayed simultaneously by recording the synaptic potentials in the postsynaptic cell. When cell L10 was voltage-clamped from a holding potential of -60 mV in the presence of tetrodotoxin, graded transmitter release was evoked by depolarizing command pulses in the membrane voltage range (-35 mV to +10 mV) in which the Ca2+ current was also increasing. Depolarizing the holding potential of L10 results in increased transmitter output. Two ionic mechanisms contribute to this form of plasticity. First, depolarization inactivates some K+ channels so that depolarizing command pulses recruit a smaller K+ current. In unclamped cells the decreased K+ conductance causes spike-broadening and increased influx of Ca2+ during each spike. Second, small depolarizations around resting potential (-55 mV to -35 mV) activate a steady-state Ca2+ current that also contributes to the modulation of transmitter release, because, even with most presynaptic K+ currents blocked pharmacologically, depolarizing the holding potential still increases transmitter release. In contrast to the steady-state Ca2+ current, the transient inward Ca2+ current evoked by depolarizing clamp steps is relatively unchanged from various holding potentials.

Shapiro, Eli; Castellucci, Vincent F.; Kandel, Eric R.

1980-01-01

354

Circulating MiR-16-5p and MiR-19b-3p as Two Novel Potential Biomarkers to Indicate Progression of Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer (GC) is the second most common cancer in China and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Identifying circulating biomarkers is helpful to improve theranostics of gastric cancer. Herein, we are for the first time to report miR-16-5p and miR-19b-3p were identified to be the novel potential plasma biomarkers to detect gastric cancer. Differentially expressed miRNAs were initially screened out by genome-wide miRNA profiling microarrays between 16 plasma samples of gastric cancer and 18 matched normal controls, and then were quantified and validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method between 155 gastric cancer cases and 111 normal controls. Additionally, 30 plasma samples from precancerous lesions and 18 paired samples from gastric cancer patients with gastrectomy were further detected. Results showed that based on two normalization methods, miR-16-5p and miR-19b-3p in plasma were found to be capable of distinguishing normal population from GC cases with different TNM stages and differentiation grades, particularly including the early cancer cases (P<0.05). And the two miRNAs were down-regulated in GC cases (FC<0.5). Especially, the down-regulation degree was correlated with the progression of the GC cases from the early stage to the advanced stage (0.2< rs<0.3, P<0.01). And the same weak down-regulation of the two biomarkers as the early GC occurred initially in the precancerous diseases (P<0.05). The corresponding performance of the two miRNAs to detect GC in ROC analysis gradually performed better with the disease progression from the earlier stages or lower grades to the advanced stages (TNM ? stage: AUC=0.832 for miR-16-5p; TNM ? stage: AUC=0.822 for miR-19b-3p) or high grade (Poorly differentiated: AUC=0.801, 0.791 respectively for miR-16-5p and miR-19b-3p). Additionally, miR-19b-3p remained down-regulated in patient plasma within 9 days after gastrectomy. In conclusion, miR-19b-3p and miR-16-5p maybe prospective biomarkers to detect gastric cancer and indicate its progression, and thus may own great potential in applications such as early screening and progression evaluation of gastric cancer in the near future.

Zhang, Jingpu; Song, Yang; Zhang, Chunlei; Zhi, Xiao; Fu, Hualin; Ma, Yue; Chen, Yunsheng; Pan, Fei; Wang, Kan; Ni, Jian; Jin, Weilin; He, Xianli; Su, Haichuan; Cui, Daxiang

2015-01-01

355

Diatom Communities and Metrics as Indicators of Urbanization Effects on Streams and Potential Moderation by Landscape Green Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

Diatoms are very useful and important indicators of anthropogenic impacts on streams because they are the foundation of primary production and are responsive to nutrients, conductivity, and habitat conditions. We characterized relationships of diatom assemblages with water chemis...

356

A vulnerability driven approach to identify adverse climate and land use change combinations for critical hydrologic indicator thresholds: Application to a watershed in Pennsylvania, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large uncertainties in streamflow projections derived from downscaled climate projections of precipitation and temperature can render such simulations of limited value for decision making in the context of water resources management. New approaches are being sought to provide decision makers with robust information in the face of such large uncertainties. We present an alternative approach that starts with the stakeholder's definition of vulnerable ranges for relevant hydrologic indicators. Then the modeled system is analyzed to assess under what conditions these thresholds are exceeded. The space of possible climates and land use combinations for a watershed is explored to isolate subspaces that lead to vulnerability, while considering model parameter uncertainty in the analysis. We implement this concept using classification and regression trees (CART) that separate the input space of climate and land use change into those combinations that lead to vulnerability and those that do not. We test our method in a Pennsylvania watershed for nine ecological and water resources related streamflow indicators for which an increase in temperature between 3°C and 6°C and change in precipitation between -17% and 19% is projected. Our approach provides several new insights, for example, we show that even small decreases in precipitation (˜5%) combined with temperature increases greater than 2.5°C can push the mean annual runoff into a slightly vulnerable regime. Using this impact and stakeholder driven strategy, we explore the decision-relevant space more fully and provide information to the decision maker even if climate change projections are ambiguous.

Singh, R.; Wagener, T.; Crane, R.; Mann, M. E.; Ning, L.

2014-04-01

357

Point to a Referent, and Say, "What Is This?" Gesture as a Potential Cue to Identify Referents in a Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored whether caregivers' gestures followed the discourse-pragmatic principle of information status of referents (given vs. new) and how their children responded to those gestures when identifying referents. Ten Chinese-speaking and eight English-speaking caregivers were videotaped while interacting spontaneously with their children.…

So, Wing Chee; Lim, Jia Yi

2012-01-01

358

Analysis of copy number variations in Holstein cows identify potential mechanisms contributing to differences in residual feed intake  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed an initial analysis of CNVs using BovineHD SNP genotyping data from 147 Holstein cows identified as having high or low feed efficiency as estimated by residual feed intak...

359

Transcriptome analysis of the Cryptocaryon irritans tomont stage identifies potential genes for the detection and control of cryptocaryonosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cryptocaryon irritans is a parasitic ciliate that causes cryptocaryonosis (white spot disease) in marine fish. Diagnosis of cryptocaryonosis often depends on the appearance of white spots on the surface of the fish, which are usually visible only during later stages of the disease. Identifying suitable biomarkers of this parasite would aid the development of diagnostic tools and control strategies

Yogeswaran Lokanathan; Adura Mohd-Adnan; Kiew-Lian Wan; Sheila Nathan

2010-01-01

360

Virtual Reality and Its Potential Use in Special Education. Identifying Emerging Issues and Trends in Technology for Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a 3-year study to identify emerging issues and trends in technology for special education, this paper addresses the possible contributions of virtual reality technology to educational services for students with disabilities. An example of the use of virtual reality in medical imaging introduces the paper and leads to a brief review of…

Woodward, John

361

RECOVERY POTENTIAL AS A MEANS OF PRIORITIZING RESTORATION OF WATERS IDENTIFIED AS IMPAIRED UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT  

EPA Science Inventory

The sheer number of waterbodies identified as impaired under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act presents states with challenging decisions on which sites to address, in what order, and with what fraction of limited restoration resources. Our goal was to demonstrate a systemat...

362

Development of Normal Human Colonocyte Cultures to Identify the Carcinogenic Potential of Priorty Disinfection By-products  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of disinfected surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Of the approximately >600 disinfection byproducts (DBPs) identified, the US EPA regulates 11 DBPs for an increased risk of cancer. An in-depth mechanism-...

363

Development of Normal Human Colon Cell Cultures to Identify Unregulated Disiinfection By-products (DBPs) with a Carcinogenic Potential - GEMS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of chlorinated surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Approximately 600 DBPs, less that half of the total organic carbon in drinking water, have been identified of which 50 unregulated DBPs have received the ...

364

Hydrochemistry indicating groundwater contamination and the potential fate of chlorohydrocarbons in combined polluted groundwater: a case study at a contamination site in north china.  

PubMed

Groundwater contamination characteristics and the potential fate of chlorohydrocarbons were investigated at a combined polluted groundwater site in North China. Groundwater chemistry and (2)D and (18)O isotope compositions indicated that high salination of groundwater was related with chemical pollution. The elevated salinity plume was consistent with the domain where typical chlorohydrocarbon contaminants occurred. The concentrations of heavy metals, oxidation-reduction potential, and pH in organic polluted areas significantly differed from those in peripheral (background) areas, indicating modified hydrochemistry possibly resulting from organic pollution. Under the presented redox conditions of groundwater, monochlorobenzene oxidation may have occurred when the trichlorohydrocarbons underwent reductive dechlorination. These findings suggested that inorganic hydrochemistry effectively indicated the occurrence of chemical contamination in groundwater and the potential fate of chlorohydrocarbons. PMID:25749507

Huang, Shuang-Bing; Han, Zhan-Tao; Zhao, Long; Kong, Xiang-Ke

2015-05-01

365

Lightning potential forecast over Nanjing with denoised sounding-derived indices based on SSA and CS-BP neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of using the back propagation neural network improved by cuckoo search algorithm (hereafter CS-BP neural network) to forecast lightning occurrence from sounding-derived indices over Nanjing is presented. The general distribution features of lightning activities over Nanjing area are summarized and analyzed first. The sounding data of 156 thunderstorm days and 164 fair-weather days during the years 2007-2012 are used to calculate the values of sounding-derived indices. The indices are pre-filtered using singular spectrum analysis (hereafter SSA) as preprocessing technique and 4 most pertinent indices (namely CAPE, K, JI and SWEAT) are determined as inputs of CS-BP network by a linear bivariate analysis and selection algorithm. The cases of 2007-2010 are used to train CS-BP network and the cases of 2011-2012 are used as an independent sample to test the forecast performance. Some statistical skill score parameters (namely POD, SAR, CSI, et.al.) indicate that the CS-BP model excels in lightning forecasting and has a better performance compared with the traditional BP neural network and linear multiregression method.

Wang, Jun; Sheng, Zheng; Zhou, Bihua; Zhou, Shudao

2014-02-01

366

The Equity Raw-Score Matrix--A Multi-Dimensional Indicator of Potential Disadvantage in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues surrounding student participation, transition, retention and successful completion in higher education are topical. While the Australian federal government has identified broad groupings of under-represented students, these do not shed light on the complexities underlying the issues of the educationally disadvantaged, such as the…

Willems, Julie

2010-01-01

367

Identifying food proteins with allergenic potential: Evolution of approaches to safety assessment and research to provide additional tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

A safety assessment process exists for genetically engineered crops that includes the evaluation of the expressed protein for allergenic potential. The objectives of this evaluation are twofold: (1) to protect allergic consumers from exposure to known allergenic or cross-reactive proteins, and (2) protect the general population from risks associated with the introduction of genes encoding proteins that are likely to

Gregory S. Ladics; MaryJane K. Selgrade

2009-01-01

368

Video Games and Mathematics Education: Studying Commercial Sports Video Games to Identify the Potential for Learning and Thinking About Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

What happens when commercial sports video games, designed for entertainment, are used in an effort to increase achievement, confidence and enjoyment in mathematics for children? This exploratory study is an attempt to examine the potential for connecting digital media (sports video games) to learning various mathematics concepts.

Candace Barriteau Phaire

369

Minimizing invasive potential of Miscanthus × giganteus grown for bioenergy: identifying demographic thresholds for population growth and spread  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Production of herbaceous perennial bioenergy crops in the north central region of the USA is being targeted primarily at marginal lands to avoid conflicts between food and fuel. A fundamental challenge for biofeedstock development is to evaluate and minimize the potential of such crops to escape cul...

370

Identifying Student Use of Ball-and-Stick Images versus Electrostatic Potential Map Images via Eye Tracking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study examined students' use of ball-and-stick images versus electrostatic potential maps when asked questions about electron density, positive charge, proton attack, and hydroxide attack with six different molecules (two alcohols, two carboxylic acids, and two hydroxycarboxylic acids). Students' viewing of these dual images…

Williamson, Vickie M.; Hegarty, Mary; Deslongchamps, Ghislain; Williamson, Kenneth C., III

2013-01-01

371

USING VARIABILITY TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL STATE AND TRANSITION STAGES OF A TROPICAL TALLGRASS SITE IN NORTHEAST AUSTRALIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conceptual state [S(i)] and transition models are used to help define landscape condition in northeast Australia, but there are no standards for amount(s) of indicators that define state conditions. Endemic variability in the distribution of vegetation also makes describing condition changes difficu...

372

Koenigia Islandica (Iceland Purslane) — A Case Study of a Potential Indicator of Climate Change in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Koenigia islandica (Iceland purslane) is an annual arctic-subarctic species that is found in only two locations in the UK. On the Isle of Mull, Argyll, Scotland, it grows at the southerly limit of its W.European distribution. The habitat requirements of Koenigia are specialised. It is predicted that an annual species at the limit of its geographical range is potentially sensitive

Barry Meatyard

373

Aerobic Fitness and Cognitive Development: Event-Related Brain Potential and Task Performance Indices of Executive Control in Preadolescent Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between aerobic fitness and executive control was assessed in 38 higher- and lower-fit children (M[subscript age] = 9.4 years), grouped according to their performance on a field test of aerobic capacity. Participants performed a flanker task requiring variable amounts of executive control while event-related brain potential

Hillman, Charles H.; Buck, Sarah M.; Themanson, Jason R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Castelli, Darla M.

2009-01-01

374

Persistence of somatic and F-specific coliphages, potential indicators of fecal contamination, on spinach foliar tissue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: Recent outbreaks of foodborne illness have been linked to consumption of fresh leafy greens. E. coli is commonly used as the indicator microorganism for fecal contamination on growing leafy greens. However, alternative microorganisms, such as coliphages, may be an alternative indicat...

375

TRANSPORT OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS FROM KNOWN WSTEWATER DISCHARGES: POTENTIAL CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently ascertained using indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci. However, the tests to analyze for these bacteria require 24 to 48 hours to complete, and do not discriminate between human and animal...

376

TRANSPORT OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL COMPOUNDS FROM KNOWN WASTEWATER DISCHARGES: POTENTIAL FOR USE AS INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The quality of drinking and recreational water currently (2005) is determined using indicator bacteria. However, the culture tests used to analyze for these bacteria require a long time to complete, and do not discriminate between human and animal fecal material sources. One co...

377

Caeruloplasmin, prealbumin and 6H 2 -macroglobulin as potential 0 indices of disease activity in different arthritides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Caeruloplasmin (Cp), prealbumin and ?2-macroglobulin (?2-M) concentrations in serum were compared in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthrosis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, Reiter's syndrome, Behçet's syndrome, SLE and normal controls. Cp was significantly elevated (p2-macroglobulin occurred in Reiter's syndrome. However, these differences were generally still within the normal range, and hence these proteins are unlikely to offer alternative indices of disease

K. E. Surrall; H. A. Bird; J. S. Dixon

1987-01-01

378

Stable isotopes as indicators of water and salinity sources in a southeast Australian coastal wetland: identifying relict marine water, and implications for future change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lake Connewarre Complex is an internationally protected wetland in southeast Australia, undergoing increasing environmental change due to urbanisation. Stable isotopes of water (?18O and ?2H) and other geochemical indicators were used to assess sources of water and salinity in the shallow groundwater and surface-water systems, and to better understand groundwater/surface-water interactions. While much of the shallow groundwater is saline (from 1.27 to 50.3 g/L TDS) with overlapping salinities across water groups, stable isotopes allow clear delineation of two distinct sources of water and salinity: marine water with ?18O between -1.4 and +1.3 ‰ and ion ratios characteristic of seawater; and meteoric water with ?18O between -6.1 and -3.6 ‰ containing cyclic salts, probably concentrated by plant transpiration. Groundwater bodies in shallow sediments beneath the wetlands have salinities and stable isotopic compositions intermediate between fresh wetland surface water and a marine water end-member. This marine-type water is likely relict seawater emplaced when the wetlands were connected to the estuary, prior to modern river regulation. Freshwater input to underlying groundwater is a recent consequence of this regulation. Future predicted changes such as increased stormwater inflow, will increase rates of freshwater leakage to shallow groundwater, favouring the proliferation of exotic reed species.

Currell, Matthew J.; Dahlhaus, Peter; , Hiroyuki, Ii

2015-03-01

379

Quantifying the relative importance and potential interactive effects of multiple indices when predicting fire risk and severity in the Western US  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long history of fire suppression in the western United States has interrupted the fire regimes of many forest types. This interruption has significantly changed forest structure and ecological function and led to increasingly uncharacteristic fires in terms of size and severity. This project investigated the potential for predicting forest fire severity across the Western US. Identifying areas at risk

A. Keyser; A. L. Westerling

2010-01-01

380

Big data in chemical toxicity research: the use of high-throughput screening assays to identify potential toxicants.  

PubMed

High-throughput screening (HTS) assays that measure the in vitro toxicity of environmental compounds have been widely applied as an alternative to in vivo animal tests of chemical toxicity. Current HTS studies provide the community with rich toxicology information that has the potential to be integrated into toxicity research. The available in vitro toxicity data is updated daily in structured formats (e.g., deposited into PubChem and other data-sharing web portals) or in an unstructured way (papers, laboratory reports, toxicity Web site updates, etc.). The information derived from the current toxicity data is so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using available database management tools or traditional data processing applications. For this reason, it is necessary to develop a big data approach when conducting modern chemical toxicity research. In vitro data for a compound, obtained from meaningful bioassays, can be viewed as a response profile that gives detailed information about the compound's ability to affect relevant biological proteins/receptors. This information is critical for the evaluation of complex bioactivities (e.g., animal toxicities) and grows rapidly as big data in toxicology communities. This review focuses mainly on the existing structured in vitro data (e.g., PubChem data sets) as response profiles for compounds of environmental interest (e.g., potential human/animal toxicants). Potential modeling and mining tools to use the current big data pool in chemical toxicity research are also described. PMID:25195622

Zhu, Hao; Zhang, Jun; Kim, Marlene T; Boison, Abena; Sedykh, Alexander; Moran, Kimberlee

2014-10-20

381

Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation: Facility Utilizes Energy Assessments to Identify $930,000 in Potential Annual Savings  

SciTech Connect

Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation (KUCC) used targeted energy assessments in the smelter and refinery at its Bingham Canyon Mine, near Salt Lake City, Utah. The assessment focused mainly on the energy-intensive processes of copper smelting and refining. By implementing the projects identified, KUCC could realize annual cost savings of $930,000 and annual energy savings of 452,000 MMBtu. The projects would also reduce maintenance, repair costs, waste, and environmental emissions. One project would use methane gas from an adjacent municipal dump to replace natural gas currently used to heat the refinery electrolyte.

Not Available

2004-07-01

382

Rapid, potentially automatable, method extract biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to detect and identify BW agents  

SciTech Connect

The program proposes to concentrate on the rapid recovery of signature biomarkers based on automated high-pressure, high-temperature solvent extraction (ASE) and/or supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to produce lipids, nucleic acids and proteins sequentially concentrated and purified in minutes with yields especially from microeukaryotes, Gram-positive bacteria and spores. Lipids are extracted in higher proportions greater than classical one-phase, room temperature solvent extraction without major changes in lipid composition. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with or without derivatization, electrospray ionization (ESI) and highly specific detection by mass spectrometry (MS) particularly with (MS){sup n} provides the detection, identification and because the signature lipid biomarkers are both phenotypic as well as genotypic biomarkers, insights into potential infectivity of BW agents. Feasibility has been demonstrated with detection, identification, and determination of infectious potential of Cryptosporidium parvum at the sensitivity of a single oocyst (which is unculturable in vitro) and accurate identification and prediction, pathogenicity, and drug-resistance of Mycobacteria spp.

White, D.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Science Div.; Burkhalter, R.S.; Smith, C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology; Whitaker, K.W. [Microbial Insights, Inc., Rockford, TN (United States)

1997-12-31

383

Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Percentiles for Radionuclides Identified as Being Potential Contributors to Dose After Ten Thousand Years  

SciTech Connect

Two previous Analysis and Modeling Reports (AMRs) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Systems Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O 2000a and CRWMS M&O 2000b) provided abstractions of the biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for those radionuclides determined (CRWMS M&O 1999a) to be of potential importance for the initial ten thousand years after closure of the repository. To continue predictions of dose beyond ten thousand years requires abstractions of the BDCFs for those additional radionuclides defined in CRWMS M&O 1999b to be of potential importance in this time domain. The radionuclides for which BDCFs were generated (CRWMS M&O 2000c) to address the time period out to a million years are {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 230}Th, {sup 231}Pa, and {sup 242}Pu. The abstraction to be used in this calculation for providing as input to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) code is the definition of the percentile points, at intervals of 5%, of the set of stochastic BDCF data for each radionuclide generated and reported in CRWMS M&O 2000c. Being based directly on the stochastic data the approach captures the uncertainty in the BDCF distributions.

A.J. Smith

2000-11-09

384

A co-clinical approach identifies mechanisms and potential therapies for androgen deprivation resistance in prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Here we report an integrated analysis that leverages data from treatment of genetic mouse models of prostate cancer along with clinical data from patients to elucidate new mechanisms of castration resistance. We show that castration counteracts tumor progression in a Pten-loss driven mouse model of prostate cancer through the induction of apoptosis and proliferation block. Conversely, this response is bypassed upon deletion of either Trp53 or Lrf together with Pten, leading to the development of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Mechanistically, the integrated acquisition of data from mouse models and patients identifies the expression patterns of XAF1-XIAP/SRD5A1 as a predictive and actionable signature for CRPC. Importantly, we show that combined inhibition of XIAP, SRD5A1, and AR pathways overcomes castration resistance. Thus, our co-clinical approach facilitates stratification of patients and the development of tailored and innovative therapeutic treatments. PMID:23727860

Lunardi, Andrea; Ala, Ugo; Epping, Mirjam T.; Salmena, Leonardo; Clohessy, John G.; Webster, Kaitlyn A.; Wang, Guocan; Mazzucchelli, Roberta; Bianconi, Maristella; Stack, Edward C.; Lis, Rosina; Patnaik, Akash; Cantley, Lewis C.; Bubley, Glenn; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Gerald, William L.; Montironi, Rodolfo; Signoretti, Sabina; Loda, Massimo; Nardella, Caterina; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

2013-01-01

385

Development of computational fluid dynamics--habitat suitability (CFD-HSI) models to identify potential passage--Challenge zones for migratory fishes in the Penobscot River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics-habitat suitability (CFD–HSI) model was developed to identify potential zones of shallow depth and high water velocity that may present passage challenges for five anadromous fish species in the Penobscot River, Maine, upstream from two existing dams and as a result of the proposed future removal of the dams. Potential depth-challenge zones were predicted for larger species at the lowest flow modeled in the dam-removal scenario. Increasing flows under both scenarios increased the number and size of potential velocity-challenge zones, especially for smaller species. This application of the two-dimensional CFD–HSI model demonstrated its capabilities to estimate the potential effects of flow and hydraulic alteration on the passage of migratory fish.

Haro, Alexander J.; Dudley, Robert W.; Chelminski, Michael

2012-01-01

386

Cariogenic Potential of Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a major study to identify cariogenic elements of foods, the cariogenic potential of 22 foods relative to sucrose (confectioners’ sugar) was determined over six intubation rat caries experiments. Cariogenic potential indices were calculated for each food from sulcal and buccal-lingual caries based on both number and severity. Those foods with the lowest cariogenic potential indices were peanuts,

S. A. Mundorff; J. D. B. Featherstone; B. G. Bibby; M. E. J. Curzon; A. D. Eisenberg; M. A. Espeland

1990-01-01

387

Comparative genomic analysis of Escherichia coli O104:H4 stx2 prophage reveals a potential new method to identify virulence factors.  

PubMed

This study investigated the process of virulence acquisition in a Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 strain, TY-2482, by comparing the sequence of stx2 (Shiga toxin 2) prophage with the sequences of 1421 complete bacterial genomes and analyzing the evolutionary relationships of the stx2 prophage-like regions identified. The results showed a strong positive correlation between the evolutionary distance and the distance to switch sites of GC skew, suggesting that the loci near these sites are "hotspots" for insertions. These findings represent a potential new method to identify virulence factors in bacterial genomes. PMID:22920506

Du, Pengcheng; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Haiyin; Chen, Chen

2012-09-01

388

Identifying potential receptors and routes of contaminant exposure in the traditional territory of the Ouje-Bougoumou Cree: land use and a geographical information system.  

PubMed

Great concern has been raised with respect to the 13 traplines that constitute the traditional territory of the Ouje-Bougoumou Cree located in the James Bay region of northern Quebec, Canada, with respect to mine wastes originating from three local mines. As a result, an "Integrative Risk Assessment" was initiated consisting of three interrelated components: a comprehensive human health study, an assessment of the existing ecological/environmental database, and a land use/potential sites of concern study. In this paper, we document past and present land use in the traditional territory of the Ouje-Bougoumou Cree for 72 heads of households, including 13 tallymen, and use a Geographic Information System (GIS) to layer harvest/hunting and gathering/collecting data over known mining areas and potential sites of concern. In this way, potential receptors of contamination and routes of human exposure were identified. Areas of overlap with respect to land use activity and mining operations were relatively extensive for certain harvesting activities (e.g., beaver, Castor canadensis and various species of game birds), less so for fish harvesting (all species) and water collection, and relatively restrictive for large mammal harvesting and collection of fire wood (and other collection activities). Potential receptors of contaminants associated with mining activity (e.g., fish and small mammals) and potential routes of exposure (e.g., ingestion of contaminated game and drinking of contaminated water) were identified. PMID:16897501

Tsuji, Leonard J S; Manson, Harry; Wainman, Bruce C; Vanspronsen, Eric P; Shecapio-Blacksmith, Joseph; Rabbitskin, Tommy

2007-04-01

389

Efficacy of Quality Criteria to Identify Potentially Harmful Information: A Cross-sectional Survey of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Web Sites  

PubMed Central

Background Many users search the Internet for answers to health questions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a particularly common search topic. Because many CAM therapies do not require a clinician's prescription, false or misleading CAM information may be more dangerous than information about traditional therapies. Many quality criteria have been suggested to filter out potentially harmful online health information. However, assessing the accuracy of CAM information is uniquely challenging since CAM is generally not supported by conventional literature. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine whether domain-independent technical quality criteria can identify potentially harmful online CAM content. Methods We analyzed 150 Web sites retrieved from a search for the three most popular herbs: ginseng, ginkgo and St. John's wort and their purported uses on the ten most commonly used search engines. The presence of technical quality criteria as well as potentially harmful statements (commissions) and vital information that should have been mentioned (omissions) was recorded. Results Thirty-eight sites (25%) contained statements that could lead to direct physical harm if acted upon. One hundred forty five sites (97%) had omitted information. We found no relationship between technical quality criteria and potentially harmful information. Conclusions Current technical quality criteria do not identify potentially harmful CAM information online. Consumers should be warned to use other means of validation or to trust only known sites. Quality criteria that consider the uniqueness of CAM must be developed and validated. PMID:15249270

Walji, Muhammad; Sagaram, Smitha; Sagaram, Deepak; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson, Craig; Mirza, Nadeem Q

2004-01-01

390

The use of local indicators of spatial association to improve LiDAR-derived predictions of potential amphibian breeding ponds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined whether spatially explicit information improved models that use LiDAR return signal intensity to discriminate in-pond habitat from terrestrial habitat at 24 amphibian breeding ponds. The addition of Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) to LiDAR return intensity data significantly improved predictive models at all ponds, reduced residual error by as much as 74%, and appeared to improve models by reducing classification errors associated with types of in-pond vegetation. We conclude that LISA statistics can help maximize the information content that can be extracted from time resolved LiDAR return data in models that predict the occurrence of small, seasonal ponds. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

Julian, J.T.; Young, J.A.; Jones, J.W.; Snyder, C.D.; Wright, C.W.

2009-01-01

391

Evaluating the Response of Biological Assemblages as Potential Indicators for Restoration Measures in an Intermittent Mediterranean River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioindicators are essential for detecting environmental degradation and for assessing the success of river restoration initiatives. River restoration projects require the identification of environmental and pressure gradients that affect the river system under study and the selection of suitable indicators to assess habitat quality before, during and after restoration. We assessed the response of benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, bird and macrophyte assemblages to environmental and pressure gradients from sites situated upstream and downstream of a cofferdam on the River Odelouca, an intermittent Mediterranean river in southwest Portugal. The Odelouca will be permanently dammed in 2010. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) of environmental and pressure variables revealed that most variance was explained by environmental factors that clearly separated sites upstream and downstream of the partially built cofferdam. The pressure gradient describing physical impacts to the banks and channel as a result of land use change was less distinct. Redundancy Analysis revealed significant levels of explained variance to species distribution patterns in relation to environmental and pressure variables for all 4 biological assemblages. Partial Redundancy analyses revealed high levels of redundancy for pH between groups and that the avifauna was best associated with pressures acting upon the system. Patterns in invertebrates and fish were associated with descriptors of habitat quality, although fish distribution patterns were affected by reduced connectivity. Procrustean and RELATE (Mantel test) analyses gave broadly similar results and supported these findings. We give suggestions on the suitability of key indicator groups such as benthic macroinvertebrates and endemic fish species to assess in stream habitat quality and appropriate restoration measures, such as the release of peak flow patterns that mimic intermittent Mediterranean systems to combat habitat fragmentation and reduced connectivity.

Hughes, Samantha Jane; Santos, Jose; Ferreira, Teresa; Mendes, Ana

2010-08-01

392

Global Biochemical Profiling Identifies ?-Hydroxypyruvate as a Potential Mediator of Type 2 Diabetes in Mice and Humans.  

PubMed

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and GLP-1 are incretins secreted by respective K and L enteroendocrine cells after eating and amplify glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). This amplification has been termed the "incretin response." To determine the role(s) of K cells for the incretin response and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), diphtheria toxin-expressing (DT) mice that specifically lack GIP-producing cells were backcrossed five to eight times onto the diabetogenic NONcNZO10/Ltj background. As in humans with T2DM, DT mice lacked an incretin response, although GLP-1 release was maintained. With high-fat (HF) feeding, DT mice remained lean but developed T2DM, whereas wild-type mice developed obesity but not diabetes. Metabolomics identified biochemicals reflecting impaired glucose handling, insulin resistance, and diabetes complications in prediabetic DT/HF mice. ?-Hydroxypyruvate and benzoate levels were increased and decreased, respectively, suggesting ?-hydroxypyruvate production from d-serine. In vitro, ?-hydroxypyruvate altered excitatory properties of myenteric neurons and reduced islet insulin content but not GSIS. ?-Hydroxypyruvate-to-d-serine ratios were lower in humans with impaired glucose tolerance compared with normal glucose tolerance and T2DM. Earlier human studies unmasked a neural relay that amplifies GIP-mediated insulin secretion in a pattern reciprocal to ?-hydroxypyruvate-to-d-serine ratios in all groups. Thus, K cells may maintain long-term function of neurons and ?-cells by regulating ?-hydroxypyruvate levels. PMID:25368100

Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Songyan; Puhl, Matthew D; Jiang, Xuntian; Hyrc, Krzysztof L; Laciny, Erin; Wallendorf, Michael J; Pappan, Kirk L; Coyle, Joseph T; Wice, Burton M

2015-04-01

393

Potential Autonomic Risk Factors for Chronic TMD: Descriptive Data and Empirically Identified Domains from the OPPERA Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Several case-control studies have been conducted that examine the association between autonomic variables and persistent pain conditions; however, there is a surprising dearth of published studies in this area that have focused on temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The current study presents autonomic findings from the baseline case-control study of the OPPERA (Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment) cooperative agreement. Measures of arterial blood pressure, heart rate, heart rate variability, and indirect measures of baroreflex sensitivity were assessed at rest and in response to a physical (orthostatic) and psychological (Stroop) stressors in 1633 TMD-free controls and 185 TMD cases. In bivariate and demographically adjusted analyses, greater odds of TMD case status were associated with elevated heart rates, reduced heart rate variability, and reduced surrogate measures of baroreflex sensitivity across all experimental procedures. Principal component analysis was undertaken to identify latent constructs revealing five components. These findings provide evidence of associations between autonomic factors and TMD. Future prospective analyses in the OPPERA cohort will determine if the presence of these autonomic factors predicts increased risk for developing new onset TMD. PMID:22074754

Maixner, William; Greenspan, Joel D.; Dubner, Ronald; Bair, Eric; Mulkey, Flora; Miller, Vanessa; Knott, Charles; Slade, Gary D.; Ohrbach, Richard; Diatchenko, Luda; Fillingim, Roger B.

2011-01-01

394

Recombinant yeast screen for new inhibitors of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 identifies potential drugs to treat obesity  

PubMed Central

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a key enzyme of fatty acid metabolism with multiple isozymes often expressed in different eukaryotic cellular compartments. ACC-made malonyl-CoA serves as a precursor for fatty acids; it also regulates fatty acid oxidation and feeding behavior in animals. ACC provides an important target for new drugs to treat human diseases. We have developed an inexpensive nonradioactive high-throughput screening system to identify new ACC inhibitors. The screen uses yeast gene-replacement strains depending for growth on cloned human ACC1 and ACC2. In “proof of concept” experiments, growth of such strains was inhibited by compounds known to target human ACCs. The screen is sensitive and robust. Medium-size chemical libraries yielded new specific inhibitors of human ACC2. The target of the best of these inhibitors was confirmed with in vitro enzymatic assays. This compound is a new drug chemotype inhibiting human ACC2 with 2.8 ?M IC50 and having no effect on human ACC1 at 100 ?M. PMID:20439761

Marjanovic, Jasmina; Chalupska, Dominika; Patenode, Caroline; Coster, Adam; Arnold, Evan; Ye, Alice; Anesi, George; Lu, Ying; Okun, Ilya; Tkachenko, Sergey; Haselkorn, Robert; Gornicki, Piotr

2010-01-01

395

12-Chemokine Gene Signature Identifies Lymph Node-like Structures in Melanoma: Potential for Patient Selection for Immunotherapy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have interrogated a 12-chemokine gene expression signature (GES) on genomic arrays of 14,492 distinct solid tumors and show broad distribution across different histologies. We hypothesized that this 12-chemokine GES might accurately predict a unique intratumoral immune reaction in stage IV (non-locoregional) melanoma metastases. The 12-chemokine GES predicted the presence of unique, lymph node-like structures, containing CD20+ B cell follicles with prominent areas of CD3+ T cells (both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets). CD86+, but not FoxP3+, cells were present within these unique structures as well. The direct correlation between the 12-chemokine GES score and the presence of unique, lymph nodal structures was also associated with better overall survival of the subset of melanoma patients. The use of this novel 12-chemokine GES may reveal basic information on in situ mechanisms of the anti-tumor immune response, potentially leading to improvements in the identification and selection of melanoma patients most suitable for immunotherapy.

Messina, Jane L.; Fenstermacher, David A.; Eschrich, Steven; Qu, Xiaotao; Berglund, Anders E.; Lloyd, Mark C.; Schell, Michael J.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Weber, Jeffrey S.; Mulé, James J.

2012-10-01

396

A thermal profile method to identify potential ground-water discharge areas and preferred salmonid habitats for long river reaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The thermal regime of riverine systems is a major control on aquatic ecosystems. Ground water discharge is an important abiotic driver of the aquatic ecosystem because it provides preferred thermal structure and habitat for different types of fish at different times in their life history. In large diverse river basins with an extensive riverine system, documenting the thermal regime and ground-water discharge is difficult and problematic. A method was developed to thermally profile long (5-25 kilometers) river reaches by towing in a Lagrangian framework one or two probes that measure temperature, depth, and conductivity. One probe is towed near the streambed and, if used, a second probe is towed near the surface. The probes continuously record data at 1-3-second intervals while a Global Positioning System logs spatial coordinates. The thermal profile provides valuable information about spatial and temporal variations in habitat, and, notably, indicates ground-water discharge areas. This method was developed and tested in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, in summer 2001 during low flows in an extreme drought year. The temperature profile comprehensively documents the longitudinal distribution of a river's temperature regime that cannot be captured by fixed station data. The example profile presented exhibits intra-reach diversity that reflects the many factors controlling the temperature of a parcel of water as it moves downstream. Thermal profiles provide a new perspective on riverine system temperature regimes that represent part of the aquatic habitat template for lotic community patterns.

Vaccaro, J.J.; Maloy, K.J.

2006-01-01

397

Systemic Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles Identifies ErbB3 as a Potential Drug Target in Pediatric Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Pediatric sarcomas, including rhabdomyosarcomas, Ewing’s sarcoma, and osteosarcoma, are aggressive tumors with poor survival rates. To overcome problems associated with nonselectivity of the current therapeutic approaches, targeted therapeutics have been developed. Currently, an increasing number of such drugs are used for treating malignancies of adult patients but little is known about their effects in pediatric patients. We analyzed expression of 24 clinically approved target genes in a wide variety of pediatric normal and malignant tissues using a novel high-throughput systems biology approach. Analysis of the Genesapiens database of human transcriptomes demonstrated statistically significant up-regulation of VEGFC and EPHA2 in Ewing’s sarcoma, and ERBB3 in alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas. In silico data for ERBB3 was validated by demonstrating ErbB3 protein expression in pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma in vitro and in vivo. ERBB3 overexpression promoted whereas ERBB3-targeted siRNA suppressed rhabdomyosarcoma cell gowth, indicating a functional role for ErbB3 signaling in rhabdomyosarcoma. These data suggest that drugs targeting ErbB3, EphA2 or VEGF-C could be further tested as therapeutic targets for pediatric sarcomas. PMID:23227212

Nordberg, Janne; Mpindi, John Patrick; Iljin, Kristiina; Pulliainen, Arto Tapio; Kallajoki, Markku; Kallioniemi, Olli; Elenius, Klaus; Elenius, Varpu

2012-01-01

398

Phosphorus as a typological and mineralization potential indicator: the Cape Granite Suite of the Saldania belt as a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Granitoids of the Cape Granite Suite can be classified as S-, I- and A-types according to their P 2O 5 contents. The S-type granitoids dominate in the western Tygerberg terrane, the I-type granitoids in the central Swartland as well as the eastern Boland terranes and the A-types are intrusive in both the Swartland and Tygerberg terranes. The subdivision of the three major groups into six granitic associations, namely two Stype ( Sa and Sb), two I-type ( Ia and Ib) and two A-type associations ( Aa and Ab) was performed by a combination of mineralogical and petrochemical parameters utilizing P 2O 5, Th, Nb, Zr, Na 2O, K 2O and the rare earth elements. The S-type granitoids are enriched in P 2O 5 above values for theoretical apatite saturation curves. A distinction is made between the Sa1 association with P enrichment regardless of the degree of differentiation and the Sa2 association with considerable enrichment during advanced stages of differentiation. Granitoids of the Ia association follow high temperature apatite saturation curves. Fractionated Ib association granitoids adhere to these curves up to advanced stages of differentiation, where P 2O 5 is slightly enriched. A-type granitoids of both associations are depleted in P 2O 5. The mineralization potential of granitoids of the Suite is specific [W?Mo(Cu) or W?Sn(