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1

Identifying Indices of Happiness and Unhappiness Among Adults With Autism: Potential Targets for Behavioral Assessment and Intervention  

PubMed Central

Research is increasingly demonstrating the importance of monitoring indices of happiness as part of behavioral programs for individuals who have severe intellectual disabilities. We evaluated a practitioner-oriented process for identifying and validating individualized indices of this private event among three adults with autism who were nonvocal or minimally vocal. Caregiver surveys were administered to obtain agreement regarding behavior displayed when the individuals were happy and unhappy, as well as situations in which they were likely to experience happiness and unhappiness. Observations corroborated caregiver opinion in that participants displayed more happiness indices in situations reported to be accompanied by happiness, and for the most part, more unhappiness indices in reported unhappiness situations. Subsequent choices by each participant supported the validity of the individualized indices. Results are discussed regarding how identifying happiness indices can be a useful component of behavioral applications, as well as guidelines and cautions regarding use of the indices in routine practice.

Parsons, Marsha B; Reid, Dennis H; Bentley, Erik; Inman, Amy; Lattimore, L. Perry

2012-01-01

2

Identifying indices of happiness and unhappiness among adults with autism: potential targets for behavioral assessment and intervention.  

PubMed

Research is increasingly demonstrating the importance of monitoring indices of happiness as part of behavioral programs for individuals who have severe intellectual disabilities. We evaluated a practitioner-oriented process for identifying and validating individualized indices of this private event among three adults with autism who were nonvocal or minimally vocal. Caregiver surveys were administered to obtain agreement regarding behavior displayed when the individuals were happy and unhappy, as well as situations in which they were likely to experience happiness and unhappiness. Observations corroborated caregiver opinion in that participants displayed more happiness indices in situations reported to be accompanied by happiness, and for the most part, more unhappiness indices in reported unhappiness situations. Subsequent choices by each participant supported the validity of the individualized indices. Results are discussed regarding how identifying happiness indices can be a useful component of behavioral applications, as well as guidelines and cautions regarding use of the indices in routine practice. PMID:23326627

Parsons, Marsha B; Reid, Dennis H; Bentley, Erik; Inman, Amy; Lattimore, L Perry

2012-01-01

3

Potential Indicators of Stress Response Identified by Expressed Sequence Tag Analysis of Hemocytes and Embryos from the American Oyster, Crassostrea virginica  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   A pilot program was initiated to identify genes from the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, that are potentially involved in the stress response for use as bioindicators of exposure to environmental pollutants and\\u000a to toxic and infectious agents. A PCR-based method was used to construct cDNA libraries from pooled embryos and the hemocytes\\u000a of a single individual. A total of

Matthew J. Jenny; Amy H. Ringwood; Eric R. Lacy; Alan J. Lewitus; Jason W. Kempton; Paul S. Gross; Gregory W. Warr; Robert W. Chapman

2002-01-01

4

Identifying indicators during pregnancy for child maltreatment.  

PubMed

To measure the effect of a short interpregnancy interval (IPI), along with other indicators routinely asked during pregnancy on later report of child maltreatment. We hypothesized that an IPI of <18 months was associated with increased risk of child maltreatment. This study was a secondary analysis of a linked population-based dataset from 2005 to 2007 in Florida. Data were derived from three sources: Birth Certificates, Healthy Start Prenatal Risk Screens, and the HomeSafeNet Database. Primary predictor variables were IPI, and mothers' evaluations of the timing of the pregnancy and perceptions of harm. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds of child maltreatment, adjusting for demographic and other known risk factors for maltreatment. The final study sample consisted of 85,258 multipara women-infant dyads with credible IPIs and with completed Healthy Start Prenatal Risk Screens. Seventeen percent of children had a report of child maltreatment in the first 5 years of life. An IPI of less than 18 months was associated with 18 % higher odds of maltreatment compared to an IPI of greater than 18 months (95 % CI 1.13, 1.23). Mothers' perception of harm and desire to be pregnant at a later time were also significantly associated with higher odds of maltreatment report (AOR = 2.43 95 % CI = 2.17, 2.71 and AOR = 1.18 95 % CI 1.13, 1.24, respectively). Ascertaining short IPI and asking pregnant and peripartum women about their perception of harm and desire for a longer birth spacing can alert obstetricians, family practitioners and pediatricians to potential child maltreatment. PMID:23233243

Thompson, Erika L; Thompson, Lindsay A; Black, Erik W; Esernio-Jenssen, Debra; Hardt, Nancy; Das, Rajeeb; Roth, Jeffrey

2013-12-01

5

Patient-identified quality indicators for colonoscopy services  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Current quality improvement tools for endoscopy services, such as the Global Rating Scale (GRS), emphasize the need for patient-centred care. However, there are no studies that have investigated patient expectations and/or perceptions of quality indicators in endoscopy services. OBJECTIVES: To identify quality indicators for colonoscopy services from the patient perspective; to rate indicators of importance; to determine factors that influence indicator ratings; and to compare the identified indicators with those of the GRS. METHODS: A two-phase mixed methods study was undertaken in Montreal (Quebec), Calgary (Alberta) and Hamilton (Ontario) among patients ?18 years of age who spoke and read English or French. In phase 1, focus group participants identified quality indicators that were then used to construct a survey questionnaire. In phase 2, survey questionnaires, which were completed immediately after colonoscopy, prompted respondents to rate the 20 focus group-derived indicators according to their level of importance (low, medium, high) and to list up to nine additional items. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors that influenced focus group-derived indicator ratings. Patient-identified indicators were compared with those used in the GRS to identify novel indicators. RESULTS: Three quality indicator themes were identified by 66 participants in 12 focus groups: communication, comfort and service environment. Of the 828 surveys distributed, 402 (48.6%) were returned and 65% of focus group-derived indicators were rated highly important by at least 55% of survey respondents. Indicator ratings differed according to age, sex, site and perceived colorectal cancer risk. Of the 29 patient-identified indicators, 17 (58.6%) were novel. CONCLUSIONS: Patients identified 17 novel quality indicators, suggesting that patients and health professionals differ in their perspectives with respect to quality in colonoscopy services.

Sewitch, Maida J; Dube, Catherine; Brien, Stephanie; Jiang, Mengzhu; Hilsden, Robert J; Barkun, Alan N; Armstrong, David

2013-01-01

6

Identifying Potential Test Item Misalignment Using Student Verbal Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present investigation was to identify the relationship among different indicators of uncertainty that lead to potential item misalignment. The item-based indicators included ratings of ambiguity and cognitive complexity. The student-based indicators included (a) frequency of cognitive monitoring per item, (b) levels of…

Leighton, Jacqueline P.; Gokiert, Rebecca J.

2008-01-01

7

Potential Therapeutic Targets Identified in Multiple Myeloma  

Cancer.gov

Description: Researchers have identified molecular changes in multiple myeloma cells that activate an important biological pathway associated with cell growth and survival, thereby revealing potential new targets for drugs to treat this cancer. The researchers, led by a team from the NCI, have shown that malignant cells in multiple myeloma frequently harbor mutations that activate what is called the NF-kappaB signaling pathway, which plays a key role in promoting cell growth and preventing programmed cell death.

8

Identifying Inconsistencies in SNOMED CT Problem Lists using Structural Indicators  

PubMed Central

The National Library of Medicine has published the CORE and the VA/KP problem lists to facilitate the usage of SNOMED CT for encoding diagnoses and clinical data of patients in electronic health records. Therefore, it is essential for the content of the problem lists to be as accurate and consistent as possible. This study assesses the effectiveness of using a concept’s word length and number of parents, two structural indicators for measuring concept complexity, to identify inconsistencies with high probability. The method is able to isolate concepts with over 40% expected of being erroneous. A structural indicator for concepts which is able to identify 52% of the examined concepts as having errors in synonyms is also presented. The results demonstrate that the concepts in problem lists are not free of inconsistencies and further quality assurance is needed to improve the quality of these concepts.

Agrawal, Ankur; Perl, Yehoshua; Chen, Yan; Elhanan, Gai; Liu, Mei

2013-01-01

9

Identifying basketball performance indicators in regular season and playoff games.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to identify basketball game performance indicators which best discriminate winners and losers in regular season and playoffs. The sample used was composed by 323 games of ACB Spanish Basketball League from the regular season (n=306) and from the playoffs (n=17). A previous cluster analysis allowed splitting the sample in balanced (equal or below 12 points), unbalanced (between 13 and 28 points) and very unbalanced games (above 28 points). A discriminant analysis was used to identify the performance indicators either in regular season and playoff games. In regular season games, the winning teams dominated in assists, defensive rebounds, successful 2 and 3-point field-goals. However, in playoff games the winning teams' superiority was only in defensive rebounding. In practical applications, these results may help the coaches to accurately design training programs to reflect the importance of having different offensive set plays and also have specific conditioning programs to prepare for defensive rebounding. PMID:23717365

García, Javier; Ibáñez, Sergio J; De Santos, Raúl Martinez; Leite, Nuno; Sampaio, Jaime

2013-03-01

10

Developing a Monitoring System for Indicators in Middle Childhood: Identifying Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper builds on an initial paper (Moore and Theokas, Child Indicators Research, 2008 DOI 10.1007\\/s12187-008-9011-9) that conceptualizes elements of well-being relevant for the middle childhood period, identifies potential constructs and\\u000a develops criteria for indicators. Here, we follow up by identifying a set of 20 indicator constructs, half positive and half\\u000a negative. Of these 20, half measure child well-being and

Kristin Anderson Moore; Sharon Vandivere; Astrid Atienza; Tatia Thiot

2008-01-01

11

Identifying early indicators in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder. PMID:24174009

Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon

2014-06-01

12

Identifying Value Indicators and Social Capital in Community Health Partnerships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, public health practice is turning to the application of community collaborative models to improve population health status. Despite the growth of these activities, however, evaluations of the national demonstrations have indicated that community health partnerships fail to achieve measurable results and struggle to maintain integrity…

Hausman, Alice J.; Becker, Julie; Brawer, Rickie

2005-01-01

13

Accomplishing structural change: Identifying intermediate indicators of success  

PubMed Central

Coalitions are routinely employed across the United States as a method of mobilizing communities to improve local conditions that impact on citizens’ well-being. Success in achieving specific objectives for environmental or structural community change may not quickly translate into improved population outcomes in the community, posing a dilemma for coalitions that pursue changes that focus on altering community conditions. Considerable effort by communities to plan for and pursue structural change objectives, without evidence of logical and appropriate intermediate markers of success could lead to wasted effort. Yet, the current literature provides little guidance on how coalitions might select intermediate indicators of achievement to judge their progress and the utility of their effort. The current paper explores the strengths and weaknesses of various indicators of intermediate success in creating structural changes among a sample of 13 coalitions organized to prevent exposure to HIV among high-risk adolescents in their local communities.

Miller, Robin Lin; Reed, Sarah J.; Francisco, Vincent

2012-01-01

14

Accomplishing structural change: identifying intermediate indicators of success.  

PubMed

Coalitions are routinely employed across the United States as a method of mobilizing communities to improve local conditions that impact on citizens' well-being. Success in achieving specific objectives for environmental or structural community change may not quickly translate into improved population outcomes in the community, posing a dilemma for coalitions that pursue changes that focus on altering community conditions. Considerable effort by communities to plan for and pursue structural change objectives, without evidence of logical and appropriate intermediate markers of success could lead to wasted effort. Yet, the current literature provides little guidance on how coalitions might select intermediate indicators of achievement to judge their progress and the utility of their effort. The current paper explores the strengths and weaknesses of various indicators of intermediate success in creating structural changes among a sample of 13 coalitions organized to prevent exposure to HIV among high-risk adolescents in their local communities. PMID:22875684

Miller, Robin Lin; Reed, Sarah J; Francisco, Vincent

2013-03-01

15

Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic…

Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

2013-01-01

16

Fluorescein Diacetate: A Potential Biological Indicator for Arid Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was undertaken to identify a potential biological indicator for arid soils. The study area covered five districts (111,681 km) in which annual rainfall varied from 217 to 427 mm and soil texture ranged from sandy to clay loam. The surface 30 cm of arid soil from agricultural field sites differing in soil properties and cropping pattern were used in the

G. K. Aseri; J. C. Tarafdar

2006-01-01

17

SELECTING INDICATORS OF BIODIVERSITY FOR CONSERVATION PLANNING: IDENTIFYING THE MECHANISMS BEHIND INDICATOR GROUP PERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Most conservation planning is constrained by time and funding. In particular, the selection of areas to protect biodiversity must often be completed with limited data on species distributions. Consequently, different groups of species have been proposed as indicators or surroga...

18

Identify potentially eligible participants | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Your institution’s information system is an obvious starting point for identifying potential clinical trial participants. If your medical records are electronic, then the process may be simpler. No matter which tools you use, it is important to know all the potentially eligible participants are being identified.

19

Identifying indicators of illegal behaviour: carnivore killing in human-managed landscapes  

PubMed Central

Managing natural resources often depends on influencing people's behaviour, however effectively targeting interventions to discourage environmentally harmful behaviours is challenging because those involved may be unwilling to identify themselves. Non-sensitive indicators of sensitive behaviours are therefore needed. Previous studies have investigated people's attitudes, assuming attitudes reflect behaviour. There has also been interest in using people's estimates of the proportion of their peers involved in sensitive behaviours to identify those involved, since people tend to assume that others behave like themselves. However, there has been little attempt to test the potential of such indicators. We use the randomized response technique (RRT), designed for investigating sensitive behaviours, to estimate the proportion of farmers in north-eastern South Africa killing carnivores, and use a modified logistic regression model to explore relationships between our best estimates of true behaviour (from RRT) and our proposed non-sensitive indicators (including farmers' attitudes, and estimates of peer-behaviour). Farmers' attitudes towards carnivores, question sensitivity and estimates of peers' behaviour, predict the likelihood of farmers killing carnivores. Attitude and estimates of peer-behaviour are useful indicators of involvement in illicit behaviours and may be used to identify groups of people to engage in interventions aimed at changing behaviour.

St John, Freya A. V.; Keane, Aidan M.; Edwards-Jones, Gareth; Jones, Lauren; Yarnell, Richard W.; Jones, Julia P. G.

2012-01-01

20

Indicators of ecosystem function identify alternate states in the sagebrush steppe.  

PubMed

Models of ecosystem change that incorporate nonlinear dynamics and thresholds, such as state-and-transition models (STMs), are increasingly popular tools for land management decision-making. However, few models are based on systematic collection and documentation of ecological data, and of these, most rely solely on structural indicators (species composition) to identify states and transitions. As STMs are adopted as an assessment framework throughout the United States, finding effective and efficient ways to create data-driven models that integrate ecosystem function and structure is vital. This study aims to (1) evaluate the utility of functional indicators (indicators of rangeland health, IRH) as proxies for more difficult ecosystem function measurements and (2) create a data-driven STM for the sagebrush steppe of Colorado, USA, that incorporates both ecosystem structure and function. We sampled soils, plant communities, and IRH at 41 plots with similar clayey soils but different site histories to identify potential states and infer the effects of management practices and disturbances on transitions. We found that many IRH were correlated with quantitative measures of functional indicators, suggesting that the IRH can be used to approximate ecosystem function. In addition to a reference state that functions as expected for this soil type, we identified four biotically and functionally distinct potential states, consistent with the theoretical concept of alternate states. Three potential states were related to management practices (chemical and mechanical shrub treatments and seeding history) while one was related only to ecosystem processes (erosion). IRH and potential states were also related to environmental variation (slope, soil texture), suggesting that there are environmental factors within areas with similar soils that affect ecosystem dynamics and should be noted within STMs. Our approach generated an objective, data-driven model of ecosystem dynamics for rangeland management. Our findings suggest that the IRH approximate ecosystem processes and can distinguish between alternate states and communities and identify transitions when building data-driven STMs. Functional indicators are a simple, efficient way to create data-driven models that are consistent with alternate state theory. Managers can use them to improve current model-building methods and thus apply state-and-transition models more broadly for land management decision-making. PMID:22073659

Kachergis, Emily; Rocca, Monique E; Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria E

2011-10-01

21

Identifying Potential Kidney Donors Using Social Networking Websites  

PubMed Central

Social networking sites like Facebook may be a powerful tool for increasing rates of live kidney donation. They allow for wide dissemination of information and discussion, and could lessen anxiety associated with a face-to-face request for donation. However, sparse data exist on the use of social media for this purpose. We searched Facebook, the most popular social networking site, for publicly available English-language pages seeking kidney donors for a specific individual, abstracting information on the potential recipient, characteristics of the page itself, and whether potential donors were tested. In the 91 pages meeting inclusion criteria, the mean age of potential recipients was 37 (range: 2–69); 88% were U.S. residents. Other posted information included the individual’s photograph (76%), blood type (64%), cause of kidney disease (43%), and location (71%). Thirty-two percent of pages reported having potential donors tested, and 10% reported receiving a live donor kidney transplant. Those reporting donor testing shared more potential recipient characteristics, provided more information about transplantation, and had higher page traffic. Facebook is already being used to identify potential kidney donors. Future studies should focus on how to safely, ethically, and effectively use social networking sites to inform potential donors and potentially expand live kidney donation.

Chang, Alexander; Anderson, Emily E.; Turner, Hang T.; Shoham, David; Hou, Susan H.; Grams, Morgan

2013-01-01

22

Discovering Potential Pathogens among Fungi Identified as Nonsporulating Molds?  

PubMed Central

Fungal infections are increasing, particularly among immunocompromised hosts, and a rapid diagnosis is essential to initiate antifungal therapy. Often fungi cannot be identified by conventional methods and are classified as nonsporulating molds (NSM).We sequenced internal transcribed spacer regions from 50 cultures of NSM and found 16 potential pathogens that can be associated with clinical disease. In selected clinical settings, identification of NSM could prove valuable and have an immediate impact on patient management.

Pounder, June I.; Simmon, Keith E.; Barton, Claudia A.; Hohmann, Sheri L.; Brandt, Mary E.; Petti, Cathy A.

2007-01-01

23

Coastal Zone Management Act: Developing a Framework for Identifying Performance Indicators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this Heinz Center study was to develop a framework for identifying indicators to assist NOAA's National Ocean Service in its task of establishing a national performance measurement system for the nations coasts. Designing such a measureme...

2003-01-01

24

Urinary peptidomics identifies potential biomarkers for major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating psychiatric illness with no available objective laboratory-based diagnostic test. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based peptidomics was applied to identify potential urinary diagnostic biomarkers for MDD. A training set of 42 first-episode drug-naive MDD patients and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) was used to develop a peptide diagnostic pattern. Then, the diagnostic efficacy of this pattern was assessed in an independent blinded test set consisting of 24 MDD patients and 13 age- and gender-matched HC. A combination of five potential biomarkers was identified, yielding a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 84.6% in the test set. Moreover, the protein precursors of four of the five peptides were identified by tandem mass spectrometric analysis: serum albumin, apolipoprotein A-I, protein AMBP, and basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein. Taken together, the peptide pattern may be valuable for establishing an objective laboratory-based diagnostic test for MDD. PMID:24661976

Wang, Ying; Chen, Jianjun; Chen, Liang; Zheng, Peng; Xu, Hong-Bo; Lu, Jia; Zhong, Jiaju; Lei, Yang; Zhou, Chanjuan; Ma, Qingwei; Li, Yan; Xie, Peng

2014-06-30

25

Collaboration Indices for Monitoring Potential Problems in Online Small Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to test the validity and reliability of three collaboration indices ("quantity", "equality", "and shareness") proposed by Jahng et al. (2010). The present study repeated the quantitative assessment of Jahng et al., and performed a further qualitative analysis to identify possible factors that might be associated with…

Jahng, Namsook

2013-01-01

26

Auditory distraction: event-related potential and behavioral indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to illuminate behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) effects of attentional orienting and reorienting obtained in a newly developed auditory distraction paradigm, to provide more precise indicators about the neural generators of the ERP effects using scalp current density (SCD) analysis, and to evaluate the stability of the distraction effects.Methods: In two sessions separated

Erich Schröger; M.-H Giard; Ch Wolff

2000-01-01

27

Identifying potential cancer driver genes by genomic data integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cancer is a genomic disease associated with a plethora of gene mutations resulting in a loss of control over vital cellular functions. Among these mutated genes, driver genes are defined as being causally linked to oncogenesis, while passenger genes are thought to be irrelevant for cancer development. With increasing numbers of large-scale genomic datasets available, integrating these genomic data to identify driver genes from aberration regions of cancer genomes becomes an important goal of cancer genome analysis and investigations into mechanisms responsible for cancer development. A computational method, MAXDRIVER, is proposed here to identify potential driver genes on the basis of copy number aberration (CNA) regions of cancer genomes, by integrating publicly available human genomic data. MAXDRIVER employs several optimization strategies to construct a heterogeneous network, by means of combining a fused gene functional similarity network, gene-disease associations and a disease phenotypic similarity network. MAXDRIVER was validated to effectively recall known associations among genes and cancers. Previously identified as well as novel driver genes were detected by scanning CNAs of breast cancer, melanoma and liver carcinoma. Three predicted driver genes (CDKN2A, AKT1, RNF139) were found common in these three cancers by comparative analysis.

Chen, Yong; Hao, Jingjing; Jiang, Wei; He, Tong; Zhang, Xuegong; Jiang, Tao; Jiang, Rui

2013-12-01

28

Identifying potential cancer driver genes by genomic data integration.  

PubMed

Cancer is a genomic disease associated with a plethora of gene mutations resulting in a loss of control over vital cellular functions. Among these mutated genes, driver genes are defined as being causally linked to oncogenesis, while passenger genes are thought to be irrelevant for cancer development. With increasing numbers of large-scale genomic datasets available, integrating these genomic data to identify driver genes from aberration regions of cancer genomes becomes an important goal of cancer genome analysis and investigations into mechanisms responsible for cancer development. A computational method, MAXDRIVER, is proposed here to identify potential driver genes on the basis of copy number aberration (CNA) regions of cancer genomes, by integrating publicly available human genomic data. MAXDRIVER employs several optimization strategies to construct a heterogeneous network, by means of combining a fused gene functional similarity network, gene-disease associations and a disease phenotypic similarity network. MAXDRIVER was validated to effectively recall known associations among genes and cancers. Previously identified as well as novel driver genes were detected by scanning CNAs of breast cancer, melanoma and liver carcinoma. Three predicted driver genes (CDKN2A, AKT1, RNF139) were found common in these three cancers by comparative analysis. PMID:24346768

Chen, Yong; Hao, Jingjing; Jiang, Wei; He, Tong; Zhang, Xuegong; Jiang, Tao; Jiang, Rui

2013-01-01

29

Potential indications for octreotide in gastroenterology: summary of workshop.  

PubMed

The potential therapeutic applications of somatostatin and octreotide in gastroenterology involve gut neuro-endocrine tumours, bleeding varices, bleeding peptic ulcers, gastro-intestinal fistulae, pancreatic fistulae, dumping syndrome, pancreatic pseudocysts, short bowel syndrome, acute pancreatitis, AIDS-related diarrhoea, intestinal subacute obstruction, idiopathic 'diarrhoea', irritable bowel syndrome and GIT tumours. Octreotide has a longer duration of action than somatostatin and can be administered by subcutaneous injection, thus making it suitable for long-term administration. Many of the potential gastro-intestinal indications require long-term administration and thus octreotide would be the agent of choice. PMID:8359570

Burroughs, A K; Malagelada, R

1993-01-01

30

Potential biological indicators for glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde sterilization processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a The present study aimed to isolate, select, and evaluate bacterial isolates with potential for use as biological indicators\\u000a for sterilization with glutaraldehyde and\\/or formaldehyde. A total of 340 local Bacillus isolates were screened for glutaraldehyde and\\/or formaldehyde resistance by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations\\u000a (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and extinction time and were compared with B. subtilis (var. niger)

Fathy M. E. Serry; Ashraf A. Kadry; Abdou A. Abdelrahman

2003-01-01

31

Pyrite in sliding mud: A potential indicator of landslide development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new principle of geochemical conditions within a landslide slip zone is presented based on the concept of a self-sealing\\u000a closed system for which newly formed pyrite should be considered as a potential indicator. Once slip zones occur, a series\\u000a of water-rock interactions may take place, particularly, a change in redox conditions simultaneously with progression of the\\u000a landslide. This change

Guodong Zheng; Liang Shouyun; Lang Yuhua; Ma Xiangxian; Liang Mingliang; Xiang Wei

2010-01-01

32

Costa Rican data synthesis indicates oil, gas potential  

SciTech Connect

The hydrocarbon exploration data base in Costa Rica, gathered through various recent periods, indicates promising hydrocarbon potential in the country. During 1980--94, Recope SA, the state petroleum company, performed a series of studies to evaluate the petroleum potential in the whole Costa Rican territory. As a first step, the information compiled during previous studies was re-evaluated, and later new information was collected with the aid of foreign governments and cooperating institutions. A new exploratory era began with the Costa Rican Congress` approval in 1994 of the Hydrocarbon Law, which allows private companies to participate in hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. This article brings together some highlights about Costa Rica oil potential and gives basic information on future hydrocarbon exploration and development under the regulation of the new Hydrocarbon Law.

Barrientos, J.; Bottazzi, G.; Fernandez, A.; Barboza, G. [Ministry of Environment and Energy, San Jose (Costa Rica). Hydrocarbons Directorate

1997-05-12

33

Identifying Learning Styles in Learning Management Systems by Using Indications from Students' Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Making students aware of their learning styles and presenting them with learning material that incorporates their individual learning styles has potential to make learning easier for students and increase their learning progress. This paper proposes an automatic approach for identifying learning styles with respect to the Felder-Silverman learning style model by inferring their learning styles from their behaviour during they

Sabine Graf; Kinshuk; Tzu-chien Liu

2008-01-01

34

A Method to Identify Estuarine Macroinvertebrate Pollution Indicator Species in the Virginian Biogeogarphic Province  

EPA Science Inventory

Macroinvertebrates are commonly used as biomonitors to detect pollution impacts in estuaries. The goal of this research was to identify estuarine benthic invertebrates that could be used as indicator species to detect presence or absence of pollution in the Virginian Biogeograph...

35

Identifying Market Potential and Destination Choice Factors of Taiwanese Overseas Travelers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several statistics indicate Taiwan to be a tourist-generating country. The purposes of this study were to identify the market potential and the underlying destination choice factors of Taiwanese traveling abroad for pleasure. Data were collected through a 1996 survey of metropolitan citizens (n = 225). The sociodemographic as well as pleasure travel profiles were revealed and five destination choice dimensions

Lai-Hsin Lai; Alan R. Graefe

1999-01-01

36

Potential Rating Indicators for Cyberinsurance: An Exploratory Qualitative Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the results of an exploratory qualitative study with experts. The aim of the study was the identification of potential rating variables which could be used to calculate a premium for Cyberinsurance coverages. For this purpose we have conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with a sample of 36 experts from the DACH region. The gathered statements have been consolidated and further reduced to a subset of indicators which are available and difficult to manipulate. The reduced set of indicators has been presented again to the 36 experts in order to rank them according to their relative importance. In this paper we describe the results of this exploratory qualitative study and conclude by discussing implications of our findings for both research and practice.

Innerhofer-Oberperfler, Frank; Breu, Ruth

37

The abilities of new anthropometric indices in identifying cardiometabolic abnormalities, and influence of residence area and lifestyle on these anthropometric indices in a Chinese community-dwelling population  

PubMed Central

Objective The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and cardiometabolic abnormalities, the influence of residence area, occupation, and lifestyle on new anthropometric indices, and the relationship between anthropometric indices and cardiometabolic abnormalities in a Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods The study included 4,868 residents through a large health check-up program in Beijing. Results Overall obesity existed in 22.2% of men and 28.1% of women. 67.1% of men and 65.2% of women were overweight. 65.99% of men and 65.97% of women had central obesity. Residents of rural areas, manual workers, and smokers had significantly higher anthropometric indices. The power of each anthropometric index varied for identifying different cardiometabolic abnormalities, and the ability of the waist-to-height ratio to identify participants with greater than one or two cardiometabolic abnormalities was optimal. The appropriate cut-off values of all anthropometric indices for cardiometabolic abnormalities were obtained. Conclusion Overweight is common for both sexes in the People’s Republic of China, as are general and central obesity. Residents of rural areas, manual workers, and smokers have significantly higher anthropometric indices. Waist-to-height ratio has the ability to reflect the compound risk of different cardiometabolic abnormalities and the greatest potential to be widely applied in clinical practice.

Fu, Shihui; Luo, Leiming; Ye, Ping; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Bing; Bai, Yongyi; Bai, Jie

2014-01-01

38

Source rock, maturity data indicate potential off Namibia  

SciTech Connect

Namibia`s territorial waters occupy a large portion of West Africa`s continental shelf. The area to the 1,000 m isobath is comparable in size to the combined offshore areas of Gabon, Congo, Zaire, and Angola. Around half as much again lies in 1,000--2,500 m of water. The whole unlicensed part of this area will be open for bidding when the Third Licensing Round starts Oct. 1, 1998. Offshore Namibia is underexplored by drilling with only seven exploration wells drilled. Shell`s Kudu field represents a considerable gas resource with reserves of around 3 tcf and is presently the only commercial discovery.Namibia`s offshore area holds enormous exploration potential. Good quality sandstone reservoirs are likely to be distributed widely, and a number of prospective structural and stratigraphic traps have been identified. The recognition of Cretaceous marine oil-prone source rocks combined with the results of new thermal history reconstruction and maturity modeling studies are particularly significant in assessment of the oil potential. The paper discusses resource development and structures, oil source potential, maturity, and hydrocarbon generation.

Bray, R.; Lawrence, S. [Exploration Consultants Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom); Swart, R. [National Petroleum Corp. of Namibia Pty. Ltd., Windhoek (Namibia)

1998-08-10

39

Redox potential: An indicator of site productivity in forest management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Redox potential (Eh) is an integrated soil measurement that reflects several environmental conditions in the soil associated with aeration, moisture and carbon (organic matter) dynamics. Its measurement can be related to water table fluctuations, precipitation and landscape gradients, organic matter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics, biological diversity and plant species distribution. Redox is an excellent indicator of soil biological processes, as it is largely a reflection of microbial activities which to a large extent govern carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling. Redox thus serves as an ecological indicator of site productivity at the ecosystem scale and may be used for management purposes as its magnitude can be altered by activities such as harvesting and drainage. A threshold value of 300 mv has been documented as the critical value below which anaerobic conditions in the soil develop. However, redox measurements and its impacts on ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling and productivity, especially in forest ecosystems, have not received the attention that this "master" variable deserves, On northern Vancouver Island, Canada, regenerating stands of western redcedar-western hemlock (CH) sites exhibit symptoms of nutrient deficiencies and slow growth, but this phenomenon does not occur on adjacent western hemlock- amabalis fir (HA) sites. We tested the hypothesis that differences in nutrient supply and distribution of plant species was caused by differences in moisture regime and redox potential. Redox potential, pH, soil aeration depth (steel rods), organic matter thickness, bulk density, soil carbon store, plant species distribution and richness were measured at five old-growth and five 10-year-old cutover blocks. Results of investigations confirmed that CH forests were wetter, had redox values lower than the critical 300mv and a shallower aerated zone, compared with adjacent regenerating HA sites. Fifty percent of the CH plots had redox values less than +300 mv in the forest floor; whereas only 15 percent of the HA plots had such low values. Composition of the forest understory species was related to soil moisture/aeration. Soil aeration was the most important soil variable influencing plant species composition, explaining 25% of the plant community variability. Eh was always greater than +300 mv in the mineral soil of old growth HA forests but below +300 mv in HA clearcuts, suggesting paludification; however it was below or at this threshold in both CH forests and clearcuts. The reduction in measured redox without a noticeable change in the watertable in HA sites suggests that harvesting HA forests shifts the ecosystem towards more anaerobic conditions more similar to CH sites. In a complimentary study, the significance of redox was assessed in a cedar swamp cutover by exploring the relationships between soil redox potential and tree growth, and mineralization of C and soil C store along a gradient of moisture caused by drainage. Drainage improved aeration in the rooting zone, expressed as redox, and above- and below ground C storage; however C mineralization measured as CO2 evolution was not affected. Tree growth was positively correlated with redox potential. Our results indicate that drainage could be a useful silvicultural practice for improving the productivity of these ecosystems and that it may be possible to improve tree growth without stimulating loss of soil C. This requires that drainage improve aeration in the rooting zone while maintaining redox levels of less than +300 mV in the bulk soil, indicating that redox measurements should be incorporated into silviculture interventions to improve productivity of these forests.

Sajedi, Toktam; Prescott, Cindy; Lavkulich, Les

2010-05-01

40

The Nordic maintenance care program: the clinical use of identified indications for preventive care  

PubMed Central

Background Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent condition and has been found to be recurrent and persistent in a majority of cases. Chiropractors have a preventive strategy, maintenance care (MC), aimed towards minimizing recurrence and progression of such conditions. The indications for recommending MC have been identified in the Nordic countries from hypothetical cases. This study aims to investigate whether these indications are indeed used in the clinical encounter. Methods Data were collected in a multi-center observational study in which patients consulted a chiropractor for their non-specific LBP. Patient baseline information was a) previous duration of the LBP, b) the presence of previous episodes of LBP and c) early improvement with treatment. The chiropractors were asked if they deemed each individual patient an MC candidate. Logistic regression analyses (uni– and multi-level) were used to investigate the association of the patient variables with the chiropractor’s decision. Results The results showed that “previous episodes” with LBP was the strongest predictor for recommending MC, and that the presence of all predictors strengthens the frequency of this recommendation. However, there was considerable heterogeneity among the participating chiropractors concerning the recommendation of MC. Conclusions The study largely confirms the clinical use of the previously identified indications for recommending MC for recurrent and persistent LBP. Previous episodes of LBP was the strongest indicator.

2013-01-01

41

Identifying and Quantifying Heterogeneity in High Content Analysis: Application of Heterogeneity Indices to Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

One of the greatest challenges in biomedical research, drug discovery and diagnostics is understanding how seemingly identical cells can respond differently to perturbagens including drugs for disease treatment. Although heterogeneity has become an accepted characteristic of a population of cells, in drug discovery it is not routinely evaluated or reported. The standard practice for cell-based, high content assays has been to assume a normal distribution and to report a well-to-well average value with a standard deviation. To address this important issue we sought to define a method that could be readily implemented to identify, quantify and characterize heterogeneity in cellular and small organism assays to guide decisions during drug discovery and experimental cell/tissue profiling. Our study revealed that heterogeneity can be effectively identified and quantified with three indices that indicate diversity, non-normality and percent outliers. The indices were evaluated using the induction and inhibition of STAT3 activation in five cell lines where the systems response including sample preparation and instrument performance were well characterized and controlled. These heterogeneity indices provide a standardized method that can easily be integrated into small and large scale screening or profiling projects to guide interpretation of the biology, as well as the development of therapeutics and diagnostics. Understanding the heterogeneity in the response to perturbagens will become a critical factor in designing strategies for the development of therapeutics including targeted polypharmacology.

Gough, Albert H.; Chen, Ning; Shun, Tong Ying; Lezon, Timothy R.; Boltz, Robert C.; Reese, Celeste E.; Wagner, Jacob; Vernetti, Lawrence A.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Lee, Adrian V.; Stern, Andrew M.; Schurdak, Mark E.; Taylor, D. Lansing

2014-01-01

42

Biologically controlled minerals as potential indicators of life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Minerals can be produced and deposited either by abiotic or biologic means. Regardless of their origin, mineral crystals reflect the environment conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, chemical composition, and redox potential) present during crystal formation. Biologically-produced mineral crystals are grown or reworked under the control of their host organism and reflect an environment different from the abiotic environment. In addition, minerals of either biologic or abiotic origin have great longevities. For these reasons, biologically produced minerals have been proposed as biomarkers. Biomarkers are key morphological, chemical, and isotopic signatures of living systems that can be used to determine if life processes have occurred. Studies of biologically controlled minerals produced by the protist, Paramecium tetraurelia, were initiated since techniques have already been developed to culture them and isolate their crystalline material, and methods are already in place to analyze this material. Two direct crystalline phases were identified. One phase, whose chemical composition is high in Mg, was identified as struvite. The second phase, whose chemical composition is high in Ca, has not been previously found occurring naturally and may be considered a newly discovered material. Analyses are underway to determine the characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of minerals formed abiotically, but with the same chemical composition.

Schwartz, D. E.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Kaneshiro, E.

1991-01-01

43

Evaluating the Usefulness of High-Temporal Resolution Vegetation Indices to Identify Crop Types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautical and Space Agency (NASA) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) jointly sponsored research covering the 2004 to 2006 South American crop seasons that focused on developing methods for the USDA's Foreign Agricultural Service's (FAS) Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Division (PECAD) to identify crop types using MODIS-derived, hyper-temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images. NDVI images were composited in 8 day intervals from daily NDVI images and aggregated to create a hyper-termporal NDVI layerstack. This NDVI layerstack was used as input to image classification algorithms. Research results indicated that creating high-temporal resolution Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites from NASA's MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data products provides useful input to crop type classifications as well as potential useful input for regional crop productivity modeling efforts. A current NASA-sponsored Rapid Prototyping Capability (RPC) experiment will assess the utility of simulated future Visible Infrared Imager / Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) imagery for conducting NDVI-derived land cover and specific crop type classifications. In the experiment, methods will be considered to refine current MODIS data streams, reduce the noise content of the MODIS, and utilize the MODIS data as an input to the VIIRS simulation process. The effort also is being conducted in concert with an ISS project that will further evaluate, verify and validate the usefulness of specific data products to provide remote sensing-derived input for the Sinclair Model a semi-mechanistic model for estimating crop yield. The study area encompasses a large portion of the Pampas region of Argentina--a major world producer of crops such as corn, soybeans, and wheat which makes it a competitor to the US. ITD partnered with researchers at the Center for Surveying Agricultural and Natural Resources (CREAN) of the National University of Cordoba, Argentina, and CREAN personnel collected and continue to collect field-level, GIS-based in situ information. Current efforts involve both developing and optimizing software tools for the necessary data processing. The software includes the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), Leica's ERDAS Imagine, and Mississippi State University's Temporal Map Algebra computational tools.

Hilbert, K.; Lewis, D.; O'Hara, C. G.

2006-12-01

44

Parallel ICA identifies sub-components of resting state networks that covary with behavioral indices.  

PubMed

Parallel Independent Component Analysis (para-ICA) is a multivariate method that can identify complex relationships between different data modalities by simultaneously performing Independent Component Analysis on each data set while finding mutual information between the two data sets. We use para-ICA to test the hypothesis that spatial sub-components of common resting state networks (RSNs) covary with specific behavioral measures. Resting state scans and a battery of behavioral indices were collected from 24 younger adults. Group ICA was performed and common RSNs were identified by spatial correlation to publically available templates. Nine RSNs were identified and para-ICA was run on each network with a matrix of behavioral measures serving as the second data type. Five networks had spatial sub-components that significantly correlated with behavioral components. These included a sub-component of the temporo-parietal attention network that differentially covaried with different trial-types of a sustained attention task, sub-components of default mode networks that covaried with attention and working memory tasks, and a sub-component of the bilateral frontal network that split the left inferior frontal gyrus into three clusters according to its cytoarchitecture that differentially covaried with working memory performance. Additionally, we demonstrate the validity of para-ICA in cases with unbalanced dimensions using simulated data. PMID:23087635

Meier, Timothy B; Wildenberg, Joseph C; Liu, Jingyu; Chen, Jiayu; Calhoun, Vince D; Biswal, Bharat B; Meyerand, Mary E; Birn, Rasmus M; Prabhakaran, Vivek

2012-01-01

45

Ultrastructural Changes in Endothelium during Apoptosis Indicate Low Microembolic Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Apoptotic endothelium has been suggested to have microthrombotic and microembolic potential. While some describe pro-coagulant activities and platelet binding, others demonstrate maintained fibrinolytic protein and anti-platelet aggregatory activity. Canalicular fragmentation is unique to apoptotic endothelium and is suggested to facilitate size reduction of apoptotic cells to reduce microembolic potential. Despite the potential importance of apoptotic microemboli, there are no

Wei Xu; Ross Boadle; Levina Dear; Mara Cvejic; Catherine Emmanuel; Hans Zoellner

2005-01-01

46

The use of citation indicators to identify and support high-quality research in Poland.  

PubMed

In large, mostly English-speaking countries, where the "critical mass" of scientists working in different subfields of science is achieved, the peer review system may be sufficient to assess the quality of scientific research. However, in smaller countries, outside the Anglo-American circle, it is important to introduce different systems to identify research of high quality. In Poland, a parametric system for assessing the quality of research has been introduced. It was largely based on the impact factor of scientific journals. While the use of this indicator to assess research quality is highly questionable, the implementation of the system in the Polish reality is even worse. Therefore it is important to change and improve the system currently used by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education to both evaluate and, more importantly, finance science in Poland. Here, a system based on three factors, i.e. the impact factor, the institutional h-index, and the institutional number of citations, is proposed. The scientific quality of institutions in Division VI: Medical Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences were evaluated and the results were compared with the existing system. Moreover, a method to identify high-quality researchers and institutions at the national level based on the quantity of highly cited papers is shown. Additionally, an attempt to identify the highest quality Polish research on an international level is proposed. This is based on the number of individual citations, the individual h-index, the number of publications, and the priority of the discovery. PMID:19043671

Pilc, Andrzej

2008-01-01

47

Identifying improvement potentials in cement production with life cycle assessment.  

PubMed

Cement production is an environmentally relevant process responsible for 5% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and 7% of industrial fuel use. In this study, life cycle assessment is used to evaluate improvement potentials in the cement production process in Europe and the USA. With a current fuel substitution rate of 18% in Europe and 11% in the USA, both regions have a substantial potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save virgin resources by further increasing the coprocessing of waste fuels. Upgrading production technology would be particularly effective in the USA where many kiln systems with very low energy efficiency are still in operation. Using best available technology and a thermal substitution rate of 50% for fuels, greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by 9% for Europe and 18% for the USA per tonne of cement. Since clinker production is the dominant pollution producing step in cement production, the substitution of clinker with mineral components such as ground granulated blast furnace slag or fly ash is an efficient measure to reduce the environmental impact. Blended cements exhibit substantially lower environmental footprints than Portland cement, even if the substitutes feature lower grindability and require additional drying and large transport distances. The highest savings in CO(2) emissions and resource consumption are achieved with a combination of measures in clinker production and cement blending. PMID:21047057

Boesch, Michael Elias; Hellweg, Stefanie

2010-12-01

48

Emetic Potentials of Newly Identified Staphylococcal Enterotoxin-Like Toxins  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are a common causative agent of food poisoning. Recently, many new SE-like (SEl) toxins have been reported, although the role of SEls in food poisoning remains unclear. In this study, the emetic potentials of SElK, SElL, SElM, SElN, SElO, SElP, and SElQ were assessed using a monkey-feeding assay. All the SEls that were tested induced emetic reactions in monkeys at a dose of 100 ?g/kg, although the numbers of affected monkeys were significantly smaller than the numbers that were affected after consuming SEA or SEB. This result suggests that these new SEs may play some role in staphylococcal food poisoning.

Omoe, Katsuhiko; Hu, Dong-Liang; Ono, Hisaya K.; Shimizu, Satoru; Takahashi-Omoe, Hiromi; Nakane, Akio; Uchiyama, Takehiko; Shinagawa, Kunihiro

2013-01-01

49

Identifying prospective antifouling coatings for venturis: Zeta potential measurements of oxides at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of research to determine the zeta potential of oxides responsible for fouling of heat transfer, venturi, and other flow measurement device surfaces. Fouling deposits formed on these surfaces reduce mass flow rates of water, causing power reductions of as much as 3 to 4%. There is considerable evidence that deposit formation can be prevented by coating the critical surfaces with a coating material that electrostatically repels the suspended fouling particulates. The zeta potential can be used as a parameter to identify and determine the best coating material to be employed for fouling prevention. The research entailed the development of the equipment necessary for zeta potential measurements, measurement of zeta potentials of oxides and coatings of interest to nuclear power plant applications, and evaluation of candidate coating materials to prevent fouling of surfaces. By this approach, numerous metals and oxides have been identified as potential coating materials. Fouling studies revealed that magnetite does not deposit on tungsten and palladium surfaces, indicating the potential use of these metals for coating venturi surfaces used in nuclear power plants.

Jayaweera, P.; Hettiarachchi, S.; Pound, B.G. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

1992-10-01

50

Polymorphisms in Canine Platelet Glycoproteins Identify Potential Platelet Antigens  

PubMed Central

Human alloimmune thrombocytopenic conditions caused by exposure to a platelet-specific alloantigen include neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, posttransfusion purpura, and platelet transfusion refractoriness. More than 30 platelet-specific alloantigens have been defined in the human platelet antigen (HPA) system; however, there is no previous information on canine platelet-specific alloantigens. Using the HPA system as a model, we evaluated the canine ITGB3, ITGA2B, and GP1BB genes encoding GPIIIa (?3), GPIIb (?IIb), and GPIb?, respectively, which account for 21 of 27 HPA, to determine whether amino acid polymorphisms are present in the orthologous canine genes. A secondary objective was to perform a pilot study to assess possible association between specific alleles of these proteins and a diagnosis of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) in dogs. By using genomic DNA from dogs of various breeds with and without ITP, sequencing of PCR products encompassing all coding regions and exon–intron boundaries for these 3 genes revealed 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ITGA2B resulting in amino acid polymorphisms in the canine genome, 3 previously reported and 1 newly identified (Gly[GGG]/Arg[AGG] at amino acid position 576 of ITGA2B. Of 16 possible ITGA2B protein alleles resulting from unique combinations of the 4 polymorphic amino acids, 5 different protein isoforms were present in homozygous dogs and explain all of the genotype combinations in heterozygous dogs. There was no amino acid polymorphism or protein isoform that was specific for a particular breed or for the diagnosis of ITP.

Callan, Mary Beth; Werner, Petra; Mason, Nicola J; Meny, Geralyn M; Raducha, Michael G; Henthorn, Paula S

2013-01-01

51

Identifying Potential Markers of the Sun's Giant Convective Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Line-of-sight magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) are analyzed using a diagnostic known as the magnetic range of influence (MRoI). The MRoI is a measure of the length over which a photospheric magnetogram is balanced and so its application gives the user a sense of the connective length scales in the outer solar atmosphere. The MRoI maps and histograms inferred from the SDO/HMI magnetograms primarily exhibit four scales: a scale of a few megameters that can be associated with granulation, a scale of a few tens of megameters that can be associated with super-granulation, a scale of many hundreds to thousands of megameters that can be associated with coronal holes and active regions, and a hitherto unnoticed scale that ranges from 100 to 250 Mm. We infer that this final scale is an imprint of the (rotationally driven) giant convective scale on photospheric magnetism. This scale appears in MRoI maps as well-defined, spatially distributed concentrations that we have dubbed "g-nodes." Furthermore, using coronal observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on SDO, we see that the vicinity of these g-nodes appears to be a preferred location for the formation of extreme-ultraviolet (and likely X-Ray) brightpoints. These observations and straightforward diagnostics offer the potential of a near real-time mapping of the Sun's largest convective scale, a scale that possibly reaches to the very bottom of the convective zone.

McIntosh, Scott W.; Wang, Xin; Leamon, Robert J.; Scherrer, Philip H.

2014-04-01

52

Biologically Controlled Minerals as Potential Indicators of Life (Abstract Only).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Minerals can be produced and deposited either by abiotic or biologic means. Regardless of their origin, mineral crystals reflect the environment conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, chemical composition, and redox potential) present during crystal for...

D. E. Schwartz R. L. Mancinelli E. Kaneshiro

1991-01-01

53

Molecular Electrostatic Potentials as Indicators of Covalent Radii.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Through nonlocal density functional calculations (B/LYP/6 -31C**), we show that the minimum of the molecular electrostatic potential along an internuclear axis provides a more realistic boundary point between two bonded atoms than does the electronic dens...

J. J. Wiener M. E. Grice J. S. Murray P. Politzer

1996-01-01

54

Hyperkinetic Children: Early Indicators of Potential School Failure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study demonstrates that children who were identified as hyperkinetic" were absent from school more frequently, and did remarkably less well on standardized tests of school readiness than their peers rated nonhyperkinetic." Implications are discussed and suggestions made for the development of intervention programs. (Author/CJ)

Schrager, Jules; Lindy, Janet

1970-01-01

55

MODELING POTENTIAL PATHOGEN INFECTED WATERS UTILIZING LANDSCAPE INDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The federal Clean Water Act (CWA) requires states, territories and tribal lands to assess their waters on a biennial schedule and identify, list and prioritize impaired waters not meeting water quality standards. Once a water body is listed, the state is required to develop Tota...

56

Drug-eluting balloons: future potential indications and applications.  

PubMed

The drug-eluting balloon (DEB) is an exciting new technology that holds much promise. As an evolving technology undergoing intensive research, the device is being constantly refined and its numerous potential applications studied. Though initially created to fulfil specific needs in the coronary vasculature, there is great potential for its use in other vascular territories and structures including the management of valvular, congenital heart and neuro-interventional pathologies. In addition, the application of this device in conjunction with other existing technologies may enhance the clinical results. PMID:22027720

Choo, Gim-Hooi

2011-05-01

57

A potential individual cell malignancy indicator: focal length  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The label-free technique of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) utilizes the optical transmission spectrum of a cell in a microfluidic Fabry-Pérot (F-P) cavity to distinguish cells from cancerous cell lines and baseline normal blood cells. The classification between canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cancer cells and monocytes in canine normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) had been demonstrated with 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity. Now with a new optical model that treats the cell settled at the bottom of the cavity as a thin lens, the focal length of cells was extracted and used as an individual cell malignancy indicator.

Wang, Weina; Lear, Kevin L.

2011-02-01

58

Characterization of potential mineralization in Afghanistan: four permissive areas identified using imaging spectroscopy data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan, four permissive areas for mineralization, Bamyan 1, Farah 1, Ghazni 1, and Ghazni 2, have been identified using imaging spectroscopy data. To support economic development, the areas of potential mineralization were selected on the occurrence of selected mineral assemblages mapped using the HyMap™ data (kaolinite, jarosite, hydrated silica, chlorite, epidote, iron-bearing carbonate, buddingtonite, dickite, and alunite) that may be indicative of past mineralization processes in areas with limited or no previous mineral resource studies. Approximately 30 sites were initially determined to be candidates for areas of potential mineralization. Additional criteria and material used to refine the selection and prioritization process included existing geologic maps, Landsat Thematic Mapper data, and published literature. The HyMapTM data were interpreted in the context of the regional geologic and tectonic setting and used the presence of alteration mineral assemblages to identify areas with the potential for undiscovered mineral resources. Further field-sampling, mapping, and supporting geochemical analyses are necessary to fully substantiate and verify the specific deposit types in the four areas of potential mineralization.

King, Trude V. V.; Berger, Byron R.; Johnson, Michaela R.

2014-01-01

59

Human brain potentials indicate morphological decomposition in visual word recognition.  

PubMed

Stem homographs are pairs of words with the same orthographic description of their stem but which are semantically and morphologically unrelated (e.g. in Spanish: rata/rato (rat/moment)). In priming tasks, stem homographs produce inhibition, unlike morphologically related words (loca/loco (madwoman/madman)) which produce facilitation. An event-related potentials study was conducted to compare morphological and stem homographic priming effects. The results show a similar attenuation of the N400 component at the 350-500 ms temporal window for the two conditions. In contrast, a broad negativity occurs only for stem homographs at the 500-600 ms window. This late negativity is interpreted as the consequence of an inhibitory effect for stem homographs that delays the stage of meaning integration. PMID:11803121

Barber, Horacio; Domínguez, Alberto; de Vega, Manuel

2002-02-01

60

Phaeodarian radiolarians as potential indicators of thermal maturation  

SciTech Connect

Phaeodarian radiolarian skeletons contain large amounts of organic matter, and discolored phaeodarian skeletons are observed in the fossil record, which suggests that the skeletons may be useful as thermal maturation indicators. Such a maturation index would be useful in Monterey-type rocks that are difficult to interpret with conventional thermal maturation indexes. Phaeodarians extracted from plankton samples, Holocene Santa Barbara and Orca basin sediments, and Neogene Monterey rocks with siliceous facies were subjected to different temperatures of varying duration in pyrolysis experiments. To calibrate the observed phaeodarian color changes with a known standard, Holocene pine pollen were subjected to the same treatment. These phaeodarian go through the same color change spectrum as do the pollen, but they appear to lag slightly behind the pollen color changes.

Casey, R.E.

1986-04-01

61

Gangs in Our Schools: Identifying Gang Indicators in Our School Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although teachers used to teach in the communities where they resided, they now commute to schools in other districts. For teachers who teach in districts that are culturally or ethnically different than their own, it may be a new experience of which to become aware or identify issues such as dealing with gang behavior. For other teachers, there…

Struyk, Ruth

2006-01-01

62

Identifying Important Career Indicators of Undergraduate Geoscience Students Upon Completion of Their Degree  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Geosciences Institute (AGI) decided to create the National Geoscience Student Exit Survey in order to identify the initial pathways into the workforce for these graduating students, as well as assess their preparedness for entering the workforce upon graduation. The creation of this survey stemmed from a combination of experiences with the AGI/AGU Survey of Doctorates and discussions at the following Science Education Research Center (SERC) workshops: "Developing Pathways to Strong Programs for the Future", "Strengthening Your Geoscience Program", and "Assessing Geoscience Programs". These events identified distinct gaps in understanding the experiences and perspectives of geoscience students during one of their most profound professional transitions. Therefore, the idea for the survey arose as a way to evaluate how the discipline is preparing and educating students, as well as identifying the students' desired career paths. The discussions at the workshops solidified the need for this survey and created the initial framework for the first pilot of the survey. The purpose of this assessment tool is to evaluate student preparedness for entering the geosciences workforce; identify student decision points for entering geosciences fields and remaining in the geosciences workforce; identify geosciences fields that students pursue in undergraduate and graduate school; collect information on students' expected career trajectories and geosciences professions; identify geosciences career sectors that are hiring new graduates; collect information about salary projections; overall effectiveness of geosciences departments regionally and nationally; demonstrate the value of geosciences degrees to future students, the institutions, and employers; and establish a benchmark to perform longitudinal studies of geosciences graduates to understand their career pathways and impacts of their educational experiences on these decisions. AGI's Student Exit Survey went through a second pilot testing with Spring 2012 graduates from 45 departments across the United States. These graduating students from undergraduate and graduate programs answered questions about their earth science education experiences at the high school, community college, and university levels; their quantitative skills; their research and internship experiences and their immediate plans after graduation. Out of the 294 complete responses to the survey, 233 were from undergraduate students. This presentation will focus on the responses of these undergraduate students. AGI hopes to fully deploy this survey broadly to geosciences departments across the country in Spring 2013. AGI will also begin longitudinally participants from the previous Exit Survey efforts in order to understand their progression through their chosen career paths.

Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C. M.; Houlton, H. R.

2012-12-01

63

Identifying barriers to the application of standardized performance indicators in local government  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local governments in many countries are implementing administrative reforms within the framework of New Public Management (NPM) in order to improve the quality and productivity of public services. The use of performance indicators and benchmarking facilitates evaluation of efficiency regarding the provision of such services and favours the acquisition of better practices. The problems that may arise in the introduction

Andrés Navarro Galera; David Ortiz Rodríguez; Antonio M. López Hernández

2008-01-01

64

A Preliminary Examination to Identify the Presence of Quality Indicators in Single-subject Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholars in the field of special education put forth a series of papers that proposed quality indicators for specific research designs that must be present for a study to be considered of high quality, as well as standards for evaluating a body of research to determine whether a practice is evidence-based. The purpose of this article was to pilot test

Melody Tankersley

2008-01-01

65

A methodological approach to identify external factors for indicator-based risk adjustment illustrated by a cataract surgery register  

PubMed Central

Background Risk adjustment is crucial for comparison of outcome in medical care. Knowledge of the external factors that impact measured outcome but that cannot be influenced by the physician is a prerequisite for this adjustment. To date, a universal and reproducible method for identification of the relevant external factors has not been published. The selection of external factors in current quality assurance programmes is mainly based on expert opinion. We propose and demonstrate a methodology for identification of external factors requiring risk adjustment of outcome indicators and we apply it to a cataract surgery register. Methods Defined test criteria to determine the relevance for risk adjustment are “clinical relevance” and “statistical significance”. Clinical relevance of the association is presumed when observed success rates of the indicator in the presence and absence of the external factor exceed a pre-specified range of 10%. Statistical significance of the association between the external factor and outcome indicators is assessed by univariate stratification and multivariate logistic regression adjustment. The cataract surgery register was set up as part of a German multi-centre register trial for out-patient cataract surgery in three high-volume surgical sites. A total of 14,924 patient follow-ups have been documented since 2005. Eight external factors potentially relevant for risk adjustment were related to the outcome indicators “refractive accuracy” and “visual rehabilitation” 2–5 weeks after surgery. Results The clinical relevance criterion confirmed 2 (“refractive accuracy”) and 5 (“visual rehabilitation”) external factors. The significance criterion was verified in two ways. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed almost identical external factors: 4 were related to “refractive accuracy” and 7 (6) to “visual rehabilitation”. Two (“refractive accuracy”) and 5 (“visual rehabilitation”) factors conformed to both criteria and were therefore relevant for risk adjustment. Conclusion In a practical application, the proposed method to identify relevant external factors for risk adjustment for comparison of outcome in healthcare proved to be feasible and comprehensive. The method can also be adapted to other quality assurance programmes. However, the cut-off score for clinical relevance needs to be individually assessed when applying the proposed method to other indications or indicators.

2014-01-01

66

Establishing and testing the "reuse potential" indicator for managing wastes as resources.  

PubMed

This study advances contemporary ideas promoting the importance of managing wastes as resources such as closed-loop or circular material economies, and sustainable materials management by reinforcing the notion of a resource-based paradigm rather than a waste-based one. It features the creation of a quantitative tool, the "reuse potential indicator" to specify how "resource-like" versus how "waste-like" specific materials are on a continuum. Even with increasing attention to waste reuse and resource conservation, constant changes in product composition and complexity have left material managers without adequate guidance to make decisions about what is technically feasible to recover from the discard stream even before markets can be considered. The reuse potential indicator is developed to aid management decision-making about waste based not on perception but more objectively on the technical ability of the materials to be reused in commerce. This new indicator is based on the extent of technological innovation and commercial application of actual reuse approaches identified and cataloged. Coal combustion by-products (CCBs) provide the test case for calculating the reuse potential indicator. While CCBs are often perceived as wastes and then isolated in landfills or surface impoundments, there is also a century-long history in the industry of developing technologies to reuse CCBs. The recent statistics show that most CCBs generated in Europe and Japan are reused (90-95%), but only 40-45% of CCBs are used in the United States. According to the reuse potential calculation, however, CCBs in the United States have high technical reusability. Of the four CCBs examined under three different regulatory schemes, reuse potential for boiler slag and flue-gas desulfurization gypsum maintains a value greater than 0.8 on a 0-1 scale, indicating they are at least 80% resource-like. Under current regulation in the United States, both fly ash and bottom ash are 80-90% resource-like. Very strict regulation would remove many reuse options decreasing potential for these two CCBs to 30% resource-like. A more holistic view of waste and broad application of the new indicator would make clear what technologies are available and assist public and private decision makers in setting quantitative material reuse targets from a new knowledge base that reinforces a resource-based paradigm. PMID:24594758

Park, Joo Young; Chertow, Marian R

2014-05-01

67

Novel high-throughput screen against Candida albicans identifies antifungal potentiators and agents effective against biofilms  

PubMed Central

Objectives Microbial adhesion and biofilms have important implications for human health and disease. Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen which forms drug-resistant biofilms that contribute to the recalcitrance of disease. We have developed a high-throughput screen for potentiators of clotrimazole, a common therapy for Candida infections, including vaginitis and thrush. The screen was performed against C. albicans biofilms grown in microtitre plates in order to target the most resilient forms of the pathogen. Methods Biofilm growth, in individual wells of 384-well plates, was measured using the metabolic indicator alamarBlue® and found to be very consistent and reproducible. This assay was used to test the effect of more than 120?000 small molecule compounds from the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository, and compounds that enhanced the activity of clotrimazole or acted on the biofilms alone were identified as hits. Results Nineteen compounds (0.016% hit rate) were identified and found to cause more than 30% metabolic inhibition of biofilms compared with clotrimazole alone, which had a modest effect on biofilm viability at the concentration tested. Hits were confirmed for activity against biofilms with dose–response measurements. Several compounds had increased activity in combination with clotrimazole, including a 1,3-benzothiazole scaffold that exhibited a >100-fold improvement against biofilms of three separate C. albicans isolates. Cytotoxicity experiments using human fibroblasts confirmed the presence of lead molecules with favourable antifungal activity relative to cytotoxicity. Conclusions We have validated a novel approach to identify antifungal potentiators and completed a high-throughput screen to identify small molecules with activity against C. albicans biofilms. These small molecules may specifically target the biofilm and make currently available antifungals more effective.

LaFleur, Michael D.; Lucumi, Edinson; Napper, Andrew D.; Diamond, Scott L.; Lewis, Kim

2011-01-01

68

Indicators of the health of the North Sea fish community: identifying reference levels for an ecosystem approach to management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shift in emphasis away from the single-species focus of traditional fisheries manage- ment towards an ecosystem approach to management requires application of indicators of ecosystem state. Further, an ecosystem approach to management requires the identifica- tion of ecological reference points against which management objectives might be set. In applying indicators, identifying reference points, and setting objectives, an obvious require-

Simon P. R. Greenstreet; Stuart I. Rogers

2006-01-01

69

Researchers Identify Biological Markers that May Indicate Poor Breast Cancer Prognosis  

Cancer.gov

A team of researchers has found an association between breast cancer survival and two proteins that, when present in the blood in high levels, are indicators of inflammation. Using data from the Health, Eating, Activity and Lifestyle (HEAL) study sponsored by the NCI, the researchers found that breast cancer patients with elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) were approximately two to three times more likely to die sooner or have their cancer return than those patients who had lower levels of these proteins, regardless of the patient's age, tumor stage, race, body mass index, or history of previous cardiovascular issues.

70

The potential utility of animal poisoning data to identify human exposure to environmental toxins.  

PubMed

The database of the National Animal Poison Control Center (NAPCC) was evaluated as a source for animal poison data indicating human health hazards in indoor and outdoor environments. From 14,150 calls in the 1985 database, 259 cases were identified with histories suggesting human exposure. A subgroup of 25 cases with known human exposure was found. Dogs were the most common sentinel animal, but bird cases represented the highest proportional selection from the total 1985 call list. Indoor exposures represented 43.2% of cases; the most common toxicants were insecticides, lead and toxic fumes. Exposures associated with lawns were mainly due to insecticides and herbicides and constituted 25.5% of cases. Other outdoor exposures composed the remaining 31.7% of cases, with insecticides, herbicides and unidentified toxins the leading categories. Many of the specific agents identified, such as organophosphate insecticides, lead, gas and fume toxins, and phenoxy herbicides are also risk factors in human diseases. This study indicates that databases such as NAPCC could serve as sources of sentinel animal intoxications for followup studies to evaluate known and potential human health hazards. PMID:7631498

Hungerford, L L; Trammel, H L; Clark, J M

1995-04-01

71

Identifying Potential Areas for Siting Interim Nuclear Waste Facilities Using Map Algebra and Optimization Approaches  

SciTech Connect

The renewed interest in siting new nuclear power plants in the United States has brought to the center stage, the need to site interim facilities for long-term management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In this paper, a two-stage approach for identifying potential areas for siting interim SNF facilities is presented. In the first stage, the land area is discretized into grids of uniform size (e.g., 100m x 100m grids). For the continental United States, this process resulted in a data matrix of about 700 million cells. Each cell of the matrix is then characterized as a binary decision variable to indicate whether an exclusion criterion is satisfied or not. A binary data matrix is created for each of the 25 siting criteria considered in this study. Using map algebra approach, cells that satisfy all criteria are clustered and regarded as potential siting areas. In the second stage, an optimization problem is formulated as a p-median problem on a rail network such that the sum of the shortest distance between nuclear power plants with SNF and the potential storage sites from the first stage is minimized. The implications of obtained results for energy policies are presented and discussed.

Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit [ORNL; Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Tuttle, Mark A [ORNL

2013-01-01

72

Identifying Potential Communicative Acts in Children with Developmental and Physical Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing recognition of the communicative potential in many of the informal and idiosyncratic behaviors exhibited by children with developmental and physical disabilities. To assist in assessment and intervention planning, it would seem important to identify these potential communicative acts. To this end, the present article describes the development of the Inventory of Potential Communicative Acts (IPCA). The IPCA

Jeff Sigafoos; Gail Woodyatt; Deb Keen; Kathleen Tait; Madonna Tucker; Donna Roberts-Pennell; Nicole Pittendreigh

2000-01-01

73

Transcript and protein profiling identify candidate gene sets of potential adaptive significance in New Zealand Pachycladon  

PubMed Central

Background Transcript profiling of closely related species provides a means for identifying genes potentially important in species diversification. However, the predictive value of transcript profiling for inferring downstream-physiological processes has been unclear. In the present study we use shotgun proteomics to validate inferences from microarray studies regarding physiological differences in three Pachycladon species. We compare transcript and protein profiling and evaluate their predictive value for inferring glucosinolate chemotypes characteristic of these species. Results Evidence from heterologous microarrays and shotgun proteomics revealed differential expression of genes involved in glucosinolate hydrolysis (myrosinase-associated proteins) and biosynthesis (methylthioalkylmalate isomerase and dehydrogenase), the interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate (carbonic anhydrases), water use efficiency (ascorbate peroxidase, 2 cys peroxiredoxin, 20 kDa chloroplastic chaperonin, mitochondrial succinyl CoA ligase) and others (glutathione-S-transferase, serine racemase, vegetative storage proteins, genes related to translation and photosynthesis). Differences in glucosinolate hydrolysis products were directly confirmed. Overall, prediction of protein abundances from transcript profiles was stronger than prediction of transcript abundance from protein profiles. Protein profiles also proved to be more accurate predictors of glucosinolate profiles than transcript profiles. The similarity of species profiles for both transcripts and proteins reflected previously inferred phylogenetic relationships while glucosinolate chemotypes did not. Conclusions We have used transcript and protein profiling to predict physiological processes that evolved differently during diversification of three Pachycladon species. This approach has also identified candidate genes potentially important in adaptation, which are now the focus of ongoing study. Our results indicate that protein profiling provides a valuable tool for validating transcript profiles in studies of adaptive divergence.

2010-01-01

74

Docking and virtual screening to identify PKC agonists: potentials in anticancer therapeutics.  

PubMed

Protein kinase C (PKC) is down-stream to most of the G-protein coupled receptor or tyrosine kinase receptors mediated signaling events from the cell surface. PKC C1 domain has a hydrophobic region with a polar groove to facilitate 1,2-diacyl-glycerol (DAG) binding or other agonist molecule for PKC activation. Post activation, a partial or complete blocking of hydrophilic groove makes the DAG binding site completely hydrophobic and facilitates easier penetration of the PKC into the membrane. Phorbol ester, a strong PKC agonist, uses this mechanism to induce tumor formation. A total of 300 heterocyclic compounds with 70% similarity to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were selected, and virtual docking was performed with PKC-? as target. An initial screening indicated that most of the molecules fit well into the C1 domain and had better binding energy than PMA. Further analysis in a PMA competition experiment identified five molecules, Zc 67913417, Zc 68601770, Zc 25726447, Zc 35376386 and Zc 49785214 as potent PKC agonists. In addition, as these compounds showed better binding than PMA, more interaction with PKC residues (hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic), and the top five hit molecules was potent enough to abolish carcinogenic effects of PMA. Searching the top heterocyclic compounds into the drug database gave a number of approved drugs. Testing two candidate drugs, nandrolone decanoate and budesonide, reduced cellular viability of HT1080 in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 values of 96.8 nM and 200nM respectively. An in silico toxicity analysis indicated that top hit molecules are non-toxic, non-mutagenic in cellular and bacterial system, and have no tumorigenic potentials in a single cell or animal model. Hence, a virtual screening, agonist competition assay, and in silico toxicity assessment allowed us to identify five new PKC agonist molecules for future drug discovery against cancer. PMID:24138399

Jain, Anish; Trivedi, Vishal

2014-03-01

75

Texture Analysis Riparian Coniferous Forest ADAR Imagery to Identify Potential Ecological Indicators for Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Airborne Data Acquisition and Registration (ADAR) remote sensing system captured one-meter resolution imagery of 25 different riparian sites in drift Creek Basin of coastal northwestern Oregon, USA. The multispectral, digital data characterized ripari...

J. R. Barker M. Bollman M. Fiorella G. Bradshaw P. L. Ringold

1998-01-01

76

Identifying Potential Communicative Acts in Children with Developmental and Physical Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Inventory of Potential Communicative Acts (IPCA) was given to 20 children with developmental and physical disabilities. Results indicate the IPCA is an efficient means for collecting accurate, verifiable data of the potential communicative acts of children with severe communication impairment associated with a range of developmental and…

Sigafoos, Jeff; Woodyatt, Gail; Keen, Deb; Tait, Kathleen; Tucker, Madonna; Roberts-Pennell, Donna; Pittendreigh, Nicole

2000-01-01

77

Release of genetically engineered insects: a framework to identify potential ecological effects.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered (GE) insects have the potential to radically change pest management worldwide. With recent approvals of GE insect releases, there is a need for a synthesized framework to evaluate their potential ecological and evolutionary effects. The effects may occur in two phases: a transitory phase when the focal population changes in density, and a steady state phase when it reaches a new, constant density. We review potential effects of a rapid change in insect density related to population outbreaks, biological control, invasive species, and other GE organisms to identify a comprehensive list of potential ecological and evolutionary effects of GE insect releases. We apply this framework to the Anopheles gambiae mosquito - a malaria vector being engineered to suppress the wild mosquito population - to identify effects that may occur during the transitory and steady state phases after release. Our methodology reveals many potential effects in each phase, perhaps most notably those dealing with immunity in the transitory phase, and with pathogen and vector evolution in the steady state phase. Importantly, this framework identifies knowledge gaps in mosquito ecology. Identifying effects in the transitory and steady state phases allows more rigorous identification of the potential ecological effects of GE insect release. PMID:24198955

David, Aaron S; Kaser, Joe M; Morey, Amy C; Roth, Alexander M; Andow, David A

2013-10-01

78

Changes in the adhesion and migration ability of peripheral blood cells: potential biomarkers indicating exposure dose.  

PubMed

The expression of adhesion molecules and their related functions of adhesion and migration were investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to identify radiation-related changes and dose-dependency. The authors screened new biomarkers as radiation exposure dose indicators. Heparinized human peripheral blood was irradiated in vitro with different doses of ?-rays. The expression levels of the CD11a, CD11b, CD18, CD29, CD49d, and CD54 molecules on the surface of PBMC cells were determined by flow cytometry at different time points post-irradiation. The adhesion ability of human PBMCs was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay kit, and the migration ability of rat PBMCs was evaluated using a transwell chamber assay. Compared with the unirradiated control group, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in human CD11b/CD13 double-positive cells was detected 6 h post 6 Gy irradiation in vitro. These results indicated that the decrease in human CD29/CD13 double-positive cells in the 6 Gy exposure group at 6, 12, and 24 h post-irradiation was significant (p < 0.01). The adhesion ability of irradiated human PBMCs to IgG substrate increased significantly (p < 0.05) at 6 h after irradiation of 2, 4, or 6 Gy compared with non-irradiated controls. The migration ability of the rat PBMCs toward the MIP-1? chemokine significantly decreased (p < 0.05) with increasing irradiation doses. These results suggest that the protein expression of cell surface molecules and their associated cellular functions might be potential biomarkers for identifying radiation exposure doses in an emergency radiation accident. PMID:25068961

Li, Ming-Juan; Cui, Feng-Mei; Cheng, Ying; Sun, Din; Zhou, Ping-Kun; Min, Rui

2014-09-01

79

Hundreds of alterations and potential drug targets to starve tumors identified  

Cancer.gov

A massive study analyzing gene expression data from 22 tumor types has identified multiple metabolic expression changes associated with cancer. The analysis, conducted by researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (home of the Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center), also identified hundreds of potential drug targets that could cut off a tumor’s fuel supply or interfere with its ability to synthesize essential building blocks. The study was published in the online edition of Nature Biotechnology.

80

Potentially Hazardous Co-orbiting Materials of Asteroid 138175 Identified by Interplanetary Field Enhancements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interplanetary Field Enhancements (IFEs) were discovered almost 30 years ago in the PVO magnetic-field records. Our current understanding is that IFEs result from interactions between solar wind and clouds of nanometer-scale charged dust released in interplanetary collisions. These charged dust clouds are then accelerated by the solar wind and moving away from the Sun at near solar wind speed. This IFE formation hypothesis is supported by the discovery of co-orbiting materials associated with asteroid 2201 Oljato: IFE rate peaked when Oljato was close and IFE occurrence clustered in the longitudes near which the orbit of Oljato intersects the orbital plane of Venus. A followed up study with Venus Express observations suggested that the co-orbiting materials dissipated in 30 years At 1AU, based on ACE and Wind observations, IFEs have a significant cluster in the longitude range between 195° and 225°. Thus we use the same IFE technique to identify the 'parent' Near-Earth Objects of co-orbiting materials which should be responsible for those IFEs. There are more than 5000 JPL documented NEOs whose ecliptic plane crossings are near to or inside the Earth's orbit and whose orbital periods are less than five years. By comparing their trajectories, we find that the asteroid 138175 is a good candidate for the 'parent' body. This asteroid orbits the Sun in a 5.24° inclined elliptical orbit with a period of 367.96 days. Its descending node is at about 206°, where the IFE occurrence rate peaks. We also find that there is a spread of the IFE rate around the descending node, indicating that the co-orbiting materials have significant dispersion about the asteroid's orbit. The mass distribution of the associated IFEs indicates that most of the materials had a dimension of tens of meters before the collisions. Interplanetary objects in such size range are difficult to be identified by traditional surveys. Although asteroid 138175 itself has now been removed from the potentially hazardous NEO list, its co-orbiting materials may have high impact probability and cause significant damage due to their dispersed orbits and non-negligible size range. The same technique can be applied to the remaining thousands of known NEOs crossing the ecliptic plane inside the Earth's orbit and find those that have co-orbiting materials which might be hazardous to the Earth. Thus alerts can be issued when the Earth approaches the orbits of objects with co-orbiting debris.

Lai, Hairong; Russell, Christopher; Wei, Hanying; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Connors, Martin

2014-05-01

81

Identifying pollutant sources in tidally mixed systems: case study of fecal indicator bacteria from marinas in Newport Bay, southern California.  

PubMed

This study investigates the contribution of several marinas to fecal indicator bacteria impairment in Newport Bay, a regionally important tidal embayment in southern California. Three different fecal indicator bacteria groups were assayed, including total coliform, Escherichia coli, and enterococci bacteria, all measured using the IDEXX Colilert and Enterolert system. To document temporal variability in the fecal indicator bacteria signal, water column samples (n = 4132) were collected from two marinas over time scales ranging from hours to months. To document spatial variability of the fecal indicator bacteria signal, water column and sediment samples were collected from a number of sites (n = 11 to 36, depending on the study) in and around the two marinas, over spatial scales ranging from meters to kilometers. To identify the dominant temporal and spatial patterns in these data a statistical approach--Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis--was utilized. Finally, to clarify the transport pathways responsible for the observed temporal and spatial patterns, fecal indicator bacteria data were compared to simultaneous measurements of tidal flow, temperature, and salinity. The results of this field effort collectively implicate runoff--both dry weather runoff at sampling sites located near some storm drains and wet weather runoff at all sites--as a primary source of fecal indicator bacteria in the water column and subtidal sediments. The results and analysis presented here reinforce the growing body of evidence that management of fecal indicator bacteria impairment in the coastal waters of southern California will require developing long-term strategies for treating nonpoint sources of both dry weather and stormwater runoff. PMID:16382928

Jeong, Youngsul; Grant, Stanley B; Ritter, Scott; Pednekar, Abhishek; Candelaria, Linda; Winant, Clinton

2005-12-01

82

A Riemannian geometric mapping technique for identifying incompressible equivalents to subsonic potential flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research develops a technique for the solution of incompressible equivalents to planar steady subsonic potential flows. Riemannian geometric formalism is used to develop a gauge transformation of the length measure followed by a curvilinear coordinate transformation to map the given subsonic flow into a canonical Laplacian flow with the same boundary conditions. The effect of the transformation is to distort both the immersed profile shape and the domain interior nonuniformly as a function of local flow properties. The method represents the full nonlinear generalization of the classical methods of Prandtl-Glauert and Karman-Tsien. Unlike the classical methods which are "corrections," this method gives exact results in the sense that the inverse mapping produces the subsonic full potential solution over the original airfoil, up to numerical accuracy. The motivation for this research was provided by an observed analogy between linear potential flow and the special theory of relativity that emerges from the invariance of the d'Alembert wave equation under Lorentz transformations. This analogy is well known in an operational sense, being leveraged widely in linear unsteady aerodynamics and acoustics, stemming largely from the work of Kussner. Whereas elements of the special theory can be invoked for compressibility effects that are linear and global in nature, the question posed in this work was whether other mathematical techniques from the realm of relativity theory could be used to similar advantage for effects that are nonlinear and local. This line of thought led to a transformation leveraging Riemannian geometric methods common to the general theory of relativity. A gauge transformation is used to geometrize compressibility through the metric tensor of the underlying space to produce an equivalent incompressible flow that lives not on a plane but on a curved surface. In this sense, forces owing to compressibility can be ascribed to the geometry of space in much the same way that general relativity ascribes gravitational forces to the curvature of space-time. Although the analogy with general relativity is fruitful, it is important not to overstate the similarities between compressibility and the physics of gravity, as the interest for this thesis is primarily in the mathematical framework and not physical phenomenology or epistemology. The thesis presents the philosophy and theory for the transformation method followed by a numerical method for practical solutions of equivalent incompressible flows over arbitrary closed profiles. The numerical method employs an iterative approach involving the solution of the equivalent incompressible flow with a panel method, the calculation of the metric tensor for the gauge transformation, and the solution of the curvilinear coordinate mapping to the canonical flow with a finite difference approach for the elliptic boundary value problem. This method is demonstrated for non-circulatory flow over a circular cylinder and both symmetric and lifting flows over a NACA 0012 profile. Results are validated with accepted subcritical full potential test cases available in the literature. For chord-preserving mapping boundary conditions, the results indicate that the equivalent incompressible profiles thicken with Mach number and develop a leading edge droop with increased angle of attack. Two promising areas of potential applicability of the method have been identified. The first is in airfoil inverse design methods leveraging incompressible flow knowledge including heuristics and empirical data for the potential field effects on viscous phenomena such as boundary layer transition and separation. The second is in aerodynamic testing using distorted similarity-scaled models.

German, Brian Joseph

83

City of Hope study identifies potential therapy targeting leukemia stem cells  

Cancer.gov

New research takes aim at stubborn cancer stem cells that are thought to be responsible for treatment resistance and relapse. The study, published by Cell Press in the February 14 issue of the journal Cancer Cell, provides insight into mechanisms associated with the survival of leukemia stem cells and identifies a potential therapeutic target that is specific for these dangerously persistent cells.

84

A spatial modeling approach to identify potential butternut restoration sites in Mammoth Cave National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Incorporation of disease resistance is nearly complete for several important North American hardwood species threatened by exotic fungal diseases. The next important step toward species restoration would be to develop reliable tools to delineate ideal restoration sites on a landscape scale. We integrated spatial modeling and remote sensing techniques to delineate potential restoration sites for Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) trees, a hardwood species being decimated by an exotic fungus, in Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP), Kentucky. We first developed a multivariate habitat model to determine optimum Butternut habitats within MCNP. Habitat characteristics of 54 known Butternut locations were used in combination with eight topographic and land use data layers to calculate an index of habitat suitability based on Mahalanobis distance (D2). We used a bootstrapping technique to test the reliability of model predictions. Based on a threshold value for the D2 statistic, 75.9% of the Butternut locations were correctly classified, indicating that the habitat model performed well. Because Butternut seedlings require extensive amounts of sunlight to become established, we used canopy cover data to refine our delineation of favorable areas for Butternut restoration. Areas with the most favorable conditions to establish Butternut seedlings were limited to 291.6 ha. Our study provides a useful reference on the amount and location of favorable Butternut habitat in MCNP and can be used to identify priority areas for future Butternut restoration. Given the availability of relevant habitat layers and accurate location records, our approach can be applied to other tree species and areas. ?? 2006 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

Thompson, L. M.; van, Manen, F. T.; Schlarbaum, S. E.; DePoy, M.

2006-01-01

85

Potential gain from optimizing multigeneration selection on an identified quantitative trait locus.  

PubMed

The potential extra response that can be obtained from the optimal use of a known QTL in selection by optimizing weights in an index of breeding value for the QTL and polygenic EBV was investigated for a range of parameters. Optimal strategies were derived for a deterministic model of simultaneous selection on a QTL and polygenic effects using optimal control theory. Responses over 10 generations to the following selection strategies were compared: 1) standard QTL selection, with QTL weights equal to 1, 2) optimal QTL selection, 3) stepwise single-generation optimal QTL selection, and 4) non-QTL selection based on phenotype. Cumulative discounted response with discount rates of 10 or 30% per generation were evaluated and used as objective for optimal selection strategies. Optimal selection balanced the conflict between short- and long-term responses and gave greater cumulative discounted response than standard QTL selection of up to 20%, but less than 5% for most cases. Discount rate had limited impact. For a QTL with an additive effect of one polygenic standard deviation, cumulative discounted response from optimal QTL selection was less than 5% greater than response for non-QTL selection for most cases. Exceptions were traits with low heritability and recessive QTL at low frequency, for which extra response was up to 55% greater. Stepwise optimal selection resulted in less cumulative discounted response than standard QTL selection for QTL with negative dominance. The benefit of optimal over stepwise optimal selection was limited (less than 4%) for most cases, except for overdominant QTL. These results indicate that optimizing selection on an identified QTL can result in greater responses to selection but that extra responses tend to be limited for the situations studied here of single-stage purebred selection on a single QTL for a trait observed on both sexes. PMID:11811450

Dekkers, J C; Chakraborty, R

2001-12-01

86

Development of evidence-based Australian medication-related indicators of potentially preventable hospitalisations: a modified RAND appropriateness method  

PubMed Central

Objective Indicators of potentially preventable hospitalisations have been adopted internationally as a measure of health system performance; however, few assess appropriate processes of care around medication use, that if followed may prevent hospitalisation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate evidence-based medication-related indicators of potentially preventable hospitalisations. Setting Australian primary healthcare. Participants Medical specialists, general practitioners and pharmacists. A modified RAND appropriateness method was used for the development of medication-related indicators of potentially preventable hospitalisations, which included a literature review, assessment of the strength of the supporting evidence base, an initial face and content validity by an expert panel, followed by an independent assessment of indicators by an expert clinical panel across various disciplines, using an online survey. Primary outcome measure Analysis of ratings was performed on the four key elements of preventability; the medication-related problem must be recognisable, the adverse outcomes foreseeable and the causes and outcomes identifiable and controllable. Results A total of 48 potential indicators across all major disease groupings were developed based on level III evidence or greater, that were independently assessed by 78 expert clinicians (22.1% response rate). The expert panel considered 29 of these (60.4%) sufficiently valid. Of these, 21 (72.4%) were based on level I evidence. Conclusions This study provides a set of face and content validated indicators of medication-related potentially preventable hospitalisations, linking suboptimal processes of care and medication use with subsequent hospitalisation. Further analysis is required to establish operational validity in a population-based sample, using an administrative health database. Implementation of these indicators within routine monitoring of healthcare systems will highlight those conditions where hospitalisations could potentially be avoided through improved medication management.

Caughey, Gillian E; Kalisch Ellett, Lisa M; Wong, Te Ying

2014-01-01

87

Water Mites (Acari: Hydrachnida) of Ozark Streams - Abundance, Species Richness, and Potential as Environmental Indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because water mites are tightly linked to other stream metazoans through parasitism and predation, they are potentially effective indicators of environmental quality. Meiofauna (80 ?m to 1 mm) were sampled from headwater riffles of 11 Ozark streams to determine relative abundance and densities of major meiofauna taxa. Water mites comprised 15.3% of the organisms collected exceeded only by chironomids (50.2%) and oligochaetes (17.8%), and mean water mite density among the 11 streams was 265 organisms per liter. The two streams that differed the most in environmental quality were sampled using techniques suitable for identification of species. An estimated 32 species from 20 genera and 13 families were found in the least disturbed stream; an estimated 19 species from 13 genera and 8 families were found in the most disturbed stream. This preliminary finding supports the notion that water mite species richness declines in response to environmental disturbance. Many species could only be identified as morphospecies of particular genera, but the ongoing taxonomic revision of Hydrachnida is expected to provide needed information. A collaborative effort between those interested in taxonomy/systematics of water mites and ecologists interested in the significance of water mites in aquatic communities could prove mutually beneficial.

Radwell, A. J.; Brown, A. V.

2005-05-01

88

Bivalves as indicators of environmental variation and potential anthropogenic impacts in the southern Barents Sea  

PubMed Central

Identifying patterns and drivers of natural variability in populations is necessary to gauge potential effects of climatic change and the expected increases in commercial activities in the Arctic on communities and ecosystems. We analyzed growth rates and shell geochemistry of the circumpolar Greenland smooth cockle, Serripes groenlandicus, from the southern Barents Sea over almost 70 years between 1882 and 1968. The datasets were calibrated via annually-deposited growth lines, and growth, stable isotope (?18O, ?13C), and trace elemental (Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn) patterns were linked to environmental variations on weekly to decadal scales. Standardized growth indices revealed an oscillatory growth pattern with a multi-year periodicity, which was inversely related to the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO), and positively related to local river discharge. Up to 60% of the annual variability in the Ba/Ca could be explained by variations in river discharge at the site closest to the rivers, but the relationship disappeared at a more distant location. Patterns of ?18O, ?13C, and Sr/Ca together provide evidence that bivalve growth ceases at elevated temperatures during the fall and recommences at the coldest temperatures in the early spring, with the implication that food, rather than temperature, is the primary driver of bivalve growth. The multi-proxy approach of combining the annually integrated information from the growth results and higher resolution geochemical results yielded a robust interpretation of biophysical coupling in the region over temporal and spatial scales. We thus demonstrate that sclerochronological proxies can be useful retrospective analytical tools for establishing a baseline of ecosystem variability in assessing potential combined impacts of climatic change and increasing commercial activities on Arctic communities.

Carroll, Michael L.; Johnson, Beverly J.; Henkes, Gregory A.; McMahon, Kelton W.; Voronkov, Andrey; Ambrose, William G.; Denisenko, Stanislav G.

2009-01-01

89

Structured methods for identifying and correcting potential human errors in aviation operations  

SciTech Connect

Human errors have been identified as the source of approximately 60% of the incidents and accidents that occur in commercial aviation. It can be assumed that a very large number of human errors occur in aviation operations, even though in most cases the redundancies and diversities built into the design of aircraft systems prevent the errors from leading to serious consequences. In addition, when it is acknowledged that many system failures have their roots in human errors that occur in the design phase, it becomes apparent that the identification and elimination of potential human errors could significantly decrease the risks of aviation operations. This will become even more critical during the design of advanced automation-based aircraft systems as well as next-generation systems for air traffic management. Structured methods to identify and correct potential human errors in aviation operations have been developed and are currently undergoing testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL).

Nelson, W.R.

1997-10-01

90

A novel fault-tree approach for identifying potential causes of satellite reaction wheel failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to unforeseen circumstances and naturally occurring faults, it is desired that an on-board fault-diagnosis system of a space vehicle be capable of detecting, isolating, identifying or classifying faults in the system. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed which strengthens existing efficient fault-detection mechanisms with an additional ability to classify different types of faults to effectively determine potential

A. Barua; P. Sinha; K. Khorasani; S. Tafazoli

2005-01-01

91

MGH Cancer Center team identifies potential treatment target for KRAS-mutated colon cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cancer Center have identified a new potential strategy for treating colon tumors driven by mutations in the KRAS gene, which usually resist both conventional and targeted treatments. In a paper appearing in the Feb. 17 issue of Cell, the team reports that targeting a later step in the pathway leading from KRAS activation to tumor growth may be able to halt the process.

92

Random Mutagenesis of the Prokaryotic Peptide Transporter YdgR Identifies Potential Periplasmic Gating Residues*  

PubMed Central

The peptide transporter (PTR) family represents a group of proton-coupled secondary transporters responsible for bulk uptake of amino acids in the form of di- and tripeptides, an essential process employed across species ranging from bacteria to humans. To identify amino acids critical for peptide transport in a prokaryotic PTR member, we have screened a library of mutants of the Escherichia coli peptide transporter YdgR using a high-throughput substrate uptake assay. We have identified 35 single point mutations that result in a full or partial loss of transport activity. Additional analysis, including homology modeling based on the crystal structure of the Shewanella oneidensis peptide transporter PepTso, identifies Glu56 and Arg305 as potential periplasmic gating residues. In addition to providing new insights into transport by members of the PTR family, these mutants provide valuable tools for further study of the mechanism of peptide transport.

Malle, Elisabeth; Zhou, Hongwen; Neuhold, Jana; Spitzenberger, Bettina; Klepsch, Freya; Pollak, Thomas; Bergner, Oliver; Ecker, Gerhard F.; Stolt-Bergner, Peggy C.

2011-01-01

93

Random mutagenesis of the prokaryotic peptide transporter YdgR identifies potential periplasmic gating residues.  

PubMed

The peptide transporter (PTR) family represents a group of proton-coupled secondary transporters responsible for bulk uptake of amino acids in the form of di- and tripeptides, an essential process employed across species ranging from bacteria to humans. To identify amino acids critical for peptide transport in a prokaryotic PTR member, we have screened a library of mutants of the Escherichia coli peptide transporter YdgR using a high-throughput substrate uptake assay. We have identified 35 single point mutations that result in a full or partial loss of transport activity. Additional analysis, including homology modeling based on the crystal structure of the Shewanella oneidensis peptide transporter PepT(so), identifies Glu(56) and Arg(305) as potential periplasmic gating residues. In addition to providing new insights into transport by members of the PTR family, these mutants provide valuable tools for further study of the mechanism of peptide transport. PMID:21558271

Malle, Elisabeth; Zhou, Hongwen; Neuhold, Jana; Spitzenberger, Bettina; Klepsch, Freya; Pollak, Thomas; Bergner, Oliver; Ecker, Gerhard F; Stolt-Bergner, Peggy C

2011-07-01

94

Intraoperative monitoring of sensory evoked potentials may be neither a proven nor an indicated technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excluding specific neurosurgical indications for cortical localization or peripheral nerve surgery, the use of sensory evoked\\u000a potentials as a monitor in the operating room should be controversial at this time. Whether appropriate or not, legal and\\u000a medical forces have largely established the use of somatosensory evoked potential monitoring as a standard during procedures\\u000a that threaten the integrity of the spinal

John D. Michenfelder

1987-01-01

95

Public sector residential aged care: identifying novel associations between quality indicators and other demographic and health-related factors.  

PubMed

Objective To explore associations among quality indicators (QI; e.g. pressure ulcers, falls and/or fractures, physical restraint, use of multiple medications, unplanned weight loss) of the Victorian Public Sector Residential Aged Care Services (VPSRACS) with other demographic and health-related factors. Methods Data for 380 residents over a 3-month period were extracted retrospectively from client databases at four VPSRAC facilities. Results Four significant logistic regression models were developed. The strongest models related to falls and polypharmacy. Significant associations for these models included the following: (1) residents with a higher body mass index were 6% less likely (95% confidence interval (CI) 1%-11%) to fall, whereas high levels of cognitive impairment increased the risk of falling by 8% (95% CI 2%-14%); (2) being ambulant with a gait aid more than doubled the risk of falling compared with non-ambulant residents (95% CI 19%-546%); and (3) higher cognitive impairment was associated with a 6% (95% CI 1%-11%) reduction in the likelihood of polypharmacy. Conclusions Identification of significant relationships between the VPSRACS QI and other demographic and health-related factors is a preliminary step towards a more in-depth understanding of the factors that influence the QI and predict adverse events. What is known about the topic? Currently, the VPSRACS report on five QI. Previous research has shown associations between several of these indicators, but not all. What does this paper add? This paper examines associations between the five VPSRAC QI as well as other key demographic and health-related factors. Novel findings from regression analyses included an increased risk of falls associated with recommended body mass index and using gait aids, but no association between pressure ulcers and the Norton score. Regression models for other QI were limited by the small occurrences of the QI. However, significant associations were identified indicating that residents using a gait aid had a lower level of unplanned weight loss and residents with polypharmacy had higher unplanned weight loss. What are the implications for practitioners? This paper reinforces the value of collecting VPSRAC QI data to enable facilities to consider how these variables could impact on care quality and to proactively plan to reduce the risk of adverse events. Although QI data can be used to benchmark with other settings, this paper shows how QI data can be used to inform practice within a facility and help identify patient-related factors that may warrant further investigation. PMID:24807681

Moore, Kirsten J; Doyle, Colleen J; Dunning, Trisha L; Hague, Ann T; Lloyd, Lucas A; Bourke, Jo; Gill, Stephen D

2014-06-01

96

An inverse docking approach for identifying new potential anti-cancer targets.  

PubMed

Inverse docking is a relatively new technique that has been used to identify potential receptor targets of small molecules. Our docking software package MDock is well suited for such an application as it is both computationally efficient, yet simultaneously shows adequate results in binding affinity predictions and enrichment tests. As a validation study, we present the first stage results of an inverse-docking study which seeks to identify potential direct targets of PRIMA-1. PRIMA-1 is well known for its ability to restore mutant p53's tumor suppressor function, leading to apoptosis in several types of cancer cells. For this reason, we believe that potential direct targets of PRIMA-1 identified in silico should be experimentally screened for their ability to inhibit cancer cell growth. The highest-ranked human protein of our PRIMA-1 docking results is oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC), which is part of the cholesterol synthetic pathway. The results of two followup experiments which treat OSC as a possible anti-cancer target are promising. We show that both PRIMA-1 and Ro 48-8071, a known potent OSC inhibitor, significantly reduce the viability of BT-474 and T47-D breast cancer cells relative to normal mammary cells. In addition, like PRIMA-1, we find that Ro 48-8071 results in increased binding of p53 to DNA in BT-474 cells (which express mutant p53). For the first time, Ro 48-8071 is shown as a potent agent in killing human breast cancer cells. The potential of OSC as a new target for developing anticancer therapies is worth further investigation. PMID:21315634

Grinter, Sam Z; Liang, Yayun; Huang, Sheng-You; Hyder, Salman M; Zou, Xiaoqin

2011-04-01

97

A genomic strategy for the functional validation of colorectal cancer genes identifies potential therapeutic targets  

PubMed Central

Summary/Abstract Genes that are highly overexpressed in tumor cells can be required for tumor cell survival, and have the potential to be selective therapeutic targets. In an attempt to identify such targets, we combined a functional genomics and a systems biology approach to assess the consequences of RNAi-mediated silencing of overexpressed genes that were selected from 140 gene expression profiles from colorectal cancers (CRC) and matched normal mucosa. In order to identify credible models for in-depth functional analysis, we first confirmed the overexpression of these genes in 25 different CRC cell lines. We then identified five candidate genes that profoundly reduced the viability of CRC cell lines when silenced with either siRNAs or shRNAs, i.e., HMGA1, TACSTD2, RRM2, RPS2, and NOL5A. These genes were further studied by systematic analysis of comprehensive gene expression profiles generated following siRNA-mediated silencing. Exploration of these RNAi-specific gene expression signatures allowed the identification of the functional space in which the five genes operate, and showed enrichment for cancer specific signaling pathways, some known to be involved in CRC. By comparing the expression of the RNAi signature genes with their respective expression levels in an independent set of primary rectal carcinomas we could recapitulate these defined RNAi signatures, therefore establishing the biologically relevance of our observations. This strategy identified the signaling pathways that are affected by the prominent oncogenes HMGA1 and TACSTD2, established a yet unknown link between RRM2 and PLK1, and identified RPS2 and NOL5A as promising potential therapeutic targets in CRC.

Grade, Marian; Hummon, Amanda B.; Camps, Jordi; Emons, Georg; Spitzner, Melanie; Gaedcke, Jochen; Hoermann, Patrick; Ebner, Reinhard; Becker, Heinz; Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Beissbarth, Tim; Caplen, Natasha J.; Ried, Thomas

2010-01-01

98

Deep Sequencing Identifies Viral and Wasp Genes with Potential Roles in Replication of Microplitis demolitor Bracovirus  

PubMed Central

Viruses in the genus Bracovirus (BV) (Polydnaviridae) are symbionts of parasitoid wasps that specifically replicate in the ovaries of females. Recent analysis of expressed sequence tags from two wasp species, Cotesia congregata and Chelonus inanitus, identified transcripts related to 24 different nudivirus genes. These results together with other data strongly indicate that BVs evolved from a nudivirus ancestor. However, it remains unclear whether BV-carrying wasps contain other nudivirus-like genes and what types of wasp genes may also be required for BV replication. Microplitis demolitor carries Microplitis demolitor bracovirus (MdBV). Here we characterized MdBV replication and performed massively parallel sequencing of M. demolitor ovary transcripts. Our results indicated that MdBV replication begins in stage 2 pupae and continues in adults. Analysis of prereplication- and active-replication-stage ovary RNAs yielded 22 Gb of sequence that assembled into 66,425 transcripts. This breadth of sampling indicated that a large percentage of genes in the M. demolitor genome were sequenced. A total of 41 nudivirus-like transcripts were identified, of which a majority were highly expressed during MdBV replication. Our results also identified a suite of wasp genes that were highly expressed during MdBV replication. Among these products were several transcripts with conserved roles in regulating locus-specific DNA amplification by eukaryotes. Overall, our data set together with prior results likely identify the majority of nudivirus-related genes that are transcriptionally functional during BV replication. Our results also suggest that amplification of proviral DNAs for packaging into BV virions may depend upon the replication machinery of wasps.

2012-01-01

99

Two new neurophysiological indices of cocaine craving: evoked brain potentials and cue modulated startle reflex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Craving for cocaine is one of the hallmarks of cocaine dependence. One of the problems with craving is its measurement. Traditional psychophysiological indices such as skin conductance and heart rate have yielded contradictory results. These measures of craving were found to correlate only moderately with self-reported craving. In the present study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and the cue modulated startle

Ingmar H. A. Franken; Kai P. Hulstijn; Cornelis J. Stam; Vincent M. Hendriks; Wim van den Brink

2004-01-01

100

Exploring the space-time distribution of potential solar radiation in Greece, introducing radiation indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation is a key factor for a lot of natural processes and human activities. The influence of local geographical characteristics of a specific surface (such as slope, aspect, altitude and shading) on the amount of incoming potential solar radiation is very important. In this paper two indices are introduced in order to quantify this effect and facilitate the mapping

N. Mamassis; I. G. Apostolidou

2009-01-01

101

Evaluation of Potential Indicators of Viral Contamination in Shellfish and Their Applicability to Diverse Geographical Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of the concentration of potential indicators of fecal viral pollution in shellfish was analyzed under diverse conditions over 18 months in diverse geographical areas. These microorganisms have been evaluated in relation to contamination by human viral pathogens detected in parallel in the analyzed shellfish samples. Thus, significant shellfish-growing areas from diverse countries in the north and south of

M. Formiga-Cruz; A. K. Allard; A.-C. Conden-Hansson; K. Henshilwood; B. E. Hernroth; J. Jofre; D. N. Lees; F. Lucena; M. Papapetropoulou; R. E. Rangdale; A. Tsibouxi; A. Vantarakis; R. Girones

2003-01-01

102

Chest Radiograph Scores as Potential Prognostic Indicators in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. We analyzed serial chest radiographic scores for lung opacification in pa- tients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) for temporal changes and differences be- tween fatal and discharged cases. We sought to establish the earliest radiographic scores sensitive as potential prognostic indicators of fatal outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Chest radiographs that had been obtained from pre- sentation until the

Gregory E. Antonio; Ka T. Wong; Eva L. H. Tsui; David P. N. Chan; David S. C. Hui; Alex W. H. Ng; Kwok K. Shing; Edmund H. Y. Yuen; Jane C. K. Chan; Anil T. Ahuja

103

Indications and potential sources of change in sand transport in the Brazos River, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Changes in the capacity of the Brazos River to transport sand can be identified within the context of Lane?s relation through changes in channel geometry, changes in the characteristics of suspended loads, and changes in discharge. The Brazos River channel has been undergoing continual adjustment since the 1940s. For a discharge of 5,000 cubic feet per second, the water-surface altitude has decreased 2 to 4 feet at the Hempstead and Richmond streamflow-gaging stations between 1940 and 1995. The characteristics of suspended-sediment samples at the Richmond streamflow-gaging station have changed between the periods 1969?81 and 1982?95. The amount of sand-size sediment transported in suspension has decreased. The distribution of both daily and annual-peak discharges has changed. However, the computed annual loads of suspended sand indicate no statistically significant change in the median annual load. The transport of sand in the Brazos River depends on a complex set of factors, most of which are continually changing. Potential sources of change in sand transport in the Brazos River include the effects of reservoir construction, changes in land use, and instream sand and gravel mining. Extensive reservoir construction in the Brazos River Basin has reduced sand transport by trapping sediment and by reducing the magnitude of peak discharges. However, reductions in sand transport associated with reservoir construction apparently are compensated for by increases associated with tributary sediment inflow and localized bank erosion. The total area of harvested acres of non-hay crops in the lower Brazos River Basin during 1924?92 decreased more than 75 percent from about 32 percent to about 8 percent of the total area. Correspondingly, erosion potential has decreased substantially. Several sand and gravel mining sites are located on the Brazos River between Hempstead and Rosharon. The quantity of sediment extracted by instream sand and gravel mining operations could represent from 11 to 25 percent of the total sand transported by the Brazos River. The effects of mining on sand transport could not be quantified.

Dunn, David D.; Raines, Timothy H.

2001-01-01

104

Exploring the space-time distribution of potential solar radiation in Greece, introducing radiation indices.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is a key factor for a lot of natural processes and human activities. The influence of local geographical characteristics of a specific surface (such as slope, aspect, altitude and shading) on the amount of incoming potential solar radiation is very important. In this paper two indices are introduced in order to quantify this effect and facilitate the mapping of the space-time distribution of potential incoming solar radiation (useful for the analysis of a wide range of hydrological processes). The Relative Potential Radiation Index (RPRI) is calculated as the fraction of the estimated potential incoming solar radiation to the theoretical one (for a flat and unshadowed surface of certain latitude during a specific time period of the year). The Absolute Potential Radiation Index (APRI) is calculated as the fraction of the estimated extraterrestrial incoming solar radiation to the theoretical one (for a flat and unshadowed surface of latitude 0o during a specific time period of the year). The indices were summed in daily, monthly and annual basis, for the exploration of the solar radiation potential of the Greek territory. The hourly indices were calculated in each cell of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Greece (using GIS techniques) and were integrated spacewise (e.g. water basins) and timewise (e.g. daily, monthly and annually). From the performed analysis the following conclusions were drawn: (a) 1 % of the Greek territory receives less than 80% of the theoretical amount of incoming potential solar radiation and another 1 % receives 15 % more than the theoretical value, (b) the influence of topographic factors on the amount of potential incoming solar radiation is prominent during winter (as the sun is lower in the sky) and is reduced significantly during summer, (c) each area maximizes its receiving amount of potential incoming solar radiation during a specific period of the year which depends on the relation between the orientation of the surface and the position of the sun (maximum when they are perpendicular), (d) areas with significantly different monthly potential incoming solar radiation indices can be often located very close (i.e. in the same basin) and finally, (e) the names of a great number of Greek villages are related to their extreme or reduced exposure to the sun.

Mamassis, N.; Apostolidou, I. G.

2009-04-01

105

Probabilistic risk assessment techniques help identify potential hazards in vapor vacuum extraction  

SciTech Connect

The analysis discussed in this paper was performed as part of the buried waste remediation efforts at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The specific type of remediation involved the extraction of volatile organics from the ground using a specially-designed system. Computer models of the proposed system were developed using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) fault tree and event tree modeling techniques. These models were used to confirm the usefulness of the system design and to identify potential hazards of use of the system. In addition to identifying dominant contributors to risk, the models were also used to show, quantitatively, the associated levels of risk from other expressed sources of concern. 1 ref., 2 figs.

Lucero, V.; Wierman, T.E.; Purser, F.E.

1991-01-01

106

Comparative Oncogenomics Identifies PSMB4 and SHMT2 as Potential Cancer Driver Genes.  

PubMed

Cancer genomes maintain a complex array of somatic alterations required for maintenance and progression of the disease, posing a challenge to identify driver genes among this genetic disorder. Toward this end, we mapped regions of recurrent amplification in a large collection (n = 392) of primary human cancers and selected 620 genes whose expression is elevated in tumors. An RNAi loss-of-function screen targeting these genes across a panel of 32 cancer cell lines identified potential driver genes. Subsequent functional assays identified SHMT2, a key enzyme in the serine/glycine synthesis pathway, as necessary for tumor cell survival but insufficient for transformation. The 26S proteasomal subunit, PSMB4, was identified as the first proteasomal subunit with oncogenic properties promoting cancer cell survival and tumor growth in vivo. Elevated expression of SHMT2 and PSMB4 was found to be associated with poor prognosis in human cancer, supporting the development of molecular therapies targeting these genes or components of their pathways. Cancer Res; 74(11); 3114-26. ©2014 AACR. PMID:24755469

Lee, Genee Y; Haverty, Peter M; Li, Li; Kljavin, Noelyn M; Bourgon, Richard; Lee, James; Stern, Howard; Modrusan, Zora; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Zhang, Zemin; Davis, David; Stokoe, David; Settleman, Jeffrey; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Neve, Richard M

2014-06-01

107

Mass General study identifies potential treatment target in an animal model of pancreatic cancer  

Cancer.gov

Detailed analysis of genes expressed in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) -- cells that break off from solid tumors and travel through the bloodstream -- has identified a potential treatment target in metastatic pancreatic cancer. In a report that will appear in Nature and has received advance online publication, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cancer Center investigators describe finding increased expression of WNT2, a member of a known family of oncogenes, in CTCs from a mouse model of the deadly tumor and from human patients. The Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center is made up of seven member institutions, including Massachusetts General Hospital.

108

Accuracy of a screening instrument to identify potential child abuse in emergency departments.  

PubMed

Although screening for child abuse at emergency departments (EDs) increases the detection rate of potential child abuse, an accurate instrument is lacking. This study was designed to measure the accuracy of a screening instrument for detection of potential child abuse used in EDs. In a prospective cohort study at three Dutch EDs, a 6-item screening instrument for child abuse, Escape, was completed for each child visiting the ED. The data from the completed Escape instrument was used to calculate sensitivity, specificity, and the positive/negative predictive value per item. The clinical notes and conclusions of the screen instruments of all potentially abused children reported to the hospitals' Child Abuse Teams were collected and reviewed by an expert panel. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the predictors of potential abuse. Completed Escape instruments were available for 18,275 ED visits. Forty-four of the 420 children with a positive screening result, and 11 of the 17,855 children with a negative result were identified as potentially abused. Sensitivity of the Escape instrument was 0.80 and specificity was 0.98. Univariate logistic regression showed that potentially abused children were significantly more likely to have had an aberrant answer to at least one of the items, OR=189.8, 95% CI [97.3, 370.4]. Most of the children at high risk for child abuse were detected through screening. The Escape instrument is a useful tool for ED staff to support the identification of those at high risk for child abuse. PMID:24325939

Louwers, Eveline C F M; Korfage, Ida J; Affourtit, Marjo J; Ruige, Madelon; van den Elzen, Annette P M; de Koning, Harry J; Moll, Henriëtte A

2014-07-01

109

Brain Potential Indices of Novelty Processing Are Associated With Preference for Amphetamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A behavioral drug preference procedure was used to identify two groups of healthy individuals. One group preferred 10 mg of d-amphetamine over placebo (Choosers) and the other preferred placebo (Nonchoosers). In separate sessions, participants were administered placebo, 10, and 15 mg of d-amphetamine, and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed two 3-stimulus oddball tasks. The effect of

Frances H. Gabbay; Connie C. Duncan; Craig G. McDonald

2010-01-01

110

Evoked Potential Monitoring Identifies Possible Neurological Injury During Positioning for Craniotomy  

PubMed Central

Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring is commonly used to detect changes in nerve conduction and prevent impending nerve injury. We present a case series of 2 patients who had SSEP monitoring for their surgical craniotomy procedure, and who, upon positioning supine with their head tilted 30–45 degrees, developed unilateral upper extremity SSEP changes. These SSEP changes were reversed when the patients were repositioned. These cases indicate the clinical usefulness of monitoring SSEPs while positioning the patient and adjusting position accordingly to prevent injury.

Anastasian, Zirka H.; Ramnath, Brian; Komotar, Ricardo J.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Sisti, Michael B.; Gallo, Edward J.; Emerson, Ronald G.; Heyer, Eric J.

2009-01-01

111

Structured methods for identifying and correcting potential human errors in space operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human performance plays a significant role in the development and operation of any complex system, and human errors are significant contributors to degraded performance, incidents, and accidents for technologies as diverse as medical systems, commercial aircraft, offshore oil platforms, nuclear power plants, and space systems. To date, serious accidents attributed to human error have fortunately been rare in space operations. However, as flight rates go up and the duration of space missions increases, the accident rate could increase unless proactive action is taken to identify and correct potential human errors in space operations. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has developed and applied structured methods of human error analysis to identify potential human errors, assess their effects on system performance, and develop strategies to prevent the errors or mitigate their consequences. These methods are being applied in NASA-sponsored programs to the domain of commercial aviation, focusing on airplane maintenance and air traffic management. The application of human error analysis to space operations could contribute to minimize the risks associated with human error in the design and operation of future space systems.

Nelson, William R.; Haney, Lon N.; Ostrom, Lee T.; Richards, Robert E.

112

Shape and pharmacophore-based virtual screening to identify potential cytochrome P450 sterol 14?-demethylase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Sterol 14?-demethylase (CYP51) is a cytochrome P450 heme thiolate containing enzyme involved in biosynthesis of membrane sterols, including sterol in animals, ergosterol in fungi, and a variety of C24-modified sterols in plants and protozoa. Several clinical drugs have been developed to reduce the impact of fungal diseases, but their clinical uses have been limited by the emergence of drug resistance and insufficiencies in their antifungal activity. Therefore, in order to identify potential CYP51 inhibitors, we have implemented a virtual screening (VS) protocol by using both phase shape and pharmacophore model (AHHRR) against Asinex, ChemBridge and Maybridge databases. A filtering protocol, including Lipinski filter, number of rotatable bonds and different precisions of molecular docking was applied in hits selection. The results indicated that both shape-based and pharmacophore-based screening yielded the best result with potential inhibitors. The searched compounds were also evaluated with ADME properties, which show excellent pharmacokinetic properties under the acceptable range. We identified potential CYP51 inhibitors for further investigation, they could also be employed to design ligands with enhanced inhibitory potencies and to predict the potencies of analogs to guide synthesis/or prepare synthetic antifungal analogs against CYP51. PMID:23638723

Reddy, Karnati Konda; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Tripathi, Sunil Kumar; Selvaraj, Chandrabose; Suryanarayanan, Venkatesan

2013-08-01

113

Potential for diamond in kimberlites from Michigan and Montana as indicated by garnet xenocryst compositions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Williams kimberlite in north-central Montana and the Lake Ellen kimberlite in northern Michigan contain diagnostic xenoliths and xenocrysts which indicate that diamonds may be present. To date, however, no diamonds have been reported from either locality. In this study, particular compositions of garnet xenocrysts which are associated with diamond elsewhere were sought as an indication of the potential for diamond in the Williams and Lake Ellen kimberlites. For this study, garnets were carefully selected for purple color in order to increase the chance of finding the subcalcic chrome-rich compositions that are associated with the presence of diamond. -Author

McGee, E. S.

1988-01-01

114

Potential of calcium isotopes to identify fractionations in vegetation: experimental approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to better understand the role of vegetation on the Ca cycle at the level of the critical zone of the Earth, in order to specify the mechanisms controlling the Ca absorption by plants at the rock/plant interface. To do this, we performed experiments using hydroponic plant cultures in a way that we could control the cooccuring geochemical and biological processes and determine the impact of the nutritive solution on the Ca cycle within plants. A dicotyledon and calcicole plant with rapid growth, the French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), has been chosen to have access to one complete growth cycle. Several experiments have been conducted with two Ca concentrations, 5 (L) and 60 (H) ppm and two pH values (4 and 6) in the nutritive solution, for which the Ca concentration was maintained constant, so its Ca content is considered to be infinite. We determined Ca concentrations and isotopic ratios in the nutritive solution and in different organs (main roots, secondary roots, old and young stems, old and young leaves and fruits) at two different growth stages (10 days and 6 weeks). Our results show, in accord with previously published field studies, that the bean organs are all enriched in the light 40Ca isotope compared to the nutritive solution (e.g. Wigand et al., 2005; Page et al., 2008; Cenki-Tok et al., 2009; Holmden and Bélanger, 2010). We identify two fractionation levels. The first occurs during the uptake of the nutrient elements by the lateral roots. This implies that the main mechanisms of light isotope enrichments in the plant are due to electrochemical gradient transport processes taking place at this interface. The second fractionation can be observed within the plant itself and is due to the nature of the considered organ itself. Indeed structural reservoirs (primary roots, stem, reproductive organs) incorporate more the light 40Ca isotope compared to the transfer reservoirs (lateral roots, xylem sap, leaves). This could be linked to ion-exchange reactions with the pectins in the cell walls of the conducting xylem. However, we also observe that bean organs from L4 experiment growing in nutrient solutions with lower Ca concentrations and low pH behave slightly differently and show reduced Ca isotopic fractionations compared with beans from the other experiments. All these results indicate that there is no simple correlation between Ca isotopic variations, Ca content and pH of the nutrient solution, and that also biological effects have to be involved. The data confirm the potential of the Ca isotopic system for tracing biological fractionations in natural ecosystems. Wiegand et al., (2005). Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L11404 Page et al., (2008). Biogeochemistry, 88, 1-13 Cenki-Tok et al,. (2009). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 73, 2215-2228 Holmden and Bélanger(2010). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 74, 995-1015

Cobert, F.; Schmitt, A.; Bourgade, P.; Stille, P.; Chabaux, F. J.; Badot, P.; Jaegler, T.

2010-12-01

115

Retroviral integration mutagenesis in mice and comparative analysis in human AML identify reduced PTP4A3 expression as a prognostic indicator.  

PubMed

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) results from multiple genetic and epigenetic aberrations, many of which remain unidentified. Frequent loss of large chromosomal regions marks haplo-insufficiency as one of the major mechanisms contributing to leukemogenesis. However, which haplo-insufficient genes (HIGs) are involved in leukemogenesis is largely unknown and powerful experimental strategies aimed at their identification are currently lacking. Here, we present a new approach to discover HIGs, using retroviral integration mutagenesis in mice in which methylated viral integration sites and neighbouring genes were identified. In total we mapped 6 genes which are flanked by methylated viral integration sites (mVIS). Three of these, i.e., Lrmp, Hcls1 and Prkrir, were up regulated and one, i.e., Ptp4a3, was down regulated in the affected tumor. Next, we investigated the role of PTP4A3 in human AML and we show that PTP4A3 expression is a negative prognostic indicator, independent of other prognostic parameters. In conclusion, our novel strategy has identified PTP4A3 to potentially have a role in AML, on one hand as a candidate HIG contributing to leukemogenesis in mice and on the other hand as a prognostic indicator in human AML. PMID:22028901

Beekman, Renée; Valkhof, Marijke; Erkeland, Stefan J; Taskesen, Erdogan; Rockova, Veronika; Peeters, Justine K; Valk, Peter J M; Löwenberg, Bob; Touw, Ivo P

2011-01-01

116

Retroviral Integration Mutagenesis in Mice and Comparative Analysis in Human AML Identify Reduced PTP4A3 Expression as a Prognostic Indicator  

PubMed Central

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) results from multiple genetic and epigenetic aberrations, many of which remain unidentified. Frequent loss of large chromosomal regions marks haplo-insufficiency as one of the major mechanisms contributing to leukemogenesis. However, which haplo-insufficient genes (HIGs) are involved in leukemogenesis is largely unknown and powerful experimental strategies aimed at their identification are currently lacking. Here, we present a new approach to discover HIGs, using retroviral integration mutagenesis in mice in which methylated viral integration sites and neighbouring genes were identified. In total we mapped 6 genes which are flanked by methylated viral integration sites (mVIS). Three of these, i.e., Lrmp, Hcls1 and Prkrir, were up regulated and one, i.e., Ptp4a3, was down regulated in the affected tumor. Next, we investigated the role of PTP4A3 in human AML and we show that PTP4A3 expression is a negative prognostic indicator, independent of other prognostic parameters. In conclusion, our novel strategy has identified PTP4A3 to potentially have a role in AML, on one hand as a candidate HIG contributing to leukemogenesis in mice and on the other hand as a prognostic indicator in human AML.

Beekman, Renee; Valkhof, Marijke; Erkeland, Stefan J.; Taskesen, Erdogan; Rockova, Veronika; Peeters, Justine K.; Valk, Peter J. M.; Lowenberg, Bob; Touw, Ivo P.

2011-01-01

117

Ecosystem greenspots: identifying potential drought, fire, and climate-change micro-refuges.  

PubMed

In response to climate change and other threatening processes there is renewed interest in the role of refugia and refuges. In bioregions that experience drought and fire, micro-refuges can play a vital role in ensuring the persistence of species. We develop and apply an approach to identifying potential micro-refuges based on a time series of remotely sensed vegetation greenness (fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by the sunlit canopy; fPAR). The primary data for this analysis were NASA MODIS 16-day L3 Global 250 m (MOD13Q1) satellite imagery. This method draws upon relevant ecological theory (source sink habitats, habitat templet) to calculate a micro-refuge index, which is analyzed for each of the major vegetation ecosystems in the case-study region (the Great Eastern Ranges of New South Wales, Australia). Potential ecosystem greenspots were identified, at a range of thresholds, based on an index derived from: the mean and coefficient of variance (COV) of fPAR over the 10-year time series; the minimum mean annual fPAR; and the COV of the 12 values of mean monthly fPAR. These greenspots were mapped and compared with (1) an index of vascular plant species composition, (2) environmental variables, and (3) protected areas. Potential micro-refuges were found within all vegetation ecosystem types. The total area of ecosystem greenspots within the upper 25% threshold was 48 406 ha; around 0.2% of the total area of native vegetation (23.9 x 10(6) ha) in the study region. The total area affected by fire was 3.4 x 10(6) ha. The results of the environmental diagnostic analysis suggest deterministic controls on the geographical distribution of potential micro-refuges that may continue to function under climate change. The approach is relevant to other regions of the world where the role of micro-refuges in the persistence of species is recognized, including across the world's arid zones and, in particular, for the Australian, southern African, and South American continents. Micro-refuge networks may play an important role in maintaining beta-diversity at the bio-region scale and contribute to the stability, resilience, and adaptive capacity of ecosystems in the face of ever-growing pressures from human-forced climate change, land use, and other threatening processes. PMID:23092021

Mackey, Brendan; Berry, Sandra; Hugh, Sonia; Ferrier, Simon; Harwood, Thomas D; Williams, Kristen J

2012-09-01

118

Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1: emerging pharmacology and indications for cardiovascular biology.  

PubMed

Transient receptor potential anykrin 1 (TRPA1) is a member of the TRP superfamily, representing the sole member of the TRPA subfamily. It has many identified endogenous and exogenous agonists, comprising largely of chemical irritants and products of oxidative stress. Classically located on sensory neurone endings, TRPA1 has developed a strong presence in pain and inflammatory studies, where it is now becoming an intriguing clinical drug target. TRPA1 is increasingly recognized in a growing number of neuronal and non-neuronal locations with expanding expression and activity profiles providing evidence of a role for TRPA1 in other systems. Interest in discovering the pharmacological and functional roles of TRPA1 is increasing and diversifying into many areas. Historically, compounds now known as TRPA1 agonists have demonstrated cardiovascular activity, modulating activities in both the heart and the vasculature. Now TRPA1 has been identified as the receptor via which these compounds can act, these studies are being revisited and expanded on using current techniques. It is therefore timely to review the current knowledge of TRPA1 receptor presence and activities of relevance to the cardiovascular system, summarizing findings to date and identifying potential areas for future investigation. PMID:20950342

Bodkin, J V; Brain, S D

2011-09-01

119

Positive selection moments identify potential functional residues in human olfactory receptors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Correlated mutation analysis and molecular models of olfactory receptors have provided evidence that residues in the transmembrane domains form a binding pocket for odor ligands. As an independent test of these results, we have calculated positive selection moments for the alpha-helical sixth transmembrane domain (TM6) of human olfactory receptors. The moments can be used to identify residues that have been preferentially affected by positive selection and are thus likely to interact with odor ligands. The results suggest that residue 622, which is commonly a serine or threonine, could form critical H-bonds. In some receptors a dual-serine subsite, formed by residues 622 and 625, could bind hydroxyl determinants on odor ligands. The potential importance of these residues is further supported by site-directed mutagenesis in the beta-adrenergic receptor. The findings should be of practical value for future physiological studies, binding assays, and site-directed mutagenesis.

Singer, M. S.; Weisinger-Lewin, Y.; Lancet, D.; Shepherd, G. M.

1996-01-01

120

The Potential of Metatranscriptomics for Identifying Screening Targets for Bacterial Vaginosis  

PubMed Central

Background The ribosomal RNA content of a sample collected from a woman with bacterial vaginosis (BV) was analysed to determine the active microbial community, and to identify potential targets for further screening. Methodology/Principal Findings The sample from the BV patient underwent total RNA extraction, followed by physical subtraction of human rRNA and whole transcriptome amplification. The metatranscriptome was sequenced using Roche 454 titanium chemistry. The bioinformatics pipeline MG-RAST and desktop DNA analysis platforms were utilised to analyse results. Bacteria of the genus Prevotella (predominately P. amnii) constituted 36% of the 16S rRNA reads, followed by Megasphaera (19%), Leptotrichia/Sneathia (8%) and Fusobacterium (8%). Comparison of the abundances of several bacteria to quantitative PCR (qPCR) screening of extracted DNA revealed comparable relative abundances. This suggests a correlation between what was present and transcriptionally active in this sample: however distinct differences were seen when compared to the microbiome determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. To assess the presence of P. amnii in a larger pool of samples, 90 sexually active women were screened using qPCR. This bacterium was found to be strongly associated with BV (P<0.001, OR 23.3 (95%CI:2.9–190.7)) among the 90 women. Conclusions/Significance This study highlighted the potential of metatranscriptomics as a tool for characterising metabolically active microbiota and identifying targets for further screening. Prevotella amnii was chosen as an example target, being the most metabolically active species present in the single patient with BV, and was found to be detected at a high concentration by qPCR in 31% of cohort with BV, with an association with both oral and penile-vaginal sex.

Twin, Jimmy; Bradshaw, Catriona S.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Fethers, Katherine; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.

2013-01-01

121

Identifying At-Risk Employees: Modeling Psychosocial Precursors of Potential Insider Threats  

SciTech Connect

In many insider crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they can be assessed. A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employee's behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. To test the model's agreement with human resources and management professionals, we conducted an experiment with positive results. If implemented in an operational setting, the model would be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment to identify employees who pose a greater insider threat.

Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Dalton, Angela C.; Hohimer, Ryan E.

2012-01-04

122

Bacterial targets as potential indicators of diesel fuel toxicity in subantarctic soils.  

PubMed

Appropriate remediation targets or universal guidelines for polar regions do not currently exist, and a comprehensive understanding of the effects of diesel fuel on the natural microbial populations in polar and subpolar soils is lacking. Our aim was to investigate the response of the bacterial community to diesel fuel and to evaluate if these responses have the potential to be used as indicators of soil toxicity thresholds. We set up short- and long-exposure tests across a soil organic carbon gradient. Utilizing broad and targeted community indices, as well as functional genes involved in the nitrogen cycle, we investigated the bacterial community structure and its potential functioning in response to special Antarctic blend (SAB) diesel fuel. We found the primary effect of diesel fuel toxicity was a reduction in species richness, evenness, and phylogenetic diversity, with the resulting community heavily dominated by a few species, principally Pseudomonas. The decline in richness and phylogenetic diversity was linked to disruption of the nitrogen cycle, with species and functional genes involved in nitrification significantly reduced. Of the 11 targets we evaluated, we found the bacterial amoA gene indicative of potential ammonium oxidation, the most suitable indicator of toxicity. Dose-response modeling for this target generated an average effective concentration responsible for 20% change (EC20) of 155 mg kg(-1), which is consistent with previous Macquarie Island ecotoxicology assays. Unlike traditional single-species tolerance testing, bacterial targets allowed us to simultaneously evaluate more than 1,700 species from 39 phyla, inclusive of rare, sensitive, and functionally relevant portions of the community. PMID:24771028

van Dorst, Josie; Siciliano, Steven D; Winsley, Tristrom; Snape, Ian; Ferrari, Belinda C

2014-07-01

123

A filtering strategy identifies FOXQ1 as a potential effector of lamin A dysfunction.  

PubMed

Small increases in the expression of wild-type prelamin A are sufficient to recapitulate the reduced cell proliferation and altered nuclear membrane morphology observed in cells expressing progerin, the mutant lamin A associated with progeria. We hypothesized that the manifestation of these phenotypes in cells expressing elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A or progerin is caused by the same molecular effectors, which play a central role in the onset of the progeroid phenotype. To experimentally test this hypothesis, we compared the transcriptomes of isogenic diploid fibroblasts expressing progerin or elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A with that of wild-type fibroblasts. We subsequently used the reversion towards normal of two phenotypes, reduced cell growth and dismorphic nuclei, by treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI) or overexpression of ZMPSTE24, as a filtering strategy to identify genes linked to the onset of these two phenotypes. Through this analysis we identified the gene encoding for the transcription factor FOXQ1, as a gene whose expression is induced in both cells expressing progerin and elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A, and subsequently reduced in both cell types upon conditions that ameliorate the phenotypes. We overexpressed FOXQ1 in normal fibroblasts and demonstrated that increased levels of this factor lead to the development of both features that were used in the filtering strategy. These findings suggest a potential link between this transcription factor and cell dysfunction induced by altered prelamin A metabolism. PMID:22948034

Candelario, Jose; Chen, Leng-Ying; Marjoram, Paul; Reddy, Sita; Comai, Lucio

2012-08-01

124

A filtering strategy identifies FOXQ1 as a potential effector of lamin A dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Small increases in the expression of wild-type prelamin A are sufficient to recapitulate the reduced cell proliferation and altered nuclear membrane morphology observed in cells expressing progerin, the mutant lamin A associated with progeria. We hypothesized that the manifestation of these phenotypes in cells expressing elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A or progerin is caused by the same molecular effectors, which play a central role in the onset of the progeroid phenotype. To experimentally test this hypothesis, we compared the transcriptomes of isogenic diploid fibroblasts expressing progerin or elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A with that of wild-type fibroblasts. We subsequently used the reversion towards normal of two phenotypes, reduced cell growth and dismorphic nuclei, by treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI) or overexpression of ZMPSTE24, as a filtering strategy to identify genes linked to the onset of these two phenotypes. Through this analysis we identified the gene encoding for the transcription factor FOXQ1, as a gene whose expression is induced in both cells expressing progerin and elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A, and subsequently reduced in both cell types upon conditions that ameliorate the phenotypes. We overexpressed FOXQ1 in normal fibroblasts and demonstrated that increased levels of this factor lead to the development of both features that were used in the filtering strategy. These findings suggest a potential link between this transcription factor and cell dysfunction induced by altered prelamin A metabolism.

Candelario, Jose; Chen, Leng-Ying; Marjoram, Paul; Reddy, Sita; Comai, Lucio

2012-01-01

125

Subtype distribution of Blastocystis isolates identified in a Sydney population and pathogenic potential of Blastocystis.  

PubMed

Blastocystis is one of the most common enteric parasites present in humans. There is still much uncertainty about the pathogenic potential of this parasite, and it was suggested that its pathogenicity could be subtype-related. This report aimed to study 98 Blastocystis isolates found in human stool specimens to identify the subtypes present and carry out phylogenetic analysis on these isolates. This study also aimed to show the relationship between subtype and symptoms. Five-hundred and thirteen stool samples were submitted to five different diagnostic techniques for the detection of Blastocystis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive samples were then sequenced and the small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences were aligned and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. Ninety-eight samples were positive by any of the diagnostic methods for Blastocystis and 96 were positive by PCR. There were seven different subtypes (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8) identified by PCR and sequencing. This is the first large-scale study to examine the occurrence of Blastocystis in Australia. This study reports the high incidence of subtype 3 (44 %) in this population and discusses the emerging idea of subtype-dependent pathogenicity. PMID:22996007

Roberts, T; Stark, D; Harkness, J; Ellis, J

2013-03-01

126

Identifying potential misfit items in cognitive process of learning engineering mathematics based on Rasch model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The students learning outcomes clarify what students should know and be able to demonstrate after completing their course. So, one of the issues on the process of teaching and learning is how to assess students' learning. This paper describes an application of the dichotomous Rasch measurement model in measuring the cognitive process of engineering students' learning of mathematics. This study provides insights into the perspective of 54 engineering students' cognitive ability in learning Calculus III based on Bloom's Taxonomy on 31 items. The results denote that some of the examination questions are either too difficult or too easy for the majority of the students. This analysis yields FIT statistics which are able to identify if there is data departure from the Rasch theoretical model. The study has identified some potential misfit items based on the measurement of ZSTD where the removal misfit item was accomplished based on the MNSQ outfit of above 1.3 or less than 0.7 logit. Therefore, it is recommended that these items be reviewed or revised to better match the range of students' ability in the respective course.

Ataei, Sh; Mahmud, Z.; Khalid, M. N.

2014-04-01

127

Omen: identifying potential spear-phishing targets before the email is sent.  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a two year project focused on a common social engineering attack method called %22spear phishing%22. In a spear phishing attack, the user receives an email with information specifically focused on the user. This email contains either a malware-laced attachment or a link to download the malware that has been disguised as a useful program. Spear phishing attacks have been one of the most effective avenues for attackers to gain initial entry into a target network. This project focused on a proactive approach to spear phishing. To create an effective, user-specific spear phishing email, the attacker must research the intended recipient. We believe that much of the information used by the attacker is provided by the target organization's own external website. Thus when researching potential targets, the attacker leaves signs of his research in the webserver's logs. We created tools and visualizations to improve cybersecurity analysts' abilities to quickly understand a visitor's visit patterns and interests. Given these suspicious visitors and log-parsing tools, analysts can more quickly identify truly suspicious visitors, search for potential spear-phishing targeted users, and improve security around those users before the spear phishing email is sent.

Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

2013-07-01

128

Structured methods for identifying and correcting potential human errors in space operations.  

PubMed

Human performance plays a significant role in the development and operation of any complex system, and human errors are significant contributors to degraded performance, incidents, and accidents for technologies as diverse as medical systems, commercial aircraft, offshore oil platforms, nuclear power plants, and space systems. To date, serious accidents attributed to human error have fortunately been rare in space operations. However, as flight rates go up and the duration of space missions increases, the accident rate could increase unless proactive action is taken to identity and correct potential human errors in space operations. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has developed and applied structured methods of human error analysis to identify potential human errors, assess their effects on system performance, and develop strategies to prevent the errors or mitigate their consequences. These methods are being applied in NASA-sponsored programs to the domain of commercial aviation, focusing on airplane maintenance and air traffic management. The application of human error analysis to space operations could contribute to minimize the risks associated with human error in the design and operation of future space systems. PMID:11541925

Nelson, W R; Haney, L N; Ostrom, L T; Richards, R E

1998-01-01

129

Identifying the potential loss of monitoring wells using an uncertainty analysis.  

PubMed

From the mid-1940s through the 1980s, large volumes of waste water were discharged at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, causing a large-scale rise (>20 m) in the water table. When waste water discharges ceased in 1988, ground water mounds began to dissipate. This caused a large number of wells to go dry and has made it difficult to monitor contaminant plume migration. To identify monitoring wells that will need replacement, a methodology has been developed using a first-order uncertainty analysis with UCODE, a nonlinear parameter estimation code. Using a three-dimensional, finite-element ground water flow code, key parameters were identified by calibrating to historical hydraulic head data. Results from the calibration period were then used to check model predictions by comparing monitoring wells' wet/dry status with field data. This status was analyzed using a methodology that incorporated the 0.3 cumulative probability derived from the confidence and prediction intervals. For comparison, a nonphysically based trend model was also used as a predictor of wells' wet/dry status. Although the numerical model outperformed the trend model, for both models, the central value of the intervals was a better predictor of a wet well status. The prediction interval, however, was more successful at identifying dry wells. Predictions made through the year 2048 indicated that 46% of the wells in the monitoring well network are likely to go dry in areas near the river and where the ground water mound is dissipating. PMID:16324012

Freedman, Vicky L; Waichler, Scott R; Cole, Charles R; Vermeul, Vince R; Bergeron, Marcel P

2005-01-01

130

Predicting Fish Growth Potential and Identifying Water Quality Constraints: A Spatially-Explicit Bioenergetics Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic impairment of water bodies represents a global environmental concern, yet few attempts have successfully linked fish performance to thermal habitat suitability and fewer have distinguished co-varying water quality constraints. We interfaced fish bioenergetics, field measurements, and Thermal Remote Imaging to generate a spatially-explicit, high-resolution surface of fish growth potential, and next employed a structured hypothesis to detect relationships among measures of fish performance and co-varying water quality constraints. Our thermal surface of fish performance captured the amount and spatial-temporal arrangement of thermally-suitable habitat for three focal species in an extremely heterogeneous reservoir, but interpretation of this pattern was initially confounded by seasonal covariation of water residence time and water quality. Subsequent path analysis revealed that in terms of seasonal patterns in growth potential, catfish and walleye responded to temperature, positively and negatively, respectively; crappie and walleye responded to eutrophy (negatively). At the high eutrophy levels observed in this system, some desired fishes appear to suffer from excessive cultural eutrophication within the context of elevated temperatures whereas others appear to be largely unaffected or even enhanced. Our overall findings do not lead to the conclusion that this system is degraded by pollution; however, they do highlight the need to use a sensitive focal species in the process of determining allowable nutrient loading and as integrators of habitat suitability across multiple spatial and temporal scales. We provide an integrated approach useful for quantifying fish growth potential and identifying water quality constraints on fish performance at spatial scales appropriate for whole-system management.

Budy, Phaedra; Baker, Matthew; Dahle, Samuel K.

2011-10-01

131

Photoacoustic imaging: a potential tool to detect early indicators of metastasis  

PubMed Central

The metastasis of cancer is a multistage process involving complex biological interactions and difficult to predict outcomes. Accurate assessment of the extent of metastasis is critical for clinical practice; unfortunately, medical imaging methods capable of identifying the early stages of invasion and metastasis are lacking. Photoacoustic imaging is capable of providing noninvasive, real-time imaging of significant anatomical and physiological changes. indicating the progression of cancer invasion and metastasis. Preclinically, photoacoustic methods have been used to image lymphatic anatomy, including the sentinel lymph nodes, to identify circulating tumor cells within vasculature and to detect micrometastases. Progress has begun toward the development of clinically applicable photoacoustic imaging systems to assist with the determination of cancer stage and likelihood of metastatic invasion.

Bayer, Carolyn L; Joshi, Pratixa P; Emelianov, Stanislav Y

2013-01-01

132

ITIH4: A New Potential Biomarker of "Toxin Syndrome" in Coronary Heart Disease Patient Identified with Proteomic Method  

PubMed Central

Objective. This trial aims to look for the protein biomarker of “toxin syndrome” of CHD patients. Methods. We have performed two trials in this paper. The first trial was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the plasma proteome in unstable angina (UA) patients by Maldi-Tof Mass. The second trial was a nested case-control study in 1503 stable CHD patients with one-year followup for acute cardiovascular events (ACEs). Results. In the RCT study, 12 protein spots were found to be the differential protein for the significant differences between the difference of before and after treatment in group A and group B; 2 of them (3207.37?Da and 4279.95?Da) was considered to be unique to “toxin syndrome” for being differential proteins of group B but not group A. These 2 spots were identified as Isoform 1 of Fibrinogen alpha chain precursor (FGA, 3207.37?Da) and Isoform 2 of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4, 4279.95?Da), respectively. In the nested case-control study, the result of Western blot demonstrated that protein expression of ITIH4 in the group with followup ACEs was significantly lower than the matched group without followup ACEs (P = 0.027). Conclusion. ITIH4 might be a new potential biomarker of CHD “toxin syndrome” in TCM, indicating the potential role in early identifying high-risk CHD patients in stable period.

Xu, Hao; Shang, Qinghua; Chen, Hao; Du, Jianpeng; Wen, Jianyan; Li, Geng; Shi, Dazhuo; Chen, Keji

2013-01-01

133

A new procedure to identify linear and quadratic regression models based on signal-to-noise-ratio indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new regression procedure is developed for identification of linear and quadratic models. The new procedure uses indicators based on the signal-to-noise ratio, as well as more traditional indicators, to validate the models. Various traditional stages in the modeling process, like stepwise regression, outlier detection and removal and variable transformations, are pursued, however the interdependence between these stages is accounted

Mordechai Shacham; Neima Brauner; Haim Shore

2007-01-01

134

Measuring Quality in Higher Education: Can a Performance Indicator Approach Be Extended to Identifying the Quality of Students' Union Provision?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The desire to enhance the quality of the services provided by higher education institutions in the UK has led to the development of a series of benchmarking performance indicators to aid the quality management process. This paper examines whether or not similar indicators could be developed for use as tools in the management of quality within…

Rodgers, Timothy

2008-01-01

135

Ionic profile of honey as a potential indicator of botanical origin and global environmental pollution.  

PubMed

Aim of this study was to determine by Ion Chromatography ions (Na(+), Ca(++), Mg(++), NH4(+), Cl(-), Br(-), SO4(2-), NO3(-), PO4(3-)) in honeys (honeydew and floral nectar honeys) from different Italian Regions and from countries of the Western Balkan area. The compositional data were processed by multivariate analysis (PCA and HCA). Arboreal honeydew honeys from the Western Balkans had higher concentrations (from two to three times) of some environmental pollutants (Br(-), SO4(2-) and PO4(3-) contents), due to industrial and agricultural activities, than those from Italian regions. The cationic profiles were very similar in both groups. Multivariate analysis indicated a clear difference between nectar honeys and arboreal/honeydew honeys (recognition of the botanical origin). These findings point to the potential of ionic constituents of honey as indicators of environmental pollution, botanical origin and authenticity. PMID:23583673

Fermo, Paola; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Maffei Facino, Roberto; Gelmini, Fabrizio; Piazzalunga, Andrea

2013-07-01

136

Auditory-evoked potentials as indicator of brain serotonergic activity--first evidence in behaving cats.  

PubMed

Due to the increasing importance of the central serotonergic neurotransmission for pathogenetic concepts and as a target of pharmacotherapeutic interventions in psychiatry, reliable indicators of this system are needed. Several findings from basic and clinical research suggest that the stimulus intensity dependence of auditory evoked potentials (AEP) may be such an indicator of behaviorally relevant aspects of serotonergic activity (Hegerl and Juckel 1993, Biol Psychiatry 33:173-187). In order to study this relationship more directly, epidural recordings over the primary and secondary auditory cortex were conducted in chronically implanted cats under intravenous (i.v.) administration of drugs influencing the serotonergic and other modulatory systems (8-OH-DPAT, m-CPP, ketanserin, DOI, apomorphine, atropine, clonidine). The intensity dependence of the cat AEP component with the highest functional similarity to this of the N1/P2-component in humans was significantly changed by influencing 5-HT1a and 5-HT2 receptors, but not 5-HT1c receptors. This serotonergic modulation of the intensity dependence was only found for the primary auditory cortex which corresponds to the known different innervation of the primary and secondary auditory cortex by serotonergic fibers. Our study supports the idea that the intensity dependence of AEP could be a valuable indicator of brain serotonergic activity; however, this indicator seems to be of relative specificity because at least cholinergic effects on the intensity dependence were also observed. PMID:9171909

Juckel, G; Molnár, M; Hegerl, U; Csépe, V; Karmos, G

1997-06-15

137

Identifying Individual Changes in Performance with Composite Quality Indicators while Accounting for Regression-to-the-Mean  

PubMed Central

Almost a decade ago Morton & Torgerson (p. 1084) indicated that perceived medical benefits could be due to “…regression-to-the-mean.” Despite this caution, the regression-to-the-mean “…effects on the identification of changes in institutional performance do not seem to have been considered previously in any depth.” (Jones & Spiegelhalter, p. 1646). As a response, Jones & Spiegelhalter provide a methodology to adjust for regression-to-the-mean when modeling recent changes in institutional performance for one variable quality indicators (QIs). Therefore, in our view, Jones & Spiegelhalter provide a breakthrough methodology for performance measures. At the same time, in the interests of parsimony, it is useful to aggregate individual QIs into a composite score. Our question is: Can we develop and demonstrate a methodology that extends the ‘regression-to-the-mean’ literature to allow for composite quality indicators? Using a latent variable modeling approach, we extend the methodology to the composite indicator case. We demonstrate the approach on four indicators collected by the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators® (NDNQI®). A simulation study further demonstrates its “proof of concept.”

Gajewski, Byron J.; Dunton, Nancy

2012-01-01

138

Systemic Approach to Identify Serum microRNAs as Potential Biomarkers for Acute Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Background. Recent studies have revealed the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in a variety of biological and pathological processes, including acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We hypothesized that ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) may be associated with an alteration of miRNAs and that circulating miRNAs may be used as diagnostic markers for STEMI. Methods. Expression levels of 270 serum miRNAs were analyzed in 8 STEMI patients and 8 matched healthy controls to identify miRNAs differentially expressed in the sera of patients with AMI. The differentially expressed miRNAs were evaluated in a separate cohort of 62 subjects, including 31 STEMI patients and 31 normal controls. Results. The initial profiling study identified 12 upregulated and 13 downregulated serum miRNAs in the AMI samples. A subsequent validation study confirmed that serum miR-486-3p and miR-150-3p were upregulated while miR-126-3p, miR-26a-5p, and miR-191-5p were significantly downregulated in the sera of patients with AMI. Ratios between the level of upregulated and downregulated miRNAs were also significantly different in those with AMI. Receiver operator characteristics curve analysis using the expression ratio of miR-486-3p and miR-191-5p showed an area under the curve of 0.863. Conclusion. Our results suggest that serum miRNAs may be used as potential diagnostic biomarkers for STEMI.

Chen, Shu-Jen; Chang, Yu-Sun; Chu, Pao-Hsien

2014-01-01

139

A proton current drives action potentials in genetically identified sour taste cells  

PubMed Central

Five tastes have been identified, each of which is transduced by a separate set of taste cells. Of these sour, which is associated with acid stimuli, is the least understood. Genetic ablation experiments have established that sour is detected by a subset of taste cells that express the TRP channel PKD2L1 and its partner PKD1L3, however the mechanisms by which this subset of cells detects acids remain unclear. Previous efforts to understand sour taste transduction have been hindered because sour responsive cells represent only a small fraction of cells in a taste bud, and numerous ion channels with no role in sour sensing are sensitive to acidic pH. To identify acid-sensitive conductances unique to sour cells, we created genetically modified mice in which sour cells were marked by expression of YFP under the control of the PKD2L1 promoter. To measure responses to sour stimuli we developed a method in which suction electrode recording is combined with UV photolysis of NPE-caged proton. Using these methods, we report that responses to sour stimuli are not mediated by Na+ permeable channels as previously thought, but instead are mediated by a proton conductance specific to PKD2L1-expressing taste cells. This conductance is sufficient to drive action potential firing in response to acid stimuli, is enriched in the apical membrane of PKD2L1-expressing taste cells and is not affected by targeted deletion of the PKD1L3 gene. We conclude that, during sour transduction, protons enter through an apical proton conductance to directly depolarize the taste cell membrane.

Chang, Rui B.; Waters, Hang; Liman, Emily R.

2010-01-01

140

The potential of trace fossils as tidal indicators in bays and estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ichnological datasets have been used to infer the presence of tidal processes primarily through the identification of trace-fossil assemblages characteristic of brackish-water settings. However, this limited means of (ichnologically) identifying tidal settings is unsatisfying and the establishment of ichnological-tidal relationships for the purpose of discerning tidal depositional processes is desirable. We suggest that several types of ichnological data can be used to identify tidal influence: (1) ichnological response to rhythmic sedimentation; (2) the presence of tubular tidalites (i.e. biogenic structures infilled by tidally derived sediments); (3) the identification of anisotropic resource exploitation associated with food-rich slack-tide laminations; (4) the identification of tidal-flat deposits through bioturbation intensity and ichnological composition; (5) the recognition of brackish-water trace fossils; and potentially (6) system-scale ichnological distributions (which are presently poorly understood). As with tidal sedimentary structures, the inference of tidal processes from biogenic sedimentary structures should depend on identifying as many of the above characteristics as possible.

Gingras, Murray K.; MacEachern, James A.; Dashtgard, Shahin E.

2012-11-01

141

Tumor antigen precursor protein profiles of adult and pediatric brain tumors identify potential targets for immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Objectives We evaluated and compared tumor antigen precursor protein (TAPP) profiles in adult and pediatric brain tumors of 31 genes related to tumor associated antigens (TAA) for possible use in immunotherapy. Antigens were selected based on their potential to stimulate T cell responses against tumors of neuroectodermal origin. Methods Thirty-seven brain tumor specimens from 11 adult and 26 pediatric patients were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR for the relative expression of 31 TAPP mRNAs. The age range of adults (4F:7M) was 27–77 years (median 51.5 ± 14.5 years) and for pediatrics (12F:14M) was 0.9–19 years (median 8.3 ± 5.5 years). Histological diagnoses consisted of 16 glioblastomas, 4 low grade astrocytomas, 10 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas, and 7 ependymomas. Results The adult gliomas expressed 94% (29 of 31) of the TAPP mRNAs evaluated compared with pediatric brain tumors that expressed 55–74% of the TAPP mRNAs, dependent on tumor histological subtype. Four types of TAPP expression patterns were observed: (1) equal expression among adult and pediatric cases, (2) greater expression in adult than pediatric cases, (3) expression restricted to adult GBM and (4) a random distribution. The pediatric brain tumors lacked expression of some genes associated with engendering tumor survival, such as hTert and Survivin. Conclusions The potential TAA targets identified from the TAPP profiles of 31 genes associated with adult and pediatric brain tumors may help investigators select specific target antigens for developing dendritic cell- or peptide-based vaccines or T cell-based immunotherapeutic approaches against brain tumors.

Zhang, Jian Gang; Kruse, Carol A.; Driggers, Lara; Hoa, Neil; Wisoff, Jeffrey; Allen, Jeffrey C.; Zagzag, David; Newcomb, Elizabeth W.

2014-01-01

142

What data should we collect? A framework for identifying indicators of ecosystem contributions to human well being  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological data enable a range of policy relevant analyses; the right ecological data enable ecosystem analyses to be linked to human well being making them more relevant and useful. The challenge we address is how to identify the right data. Our approach, founded on the ?final e...

143

Two new neurophysiological indices of cocaine craving: evoked brain potentials and cue modulated startle reflex.  

PubMed

Craving for cocaine is one of the hallmarks of cocaine dependence. One of the problems with craving is its measurement. Traditional psychophysiological indices such as skin conductance and heart rate have yielded contradictory results. These measures of craving were found to correlate only moderately with self-reported craving. In the present study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and the cue modulated startle response (CMSR) are evaluated as indices for cocaine craving. Twenty-one abstinent cocaine-dependent subjects were divided into high and low cravers group based on the median split of self-reported craving scores. ERPs and CMSR were measured when subjects watched neutral, pleasant, unpleasant and cocaine-related pictures. Overall, it was found that cocaine-dependent subjects showed augmented slow-positive waves (SPWs) of the ERP on the cocaine pictures compared to neutral pictures. Only high cravers showed larger SPWs on the cocaine cues, suggesting an association between cue-elicited SPWs and self-reported cocaine craving. By contrast to the ERP measures, CMSR did not differentiate between cocaine pictures and neutral pictures. In addition, no differences between the low- and high cravers on the CMSR measure were found. The present results show that the evoked-potentials paradigm provides promising results to index cue-elicited craving. The use of startle modulation deserves further investigation. PMID:15582921

Franken, Ingmar H A; Hulstijn, Kai P; Stam, Cornelis J; Hendriks, Vincent M; van den Brink, Wim

2004-12-01

144

Potential serodiagnostic markers for Q fever identified in Coxiella burnetii by immunoproteomic and protein microarray approaches  

PubMed Central

Background Coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of Q fever. The clinical diagnosis of Q fever is mainly based on several serological tests. These tests all need Coxiella organisms which are difficult and hazardous to culture and purify. Results An immunoproteomic study of C. burnetii Xinqiao strain isolated in China was conducted with the sera from experimentally infected BALB/c mice and Q fever patients. Twenty of whole proteins of Xinqiao recognized by the infection sera were identified by mass spectrometry. Nineteen of the 20 proteins were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and used to fabricate a microarray which was probed with Q fever patient sera. As a result, GroEL, YbgF, RplL, Mip, OmpH, Com1, and Dnak were recognized as major seroreactive antigens. The major seroreactive proteins were fabricated in a small microarray and further analyzed with the sera of patients with rickettsial spotted fever, Legionella pneumonia or streptococcal pneumonia. In this analysis, these proteins showed fewer cross-reactions with the tested sera. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that these 7 Coxiella proteins gave a modest sensitivity and specificity for recognizing of Q fever patient sera, suggesting that they are potential serodiagnostic markers for Q fever.

2012-01-01

145

Correlation Analysis between SNP and Expression Arrays in Gliomas Identify Potentially Relevant Targets Genes1  

PubMed Central

Primary brain tumors are a major cause of cancer mortality in the United States. Therapy for gliomas, the most common type of primary brain tumors, remains suboptimal. The development of improved therapeutics will require greater knowledge of the biology of gliomas at both the genomic and transcriptional levels. We have previously reported whole genome profiling of chromosome copy number alterations (CNA) in gliomas, and now present our findings on how those changes may affect transcription of genes that may be involved in tumor induction and progression. By calculating correlation values of mRNA expression vs. DNA copy number average in a moving window around a given RNA probeset, biologically relevant information can be gained that is obscured by the analysis of a single data type. Correlation coefficients ranged from ?0.6 to 0.7; highly significant when compared to previously studies. Most correlated genes are located on chromosomes 1, 7, 9, 10, 13, 14, 19, 20 and 22, chromosomes known to have genomic alterations in gliomas. Additionally, we were able to identify CNAs whose gene expression correlation suggests possible epigenetic regulation. This analysis revealed a number of interesting candidates such as CXCL12, PTER, LRRN6C, among others. The results have been verified using real-time PCR and methylation sequencing assays. These data will further help differentiate genes involved in the induction and/or maintenance of the tumorigenic process from those that are mere passenger mutations, thereby enriching for a population of potentially new therapeutic molecular targets.

Kotliarov, Yuri; Kotliarova, Svetlana; Charong, Nurdina; Li, Aiguo; Walling, Jennifer; Aquilanti, Elisa; Ahn, Susie; Steed, Mary Ellen; Su, Qin; Center, Angela; Zenklusen, Jean C; Fine, Howard A.

2008-01-01

146

Potential High-Temperature Shape-Memory Alloys Identified in the Ti(Ni,Pt) System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Shape memory" is a unique property of certain alloys that, when deformed (within certain strain limits) at low temperatures, will remember and recover to their original predeformed shape upon heating. It occurs when an alloy is deformed in the low-temperature martensitic phase and is then heated above its transformation temperature back to an austenitic state. As the material passes through this solid-state phase transformation on heating, it also recovers its original shape. This behavior is widely exploited, near room temperature, in commercially available NiTi alloys for connectors, couplings, valves, actuators, stents, and other medical and dental devices. In addition, there are limitless applications in the aerospace, automotive, chemical processing, and many other industries for materials that exhibit this type of shape-memory behavior at higher temperatures. But for high temperatures, there are currently no commercial shape-memory alloys. Although there are significant challenges to the development of high-temperature shape-memory alloys, at the NASA Glenn Research Center we have identified a series of alloy compositions in the Ti-Ni-Pt system that show great promise as potential high-temperature shape-memory materials.

Noebe, Ronald D.; Biles, Tiffany A.; Garg, Anita; Nathal, Michael V.

2004-01-01

147

CD133: a potential indicator for differentiation and prognosis of human cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background CD133 is known to be a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker. However, recent studies have revealed that CD133 is not restricted to CSC but to be expressed not only in human normal tissues but also in some cancers and could serve as a prognostic factor for the patients. Nevertheless, the expression of CD133 in human cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is rare and our study is to detect the expression and explore the potential functions of CD133 in human CC. Methods Fifty-nine cases, comprised of 5 normal liver tissues and 54 consecutive CC specimens (21 well-differentiated, 12 moderately-differentiated and 21 poorly-differentiated), were included in the study. Immunohistochemical stainning with CD133 protein was carried out, and statistical analyses were performed. Results CD133 was found to express in all 5 normal livers and 40 out of 54 (74%) CC tissues with different subcellular localization. In the well, moderately and poorly differentiated cases, the numbers of CD133 positive cases were 19 (19 of 21, 90%), 10 (10 of 12, 83%) and 11 (11 of 21, 52%) respectively. Further statistical analyses indicated that the expression and different subcellular localization of CD133 were significantly correlated with the differentiation status of tumors (P = 0.004, P = 0.009). Among 23 patients followed up for survival, the median survival was 4 months for fourteen CD133 negative patients but 14 months for nine CD133 positive ones. In univariate survival analysis, CD133 negative expression correlated with poor prognosis while CD133 positive expression predicted a favorable outcome of CC patients (P = 0.001). Conclusions Our study demonstrates that CD133 expression correlates with the differentiation of CC and indicates that CD133 is a potential indicator for differentiation and prognosis of human CC.

2011-01-01

148

Initial experience in single-incision transumbilical laparoscopic liver resection: indications, potential benefits, and limitations.  

PubMed

Background. Single-incision transumbilical laparoscopic liver resection (SITLLR) has been recently described in limited series. We report our experience in SITLLR and discuss the future of this approach in terms of indications, potential benefits, and limitations, with a special reference to laparoscopic liver resection (LLR). Patients and Methods. Six patients underwent SITLLR. Indications were biliary cysts (3 cases), hydatid cysts (2), and colorectal liver metastasis (1). Procedures consisted in cysts unroofing, left lateral lobectomy, pericystectomy, and wedge resection. SITLLR was performed with 11?mm reusable trocar, 10 or 5?mm 30° scopes, 10?mm ultrasound probe, curved reusable instruments, and straight disposable bipolar shears. Results. Neither conversion to open surgery nor insertion of supplementary trocars was necessary. Median laparoscopic time was 105.5 minutes and median blood loss 275?mL. Median final umbilical scar length was 1.5?cm, and median length of stay was 4 days. No early or late complications occurred. Conclusion. SITLLR remains a challenging procedure. It is feasible in highly selected patients, requiring experience in hepatobiliary and laparoscopic surgery and skills in single-incision laparoscopy. Apart from cosmetic benefit, our experience and literature review did not show significant advantages if compared with multiport LLR, underlying that specific indications remain to be established. PMID:23082044

Dapri, Giovanni; Dimarco, Livia; Cadière, Guy-Bernard; Donckier, Vincent

2012-01-01

149

Joint spatial modeling to identify shared patterns among chronic related potentially preventable hospitalizations  

PubMed Central

Background Rates of Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations (PPH) are used to evaluate access of territorially delimited populations to high quality ambulatory care. A common geographic pattern of several PPH would reflect the performance of healthcare providers. This study is aimed at modeling jointly the geographical variation in six chronic PPH conditions in one Spanish Autonomous Community for describing common and discrepant patterns, and to assess the relative weight of the common pattern on each condition. Methods Data on the 39,970 PPH hospital admissions for diabetes short term complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure, dehydration, angina admission and adult asthma, between 2007 and 2009 were extracted from the Hospital Discharge Administrative Databases and assigned to one of the 240 Basic Health Zones. Rates and Standardized Hospitalization Ratios per geographic unit were estimated. The spatial analysis was carried out jointly for PPH conditions using Shared Component Models (SCM). Results The component shared by the six PPH conditions explained about the 36% of the variability of each PPH condition, ranging from the 25.9 for dehydration to 58.7 for COPD. The geographical pattern found in the latent common component identifies territorial clusters with particularly high risk. The specific risk pattern that each isolated PPH does not share with the common pattern for all six conditions show many non-significant areas for most PPH, but with some exceptions. Conclusions The geographical distribution of the risk of the PPH conditions is captured in a 36% by a unique latent pattern. The SCM modeling may be useful to evaluate healthcare system performance.

2014-01-01

150

Using in Vitro High Throughput Screening Assays to Identify Potential Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals  

PubMed Central

Background: Over the past 20 years, an increased focus on detecting environmental chemicals that pose a risk of adverse effects due to endocrine disruption has driven the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). Thousands of chemicals are subject to the EDSP; thus, processing these chemicals using current test batteries could require millions of dollars and decades. A need for increased throughput and efficiency motivated the development of methods using in vitro high throughput screening (HTS) assays to prioritize chemicals for EDSP Tier 1 screening (T1S). Objective: In this study we used U.S. EPA ToxCast HTS assays for estrogen, androgen, steroidogenic, and thyroid-disrupting mechanisms to classify compounds and compare ToxCast results to in vitro and in vivo data from EDSP T1S assays. Method: We implemented an iterative model that optimized the ability of endocrine-related HTS assays to predict components of EDSP T1S and related results. Balanced accuracy was used as a measure of model performance. Results: ToxCast estrogen receptor and androgen receptor assays predicted the results of relevant EDSP T1S assays with balanced accuracies of 0.91 (p < 0.001) and 0.92 (p < 0.001), respectively. Uterotrophic and Hershberger assay results were predicted with balanced accuracies of 0.89 (p < 0.001) and 1 (p < 0.001), respectively. Models for steroidogenic and thyroid-related effects could not be developed with the currently published ToxCast data. Conclusions: Overall, results suggest that current ToxCast assays can accurately identify chemicals with potential to interact with the estrogenic and androgenic pathways, and could help prioritize chemicals for EDSP T1S assays.

Rotroff, Daniel M.; Dix, David J.; Houck, Keith A.; Knudsen, Thomas B.; Martin, Matthew T.; McLaurin, Keith W.; Reif, David M.; Crofton, Kevin M.; Singh, Amar V.; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili

2012-01-01

151

Potential value of rapid prostate-specific antigen decline in identifying primary resistance to abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide.  

PubMed

Aim: To identify factors predicting primary resistance to new-generation hormonal agents (NHAs), abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Patients & methods: Our hospital has conducted two successive named patient NHA programs. A total of 57 patients with progressive CRPC previously treated with first-line docetaxel-based chemotherapy received standard NHA doses: abiraterone acetate 1000 mg once-daily combined with prednisone (5 mg twice daily) or enzalutamide 160 mg once-daily. Patients, who were assessed monthly to check their hematological parameters and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, also underwent imaging investigations every 3-4 months. In total, 24 variables were assessed as potential predictors of primary NHA resistance. Results: Univariate analysis indicated that baseline pain and lactate dehydrogenase levels, and PSA levels after 1 month's treatment were predictive of primary NHA resistance. Only the predictive value of PSA levels after 1 month of treatment was confirmed at multivariate analysis. This factor strongly predicted progression-free and overall survival. Conclusion: Results suggest the use of a simple and rapid method of identifying patients with primary resistance to NHAs: patients not achieving a ?50% reduction in PSA levels within the first treatment month should undergo intensive investigations to verify whether they have primary resistance to NHAs. PMID:24941984

Caffo, Orazio; Veccia, Antonello; Maines, Francesca; Bonetta, Alberto; Spizzo, Gilbert; Galligioni, Enzo

2014-05-01

152

Identifying chemicals with potential therapy of HIV based on protein-protein and protein-chemical interaction network.  

PubMed

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a severe infectious disease that causes a large number of deaths every year. Traditional anti-AIDS drugs directly targeting the HIV-1 encoded enzymes including reverse transcriptase (RT), protease (PR) and integrase (IN) usually suffer from drug resistance after a period of treatment and serious side effects. In recent years, the emergence of numerous useful information of protein-protein interactions (PPI) in the HIV life cycle and related inhibitors makes PPI a new way for antiviral drug intervention. In this study, we identified 26 core human proteins involved in PPI between HIV-1 and host, that have great potential for HIV therapy. In addition, 280 chemicals that interact with three HIV drugs targeting human proteins can also interact with these 26 core proteins. All these indicate that our method as presented in this paper is quite promising. The method may become a useful tool, or at least plays a complementary role to the existing method, for identifying novel anti-HIV drugs. PMID:23762317

Li, Bi-Qing; Niu, Bing; Chen, Lei; Wei, Ze-Jun; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Min; Lu, Jing; Zheng, Ming-Yue; Kong, Xiang-Yin; Cai, Yu-Dong

2013-01-01

153

Identifying Chemicals with Potential Therapy of HIV Based on Protein-Protein and Protein-Chemical Interaction Network  

PubMed Central

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a severe infectious disease that causes a large number of deaths every year. Traditional anti-AIDS drugs directly targeting the HIV-1 encoded enzymes including reverse transcriptase (RT), protease (PR) and integrase (IN) usually suffer from drug resistance after a period of treatment and serious side effects. In recent years, the emergence of numerous useful information of protein-protein interactions (PPI) in the HIV life cycle and related inhibitors makes PPI a new way for antiviral drug intervention. In this study, we identified 26 core human proteins involved in PPI between HIV-1 and host, that have great potential for HIV therapy. In addition, 280 chemicals that interact with three HIV drugs targeting human proteins can also interact with these 26 core proteins. All these indicate that our method as presented in this paper is quite promising. The method may become a useful tool, or at least plays a complementary role to the existing method, for identifying novel anti-HIV drugs.

Chen, Lei; Wei, Ze-Jun; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Min; Lu, Jing; Zheng, Ming-Yue; Kong, Xiang-Yin; Cai, Yu-Dong

2013-01-01

154

Tree-ring strontium-90 and cesium-137 as potential indicators of radioactive pollution.  

PubMed

To examine whether tree rings can be used to detect or assess local historical 90Sr or 137Cs fallout, such as that resulting from the Hiroshima atomic bomb, radial distribution of 90Sr and 137Cs in trees was examined. We studied a gymnosperm [Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica (L. f.) D. Don] and an angiosperm (Japanese persimmon, Diospyros kaki Thunb.) tree species from the vicinity of the atomic bomb hypocenter, and from other locations in Japan. A significant amount of 137Cs was detected in tree rings formed before 1945, indicating lateral migration of Cs. In contrast, the specific activity of 90Sr in the Hiroshima Japanese cedar showed the highest level in 1945, due to relatively immobile characteristics of Sr compared with Cs. Strontium-90 and Sr analyses in tree rings helped identify and distinguish between residual 90Sr activity from the Hiroshima atomic bomb and the atmospheric nuclear testing. This indicates the possibility of detecting or assessing previous local 90Sr pollution through with treering analysis. PMID:12469850

Kagawa, Akira; Aoki, Toru; Okada, Naoki; Katayama, Yukio

2002-01-01

155

CRP identifies homeostatic immune oscillations in cancer patients: a potential treatment targeting tool?  

PubMed Central

The search for a suitable biomarker which indicates immune system responses in cancer patients has been long and arduous, but a widely known biomarker has emerged as a potential candidate for this purpose. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is an acute-phase plasma protein that can be used as a marker for activation of the immune system. The short plasma half-life and relatively robust and reliable response to inflammation, make CRP an ideal candidate marker for inflammation. The high- sensitivity test for CRP, termed Low-Reactive Protein (LRP, L-CRP or hs-CRP), measures very low levels of CRP more accurately, and is even more reliable than standard CRP for this purpose. Usually, static sampling of CRP has been used for clinical studies and these can predict disease presence or recurrence, notably for a number of cancers. We have used frequent serial L-CRP measurements across three clinical laboratories in two countries and for different advanced cancers, and have demonstrated similar, repeatable observations of a cyclical variation in CRP levels in these patients. We hypothesise that these L-CRP oscillations are part of a homeostatic immune response to advanced malignancy and have some preliminary data linking the timing of therapy to treatment success. This article reviews CRP, shows some of our data and advances the reasoning for the hypothesis that explains the CRP cycles in terms of homeostatic immune regulatory cycles. This knowledge might also open the way for improved timing of treatment(s) for improved clinical efficacy.

2009-01-01

156

Phenology of Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on cranberry and blueberry indicates potential for gene flow.  

PubMed

Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a pest of cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon (Aiton) (Ericales: Ericaceae), and highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum (L.) (Ericales: Ericaceae), in North America. In British Columbia, Canada, D. oxycoccana was first found on highbush blueberry in 1991 and then on cranberry seven years later. Because many cranberry and highbush blueberry farms are adjacent to one another, we hypothesized that D. oxycoccana was moving from highbush blueberry onto cranberry. Cranberry and highbush blueberry differ in phenology, and adaptation to these different phenologies may result in host races or cryptic species on these two crops. We recognized the alternative hypothesis that D. oxycoccana had arrived as immature stages with cranberry vines imported from another region of North America. During spring and summer, we recorded the phenology of D. oxycoccana and the development of plant shoots from three cranberry and three highbush blueberry farms to determine whether the opportunity exists for successful movement of D. oxycoccana between the two crops. Our results show that D. oxycoccana from cranberry and highbush blueberry overlap in phenology for much of the season, indicating a high potential for movement and gene flow. However, differences were seen in number of larvae per shoot, location of pupae, and heat unit accumulation during larval development suggesting that instead there may be the potential for host race or cryptic species formation. PMID:22928299

Cook, Melissa A; Fitzpatrick, Sheila M; Roitberg, Bernard D

2012-08-01

157

Antioxidant potential of a polyherbal antimalarial as an indicator of its therapeutic value.  

PubMed

Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods and, in vivo, Nefang (100 and 500?mg?kg(-1)) activity was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation by the malondialdehyde and total proteins assays were carried out. P. guajava, M. indica leaf, and bark extracts had the highest antioxidant properties in all three assays, with no statistically significant difference. Rats treated with the carbon tetrachloride had a statistically significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (P < 0.05) and increase in malondialdehyde activity, total protein levels, and liver and renal function markers, whereas rats treated with Nefang showed increased levels in the former and dose-dependent decrease towards normal levels in the later. These results reveal the constituent plants of Nefang that contribute to its in vivo antioxidant potential. This activity is a good indication of the therapeutic potential of Nefang. PMID:24454347

Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Nwachiban Atchan, Achille Parfait; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Okalebo, Faith Apoelot; Guantai, Anastasia Nkatha; Agbor, Gabriel Agbor

2013-01-01

158

Antioxidant Potential of a Polyherbal Antimalarial as an Indicator of Its Therapeutic Value  

PubMed Central

Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods and, in vivo, Nefang (100 and 500?mg?kg?1) activity was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation by the malondialdehyde and total proteins assays were carried out. P. guajava, M. indica leaf, and bark extracts had the highest antioxidant properties in all three assays, with no statistically significant difference. Rats treated with the carbon tetrachloride had a statistically significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (P < 0.05) and increase in malondialdehyde activity, total protein levels, and liver and renal function markers, whereas rats treated with Nefang showed increased levels in the former and dose-dependent decrease towards normal levels in the later. These results reveal the constituent plants of Nefang that contribute to its in vivo antioxidant potential. This activity is a good indication of the therapeutic potential of Nefang.

Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Nwachiban Atchan, Achille Parfait; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Okalebo, Faith Apoelot; Guantai, Anastasia Nkatha; Agbor, Gabriel Agbor

2013-01-01

159

Relative abundance and treatment reduction of viruses during wastewater treatment processes - Identification of potential viral indicators.  

PubMed

Waterborne pathogenic viruses discharged from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) pose potential public health risks. In the present study, we investigated the relative abundance, occurrence, and reduction of eleven different viruses at two WWTPs in southern Arizona over a 12-month period, from August 2011 to July 2012. Influent and effluent samples from the two WWTPs were collected monthly. Viruses were concentrated using an electronegative filter method and quantified using TaqMan-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for each of the virus types (i.e., genogroup I, II and IV noroviruses, sapovirus, enterovirus, group A rotavirus, Aichi virus, pepper mild mottle virus, adenovirus, and JC and BK polyomaviruses), with murine norovirus internal control for the monitoring of extraction-RT-qPCR efficiencies. The pepper mild mottle virus, a plant virus, was found to be the most prevalent virus in both influent and effluent wastewater (annual mean concentration of 3.7-4.4×10(6)copies/L and 4.6-6.3×10(5) copies/L in influent and effluent wastewater, respectively), showing a low reduction by the treatment processes (0.76-0.99 annual mean log10 reduction), and no significant seasonal change in concentration. Aichi virus, a human enteric virus, was also found in greater abundance, and showed lower reduction during wastewater treatment than other human enteric viruses. Our results suggest that these viruses could be used as potential indicators of wastewater reclamation system performance, with respect to virus occurrence and removal. PMID:24836386

Kitajima, Masaaki; Iker, Brandon C; Pepper, Ian L; Gerba, Charles P

2014-08-01

160

Tobacco dependence. Global public health potential for new medications development and indications.  

PubMed

Current trends indicate that approximately 500 million of the world's existing cigarette smokers will prematurely die of causes that could be prevented by treatment of their addiction to tobacco delivered nicotine. Initial pharmacologically based treatment offerings and approaches have proven the concept that increasing the accessibility and diversity of treatment modalities helps more people quit smoking. These treatments have also shown, however, that the vast majority of smokers continues to find treatment less attractive and less accessible than cigarettes whose appeal is constantly stimulated by new formulations, marketing strategies, and implied claims of reduced risk. There appears to be considerable untapped potential public health benefit, as well as commercial opportunity, for medication developers to reach an increasing fraction of smokers who find current treatments unacceptable, inaccessible, or ineffective. The global opportunities to serve public health via medication development are growing even more rapidly as country after country recognizes the impending economic and health care problems posed by tobacco dependence and are opening their doors to treatment. Three areas of medications development offer particular promise: new forms of nicotine delivery, non-nicotine based medications, and new indications to reach those who are unable or unwilling to completely quit. This article discusses the biobehavioral rationale for medication development, the opportunities, and some of the prominent technical and regulatory challenges. PMID:10911934

Henningfield, J E; Fant, R V; Gitchell, J; Shiffman, S

2000-01-01

161

National valuation of monarch butterflies indicates an untapped potential for incentive-based conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The annual migration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) has high cultural value and recent surveys indicate monarch populations are declining. Protecting migratory species is complex because they cross international borders and depend on multiple regions. Understanding how much, and where, humans place value on migratory species can facilitate market-based conservation approaches. We performed a contingent valuation study of monarchs to understand the potential for such approaches to fund monarch conservation. The survey asked U.S. respondents about the money they would spend, or have spent, growing monarch-friendly plants, and the amount they would donate to monarch conservation organizations. Combining planting payments and donations, the survey indicated U.S. households valued monarchs as a total one-time payment of $4.78–$6.64 billion, levels similar to many endangered vertebrate species. The financial contribution of even a small percentage of households through purchases or donations could generate new funding for monarch conservation through market-based approaches.

Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Loomis, John B.; Ries, Leslie; Oberhauser, Karen; Semmens, Darius; Semmens, Brice; Butterfield, Bruce; Bagstad, Ken; Goldstein, Josh; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

2013-01-01

162

Two rare aneutriploids in the unisexual Ambystoma (Amphibia, Caudata) identified by GISH indicating two different types of meiotic errors.  

PubMed

We report two types of aneutriploids in unisexual salamanders Ambystomalaterale-2jeffersonianum (LJJ) and Ambystoma 2 laterale-jeffersonianum (LLJ). One karyotype has 3n = 42: L27 (L8-); J15 (J8p+), and we suggest that it was induced by homoeologous pairing after premeiotic endomitosis followed by an unequal L8;J8 segregation. The second karyotype has 3n = 43: L14 (L10q); J29 (J12+), which can be explained by meiotic nondisjunction followed by unbalanced segregation. These two rare aneutriploids demonstrate two different types of meiotic errors that might help to explain the high mortality observed in this complex. Case one also indicates that contemporary intergenomic exchanges and homoeologous recombinations may occur after a premeiotic chromosome doubling event. Our study provides additional evidence for the extremely flexible reproduction of unisexual Ambystoma. PMID:18160791

Bi, K; Bogart, J P; Fu, J

2007-01-01

163

The Cut-Off Values of Anthropometric Indices for Identifying Subjects at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Elderly Men  

PubMed Central

Aim. This study aimed to investigate which anthropometric indices could be a better predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the cut-off points for these surrogates to appropriately differentiate MetS in the Iranian elderly. Method. The present cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). MetS was defined according to Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII). In total, 206 elderly subjects with MetS criteria were selected. Anthropometric indices were measured and plotted using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results. WC followed by WHtR yielded the highest area under the curve (AUC) (0.683; 95% CI 0.606–0.761 and 0.680; 95% CI 0.602–0.758, resp.) for MetS. WC at a cut of 94.5?cm resulted in the highest Youden index with sensitivity 64% and 68% specificity to predict the presence of ?2 metabolic risk factors. BMI had the lowest sensitivity and specificity for MetS and MetS components. WC has the best ability to detect MetS which followed by WHtR and BMI had a lower discriminating value comparatively. Conclusion. WC is the best predictor for predicting the presence of ?2 metabolic risk factors among Iranian elderly population and the best value of WC is 94.5?cm. This cut-off values of WC should be advocated and used in Iranian men until larger cross-sectional studies show different results.

Gharipour, Mojgan; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Dianatkhah, Minoo; Bidmeshgi, Shirin; Ahmadi, Alireza; Tahri, Marzieh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

2014-01-01

164

Epigenetic screen identifies genotype- specific promoter DNA methylation and oncogenic potential of CHRNB4  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies have highlighted three major lung cancer susceptibility regions at 15q25.1, 5p15.33 and 6p21.33. To gain insight into the possible mechanistic relevance of the genes in these regions, we investigated the regulation of candidate susceptibility gene expression by epigenetic alterations in healthy and lung tumor tissues. For genes up- or downregulated in lung tumors the influence of genetic variants on DNA methylation was investigated and in vitro studies were performed. We analyzed 394 CpG units within 19 CpG islands in the susceptibility regions in a screening set of 34 patients. Significant findings were validated in an independent patient set (n=50) with available DNA and RNA. The most consistent overall DNA methylation difference between tumor and adjacent normal tissue on 15q25 was tumor hypomethylation in the promoter region of CHRNB4 with a median difference of 8% (p<0.001) which resulted in overexpression of the transcript in tumors (p<0.001). Confirming previous studies we also found hypermethylation in CHRNA3 and TERT with significant expression changes. Decitabine treatment of H1299 cells resulted in reduced methylation levels in gene promoters, elevated transcript levels of CHRNB4 and CHRNA3 and a slight downregulation of TERT demonstrating epigenetic regulation of lung cancer cells. SNPs rs421629 on 5p15.33 and rs1948, rs660652, rs8040868 and rs2036527 on 15q25.1, previously identified as lung cancer risk or nicotine addiction modifiers were associated with tumor DNA methylation levels in the promoters of TERT and CHRNB4 (p<0.001) respectively in two independent sample sets (n=82; n=150). In addition, CHRNB4 knock down in two different cell lines (A549 and H1299) resulted in reduced proliferation (pA549<0.05;pH1299L<0.001) and propensity to form colonies in H1299 cells. These results suggest epigenetic deregulation of nicotinic acetylcholinereceptor subunit (nAChR) genes which in the case of CHRNB4 is strongly associated with genetic lung cancer susceptibility variants and a functional impact on tumorigenic potential.

Scherf, David B; Sarkisyan, Narek; Jacobsson, Hanna; Claus, Rainer; Bermejo, Justo L; Peil, Barbara; Gu, Lei; Muley, Thomas; Meister, Michael; Dienemann, Hendrik; Plass, Christoph; Risch, Angela

2012-01-01

165

Epigenetic screen identifies genotype-specific promoter DNA methylation and oncogenic potential of CHRNB4.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies have highlighted three major lung cancer susceptibility regions at 15q25.1, 5p15.33 and 6p21.33. To gain insight into the possible mechanistic relevance of the genes in these regions, we investigated the regulation of candidate susceptibility gene expression by epigenetic alterations in healthy and lung tumor tissues. For genes up or downregulated in lung tumors, the influence of genetic variants on DNA methylation was investigated and in vitro studies were performed. We analyzed 394 CpG units within 19 CpG islands in the susceptibility regions in a screening set of 34 patients. Significant findings were validated in an independent patient set (n=50) with available DNA and RNA. The most consistent overall DNA methylation difference between tumor and adjacent normal tissue on 15q25 was tumor hypomethylation in the promoter region of CHRNB4 with a median difference of 8% (P<0.001), which resulted in overexpression of the transcript in tumors (P<0.001). Confirming previous studies, we also found hypermethylation in CHRNA3 and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) with significant expression changes. Decitabine treatment of H1299 cells resulted in reduced methylation levels in gene promoters, elevated transcript levels of CHRNB4 and CHRNA3, and a slight downregulation of TERT demonstrating epigenetic regulation of lung cancer cells. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs421629 on 5p15.33 and rs1948, rs660652, rs8040868 and rs2036527 on 15q25.1, previously identified as lung cancer risk or nicotine-addiction modifiers, were associated with tumor DNA methylation levels in the promoters of TERT and CHRNB4 (P<0.001), respectively, in two independent sample sets (n=82; n=150). In addition, CHRNB4 knockdown in two different cell lines (A549 and H1299) resulted in reduced proliferation (PA549<0.05;PH1299<0.001) and propensity to form colonies in H1299 cells. These results suggest epigenetic deregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (nAChR) genes which in the case of CHRNB4 is strongly associated with genetic lung cancer susceptibility variants and a functional impact on tumorigenic potential. PMID:22945651

Scherf, D B; Sarkisyan, N; Jacobsson, H; Claus, R; Bermejo, J L; Peil, B; Gu, L; Muley, T; Meister, M; Dienemann, H; Plass, C; Risch, A

2013-07-11

166

Onset Dynamics of Action Potentials in Rat Neocortical Neurons and Identified Snail Neurons: Quantification of the Difference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of action potentials (APs) is a key process in the operation of nerve cells and the communication between neurons. Action potentials in mammalian central neurons are characterized by an exceptionally fast onset dynamics, which differs from the typically slow and gradual onset dynamics seen in identified snail neurons. Here we describe a novel method of analysis which provides

Maxim Volgushev; Aleksey Malyshev; Pavel Balaban; Marina Chistiakova; Stanislav Volgushev; Fred Wolf; Huibert D. Mansvelder

2008-01-01

167

Use of AIRSAR to identify woody shrub invasion and other indicators of desertification in the Jornada LTER  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The replacement of semidesert grassland by woody shrubland is a widespread form of desertification. This change in physiognomy and species composition tends to sharply reduce the productivity of the land for grazing by domestic livestock, increase soil erosion and reduce soil fertility, and greatly alter many other aspects of ecosystem structure and functioning. Remote sensing methods are needed to assess and monitor shrubland encroachment. Detection of woody shrubs at low density would provide a particularly useful baseline on which to access changes, because an initially low shrub density often tends to increase even after cessation of the disturbance (e.g., overgrazing, drought, or fire suppression) responsible for triggering the initial stages of the invasion (Grover and Musick, 1990). Limited success has been achieved using optical remote sensing. In contrast to other forms of desertification, biomass does not consistently decrease with a shift from grassland to shrubland. Estimation of green vegetation amount (e.g., by NDVI) is thus of limited utility, unless the shrubs and herbaceous plants differ consistently in phenology and the area can be viewed during a season when only one of these is green. The objective of this study was to determine if the potential sensitivity of active microwave remote sensing to vegetation structure could be used to assess the degree of shrub invasion of grassland. Polarimetric Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) data were acquired for a semiarid site containing varied mixtures of shrubs and herbaceous vegetation and compared with ground observations of vegetation type and other landsurface characteristics. In this preliminary report we examine the response of radar backscatter intensity to shrub density. The response of other multipolarization parameters will be examined in future work.

Musick, H. Brad; Schaber, Gerald G.; Breed, Carol S.

1995-01-01

168

Sperm protamine levels as indicators of fertilising potential in sexually mature male rats.  

PubMed

We have earlier reported that administration of cyproterone acetate, fluphenazine decanoate, tamoxifen citrate, oestradiol valerate to adult male rats, at doses of 50, 5.77, 0.71, 0.28 micromol kg(-1) body weight given for periods of 15, 60, 60, 10 days, respectively, partially suppressed/reduced availability of one or more reproductive hormones viz. LH, FSH, testosterone and reduced their siring ability. The reduction in epididymal sperm counts was not considerable after treatment with these drugs, but conventional methods of assessment of spermatozoa quality viz. sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), nuclear chromatin decondensation (NCD) assay, monobromobimane (mBBr) uptake, had shown quantifiable changes in caput sperm chromatin compaction and reduced the testicular levels of protamine 1. The present follow-up study attempts to quantify changes in caudal sperm chromatin which has undergone compaction in the epididymis, in the altered hormonal microenvironment of rats treated with cyproterone acetate, tamoxifen citrate, fluphenazine decanoate, oestradiol valerate, at doses of 50, 5.77, 0.71, 0.28 micromol kg(-1) body weight respectively given for periods of 15, 60, 60, 10 days, with a view to correlating these changes to reduction in their fertilising potential. During the androgen-dependent transit of spermatozoa from caput to cauda epididymis, thiol group oxidation and tyrosine phosphorylation of protamine occurs in maturing sperms concomitant with development of fertilising ability. The results indicate that conventional methods viz. SCSA, NCD, mBBr uptake fail to detect changes induced by hormone deficits in sperm chromatin condensation, as a result of maturation during transit from caput to cauda epididymis. Absence of protamine 1 in epididymal sperm was observed in either testosterone or FSH deficient rats that correlated with reduced fertilising potential. The study suggests that changes in LH/T or FSH affect a hitherto unknown common molecular mechanism in the testis, underlying the protamination of rat spermatozoa. In conclusion, loss of P1 occurs in adult male rats deprived of T or FSH and is a reliable detectable change in epididymal sperm indicative of chromatin condensation defects associated with endocrine imbalance and poor fertility status. PMID:18211299

Aleem, M; Padwal, V; Choudhari, J; Balasinor, N; Gill-Sharma, M K

2008-02-01

169

Brain potential indices of novelty processing are associated with preference for amphetamine.  

PubMed

A behavioral drug preference procedure was used to identify two groups of healthy individuals. One group preferred 10 mg of d-amphetamine over placebo (Choosers) and the other preferred placebo (Nonchoosers). In separate sessions, participants were administered placebo, 10, and 15 mg of d-amphetamine, and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed two 3-stimulus oddball tasks. The effect of d-amphetamine on P3a, an ERP index of the orienting response, differed between groups: In Choosers, target stimuli elicited P3a after d-amphetamine but not after placebo; in Nonchoosers, the drug had no effect on P3a. Moreover, two group differences were evident after placebo and were unaffected by d-amphetamine. (1) N100 was larger in Nonchoosers than in Choosers, suggesting that Nonchoosers were more attentive than Choosers to the physical features of the stimuli. (2) The reorienting negativity (RON) elicited by targets in both tasks and by rare nontargets in a novelty oddball task (i.e., novel sounds) was larger in Nonchoosers than in Choosers. This suggests that Nonchoosers more effectively refocused attention on the task after distraction. It is hypothesized that these processing differences reflect a group difference in the balance between midbrain dopamine function and ascending cholinergic influences. The findings have implications for vulnerability to addiction and illustrate the promise of ERPs in parsing elemental phenotypes. PMID:21186922

Gabbay, Frances H; Duncan, Connie C; McDonald, Craig G

2010-12-01

170

Glycines: role in ?-helical membrane protein structures and a potential indicator of native conformation.  

PubMed

Among the growing number of membrane protein structures in the Protein Data Bank, there are many transmembrane domains that appear to be native-like; at the same time, there are others that appear to have less than complete native-like character. Hence, there is an increasing need for validation tools that distinguish native-like from non-native-like structures. Membrane mimetics used in protein structural characterizations differ in numerous physicochemical properties from native membranes and provide many opportunities for introducing non-native-like features into membrane protein structures. One possible approach for validating membrane protein structures is based on the use of glycine residues in transmembrane domains. Here, we have reviewed the membrane protein structure database and identified a set of benchmark proteins that appear to be native-like. In these structures, conserved glycine residues rarely face the lipid interstices, and many of them participate in close helix-helix packing. Glycine-based validation allowed the identification of non-native-like features in several membrane proteins and also shows the potential for verifying the native-like character for numerous other membrane protein structures. PMID:22650985

Dong, Hao; Sharma, Mukesh; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Cross, Timothy A

2012-06-19

171

Plasma Sphingolipids as Potential Indicators of Hepatic Necroinflammation in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase Level  

PubMed Central

Accurate estimation of hepatic necroinflammation caused by chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is crucial for prediction of prognosis and design of therapeutic strategy, which is particularly true for CHC patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Recent studies have shown that sphingolipids have a close relationship with hepatitis C virus infection. The present study aimed to identify plasma sphingolipids related to hepatic necroinflammation. We included 120 treatment-naïve CHC patients and 64/120 had normal ALT levels (<40 U/L). CHC patients who underwent liver biopsies were subjected to Scheuer scoring analysis for scope of hepatic inflammation. Plasma sphingolipids were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed 44 plasma sphingolipids were detected altogether. Of all detected sphingolipids, hexosylceramide (HexCer) (d18?1/22?0) and HexCer (d18?1/24?0) showed a significant difference among G0/G1, G2, and G3/G4 (P<0.05). For identifying hepatic necroinflammation (G?2), after adjusting other factors, the odds ratio (OR) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) reached 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00–1.02). Furthermore, the area under the curve (AUC) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was 0.7 (P?=?0.01) and approached that of ALT (AUC?=?0.78). However, in CHC patients with normal ALT, HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was an independent factor (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01–1.03) to identify the hepatic necroinflammation (G?2). HexCer (d18?1/22?0) not only showed the largest AUC (0.78, P?=?0.001), but also exhibited the highest specificity of all indicators. These results indicate that plasma HexCer (d18?1/22?0) is a potential indicator to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation in CHC patients. For CHC with normal ALT, the ability of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation might be superior to conventional serum indicators.

Ren, Jin-Yu; Wu, Hui-Li; Liu, Mei; Liu, Hui; Ren, Feng; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Duan, Zhong-Ping

2014-01-01

172

Plasma sphingolipids as potential indicators of hepatic necroinflammation in patients with chronic hepatitis C and normal alanine aminotransferase level.  

PubMed

Accurate estimation of hepatic necroinflammation caused by chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is crucial for prediction of prognosis and design of therapeutic strategy, which is particularly true for CHC patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Recent studies have shown that sphingolipids have a close relationship with hepatitis C virus infection. The present study aimed to identify plasma sphingolipids related to hepatic necroinflammation. We included 120 treatment-naïve CHC patients and 64/120 had normal ALT levels (<40 U/L). CHC patients who underwent liver biopsies were subjected to Scheuer scoring analysis for scope of hepatic inflammation. Plasma sphingolipids were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed 44 plasma sphingolipids were detected altogether. Of all detected sphingolipids, hexosylceramide (HexCer) (d18?1/22?0) and HexCer (d18?1/24?0) showed a significant difference among G0/G1, G2, and G3/G4 (P<0.05). For identifying hepatic necroinflammation (G?2), after adjusting other factors, the odds ratio (OR) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) reached 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.02). Furthermore, the area under the curve (AUC) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was 0.7 (P?=?0.01) and approached that of ALT (AUC?=?0.78). However, in CHC patients with normal ALT, HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was an independent factor (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03) to identify the hepatic necroinflammation (G?2). HexCer (d18?1/22?0) not only showed the largest AUC (0.78, P?=?0.001), but also exhibited the highest specificity of all indicators. These results indicate that plasma HexCer (d18?1/22?0) is a potential indicator to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation in CHC patients. For CHC with normal ALT, the ability of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation might be superior to conventional serum indicators. PMID:24736528

Li, Jun-Feng; Qu, Feng; Zheng, Su-Jun; Ren, Jin-Yu; Wu, Hui-Li; Liu, Mei; Liu, Hui; Ren, Feng; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Duan, Zhong-Ping

2014-01-01

173

Identifying cold-water coral ecosystem by using benthic foraminiferal indicators: from active reefs to the geological record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-water coral ecosystems dominated by the species Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, as well as cold-water coral carbonate mounds (fossils and/or active) occur worldwide and are especially developed along the European margin, from northern Norway to the Gulf of Cadiz and into the Alboran Sea. Their discovery is a major achievement of the last few decades and their widespread occurrence presents a challenge to understand their development, preservation and possible importance in the geologic record. On the Norwegian shelf active/living reefs are developed on elevated hard substrata. Along the Irish margin L. pertusa builds large fossil and/or active carbonate mounds. In the Gulf of Cadiz and in the Alboran Sea buried reefs and patch reefs are generally found in association with mud volcanoes. In modern oceans, they provide important ecological niches for the marine benthic fauna in the deep-sea. In comparison to the macrofauna the microfauna, particularly the foraminifera associated to these systems, are poorly known. We present here a detailed study based on quantitative analyses of benthic and planktonic foraminifera together with the statistical treatment of assemblage data collected along the Norwegian margin, in the Porcupine-Rockall region and in the Alboran Sea. The three regions were and/or are site of cold-water coral ecosystems settlements. Our study reveals that in the Porcupine/Rockall region benthic foraminiferal assemblages are strictly related to the distribution of facies. On the Norwegian margin, benthic foraminiferal habitats are weakly defined and grade one into the other preventing the sharp facies separation observed along the Irish margin (Margreth et al., 2009). In the Alboran Sea cold-water coral ecosystems and cold-water carbonate mounds are presently buried and corals are generally fragmented. However, benthic assemblages from coral-rich layers in the Alboran Sea and those from Porcupine/Rockall and Norway show remarkable similarities. In particular, epifaunal-attached species such as Discanomalina coronata, Cibicides refulgens, and Lobatula lobatula dominate the assemblages with D. coronata restricted to living cold-water coral reefs facies only and/or in co-occurrence with coral fragments. In conclusion, our data suggest that although cold-water coral ecosystems occur at different latitudes, the associated foraminiferal assemblages are consistent from Norway to the Western Mediterranean. Thus they can be used to identify these ecosystems even in the geologic record, when the corals are often strongly dissolved like in the Alboran Sea. References: Margreth, S., Rüggeberg, A. and Spezzaferri, S., 2009. Benthic foraminifera as bioindicator for cold-water coral reef ecosystems along the Irish margin. Deep Sea Res. Part I, 56: 2216-2234. This study is funded by the Swiss National Foundation Projects 200020-117928 and 200021-111694.

Margreth, Stephan; Rüggeberg, Andres; Gennari, Giordana; Spezzaferri, Silvia

2010-05-01

174

Real-Time PCR Diagnostics for Detecting and Identifying Potential Bioweapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial contents: Diagnostics Systems Division, Diagnostics and Patient Care: Goals, Diagnostic Essentials, Impact of Diagnostics and Patient Care, Diagnostic Time Constraint, Classical Methods for Identifying Biological Agents, Diagnostic Sensitivity Req...

D. Norwood

2003-01-01

175

Potential Regrowth and Recolonization of Salmonellae and Indicators in Biosolids and Biosolid-Amended Soil  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the potential for conversion of Class B to Class A biosolids with respect to salmonellae and fecal coliforms during solar drying in concrete lined drying beds. Anaerobically (8% solids) and aerobically (2% solids) digested Class B biosolids were pumped into field-scale drying beds, and microbial populations and environmental conditions were monitored. Numbers of fecal coliforms and salmonellae decreased as temperature and rate of desiccation increased. After 3 to 4 weeks, Class A requirements were achieved in both biosolids for the pathogens and the indicators. However, following rainfall events, significant increase in numbers was observed for both fecal coliforms and salmonellae. In laboratory studies, regrowth of fecal coliforms was observed in both biosolids and biosolid-amended soil, but the regrowth of salmonellae observed in the concrete-lined drying beds did not occur. These laboratory studies demonstrated that pathogens decreased in numbers when soil was amended with biosolids. Based on serotyping, the increased numbers of salmonellae seen in the concrete lined drying beds following rainfall events was most likely due to recolonization due to contamination from fecal matter introduced by animals and not from regrowth of salmonellae indigenous to biosolids. Overall, we conclude that the use of concrete-lined beds created a situation in which moisture added as rainfall accumulated in the beds, promoting the growth of fecal coliforms and salmonellae added from external sources.

Zaleski, Kathleen J.; Josephson, Karen L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Pepper, Ian L.

2005-01-01

176

Groundwater discharge: potential association with fecal indicator bacteria in the surf zone.  

PubMed

Short-lived radium isotopes (223Ra and 224Ra) are used to investigate the potential association between groundwater discharge and microbial pollution at Huntington Beach, CA. We establish the tidally driven exchange of groundwater from the surficial beach aquifer across the beach face. Groundwater is found to be a source of nutrients (silica, inorganic nitrogen, and orthophosphate) to the surf zone, and these nutrients could possibly provide an environment for enhanced growth or increased persistence of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). Ammonium and ortho-phosphate explain up to 12-20% of the variance in FIB levels in the surf zone. Elevated levels of FIB were only found in 1 of the 26 groundwater samples. However, FIB in the surf zone covary with radium at fortnightly, diurnal, and semi-diurnal tidal periods. In addition, radium accounts for up to 38% of the variance in log-FIB levels in the surf zone. A column experiment illustrates that Enterococcus suspended in Huntington Beach saline groundwater is not significantly filtered by sand collected from the field. This work establishes a mechanism for the subterranean delivery of FIB pollution to the surf zone from the surficial aquifer and presents evidence that supports an association between groundwater discharge and FIB. PMID:15296305

Boehm, Alexandria B; Shellenbarger, Gregory G; Paytan, Adina

2004-07-01

177

Deriving sorption indices for the prediction of potential phosphorus loss from calcareous soils.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop techniques to evaluate soil phosphorus (P) sorption capacity (PSC) and determine critical soil P levels to predict P loss potential for calcareous soils. Seventy-five soils mostly from Northern China were analyzed for soil P using four extraction methods (water, Pw; carbonate, POls; ammonium oxalate, Pox; and Mehlich 3, PM3) as well as PSC derived from single-point (PSC150) and multipoint sorption (S t) isotherms. Strong correlation was found between PSC150 and S t (r (2)=0.89, p<0.001). The sum of ?CaM3 and ?MgM3 as an index of PSC (PSC(CaM3 + MgM3)) was most closely related to the maximum amount of P sorbed (S max) as given by the sum of S t and soil initial P setting ?=0.039 and ?=0.462 (r (2)=0.80, p<0.001). The degree of P saturation (DPS) was thereafter calculated from PSC(CaM3 + MgM3) (DPS(CaM3 + MgM3)), to which Olsen P (POls) was significantly correlated (r (2)=0.82, p<0.001). In a split-line regression from Pw against DPS(CaM3 + MgM3) (r (2)=0.87, p<0.05), a change point was identified at 28.1% DPS(CaM3 + MgM3), which was equivalent to 49.2 mg kg(-1) POls and corresponded to a Pw concentration of 8.8 mg kg(-1). After the change point, a sharp increase in Pw was observed. Our results reveal a new approach to approximating DPS from CaM3 and MgM3 for calcareous soils without the need to generate a S max. We conclude that in the absence of an environmental soil test criteria for P, the DPS(CaM3 + MgM3) and POls could be used to predict P loss potential from calcareous soils. PMID:23943001

Xue, Qiaoyun; Lu, Lingli; Zhou, Yuanqing; Qi, Lingyu; Dai, Peibin; Liu, Xiaoxia; Sun, Chengliang; Lin, Xianyong

2014-01-01

178

Potential risk indicators of retained placenta and other diseases in multiparous cows.  

PubMed

Retained placenta (RP), defined as fetal membranes not being expelled within 24 h after calving, is a costly disease in multiparous dairy cows that has been linked to immune suppression, infections, elevated lipid mobilization, and depleted status of antioxidants including ?-tocopherol, and that increases the risk of other diseases (OD) in early lactation. Early detection of cows at increased risk of developing RP, OD, or both in early lactation could improve treatment success and result in improved milk production and reproductive performance. To identify risk indicators of RP, OD, or both, we used a nested case-control design and compared multiparous dairy cows that developed RP (n=32) with cows that remained healthy (H; n=32) or cows that developed OD (n=32) in early lactation. We compared peripartal body condition score (BCS) as well as serum concentrations of ?-tocopherol, metabolites [?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), cholesterol, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and urea N], haptoglobin, and macrominerals (i.e., calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) on d -21, -14, -7, -3, -1, 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 postpartum. In addition, average serum concentrations were calculated for each cow for the last 3wk prepartum, for 3 and 2wk prepartum combined, for the last week prepartum, and for the morning after calving and compared between groups. The RP cows had lower BCS than the H or OD cows until 2wk postpartum. During the prepartal periods, RP and OD cows had lower ?-tocopherol concentrations (corrected or not for cholesterol concentration) and higher NEFA and BHBA concentrations than H cows. Thus, lower prepartal BCS could be an early predictor for RP risk, and lower ?-tocopherol concentrations and higher NEFA and BHBA concentrations could be early predictors for disease. PMID:24792789

Qu, Y; Fadden, A N; Traber, M G; Bobe, G

2014-07-01

179

Histidine Decarboxylase Is Identified as a Potential Biomarker of Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Patients with Acute Intestinal Obstruction  

PubMed Central

Various biomarkers currently used for the diagnosis of intestinal mucosal injury (IMI) in patients with acute intestinal obstruction have low sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, IMI, as indicated by the impaired expression of tight junction proteins, including zonula occludens-1, occludin and claudin-1, and inflammation were determined in colonic tissues of patients with 45 strangulated intestinal obstruction (STR-IO) and the adjacent “normal” colonic tissues of 35 patients with colon cancers by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR), Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and histological examination, respectively. Then, two-dimensional fluorescent difference gel electrophoresis coupled with linear trap quadrupole mass spectrometry was used to screen for potential biomarkers of IMI in the serum samples of 10 STR-IO, 10 simple intestinal obstruction (SIM-IO) and 10 normal healthy controls. A total of 35 protein spots were differentially expressed among the serum samples, and six of the proteins were identified as potential biomarkers. Among the six proteins, histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and ceruloplasmin (CP) were elevated significantly in patients with STR-IO, compared with patients with SIM-IO and healthy controls. Thus, HDC and CP were further validated by QRT-PCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, in colonic tissues, serum and urine samples. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic curves were used to show the area under the curves of HDC, CP and several established biomarkers, followed by the determination of the appropriate cutoff values and their sensitivities and specificities. It was shown that for serum and urine, HDC levels achieved sensitivities and specificities compatible to or even greater than those of established biomarkers for the diagnosis of IMI in patients with acute intestinal obstruction, although further validation in a larger cohort is required.

Yang, Jian-Jun; Ma, Yan-Lei; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Hong-Qi; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Qin, Huan-Long

2011-01-01

180

Development of Normal Human Colonocyte Cultures to Identify a Carcinogenic Potential for Priority Disinfection Byproducts  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of disinfected surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Of the approximately >600 disinfection byproducts (DBPs) identified, the US EPA regulates 11 DBPS for an increased risk of cancer. An in-depth mechanism-ba...

181

Identifying Carcinogenic Potentials of Drinking Water Disinfection Byproducts using Normal Human Colonocyte Cultures  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of disinfected surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Approximately 600 byproducts (DBPs) have been identified for the major disinfectants currently in use and represent less than half of the total organic car...

182

Identifying Populations Potentially Exposed to Agricultural Pesticides Using Remote Sensing and a Geographic Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticides used in agriculture may cause adverse health effects among the population living near agricultural areas. However, identifying the populations most likely to be exposed is difficult. We conducted a feasibility study to determine whether satellite imagery could be used to reconstruct historical crop patterns. We used historical Farm Service Agency records as a source of ground reference data to

Mary H. Ward; John R. Nuckols; Stephanie J. Weigel; Susan K. Maxwell; Kenneth P. Cantor; Ryan S. Miller

2000-01-01

183

Potential of infrared spectroscopy in combination with extended canonical variate analysis for identifying different paper types  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of secondary fiber in papermaking has led to the production of paper containing a wide range of contaminants. Wastepaper mills need to develop quality control methods for evaluating the incoming wastepaper stock as well as testing the specifications of the final product. The goal of this work is to present a fast and successful methodology for identifying

Jordi-Roger Riba; Trini Canals; Rosa Cantero; Hortensia Iturriaga

2011-01-01

184

Frequency-dependent attenuation as a potential indicator of oil saturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At seismic frequencies, wave-induced fluid flow is a major cause of P-wave attenuation in partially saturated porous rocks. Attenuation is of great importance for the oil industry in the interpretation of seismic field data. Here, the effects on P-wave attenuation resulting from changes in oil saturation are studied for media with coexisting water, oil, and gas. For that, creep experiments are numerically simulated by solving Biot's equations for consolidation of poroelastic media with the finite-element method. The experiments yield time-dependent stress-strain relations that are used to calculate the complex P-wave modulus from which frequency-dependent P-wave attenuation is determined. The models are layered media with periodically alternating triplets of layers. Models consisting of triplets of layers having randomly varying layer thicknesses are also considered. The layers in each triplet are fully saturated with water, oil, and gas. The layer saturated with water has lower porosity and permeability than the layers saturated with oil and gas. These models represent hydrocarbon reservoirs in which water is the wetting fluid preferentially saturating regions of lower porosity. The results from the numerical experiments showed that increasing oil saturation, connected to a decrease in gas saturation, resulted in a significant increase of attenuation at low frequencies (lower than 2 Hz). Furthermore, replacing the oil with water resulted in a distinguishable behavior of the frequency-dependent attenuation. These results imply that, according to the physical mechanism of wave-induced fluid flow, frequency-dependent attenuation in media saturated with water, oil, and gas is a potential indicator of oil saturation.

Quintal, Beatriz

2012-07-01

185

Trehalose as an indicator of desiccation stress in Drosophila melanogaster larvae: A potential marker of anhydrobiosis  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report confirming anhydrobiosis in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis and accumulation in larvae that hydrolyzed on rehydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis in concert with the enzymes involved in trehalose metabolism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of trehalose hydrolysis in presence of a specific trehalase inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose proposed as a reliable marker for biomonitoring of climate change studies. -- Abstract: In the current scenario of global climate change, desiccation is considered as one of the major environmental stressors for the biota exposed to altered levels of ambient temperature and humidity. Drosophila melanogaster, a cosmopolitan terrestrial insect has been chosen as a humidity-sensitive bioindicator model for the present study since its habitat undergoes frequent stochastic and/or seasonally aggravated dehydration regimes. We report here for the first time the occurrence of anhydrobiosis in D. melanogaster larvae by subjecting them to desiccation stress under laboratory conditions. Larvae desiccated for ten hours at <5% relative humidity could enter anhydrobiosis and could revive upon rehydration followed by resumption of active metabolism. As revealed by FTIR and HPLC analyzes, our findings strongly indicated the synthesis and accumulation of trehalose in the desiccating larvae. Biochemical measurements pointed out the desiccation-responsive trehalose metabolic pathway that was found to be coordinated in concert with the enzymes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase and trehalase. Further, an inhibitor-based experimental approach using deoxynojirimycin, a specific trehalase inhibitor, demonstrated the pivotal role of trehalose in larval anhydrobiosis of D. melanogaster. We therefore propose trehalose as a potential marker for the assessment of anhydrobiosis in Drosophila. The present findings thus add to the growing list of novel biochemical markers in specific bioindicator organisms for fulfilling the urgent need of environmental biomonitoring of climate change.

Thorat, Leena J. [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)] [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Gaikwad, Sushama M. [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India)] [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Nath, Bimalendu B., E-mail: bbnath@unipune.ac.in [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

2012-03-23

186

Identifying prospective antifouling coatings for venturis: Zeta potential measurements of oxides at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of research to determine the zeta potential of oxides responsible for fouling of heat transfer, venturi, and other flow measurement device surfaces. Fouling deposits formed on these surfaces reduce mass flow rates of water, causing power reductions of as much as 3 to 4%. There is considerable evidence that deposit formation can be prevented by

P. Jayaweera; S. Hettiarachchi; B. G. Pound

1992-01-01

187

A Riemannian geometric mapping technique for identifying incompressible equivalents to subsonic potential flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research develops a technique for the solution of incompressible equivalents to planar steady subsonic potential flows. Riemannian geometric formalism is used to develop a gauge transformation of the length measure followed by a curvilinear coordinate transformation to map the given subsonic flow into a canonical Laplacian flow with the same boundary conditions. The effect of the transformation is to

Brian Joseph German

2007-01-01

188

IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL AND BEHAVIORAL STRESSORS THROUGH BLOOD CORTISOL IN THE BLACK RHINOCEROS (DICER OS BICOILVIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental and behavioral stressors have potentially negative effects on the captive management of the black rhinoceros. Overcrowding, pair incompatibility, and poor nutrition are just a few of the factors facing this species in a zoological setting. The black rhino is considered to be the most nervous and stress-susceptible of the 5 rhino species (Carlstead, 1999). There are several disease syndromes

Christine M. Bobko; Rhino Keeper

189

Listening for feelings: identifying and coding empathic and potential empathic opportunities in medical dialogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to validate the model of empathic opportunity (EO) and potential empathic opportunity (PEO) using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS) in a sample of cancer patients. Thirty-nine audio taped consultations at an outpatient oncology clinic performed by four oncologists were previously coded with the Roter Interaction Analysis System for another purpose. These consultations were

Hilde Eide; Richard Frankel; Anne Christine Bull Haaversen; Kerstin Anine Vaupel; Peter K. Graugaard; Arnstein Finset

2004-01-01

190

Identifying potential environmental impacts of large-scale deployment of dedicated bioenergy crops in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract There is momentum, globally, to increase the use of plant biomass for the production of heat, power and liquid transport fuels. This review assesses the evidence base for potential impacts of large-scale bioenergy crop deployment principally within the UK context, but with wider implications for Europe, the USA and elsewhere. We focus on second generation, dedicated lignocellulosic crops, but

Rebecca L. Rowe; Gail Taylor

2007-01-01

191

NYU researchers identify new potential therapeutic target for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from the NYU Cancer Institute, an NCI-designated cancer center at NYU Langone Medical Center, have discovered a new potential therapeutic target for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), the most aggressive and common type of lymphoma in adults. The new study, published in the November 23 issue of Nature, reveals the underlying molecular mechanism contributing to the development of lymphomagenesis.

192

A Comparison between Survey and Verbal Choice Methods of Identifying Potential Reinforcers among Employees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two methods of assessing preference for stimuli (i.e., potential reinforcers) were compared for adult administrative assistant employees. During Phase 1, a survey method and a verbal choice method of assessing preference for 6 stimuli were administered. During Phase 2, a coupon system was used to determine which categories of stimuli actually…

Wilder, David A; Therrien, Kelly; Wine, Byron

2006-01-01

193

Identifying Potential Within-Field Management Zones from Cotton-Yield Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remotely-sensed cotton yield estimates, collected mid-season over the past 11 years, were investigated to identify the degree of temporal stability exhibited in two irrigated fields on “Colly Central” farm, Collarenabri, NSW, Australia. In particular, the aims of the investigation were: (1) to develop stable yield zones from multi-year yield estimates derived from 11 consecutive years' mid-season Landsat TM imagery; (2)

B. Boydell; A. B. McBratney

2002-01-01

194

Array comparative genomic hybridization identifies novel potential therapeutic targets in cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a rare tumour with a dismal prognosis. As conventional medical management offers minimal survival benefit, surgery currently represents the only chance of cure. We evaluated DNA copy number (CN) alterations in CC to identify novel therapeutic targets. Methods DNA was extracted from 32 CC samples. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array comparative genomic hybridization was performed using microarray slides containing 3400 BAC clones covering the whole human genome at distances of 1 Mb. Data were analysed within the R statistical environment. Results DNA CN gains (89 regions) occurred more frequently than DNA CN losses (55 regions). Six regions of gain were identified in all cases on chromosomes 16, 17, 19 and 22. Twenty regions were frequently gained on chromosomes 1, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 19, 20 and 21. The BAC clones covering ERBB2, MEK2 and PDGFB genes were gained in all cases. Regions covering MTOR, VEGFR 3, PDGFA, RAF1, VEGFA and EGFR genes were frequently gained. Conclusions We identified CN gains in the region of 11 useful molecular targets. Findings of variable gains in some regions in this and other studies support the argument for molecular stratification before treatment for CC so that treatment can be tailored to the individual patient.

McKay, Siobhan C; Unger, Kristian; Pericleous, Stephanos; Stamp, Gordon; Thomas, Gerry; Hutchins, Robert R; Spalding, Duncan R C

2011-01-01

195

Drug screening in Scn1a zebrafish mutant identifies clemizole as a potential Dravet Syndrome treatment  

PubMed Central

Dravet syndrome (DS) is a catastrophic pediatric epilepsy with severe intellectual disability, impaired social development and persistent drug-resistant seizures. One of its primary monogenic causes are mutations in Nav1.1 (SCN1A), a voltage-gated sodium channel. Here we characterise zebrafish Nav1.1 (scn1Lab) mutants originally identified in a chemical mutagenesis screen. Mutants exhibit spontaneous abnormal electrographic activity, hyperactivity and convulsive behaviors. Although scn1Lab expression is reduced, microarray analysis is remarkable for the small fraction of differentially expressed genes (~3%) and lack of compensatory expression changes in other scn subunits. Ketogenic diet, diazepam, valproate, potassium bromide and stiripentol attenuate mutant seizure activity; seven other antiepileptic drugs have no effect. A phenotype-based screen of 320 compounds identifies a US Food and Drug Administration-approved compound (clemizole) that inhibits convulsive behaviors and electrographic seizures. This approach represents a new direction in modeling pediatric epilepsy and could be used to identify novel therapeutics for any monogenic epilepsy disorder.

Baraban, Scott C.; Dinday, Matthew T.; Hortopan, Gabriela A.

2013-01-01

196

Drug screening in Scn1a zebrafish mutant identifies clemizole as a potential Dravet syndrome treatment.  

PubMed

Dravet syndrome is a catastrophic pediatric epilepsy with severe intellectual disability, impaired social development and persistent drug-resistant seizures. One of its primary monogenic causes are mutations in Nav1.1 (SCN1A), a voltage-gated sodium channel. Here we characterize zebrafish Nav1.1 (scn1Lab) mutants originally identified in a chemical mutagenesis screen. Mutants exhibit spontaneous abnormal electrographic activity, hyperactivity and convulsive behaviours. Although scn1Lab expression is reduced, microarray analysis is remarkable for the small fraction of differentially expressed genes (~3%) and lack of compensatory expression changes in other scn subunits. Ketogenic diet, diazepam, valproate, potassium bromide and stiripentol attenuate mutant seizure activity; seven other antiepileptic drugs have no effect. A phenotype-based screen of 320 compounds identifies a US Food and Drug Administration-approved compound (clemizole) that inhibits convulsive behaviours and electrographic seizures. This approach represents a new direction in modelling pediatric epilepsy and could be used to identify novel therapeutics for any monogenic epilepsy disorder. PMID:24002024

Baraban, Scott C; Dinday, Matthew T; Hortopan, Gabriela A

2013-01-01

197

Tumor antigen precursor protein profiles of adult and pediatric brain tumors identify potential targets for immunotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives We evaluated and compared tumor antigen precursor protein (TAPP) profiles in adult and pediatric brain tumors of 31 genes\\u000a related to tumor associated antigens (TAA) for possible use in immunotherapy. Antigens were selected based on their potential\\u000a to stimulate T cell responses against tumors of neuroectodermal origin. Methods Thirty-seven brain tumor specimens from 11 adult and 26 pediatric patients

Jian Gang Zhang; Carol A. Kruse; Lara Driggers; Neil Hoa; Jeffrey Wisoff; Jeffrey C. Allen; David Zagzag; Elizabeth W. Newcomb; Martin R. Jadus

2008-01-01

198

Carbamazepine as indicator for potential short-term contamination of karst springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karst aquifers are complex systems which vulnerability is very difficult to assess mainly because of the duality of recharge processes and duality of flow. Recharge to a karst aquifer occurs as diffuse or concentrated (sinkholes and dolines). Moreover, karst aquifers are formed by an unsaturated zone comprising soil, epikarst and unsaturated rock matrix, and a saturated zone formed of highly permeable conduits and low permeability matrix storage. In the case of contamination of groundwater by wastewater effluent polluted water can be either transported rapidly and have short term major risk on spring water quality or infiltrate into fractured rock matrix and therefore have a long term effect on the water quality. In order to identify the risk of wastewater infiltrating into an aquifer, researches have focused to date on the identification of indicative wastewater markers. Carbamazepine (CBZ) was frequently detected in surface water as well as in effluents of sewage treatment plants, as less than 10% of carbamazepine are usually eliminated during sewage treatment. Moreover, CBZ is not attenuated in aquifers (Heberer, 2002), is unlikely degradable or adsorbed, and can be detected in groundwater (Clara et al., 2004). Therefore, CBZ is considered to be fairly persistent in groundwater (Tixier et al., 2003), and is consequently regarded as an effective wastewater marker. In this case study, the Jeita spring in Lebanon (spring discharge: 1-20 m3/s) was monitored and sampled for major ions and micro-pollutants following a combined precipitation/snowmelt events. A total of 28 samples (major ions and micro-pollutants) were taken over a total sampling time of 16 days at interval varying between 4 and 24 hours. Based on the variation with time of discharge and electrical conductivity (monitored every 20 minutes) as well as the concentrations of the major ions, a conceptual model showing the response of the aquifer compartments to the precipitation event was generated. A breakthrough curve of the persistent micro-pollutant carbamazepine shows that CBZ enters the aquifer system through rapid flow pathways, whereas it is heavily diluted with old CBZ free waters stored in the soil/ epikarst zone released as a response to the precipitation event. Furthermore, based on travel times estimated from artificial tracer tests, the distance to the contamination source was estimated and reveals to be relatively small.

Doummar, J.; Baierl, M.; Noedler, K.; Licha, T.; Sauter, M.; Geyer, T.

2012-04-01

199

Mammalian forebrain ketimine reductase identified as ?-crystallin; potential regulation by thyroid hormones.  

PubMed

Ketimine reductase (E.C. 1.5.1.25) was purified to apparent homogeneity from lamb forebrain by means of a rapid multi-step chromatography protocol. The purified enzyme was identified by MS/MS (mass spectrometry) as ?-crystallin. The identity was confirmed by heterologously expressing human ?-crystallin in Escherichia coli and subsequent chromatographic purification of the protein. The purified human ?-crystallin was confirmed to have ketimine reductase activity with a maximum specific activity similar to that of native ovine ketimine reductase, and was found to catalyse a sequential reaction. The enzyme substrates are putative neuromodulator/transmitters. The thyroid hormone 3,5,3'-l-triiodothyronine (T3) was found to be a strong reversible competitive inhibitor, and may have a novel role in regulating their concentrations. ?-Crystallin is also involved in intracellular T3 storage and transport. This research is the first to demonstrate an enzyme function for ?-crystallin. This newly demonstrated enzymatic activity identifies a new role for thyroid hormones in regulating mammalian amino acid metabolism, and a possible reciprocal role of enzyme activity regulating bioavailability of intracellular T3. PMID:21332720

Hallen, André; Cooper, Arthur J L; Jamie, Joanne F; Haynes, Paul A; Willows, Robert D

2011-08-01

200

Potential of infrared spectroscopy in combination with extended canonical variate analysis for identifying different paper types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing use of secondary fiber in papermaking has led to the production of paper containing a wide range of contaminants. Wastepaper mills need to develop quality control methods for evaluating the incoming wastepaper stock as well as testing the specifications of the final product. The goal of this work is to present a fast and successful methodology for identifying different paper types. In this way, undesirable paper types can be refused, thus improving the runnability of the paper machine and the quality of the paper manufactured. In this work we examine various types of paper using information obtained by an appropriate chemometric treatment of infrared spectral data. For this purpose, we studied a large number of paper sheets of three different types (namely coated, offset and cast-coated) supplied by several paper manufacturers. We recorded Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra with the aid of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) module and near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra by means of fiber optics. Both techniques proved expeditious and required no sample pretreatment. The primary objective of this work was to develop a methodology for the accurate identification of samples of different paper types. For this purpose, we used the chemometric discrimination technique extended canonical variate analysis (ECVA) in combination with the k nearest neighbor (kNN) method to classify samples in the prediction set. Use of the NIR and FTIR techniques under these conditions allowed paper types to be identified with 100% success in prediction samples.

Riba, Jordi-Roger; Canals, Trini; Cantero, Rosa; Iturriaga, Hortensia

2011-02-01

201

A cultured strain of "Helicobacter heilmannii," a human gastric pathogen, identified as H. bizzozeronii: evidence for zoonotic potential of Helicobacter.  

PubMed Central

We compared the characteristics of a cultured human "Helicobacter heilmannii" isolate with those of other helicobacters found in animals. Phenotypic, protein profile, 16S rDNA sequence, and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses identified the human strain as H. bizzozeronii, a species frequently found in dogs. Thus, H. bizzozeronii may have zoonotic potential.

Jalava, K.; On, S. L.; Harrington, C. S.; Andersen, L. P.; Hanninen, M. L.; Vandamme, P.

2001-01-01

202

Potential tumor biomarkers identified in ovarian cyst fluid by quantitative proteomic analysis, iTRAQ  

PubMed Central

Background Epithelial-derived ovarian adenocarcinoma (EOC) is the most deadly gynecologic tumor, and the principle cause of the poor survival rate is diagnosis at a late stage. Screening and diagnostic biomarkers with acceptable specificity and sensitivity are lacking. Ovarian cyst fluid should harbor early ovarian cancer biomarkers because of its closeness to the tumor. We investigated ovarian cyst fluid as a source for discovering biomarkers for use in the diagnosis of EOC. Results Using quantitative mass spectrometry, iTRAQ MS, we identified 837 proteins in cyst fluid from benign, EOC stage I, and EOC stage III. Only patients of serous histology were included in the study. Comparing the benign (n?=?5) with the malignant (n?=?10) group, 87 of the proteins were significantly (p?identified 87 differentially expressed proteins and validated two candidates to verify the iTRAQ method. However several of the proteins are of interest for validation in a larger setting.

2013-01-01

203

UNAIDS 'multiple sexual partners' core indicator: promoting sexual networks to reduce potential biases  

PubMed Central

UNAIDS proposed a set of core indicators for monitoring changes in the worldwide AIDS epidemic. This paper explores the validity and effectiveness of the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator, which is only partially captured with current available data. The paper also suggests an innovative approach for collecting more informative data that can be used to provide an accurate measure of the UNAIDS’s ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator. Specifically, the paper addresses three major limitations associated with the indicator when it is measured with respondents’ sexual behaviors. First, the indicator assumes that a person’s risk of contracting HIV/AIDS/STIs is merely a function of his/her own sexual behavior. Second, the indicator does not account for a partner’s sexual history, which is very important in assessing an individual’s risk level. Finally, the 12-month period used to define a person’s risks can be misleading, especially because HIV/AIDS theoretically has a period of latency longer than a year. The paper concludes that, programmatically, improvements in data collection are a top priority for reducing the observed bias in the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator.

Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Emina, Jacques B.O.; Sankoh, Osman

2014-01-01

204

Ennoblement Due to Biofilms: Indicator for Potential Corrosion and Source of Electrical Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ennoblement, a positive shift in corrosion potential, due to biofilm formation is the basis of patents for biofilm monitoring and power generating devices. Ennoblement is a global phenomenon that is routinely cited as a mechanism for microbiologically inf...

B. J. Little J. C. Biffinger J. S. Lee R. I. Ray S. Austin

2013-01-01

205

Biominerals on Mars: the potential for carbonates to be life indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of life on Mars remains open today because recent data provided by the Mars Express orbiter, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity seem to indicate a past environment of Mars, with liquid water and mild temperatures, favourable for life. We also suggest that a better understanding of the biomineral formation processes, and the discrimination between them and their abiotic counterparts (i.e. minerals with the same chemical and mineralogical composition but formed by abiotic processes) should be considered as a promising approach in order to detect possible traces of a past Martian life. Moreover, biominerals may constitute fossil records of biological activities, which can survive for several millions or billions years, because they are among the oldest know traces of the biological activity on Earth. One of the properties of the biominerals, compared with their abiotic counterparts, is their faster crystalline speed of growing. The higher this speed is, the more the mineral crystallinity decreases, i.e. its crystal lattice will incorporate a significant number of impurities (crystalline defects, trace/minor elements and maybe organic matter). These impurities increase the crystal entropy and also the required energy to stabilize it: the crystal is then thermodynamically less stable. We then propose that the crystallinity differences between the biominerals and their abiotic counterparts induce specific physico-chemical behaviours. Among the analytical techniques capable to characterize this mineral property, we selected DTA-TG analysis (thermogravimetry coupled to differential thermal analysis). We suggest that the crystallinity is an influent parameter for the mineral thermal resistance. The temperature increase could be a "stressing" agent for the crystal lattices and it could involve behaviour differences between the biominerals and their abiotic counterparts. We then quantify this difference by comparing thermal resistance of various calcite and aragonite samples in order to observe a possible discrimination between a biological thermal degradation "domain" and an abiotic one. The carbonates were selected because they are among the oldest biominerals on Earth, widely produced by the terrestrial biological activity, and potentially present at Mars. The studied samples are biogenic, abiotic and diagenetic ones (combining a biological origin and an abiotic evolution). We started this study with calcite samples, including current biogenic samples, fossil biogenic samples, sedimentary samples and abiotic samples. We observed that the thermal resistance temperatures of all the current biogenic calcite samples are at least 15 ° C lower compared to those of abiotic calcite samples. The second part of the study was based on aragonite samples, including current biogenic samples, fossil biogenic samples and abiotic samples. We also observed a 23 ° C difference between the biological domain and the abiotic domain.. This demonstrates that the simple technique we chose is capable to differentiate the biotic minerals from the abiotic ones. We then have access to a non-ambiguous biological signature via the thermal resistance comparison of biogenic and abiotic carbonates. This discriminatory method could be used in the framework of several in situ Mars exploration mission: directly by differential thermal analysis (TEGA instrument, Phoenix Lander mission, 2007) or indirectly by analysis in gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (SAM experiment on MSL 2009 or MOMA experiment on ExoMars 2013).

Stalport, Fabien; Person, Alain; Cabane, Michel; Ausset, Patrick; Coll, Patrice; Szopa, Cyril; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael

206

Use of comparative proteomics to identify potential resistance mechanisms in cancer treatment  

PubMed Central

Drug resistance is a major problem in successful cancer chemotherapy. Many molecular mechanisms that are responsible for drug resistance are known whereas others have yet to be discovered. Determining the exact mechanism activated in a particular case (clinical or laboratory) is a difficult task. Recently, proteomics has been applied to investigate drug resistance mechanisms in model cancer cell lines. As a result, novel mechanisms of resistance have been discovered and known mechanisms of resistance confirmed. In this paper, we wish to review recent developments and progresses in the application of proteomic tools to identify known and novel drug resistance mechanisms in drug-selected model cancer cell lines. Our combined analyses of multiple proteomic studies of various drug resistant cancer cell lines revealed that many mechanisms of resistance likely exist in any given drug-selected cancer cell line and that common mechanisms of resistance may be selected in a spectrum of cancer cell lines. These observations suggest that combination therapies targeting multiple mechanisms to sensitize drug resistant cancers may be necessary to eradicate cancers in the future.

Zhang, Jian-Ting; Liu, Yang

2007-01-01

207

Using self-organizing maps to identify potential halo white dwarfs.  

PubMed

We present the results of an unsupervised classification of the disk and halo white dwarf populations in the solar neighborhood. The classification is done by merging the results of detailed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, which reproduce very well the characteristics of the white dwarf populations in the solar neighborhood, with a catalogue of real stars. The resulting composite catalogue is analyzed using a competitive learning algorithm. In particular we have used the so-called self-organized map. The MC simulated stars are used as tracers and help in identifying the resulting clusters. The results of such an strategy turn out to be quite satisfactory, suggesting that this approach can provide an useful framework for analyzing large databases of white dwarfs with well determined kinematical, spatial and photometric properties once they become available in the next decade. Moreover, the results are of astrophysical interest as well, since a straightforward interpretation of several recent astronomical observations, like the detected microlensing events in the direction of the Magellanic Clouds, the possible detection of high proper motion white dwarfs in the Hubble Deep Field and the discovery of high velocity white dwarfs in the solar neighborhood, suggests that a fraction of the baryonic dark matter component of our galaxy could be in the form of old and dim halo white dwarfs. PMID:12672435

García-Berro, Enrique; Torres, Santiago; Isern, Jordi

2003-01-01

208

Identifying potential clinical syndromes of hepatocellular carcinoma using PSO-based hierarchical feature selection algorithm.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. Clinical symptoms attributable to HCC are usually absent, thus often miss the best therapeutic opportunities. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plays an active role in diagnosis and treatment of HCC. In this paper, we proposed a particle swarm optimization-based hierarchical feature selection (PSOHFS) model to infer potential syndromes for diagnosis of HCC. Firstly, the hierarchical feature representation is developed by a three-layer tree. The clinical symptoms and positive score of patient are leaf nodes and root in the tree, respectively, while each syndrome feature on the middle layer is extracted from a group of symptoms. Secondly, an improved PSO-based algorithm is applied in a new reduced feature space to search an optimal syndrome subset. Based on the result of feature selection, the causal relationships of symptoms and syndromes are inferred via Bayesian networks. In our experiment, 147 symptoms were aggregated into 27 groups and 27 syndrome features were extracted. The proposed approach discovered 24 syndromes which obviously improved the diagnosis accuracy. Finally, the Bayesian approach was applied to represent the causal relationships both at symptom and syndrome levels. The results show that our computational model can facilitate the clinical diagnosis of HCC. PMID:24745007

Ji, Zhiwei; Wang, Bing

2014-01-01

209

Identifying Potential Clinical Syndromes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using PSO-Based Hierarchical Feature Selection Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. Clinical symptoms attributable to HCC are usually absent, thus often miss the best therapeutic opportunities. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plays an active role in diagnosis and treatment of HCC. In this paper, we proposed a particle swarm optimization-based hierarchical feature selection (PSOHFS) model to infer potential syndromes for diagnosis of HCC. Firstly, the hierarchical feature representation is developed by a three-layer tree. The clinical symptoms and positive score of patient are leaf nodes and root in the tree, respectively, while each syndrome feature on the middle layer is extracted from a group of symptoms. Secondly, an improved PSO-based algorithm is applied in a new reduced feature space to search an optimal syndrome subset. Based on the result of feature selection, the causal relationships of symptoms and syndromes are inferred via Bayesian networks. In our experiment, 147 symptoms were aggregated into 27 groups and 27 syndrome features were extracted. The proposed approach discovered 24 syndromes which obviously improved the diagnosis accuracy. Finally, the Bayesian approach was applied to represent the causal relationships both at symptom and syndrome levels. The results show that our computational model can facilitate the clinical diagnosis of HCC.

Ji, Zhiwei; Wang, Bing

2014-01-01

210

Proteomic analysis to identify plasma orosomucoid 2 and kinesin 18A as potential biomarkers of cholangiocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Proteomic analysis was performed to search for the diagnostic biomarkers of the early stage of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). For this purpose, CCA was experimentally induced in hamsters by the combination of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) treatment and Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) infection. Pooled plasma of normal control, NDMA-treated, OV-infected and OV+NDMA (ON) treated group was separated by 1-D PAGE, and the trypsin-digested bands were analyzed with LC-MS/MS. Among 82 overexpressed proteins, the study focused on 26 proteins overexpressed in ON group because CCA development was almost exclusively found in this group. A further selection was made based on the protein overexpression on day 21, the precancerous stage. Orosomucoid 2 (Orm2) was overexpressed in OV and ON groups and kinesin 18A (KIF18A) was overexpressed in the ON group. The overexpression levels were verified by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting in the liver and plasma. The transcription and translation levels of these two candidate molecules increased significantly at 21 days post-treatment before tumor development. Immunohistochemistry revealed KIF18A was expressed in the epithelial cells of newly formed small bile ducts, some inflammatory cells and hepatocytes. These results suggest that Orm2 and KIF18A could be the potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of CCA. PMID:23396253

Rucksaken, Rucksak; Khoontawad, Jarinya; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Pinlaor, Porntip; Hiraku, Yusuke; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Somchai

2012-01-01

211

Development of a Novel Virtual Screening Cascade Protocol to Identify Potential Trypanothione Reductase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

The implementation of a novel sequential computational approach that can be used effectively for virtual screening and identification of prospective ligands that bind to trypanothione reductase (TryR) is reported. The multistep strategy combines a ligand-based virtual screening for building an enriched library of small molecules with a docking protocol (AutoDock, X-Score) for screening against the TryR target. Compounds were ranked by an exhaustive conformational consensus scoring approach that employs a rank-by-rank strategy by combining both scoring functions. Analysis of the predicted ligand?protein interactions highlights the role of bulky quaternary amine moieties for binding affinity. The scaffold hopping (SHOP) process derived from this computational approach allowed the identification of several chemotypes, not previously reported as antiprotozoal agents, which includes dibenzothiepine, dibenzooxathiepine, dibenzodithiepine, and polycyclic cationic structures like thiaazatetracyclo-nonadeca-hexaen-3-ium. Assays measuring the inhibiting effect of these compounds on T. cruzi and T. brucei TryR confirm their potential for further rational optimization.

2009-01-01

212

Novel Peptide Marker Corresponding to Salivary Protein gSG6 Potentially Identifies Exposure to Anopheles Bites  

PubMed Central

Background In order to improve malaria control, and under the aegis of WHO recommendations, many efforts are being devoted to developing new tools for identifying geographic areas with high risk of parasite transmission. Evaluation of the human antibody response to arthropod salivary proteins could be an epidemiological indicator of exposure to vector bites, and therefore to risk of pathogen transmission. In the case of malaria, which is transmitted only by anopheline mosquitoes, maximal specificity could be achieved through identification of immunogenic proteins specific to the Anopheles genus. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the IgG response to the Anopheles gambiae gSG6 protein, from its recombinant form to derived synthetic peptides, could be an immunological marker of exposure specific to Anopheles gambiae bites. Methodology/Principal Findings Specific IgG antibodies to recombinant gSG6 protein were observed in children living in a Senegalese area exposed to malaria. With the objective of optimizing Anopheles specificity and reproducibility, we designed five gSG6-based peptide sequences using a bioinformatic approach, taking into consideration i) their potential antigenic properties and ii) the absence of cross-reactivity with protein sequences of other arthropods/organisms. The specific anti-peptide IgG antibody response was evaluated in exposed children. The five gSG6 peptides showed differing antigenic properties, with gSG6-P1 and gSG6-P2 exhibiting the highest antigenicity. However, a significant increase in the specific IgG response during the rainy season and a positive association between the IgG level and the level of exposure to Anopheles gambiae bites was significant only for gSG6-P1. Conclusions/Significance This step-by-step approach suggests that gSG6-P1 could be an optimal candidate marker for evaluating exposure to Anopheles gambiae bites. This marker could be employed as a geographic indicator, like remote sensing techniques, for mapping the risk of malaria. It could also represent a direct criterion of efficacy in evaluation of vector control strategies.

Poinsignon, Anne; Cornelie, Sylvie; Mestres-Simon, Montserrat; Lanfrancotti, Alessandra; Rossignol, Marie; Boulanger, Denis; Cisse, Badara; Sokhna, Cheikh; Arca, Bruno; Simondon, Francois; Remoue, Franck

2008-01-01

213

GAS6 expression identifies high-risk adult AML patients: potential implications for therapy.  

PubMed

Emerging data demonstrate important roles for the TYRO3/AXL/MERTK receptor tyrosine kinase (TAM RTK) family in diverse cancers. We investigated the prognostic relevance of GAS6 expression, encoding the common TAM RTK ligand, in 270 adults (n=71 aged<60 years; n=199 aged ?60 years) with de novo cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). Patients expressing GAS6 (GAS6+), especially those aged ?60 years, more often failed to achieve a complete remission (CR). In all patients, GAS6+ patients had shorter disease-free (DFS) and overall (OS) survival than patients without GAS6 expression (GAS6-). After adjusting for other prognostic markers, GAS6+ predicted CR failure (P=0.02), shorter DFS (P=0.004) and OS (P=0.04). To gain further biological insights, we derived a GAS6-associated gene-expression signature (P<0.001) that in GAS6+ patients included overexpressed BAALC and MN1, known to confer adverse prognosis in CN-AML, and overexpressed CXCL12, encoding stromal cell-derived factor, and its receptor genes, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) and CXCR7. This study reports for the first time that GAS6 expression is an adverse prognostic marker in CN-AML. Although GAS6 decoy receptors are not yet available in the clinic for GAS6+ CN-AML therapy, potential alternative therapies targeting GAS6+-associated pathways, for example, CXCR4 antagonists, may be considered for GAS6+ patients to sensitize them to chemotherapy. PMID:24326683

Whitman, S P; Kohlschmidt, J; Maharry, K; Volinia, S; Mrózek, K; Nicolet, D; Schwind, S; Becker, H; Metzeler, K H; Mendler, J H; Eisfeld, A-K; Carroll, A J; Powell, B L; Carter, T H; Baer, M R; Kolitz, J E; Park, I-K; Stone, R M; Caligiuri, M A; Marcucci, G; Bloomfield, C D

2014-06-01

214

DNA microarray analysis identifies CKS2 and LEPR as potential markers of meningioma recurrence.  

PubMed

Meningiomas are the most frequent intracranial tumors. Surgery can be curative, but recurrences are possible. We performed gene expression analyses and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies looking for new markers predicting the recurrence risk. We analyzed expression profiles of 23 meningiomas (10 grade I, 10 grade II, and 3 grade III) and validated the data using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We performed LOH analysis on 40 meningiomas, investigating chromosomal regions on 1p, 9p, 10q, 14q, and 22q. We found 233 and 268 probe sets to be significantly down- and upregulated, respectively, in grade II or III meningiomas. Genes downregulated in high-grade meningiomas were overrepresented on chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10, and 14. Based on functional enrichment analysis, we selected LIM domain and actin binding 1 (LIMA1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3), cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 2 (CKS2), leptin receptor (LEPR), and baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing 5 (BIRC5) for validation using qPCR and confirmed their differential expression in the two groups of tumors. We calculated ?Ct values of CKS2 and LEPR and found that their differential expression (C-L index) was significantly higher in grade I than in grade II or III meningiomas (p < .0001). Interestingly, the C-L index of nine grade I meningiomas from patients who relapsed in <5 years was significantly lower than in grade I meningiomas from patients who did not relapse. These findings indicate that the C-L index may be relevant to define the progression risk in meningioma patients, helping guide their clinical management. A prospective analysis on a larger number of cases is warranted. PMID:21948653

Menghi, Francesca; Orzan, Francesca N; Eoli, Marica; Farinotti, Mariangela; Maderna, Emanuela; Pisati, Federica; Bianchessi, Donatella; Valletta, Lorella; Lodrini, Sandro; Galli, Giuseppe; Anghileri, Elena; Pellegatta, Serena; Pollo, Bianca; Finocchiaro, Gaetano

2011-01-01

215

Targeted Next-generation Sequencing of Advanced Prostate Cancer Identifies Potential Therapeutic Targets and Disease Heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Background Most personalized cancer care strategies involving DNA sequencing are highly reliant on acquiring sufficient fresh or frozen tissue. It has been challenging to comprehensively evaluate the genome of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) because of limited access to metastatic tissue. Objective To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel next-generation sequencing (NGS) based platform that can be used with archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsy tissue to evaluate the spectrum of DNA alterations seen in advanced PCa. Design, setting, and participants FFPE samples (including archival prostatectomies and prostate needle biopsies) were obtained from 45 patients representing the spectrum of disease: localized PCa, metastatic hormone-naive PCa, and metastatic castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). We also assessed paired primaries and metastases to understand disease heterogeneity and disease progression. Intervention At least 50 ng of tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE samples and used for hybridization capture and NGS using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis A total of 3320 exons of 182 cancer-associated genes and 37 introns of 14 commonly rearranged genes were evaluated for genomic alterations. Results and limitations We obtained an average sequencing depth of >900X. Overall, 44% of CRPCs harbored genomic alterations involving the androgen receptor gene (AR), including AR copy number gain (24% of CRPCs) or AR point mutation (20% of CRPCs). Other recurrent mutations included transmembrane protease, serine 2 gene (TMPRSS2):v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (avian) gene (ERG) fusion (44%); phosphatase and tensin homolog gene (PTEN) loss (44%); tumor protein p53 gene (TP53) mutation (40%); retinoblastoma gene (RB) loss (28%); v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (avian) gene (MYC) gain (12%); and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit ? gene (PIK3CA) mutation (4%). There was a high incidence of genomic alterations involving key genes important for DNA repair, including breast cancer 2, early onset gene (BRCA2) loss (12%) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM) mutations (8%); these alterations are potentially targetable with poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose)polymerase inhibitors. A novel and actionable rearrangement involving the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 gene (BRAF) was also detected. Conclusions This first-in-principle study demonstrates the feasibility of performing in-depth DNA analyses using FFPE tissue and brings new insight toward understanding the genomic landscape within advanced PCa.

Beltran, Himisha; Yelensky, Roman; Frampton, Garrett M.; Park, Kyung; Downing, Sean R.; MacDonald, Theresa Y.; Jarosz, Mirna; Lipson, Doron; Tagawa, Scott T.; Nanus, David M.; Stephens, Philip J.; Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Cronin, Maureen T.; Rubin, Mark A.

2012-01-01

216

Combined effects of mental load and background noise on CNS activity indicated by brain DC potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess combined effects of noise and mental load on brain activity, DC potential shifts were evaluated. In a 4-way repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) design with Type of Noise, Sound Intensity, Mental Load, DC Recording Location as factor, 2-min epochs of noise exposure were compared in 18 subjects. Significant main effects were found for Type of Noise (white noise

M. Trimmel; M. Kundi; G. Binder; E. Groll-Knapp; M. Haider

1996-01-01

217

Gravity wave kinetic, potential, and vertical fluctuation energies as indicators of different frequency gravity waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advantage of examining atmospheric gravity waves using high vertical-resolution radiosonde data over other measurement techniques is that horizontal wind, temperature, and vertical ascent rate can be measured directly. This allows the kinetic, potential, and vertical velocity fluctuation energies to be derived independently. Each of these gravity wave energies is shown to have sensitivity to different gravity wave frequencies. Observed

Marvin A. Geller; Jie Gong

2010-01-01

218

Validation of Brain Event-Related Potentials as Indicators of Cognitive Styles, Abilities, and Aptitudes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fifty Navy recruits were given 11 paper-and-pencil tests of cognitive styles, abilities, and aptitudes. Visual, auditory, and bimodal brain even-related potential (ERP) amplitudes were recorded from each of these subjects. Product-moment and cononical cor...

P. A. Federico, J. N. Froning, M. Calder

1983-01-01

219

Validation of Brain Event-Related Potentials as Indicators of Cognitive Styles, Abilities, and Aptitudes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fifty Navy recruits were given 11 paper-and-pencil tests of cognitive styles, abilities, and aptitudes. Visual, auditory, and bimodal brain event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes were recorded from each of these subjects. Product-moment and canonical co...

P. A. Federico G. W. Lewis J. N. Froning M. Calder

1982-01-01

220

Validation of Brain Event-Related Potentials as Indicators of Cognitive Styles, Abilities, and Aptitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty Navy recruits were given 11 paper-and-pencil tests of cognitive styles, abilities, and aptitudes. Visual, auditory, and bimodal brain event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes were recorded from each of these subjects. Product-moment and canonical correlational analyses, as well as principal-factor analysis and varimax rotation, were…

Federico, Pat-Anthony; And Others

221

Electrophysiological (Event-Related Potentials) Indices of Cognitive Processing in Autistic Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Event-related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded to both auditory and visual stimuli from the scalps of nine autistic males and nine normal controls (all Ss between 12 and 22 years of age) to examine the differences in information processing strategies. Ss were tested on three different tasks: an auditory missing stimulus paradigm, a visual color…

Shibley, Ralph, Jr.; And Others

222

Event-Related Potential Indicators of Text Integration across Sentence Boundaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An event-related potentials (ERPs) study examined word-to-text integration processes across sentence boundaries. In a two-sentence passage, the accessibility of a referent for the first content word of the second sentence (the target word) was varied by the wording of the first sentence in one of the following ways: lexically (explicitly using…

Yang, Chin Lung; Perfetti, Charles A.; Schmalhofer, Franz

2007-01-01

223

Statistical Indicators of Potential for Electric Utility Least-Cost Planning Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project is to examine the potential for LCUP (least-cost utility planning) by estimating when and where demand-side measures can make a difference in utility resource plans. We make this assessment by linking utility interest in LCUP to a...

J. H. Eto J. G. Koomey P. T. Chan W. Yen-Wood

1988-01-01

224

Biominerals on Mars: the potential for carbonates to be life indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of life on Mars remains open today because recent data provided by the Mars Express orbiter, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity seem to indicate a past environment of Mars, with liquid water and mild temperatures, favourable for life. We also suggest that a better understanding of the biomineral formation processes, and the

Fabien Stalport; Alain Person; Michel Cabane; Patrick Ausset; Patrice Coll; Cyril Szopa; Rafael Navarro-Gonzalez

2008-01-01

225

Event-related potentials indicating impaired emotional attention in cerebellar stroke--a case study.  

PubMed

The cerebellum has been implicated in affective and attentional processes, but little is known about corresponding neural signatures. We investigated early and late components of event-related potentials (ERPs) to emotionally arousing pictures, with and without competing attentional tasks, in a patient with an ischemic right posterior cerebellar infarction, at two months post infarct and two year follow-up. The early posterior negativity (EPN) response to highly arousing emotional cues in the competing visual attention condition revealed that the augmentation over occipital areas, as typically seen in normals, was absent post-infarct but was restored after two years. The late positive potentials (LPP) response to highly arousing emotional cues showed augmentation over frontal areas post-infarct, and over centro-parietal regions after two years. These ERP findings suggest a specific pattern of disruption of neural function associated with emotional-behavioral disturbances following cerebellar lesions, which can revert to normal with long term recovery. PMID:23643987

Adamaszek, M; Olbrich, S; Kirkby, K C; Woldag, H; Willert, C; Heinrich, A

2013-08-26

226

Event-related brain potentials as indices of mental workload and attentional allocation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past decade considerable strides were made in explicating the antecedant conditions necessary for the elicitation, and the modulation of the amplitude and latency, of a number of components of the event-related brain potential (ERP). The focus of this report is on P300. The degree to which the psychophysiological measures contribute to issues in two real-world domains (communication devices for the motor impaired and the assessment of mental workload of aircraft pilots) are examined.

Kramer, Arthur F.; Donchin, Emanuel; Wickens, Christopher D.

1988-01-01

227

Heavy metal indicator potential of the Asiatic clam ( Corbicula fluminea ) in artificial stream systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea, as a bioindicator of cadmium, copper, and zinc was studied during 28-day exposures in field artificial streams receiving river water on a once-through basis. Copper, at aquatic concentrations of 0.016 and 0.057 mg l-1, showed the greatest degree of tissue uptake and had bioconcentration factors (BCF) of 22 571 and 17 720,

Robert L. Graney; Donald S. Cherry; John Cairns

1983-01-01

228

The induction of alkoxyresorufin metabolism: A potential indicator of environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of biochemical monitoring of individual animals for exposure to environmental contaminants are of great potential use. The hepatic metabolism of various alkoxyresorufins, which are highly specific substrates for certain forms of cytochrome(s) P450, is highly induced by a variety of environmental contaminants. Thus, theO-deal-kylation of pentoxy- or benzyloxyresorufin was induced greater than 20-fold in the rat bya-hexachlorocyclohexane, 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl, DDT

Ronald A. Lubet; F. Peter Guengerich; Raymond W. Nims

1990-01-01

229

Abnormal subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials indicate high cervical myelopathy in achondroplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with achondroplasia may have high cervical myelopathy due to stenosis of the cranio-cervical junction resulting\\u000a in neurological disability and an increased rate of sudden death. To detect myelopathy we recorded somatosensory evoked potentials\\u000a (SEPs) after median nerve stimulation in 30 patients with achondroplasia aged 13 months to 18 years (mean 6 years). In addition\\u000a to the conventional technique of

R. Boor; G. Fricke; K. Brühl; J. Spranger

1999-01-01

230

The utility of stream habitat and biota for identifying potential conflicting forest land uses: Montane riparian areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rinne, J.N., 1990. The utility of stream habitat and biota for identifying potential conflicting forest land uses: Montane riparian areas. For. Ecol. Manage., 33\\/34: 363-383. Investigations since 1960 on the effects of land-management practices on riparian-stream systems often have produced contradictory results. Inconsistencies have occurred, in part, because of efforts that have not been totally comprehensive and, in part, because

John N. Rinne

1990-01-01

231

Functional bacteria as potential indicators of water quality in Three Gorges Reservoir, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributions of culturable bacteria and functional bacteria associated with nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) in the backwater\\u000a areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were investigated. Results from seven locations in the TGR indicated that the abundance\\u000a of total bacteria was high, with 8.12 × 106, 2.70 × 107, and 6.73 × 1010 colony-forming units per milliliter or per gram

Hongyuan Wang; Zhenyao Shen; Junfeng Niu; Ya He; Qian Hong; Ying Wang

2010-01-01

232

A potential to monitor nutrients as an indicator of rangeland quality using space borne remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global change consisting of land use and climate change could have huge impacts on food security and the health of various ecosystems. Leaf nitrogen (N) is one of the key factors limiting agricultural production and ecosystem functioning. Leaf N can be used as an indicator of rangeland quality which could provide information for the farmers, decision makers, land planners and managers. Leaf N plays a crucial role in understanding the feeding patterns and distribution of wildlife and livestock. Assessment of this vegetation parameter using conventional methods at landscape scale level is time consuming and tedious. Remote sensing provides a synoptic view of the landscape, which engenders an opportunity to assess leaf N over wider rangeland areas from protected to communal areas. Estimation of leaf N has been successful during peak productivity or high biomass and limited studies estimated leaf N in dry season. The objective of this study is to monitor leaf N as an indicator of rangeland quality using WorldView 2 satellite images in the north-eastern part of South Africa. Series of field work to collect samples for leaf N were undertaken in the beginning of May (end of wet season) and July (dry season). Several conventional and red edge based vegetation indices were computed. Simple regression was used to develop prediction model for leaf N. Using bootstrapping, indicator of precision and accuracy were analyzed to select a best model for the combined data sets (May and July). The may model for red edge based simple ratio explained over 90% of leaf N variations. The model developed from the combined data sets with normalized difference vegetation index explained 62% of leaf N variation, and this is a model used to estimate and map leaf N for two seasons. The study demonstrated that leaf N could be monitored using high spatial resolution with the red edge band capability.

Ramoelo, A.; Cho, M. A.; Madonsela, S.; Mathieu, R.; van der Korchove, R.; Kaszta, Z.; Wolf, E.

2014-02-01

233

Multilevel somatosensory evoked potentials and cerebrospinal proteins: indicators of spinal cord injury in thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Multilevel somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and the release of biochemical markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were investigated to identify patients with spinal cord ischemia during thoracoabdominal aortic repair and\\/or a vulnerable spinal cord during the postoperative period. Methods: Thirty-nine consecutive patients undergoing elective aneurysm repair using distal aortic perfusion and cerebrospinal fluid drainage were studied. Continuous SSEP were monitored

Anders Winnerkvist; Russell E. Anderson; Lars-Olof Hansson; Lars Rosengren; Anthony E. Estrera; Tam T. T. Huynh; Eyal E. Porat; Hazim J. Safi

2007-01-01

234

A protocol for a scoping and qualitative study to identify and evaluate indications for damage control surgery and damage control interventions in civilian trauma patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Initial abbreviated surgery with planned reoperation (damage control surgery) is frequently used for major trauma patients to rapidly control haemorrhage while limiting surgical stress. Although damage control surgery may decrease mortality risk among the severely injured, it may also be associated with several complications when inappropriately applied. We seek to scope the literature on trauma damage control surgery, identify its proposed indications, map and clarify their definitions, and examine the content and evidence on which they are based. We also seek to generate a comprehensive list of unique indications to inform an appropriateness rating process. Methods and analysis We will search 11 electronic bibliographic databases, included article bibliographies and grey literature sources for citations involving civilian trauma patients that proposed one or more indications for damage control surgery or a damage control intervention. Indications will be classified into a predefined conceptual framework and categorised and described using qualitative content analysis. Constant comparative methodology will be used to create, modify and test codes describing principal findings or injuries (eg, bilobar liver injury) and associated decision variables (eg, coagulopathy) that comprise the reported indications. After a unique list of codes have been developed, we will use the organisational system recommended by the RAND/University of California, Los Angeles (RAND-UCLA) Appropriateness Rating Method to group principal findings or injuries into chapters (subdivided by associated decision variables) according to broader clinical findings encountered during surgical practice (eg, major liver injury). Ethics and dissemination This study will constitute the first step in a multistep research programme aimed at developing appropriate, evidence-informed indications for damage control in civilian trauma patients. With use of an integrated knowledge translation intervention that includes collaboration with surgical practice leaders, this research may allow for development of indications that are more likely to be relevant to and used by surgeons. Ethics approval is not required for this study.

Roberts, Derek J; Zygun, David A; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Ball, Chad G; Faris, Peter D; Bobrovitz, Niklas; Robertson, Helen Lee; Stelfox, H Thomas

2014-01-01

235

Cross-polar cap potential difference, auroral electrojet indices, and solar wind parameters  

SciTech Connect

The cross-polar cap potential difference {Phi} (KRM) is estimated from ground magnetic perturbation data through the magnetometer inversion method of Kamide, Richmond, and Matsushita (FRM), combined with an empirical ionospheric conductance distribution estimated from the DMSP X ray image data. A significant correlation is found between {Phi} (KRM) and the AE(12) index. {Phi} (KRM) is then compared with the potential difference estimated from a more direct method of the satellite electric field measurements and also with {Phi}(IMF) is found to be linearly correlated with {Phi} (IMF) based on solar wind parameters. {Phi} IMF is found to be linearly correlated with {Phi}(KRM), as {Phi}(IMF) = 29.8 + 0.999 {Phi} (KRM), with the highest correlation obtained for a 40-min lag in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Note that {Phi}(IMF) is systematically larger than {Phi} (KRM) by 30 kV, suggesting the possibility that the theoretical method overestimates the cross-polar cap potential difference. During steady southward IMF periods were steady {Phi} (IMF) variations are expected, significant fluctuations in calculated {Phi} (KRM) values are obtained. Since the decrease in {Phi} (KRM) is closely associated with enhancements in auroral particle precipitation during these periods, a highly correlative relation between {Phi} (IMF) and {Phi} (KRM) cannot be deduced unless the phases of substorms are taken into account. The overall high correlation between them, however, supports the view expressed by Wolf et al. (1986) that directly driven processes are more important than unloading processes during disturbed periods.

Ahn, B.H. (Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Korea) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Kamide, Y. (Kyoto Sangyo Univ., (Japan)); Kroehl, H.W.; Gorney, D.J. (Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1992-02-01

236

Application of remote sensing and GIS analysis for identifying groundwater potential zone in parts of Kodaikanal Taluk, South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater potential zones were demarcated with the help of remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. The study area is composed rocks of Archaean age and charnockite dominated over others. The parameters considered for identifying the groundwater potential zone of geology slope, drainage density, geomorphic units and lineament density were generated using the resource sat (IRS P6 LISS IV MX) data and survey of India (SOI) toposheets of scale 1:50000 and integrated them with an inverse distance weighted (IDW) model based on GIS data to identify the groundwater potential of the study area. Suitable weightage factors were assigned for each category of these parameters. For the various geomorphic units, weightage factors were assigned based on their capability to store ground-water. This procedure was repeated for all the other layers and resultant layers were reclassified. The reclassified layers were then combined to demarcate zones as very good, good, moderate, low, and poor. This groundwater potentiality information could be used for effective identification of suitable locations for extraction of potable water for rural populations.

Bagyaraj, Murugesan; Ramkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Venkatramanan, Senapathi; Gurugnanam, Balasubramanian

2013-03-01

237

Can inbound and domestic medical tourism improve your bottom line? Identifying the potential of a U.S. tourism market.  

PubMed

In large part due to current economic conditions and the political uncertainties of healthcare reform legislation, hospitals need to identify new sources of revenue. Two potentially untapped sources are inbound (international) and domestic (within the United States) medical tourists. This case study uses data from a large, urban healthcare system in the southeastern United States to quantify its potential market opportunities for medical tourism. The data were mined from electronic health records, and descriptive frequency analysis was used to provide a preliminary market assessment. This approach permits healthcare systems to move beyond anecdotal information and assess the relative market potential of their particular geographic area and the diagnostic services they offer for attracting inbound and domestic medical tourists. Implications for healthcare executives and guidance on how they can focus marketing efforts are discussed. PMID:24611426

Fottler, Myron D; Malvey, Donna; Asi, Yara; Kirchner, Sarah; Warren, Natalia A

2014-01-01

238

Alitretinoin - its use in intractable hand eczema and other potential indications  

PubMed Central

Chronic hand eczema is a significant cause of morbidity. A number of treatments are traditionally used, and often useful, but in spite of this a sizeable group of patients develop chronic recalcitrant hand eczema. Retinoids are known to influence keratinization and inflammation, and acitretin has shown some effect in the treatment of chronic hand eczema. Alitretinoin (9-cis-retinoic acid) is a panagonist retinoid binding to all six known retinoid receptors (RAR-?, -?, -? and RXR-?, -?, -?). Several studies have been carried out with this new drug, and it has been shown to be effective in 28% to 89% of patients with previously intractable hand eczema. In addition, alitretinoin appears to have some potential in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. Attempts to use the drug in secondary prophylaxis has shown some promise in former tobacco smokers, whereas no effect was seen in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Currently, the primary therapeutic potential of alitretinoin appears to be the treatment of chronic recalcitrant hand eczema, which also forms a large and hitherto neglected group of patients.

Petersen, Bibi; Jemec, Gregor BE

2009-01-01

239

Comparison of the Pathogenic Potentials of Environmental and Clinical Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Indicates a Role for Temperature Regulation in Virulence? †  

PubMed Central

Although the presence of pathogenic Vibrio spp. in estuarine environments of northern New England has been known for some time (C. H. Bartley and L. W. Slanetz, Appl. Microbiol. 21: 965-966, 1971, and K. R. O'Neil, S. H. Jones, and D. J. Grimes, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 60:163-167, 1990), their virulence and the relative threat they may pose to human health has yet to be evaluated. In this study, the virulence potential of 33 Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates collected from the Great Bay Estuary of New Hampshire was assessed in comparison to that of clinical strains. The environmental isolates lack thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), which are encoded by tdh and trh, respectively. Though not hemolytic, they do possess putative virulence factors, such type III secretion system 1, and are highly cytotoxic to human gastrointestinal cells. The expression of known and putative virulence-associated traits, including hemolysin, protease, motility, biofilm formation, and cytotoxicity, by clinical reference isolates correlated with increased temperature from 28°C to 37°C. In contrast, the environmental isolates did not induce their putative virulence-associated traits in response to a temperature of 37°C. We further identified a significant correlation between hemolytic activity and growth phase among clinical strains, whereby hemolysin production decreases with increasing cell density. The introduction of a tdh::gfp promoter fusion into the environmental strains revealed that they regulate this virulence-associated gene appropriately in response to temperature, indicating that their existing regulatory mechanisms are primed to manage newly acquired virulence genes.

Mahoney, Jennifer C.; Gerding, Matthew J.; Jones, Stephen H.; Whistler, Cheryl A.

2010-01-01

240

Comparison of the pathogenic potentials of environmental and clinical vibrio parahaemolyticus strains indicates a role for temperature regulation in virulence.  

PubMed

Although the presence of pathogenic Vibrio spp. in estuarine environments of northern New England has been known for some time (C. H. Bartley and L. W. Slanetz, Appl. Microbiol. 21: 965-966, 1971, and K. R. O'Neil, S. H. Jones, and D. J. Grimes, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 60:163-167, 1990), their virulence and the relative threat they may pose to human health has yet to be evaluated. In this study, the virulence potential of 33 Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates collected from the Great Bay Estuary of New Hampshire was assessed in comparison to that of clinical strains. The environmental isolates lack thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), which are encoded by tdh and trh, respectively. Though not hemolytic, they do possess putative virulence factors, such type III secretion system 1, and are highly cytotoxic to human gastrointestinal cells. The expression of known and putative virulence-associated traits, including hemolysin, protease, motility, biofilm formation, and cytotoxicity, by clinical reference isolates correlated with increased temperature from 28°C to 37°C. In contrast, the environmental isolates did not induce their putative virulence-associated traits in response to a temperature of 37°C. We further identified a significant correlation between hemolytic activity and growth phase among clinical strains, whereby hemolysin production decreases with increasing cell density. The introduction of a tdh::gfp promoter fusion into the environmental strains revealed that they regulate this virulence-associated gene appropriately in response to temperature, indicating that their existing regulatory mechanisms are primed to manage newly acquired virulence genes. PMID:20889774

Mahoney, Jennifer C; Gerding, Matthew J; Jones, Stephen H; Whistler, Cheryl A

2010-11-01

241

SILAC-based quantitative proteomic approach to identify potential biomarkers from the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma secretome  

PubMed Central

The identification of secreted proteins that are differentially expressed between non-neoplastic and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells can provide potential biomarkers of ESCC. We used a SILAC-based quantitative proteomic approach to compare the secretome of ESCC cells with that of non-neoplastic esophageal squamous epithelial cells. Proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE and tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) of in-gel trypsindigested peptides was carried out on a high-accuracy qTOF mass spectrometer. In total, we identified 441 proteins in the combined secretomes, including 120 proteins with ? 2-fold upregulation in the ESCC secretome vs. that of non-neoplastic esophageal squamous epithelial cells. In this study, several potential protein biomarkers previously known to be increased in ESCC including matrix metalloproteinase 1, transferrin receptor and transforming growth factor beta-induced 68 kDa were identified as overexpressed in the ESCC-derived secretome. In addition, we identified several novel proteins that have not been previously reported to be associated with ESCC. Among the novel candidate proteins identified, protein disulfide isomerase family a member 3 (PDIA3), GDP dissociation inhibitor 2 (GDI2) and lectin galactoside binding soluble 3 binding protein (LGALS3BP) were further validated by immunoblot analysis and immunohistochemical labeling using tissue microarrays. This tissue microarray analysis showed overexpression of protein disulfide isomerase family a member 3, GDP dissociation inhibitor 2 and lectin galactoside binding soluble 3 binding protein in 93, 93 and 87% of 137 ESCC cases, respectively. Hence, we conclude that these potential biomarkers are excellent candidates for further evaluation to test their role and efficacy in the early detection of ESCC.

Kashyap, Manoj Kumar; Harsha, HC; Renuse, Santosh; Pawar, Harsh; Sahasrabuddhe, Nandini A; Kim, Min-Sik; Marimuthu, Arivusudar; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Muthusamy, Babylakshmi; Kandasamy, Kumaran; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava; Mahmood, Riaz; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Meltzer, Stephen J; Kumar, Rekha V; Rustgi, Anil K

2010-01-01

242

Using indicator kriging for the evaluation of arsenic potential contamination in an abandoned mining area (Portugal).  

PubMed

Mining and mineral-processing activities can modify the environment in a variety of ways. Sulfide mineralization is notorious for producing waters with high metal contents. Arsenic is commonly associated with sulfide mineralization and is considered to be toxic in the environment at low levels. The studied abandoned mining area is located in central Portugal and the resulting tailings and rejected materials were deposited and exposed to the air and water for the last 50 years. Sixteen water sample-points were collected. One of these was collected outside the mining influence, with the aim of obtaining a reference background. The risk assessment, concerning the proximity to abandoned mineralized deposits, needs the evaluation of intrinsic and specific vulnerabilities aiming the quantification of the anthropogenic activities. In this study, two indicator variables were constructed. The first one (I(1)), a specific vulnerability, considers the arsenic water supply standard value (0.05 mg/L), and the probability of it being exceeded is dependent on the geologic and hydrological characteristics of the studied area and also on the anthropogenic activities. The second one (I(2)), an intrinsic vulnerability, considers arsenic background limit as cut-off value, and depends only on the geologic and hydro-geological characteristics of the studied area. At Segura, the arsenic water content found during December 2006 (1.190 mg/L) was higher than the arsenic water content detected in October 2006 (0.636 mg/L) which could be associated to the arsenic released from Fe oxy-hydroxide. At Segura abandoned mining area, the iso-probability maps of October 2006 and December 2006, show strong anomalies associated with the water drainage from abandoned mining activities. Near the village, the probability of exceeding the arsenic background value is high but lower than the probability of exceeding the arsenic water supply value. The arsenic anomalies indicate a high probability for water arsenic contamination and those waters should not be used for human consumption. PMID:23220092

Antunes, I M H R; Albuquerque, M T D

2013-01-01

243

Menopausal symptoms among breast cancer patients: a potential indicator of favorable prognosis.  

PubMed

Menopausal symptoms have been suggested to be an indicator of better prognosis among patients treated for breast cancer, because women who experience these symptoms usually have a lower level of estrogen. We tested this hypothesis in a population-based, prospective cohort study involving 4,842 women with stage 0 to III primary breast cancer who were enrolled in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study between March 2002 and April 2006, were aged 20 to 75 years, and were recruited 6 months post-diagnosis. They were followed-up by in-person surveys and record linkages with the vital statistics registry. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of menopausal symptoms at baseline with breast cancer recurrence. Approximately 56% of patients experienced at least one menopausal symptom, including hot flashes, night sweats, and/or vaginal dryness at baseline. During a median follow-up period of 5.3 years, 720 women had a recurrence. Experiencing hot flashes or having ?2 menopausal symptoms was associated with lower risk of recurrence among premenopausal women (hazard ratio [HR]=0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.96 for hot flashes; 0.73, 0.56-0.96 for ?2 menopausal symptoms). Lower recurrence risk in relation to hot flashes was also observed among women who were not overweight/obese (HR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.64-0.99), those with relatively low waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (HR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.97), and those who used tamoxifen (HR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). Consistently experiencing multiple menopausal symptoms was associated with lower recurrence risk among women with low WHR or who used tamoxifen. This large, population-based cohort study of women with breast cancer confirms that experiencing menopausal symptoms is an indicator of favorable breast cancer prognosis. PMID:24098745

Chen, Yong; Dorjgochoo, Tsogzolmaa; Bao, Ping-Ping; Zheng, Ying; Cai, Hui; Lu, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

2013-01-01

244

New indications for the potential involvement of C F-bonds in hydrogen bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid state structures of a selection of 2-fluoro-2-phenylcyclopropane derivatives were examined by X-ray crystallography in order to identify short intermolecular contacts of C-F groups to H-X moieties (X=C, N). Particularly, several cis-configured fluorinated phenylcyclopropane derivatives showed extremely close intermolecular contacts. The shortest of such C-H⋯F-C-distances (2.17 Å, C-F-H angle 162°) was found in (1 S,2 R)-(2-fluoro-2-phenylcyclopropyl)methyl N-(4-bromophenyl)carbamate ( 8) and the closest N-H⋯F-C-interaction (2.01 Å, C-F-H angle 167°) was found in (±)- cis-2-fluoro-2-phenylcyclopropyl carboxamide ( 4). Comparison of the structures of several of the fluorinated cyclopropanes with those of the non-fluorinated counterparts revealed that close intermolecular contacts of fluorine substituents to hydrogen atoms are not solely due to crystal packing effects, but are also caused by weak X-H⋯F-C hydrogen bridges.

Fröhlich, Roland; Rosen, Thomas C.; Meyer, Oliver G. J.; Rissanen, Kari; Haufe, Günter

2006-04-01

245

Urban liveability: emerging lessons from Australia for exploring the potential for indicators to measure the social determinants of health.  

PubMed

It has long been recognised that urban form impacts on health outcomes and their determinants. There is growing interest in creating indicators of liveability to measure progress towards achieving a wide range of policy outcomes, including enhanced health and wellbeing, and reduced inequalities. This review aimed to: 1) bring together the concepts of urban 'liveability' and social determinants of health; 2) synthesise the various liveability indicators developed to date; and 3) assess their quality using a health and wellbeing lens. Between 2011 and 2013, the research team reviewed 114 international academic and policy documents, as well as reports related to urban liveability. Overall, 233 indicators were found. Of these, 61 indicators were regarded as promising, 57 indicators needed further development, and 115 indicators were not useful for our purposes. Eleven domains of liveability were identified that likely contribute to health and wellbeing through the social determinants of health. These were: crime and safety; education; employment and income; health and social services; housing; leisure and culture; local food and other goods; natural environment; public open space; transport; and social cohesion and local democracy. Many of the indicators came from Australian sources; however most remain relevant from a 'global north' perspective. Although many indicators were identified, there was inconsistency in how these domains were measured. Few have been validated to assess their association with health and wellbeing outcomes, and little information was provided for how they should be applied to guide urban policy and practice. There is a substantial opportunity to further develop these measures to create a series of robust and evidence-based liveability indices, which could be linked with existing health and wellbeing data to better inform urban planning policies within Australia and beyond. PMID:24762261

Badland, Hannah; Whitzman, Carolyn; Lowe, Melanie; Davern, Melanie; Aye, Lu; Butterworth, Iain; Hes, Dominique; Giles-Corti, Billie

2014-06-01

246

Event-related potentials indicate different processes to mediate categorical and associative priming in person recognition.  

PubMed

Whether representations of people are stored in associative networks based on co-occurrence or are stored in terms of more abstract semantic categories is a controversial question. In the present study, participants performed fame decisions to unfamiliar or famous target faces (Experiment 1) or names (Experiment 2), which were primed, either by highly associated celebrity names or by names from the same occupational category, or were unprimed. Reaction times and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Reaction times yielded significant priming effects for both associated and same category conditions. ERPs to targets in the associated condition were significantly more positive than were ERPs in all other conditions over central and parietal areas (300-600 ms; N400 priming effect). By contrast, a more posterior effect was found for categorical priming. These findings held for both cross-domain (Experiment 1) and within-domain conditions (Experiment 2). Results (a) demonstrate behavioral and ERP evidence for categorical priming in person recognition, consistent with the assumption that shared semantic information units can mediate semantic priming, and (b) suggest that associative and categorical priming are based on mechanisms that are at least partially different. PMID:18763903

Wiese, Holger; Schweinberger, Stefan R

2008-09-01

247

?13C and C/N as potential coastal palaeoenvironmental indicators in the Mersey Estuary, UK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reconstruction of former environments, and ultimately relative sea-level changes, in coastal and estuarine environments normally utilises a range of microfossil proxies, such as diatoms, foraminifera and pollen. As microfossils are sometimes poorly preserved, sparse or absent from coastal sediments, this study assesses the potential of using ?13C and C/N analysis of sedimentary organic matter as an alternative. Contemporary high inter-tidal and sub-tidal surface saltmarsh sediments of the Mersey Estuary, UK, reveal distinctly different ?13C and C/N values, reflecting the contrasting sources of organic matter in relation to ground elevation within the tidal frame. Despite decomposition effects, the relationship between ground elevation, ?13C and C/N, is preserved in the sediment record, with a gradual increase in ?13C and decrease in C/N from supra-tidal, through to inter-tidal and to sub-tidal environments. Holocene variations in ?13C and C/N are compared with stratigraphical palaeoenvironmental changes inferred from diatom and pollen evidence and show a good correspondence. Although ?13C and C/N are not as accurate as microfossil analysis in terms of coastal palaeoenvironmental reconstruction, they may be applied successfully in the field of relative sea-level reconstruction by helping to verify sea-level index points when microfossils are absent.

Wilson, Graham P.; Lamb, Angela L.; Leng, Melanie J.; Gonzalez, Silvia; Huddart, David

2005-10-01

248

Stimulators and Activators of Soluble Guanylate Cyclase: Review and Potential Therapeutic Indications  

PubMed Central

The heme-protein soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the intracellular receptor for nitric oxide (NO). sGC is a heterodimeric enzyme with ? and ? subunits and contains a heme moiety essential for binding of NO and activation of the enzyme. Stimulation of sGC mediates physiologic responses including smooth muscle relaxation, inhibition of inflammation, and thrombosis. In pathophysiologic states, NO formation and bioavailability can be impaired by oxidative stress and that tolerance to NO donors develops with continuous use. Two classes of compounds have been developed that can directly activate sGC and increase cGMP formation in pathophysiologic conditions when NO formation and bioavailability are impaired or when NO tolerance has developed. In this report, we review current information on the pharmacology of heme-dependent stimulators and heme-independent activators of sGC in animal and in early clinical studies and the potential role these compounds may have in the management of cardiovascular disease.

Nossaman, Bobby; Pankey, Edward; Kadowitz, Philip

2012-01-01

249

Clinical applications of palifermin: amelioration of oral mucositis and other potential indications.  

PubMed

Mucositis is one of the most significant toxicities in cancer patients undergoing cytotoxic treatment. It can have a negative impact on both quality of life and health economics. Severe oral mucositis can contribute to hospitalization, need for narcotic analgesics, total parentral nutrition, suboptimal delivery of anti-neoplastic treatment, and morbidity and mortality. Palifermin, a recombinant derivative of human keratinocyte growth factor, is the first active agent approved by the FDA for the prevention of severe oral mucositis in patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Several studies have also shown significant reduction in the incidence, severity and/or duration of oral mucositis in other high-risk settings such as concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CT/RT) for patients with head and neck cancer, and use of mucotoxic chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin in sarcoma and fluorouracil for the treatment of colorectal cancer. The reduction in mucositis has translated into amelioration of symptoms and improvement in daily functioning as measured by patient-reported outcome in multiple studies. The clinical response to palifermin appears to be related in part to epithelial proliferation and mucosal thickening. Palifermin also has other potential clinical applications including the acceleration of immune reconstitution and inhibition of graft-versus-host disease in patients undergoing HSCT, and mitigation of dysphagia in lung cancer patients treated with concurrent CT/RT. Palifermin is generally well tolerated with mild-to-moderate skin and oral adverse events. Future studies may expand the use of palifermin into other areas that would benefit from its cytoprotective and regenerative effects. PMID:24251854

Vadhan-Raj, Saroj; Goldberg, Jenna D; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Berger, Dietmar P; van den Brink, Marcel R M

2013-11-01

250

Epidemiological pattern of tattoo skin disease: a potential general health indicator for cetaceans.  

PubMed

The presence of tattoo skin disease (TSD) was examined in 1392 free-ranging and dead odontocetes comprising 17 species from the Americas, Europe, South Africa, New Zealand and Greenland. We investigated whether TSD prevalence varied with sex, age and health status. TSD was encountered in cetaceans from the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans as well as in those from the North, Mediterranean and Tasman Seas. No clear patterns related to geography and host phylogeny were detected, except that prevalence of TSD in juveniles and, in 2 species (dusky dolphin Lagenorhynchus obscurus and Burmeister's porpoise Phocoena spinipinnis), in adults was remarkably high in samples from Peru. Environmental factors and virus properties may be responsible for this finding. Sex did not significantly influence TSD prevalence except in the case of Peruvian P. spinipinnis. Generally, there was a pattern of TSD increase in juveniles compared to calves, attributed to the loss of maternal immunity. Also, in most samples, juveniles seemed to have a higher probability of suffering TSD than adults, presumably because more adults had acquired active immunity following infection. This holo-endemic pattern was inverted in poor health short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis and harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena from the British Isles, and in Chilean dolphins Cephalorhynchus eutropia from Patagonia, where adults showed a higher TSD prevalence than juveniles. Very large tattoos were seen in some adult odontocetes from the SE Pacific, NE Atlantic and Portugal's Sado Estuary, which suggest impaired immune response. The epidemiological pattern of TSD may be an indicator of cetacean population health. PMID:19750811

Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Van Waerebeek, Koen; Aznar, Francisco Javier; Raga, Juan Antonio; Jepson, Paul D; Duignan, Pádraig; Deaville, Rob; Flach, Leonardo; Viddi, Francisco; Baker, John R; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula; Echegaray, Mónica; Genovo, Tilen; Reyes, Julio; Felix, Fernando; Gaspar, Raquel; Ramos, Renata; Peddemors, Vic; Sanino, Gian Paolo; Siebert, Ursula

2009-07-23

251

Identifying Factors for Optimal Development of Health-Related Websites: A Delphi Study Among Experts and Potential Future Users  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet has become a popular medium for offering tailored and targeted health promotion programs to the general public. However, suboptimal levels of program use in the target population limit the public health impact of these programs. Optimizing program development is considered as one of the main processes to increase usage rates. Objective To distinguish factors potentially related to optimal development of health-related websites by involving both experts and potential users. By considering and incorporating the opinions of experts and potential users in the development process, involvement in the program is expected to increase, consequently resulting in increased appreciation, lower levels of attrition, and higher levels of sustained use. Methods We conducted a systematic three-round Delphi study through the Internet. Both national and international experts (from the fields of health promotion, health psychology, e-communication, and technical Web design) and potential users were invited via email to participate. During this study an extensive list of factors potentially related to optimal development of health-related websites was identified, by focusing on factors related to layout, general and risk information provision, questionnaire use, additional services, and ease of use. Furthermore, we assessed the extent to which experts and potential users agreed on the importance of these factors. Differences as well as similarities among experts and potentials users were deduced. Results In total, 20 of 62 contacted experts participated in the first round (32% response rate); 60 of 200 contacted experts (30% response rate) and 210 potential users (95% response rate) completed the second-round questionnaire, and 32 of 60 contacted experts completed the third round (53% response rate). Results revealed important factors consented upon by experts and potential users (eg, ease of use, clear structure, and detailed health information provision), as well as differences regarding important factors consented upon by experts (eg, visual aids, self-monitoring tool, and iterative health feedback) or by potential users only (eg, bread crumb navigation and prevention of receiving spam). Conclusions This study is an important first step in determining the agreed-upon factors that should be taken into account when developing online health promotion programs. The public health impact of these programs will be improved by optimizing the development process in line with these factors.

van Osch, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein

2012-01-01

252

Identifying sequences potentially related to resistance response of Piper tuberculatum to Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis by suppression subtractive hybridization.  

PubMed

Piper tuberculatum is an exotic Piper from the Amazon region that shows resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, causal agent of Fusarium disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). In this work we aimed to study the interaction between P. tuberculatum and F. solani f. sp. piperis at a molecular level, using suppression subtractive hybridization to identify genes potentially related to Fusarium disease resistance. Comparative sequence analysis confirmed that clones isolated here show a high identity with genes coding for proteins that have a known role in plant defense response mechanisms, such as peroxidase, hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein and CBL-interacting protein kinase. The present study constitutes the first effort to understand the molecular basis of this plant-pathogen interaction, identifying genes which may be used in the future genetic improvement of black pepper. PMID:20001904

Nascimento, Soelange Bezerra; Cascardo, Júlio Cezar de Mattos; Menezes, Ilmarina Campos de; Duarte, Maria de Lourdes Reis; Darnet, Sylvain; Harada, Maria Lúcia; Souza, Cláudia Regina Batista de

2009-01-01

253

Secretome analysis identifies potential virulence factors of Diplodia corticola, a fungal pathogen involved in cork oak (Quercus suber) decline.  

PubMed

The characterisation of the secretome of phytopathogenic fungi may contribute to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. This is particularly relevant for Diplodia corticola, a fungal plant pathogen belonging to the family Botryosphaeriaceae, whose genome remains unsequenced. This phytopathogenic fungus is recognised as one of the most important pathogens of cork oak, being related to the decline of cork oak forests in the Iberian Peninsula. Unfortunately, secretome analysis of filamentous fungi is limited by the low protein concentration and by the presence of many interfering substances, such as polysaccharides, which affect the separation and analysis by 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis. We compared six protein extraction protocols concerning their suitability for further application with proteomic workflows. The protocols involving protein precipitation were the most efficient, with emphasis on TCA-acetone protocol, allowing us to identify the most abundant proteins on the secretome of this plant pathogen. Approximately 60 % of the spots detected were identified, all corresponding to extracellular proteins. Most proteins identified were carbohydrate degrading enzymes and proteases that may be related to D. corticola pathogenicity. Although the secretome was assessed in a noninfection environment, potential virulence factors such as the putative glucan-?-glucosidase, neuraminidase, and the putative ferulic acid esterase were identified. The data obtained forms a useful basis for a deeper understanding of the pathogenicity and infection biology of D. corticola. Moreover, it will contribute to the development of proteomics studies on other members of the Botryosphaeriaceae. PMID:24863480

Fernandes, Isabel; Alves, Artur; Correia, António; Devreese, Bart; Esteves, Ana Cristina

2014-01-01

254

Exome Sequencing Identifies DLG1 as a Novel Gene for Potential Susceptibility to Crohn's Disease in a Chinese Family Study  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic variants make some contributions to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). More than 100 susceptibility loci were identified in Western IBD studies, but susceptibility gene has not been found in Chinese IBD patients till now. Sequencing of individuals with an IBD family history is a powerful approach toward our understanding of the genetics and pathogenesis of IBD. The aim of this study, which focuses on a Han Chinese CD family, is to identify high-risk variants and potentially novel loci using whole exome sequencing technique. Methods Exome sequence data from 4 individuals belonging to a same family were analyzed using bioinformatics methods to narrow down the variants associated with CD. The potential risk genes were further analyzed by genotyping and Sanger sequencing in family members, additional 401 healthy controls (HC), 278 sporadic CD patients, 123 UC cases, a pair of monozygotic CD twins and another Chinese CD family. Results From the CD family in which the father and daughter were affected, we identified a novel single nucleotide variant (SNV) c.374T>C (p.I125T) in exon 4 of discs large homolog 1 (DLG1), a gene has been reported to play mutiple roles in cell proliferation, T cell polarity and T cell receptor signaling. After genotyping among case and controls, a PLINK analysis showed the variant was of significance (P<0.05). 4 CD patients of the other Chinese family bore another non-synonymous variant c.833G>A (p.R278Q) in exon 9 of DLG1. Conclusions We have discovered novel genetic variants in the coding regions of DLG1 gene, the results support that DLG1 is a novel potential susceptibility gene for CD in Chinese patients.

Song, Lu; NG, Siew Chien; Wang, Xiaobing; Chen, Liping; Yi, Fengming; Ran, Zhihua; Zhou, Rui; Xia, Bing

2014-01-01

255

The Environmental ``Risky'' Region: Identifying Land Degradation Processes Through Integration of Socio-Economic and Ecological Indicators in a Multivariate Regionalization Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although several studies have assessed Land Degradation (LD) states in the Mediterranean basin through the use of composite indices, relatively few have evaluated the impact of specific LD drivers at the local scale. In this work, a computational strategy is introduced to define homogeneous areas at risk and the main factors acting as determinants of LD. The procedure consists of three steps and is applied to a set of ten environmental indicators available at the municipality scale in Latium, central Italy. A principal component analysis extracting latent patterns and simplifying data complexity was carried out on the original data matrix. Subsequently, a k-means cluster analysis was applied on a restricted number of meaningful, latent factors extracted by PCA in order to produce a classification of the study area into homogeneous regions. Finally, a stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to determine which indicators contributed the most to the definition of homogeneous regions. Three classes of “risky” regions were identified according to the main drivers of LD acting at the local scale. These include: (i) soil sealing (coupled with landscape fragmentation, fire risk, and related processes), (ii) soil salinization due to agricultural intensification, and (iii) soil erosion due to farmland depopulation and land abandonment in sloping areas. Areas at risk for LD covered 56 and 63% of the investigated areas in 1970 and 2000, respectively.

Salvati, Luca; Zitti, Marco

2009-11-01

256

Molecular evidence indicates that Phlebotomus major sensu lato (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the vector species of the recently-identified sandfly fever Sicilian virus variant: sandfly fever turkey virus.  

PubMed

Sandfly fever turkey virus (SFTV) is a recently-discovered sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) variant (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus), characterized during retrospective evaluation of febrile disease outbreaks in Turkey. In addition to causing sandfly fever, SFTV was observed to induce elevation of liver enzymes, and to cause thrombocytopenia in affected individuals. This study was conducted to identify vectors for phleboviruses including SFTV in Ankara province, Turkey, where evidence indicates ongoing circulation of SFTV, as well as Toscana virus. Sandfly sampling was performed in Ankara province in the vicinity or in animal housing facilities in 15 peri-domestic sites. Male sandflies were identified morphologically, whereas females were evaluated individually for Phlebovirus RNA via a nested-PCR assay with consensus primers. Selected individuals and PCR-positive sandflies were subjected to barcoding via cytochrome c oxidase sequence analyses. The source of blood meals in virus-infected sandflies was investigated using a multiplexed PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of various vertebrates. A total of 667 sandflies were captured in 11 locations. Morphological identification of males (n=226) revealed Phlebotomus major sensu lato as the most abundant species (38.9%), followed by Phlebotomus sergenti (20.4%), Phlebotomus halepensis (17.7%), Phlebotomus papatasi (10.2%), Phlebotomus simici (3.98%), Larrousius spp. (3.53%), Phlebotomus tobbi (1.32%), Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi (1.32%), and others. Virus sequences were detected in 3 (3/441) sandflies, two of which were characterized as P. major s.l. via barcoding. The detected sequences in sandflies were identified as SFTV, and were identical or similar to sequences from patients from the same area and the prototype SFTV strain. Bovine and human blood meals were demonstrated in SFTV-infected sandflies. P. major s.l. has been identified as the vector species for SFTV. Bovidae need to be evaluated as probable amplifying hosts for SFTV. PMID:22651385

Ergunay, Koray; Erisoz Kasap, Ozge; Kocak Tufan, Zeliha; Turan, Mahur H; Ozkul, Aykut; Alten, Bulent

2012-08-01

257

Potential Drug-Like Inhibitors of Group 1 Influenza Neuraminidase Identified through Computer-Aided Drug Design  

PubMed Central

Pandemic (H1N1) influenza poses an imminent threat. Nations have stockpiled inhibitors of the influenza protein neuraminidase in hopes of protecting their citizens, but drug-resistant strains have already emerged, and novel therapeutics are urgently needed. In the current work, the computer program AutoGrow is used to generate novel predicted neuraminidase inhibitors. Given the great flexibility of the neuraminidase active site, protein dynamics are also incorporated into the computer-aided drug-design process. Several potential inhibitors are identified that are predicted to bind neuraminidase better than currently approved drugs.

Durrant, Jacob D.; McCammon, J. Andrew

2010-01-01

258

The Health Informatics Trial Enhancement Project (HITE): Using routinely collected primary care data to identify potential participants for a depression trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recruitment to clinical trials can be challenging. We identified anonymous potential participants to an existing pragmatic randomised controlled depression trial to assess the feasibility of using routinely collected data to identify potential trial participants. We discuss the strengths and limitations of this approach, assess its potential value, report challenges and ethical issues encountered. METHODS: Swansea University's Health Information Research

Joanna McGregor; Caroline Brooks; Padmaja Chalasani; Jude Chukwuma; Hayley Hutchings; Ronan A Lyons; Keith Lloyd

2010-01-01

259

A GIS based MCE model for identifying water colour generation potential in UK upland drinking water supply catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryWater discolouration is one of the key water quality problems faced by UK water companies taking raw water from peatland catchments. A water colour model has been developed using a combined Geographical Information System and Multicriteria Evaluation approach. The model was used to predict water colour production potential based on key land management practices controlling colour production in UK upland catchments. Calibration of the model with historic data collected at water treatment works treating water from upland areas showed that the model was potentially capable of accurately predicting water colour production potential at the catchment scale (c. 90%). Subsequent validation has shown this to be the case. Rotational heather burning and vegetation type (particularly heather) were identified as the two most statistically significant variables influencing water colour generation in the study catchments. It was predicted that colour is generated in particular hotspots and management to improve water quality should, therefore, focus on such areas. Blending of water is also an important process in controlling colour at the catchment scale and at water treatment works, with high colour often being diluted by runoff from land elsewhere in the catchment with lower potential to generate colour.

Grayson, Richard; Kay, Paul; Foulger, Miles; Gledhill, Sarah

2012-02-01

260

Methods for Identifying High Collision Concentration Locations (HCCL) for Potential Safety Improvement Phase II: Evaluation of Alternative Methods for Identifying HCCL.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the first steps in effectively managing a road network is to identify sites that require safety investigations. It is important that the identification process is efficient, otherwise scarce resources may be wasted on sites that are incorrectly ide...

B. Persaud C. Lyon C. Martell J. Baek R. Srinivasan

2011-01-01

261

A Systematic In Silico Search for Target Similarity Identifies Several Approved Drugs with Potential Activity against the Plasmodium falciparum Apicoplast  

PubMed Central

Most of the drugs in use against Plasmodium falciparum share similar modes of action and, consequently, there is a need to identify alternative potential drug targets. Here, we focus on the apicoplast, a malarial plastid-like organelle of algal source which evolved through secondary endosymbiosis. We undertake a systematic in silico target-based identification approach for detecting drugs already approved for clinical use in humans that may be able to interfere with the P. falciparum apicoplast. The P. falciparum genome database GeneDB was used to compile a list of ?600 proteins containing apicoplast signal peptides. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target and its predicted sequence was used to interrogate three different freely available databases (Therapeutic Target Database, DrugBank and STITCH3.1) that provide synoptic data on drugs and their primary or putative drug targets. We were able to identify several drugs that are expected to interact with forty-seven (47) peptides predicted to be involved in the biology of the P. falciparum apicoplast. Fifteen (15) of these putative targets are predicted to have affinity to drugs that are already approved for clinical use but have never been evaluated against malaria parasites. We suggest that some of these drugs should be experimentally tested and/or serve as leads for engineering new antimalarials.

Bispo, Nadlla Alves; Culleton, Richard; Silva, Lourival Almeida; Cravo, Pedro

2013-01-01

262

A systematic in silico search for target similarity identifies several approved drugs with potential activity against the Plasmodium falciparum apicoplast.  

PubMed

Most of the drugs in use against Plasmodium falciparum share similar modes of action and, consequently, there is a need to identify alternative potential drug targets. Here, we focus on the apicoplast, a malarial plastid-like organelle of algal source which evolved through secondary endosymbiosis. We undertake a systematic in silico target-based identification approach for detecting drugs already approved for clinical use in humans that may be able to interfere with the P. falciparum apicoplast. The P. falciparum genome database GeneDB was used to compile a list of ?600 proteins containing apicoplast signal peptides. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target and its predicted sequence was used to interrogate three different freely available databases (Therapeutic Target Database, DrugBank and STITCH3.1) that provide synoptic data on drugs and their primary or putative drug targets. We were able to identify several drugs that are expected to interact with forty-seven (47) peptides predicted to be involved in the biology of the P. falciparum apicoplast. Fifteen (15) of these putative targets are predicted to have affinity to drugs that are already approved for clinical use but have never been evaluated against malaria parasites. We suggest that some of these drugs should be experimentally tested and/or serve as leads for engineering new antimalarials. PMID:23555651

Bispo, Nadlla Alves; Culleton, Richard; Silva, Lourival Almeida; Cravo, Pedro

2013-01-01

263

Serial comprehensive geriatric assessment in elderly head and neck cancer patients undergoing curative radiotherapy identifies evolution of multidimensional health problems and is indicative of quality of life.  

PubMed

Head and neck (H&N) cancer is mainly a cancer of the elderly; however, the implementation of comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) to quantify functional age in these patients has not yet been studied. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of screening tools [Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (VES-13), G8 and the Combined Screening Tool 'VES-13 + (17-G8)' or CST], the feasibility of serial CGA, and correlations with health-related quality of life evolution [HRQOL; European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaires (EORTC QLQ)-C30 and -HN35] during therapy in hundred patients, aged ?65 years, with primary H&N cancer undergoing curative radio(chemo)therapy. Respectively 36.8%, 69.0%, 62.1% and 71.3% were defined vulnerable according to VES-13, G8, CST and CGA at week 0, mostly due to presence of severe grade co-morbidities, difficulties in community functioning and nutritional problems. At week 4, significantly more patients were identified vulnerable due to nutritional, functional and emotional deterioration. The CST did not achieve the predefined proportion necessary for validation. Vulnerable patients reported lower function and higher symptom HRQOL scores as compared with fit patients. A comparable deterioration in HRQOL was observed in both groups through therapy. In conclusion, G8 remains the screening tool of choice. Serial CGA identifies the evolution of multidimensional health problems and HRQOL conditions during therapy with potential to guide individualised supportive care. PMID:24467393

Pottel, L; Lycke, M; Boterberg, T; Pottel, H; Goethals, L; Duprez, F; Van Den Noortgate, N; De Neve, W; Rottey, S; Geldhof, K; Buyse, V; Kargar-Samani, K; Ghekiere, V; Debruyne, P R

2014-05-01

264

Meta-Analysis Indicates That the European GWAS-Identified Risk SNP rs1344706 within ZNF804A Is Not Associated with Schizophrenia in Han Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Recent genetic association studies have implicated several candidate susceptibility variants for schizophrenia among general populations. Rs1344706, an intronic SNP within ZNF804A, was identified as one of the most compelling candidate risk SNPs for schizophrenia in Europeans through genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and replications as well as large-scale meta-analyses. However, in Han Chinese, the results for rs1344706 are inconsistent, and whether rs1344706 is an authentic risk SNP for schizophrenia in Han Chinese is inconclusive. Here, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis of rs1344706 with schizophrenia in Chinese population by combining all available case-control samples (N?=?12), including a total of 8,982 cases and 12,342 controls. The results of our meta-analysis were not able to confirm an association of rs1344706 A-allele with schizophrenia (p?=?0.10, odds ratio?=?1.06, 95% confidence interval?=?0.99–1.13). Such absence of association was further confirmed by the non-superiority test (p?=?0.0003), suggesting that rs1344706 is not a risk SNP for schizophrenia in Han Chinese. Detailed examinations of individual samples revealed potential sampling bias in previous replication studies in Han Chinese. The absence of rs1344706 association in Han Chinese suggest a potential genetic heterogeneity in the susceptibility of schizophrenia on this locus and also demonstrate the difficulties in replicating genome-wide association findings of schizophrenia across different ethnic populations.

Luo, Xiong-jian; Gao, Lei; Qi, Xue-bin; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Su, Bing

2013-01-01

265

Identifying host sources, human health risk and indicators of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a Canadian watershed influenced by urban and rural activities.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidium and Giardia were characterized in a watershed in southern Ontario, Canada, over a 2½ year period. River samples were collected every two weeks, primarily near a municipal drinking water treatment plant intake. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were frequently detected with an overall occurrence rate of 88 and 97%, respectively. Giardia concentrations were higher than Cryptosporidium, with median values of 80 cysts 100 L(-1) and 12 oocysts 100 L(-1), respectively. Although pathogens rarely show a significant relationship with fecal or water quality indicators, this study determined that Cryptosporidium, but not Giardia, was significantly correlated with Escherichia coli, turbidity and river flow. There was no correlation between the two types of protozoa, and only Giardia showed a seasonal trend with higher concentrations at cold water temperatures. Cryptosporidium genotyping of all samples found that farm animals and wildlife were an important contributor of oocysts in the watershed, and that Cryptosporidium strains/genotypes of medium to high risk for human infection (C. hominis, C. parvum and C. ubiquitum) were detected in 16% of samples. This study was able to identify Cryptosporidium host sources and human health risk, and to identify differences between Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurrence in the watershed. PMID:22717756

Van Dyke, Michele I; Ong, Corinne S L; Prystajecky, Natalie A; Isaac-Renton, Judith L; Huck, Peter M

2012-06-01

266

Transcriptome analysis of the Cryptocaryon irritans tomont stage identifies potential genes for the detection and control of cryptocaryonosis  

PubMed Central

Background Cryptocaryon irritans is a parasitic ciliate that causes cryptocaryonosis (white spot disease) in marine fish. Diagnosis of cryptocaryonosis often depends on the appearance of white spots on the surface of the fish, which are usually visible only during later stages of the disease. Identifying suitable biomarkers of this parasite would aid the development of diagnostic tools and control strategies for C. irritans. The C. irritans genome is virtually unexplored; therefore, we generated and analyzed expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of the parasite to identify genes that encode for surface proteins, excretory/secretory proteins and repeat-containing proteins. Results ESTs were generated from a cDNA library of C. irritans tomonts isolated from infected Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Clustering of the 5356 ESTs produced 2659 unique transcripts (UTs) containing 1989 singletons and 670 consensi. BLAST analysis showed that 74% of the UTs had significant similarity (E-value < 10-5) to sequences that are currently available in the GenBank database, with more than 15% of the significant hits showing unknown function. Forty percent of the UTs had significant similarity to ciliates from the genera Tetrahymena and Paramecium. Comparative gene family analysis with related taxa showed that many protein families are conserved among the protozoans. Based on gene ontology annotation, functional groups were successfully assigned to 790 UTs. Genes encoding excretory/secretory proteins and membrane and membrane-associated proteins were identified because these proteins often function as antigens and are good antibody targets. A total of 481 UTs were classified as encoding membrane proteins, 54 were classified as encoding for membrane-bound proteins, and 155 were found to contain excretory/secretory protein-coding sequences. Amino acid repeat-containing proteins and GPI-anchored proteins were also identified as potential candidates for the development of diagnostic and control strategies for C. irritans. Conclusions We successfully discovered and examined a large portion of the previously unexplored C. irritans transcriptome and identified potential genes for the development and validation of diagnostic and control strategies for cryptocaryonosis.

2010-01-01

267

Psychometric properties of conflict monitoring and conflict adaptation indices: response time and conflict N2 event-related potentials.  

PubMed

We assessed the psychometric properties, including internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and number of trials needed for stability, for response time (RT) and conflict N2 amplitude measures of conflict adaptation (i.e., sequential trial or Gratton effects). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained from 79 healthy individuals (44 female) during completion of a modified Eriksen flanker task. RTs and N2 amplitude showed reliable conflict adaptation (i.e., previous-trial congruency influenced current-trial measures). Conflict adaptation indices were stable as indicated by reliable internal consistency and 2-week test-retest stability. The number of trials needed for conservative, reliable RT and N2 amplitude measurements was 29 and 30, respectively. This investigation empirically establishes that these conflict adaptation indices represent robust, dependable measures. PMID:23992600

Clayson, Peter E; Larson, Michael J

2013-12-01

268

A cell-based fascin bioassay identifies compounds with potential anti-metastasis or cognition-enhancing functions  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The actin-bundling protein fascin is a key mediator of tumor invasion and metastasis and its activity drives filopodia formation, cell-shape changes and cell migration. Small-molecule inhibitors of fascin block tumor metastasis in animal models. Conversely, fascin deficiency might underlie the pathogenesis of some developmental brain disorders. To identify fascin-pathway modulators we devised a cell-based assay for fascin function and used it in a bidirectional drug screen. The screen utilized cultured fascin-deficient mutant Drosophila neurons, whose neurite arbors manifest the ‘filagree’ phenotype. Taking a repurposing approach, we screened a library of 1040 known compounds, many of them FDA-approved drugs, for filagree modifiers. Based on scaffold distribution, molecular-fingerprint similarities, and chemical-space distribution, this library has high structural diversity, supporting its utility as a screening tool. We identified 34 fascin-pathway blockers (with potential anti-metastasis activity) and 48 fascin-pathway enhancers (with potential cognitive-enhancer activity). The structural diversity of the active compounds suggests multiple molecular targets. Comparisons of active and inactive compounds provided preliminary structure-activity relationship information. The screen also revealed diverse neurotoxic effects of other drugs, notably the ‘beads-on-a-string’ defect, which is induced solely by statins. Statin-induced neurotoxicity is enhanced by fascin deficiency. In summary, we provide evidence that primary neuron culture using a genetic model organism can be valuable for early-stage drug discovery and developmental neurotoxicity testing. Furthermore, we propose that, given an appropriate assay for target-pathway function, bidirectional screening for brain-development disorders and invasive cancers represents an efficient, multipurpose strategy for drug discovery.

Kraft, Robert; Kahn, Allon; Medina-Franco, Jose L.; Orlowski, Mikayla L.; Baynes, Cayla; Lopez-Vallejo, Fabian; Barnard, Kobus; Maggiora, Gerald M.; Restifo, Linda L.

2013-01-01

269

A cell-based fascin bioassay identifies compounds with potential anti-metastasis or cognition-enhancing functions.  

PubMed

The actin-bundling protein fascin is a key mediator of tumor invasion and metastasis and its activity drives filopodia formation, cell-shape changes and cell migration. Small-molecule inhibitors of fascin block tumor metastasis in animal models. Conversely, fascin deficiency might underlie the pathogenesis of some developmental brain disorders. To identify fascin-pathway modulators we devised a cell-based assay for fascin function and used it in a bidirectional drug screen. The screen utilized cultured fascin-deficient mutant Drosophila neurons, whose neurite arbors manifest the 'filagree' phenotype. Taking a repurposing approach, we screened a library of 1040 known compounds, many of them FDA-approved drugs, for filagree modifiers. Based on scaffold distribution, molecular-fingerprint similarities, and chemical-space distribution, this library has high structural diversity, supporting its utility as a screening tool. We identified 34 fascin-pathway blockers (with potential anti-metastasis activity) and 48 fascin-pathway enhancers (with potential cognitive-enhancer activity). The structural diversity of the active compounds suggests multiple molecular targets. Comparisons of active and inactive compounds provided preliminary structure-activity relationship information. The screen also revealed diverse neurotoxic effects of other drugs, notably the 'beads-on-a-string' defect, which is induced solely by statins. Statin-induced neurotoxicity is enhanced by fascin deficiency. In summary, we provide evidence that primary neuron culture using a genetic model organism can be valuable for early-stage drug discovery and developmental neurotoxicity testing. Furthermore, we propose that, given an appropriate assay for target-pathway function, bidirectional screening for brain-development disorders and invasive cancers represents an efficient, multipurpose strategy for drug discovery. PMID:22917928

Kraft, Robert; Kahn, Allon; Medina-Franco, José L; Orlowski, Mikayla L; Baynes, Cayla; López-Vallejo, Fabian; Barnard, Kobus; Maggiora, Gerald M; Restifo, Linda L

2013-01-01

270

Lentiviral shRNA screen of human kinases identifies PLK1 as a potential therapeutic target for osteosarcoma.  

PubMed

We describe an optimized systematic screen of known kinases using osteosarcoma cell lines (KHOS and U-2OS) and a lentiviral-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) human kinase library. CellTiter 96(R)AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay was used to measure cell growth and survival. We identified several kinases, including human polo-like kinase (PLK1), which inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells when knocked down. cDNA rescue and synthetic siRNA assays confirm that the observed phenotypic changes result from the loss of PLK1 gene expression. Furthermore, a small molecule inhibitor to PLK1 inhibited osteosarcoma cell growth and induced apoptosis. Western blot analysis confirmed that PLK1 is highly expressed and activated in several osteosarcoma cell lines as well as in resected tumor samples. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that patients with high PLK1 tumor expression levels correlated with significantly shorter survival than patients with lower levels of tumor PLK1 expression. These results demonstrate the capability and feasibility of a high-throughput screen with a large collection of lentiviral kinases and its effectiveness in identifying potential drug targets. The development of more potent inhibitors that target PLK1 may open doors to a new range of anti-cancer strategies in osteosarcoma. PMID:20144850

Duan, Zhenfeng; Ji, Diana; Weinstein, Edward J; Liu, Xianzhe; Susa, Michiro; Choy, Edwin; Yang, Cao; Mankin, Henry; Hornicek, Francis J

2010-07-28

271

Gene Expression Profiling in a Mouse Model Identifies Fetal Liver- and Placenta-Derived Potential Biomarkers for Down Syndrome Screening  

PubMed Central

Background As a first step to identify novel potential biomarkers for prenatal Down Syndrome screening, we analyzed gene expression in embryos of wild type mice and the Down Syndrome model Ts1Cje. Since current Down Syndrome screening markers are derived from placenta and fetal liver, these tissues were chosen as target. Methodology/Principal Findings Placenta and fetal liver at 15.5 days gestation were analyzed by microarray profiling. We confirmed increased expression of genes located at the trisomic chromosomal region. Overall, between the two genotypes more differentially expressed genes were found in fetal liver than in placenta. Furthermore, the fetal liver data are in line with the hematological aberrations found in humans with Down Syndrome as well as Ts1Cje mice. Together, we found 25 targets that are predicted (by Gene Ontology, UniProt, or the Human Plasma Proteome project) to be detectable in human serum. Conclusions/Significance Fetal liver might harbor more promising targets for Down Syndrome screening studies. We expect these new targets will help focus further experimental studies on identifying and validating human maternal serum biomarkers for Down Syndrome screening.

Imholz, Sandra; Koster, Maria P. H.; van Oostrom, Conny T. M.; Breit, Timo M.; Schielen, Peter C. J. I.; de Vries, Annemieke

2011-01-01

272

Cross-comparison of the genome sequences from human, chimpanzee, Neanderthal and a Denisovan hominin identifies novel potentially compensated mutations  

PubMed Central

The recent publication of the draft genome sequences of the Neanderthal and a ~50,000-year-old archaic hominin from Denisova Cave in southern Siberia has ushered in a new age in molecular archaeology. We previously cross-compared the human, chimpanzee and Neanderthal genome sequences with respect to a set of disease-causing/disease-associated missense and regulatory mutations (Human Gene Mutation Database) and succeeded in identifying genetic variants which, although apparently pathogenic in humans, may represent a 'compensated' wild-type state in at least one of the other two species. Here, in an attempt to identify further 'potentially compensated mutations' (PCMs) of interest, we have compared our dataset of disease-causing/disease-associated mutations with their corresponding nucleotide positions in the Denisovan hominin, Neanderthal and chimpanzee genomes. Of the 15 human putatively disease-causing mutations that were found to be compensated in chimpanzee, Denisovan or Neanderthal, only a solitary F5 variant (Val1736Met) was specific to the Denisovan. In humans, this missense mutation is associated with activated protein C resistance and an increased risk of thromboembolism and recurrent miscarriage. It is unclear at this juncture whether this variant was indeed a PCM in the Denisovan or whether it could instead have been associated with disease in this ancient hominin.

2011-01-01

273

Experimental antibiotic treatment identifies potential pathogens of white band disease in the endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis.  

PubMed

Coral diseases have been increasingly reported over the past few decades and are a major contributor to coral decline worldwide. The Caribbean, in particular, has been noted as a hotspot for coral disease, and the aptly named white syndromes have caused the decline of the dominant reef building corals throughout their range. White band disease (WBD) has been implicated in the dramatic loss of Acropora cervicornis and Acropora palmata since the 1970s, resulting in both species being listed as critically endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red list. The causal agent of WBD remains unknown, although recent studies based on challenge experiments with filtrate from infected hosts concluded that the disease is probably caused by bacteria. Here, we report an experiment using four different antibiotic treatments, targeting different members of the disease-associated microbial community. Two antibiotics, ampicillin and paromomycin, arrested the disease completely, and by comparing with community shifts brought about by treatments that did not arrest the disease, we have identified the likely candidate causal agent or agents of WBD. Our interpretation of the experimental treatments is that one or a combination of up to three specific bacterial types, detected consistently in diseased corals but not detectable in healthy corals, are likely causal agents of WBD. In addition, a histophagous ciliate (Philaster lucinda) identical to that found consistently in association with white syndrome in Indo-Pacific acroporas was also consistently detected in all WBD samples and absent in healthy coral. Treatment with metronidazole reduced it to below detection limits, but did not arrest the disease. However, the microscopic disease signs changed, suggesting a secondary role in disease causation for this ciliate. In future studies to identify a causal agent of WBD via tests of Henle-Koch's postulates, it will be vital to experimentally control for populations of the other potential pathogens identified in this study. PMID:24943374

Sweet, M J; Croquer, A; Bythell, J C

2014-08-01

274

Why is it so difficult to identify a single indicator of water stress in plants? A proposal for a multivariate analysis to assess emergent properties.  

PubMed

Because of the complexity of plant responses to water deficit, researchers have attempted to identify simplified models to understand critical aspects of the problem by searching for single indicators that would enable evaluations of the effects of environmental changes on the entire plant. However, this reductionist approach, which is often used in plant sciences, makes it difficult to distinguish systemic emergent behaviours. Currently, a new class of models and epistemology have called attention to the fundamental properties of complex systems. These properties, termed 'emergent', are observed at a large scale of the system (top hierarchical level) but cannot be observed or inferred from smaller scales of observation in the same system. We propose that multivariate statistical analysis can provide a suitable tool to quantify global responses to water deficit, allowing a specific and partially quantitative assessment of emergent properties. Based on an experimental study, our results showed that the classical approach of the individual analysis of different data sets might provide different interpretations for the observed effects of water deficit. These results support the hypothesis that a cross-scale multivariate analysis is an appropriate method to establish models for systemic understanding of the interactions between plants and their changing environment. PMID:24127942

Bertolli, S C; Mazzafera, P; Souza, G M

2014-05-01

275

Knockdown by shRNA identifies S249C mutant FGFR3 as a potential therapeutic target in bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

More than 60% of low-grade non-invasive papillary urothelial cell carcinomas contain activating point mutations of FGFR3. The phenotypic consequences of constitutive activation of FGFR3 in bladder cancer have not been elucidated and further studies are required to confirm the consequences of inhibiting receptor activity in urothelial cells. We measured FGFR3 transcript levels and demonstrated that transcript levels were significantly more abundant in low-stage and grade tumours. We identified a tumour cell line, 97-7, expressing the most common FGFR3 mutation (S249C) at similar FGFR3 transcript levels to low-stage and grade tumours. In these cells S249C FGFR3 protein formed stable homodimers and was constitutively phosphorylated. We used retrovirus-mediated delivery of shRNA to knockdown S249C FGFR3. This induced cell flattening, decreased cell proliferation, and reduced clonogenicity on plastic and in soft agar. However, no effects of knockdown of wildtype FGFR3 were observed in telomerase immortalised normal human urothelial cells, indicating possible dependence of the tumour cell line on mutant FGFR3. Re-expression of S249C FGFR3 in shRNA-expressing 97-7 cells resulted in a reversal of phenotypic changes, confirming the specificity of the shRNA. These results indicate that targeted inhibition of S249C FGFR3 may represent a useful therapeutic approach in superficial bladder cancer.

Tomlinson, Darren C.; Hurst, Carolyn D.; Knowles, Margaret A.

2008-01-01

276

What's down below? Current and potential future applications of geophysical techniques to identify subsurface permafrost conditions (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For infrastructure design, operations, and maintenance requirements in the North the ability to accurately and efficiently detect the presence (or absence) of ground ice in permafrost terrains is a serious challenge. Ground ice features including ice wedges, thermokarst cave-ice, and segregation ice are present in a variety of spatial scales and patterns. Currently, most engineering applications use borehole logging and sampling to extrapolate conditions at the point scale. However, there is high risk of over or under estimating the presence of frozen or unfrozen features when relying on borehole information alone. In addition, boreholes are costly, especially for planning linear structures like roads or runways. Predicted climate warming will provide further challenges for infrastructure development and transportation operations where permafrost degradation occurs. Accurately identifying the subsurface character in permafrost terrains will allow engineers and planners to cost effectively create novel infrastructure designs to withstand the changing environment. There is thus a great need for a low cost rapidly deployable, spatially extensive means of 'measuring' subsurface conditions. Geophysical measurements, both terrestrial and airborne, have strong potential to revolutionize our way of mapping subsurface conditions. Many studies in continuous and discontinuous permafrost have used geophysical measurements to identify discrete features and repeatable patterns in the subsurface. The most common measurements include galvanic and capacitive coupled resistivity, ground penetrating radar, and multi frequency electromagnetic induction techniques. Each of these measurements has strengths, weaknesses, and limitations. By combining horizontal geophysical measurements, downhole geophysics, multispectral remote sensing images, LiDAR measurements, and soil and vegetation mapping we can start to assemble a holistic view of how surface conditions and standoff measurements can be used to delineate subsurface permafrost geomorphology. This presentation will include examples of projects in Alaska and Greenland where a combination of geophysical and other measurement techniques have been used to identify subsurface conditions. These include projects at multiple locations around Interior Alaska where a variety of ground based and standoff measurements are being used to identify subsurface conditions, and infrastructure projects at Thule, Greenland, where geophysical measurements are being used to cut costs for new construction and maintenance. The expansion of the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratories' Fox Permafrost Tunnel is to provide a three dimensional test bed for geophysical measurements, and construction is aided by geophysical measurements. The array of geophysical research tools used to interrogate the subsurface in permafrost terrains can likely provide worthwhile information in non-frozen ground terrains to support sensor development and geomorphological interpretation.

Douglas, T. A.; Bjella, K.; Campbell, S. W.

2013-12-01

277

Ecology of testate amoebae and their potential use as palaeohydrologic indicators from peatland in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Testate amoebae are sensitive indicators of substrate moisture in peatlands. Over the last decades, they have been studied to reconstruct hydrological changes since the Holocene. However, these studies have been geographically restricted to North America and Europe. We conducted the first investigation of testate amoebae on the largest continental fresh water wetland in the Sanjiang Plain, China. The objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the ecology of testate amoebae in the peatlands of Northeast China and to assess the potential of using them as environmental indicators in this ecosystem. We examined modern testate amoeba assemblages and species-environmental relationships at 46 microsites within 5 waterlogged depressions. The environmental parameters measured included: depth to water table, pH, and loss on ignition. The results showed that the dominant species were Trinema complanatum type, Euglypha rotunda type, Euglypha strigosa type, and Centropyxis cassis type. Redundancy analysis demonstrates that water table depth has the most important effect on testate amoeba assemblages, explaining 16.7% (p = 0.002) of the total variance. pH was not a statistically significant factor for testate amoeba assemblages. Weighted averaging and weighted averaging partial least squares models were used to build transfer functions for depth to water table. The best performing transfer function was generated by the weighted averaging partial least squares model with an r 2 LOSO of 0.62 and RMSEPLOSO of 6.96 cm. Results indicate that testate amoebae in waterlogged depression peatland have the potential to be used as indicators for hydrological changes and for palaeohydrologic reconstructions in the Sanjiang Plain.

Song, Lihong; Li, Hongkai; Wang, Kehong; Wu, Donghui; Wu, Haitao

2014-05-01

278

In lumbosacral plexus injuries can we identify indicators that predict spontaneous recovery or the need for surgical treatment? Results from a clinical study on 72 patients  

PubMed Central

Background Post-traumatic lumbosacral plexus injuries seem to be rare events, spontaneously recovering in high percentage: as surgery is often challenging and results in poor outcome, many Authors have advocated conservative treatment only. Nevertheless surgery should not be ruled out: in invalidating injuries, it can restore basic function in the lower extremities. Therefore, it might be necessary to establish guidelines for the management and the indication to surgery in such cases. This study aims to identify indicators predicting spontaneous recovery or the need for surgery. Method The clinical and radiological data of 72 patients with a post-traumatic lumbosacral plexus injury were reviewed. A follow up equal or superior to 3 years is available in 42 cases. Results Lumbosacral plexus injuries mostly occurred during road accidents. The incidence of associated lesions was relevant: bone injuries were found in 85% of patients, internal lesions in 30% and vascular injuries in 8%. Lumbosacral trunk and sacral plexus palsies were the most frequent injury patterns. Root avulsions were revealed in 23% of cases and only in sacral plexus and complete lumbosacral plexus injuries: L5 and S1 were the roots more prone to avulsions. About 70% of cases recovered spontaneously, mostly in 18 months. Spontaneous recovery was the rule in lumbar plexus and lumbosacral trunk injuries (where root avulsions never occurred) or in sacral and complete lumbosacral plexus palsies due to compression injuries. The causative mechanism correlated with the injury pattern, the associated bone injury being often predictive of the severity of the nerve injury. Lumbosacral plexus injuries occurred in car crashes were generally associated with fractures causing compression on the nerves, thus resulting in injuries often amenable of spontaneous recovery. Motorcycle accidents implied high kinetic energy traumas where traction played an important role, as the high percentage of sacroiliac joint separations demonstrated (found in more than 50% of cases and always associated to root avulsions). Loss of sphincteral control and excruciating leg pain were also invariably associated with avulsions. Conclusions Clinical and radiological data can help to predict the occurrence of spontaneous recovery or the need for surgery in post-traumatic lumbosacral plexus injuries.

2014-01-01

279

Subtractive Phage Display Selection from Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Identifies Novel Epitopes That Mimic Leishmania infantum Antigens with Potential Serodiagnosis Applications  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease that is endemic to Brazil, where dogs are the main domestic parasite reservoirs, and the percentages of infected dogs living in regions where canine VL (CVL) is endemic have ranged from 10% to 62%. Despite technological advances, some problems have been reported with CVL serodiagnosis. The present study describes a sequential subtractive selection through phage display technology from polyclonal antibodies of negative and positive sera that resulted in the identification of potential bacteriophage-fused peptides that were highly sensitive and specific to antibodies of CVL. A negative selection was performed in which phage clones were adhered to purified IgGs from healthy and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs to eliminate cross-reactive phages. The remaining supernatant nonadhered phages were submitted to positive selection against IgG from the blood serum of dogs that were infected with Leishmania infantum. Phage clones that adhered to purified IgGs from the CVL-infected serum samples were selected. Eighteen clones were identified and their reactivities tested by a phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (phage-ELISA) against the serum samples from infected dogs (n = 31) compared to those from vaccinated dogs (n = 21), experimentally infected dogs with cross-reactive parasites (n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 17). Eight clones presented sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 100%, and they showed no cross-reactivity with T. cruzi- or Ehrlichia canis-infected dogs or with dogs vaccinated with two different commercial CVL vaccines in Brazil. Our study identified eight mimotopes of L. infantum antigens with 100% accuracy for CVL serodiagnosis. The use of these mimotopes by phage-ELISA proved to be an excellent assay that was reproducible, simple, fast, and inexpensive, and it can be applied in CVL-monitoring programs.

Costa, Lourena E.; Lima, Mayara I. S.; Chavez-Fumagalli, Miguel A.; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Martins, Vivian T.; Duarte, Mariana C.; Lage, Paula S.; Lopes, Eliane G. P.; Lage, Daniela P.; Ribeiro, Tatiana G.; Andrade, Pedro H. R.; de Magalhaes-Soares, Danielle F.; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A. P.; Goulart, Luiz R.

2014-01-01

280

Identifying Conservation Successes, Failures and Future Opportunities; Assessing Recovery Potential of Wild Ungulates and Tigers in Eastern Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Conservation investment, particularly for charismatic and wide-ranging large mammal species, needs to be evidence-based. Despite the prevalence of this theme within the literature, examples of robust data being generated to guide conservation policy and funding decisions are rare. We present the first published case-study of tiger conservation in Indochina, from a site where an evidence-based approach has been implemented for this iconic predator and its prey. Despite the persistence of extensive areas of habitat, Indochina's tiger and ungulate prey populations are widely supposed to have precipitously declined in recent decades. The Seima Protection Forest (SPF), and broader Eastern Plains Landscape, was identified in 2000 as representing Cambodia's best hope for tiger recovery; reflected in its designation as a Global Priority Tiger Conservation Landscape. Since 2005 distance sampling, camera-trapping and detection-dog surveys have been employed to assess the recovery potential of ungulate and tiger populations in SPF. Our results show that while conservation efforts have ensured that small but regionally significant populations of larger ungulates persist, and density trends in smaller ungulates are stable, overall ungulate populations remain well below theoretical carrying capacity. Extensive field surveys failed to yield any evidence of tiger, and we contend that there is no longer a resident population within the SPF. This local extirpation is believed to be primarily attributable to two decades of intensive hunting; but importantly, prey densities are also currently below the level necessary to support a viable tiger population. Based on these results and similar findings from neighbouring sites, Eastern Cambodia does not currently constitute a Tiger Source Site nor meet the criteria of a Global Priority Tiger Landscape. However, SPF retains global importance for many other elements of biodiversity. It retains high regional importance for ungulate populations and potentially in the future for Indochinese tigers, given adequate prey and protection.

O'Kelly, Hannah J.; Evans, Tom D.; Stokes, Emma J.; Clements, Tom J.; Dara, An; Gately, Mark; Menghor, Nut; Pollard, Edward H. B.; Soriyun, Men; Walston, Joe

2012-01-01

281

Computational analysis of anti-HIV-1 antibody neutralization panel data to identify potential functional epitope residues  

PubMed Central

Advances in single-cell antibody cloning methods have led to the identification of a variety of broadly neutralizing anti–HIV-1 antibodies. We developed a computational tool (Antibody Database) to help identify critical residues on the HIV-1 envelope protein whose natural variation affects antibody activity. Our simplifying assumption was that, for a given antibody, a significant portion of the dispersion of neutralization activity across a panel of HIV-1 strains is due to the amino acid identity or glycosylation state at a small number of specific sites, each acting independently. A model of an antibody’s neutralization IC50 was developed in which each site contributes a term to the logarithm of the modeled IC50. The analysis program attempts to determine the set of rules that minimizes the sum of the residuals between observed and modeled IC50 values. The predictive quality of the identified rules may be assessed in part by whether there is support for rules within individual viral clades. As a test case, we analyzed antibody 8ANC195, an anti-glycoprotein gp120 antibody of unknown specificity. The model for this antibody indicated that several glycosylation sites were critical for neutralization. We evaluated this prediction by measuring neutralization potencies of 8ANC195 against HIV-1 in vitro and in an antibody therapy experiment in humanized mice. These experiments confirmed that 8ANC195 represents a distinct class of glycan-dependent anti–HIV-1 antibody and validated the utility of computational analysis of neutralization panel data.

West, Anthony P.; Scharf, Louise; Horwitz, Joshua; Klein, Florian; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.

2013-01-01

282

Leaching of Zinc Sulfide by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Experiments with a Controlled Redox Potential Indicate No Direct Bacterial Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The role of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in bacterial leaching of mineral sulfides is controversial. Much of the controversy is due to the fact that the solution conditions, especially the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions, change during experiments. The role of the bacteria would be more easily discernible if the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions were maintained at set values throughout the experimental period. In this paper we report results obtained by using the constant redox potential apparatus described previously (P. I. Harvey and F. K. Crundwell, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:2586–2592, 1997). This apparatus is designed to control the redox potential in the leaching compartment of an electrolytic cell by reduction or oxidation of dissolved iron. By controlling the redox potential the apparatus maintains the concentrations of ferrous and ferric ions at their initial values. Experiments were conducted in the presence of T. ferrooxidans and under sterile conditions. Analysis of the conversion of zinc sulfide in the absence of the bacteria and analysis of the conversion of zinc sulfate in the presence of the bacteria produced the same results. This indicates that the only role of the bacteria under the conditions used is regeneration of ferric ions in solution. In this work we found no evidence that there is a direct mechanism for bacterial leaching.

Fowler, T. A.; Crundwell, F. K.

1998-01-01

283

Indicators of hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological integrity for estimating potential loss of ecosystem services from wetlands on domesticated landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands are being lost at an alarming rate in the prairie pothole landscape of North America. The full consequence of this loss is not fully understood or recognized due to (1) inadequate or incomplete wetland inventories (with mapping emphasizing permanent and not ephemeral wetlands, and only capturing "easy to observe" wetland area defined by open water and not the true dynamic wetland extent defined by saturated soils), and (2) lack of appropriate theoretical frameworks to assess the functions and benefits of these wetlands. We present a theoretical framework that integrates indicators to estimate functions and benefits of wetland integrity in central Alberta. We establish indicators using the principles that are representative of the dominant processes operating on the landscape, are simple and are scalable. While some of these indicators may be widely recognized, their implementation is often not comprehensive or complete. First, we develop an automated method for fine scale mapping of permanent and ephemeral wetlands from a fusion of high-resolution elevation data and aerial photography. Second, we estimate historic wetland loss over the past 50 years during which intensive domestication of the landscape occurred by modeling the distribution of wetlands in an undisturbed landscape using area-frequency power functions and calculating the difference in the actual wetland inventory. Third, we define relative wetland assessment units using cluster analysis of hydrological and ecological variables, including climate, geology, topography, soils and land use/land covers. Fourth, for each assessment unit we define indicators of functions and benefits of aquatic ecosystem services including water storage (surface and subsurface), phosphorus retention, nitrate removal, sediment retention, ecological health/biodiversity and human use, and then use practical strategies rooted in the fusion of digital terrain analysis and remote sensing techniques to measure and monitor these indicators over the past years. For a time series of wetlands loss we derive these indicators of functions and benefits to estimate changes in the provision of specific aquatic ecosystem services on the landscape. Last, we develop formulae for integrating these indicators to determine whether a specific wetland or wetland complex should be prioritized for conservation, exemplifying potential trade-offs among ecosystem services in setting conservation targets on this wetland dominated landscapes. The proposed theoretical framework evolved from close collaboration between scientists and resource managers, and will inform those engaged in developing wetland policies for a broad range of jurisdictions.

Creed, I. F.; Aldred, D.; Spargo, A.; Bayley, S.

2012-12-01

284

Connecting the dots: potential of data integration to identify regulatory SNPs in late-onset Alzheimer's disease GWAS findings.  

PubMed

Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is a multifactorial disorder with over twenty loci associated with disease risk. Given the number of genome-wide significant variants that fall outside of coding regions, it is possible that some of these variants alter some function of gene expression rather than tagging coding variants that alter protein structure and/or function. RegulomeDB is a database that annotates regulatory functions of genetic variants. In this study, we utilized RegulomeDB to investigate potential regulatory functions of lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in five genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of risk and age-at onset (AAO) of LOAD, as well as SNPs in LD (r2?0.80) with the lead GWAS SNPs. Of a total 614 SNPs examined, 394 returned RegulomeDB scores of 1-6. Of those 394 variants, 34 showed strong evidence of regulatory function (RegulomeDB score <3), and only 3 of them were genome-wide significant SNPs (ZCWPW1/rs1476679, CLU/rs1532278 and ABCA7/rs3764650). This study further supports the assumption that some of the non-coding GWAS SNPs are true associations rather than tagged associations and demonstrates the application of RegulomeDB to GWAS data. PMID:24743338

Rosenthal, Samantha L; Barmada, M Michael; Wang, Xingbin; Demirci, F Yesim; Kamboh, M Ilyas

2014-01-01

285

Connecting the Dots: Potential of Data Integration to Identify Regulatory SNPs in Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease GWAS Findings  

PubMed Central

Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is a multifactorial disorder with over twenty loci associated with disease risk. Given the number of genome-wide significant variants that fall outside of coding regions, it is possible that some of these variants alter some function of gene expression rather than tagging coding variants that alter protein structure and/or function. RegulomeDB is a database that annotates regulatory functions of genetic variants. In this study, we utilized RegulomeDB to investigate potential regulatory functions of lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in five genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of risk and age-at onset (AAO) of LOAD, as well as SNPs in LD (r2?0.80) with the lead GWAS SNPs. Of a total 614 SNPs examined, 394 returned RegulomeDB scores of 1–6. Of those 394 variants, 34 showed strong evidence of regulatory function (RegulomeDB score <3), and only 3 of them were genome-wide significant SNPs (ZCWPW1/rs1476679, CLU/rs1532278 and ABCA7/rs3764650). This study further supports the assumption that some of the non-coding GWAS SNPs are true associations rather than tagged associations and demonstrates the application of RegulomeDB to GWAS data.

Rosenthal, Samantha L.; Barmada, M. Michael; Wang, Xingbin; Demirci, F. Yesim; Kamboh, M. Ilyas

2014-01-01

286

Expression and Function Analysis of Mitotic Checkpoint Genes Identifies TTK as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The mitotic spindle checkpoint (SAC) genes have been considered targets of anticancer therapies. Here, we sought to identify the attractive mitotic spindle checkpoint genes appropriate for human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapies. Through expression profile analysis of 137 selected mitotic spindle checkpoint genes in the publicly available microarray datasets, we showed that 13 genes were dramatically up-regulated in HCC tissues compared to normal livers and adjacent non-tumor tissues. A role of the 13 genes in proliferation was evaluated by knocking them down via small interfering RNA (siRNA) in HCC cells. As a result, several mitotic spindle checkpoint genes were required for maintaining the proliferation of HCC cells, demonstrated by cell viability assay and soft agar colony formation assay. Then we established sorafenib-resistant sublines of HCC cell lines Huh7 and HepG2. Intriguingly, increased TTK expression was significantly associated with acquired sorafenib-resistance in Huh7, HepG2 cells. More importantly, TTK was observably up-regulated in 46 (86.8%) of 53 HCC specimens. A series of in vitro and in vivo functional experiment assays showed that TTK overexpression promoted cell proliferation, anchor-dependent colony formation and resistance to sorafenib of HCC cells; TTK knockdown restrained cell growth, soft agar colony formation and resistance to sorafenib of HCC cells. Collectively, TTK plays an important role in proliferation and sorafenib resistance and could act as a potential therapeutic target for human hepatocellular carcinoma.

Liang, Xiao-Dong; Dai, Yue-Chu; Li, Zhao-Yun; Gan, Mei-Fu; Zhang, Shi-Rong; Yin-Pan; Lu, Hong-Sheng; Cao, Xue-Quan; Zheng, Bei-jia; Bao, Ling-Fen; Wang, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Li-Ming; Ma, Sheng-Lin

2014-01-01

287

Potential sources of Triatoma infestans reinfesting peridomiciles identified by morphological characterization in Los Llanos, La Rioja, Argentina  

PubMed Central

The presence of Triatoma infestans in habitats treated with insecticides constitutes a frequent problem in endemic areas. Basing our study on the hypothesis that descendants of a residual population should be more similar to the pre-treatment population than to any other, we compared the indications of two quantitative morphological approaches. This study seeks to find the origin of 247 T. infestans from three populations found in two chicken coops and a goat corral after treatment with insecticides. The results obtained by quantitative morphology suggest that the T. infestans found between three-34 months after the application of insecticides formed mixed populations with insects derived from residual foci and neighbouring habitats. Our analyses also showed the presence of a phenotype which does not resemble neither the pre-treatment phenotype nor the one from neighbouring populations, suggesting the presence of a particular post-treatment phenotype. The heads size showed some variations in males from different populations and remained unchanged in females, which reinforces the hypothesis of an intraspecific competition for food with priority for females. This article presents, for the first time, the combined analysis of geometric morphometry of heads and antennal phenotypes to identify the composition of reinfesting populations.

Hernandez, Maria Laura; Dujardin, Jean Pierre; Gorla, David Eladio; Catala, Silvia Susana

2013-01-01

288

Naphthenic acids in coastal sediments after the hebei spirit oil spill: a potential indicator for oil contamination.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NAs) as toxic components in most petroleum sources are suspected to be one of the major pollutants in the aquatic environment following oil spills, and the polarity and persistence of NAs make it a potential indicator for oil contamination. However, the contamination and potential effects of pollutants in oil spill affected areas remain unknown. To investigate NAs in oil spill affected areas, a sensitive method was first established for analysis of NAs, together with oxy-NAs in sediment samples by UPLC-QTOF-MS. Then the method was applied to determine the NA mixtures in crude oil, weathered oil, and sediments from the spilled sites after the Hebei Spirit oil spill, Taean, South Korea (Dec. 2007). Concentrations of NAs, O3-NAs, and O4-NAs were found to be 7.8-130, 3.6-44, and 0.8-20 mg kg(-1) dw in sediments from the Taean area, respectively, which were much greater than those measured in the reference sites of Manlipo and Anmyundo beaches. Concentrations of NAs were 50-100 times greater than those (0.077-2.5 mg kg(-1) dw) of PAHs in the same sediment samples, thus the ecological risk of NAs in oil spill affected areas deserves more attention. The sedimentary profiles of oil-derived NAs and background NAs centered around compounds with 21-35 and 12-21 carbons, respectively, indicating that the crude-derived NA mixtures originating from the 2007 oil spill were persistent. Acyclic NAsn=5-20 were easily degraded compared to cyclic NAsn=21-41 during the oil weathering processes, and the ratio of oxy-NAsn=21-41 relative to NAsn=21-41 could be a novel index to estimate the degree of oil weathering in sediments. Altogether, the persistent oil-derived NAsn=21-41 could be used as a potential indicator for oil-specific contamination, as such compounds would not be much affected by the properties of coastal sediments possibly due to the high sorption of the negatively charged compounds (NAs) in sediment. PMID:24579908

Wan, Yi; Wang, Beili; Khim, Jong Seong; Hong, Seongjin; Shim, Won Joon; Hu, Jianying

2014-04-01

289

The BlueScreen-384 assay as an indicator of genotoxic hazard potential in early-stage drug discovery.  

PubMed

High-throughput cell-based techniques that permit early detection of compound-induced genotoxic damage have recently become available. Methods based on induction of the GADD45a?promoter are attractive because multiple intracellular mechanisms that detect genetic damage intersect at this checkpoint gene. Consequently, assays such as GreenScreen HC, which uses p53-competant human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells and a GADD45a-GFP reporter, have been developed. GreenScreen HC allows weekly testing of dozens of compounds using 96-well microplates, with high interassay consistency. BlueScreen HC is a recent advancement, coupling GADD45a to Gaussia luciferase, with several advantages over GADD45a-GFP including the potential for miniaturization. Here we describe implementation of a 384-well BlueScreen assay. For drug discovery programs carrying out iterative analogue synthesis around a chemical lead series, these assays permit assessment of compound genotoxic potential in parallel to, rather than subsequent to, determination of activity at a therapeutic target. We demonstrate comparability of BlueScreen-384 to GreenScreen HC and illustrate the use of BlueScreen-384 to explore the structure-activity relationship around a genotoxic lead molecule to identify nongenotoxic analogues. BlueScreen-384 can reduce the need for costly and time-consuming analogue testing in more traditional genotoxicity tests, such as the Ames test. PMID:23264450

Simpson, Kate; Bevan, Nicola; Hastwell, Paul; Eidam, Patrick; Shah, Poonam; Gogo, Elke; Rees, Steve; Brown, Andrew

2013-04-01

290

You know when: event-related potentials and theta/beta power indicate boundary prediction in music.  

PubMed

Neuroscientific and musicological approaches to music cognition indicate that listeners familiarized in the Western tonal tradition expect a musical phrase boundary at predictable time intervals. However, phrase boundary prediction processes in music remain untested. We analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) and event-related induced power changes at the onset and offset of a boundary pause. We made comparisons with modified melodies, where the pause was omitted and filled by tones. The offset of the pause elicited a closure positive shift (CPS), indexing phrase boundary detection. The onset of the filling tones elicited significant increases in theta and beta powers. In addition, the P2 component was larger when the filling tones started than when they ended. The responses to boundary omission suggest that listeners expected to hear a boundary pause. Therefore, boundary prediction seems to coexist with boundary detection in music segmentation. PMID:24738537

Silva, Susana; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Castro, São Luís

2014-03-01

291

ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

An international symposium on ecological indicators was developed to explore both the potential of ecological indicators and the issues surrounding their development and implementation. his symposium presented state-of-the-science information on the identification, application re...

292

Potential hazards to embryo implantation: A human endometrial in vitro model to identify unwanted antigestagenic actions of chemicals.  

PubMed

Embryo implantation is a crucial step in human reproduction and depends on the timely development of a receptive endometrium. The human endometrium is unique among adult tissues due to its dynamic alterations during each menstrual cycle. It hosts the implantation process which is governed by progesterone, whereas 17?-estradiol regulates the preceding proliferation of the endometrium. The receptors for both steroids are targets for drugs and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Chemicals with unwanted antigestagenic actions are potentially hazardous to embryo implantation since many pharmaceutical antiprogestins adversely affect endometrial receptivity. This risk can be addressed by human tissue-specific in vitro assays. As working basis we compiled data on chemicals interacting with the PR. In our experimental work, we developed a flexible in vitro model based on human endometrial Ishikawa cells. Effects of antiprogestin compounds on pre-selected target genes were characterized by sigmoidal concentration-response curves obtained by RT-qPCR. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) was identified as the most responsive target gene by microarray analysis. The agonistic effect of progesterone on SULT1E1 mRNA was concentration-dependently antagonized by RU486 (mifepristone) and ZK137316 and, with lower potency, by 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin. The negative control methyl acetoacetate showed no effect. The effects of progesterone and RU486 were confirmed on the protein level by Western blotting. We demonstrated proof of principle that our Ishikawa model is suitable to study quantitatively effects of antiprogestin-like chemicals on endometrial target genes in comparison to pharmaceutical reference compounds. This test is useful for hazard identification and may contribute to reduce animal studies. PMID:22414680

Fischer, L; Deppert, W R; Pfeifer, D; Stanzel, S; Weimer, M; Hanjalic-Beck, A; Stein, A; Straßer, M; Zahradnik, H P; Schaefer, W R

2012-05-01

293

Potential hazards to embryo implantation: A human endometrial in vitro model to identify unwanted antigestagenic actions of chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Embryo implantation is a crucial step in human reproduction and depends on the timely development of a receptive endometrium. The human endometrium is unique among adult tissues due to its dynamic alterations during each menstrual cycle. It hosts the implantation process which is governed by progesterone, whereas 17?-estradiol regulates the preceding proliferation of the endometrium. The receptors for both steroids are targets for drugs and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Chemicals with unwanted antigestagenic actions are potentially hazardous to embryo implantation since many pharmaceutical antiprogestins adversely affect endometrial receptivity. This risk can be addressed by human tissue-specific in vitro assays. As working basis we compiled data on chemicals interacting with the PR. In our experimental work, we developed a flexible in vitro model based on human endometrial Ishikawa cells. Effects of antiprogestin compounds on pre-selected target genes were characterized by sigmoidal concentration–response curves obtained by RT-qPCR. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) was identified as the most responsive target gene by microarray analysis. The agonistic effect of progesterone on SULT1E1 mRNA was concentration-dependently antagonized by RU486 (mifepristone) and ZK137316 and, with lower potency, by 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin. The negative control methyl acetoacetate showed no effect. The effects of progesterone and RU486 were confirmed on the protein level by Western blotting. We demonstrated proof of principle that our Ishikawa model is suitable to study quantitatively effects of antiprogestin-like chemicals on endometrial target genes in comparison to pharmaceutical reference compounds. This test is useful for hazard identification and may contribute to reduce animal studies. -- Highlights: ? We compare progesterone receptor-mediated endometrial effects of chemicals and drugs. ? 4-Nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin exert weak antigestagenic activity. ? SULT1E1 is a significant marker for endometrial antiprogestin effects. ? Ishikawa cells are a tissue-specific approach for characterization of SPRMs. ? Chemicals acting as progesterone receptor antagonists may exert antifertility effects.

Fischer, L.; Deppert, W.R. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Pfeifer, D. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)] [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Stanzel, S.; Weimer, M. [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)] [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Hanjalic-Beck, A.; Stein, A.; Straßer, M.; Zahradnik, H.P. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Schaefer, W.R., E-mail: wolfgang.schaefer@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)

2012-05-01

294

Establishment and Characterization of the First Pediatric Adrenocortical Carcinoma Xenograft Model Identifies Topotecan as a Potential Chemotherapeutic Agent  

PubMed Central

Purpose Pediatric adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and highly aggressive malignancy. Conventional chemotherapeutic agents have shown limited utility and are largely ineffective in treating children with advanced ACC. The lack of cell lines and animal models of pediatric ACC has hampered the development of new therapies. Here we report the establishment of the first pediatric ACC xenograft model and the characterization of its sensitivity to selected chemotherapeutic agents. Experimental Design A tumor from an 11-year-old boy with previously untreated ACC was established as a subcutaneous xenograft in immunocompromised CB17 scid?/? mice. The patient harbored a germline TP53 G245C mutation, and the primary tumor showed loss of heterozygosity with retention of the mutated TP53 allele. Histopathology, DNA fingerprinting, gene expression profiling, and biochemical analyses of the xenograft were performed and compared with the primary tumor and normal adrenal cortex. The second endpoint was to assess the preliminary antitumor activity of selected chemotherapeutic agents. Results The xenograft maintained the histopathologic and molecular features of the primary tumor. Screening the xenograft for drug responsiveness showed cisplatin had a potent antitumor effect. However, etoposide, doxorubicin, and a panel of other common cancer drugs had little or no antitumor activity, with the exception of topotecan, which was found to significantly inhibit tumor growth. Consistent with these preclinical findings, topotecan as a single agent in a child with relapsed ACC resulted in disease stabilization. Conclusion Our study established a novel TP53-associated pediatric ACC xenograft and identified topotecan as a potentially effective agent for treating children with this disease.

Pinto, Emilia M.; Morton, Christopher; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; McGregor, Lisa; Davidoff, Andrew M.; Mercer, Kimberly; Debelenko, Larisa V.; Billups, Catherine; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Zambetti, Gerard P.

2013-01-01

295

The IGF-1 Receptor Identifies a Pool of Human Cardiac Stem Cells with Superior Therapeutic Potential for Myocardial Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Rationale Age and coronary artery disease may negatively affect the function of human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs) and their potential therapeutic efficacy for autologous cell transplantation in the failing heart. Objective Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and 2 (IGF-2), and angiotensin II (Ang II) and their receptors, IGF-1R, IGF-2R and AT1R, were characterized in c-kit-positive-hCSCs to establish whether these systems would allow us to separate hCSC classes with different growth reserve in the aging and diseased myocardium. Methods and Results C-kit-positive-hCSCs were collected from myocardial samples obtained from 24 patients, 48 to 86 years of age, undergoing elective cardiac surgery for coronary artery disease. The expression of IGF-1R in hCSCs recognized a young cell phenotype defined by long telomeres, high telomerase activity, enhanced cell proliferation and attenuated apoptosis. In addition to IGF-1, IGF-1R-positive-hCSCs secreted IGF-2 that promoted myocyte differentiation. Conversely, the presence of IGF-2R and AT1R, in the absence of IGF-1R, identified senescent hCSCs with impaired growth reserve and increased susceptibility to apoptosis. The ability of IGF-1R-positive-hCSCs to regenerate infarcted myocardium was then compared with that of unselected c-kit-positive-hCSCs. IGF-1R-positive-hCSCs improved cardiomyogenesis and vasculogenesis. Pretreatment of IGF-1R-positive-hCSCs with IGF-2 resulted in the formation of more mature myocytes and superior recovery of ventricular structure. Conclusions hCSCs expressing only IGF-1R synthesize both IGF-1 and IGF-2, which are potent modulators of stem cell replication, commitment to the myocyte lineage and myocyte differentiation, pointing to this hCSC subset as the ideal candidate cell for the management of human heart failure.

D'Amario, Domenico; Cabral-Da-Silva, Mauricio; Zheng, Hanqiao; Fiorini, Claudia; Goichberg, Polina; Steadman, Elisabeth; Ferreira-Martins, Joao; Sanada, Fumihiro; Piccoli, Marco; Cappetta, Donato; D'Alessandro, David A.; Michler, Robert E.; Hosoda, Toru; Anastasia, Luigi; Rota, Marcello; Leri, Annarosa; Anversa, Piero; Kajstura, Jan

2012-01-01

296

Ceriodaphnia dubia as a potential bio-indicator for assessing acute aluminum oxide nanoparticle toxicity in fresh water environment.  

PubMed

Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h) in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h) puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake) as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES) analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system. PMID:24040143

Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Humayun, Ahmed; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

2013-01-01

297

Ceriodaphnia dubia as a Potential Bio-Indicator for Assessing Acute Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticle Toxicity in Fresh Water Environment  

PubMed Central

Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h) in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h) puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake) as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES) analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system.

Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Humayun, Ahmed; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

2013-01-01

298

Bacterial Indicator Occurrence and the Use of an F(+) Specific RNA Coliphage Assay to Identify Fecal Sources in Homosassa Springs, Florida.  

PubMed

A microbiological water quality study of Homosassa Springs State Wildlife Park (HSSWP) and surrounding areas was undertaken. Samples were collected in November of 1997 (seven sites) and again in November of 1998 (nine sites). Fecal bacterial concentrations (total and fecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens, and enterococci) were measured as relative indicators of fecal contamination. F(+)-specific coliphage genotyping was performed to determine the source of fecal contamination at the study sites. Bacterial levels were considerably higher at most sites in the 1997 sampling compared to the 1998 sampling, probably because of the greater rainfall that year. In November of 1997, 2 of the 7 sites were in violation of all indicator standards and guidance levels. In November of 1998, 1 of 9 sites was in violation of all indicator standard and guidance levels. The highest concentrations of all fecal indicators were found at a station downstream of the animal holding pens in HSSWP. The lowest levels of indicators were found at the Homosassa Main Spring vent. Levels of fecal indicators downstream of HSSWP (near the point of confluence with the river) were equivalent to those found in the Southeastern Fork and areas upstream of the park influences. F(+) specific RNA coliphage analysis indicated that fecal contamination at all sites that tested positive was from animal sources (mammals and birds). These results suggest that animal (indigenous and those in HSSWP) and not human sources influenced microbial water quality in the area of Homosassa River covered by this study.

Griffin; Stokes; Rose; Paul

2000-01-01

299

IDENTIFYING SUITABLE INDICATORS FOR MEASURING SUSTAINABILITY OF BIOENERGY PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM PINE FORESTS IN THE U.S. SOUTH (PHASE-1)  

EPA Science Inventory

In this phase of the project, a sustainability framework was developed for four sustainability indices namely: 1) economic; 2) biodiversity; 3) greenhouse gas emission reduction and net energy ratio; and 4) soil and water quali...

300

Concentration-weighted trajectory approach to identifying potential sources of speciated atmospheric mercury at an urban coastal site in Nova Scotia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional and local sources contributing to gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particle-bound mercury (PBM) at an urban coastal site in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada were investigated using the Concentration-Weighted Trajectory model (CWT) and Conditional Probability Function. From 2010-2011, GEM, GOM, and PBM concentrations were 1.67 ± 1.01 ng m-3, 2.07 ± 3.35 pg m-3, and 2.32 ± 3.09 pg m-3, respectively. Seasonal variability was observed, with statistically higher GEM and PBM concentrations in winter and spring and higher GOM in spring. In the CWT, concentrations are the weighting factors for the trajectory residence time in modeled grid cells, which results in the identification of source areas based on the CWT values in the grid cells. Potential source areas were identified in regions with known industrial Hg sources particularly in the fall season, but also in regions without these sources (e.g. Atlantic Ocean, northern Ontario and Quebec). CWTs for GOM and PBM that were associated with ? 5 kg industrial Hg emissions from 2010-2011 were statistically larger than those with zero Hg emissions, despite a lack of strong correlations. A large proportion of elevated CWTs (85-97%) was in regions with zero industrial Hg sources indicating the potential role of non-point sources, natural emissions, and residential-scale combustion. Analysis of wind data suggests that a commercial harbor and vehicular traffic were potential local sources. Evaluating modeled source areas against Hg emissions inventories was not an ideal method for assessing the CWT model accuracy because of insufficient data on Hg emissions at more precise locations.

Cheng, I.; Zhang, L.; Blanchard, P.; Dalziel, J.; Tordon, R.

2013-06-01

301

Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 is a potential tributyltin (TBT) bioremediator: phenotypic and genotypic characterization indicates its safe application.  

PubMed

Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 is an estuarine bacterium highly resistant to tributyltin (TBT). Also, the strain is able to degrade TBT into the less toxic compounds dibutyltin and monobutyltin. Therefore, this bacterium has potential to be employed in bioremediation processes. In this context, defining its biological safety is crucial. With that purpose a number of intrinsic characteristics, usually present/associated with virulent strains, were investigated. Few virulence factors were detected in strain Av27. For instance, a DNase gene is present, but it is not apparently expressed in vitro. Motility, adherence factor and phospholipase activity were also detected. Additionally, cytotoxicity to Vero cells was negative. Resistance to penicillin (10 ?g ml(-1)), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (30 ?g ml(-1)) and cephalothin (30 ?g ml(-1)) and also to the vibriostatic agent O/129 was observed. Five plasmids (4, 7, 10, 100 kb and one greater than 100 kb) were identified. No Class I and II integrons were detected. Study of the optimal growth conditions showed that Av27 easily adapts to different environmental conditions. Overall, the results suggest that A. molluscorum Av27 can be considered safe to use to bioremediate TBT in contaminated environments. PMID:23828177

Cruz, Andreia; Areias, Dário; Duarte, Ana; Correia, António; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

2013-09-01

302

Depth and activity of carious lesions as indicators for the regenerative potential of dental pulp after intervention.  

PubMed

Studies on dental regeneration involving interventions for pulp therapy such as regeneration and revascularization procedures are promising for the injured tooth; however, a complete replication of the original pulp tissue does not seem to take place. In cases in which we wish to preserve or maintain parts of the pulp during treatment, it is apparent that the effectiveness of healing or biological regeneration is dependent on the degree of inflammation of the pulp tissue. Thus, the control or prevention of a pulp infection is still a major issue for the clinicians. Data indicate that the typical reason for performing endodontic treatment is deep caries. The biological concept of vital pulp therapy associated with deep caries takes the treatment and evaluation of the unexposed as well as the exposed pulp into account. Interestingly, the clinical diagnosis is typically the same. Deep caries with reversible pulpitis may receive differing treatments such as excavation procedures aiming to avoid pulp exposure or more pulp invasive treatments such as pulp capping or pulpotomy. This should not be the case. Consequently, huge treatment variation is noted among clinicians based on the same caries diagnosis. Which treatment should be selected? High-quality trials are needed, and it is important to obtain information on the actual lesion depth and an estimate of the lesion activity before treatment. These may be basic indicators for the regenerative potential of dental pulp. Recent clinical trials dealing with the treatment of deep caries lesion are discussed, including pulp invasive and noninvasive concepts, to attempt to solve the task of getting the best clinical outcome for adult patients. PMID:24698699

Bjørndal, Lars; Demant, Sune; Dabelsteen, Sally

2014-04-01

303

Assessing the potential of chlorophyll fluorescence retrievals from GOSAT space measurements to indicate gross primary production on a global scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small fraction of the solar radiation absorbed by green leaves is emitted as chlorophyll-a fluorescence (Fs) after energy conversion. The Fs emission occurs as two broadband peaks centered in the red (685 nm) and far-red (740 nm) spectral regions. Fs has been demonstrated to be a good indicator of phyotosynthesis and gross primary production from the leaf to the canopy levels. A global map of Fs in 760 nm has recently been achieved thanks to the high spectral resolution measurements provided by the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite "IBUKI" (GOSAT). This contribution investigates the potential of the Fs signal derived from GOSAT-FTS measurements for an improved modeling of land-atmosphere interactions on a global scale. In particular, the core objective of this study is to assess for what biomes and under which conditions fluorescence is a better proxy for photosynthesis and gross primary production than traditional reflectance-based observations of the absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) derived from traditional reflectance-based observations. For this purpose, a temporal series of about three years of global Fs retrievals has been compared with satellite-based gross primary production data sets, and with other vegetation and meteorological products. Preliminary results have shown that Fs and GPP present a systematically higher correlation of temporal and spatial patterns than Fs and APAR, which indicates that the Fs signal derived from GOSAT can track vegetation physiology-related processes better than traditional reflectance-based observations even at coarse spatial scales.

Guanter, L.; Frankenberg, C.; Jung, M.; Lee, J.; Lewis, P.

2012-12-01

304

Evaluation of Blastomere Biopsy Using a Mouse Model Indicates the Potential High Risk of Neurodegenerative Disorders in the Offspring*  

PubMed Central

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), used in clinical practice, is offered to couples that may suffer from a monogenetic disorder, chromosome aneuploidy, or X-linked disease. However, blastomere biopsy, as an indispensable manipulation during the PGD procedure has not been assessed for its long term health implications. Using a mouse model, we investigated the effect of blastomere biopsy of in vitro cultured four-cell embryos on preimplantation development efficiency, postnatal growth, and physiological and behavioral activity compared with control, non-biopsied embryos. The mice generated after blastomere biopsy showed weight increase and some memory decline compared with the control group. Further protein expression profiles in adult brains were analyzed by a proteomics approach. A total of 36 proteins were identified with significant differences between the biopsied and control groups, and the alterations in expression of most of these proteins have been associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore hypomyelination of the nerve fibers was observed in the brains of mice in the biopsied group. This study suggested that the nervous system may be sensitive to blastomere biopsy procedures and indicated an increased relative risk of neurodegenerative disorders in the offspring generated following blastomere biopsy. Thus, more studies should be performed to address the possible adverse effects of blastomere biopsy on the development of offspring, and the overall safety of PGD technology should be more rigorously assessed.

Yu, Yang; Wu, Jindao; Fan, Yong; Lv, Zhuo; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhao, Chun; Zhou, Rong; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Fuqiang; Xiao, Min; Chen, Ling; Zhu, Hui; Chen, Wen; Lin, Min; Liu, Jiayin; Zhou, Zuomin; Wang, Liu; Huo, Ran; Zhou, Qi; Sha, Jiahao

2009-01-01

305

Identifying Potential Mediators and Moderators of the Association between Child Maltreatment and Bullying Perpetration and Victimization in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of literature is demonstrating associations between childhood maltreatment and bullying involvement at school. In this literature review, four potential mediators (explanatory) and three potential moderators (mitigates or exacerbates) of the association between childhood maltreatment and school bullying are proposed. Mediators…

Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Allen-Meares, Paula

2012-01-01

306

After-effects of human-computer interaction indicated by P300 of the event-related brain potential.  

PubMed

After-effects of human-computer interaction (HCI) were investigated by using the P300 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP). Forty-nine subjects (naive non-users, beginners, experienced users, programmers) completed three paper/pencil tasks (text editing, solving intelligence test items, filling out a questionnaire on sensation seeking) and three HCI tasks (text editing, executing a tutor program or programming, playing Tetris). The sequence of 7-min tasks was randomized between subjects and balanced between groups. After each experimental condition ERPs were recorded during an acoustic discrimination task at F3, F4, Cz, P3 and P4. Data indicate that: (1) mental after-effects of HCI can be detected by P300 of the ERP; (2) HCI showed in general a reduced amplitude; (3) P300 amplitude varied also with type of task, mainly at F4 where it was smaller after cognitive tasks (intelligence test/programming) and larger after emotion-based tasks (sensation seeking/Tetris); (4) cognitive tasks showed shorter latencies; (5) latencies were widely location-independent (within the range of 356-358 ms at F3, F4, P3 and P4) after executing the tutor program or programming; and (6) all observed after-effects were independent of the user's experience in operating computers and may therefore reflect short-term after-effects only and no structural changes of information processing caused by HCI. PMID:9613225

Trimmel, M; Huber, R

1998-05-01

307

Laparoscopic surgical skills training: an investigation of the potential of using surgeons' visual search behaviour as a performance indicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laparoscopic surgery is a difficult perceptual-motor task and effective and efficient training in the technique is important. Viewing previously recorded laparoscopic operations is a possible available training technique for surgeons to increase their knowledge of such minimal access surgery (MAS). It is not well known whether this is a useful technique, how effective it is or what effect it has on the surgeon watching the recorded video. As part of an on-going series of studies into laparoscopic surgery, an experiment was conducted to examine whether surgical skill level has an effect on the visual search behaviour of individuals of different surgical experience when they examine such imagery. Medically naive observers, medical students, junior surgeons and experienced surgeons viewed a laparoscopic recording of a recent operation. Initial examination of the recorded eye movement data indicated commonalities between all observers, largely irrespective of surgical experience. This, it is argued, is due to visual search in this situation largely being driven by the dynamic nature of the images. The data were then examined in terms of surgical steps and also in terms of interventions when differences were found related to surgical experience. Consequently, it is argued that monitoring the eye movements of trainee surgeons whilst they watch pre-recorded operations is a potential useful adjunct to existing training regimes.

Chen, Yan; Dong, Leng; Gale, Alastair G.; Rees, Benjamin; Maxwell-Armstrong, Charles

2014-03-01

308

Three tropical seagrasses as potential bio-indicators to trace metals in Xincun Bay, Hainan Island, South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of the trace metals Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn were measured in seawater, rhizosphere sediments, interstitial water, and the tissues of three tropical species of seagrasses ( Thalassia hemprichii, Enhalus acoroides and Cymodocea rotundata) from Xincun Bay of Hainan Island, South China. We analyzed different environmental compartments and the highest concentrations of Pb and Zn were found in the interstitial and seawater. The concentrations of Cd and Zn were significantly higher in blades compared with roots or rhizomes in T. hemprichii and E. acoroides, respectively. A metal pollution index (MPI) demonstrated that sediment, interstitial water, and seagrasses in the sites located nearest anthropogenic sources of pollution had the most abundant metal concentrations. There was obvious seasonal variation of these metals in the three seagrasses with higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in January and Cd in July. Furthermore, the relationships between metal concentrations in seagrasses and environmental compartments were positively correlated significantly. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) demonstrated that Cd from the tissues of the three seagrasses might be absorbed from the sediment by the roots. However, for C. rotundata, Zn is likely to be derived from the seawater through its blades. Therefore, the blades of T. hemprichii, E. acoroides and C. rotundata are potential bio-indicators to Cd content in sediment, and additionally Zn content ( C. rotundata only) in seawater.

Li, Lei; Huang, Xiaoping

2012-03-01

309

Geochemical indicators of depositional environment and soruce-rock potential for the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa Group, Illinois basin  

SciTech Connect

Two depositional cycles are recognized within the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa Group of the Illinois basin in a core from the New Jersey Zinc 1 Parrish well of Fulton County, Illinois. Organic carbon (C[sub org]), total sulfur, [sup 13]C content of the organic carbon ([delta][sup 13]C[sub org]), hydrogen and oxygen indices (HI and OI) from Rock-Eval pyrolysis and yields of extractable organic matter (EOM) vary through the cycles. Dark-brown to black, laminated shales are present in the lower portion of each cycle and have high values of C[sub org] (1.0-3.0%), HI (500-1000 mg hydrocarbon [HC]/g total organic carbon[TOC]), and EOM (500-2500 ppm), and more negative [delta][sup 13]C[sub org] values ([delta][sup 13]C[sub org] = -30 to -30.5%). Gray to greenish-gray, bioturbated shales are present in the upper portion of each cycle and have low values of C[sub org] (<1.0%), HI (<500 mg HC/g TOC), and EOM (<500 ppm), and more positive [delta][sup 13]C[sub org] values (-28.5 to 29.5%) compared to the laminated shales. Although thermally immature or marginally mature in this core, the laminated shales represent potential source rock s for petroleum because they contain good to excellent quantities of oil-prone organic matter and are more deeply buried in other areas of the basin. Kerogen elemental data and Rock-Eval data suggest that the source of organic matter in the Maquoketa was uniform, with the notable exception of graptolite-rich layers. Distributions of saturated hydrocarbons for Maquoketa samples resemble those derived from amorphous organic matter. Variations in bulk geochemical data and carbon isotopic compositions within the Maquoketa Group indicate substantial reworking and degradation of organic matter associated with bioturbation and oxygenated depositional conditions. 64 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Guthrie, J.M.; Pratt, L.M. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States))

1994-05-01

310

Transport of chemical and microbial compounds from known wastewater discharges: Potential for use as indicators of human fecal contamination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently (2005) determined using indicator bacteria. However, the culture tests used to analyze forthese bacteria require a long time to complete and do not discriminate between human and animal fecal material sources. One complementary approach is to use chemicals found in human wastewater, which would have the advantages of (1) potentially shorter analysis times than the bacterial culture tests and (2) being selected for human-source specificity. At 10 locations, water samples were collected upstream and at two successive points downstream from a wastewaster treatment plant (WWTP); a treated effluent sample was also collected at each WWTP. This sampling plan was used to determine the persistence of a chemically diverse suite of emerging contaminants in streams. Samples were also collected at two reference locations assumed to have minimal human impacts. Of the 110 chemical analytes investigated in this project, 78 were detected at least once. The number of compounds in a given sample ranged from 3 at a reference location to 50 in a WWTP effluent sample. The total analyte load at each location varied from 0.018 ??g/L at the reference location to 97.7 ??g/L in a separate WWTP effluent sample. Although most of the compound concentrations were in the range of 0.01-1.0 ??g/L, in some samples, individual concentrations were in the range of 5-38 ??g/L The concentrations of the majority of the chemicals present in the samples generally followed the expected trend: they were either nonexistent or at trace levels in the upstream samples, had their maximum concentrations in the WWTP effluent samples, and then declined in the two downstream samples. This research suggests that selected chemicals are useful as tracers of human wastewater discharge. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

Glassmeyer, S. T.; Furlong, E. T.; Kolpin, D. W.; Cahill, J. D.; Zaugg, S. D.; Werner, S. L.; Meyer, M. T.; Kryak, D. D.

2005-01-01

311

A vulnerability driven approach to identify adverse climate and land use change combinations for critical hydrologic indicator thresholds: Application to a watershed in Pennsylvania, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

uncertainties in streamflow projections derived from downscaled climate projections of precipitation and temperature can render such simulations of limited value for decision making in the context of water resources management. New approaches are being sought to provide decision makers with robust information in the face of such large uncertainties. We present an alternative approach that starts with the stakeholder's definition of vulnerable ranges for relevant hydrologic indicators. Then the modeled system is analyzed to assess under what conditions these thresholds are exceeded. The space of possible climates and land use combinations for a watershed is explored to isolate subspaces that lead to vulnerability, while considering model parameter uncertainty in the analysis. We implement this concept using classification and regression trees (CART) that separate the input space of climate and land use change into those combinations that lead to vulnerability and those that do not. We test our method in a Pennsylvania watershed for nine ecological and water resources related streamflow indicators for which an increase in temperature between 3°C and 6°C and change in precipitation between -17% and 19% is projected. Our approach provides several new insights, for example, we show that even small decreases in precipitation (˜5%) combined with temperature increases greater than 2.5°C can push the mean annual runoff into a slightly vulnerable regime. Using this impact and stakeholder driven strategy, we explore the decision-relevant space more fully and provide information to the decision maker even if climate change projections are ambiguous.

Singh, R.; Wagener, T.; Crane, R.; Mann, M. E.; Ning, L.

2014-04-01

312

Development of Normal Human Colonocyte Cultures to Identify the Carcinogenic Potential of Priorty Disinfection By-products  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of disinfected surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Of the approximately >600 disinfection byproducts (DBPs) identified, the US EPA regulates 11 DBPs for an increased risk of cancer. An in-depth mechanism-...

313

DEVELOPMENT OF NORMAL HUMAN COLON CELL CULTURES TO IDENTIFY UNREGULATED DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBPS) WITH CARCINOGENIC POTENTIAL.  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of chlorinated surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Approximately 600 DBPs, less than half of the total organic carbon in drinking water have been identified. We are developing an in vitro system to i...

314

Development of Normal Human Colon Cell Cultures to Identify Unregulated Disiinfection By-products (DBPs) with a Carcinogenic Potential - GEMS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of chlorinated surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Approximately 600 DBPs, less that half of the total organic carbon in drinking water, have been identified of which 50 unregulated DBPs have received the ...

315

Two-stage genome-wide association study identifies integrin beta 5 as having potential role in bull fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fertility is one of the most critical factors controlling biological and financial performance of animal production systems and genetic improvement of lines. The objective of this study was to identify molecular defects in the sperm that are responsible for uncompensable fertility in Holstein bulls. We performed a comprehensive genome wide analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for bull fertility

Jean M Feugang; Abdullah Kaya; Grier P Page; Lang Chen; Tapan Mehta; Kashif Hirani; Lynne Nazareth; Einko Topper; Richard Gibbs; Erdogan Memili

2009-01-01

316

Identifying Student Use of Ball-and-Stick Images versus Electrostatic Potential Map Images via Eye Tracking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study examined students' use of ball-and-stick images versus electrostatic potential maps when asked questions about electron density, positive charge, proton attack, and hydroxide attack with six different molecules (two alcohols, two carboxylic acids, and two hydroxycarboxylic acids). Students' viewing of these dual images…

Williamson, Vickie M.; Hegarty, Mary; Deslongchamps, Ghislain; Williamson, Kenneth C., III

2013-01-01

317

Identifying food proteins with allergenic potential: Evolution of approaches to safety assessment and research to provide additional tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

A safety assessment process exists for genetically engineered crops that includes the evaluation of the expressed protein for allergenic potential. The objectives of this evaluation are twofold: (1) to protect allergic consumers from exposure to known allergenic or cross-reactive proteins, and (2) protect the general population from risks associated with the introduction of genes encoding proteins that are likely to

Gregory S. Ladics; MaryJane K. Selgrade

2009-01-01

318

Linking molecular biomarkers with higher level condition indicators to identify effects of copper exposures on the endangered delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus).  

PubMed

The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endangered pelagic fish species endemic to the Sacramento-San Joaquin estuary (CA, USA), and considered an indicator of ecosystem health. Copper is a contaminant of concern in Californian waterways that may affect the development and survival of this endangered species. The experimental combination of molecular biomarkers with higher level effects may allow for interpretation of responses in a functional context that can be used to predict detrimental outcomes caused by exposure. A delta smelt microarray was developed and applied to screen for candidate molecular biomarkers that may be used in monitoring programs. Functional classifications of microarray responses were used along with quantitative polymerase chain reaction determining effects upon neuromuscular, digestive, and immune responses in Cu-exposed delta smelt. Differences in sensitivity were measured between juveniles and larvae (median lethal concentration = 25.2 and 80.4 µg/L Cu(2+), respectively). Swimming velocity declined with higher exposure concentrations in a dose-dependent manner (r = ?-0.911, p < 0.05), though was not statistically significant to controls. Genes encoding for aspartoacylase, hemopexin, ?-actin, and calcium regulation proteins were significantly affected by exposure and were functionally interpreted with measured swimming responses. Effects on digestion were measured by upregulation of chitinase and downregulation of amylase, whereas downregulation of tumor necrosis factor indicated a probable compromised immune system. Results from this study, and many others, support the use of functionally characterized molecular biomarkers to assess effects of contaminants in field scenarios. We thus propose that to attribute environmental relevance to molecular biomarkers, research should concentrate on their application in field studies with the aim of assisting monitoring programs. PMID:21072851

Connon, Richard E; Beggel, Sebastian; D'Abronzo, Leandro S; Geist, Juergen P; Pfeiff, Janice; Loguinov, Alexander V; Vulpe, Christopher D; Werner, Inge

2011-02-01

319

Microarray analysis of gliomas reveals chromosomal position-associated gene expression patterns and identifies potential immunotherapy targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gliomas are among the most aggressive malignant tumors and the most refractory to therapy, in part due to the propensity for\\u000a malignant cells to disseminate diffusely throughout the brain. Here, we have used 27 K cDNA microarrays to investigate global\\u000a gene expression changes between normal brain and high-grade glioma (glioblastoma multiforme) to try and better understand\\u000a gliomagenesis and to identify new

Oscar Persson; Morten Krogh; Lao H. Saal; Elisabet Englund; Jian Liu; Ramon Parsons; Nils Mandahl; Åke Borg; Bengt Widegren; Leif G. Salford

2007-01-01

320

The development and validation of a novel virtual screening cascade protocol to identify potential serotonin 5HT 7R antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to identify new ligands for the 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R), we developed and tested a hierarchical multi-step strategy of virtual screening (VS) based on two-dimensional (2D) pharmacophore similarity, physicochemical scalar descriptors, an ADME\\/Tox filter, three-dimensional (3D) pharmacophore searches and a docking protocol. Six chemical classes of 5-HT7R antagonists were used as query structures in a double-path virtual screening

Rafa? Kurczab; Mateusz Nowak; Zdzis?aw Chilmonczyk; Ingebrigt Sylte; Andrzej J. Bojarski

2010-01-01

321

Global Health Education: a cross-sectional study among German medical students to identify needs, deficits and potential benefits (Part 2 of 2: Knowledge gaps and potential benefits)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Germany, educational deficits or potential benefits involved in global health education have not been analysed till now. OBJECTIVE: We assess the importance medical students place on learning about social determinants of health (SDH) and assess their knowledge of global health topics in relation to (i) mobility patterns, their education in (ii) tropical medicine or (iii) global health. METHODS:

Kayvan Bozorgmehr; Johannes Menzel-Severing; Kirsten Schubert; Peter Tinnemann

2010-01-01

322

Quantifying Ongoing HIV-1 Exposure in HIV-1-Serodiscordant Couples to Identify Individuals With Potential Host Resistance to HIV-1  

PubMed Central

Background.?Immunogenetic correlates of resistance to HIV-1 in HIV-1–exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals with consistently high exposure may inform HIV-1 prevention strategies. We developed a novel approach for quantifying HIV-1 exposure to identify individuals remaining HIV-1 uninfected despite persistent high exposure. Methods.?We used longitudinal predictors of HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples to score HIV-1 exposure and define HESN clusters with persistently high, low, and decreasing risk trajectories. The model was validated in an independent cohort of serodiscordant couples. We describe a statistical tool that can be applied to other HESN cohorts to identify individuals with high exposure to HIV-1. Results.?HIV-1 exposure was best quantified by frequency of unprotected sex with, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels among, and presence of genital ulcer disease among HIV-1–infected partners and by age, pregnancy status, herpes simplex virus 2 serostatus, and male circumcision status among HESN participants. Overall, 14% of HESN individuals persistently had high HIV-1 exposure and exhibited a declining incidence of HIV-1 infection over time. Conclusions.?A minority of HESN individuals from HIV-1–discordant couples had persistent high HIV-1 exposure over time. Decreasing incidence of infection in this group suggests these individuals were selected for resistance to HIV-1 and may be most appropriate for identifying biological correlates of natural host resistance to HIV-1 infection.

Mackelprang, Romel D.; Baeten, Jared M.; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Farquhar, Carey; de Bruyn, Guy; Essex, Max; McElrath, M. Juliana; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Lingappa, Jairam R.

2012-01-01

323

Potential and Limitations of Satellite Data to Identify Deaths of Individual Trees in a Central American Tropical Rain Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Logistical constraints on sample size and spatial scale limit individual-based field research on tropical trees. With remote sensing data, we may escape these limitations if fates of individuals can be tracked rigorously. We assessed the potential of readily available, commercial satellite data (QuickBird, 0.7 m pixels) obtained in 2003, to track the fate of individual crowns (> 40 m height)

R. Q. Thomas; J. R. Kellner; D. R. Peart

2005-01-01

324

Assessing the potential hazard of chemical substances for the terrestrial environment. Development of hazard classification criteria and quantitative environmental indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazard assessment constitutes an essential tool in order to evaluate the potential effects of chemical substances on organisms and ecosystems. It includes as a first step, hazard identification, which must detect the potential dangers of the substance (i.e. the kind of effects that the substance may produce), and a second step to quantify each danger and to set the expected

J. V. Tarazona; A. Fresno; S. Aycard; C. Ramos; M. M. Vega; G. Carbonell

2000-01-01

325

A network-based framework for identifying potential synchronizations and amplifications of sediment delivery in river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

prediction of environmental response to natural and anthropogenic disturbances in a basin becomes highly uncertain using physically based distributed models, particularly when transport time scales range from tens to thousands of years, such as for sediment. Yet, such predictions are needed as changes in one part of a basin now might adversely affect other parts of the basin in years to come. In this paper, we propose a simplified network-based predictive framework of sedimentological response in a basin, which incorporates network topology, channel characteristics, and transport-process dynamics to perform a nonlinear process-based scaling of the river-network width function to a time-response function. We develop the process-scaling formulation for transport of mud, sand, and gravel, using simplifying assumptions including neglecting long-term storage, and apply the methodology to the Minnesota River Basin. We identify a robust bimodal distribution of the sedimentological response for sand of the basin which we attribute to specific source areas, and identify a resonant frequency of sediment supply where the disturbance of one area followed by the disturbance of another area after a certain period of time, may result in amplification of the effects of sediment inputs which would be otherwise difficult to predict. We perform a sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of the proposed formulation to model parameter uncertainty and use observations of suspended sediment at several stations in the basin to diagnose the model. The proposed framework has identified an important vulnerability of the Minnesota River Basin to spatial and temporal structuring of sediment delivery.

Czuba, Jonathan A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

2014-05-01

326

Ras-Driven Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Aurora Kinase A as a Potential Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Therapeutic Target  

PubMed Central

Purpose Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) develop malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) which are often inoperable and do not respond well to current chemotherapies or radiation. The goal of this study was to utilize comprehensive gene expression analysis to identify novel therapeutic targets. Experimental Design Nerve Schwann cells and/or their precursors are the tumorigenic cell types in MPNST due to the loss of the NF1 gene, which encodes the RasGAP protein neurofibromin. Therefore, we created a transgenic mouse model, CNP-HRas12V, expressing constitutively-active HRas in Schwann cells and defined a Ras-induced gene expression signature to drive a Bayesian factor regression model analysis of differentially expressed genes in mouse and human neurofibromas and MPNSTs. We tested functional significance of Aurora kinase over-expression in MPNST in vitro and in vivo using Aurora kinase shRNAs and compounds that inhibit Aurora kinase. Results We identified 2000 genes with probability of linkage to nerve Ras signaling of which 339 were significantly differentially expressed in mouse and human NF1-related tumor samples relative to normal nerves, including Aurora kinase A (AURKA). AURKA was dramatically over-expressed and genomically amplified in MPNSTs but not neurofibromas. Aurora kinase shRNAs and Aurora kinase inhibitors blocked MPNST cell growth in vitro. Furthermore, an AURKA selective inhibitor, MLN8237, stabilized tumor volume and significantly increased survival of mice with MPNST xenografts. Conclusion Integrative cross-species transcriptome analyses combined with preclinical testing has provided an effective method for identifying candidates for molecular-targeted therapeutics. Blocking Aurora kinases may be a viable treatment platform for MPNST.

Patel, Ami V.; Eaves, David; Jessen, Walter J.; Rizvi, Tilat A.; Ecsedy, Jeffrey A.; Qian, Mark G.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Perentesis, John P.; Serra, Eduard; Cripe, Timothy P.; Miller, Shyra J.; Ratner, Nancy

2013-01-01

327

Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation: Facility Utilizes Energy Assessments to Identify $930,000 in Potential Annual Savings  

SciTech Connect

Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation (KUCC) used targeted energy assessments in the smelter and refinery at its Bingham Canyon Mine, near Salt Lake City, Utah. The assessment focused mainly on the energy-intensive processes of copper smelting and refining. By implementing the projects identified, KUCC could realize annual cost savings of $930,000 and annual energy savings of 452,000 MMBtu. The projects would also reduce maintenance, repair costs, waste, and environmental emissions. One project would use methane gas from an adjacent municipal dump to replace natural gas currently used to heat the refinery electrolyte.

Not Available

2004-07-01

328

Potential application of antibody-mimicking peptides identified by phage display in immuno-magnetic separation of an antigen.  

PubMed

Phage display was performed against human IgG (hIgG) through five rounds of 'biopanning'. Each round consisted of: (1) incubating a library of phage-displayed 12-mer peptides sequences on hIgG-coated magnetic beads, (2) washing the unbound phages, and (3) eluting the bound phages. The eluted phages were either amplified to enrich the pool of positive clones or subjected to the next round without amplification. Through ELISA, four clones (F9, D1, G5, and A10) showing specific binding affinity to hIgG were identified. Among these, F9 had the highest affinity (K(d)=6.2 nM), only one order of magnitude lower than the native anti-hIgG antibody (0.66 nM). Following the DNA sequences of the selected clones, four 12-mer peptides were chemically synthesized. Among them, D1 peptide showed the highest binding affinity to hIgG via SPR biosensor measurements. This peptide was conjugated to biofunctionalized magnetic beads, and its immuno-binding ability was compared with that of the native antibody immobilized to magnetic beads. The mol-to-mol binding efficacy of the peptide-coated magnetic beads was approximately 1000-fold lower than that of the antibody-coated magnetic beads. Our results suggest a feasibility of using antibody-mimicking peptides identified by phage display technique for immuno-magnetic separation of an antigen. PMID:22796092

Hien, Thai Bao Dieu; Maeng, Joon-Ho; Lee, Byung Heon; Seong, Gi Hun; Choo, Jaebum; Lee, E K

2012-10-31

329

Rapid, potentially automatable, method extract biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to detect and identify BW agents  

SciTech Connect

The program proposes to concentrate on the rapid recovery of signature biomarkers based on automated high-pressure, high-temperature solvent extraction (ASE) and/or supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to produce lipids, nucleic acids and proteins sequentially concentrated and purified in minutes with yields especially from microeukaryotes, Gram-positive bacteria and spores. Lipids are extracted in higher proportions greater than classical one-phase, room temperature solvent extraction without major changes in lipid composition. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with or without derivatization, electrospray ionization (ESI) and highly specific detection by mass spectrometry (MS) particularly with (MS){sup n} provides the detection, identification and because the signature lipid biomarkers are both phenotypic as well as genotypic biomarkers, insights into potential infectivity of BW agents. Feasibility has been demonstrated with detection, identification, and determination of infectious potential of Cryptosporidium parvum at the sensitivity of a single oocyst (which is unculturable in vitro) and accurate identification and prediction, pathogenicity, and drug-resistance of Mycobacteria spp.

White, D.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Science Div.; Burkhalter, R.S.; Smith, C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology; Whitaker, K.W. [Microbial Insights, Inc., Rockford, TN (United States)

1997-12-31

330

Use of identical assay conditions for cocaine analog binding and dopamine uptake to identify potential cocaine antagonists.  

PubMed

The addictive and euphorogenic properties of cocaine are thought to result from inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Recent evidence suggests that dopamine and cocaine bind to distinct sites on the transporter protein. Therefore it should be possible to design drugs which specifically inhibit cocaine recognition by the DAT while permitting the transporter to maintain its function of accumulating dopamine. One way to monitor such activity is to compare the inhibition constants of test agents for inhibition of radiolabelled dopamine uptake (Kiuptake) and inhibition of the binding of a cocaine ligand such as [3H]2 beta-carbomethoxy-3 beta-3 beta-(fluorophenyl)tropane (CFT; Kibind) and select for compounds with Kiuptake/Kibind ratios greater than unity. Because others have shown that compounds can exhibit Kiuptake/Kibind ratios greater than unity when the assays are performed under non-identical conditions, we have established these assays under identical conditions of time, temperature and buffer using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line which stably expresses the human DAT. Kinetic and saturation analyses were performed on both assay and over 200 structurally diverse compounds were screened. Using identical assay parameters, several series of compounds having Kiuptake/Kibind ratios significantly greater than unity were identified. Such compounds include local anesthetics (procaine, dibucaine, tolperisone, dyclonine, diperodone), antipsychotic agents (10-(diethylaminopropionyl)phenothiazine), antidepressants (desipramine, imipramine, protriptyline), a diuretic (5-N-methyl-N-isobutyl-amilioride), an anticholinergic agent (prindinol), a PKC inhibitor (H-8), a calcium channel antagonist (loperamide) and an antimalarial compound (chloroquine). To our knowledge, even though these compounds exhibit low binding affinities (3-24 microM), they represent some of the most cocaine site-selective compounds identified to date using identical assay parameters. PMID:9330920

Slusher, B S; Tiffany, C W; Olkowski, J L; Jackson, P F

1997-10-25

331

Cell-Based Small-Molecule Compound Screen Identifies Fenretinide as Potential Therapeutic for Translocation-Positive Rhabdomyosarcoma  

PubMed Central

A subset of paediatric sarcomas are characterized by chromosomal translocations encoding specific oncogenic transcription factors. Such fusion proteins represent tumor specific therapeutic targets although so far it has not been possible to directly inhibit their activity by small-molecule compounds. In this study, we hypothesized that screening a small-molecule library might identify already existing drugs that are able to modulate the transcriptional activity of PAX3/FOXO1, the fusion protein specifically found in the pediatric tumor alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS). Towards this end, we established a reporter cell line based on the well characterized PAX3/FOXO1 target gene AP2ß. A library enriched in mostly FDA approved drugs was screened using specific luciferase activity as read-out and normalized for cell viability. The most effective inhibitor identified from this screen was Fenretinide. Treatment with this compound resulted in down-regulation of PAX3/FOXO1 mRNA and protein levels as well as in reduced expression of several of its direct target genes, but not of wild-type FOXO1, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, fenretinide induced reactive oxygen species and apoptosis as shown by caspase 9 and PARP cleavage and upregulated miR-9. Importantly, it demonstrated a significant anti-tumor effect in vivo. These results are similar to earlier reports for two other pediatric tumors, namely neuroblastoma and Ewing sarcoma, where fenretinide is under clinical development. Our results suggest that fenretinide might represent a novel treatment option also for translocation-positive rhabdomyosarcoma.

Herrero Martin, David; Boro, Aleksandar; Schafer, Beat W.

2013-01-01

332

ISD97, a computer program to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity  

SciTech Connect

A computer program, ISD97, was developed to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity. The ISD97 code operates using a two-step process. A deconvolution of the data is carried out using the maximum entropy method, and a map of activity on the ground that fits the data within experimental error is generated. This maximum entropy map is then analyzed to determine the locations and magnitudes of potential areas of elevated activity that are consistent with the data. New deconvolutions are then carried out for each potential area of elevated activity identified by the code. Properties of the algorithm are demonstrated using data from actual field measurements.

Reginatto, M.; Shebell, P.; Miller, K.M.

1997-10-01

333

Identifying potential Greenland halibut spawning areas and nursery grounds off East and South-western Greenland and its management implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spawning and nursery grounds are poorly described for the West Nordic stock of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) and the entire stock is assumed to originate from a common spawning ground southwest of Iceland. Greenland halibut with hydrated eggs in their ovary were caught during a gillnet survey in 1995 in Greenland waters. This suggests that the spawning areas for the West Nordic stock are not limited to the previously described area southwest of Iceland. Further this paper provides information on distribution of immature Greenland halibut in the fjords of East Greenland. The densities in Tasilaq area suggest that this area may be part of a nursery area in the West-Nordic management unit. However, the importance of this area to the stock is currently unknown. The results have potential implications for the management of the West Nordic Greenland halibut as the management seems to comprise of several stocks, or perhaps a meta-population.

Gundersen, A. C.; Kennedy, J.; Woll, A.; Fossen, I.; Boje, J.

2013-01-01

334

Potential mechanisms for hypoalgesia induced by anti-nerve growth factor immunoglobulin are identified using autoimmune nerve growth factor deprivation.  

PubMed

Nerve growth factor (NGF) antagonism has long been proposed as a chronic pain treatment. In 2010, the FDA suspended clinical trials using tanezumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-NGF antibody, to treat osteoarthritis due to worsening joint damage in 16 patients. Increased physical activity in the absence of acute pain which normally prevents self-harm was purported as a potential cause. Such an adverse effect is consistent with an extension of tanezumab's primary mechanism of action by decreasing pain sensitivity below baseline levels. In animal inflammatory pain models, NGF antagonism decreases intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density and attenuates increases in expression of nociception-related proteins, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). Little is known of the effects of NGF antagonism in noninflamed animals and the hypoalgesia that ensues. In the current study, we immunized rats with NGF or cytochrome C (cytC) and examined (1) nocifensive behaviors with thermal latencies, mechanical thresholds, the hot plate test, and the tail flick test, (2) IENF density, and (3) expression of CGRP, SP, voltage-gated sodium channel 1.8 (Nav1.8), and glutaminase in subpopulations of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons separated by size and isolectin B4 (IB4) labeling. Rats with high anti-NGF titers had delayed responses on the hot plate test but no other behavioral abnormalities. Delayed hot plate responses correlated with lower IENF density. CGRP and SP expression was decreased principally in medium (400-800 ?m(2)) and small neurons (<400 ?m(2)), respectively, regardless of IB4 labeling. Expression of Nav1.8 was only decreased in small and medium IB4 negative neurons. NGF immunization appears to result in a more profound antagonism of NGF than tanezumab therapy, but we hypothesize that decreases in IENF density and nociception-related protein expression are potential mechanisms for tanezumab-induced hypoalgesia. PMID:21802499

Hoffman, E M; Zhang, Z; Anderson, M B; Schechter, R; Miller, K E

2011-10-13

335

Subsurface fracture patterns in the PACMANUS hydrothermal system identified from downhole measurements and their potential implications for fluid circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean Drilling Leg 193 drilled 13 holes in an active hydrothermal vent system associated with felsic volcanism in the Manus Basin along the western margin of the Pacific plate. This hydrothermal field is located near the crest of the northeast trending Pual Ridge, which is a 500- to 700-m-high felsic neovolcanic edifice that appears to be constructed of stacked subhorizontal lava flows with negligible sediment cover. Wireline and logging-while drilling (LWD) measurements were obtained from 4 holes in order to characterize the subsurface volcanic architecture of the system, determine the structural relationships and associated hydrological processes, and assess the mineralization and alteration patterns of the active PACMANUS hydrothermal field. A series of downhole temperature profiles show a very high post-drilling thermal rebound in this area with changes in temperature of over 200 deg C in five days. Highly resistive subvertical features that may correspond to high concentrations of silica and/or anhydrate suggest potential fluid flow patterns. Downhole measurements show high gamma ray anomalies usually associated with high uranium content that corresponds to intensely fractured and brecciated intervals also suggesting potential hydrothermal fluid flow. Fracture patterns from Formation Micro Scanner (FMS) and LWD Resistivity-at-the-Bit (RAB) measurements show NNE-SSW strike orientations. Earthquake focal mechanism solutions show strike slip events in the proximity of the drilled area with approximately NE-SW orientations for the main compressional stresses. These relationships suggest that fluid flow in this area could be highly influenced by shallow volcanism underneath the Pual Ridge and to some lesser extent, to localized earthquake activity.

Iturrino, G. J.; Bartetzko, A.

2002-12-01

336

Gene expression profiling to identify potentially relevant disease outcomes and support human health risk assessment for carbon black nanoparticle exposure.  

PubMed

New approaches are urgently needed to evaluate potential hazards posed by exposure to nanomaterials. Gene expression profiling provides information on potential modes of action and human relevance, and tools have recently become available for pathway-based quantitative risk assessment. The objective of this study was to use toxicogenomics in the context of human health risk assessment. We explore the utility of toxicogenomics in risk assessment, using published gene expression data from C57BL/6 mice exposed to 18, 54 and 162 ?g Printex 90 carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP). Analysis of CBNP-perturbed pathways, networks and transcription factors revealed concomitant changes in predicted phenotypes (e.g., pulmonary inflammation and genotoxicity), that correlated with dose and time. Benchmark doses (BMDs) for apical endpoints were comparable to minimum BMDs for relevant pathway-specific expression changes. Comparison to inflammatory lung disease models (i.e., allergic airway inflammation, bacterial infection and tissue injury and fibrosis) and human disease profiles revealed that induced gene expression changes in Printex 90 exposed mice were similar to those typical for pulmonary injury and fibrosis. Very similar fibrotic pathways were perturbed in CBNP-exposed mice and human fibrosis disease models. Our synthesis demonstrates how toxicogenomic profiles may be used in human health risk assessment of nanoparticles and constitutes an important step forward in the ultimate recognition of toxicogenomic endpoints in human health risk. As our knowledge of molecular pathways, dose-response characteristics and relevance to human disease continues to grow, we anticipate that toxicogenomics will become increasingly useful in assessing chemical toxicities and in human health risk assessment. PMID:23146762

Bourdon, Julie A; Williams, Andrew; Kuo, Byron; Moffat, Ivy; White, Paul A; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan; Yauk, Carole L

2013-01-01

337

The useful potential of using existing data to uniquely identify predictable wind events and regimes, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind data from four sites were stratified and found to naturally fit into a few unique groups. These were compared with synoptic weather patterns using the Booz-Allen classification system. Strong relationships became evident between a particular synoptic type and wind events for each site. Statistics indicate certain patterns which result in strong winds and some that result in weak winds. For each site there is a preferred wind direction associated with the strongest speed. Important relationships were also found comparing 850-mb and surface wind. Additionally, comparisons between pressure gradient and wind speed for a given gradient direction show some significant relationships. It can be stated that the overall results show what by using existing data for any site, the winds can be characterized and correlated with synoptic weather patterns. As a result, reliable wind forecasts can be made for utility companies for the purpose of power generation.

Notis, C.

1982-01-01

338

Gene expression profiling and real-time PCR analyses identify novel potential cancer-testis antigens in multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are attractive targets for immunotherapeutic strategies since they are aberrantly expressed in malignant cells and not, or in limited number, in somatic tissues, except germ cells. To identify novel CT genes in multiple myeloma, we used Affymetrix HG-U133 gene expression profiles of 5 testis, 64 primary myeloma cell (MMC) and 24 normal tissue (NT) samples. A 5-filter method was developed to keep known CT genes while deleting non-CT genes. Starting from 44928 probe sets, including probe sets for 18 previously-described CT genes, we have obtained 82 genes expressed in MMC and testis and not detected in more than 6 NT. This list includes 14 of the 18 known CT genes and 68 novel putative CT genes. Real-time RT-PCR was performed for 34 genes in 12 NT, 5 MMC samples and one sample of 5 pooled testes. It has validated the CT status of 23/34 genes (67%). We found one novel “testis-restricted” gene (expression in testis and tumor only) – TEX14 –, 8 “tissue-restricted” (mRNA detected in 1 or 2 non-gametogenic tissues), and 7 “differentially expressed” (mRNA detected in three to six non-gametogenic tissues) CT genes. Further studies are warranted to determine the immunogenicity of these novel CT antigen candidates.

Condomines, Maud; Hose, Dirk; Reme, Thierry; Requirand, Guilhem; Hundemer, Michael; Schoenhals, Matthieu; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Klein, Bernard

2009-01-01

339

Global transcriptomic profiling of aspen trees under elevated [CO2] to identify potential molecular mechanisms responsible for enhanced radial growth.  

PubMed

Aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees growing under elevated [CO(2)] at a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) site produced significantly more biomass than control trees. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed increase in biomass by producing transcriptomic profiles of the vascular cambium zone (VCZ) and leaves, and then performed a comparative study to identify significantly changed genes and pathways after 12 years exposure to elevated [CO(2)]. In leaves, elevated [CO(2)] enhanced expression of genes related to Calvin cycle activity and linked pathways. In the VCZ, the pathways involved in cell growth, cell division, hormone metabolism, and secondary cell wall formation were altered while auxin conjugation, ABA synthesis, and cytokinin glucosylation and degradation were inhibited. Similarly, the genes involved in hemicellulose and pectin biosynthesis were enhanced, but some genes that catalyze important steps in lignin biosynthesis pathway were inhibited. Evidence from systemic analysis supported the functioning of multiple molecular mechanisms that underpin the enhanced radial growth in response to elevated [CO(2)]. PMID:23065025

Wei, Hairong; Gou, Jiqing; Yordanov, Yordan; Zhang, Huaxin; Thakur, Ramesh; Jones, Wendy; Burton, Andrew

2013-03-01

340

High-throughput screen identifies disulfiram as a potential therapeutic for triple-negative breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents an aggressive subtype, for which radiation and chemotherapy are the only options. Here we describe the identification of disulfiram, an FDA-approved drug used to treat alcoholism, as well as the related compound thiram, as the most potent growth inhibitors following high-throughput screens of 3185 compounds against multiple TNBC cell lines. The average IC50 for disulfiram was ~300 nM. Drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) analysis identified IQ motif-containing factors IQGAP1 and MYH9 as direct binding targets of disulfiram. Indeed, knockdown of these factors reduced, though did not completely abolish, cell growth. Combination treatment with 4 different drugs commonly used to treat TNBC revealed that disulfiram synergizes most effectively with doxorubicin to inhibit cell growth of TNBC cells. Disulfiram and doxorubicin cooperated to induce cell death as well as cellular senescence, and targeted the ESA+/CD24-/low/CD44+ cancer stem cell population. Our results suggest that disulfiram may be repurposed to treat TNBC in combination with doxorubicin.

Robinson, Tyler JW; Pai, Melody; Liu, Jeff C; Vizeacoumar, Frederick; Sun, Thomas; Egan, Sean E; Datti, Alessandro; Huang, Jing; Zacksenhaus, Eldad

2013-01-01

341

Proteomics of Genetically Engineered Mouse Mammary Tumors Identifies Fatty Acid Metabolism Members as Potential Predictive Markers for Cisplatin Resistance*  

PubMed Central

In contrast to various signatures that predict the prognosis of breast cancer patients, markers that predict chemotherapy response are still elusive. To detect such predictive biomarkers, we investigated early changes in protein expression using two mouse models for distinct breast cancer subtypes who have a differential knock-out status for the breast cancer 1, early onset (Brca1) gene. The proteome of cisplatin-sensitive BRCA1-deficient mammary tumors was compared with that of cisplatin-resistant mammary tumors resembling pleomorphic invasive lobular carcinoma. The analyses were performed 24 h after administration of the maximum tolerable dose of cisplatin. At this time point, drug-sensitive BRCA1-deficient tumors showed DNA damage, but cells were largely viable. By applying paired statistics and quantitative filtering, we identified highly discriminatory markers for the sensitive and resistant model. Proteins up-regulated in the sensitive model are involved in centrosome organization, chromosome condensation, homology-directed DNA repair, and nucleotide metabolism. Major discriminatory markers that were up-regulated in the resistant model were predominantly involved in fatty acid metabolism, such as fatty-acid synthase. Specific inhibition of fatty-acid synthase sensitized resistant cells to cisplatin. Our data suggest that exploring the functional link between the DNA damage response and cancer metabolism shortly after the initial treatment may be a useful strategy to predict the efficacy of cisplatin.

Warmoes, Marc; Jaspers, Janneke E.; Xu, Guotai; Sampadi, Bharath K.; Pham, Thang V.; Knol, Jaco C.; Piersma, Sander R.; Boven, Epie; Jonkers, Jos; Rottenberg, Sven; Jimenez, Connie R.

2013-01-01

342

Identifying potential synergies and trade-offs for meeting food security and climate change objectives in sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Potential interactions between food production and climate mitigation are explored for two situations in sub-Saharan Africa, where deforestation and land degradation overlap with hunger and poverty. Three agriculture intensification scenarios for supplying nitrogen to increase crop production (mineral fertilizer, herbaceous legume cover crops—green manures—and agroforestry—legume improved tree fallows) are compared to baseline food production, land requirements to meet basic caloric requirements, and greenhouse gas emissions. At low population densities and high land availability, food security and climate mitigation goals are met with all intensification scenarios, resulting in surplus crop area for reforestation. In contrast, for high population density and small farm sizes, attaining food security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions require mineral fertilizers to make land available for reforestation; green manure or improved tree fallows do not provide sufficient increases in yields to permit reforestation. Tree fallows sequester significant carbon on cropland, but green manures result in net carbon dioxide equivalent emissions because of nitrogen additions. Although these results are encouraging, agricultural intensification in sub-Saharan Africa with mineral fertilizers, green manures, or improved tree fallows will remain low without policies that address access, costs, and lack of incentives. Carbon financing for small-holder agriculture could increase the likelihood of success of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries programs and climate change mitigation but also promote food security in the region.

Palm, Cheryl A.; Smukler, Sean M.; Sullivan, Clare C.; Mutuo, Patrick K.; Nyadzi, Gerson I.; Walsh, Markus G.

2010-01-01

343

Identifying potential synergies and trade-offs for meeting food security and climate change objectives in sub-Saharan Africa.  

PubMed

Potential interactions between food production and climate mitigation are explored for two situations in sub-Saharan Africa, where deforestation and land degradation overlap with hunger and poverty. Three agriculture intensification scenarios for supplying nitrogen to increase crop production (mineral fertilizer, herbaceous legume cover crops--green manures--and agroforestry--legume improved tree fallows) are compared to baseline food production, land requirements to meet basic caloric requirements, and greenhouse gas emissions. At low population densities and high land availability, food security and climate mitigation goals are met with all intensification scenarios, resulting in surplus crop area for reforestation. In contrast, for high population density and small farm sizes, attaining food security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions require mineral fertilizers to make land available for reforestation; green manure or improved tree fallows do not provide sufficient increases in yields to permit reforestation. Tree fallows sequester significant carbon on cropland, but green manures result in net carbon dioxide equivalent emissions because of nitrogen additions. Although these results are encouraging, agricultural intensification in sub-Saharan Africa with mineral fertilizers, green manures, or improved tree fallows will remain low without policies that address access, costs, and lack of incentives. Carbon financing for small-holder agriculture could increase the likelihood of success of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries programs and climate change mitigation but also promote food security in the region. PMID:20453198

Palm, Cheryl A; Smukler, Sean M; Sullivan, Clare C; Mutuo, Patrick K; Nyadzi, Gerson I; Walsh, Markus G

2010-11-16

344

12-Chemokine Gene Signature Identifies Lymph Node-like Structures in Melanoma: Potential for Patient Selection for Immunotherapy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have interrogated a 12-chemokine gene expression signature (GES) on genomic arrays of 14,492 distinct solid tumors and show broad distribution across different histologies. We hypothesized that this 12-chemokine GES might accurately predict a unique intratumoral immune reaction in stage IV (non-locoregional) melanoma metastases. The 12-chemokine GES predicted the presence of unique, lymph node-like structures, containing CD20+ B cell follicles with prominent areas of CD3+ T cells (both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets). CD86+, but not FoxP3+, cells were present within these unique structures as well. The direct correlation between the 12-chemokine GES score and the presence of unique, lymph nodal structures was also associated with better overall survival of the subset of melanoma patients. The use of this novel 12-chemokine GES may reveal basic information on in situ mechanisms of the anti-tumor immune response, potentially leading to improvements in the identification and selection of melanoma patients most suitable for immunotherapy.

Messina, Jane L.; Fenstermacher, David A.; Eschrich, Steven; Qu, Xiaotao; Berglund, Anders E.; Lloyd, Mark C.; Schell, Michael J.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Weber, Jeffrey S.; Mulé, James J.

2012-10-01

345

The Equity Raw-Score Matrix--A Multi-Dimensional Indicator of Potential Disadvantage in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues surrounding student participation, transition, retention and successful completion in higher education are topical. While the Australian federal government has identified broad groupings of under-represented students, these do not shed light on the complexities underlying the issues of the educationally disadvantaged, such as the…

Willems, Julie

2010-01-01

346

A thermal profile method to identify potential ground-water discharge areas and preferred salmonid habitats for long river reaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The thermal regime of riverine systems is a major control on aquatic ecosystems. Ground water discharge is an important abiotic driver of the aquatic ecosystem because it provides preferred thermal structure and habitat for different types of fish at different times in their life history. In large diverse river basins with an extensive riverine system, documenting the thermal regime and ground-water discharge is difficult and problematic. A method was developed to thermally profile long (5-25 kilometers) river reaches by towing in a Lagrangian framework one or two probes that measure temperature, depth, and conductivity. One probe is towed near the streambed and, if used, a second probe is towed near the surface. The probes continuously record data at 1-3-second intervals while a Global Positioning System logs spatial coordinates. The thermal profile provides valuable information about spatial and temporal variations in habitat, and, notably, indicates ground-water discharge areas. This method was developed and tested in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, in summer 2001 during low flows in an extreme drought year. The temperature profile comprehensively documents the longitudinal distribution of a river's temperature regime that cannot be captured by fixed station data. The example profile presented exhibits intra-reach diversity that reflects the many factors controlling the temperature of a parcel of water as it moves downstream. Thermal profiles provide a new perspective on riverine system temperature regimes that represent part of the aquatic habitat template for lotic community patterns.

Vaccaro, J. J.; Maloy, K. J.

2006-01-01

347

Systemic Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles Identifies ErbB3 as a Potential Drug Target in Pediatric Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Pediatric sarcomas, including rhabdomyosarcomas, Ewing’s sarcoma, and osteosarcoma, are aggressive tumors with poor survival rates. To overcome problems associated with nonselectivity of the current therapeutic approaches, targeted therapeutics have been developed. Currently, an increasing number of such drugs are used for treating malignancies of adult patients but little is known about their effects in pediatric patients. We analyzed expression of 24 clinically approved target genes in a wide variety of pediatric normal and malignant tissues using a novel high-throughput systems biology approach. Analysis of the Genesapiens database of human transcriptomes demonstrated statistically significant up-regulation of VEGFC and EPHA2 in Ewing’s sarcoma, and ERBB3 in alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas. In silico data for ERBB3 was validated by demonstrating ErbB3 protein expression in pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma in vitro and in vivo. ERBB3 overexpression promoted whereas ERBB3-targeted siRNA suppressed rhabdomyosarcoma cell gowth, indicating a functional role for ErbB3 signaling in rhabdomyosarcoma. These data suggest that drugs targeting ErbB3, EphA2 or VEGF-C could be further tested as therapeutic targets for pediatric sarcomas.

Nordberg, Janne; Mpindi, John Patrick; Iljin, Kristiina; Pulliainen, Arto Tapio; Kallajoki, Markku; Kallioniemi, Olli; Elenius, Klaus; Elenius, Varpu

2012-01-01

348

Identifying potential functional impact of mutations and polymorphisms: linking heart failure, increased risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death  

PubMed Central

Researchers and clinicians have discovered several important concepts regarding the mechanisms responsible for increased risk of arrhythmias, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. One major step in defining the molecular basis of normal and abnormal cardiac electrical behavior has been the identification of single mutations that greatly increase the risk for arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death by changing channel-gating characteristics. Indeed, mutations in several genes encoding ion channels, such as SCN5A, which encodes the major cardiac Na+ channel, have emerged as the basis for a variety of inherited cardiac arrhythmias such as long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction disorder, sinus node dysfunction, or sudden infant death syndrome. In addition, genes encoding ion channel accessory proteins, like anchoring or chaperone proteins, which modify the expression, the regulation of endocytosis, and the degradation of ion channel a-subunits have also been reported as susceptibility genes for arrhythmic syndromes. The regulation of ion channel protein expression also depends on a fine-tuned balance among different other mechanisms, such as gene transcription, RNA processing, post-transcriptional control of gene expression by miRNA, protein synthesis, assembly and post-translational modification and trafficking. The aim of this review is to inventory, through the description of few representative examples, the role of these different biogenic mechanisms in arrhythmogenesis, HF and SCD in order to help the researcher to identify all the processes that could lead to arrhythmias. Identification of novel targets for drug intervention should result from further understanding of these fundamental mechanisms.

Jagu, Benoit; Charpentier, Flavien; Toumaniantz, Gilles

2013-01-01

349

A follow-up study for left ventricular mass on chromosome 12p11 identifies potential candidate genes  

PubMed Central

Background Left ventricular mass (LVM) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previously we found evidence for linkage to chromosome 12p11 in Dominican families, with a significant increase in a subset of families with high average waist circumference (WC). In the present study, we use association analysis to further study the genetic effect on LVM. Methods Association analysis with LVM was done in the one LOD critical region of the linkage peak in an independent sample of 897 Caribbean Hispanics. Genotype data were available on 7085 SNPs from 23 to 53 MB on chromosome 12p11. Adjustment was made for vascular risk factors and population substructure using an additive genetic model. Subset analysis by WC was performed to test for a difference in genetic effects between the high and low WC subsets. Results In the overall analysis, the most significant association was found to rs10743465, downstream of the SOX5 gene (p = 1.27E-05). Also, 19 additional SNPs had nominal p < 0.001. In the subset analysis, the most significant difference in genetic effect between those with high and low WC occurred with rs1157480 (p = 1.37E-04 for the difference in ? coefficients), located upstream of TMTC1. Twelve additional SNPs in or near 6 genes had p < 0.001. Conclusions The current study supports previously identified evidence by linkage for a genetic effect on LVM on chromosome 12p11 using association analysis in population-based Caribbean Hispanic cohort. SOX5 may play an important role in the regulation of LVM. An interaction of TMTC1 with abdominal obesity may contribute to phenotypic variation of LVM.

2011-01-01

350

Physiologic responses and gene diversity indicate olive alternative oxidase as a potential source for markers involved in efficient adventitious root induction.  

PubMed

Olive (Olea europaea L.) trees are mainly propagated by adventitious rooting of semi-hardwood cuttings. However, efficient commercial propagation of valuable olive tree cultivars or landraces by semi-hardwood cuttings can often be restricted by a low rooting capacity. We hypothesize that root induction is a plant cell reaction linked to oxidative stress and that activity of stress-induced alternative oxidase (AOX) is importantly involved in adventitious rooting. To identify AOX as a source for potential functional marker sequences that may assist tree breeding, genetic variability has to be demonstrated that can affect gene regulation. The paper presents an applied, multidisciplinary research approach demonstrating first indications of an important relationship between AOX activity and differential adventitious rooting in semi-hardwood cuttings. Root induction in the easy-to-root Portuguese cultivar 'Cobrançosa' could be significantly reduced by treatment with salicyl-hydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of AOX activity. On the contrary, treatment with H2O2 or pyruvate, both known to induce AOX activity, increased the degree of rooting. Recently, identification of several O. europaea (Oe) AOX gene sequences has been reported from our group. Here we present for the first time partial sequences of OeAOX2. To search for polymorphisms inside of OeAOX genes, partial OeAOX2 sequences from the cultivars 'Galega vulgar', 'Cobrançosa' and 'Picual' were cloned from genomic DNA and cDNA, including exon, intron and 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) sequences. The data revealed polymorphic sites in several regions of OeAOX2. The 3'-UTR was the most important source for polymorphisms showing 5.7% of variability. Variability in the exon region accounted 3.4 and 2% in the intron. Further, analysis performed at the cDNA from microshoots of 'Galega vulgar' revealed transcript length variation for the 3'-UTR of OeAOX2 ranging between 76 and 301 bp. The identified polymorphisms and 3'-UTR length variation can be explored in future studies for effects on gene regulation and a potential linkage to olive rooting phenotypes in view of marker-assisted plant selection. PMID:19941624

Santos Macedo, Elisete; Cardoso, Hélia G; Hernández, Alejandro; Peixe, Augusto A; Polidoros, Alexios; Ferreira, Alexandre; Cordeiro, António; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

2009-12-01

351

A Potential Novel Spontaneous Preterm Birth Gene, AR, Identified by Linkage and Association Analysis of X Chromosomal Markers  

PubMed Central

Preterm birth is the major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. In many cases, it has severe life-long consequences for the health and neurological development of the newborn child. More than 50% of all preterm births are spontaneous, and currently there is no effective prevention. Several studies suggest that genetic factors play a role in spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB). However, its genetic background is insufficiently characterized. The aim of the present study was to perform a linkage analysis of X chromosomal markers in SPTB in large northern Finnish families with recurrent SPTBs. We found a significant linkage signal (HLOD ?=?3.72) on chromosome locus Xq13.1 when the studied phenotype was being born preterm. There were no significant linkage signals when the studied phenotype was giving preterm deliveries. Two functional candidate genes, those encoding the androgen receptor (AR) and the interleukin-2 receptor gamma subunit (IL2RG), located near this locus were analyzed as candidates for SPTB in subsequent case-control association analyses. Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these genes and an AR exon-1 CAG repeat, which was previously demonstrated to be functionally significant, were analyzed in mothers with preterm delivery (n?=?272) and their offspring (n?=?269), and in mothers with exclusively term deliveries (n?=?201) and their offspring (n?=?199), all originating from northern Finland. A replication study population consisting of individuals born preterm (n?=?111) and term (n?=?197) from southern Finland was also analyzed. Long AR CAG repeats (?26) were overrepresented and short repeats (?19) underrepresented in individuals born preterm compared to those born at term. Thus, our linkage and association results emphasize the role of the fetal genome in genetic predisposition to SPTB and implicate AR as a potential novel fetal susceptibility gene for SPTB.

Karjalainen, Minna K.; Huusko, Johanna M.; Ulvila, Johanna; Sotkasiira, Jenni; Luukkonen, Aino; Teramo, Kari; Plunkett, Jevon; Anttila, Verneri; Palotie, Aarno; Haataja, Ritva; Muglia, Louis J.; Hallman, Mikko

2012-01-01

352

Plasma Membrane Proteomics of Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines Identifies Potential Targets for Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment  

PubMed Central

The use of broad spectrum chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer results in substantial and debilitating side effects, necessitating the development of targeted therapies to limit tumor proliferation and prevent metastasis. In recent years, the list of approved targeted therapies has expanded, and it includes both monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors that interfere with key proteins involved in the uncontrolled growth and migration of cancer cells. The targeting of plasma membrane proteins has been most successful to date, and this is reflected in the large representation of these proteins as targets of newer therapies. In view of these facts, experiments were designed to investigate the plasma membrane proteome of a variety of human breast cancer cell lines representing hormone-responsive, ErbB2 over-expressing and triple negative cell types, as well as a benign control. Plasma membranes were isolated by using an aqueous two-phase system, and the resulting proteins were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Overall, each of the cell lines expressed some unique proteins, and a number of proteins were expressed in multiple cell lines, but in patterns that did not always follow traditional clinical definitions of breast cancer type. From our data, it can be deduced that most cancer cells possess multiple strategies to promote uncontrolled growth, reflected in aberrant expression of tyrosine kinases, cellular adhesion molecules, and structural proteins. Our data set provides a very rich and complex picture of plasma membrane proteins present on breast cancer cells, and the sorting and categorizing of this data provides interesting insights into the biology, classification, and potential treatment of this prevalent and debilitating disease.

Ziegler, Yvonne S.; Moresco, James J.; Tu, Patricia G.; Yates, John R.; Nardulli, Ann M.

2014-01-01

353

Aerobic Fitness and Cognitive Development: Event-Related Brain Potential and Task Performance Indices of Executive Control in Preadolescent Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between aerobic fitness and executive control was assessed in 38 higher- and lower-fit children (M[subscript age] = 9.4 years), grouped according to their performance on a field test of aerobic capacity. Participants performed a flanker task requiring variable amounts of executive control while event-related brain potential

Hillman, Charles H.; Buck, Sarah M.; Themanson, Jason R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Castelli, Darla M.

2009-01-01

354

Development of computational fluid dynamics--habitat suitability (CFD-HSI) models to identify potential passage--Challenge zones for migratory fishes in the Penobscot River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics-habitat suitability (CFD–HSI) model was developed to identify potential zones of shallow depth and high water velocity that may present passage challenges for five anadromous fish species in the Penobscot River, Maine, upstream from two existing dams and as a result of the proposed future removal of the dams. Potential depth-challenge zones were predicted for larger species at the lowest flow modeled in the dam-removal scenario. Increasing flows under both scenarios increased the number and size of potential velocity-challenge zones, especially for smaller species. This application of the two-dimensional CFD–HSI model demonstrated its capabilities to estimate the potential effects of flow and hydraulic alteration on the passage of migratory fish.

Haro, Alexander J.; Dudley, Robert W.; Chelminski, Michael

2012-01-01

355

TRANSPORT OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL COMPOUNDS FROM KNOWN WASTEWATER DISCHARGES: POTENTIAL FOR USE AS INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The quality of drinking and recreational water currently (2005) is determined using indicator bacteria. However, the culture tests used to analyze for these bacteria require a long time to complete, and do not discriminate between human and animal fecal material sources. One co...

356

Indicators and optical configuration for simultaneous high-resolution recording of membrane potential and intracellular calcium using laser scanning microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The instrumental design and experimental conditions for high-speed, simultaneous optical recording of membrane potential\\u000a and intracellular Ca2+ with subcellular resolution are presented. This method employs an extended version of a high-speed, random-access, laser-scanning\\u000a fluorescence microscope designed to record fast physiological signals from small neuronal structures with high spatiotemporal\\u000a resolution (Bullen, Patel, Saggau, Biophys J 73:477–491, 1997). With this instrument, imaging

Andrew Bullen; Peter Saggau

1998-01-01

357

Geochemical indicators of depositional environment and soruce-rock potential for the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa Group, Illinois basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two depositional cycles are recognized within the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa Group of the Illinois basin in a core from the New Jersey Zinc 1 Parrish well of Fulton County, Illinois. Organic carbon (C[sub org]), total sulfur, [sup 13]C content of the organic carbon ([delta][sup 13]C[sub org]), hydrogen and oxygen indices (HI and OI) from Rock-Eval pyrolysis and yields of extractable

J. M. Guthrie; L. M. Pratt

1994-01-01

358

Isotopic compositions of tropical East African flora and their potential as source indicators of organic matter in coastal marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The C and N stable isotope compositions of some flora of East Africa from coastal Tanzania and Amboseli National Park (Kenya) are used to assess if they can be used as a terrestrial end member during the estimation of terrestrial fraction in coastal marine sediments. The results of C isotope composition of various tree leaves, which average -29.3 ± 1.4%, indicate that these tropical higher land plant species follow a Calvin-Benson or non-Kranz (C 3) type of metabolism. The results for grass species, which average -13.2 ± 2.4%, indicate that most of them follow a Hatch-Slack or Kranz (C 4) type of metabolism. However, some of the succulent plants from the Amboseli National Park have ?13C values that average -14.7%, an indication that they follow a CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) type of metabolism. The N isotope values are relatively higher than expected for the terrestrial organic material. The average ?15N values for both tree and grass samples are higher than 5% and fall within the range normally considered to be marine. The high enrichment in 15N may be related to the environmental conditions in which plants thrive. Plants growing in sandy, dry and overgrazed environments are expected to be enriched in 15N owing to full utilisation of all available N species, regardless of their isotopic compositions. Other processes which may cause an enrichment in 15N include adsorption by various types of clay minerals, supply of 15N-enriched nitrate through sea-spray, and local denitrification, especially in swampy and lake margins where the input of organic matter may be higher than the rate of decomposition. The stable isotopic composition of organic C and N for surficial organic matter for the coastal marine sediments averages -17.0 ± 0.9% and 5.4 ± 1.1%, respectively. These values indicate a substantial contribution of C 4 plants and sea grasses. However, contribution of C 4 relative to that of sea grasses can not be evaluated owing to the fact that there is no significant difference in the isotopic compositions between the two groups. In the savannah environment, where a contribution from the C 4 types of plants might be substantial, the ?13C value for a terrestrial end member needs to be established prior to evaluation of the terrestrially derived organic matter in the marine environment. Owing to a significant contribution of sea grasses to the total organic matter preserved in coastal marine sediments, the stable isotopes of organic C seem to have a limited applicability as source indicators in the East African coastal waters. Furthermore, the results indicate that N stable isotopes seem to have a limited applicability as source indicators in coastal waters of East Africa. However, more work needs to be conducted to determine the terrestrial and sea grass end member values for the coastal areas.

Muzuka, Alfred N. N.

1999-04-01

359

Integrin ?6?4 identifies human distal lung epithelial progenitor cells with potential as a cell-based therapy for cystic fibrosis lung disease.  

PubMed

To develop stem/progenitor cell-based therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease, it is first necessary to identify markers of human lung epithelial progenitor/stem cells and to better understand the potential for differentiation into distinct lineages. Here we investigated integrin ?6?4 as an epithelial progenitor cell marker in the human distal lung. We identified a subpopulation of ?6?4(+) cells that localized in distal small airways and alveolar walls and were devoid of pro-surfactant protein C expression. The ?6?4(+) epithelial cells demonstrated key properties of stem cells ex vivo as compared to ?6?4(-) epithelial cells, including higher colony forming efficiency, expression of stem cell-specific transcription factor Nanog, and the potential to differentiate into multiple distinct lineages including basal and Clara cells. Co-culture of ?6?4(+) epithelial cells with endothelial cells enhanced proliferation. We identified a subset of adeno-associated virus (AAVs) serotypes, AAV2 and AAV8, capable of transducing ?6?4(+) cells. In addition, reconstitution of bronchi epithelial cells from CF patients with only 5% normal ?6?4(+) epithelial cells significantly rescued defects in Cl(-) transport. Therefore, targeting the ?6?4(+) epithelial population via either gene delivery or progenitor cell-based reconstitution represents a potential new strategy to treat CF lung disease. PMID:24349537

Li, Xiaopeng; Rossen, Nathan; Sinn, Patrick L; Hornick, Andrew L; Steines, Benjamin R; Karp, Philip H; Ernst, Sarah E; Adam, Ryan J; Moninger, Thomas O; Levasseur, Dana N; Zabner, Joseph

2013-01-01

360

Predictive analysis of transmissible quinolone resistance indicates Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as a potential source of a novel family of Qnr determinants  

PubMed Central

Background Predicting antibiotic resistance before it emerges at clinical settings constitutes a novel approach for preventing and fighting resistance of bacterial pathogens. To analyse the possibility that novel plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance determinants (Qnr) can emerge and disseminate among bacterial pathogens, we searched the presence of those elements in nearly 1000 bacterial genomes and metagenomes. Results We have found a number of novel potential qnr genes in the chromosomes of aquatic bacteria and in metagenomes from marine organisms. Functional studies of the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Smqnr gene show that plasmid-encoded SmQnr confers quinolone resistance upon its expression in a heterologous host. Conclusion Altogether, the data presented in our work support the notion that predictive studies on antibiotic resistance are feasible, using currently available information on bacterial genomes and with the aid of bioinformatic and functional tools. Our results confirm that aquatic bacteria can be the origin of plasmid-encoded Qnr, and highlight the potential role of S. maltophilia as a source of novel Qnr determinants.

Sanchez, Maria B; Hernandez, Alvaro; Rodriguez-Martinez, Jose M; Martinez-Martinez, Luis; Martinez, Jose L

2008-01-01

361

Fluctuation of probe beam in thermolens schematics as potential indicator of cell metabolism, apoptosis, necrosis and laser impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently we discovered that in developed integrated flow cytometry using combination high resolution transmission and two beam (pump-probe) of photothermal microscopy with flow module the temporal fluctuation of probe beam even without pump laser pulse are very sensitive to functional states of single cells (e.g. with 2-3 differences in average fluctuation amplitude for live and dead cells). In this paper we are focusing on theoretical and experimental studies of these new phenomena using thermolens schematics with highly stabilized continuous-wave He-Ne laser and photodiode/photomultiplier with pinhole. This scheme allows to study both random and laser-induced thermolens effects in passive and active mode including short and long term monitoring of scattered light fluctuation in trans-illumination mode at single cellular and even sub-cellular levels in vitro, and in vivo. We demonstrate these schematics has some potential to monitor intracellular dynamics including change in cell metabolism, and necrosis, especially, under pump laser impacts in vitro in stationary condition. Besides, we present some relevant data obtained with other similar schematics, including evaluation of bacterial motility by dynamic light scattering. We discuss further potential developing this approach for flow cytometry with fast speed photodetector and digital camera and the multi- wavelength statistical and correlation analysis of speckle-related signals in applications to analysis of complex motions and functional properties of cells in bioflows including the evaluation of the rotational and translational components of the motion of individual live and dead cells.

Zharov, Vladimir P.; Menyaev, Yulian A.; Shashkov, Evgeny V.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Scheludko, Andrei V.; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A.; Tuchin, Valery V.

2006-03-01

362

Physical fitness, but not acute exercise modulates event-related potential indices for executive control in healthy adolescents.  

PubMed

Physical activity and aerobic exercise in particular, promotes health and effective cognitive functioning. To elucidate mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical fitness and acute exercise, behavioral and electrophysiological indices of task preparation and response inhibition as a part of executive functions were assessed in a modified version of an Eriksen flanker task subsequent to an acute bout of aerobic exercise and a period of rest, respectively. 35 higher- and lower-fit adolescents between 13 and 14 years of age participated in a controlled cross-over study design. Results indicate that higher-fit individuals show significantly greater CNV amplitudes, reflecting enhanced task preparation processes, as well as decreased amplitudes in N2, indexing more efficient executive control processes. P3 amplitudes associated with the allocation of attentional and memory control neither showed influences of physical fitness nor the acute bout of exercise. Furthermore, acute aerobic exercise was not related to any of the dependent measures. The current findings suggest that physical fitness, but not an acute bout of aerobic exercise enhances cognitive processing by increasing attentional allocation to stimulus encoding during task preparation. PMID:19285042

Stroth, Sanna; Kubesch, Sabine; Dieterle, Katrin; Ruchsow, Martin; Heim, Rüdiger; Kiefer, Markus

2009-05-01

363

Ethnomedicinally selected plants as sources of potential analgesic compounds: indication of in vitro biological activity in receptor binding assays.  

PubMed

A number of plant species used in traditional medicine for the relief of pain have been selected from the medicinal and scientific literature of China, South America, Asia and West Africa. Extracts were prepared and tested in three in vitro receptor radioligand binding assays to determine whether there was an indication of biological activity, in particular their selectivity to a single receptor implicated in the mediation of pain. The three neuropeptide receptors chosen were Bradykinin (BK II), expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO), neurokinin 1 (NK 1) expressed in astrocytoma cells, and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) which were all implicated in the mediation of acute pain in the mammaliancentral nervous system. The plant species chosen to investigate were Ageratum conyzoides, Barringtonia edulis, Croton tiglium, Ipomea pes-caprae, Panax ginseng, Physostigma venenosum, Sinomenium acutum, Solidago virgaurea, Symplocos leptophylla and Typhonium giganteum. The results showed that there was a strong indication of biological activity for some of the plants which are used ethnomedicinally to treat pain, in the three in vitro receptor binding assays used, and particular plant extracts exhibited selective action to a single receptor. PMID:10641043

Sampson, J H; Phillipson, J D; Bowery, N G; O'Neill, M J; Houston, J G; Lewis, J A

2000-02-01

364

Selective processing of pain-related word stimuli in subclinical depression as indicated by event-related brain potentials.  

PubMed

An intense discussion still exists as to whether pain and depression are causally related or independent of each other. To investigate processing of pain-related word stimuli in subclinically depressed individuals, we designed an event-related potentials study in a group control design. Pain words and neutral words were presented to 16 subclinically depressed and 16 control participants. Behavioral and electrophysiological measures were taken during lexical decision and recognition tasks. Depressive compared to control participants showed enhanced P300 amplitudes at parietal electrodes triggered by pain-related words during the lexical decision task, which presumably is a sign of enhanced recollection processes for these word stimuli. In line with these electrophysiological findings, depressed participants also tended to better recall the pain-related words in the later recognition task than control participants. We conclude that subclinically depressed individuals selectively process pain-related stimuli, and this processing bias could enhance their vulnerability to develop pain symptoms. PMID:16038774

Nikendei, Christoph; Dengler, Wilhelm; Wiedemann, Georg; Pauli, Paul

2005-09-01

365

Evaluating the Response of Biological Assemblages as Potential Indicators for Restoration Measures in an Intermittent Mediterranean River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioindicators are essential for detecting environmental degradation and for assessing the success of river restoration initiatives. River restoration projects require the identification of environmental and pressure gradients that affect the river system under study and the selection of suitable indicators to assess habitat quality before, during and after restoration. We assessed the response of benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, bird and macrophyte assemblages to environmental and pressure gradients from sites situated upstream and downstream of a cofferdam on the River Odelouca, an intermittent Mediterranean river in southwest Portugal. The Odelouca will be permanently dammed in 2010. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) of environmental and pressure variables revealed that most variance was explained by environmental factors that clearly separated sites upstream and downstream of the partially built cofferdam. The pressure gradient describing physical impacts to the banks and channel as a result of land use change was less distinct. Redundancy Analysis revealed significant levels of explained variance to species distribution patterns in relation to environmental and pressure variables for all 4 biological assemblages. Partial Redundancy analyses revealed high levels of redundancy for pH between groups and that the avifauna was best associated with pressures acting upon the system. Patterns in invertebrates and fish were associated with descriptors of habitat quality, although fish distribution patterns were affected by reduced connectivity. Procrustean and RELATE (Mantel test) analyses gave broadly similar results and supported these findings. We give suggestions on the suitability of key indicator groups such as benthic macroinvertebrates and endemic fish species to assess in stream habitat quality and appropriate restoration measures, such as the release of peak flow patterns that mimic intermittent Mediterranean systems to combat habitat fragmentation and reduced connectivity.

Hughes, Samantha Jane; Santos, Jose; Ferreira, Teresa; Mendes, Ana

2010-08-01

366

The Alaris auditory evoked potential monitor as an indicator of seizure inducibility and duration during electroconvulsive therapy: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Precise control of anesthetic depth during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is crucial because most intravenous anesthetics have anticonvulsant effects. In this study, we investigated the association between anesthetic depth measured by the Alaris auditory evoked potential index (AAI) and seizure inducibility and seizure duration during ECT. Methods Sixty-four ECTs were evaluated in 12 consecutive patients. General anesthesia was performed with a thiopental-based method. The relationship between the pre-ictal AAI, seizure activity and seizure duration was analyzed, and a possible threshold pre-ictal AAI to induce a seizure duration of at least 25 seconds was calculated. Results Forty-one of the 64 ECT stimuli successfully induced seizure activity that lasted longer than 25 seconds. Pre-ictal AAI was significantly correlated to seizure duration (r?=?0.54, p?

2014-01-01

367

Bioremediation of residual fertilizer nitrate: II. Soil redox potential and soluble iron as indicators of soil health during treatment.  

PubMed

The prospect of using wastewater containing high loads of soluble organic matter (OM) for removing residual agricultural chemicals (fertilizer, pesticide, or herbicide) in farm soil, although promising, could have adverse effects on soil agricultural quality as a result of development of redoximorphic features in the soil profile. In this study, the effect of organic carbon supplement for bioremediation of residual fertilizer nitrate on soil properties, redox potential (Eh), pH, and metal ion mobilization was studied using sandy soils packed in columns. The study was included in a general project, described elsewhere (Ugwuegbu et al., 2000), undertaken to evaluate use of controlled water table management (WTM) systems to supply organic carbon for creating a reduced environment conducive to denitrification of residual fertilizer nitrate leaching from the farm to subsurface water. The columns were subjected to subirrigation with water containing soluble organic carbon in the form of glucose. The work was carried out in two experimental setups and the long-term effect of a range of glucose concentrations on the Eh, pH, and soluble levels of Fe and Mn was investigated. From the results obtained, it could be concluded that excessive organic carbon supplement to soil can have adverse effects on soil quality and that Eh and soluble Fe are the two most practical parameters for monitoring soil health during treatment of farm chemicals. PMID:11215641

Ugwuegbu, B U; Prasher, S O; Ahmad, D; Dutilleul, P

2001-01-01

368

Acute nicotine fails to alter event-related potential or behavioral performance indices of auditory distraction in cigarette smokers.  

PubMed

Behavioral studies have shown that nicotine enhances performance in sustained attention tasks, but they have not shown convincing support for the effects of nicotine on tasks requiring selective attention or attentional control under conditions of distraction. We investigated distractibility in 14 smokers (7 females) with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and behavioral performance measures extracted from an auditory discrimination task requiring a choice reaction time response to short- and long-duration tones, both with and without embedded deviants. Nicotine gum (4 mg), administered in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, failed to counter deviant-elicited behavioral distraction (i.e., slower reaction times and increased response errors), and it did not influence the distracter-elicited mismatch negativity, the P300a, or the reorienting negativity ERP components reflecting acoustic change detection, involuntary attentional switching, and attentional reorienting, respectively. Results are discussed in relation to a stimulus-filter model of smoking and in relation to future research directions. PMID:16766419

Knott, Verner J; Scherling, Carole S; Blais, Crystal M; Camarda, Jordan; Fisher, Derek J; Millar, Anne; McIntosh, Judy F

2006-04-01

369

When do asymmetrical full-field pattern reversal visual evoked potentials indicate visual pathway dysfunction in children?  

PubMed

Our study aimed to find out the association between full-field pattern reversal visual evoked potential (pVEP) transoccipital asymmetries and half-field pVEP transoccipital distributions in children. Over a six-month period, 46 patients (mean age: 9 years 9 months) had both monocular full-field and half-field pVEPs to test checks subtending 50 min of arc in a 35 degree full-field and 0-17.5 degree lateral half-field. Silver-silver chloride electrodes placed at Oz, O1 and O2 were referred to Fz. Monocular full-field data were categorised according to the degree of transoccipital asymmetry. Half-field data were measured and summated to see whether they explained any full-field asymmetry. In this cohort of 46 patients, eight (17%) patients had symmetrically distributed monocular full-field pVEPs for each eye. Four of these patients had normal half-field pVEP distributions for each eye, but the other four showed a half-field deficit in one or both eyes. Of the 38 patients with asymmetrically distributed full-field pVEPs in at least one eye, 17 (44%) patients showed a half-field deficit, 20 (53%) showed responsive, but symmetrically distributed half-field responses, and one patient (3%) showed typical half-field distributions. Half-field pVEPs can help explain full-field asymmetries and should be attempted in any child able to co-operate with testing and in whom visual pathway dysfunction is suspected. PMID:21046194

Mellow, Tessa B; Liasis, Alki; Lyons, Ruth; Thompson, Dorothy

2011-02-01

370

The Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) List of Near-Earth Asteroids: Identifying Potential Targets for Future Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs [1, 2], and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system [3]. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010 [4]. Detailed planning for such deep space exploration missions and identifying potential NEAs as targets for human spaceflight requires selecting objects from the ever growing list of newly discovered NEAs. Hence NASA developed and implemented the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Target Study (NHATS), which identifies potential candidate objects on the basis of defined dynamical trajectory performance constraints.

Abell, Paul A.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Alberding, C. M.; Adamo, D. R.; Mazanek, D. D.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Chodas, P. W.; Chamberlin, A. B.; Benner, L. A. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

2012-01-01

371

Sediment geochemistry as potential sea-level indicators to assess coseismic vertical displacements above the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly the entire 4000-km-long Alaska-Aleutian megathrust has ruptured in large or great (Mw ?8) earthquakes in the past 100 years, yet paleoseismic records of earlier events are only documented east of Kodiak Is. in the region of the 1964 Alaska earthquake. The Mw 9.2 1964 earthquake dropped the coast along Cook Inlet and Turnagain Arm by ?1.8 m and raised shore platforms around Prince William Sound by ?3 m. Evidence of sudden (coseismic) vertical displacements during megathrust earthquakes are archived in coastal sediments as sharp stratigraphic contacts that record rapid relative sea-level (RSL) changes. We use geochemical analyses of coastal sediments to detect sudden RSL changes at 2 sites above the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust. One site on Knik Arm near Anchorage subsided ~0.6 m during the 1964 earthquake. The other site overlies the Shumagin Islands segment of the megathrust, without rupture since before 1903. Relative to terrestrial sources of sediment, marine sources should be enriched in ?13C, ?15N, and have higher C:N, and Cl- concentrations. Our analyses will test whether these geochemical proxies can provide evidence for sudden RSL change across stratigraphic contacts that record coseismic uplift or subsidence. Coseismic subsidence should be represented by contacts that place sediment with enriched ?13C, ?15N signatures, elevated C:N and Cl- concentrations over sediment with lower values of these geochemical proxies and the reverse for coseismic uplift. A 1-2 m tall, ~0.5-km-long bluff along Knik Arm exposes three buried wetland soils overlain by gray mud. The soils become faint and pinch out to the northeast near a large tidal channel. Other studies of similar buried soils at adjacent sites suggest the youngest soil at Knik Arm subsided in 1964. 14C analyses of plant fossils in two older soils will provide age estimates for earlier events. We will apply the proposed geochemical methods to 20 samples collected along a forested upland to tidal mud flat transect to distinguish terrestrial from marine sediment. On Simeonof Is., stratigraphy beneath a peat bog adjacent to a tidal lagoon consists of basal marine sand overlain by ~0.6-1.5 m of peat. The presence of Arachnoidiscus japonicas, benthic marine diatom, implies a marine sand source. Sphagnum spp. and absence of marine foraminifera indicate freshwater peat. We analyzed ?13C, ?15N, and C:N from bulk sediment, and Cl- from water soluble fraction of sediment in a 1.3-m bog core. Freshwater peat at depths of 0.0-26.0, and 33.0-78.5 cm have ?13C ranging from -25.02 to -27.35 ‰, ?15N from 3.30-9.93‰, C:N of 10.16-17.89, and Cl- concentrations of 0.9-25.9 mg/L. Sand dominated intervals at 26.0-33.0, and 78.5-130 cm have ?13C ranging from -17.24 to -26.50‰, ?15N from 8.30-11.11‰ , C:N of 0.30-29.6 and Cl- concentrations of 0.7-19.3 mg/L. The data also indicate that average ?13C and ?15N values are enriched in marine sand relative to freshwater peat, respectively by 3.27‰ and 3.10‰. Also C:N ratios and Cl- concentrations are lower in marine sand, respectively by 23.1 and 0.1 mg/L. Hence, ?13C and ?15N show promise as geochemical proxies to distinguish terrestrial from marine sediment for future Alaska-Aleutian paleoseismic studies west of Kodiak Is.

Bender, A. M.; Witter, R. C.; Munk, L. A.

2012-12-01

372

Development and evaluation of an immunoassay for biological monitoring chlorophenols in urine as potential indicators of occupational exposure.  

PubMed

Trichlorophenols (TCP) eliminated by the urine can be considered as potential biomarkers of exposure of many chemicals (chlorophenols, chlorophenoxy acid herbicides, prochloraz, lindane, hexachlorobenzene, etc). High-throughput screening methods are necessary to carry out efficient monitoring programs that may help to prevent certain occupational health diseases. For this purpose, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol detection has been developed using polyclonal antisera raised against 3-(3-hydroxy-2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)propanoic acid (hapten 5) covalently coupled by the mixed anhydride (MA) method to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). The indirect ELISA uses a heterologous coating antigen prepared by conjugation of 3-(2-hydroxy-3,6-dichlorophenyl)propanoic acid (hapten 4) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) using the active ester (AE) method. The optimum hapten density for the coating antigen was found to be 3 mol of hapten/mol of protein. The assay shows a limit of detection of 0.245 +/- 0.116 microg L(-1), and it is performed on 96-well microtiter plates in about 1.5 h. The ELISA reported recognizes on a much less extent other chlorinated phenols, such as 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TtCP, 21%), 2,4,5-TCP (12%) and 2,3,5-TCP (15%); however, brominated phenols (BP) are even more recognized than the corresponding chlorinated analogues (ex. 2,4,6-TBP, 710%; 2,4-DBP, 119%). With the aim of finding an explanation for this behavior, theoretical calculations have been performed for those and other halogenated phenols (2,4,6-triiodophenol and 2,4,6-trifluorophenol) to clarify which physicochemical parameter can explain better the recognition pattern observed. Finally, the assay has been adapted to the analysis of urine samples. The studies have shown that a limit of detection of 1 microg L(-1) can be accomplished on this biological matrix by combining the ELISA procedure with a C18 solid-phase extraction method. PMID:11811424

Galve, Roger; Nichkova, Mikaela; Camps, Francisco; Sanchez-Baeza, Francisco; Marco, M-Pilar

2002-01-15

373

HYAL-1 Hyaluronidase: A Potential Prognostic Indicator for Progression to Muscle Invasion and Recurrence in Bladder Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background For bladder cancer (BCa) patients undergoing bladder-sparing treatments, molecular markers may aid in accurately predicting progression to muscle invasion and recurrence. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan that promotes tumor metastasis. Hyaluronoglucosaminidase 1 (HYAL-1)–type hyaluronidase (HAase) promotes tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis. Urinary HA and HAase levels are diagnostic markers for BCa. Objective We evaluated whether HA and HYAL-1 can predict progression to muscle invasion and recurrence among patients with non–muscle-invasive BCa. Design, setting, and participants Based on tissue availability, tissue microarrays were prepared from a cohort of 178 BCa specimens (144 non–muscle invasive, 34 muscle invasive). Follow-up information was available on 111 patients with non–muscle-invasive BCa (mean follow-up: 69.5 mo); 58 patients recurred and 25 progressed to muscle invasion (mean time to progress: 22.3 mo). Measurements HA and HYAL-1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and graded for intensity and area of staining. Association of HA and HYAL-1 staining with BCa recurrence and muscle invasion was evaluated by univariate and multivariate models. Results and limitations HA and HYAL-1 expression correlated with tumor grade, stage, and multifocality (p < 0.05). In non–muscle-invasive BCa specimens, HYAL-1 staining was higher (234.3 ± 52.2; 200.6 ± 61.4) if patients experienced progression to muscle invasion or recurrence when compared with no progression or recurrence (164.1 ± 48.2; 172.1 ± 57; p < 0.001). HA staining correlated with muscle invasion (p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, age (p = 0.014), multifocality (p = 0.023), and HYAL-1 staining (p < 0.001) correlated with muscle invasion, whereas only HYAL-1 correlated with recurrence (p = 0.013). In multivariate analysis, significantly associated with muscle invasion (p < 0.001; 76.8% accuracy) and recurrence (p = 0.01; 67.8% accuracy). Conclusions HYAL-1 is a potential prognostic marker for predicting progression to muscle invasion and recurrence.

Kramer, Mario W.; Golshani, Roozbeh; Merseburger, Axel S.; Knapp, Judith; Garcia, Alfredo; Hennenlotter, Joerg; Duncan, Robert C.; Soloway, Mark S.; Jorda, Merce; Kuczyk, Marcus A.; Stenzl, Arnulf; Lokeshwar, Vinata B

2009-01-01

374

Application of congener based multi-matrix profiling techniques to identify potential PCDD/F sources in environmental samples from the Burrishoole Catchment in the West of Ireland.  

PubMed

Homologue and congener profiles of PCDD/Fs in eels, passive sampler and sediment extracts from the Burrishoole, a rural upland catchment on the western Irish seaboard were compared with potential PCDD sources. ?PCDD/F levels in eels ranged from 2.9 to 25.9 pg g(-1) wet weight, which are elevated compared to other Irish locations. The OCDD congener dominated the pattern of ?PCDD/Fs in all matrices from Burrishoole. Passive samplers were successfully deployed to identify for the first time the presence in the water column of PCDD/Fs and dimethoxylated octachlorodiphenyl ether (diMeOoctaCDE), impurities found in pentachlorophenol (PCP) production. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified similarities between PCDD/F profiles in technical PCP mixtures and environmental samples from the Burrishoole region. Results strongly suggest residual PCDD contamination associated with historic local use of a dioxin contaminated product in the catchment area, with pentachlorophenol a strong candidate. PMID:24121420

White, P; McHugh, B; Poole, R; McGovern, E; White, J; Behan, P; Foley, B; Covaci, A

2014-01-01

375

SCS-CN and GIS-based approach for identifying potential water harvesting sites in the Kali Watershed, Mahi River Basin, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kali sub-watershed is situated in the semi-arid region of Gujarat, India and forms a part of the Mahi River Watershed. This watershed receives an average annual rainfall of 900mm mainly between July and September. Due to high runoff potential, evapo-transpiration and poor infiltration, drought like situation prevails in this area from December to June almost every year. In this paper, augmentation of water resource is proposed by construction of runoff harvesting structures like check dam, percolation pond, farm pond, well and subsurface dyke. The site suitability for different water harvesting structures is determined by considering spatially varying parameters like runoff potential, slope, fracture pattern and micro-watershed area. GIS is utilised as a tool to store, analyse and integrate spatial and attribute information pertaining to runoff, slope, drainage and fracture. The runoff derived by SCS-CN method is a function of runoff potential which can be expressed in terms of runoff coefficient (ratio between the runoff and rainfall) which can be classified into three classes, viz., high (>40%), moderate (20-40%) and low (<20%). In addition to IMSD, FAO specifications for water harvesting/recharging structures, parameters such as effective storage, rock mass permeability are herein considered to augment effective storage. Using the overlay and decision tree concepts in GIS, potential water harvesting sites are identified. The derived sites are field investigated for suitability and implementation. In all, the accuracy of the site selection at implementation level varies from 80-100%.

Ramakrishnan, D.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Kusuma, K. N.

2009-08-01

376

Modeling the Potential Spread of the Recently Identified Non-Native Panther Grouper (Chromileptes altivelis) in the Atlantic Using a Cellular Automaton Approach  

PubMed Central

The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli) is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has