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1

Identifying Student Potential for ICT Entrepreneurship Using Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature relating to personality and entrepreneurship has focused primarily on personality characteristics of traditional entrepreneurs. The focus of this study was on personality characteristics and temperaments of potential Information and Communication Technology (ICT) entrepreneurs. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the…

Johnston, Kevin A.; Andersen, Barry K.; Davidge-Pitts, Jennifer; Ostensen-Saunders, Mark

2009-01-01

2

JSEM: a framework for identifying and evaluating indicators.  

PubMed

There are two issues in indicator development that have not been adequately addressed: (1) how to select an optimal combination of potentially redundant indicators that together best represent an endpoint, given cost constraints; (2) how to identify and evaluate indicators when the endpoint is unmeasured. This paper presents an approach to identifying and evaluating combinations of indicators when the mathematical relationships between the indicators and an endpoint may not be quantified, a limitation common to many ecological assessments. The approach uses the framework of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), which combines path analysis with measurement models, to formalize available information about potential indicators and to evaluate their potential adequacy for representing an endpoint. Unlike traditional applications of SEM which require data on all variables, our approach---judgement-based SEM (JSEM)--can utilize expert judgement regarding the strengths and shapes of indicator-endpoint relationships. JSEM is applied in two stages. First, a conceptual model that relates variables in a network of direct and indirect linkages is developed, and is used to identify indicators relevant to an endpoint. Second, an index of indicator strength--i.e., the strength of the relationship between the endpoint and a set of indicators--is calculated from estimates of correlation between the modeled variables, and is used to compare alternative sets of indicators. The second stage is most appropriate for large, long-term assessments. Although JSEM is not a statistical technique, basing JSEM on SEM provides a structure for validating the conceptual model and for relining the index of indicator strength as data become available. Our main objective is to contribute to a rigorous and consistent selection of indicators even when knowledge about the ability of indicators to represent an endpoint is limited to expert judgement. PMID:11281421

Hyman, J B; Leibowitz, S G

2001-02-01

3

Identifying the potential rural optometrist.  

PubMed

Rural optometrists were found to differ from urban optometrists in background, environmental attitude, and interest patterns. Attitude toward the urban environment and place of origin were the best predictors of an optometrist's practice location. When "urbanism" and "origin" were scaled and placed in a multiple regression equation to predict practice location, identification of an optometrist's location as rural or urban was highly accurate. Most importantly, scores on the equation were predictive of optometry students' future practice locations. A single cut-off point on the equation correctly identified 79% of students who entered rural or isolated small city practice and 81% of those who entered urban practice. The findings suggest that optometry students most likely to enter rural (or indeed urban) practice can be objectively identified early in, or even prior to, training. Such identification may assist educators in selecting and training optometrists who will deliver vision care to people in areas of greatest need. PMID:984177

Kegel-Flom, P

1976-09-01

4

Identifying novel drug indications through automated reasoning Authors and Affiliations  

E-print Network

Title Identifying novel drug indications through automated reasoning Authors and Affiliations Luis Research Center, Knowledge Discovery Lab, Niskayuna, NY 12309, USA) Keywords Drug repurposing, drug and biological knowledge available in literature, finding novel drug indications for existing drugs using

Baral, Chitta

5

JSEM: A Framework for Identifying and Evaluating Indicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an approach to identifying and evaluating combinations of indicators when the mathematical relationships between the indicators and an endpoint may not be quantified, a limitation common to many ecological assessments. Uses the framework of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), which combines path analysis with measurement model, to…

Hyman, Jeffrey B.; Leibowitz, Scott G.

2001-01-01

6

Identifying node role in social network based on multiple indicators.  

PubMed

It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role. PMID:25089823

Huang, Shaobin; Lv, Tianyang; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Yange; Zheng, Weimin; Wen, Chao

2014-01-01

7

Using Two WISC-IV Indices to Identify the Gifted  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whenever a new version of an IQ test is released, it is necessary to determine its effectiveness in identifying gifted students. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC- IV), released in August of 2003, is structured in a significantly different manner from its predecessor, the WISC-III. The Verbal and Performance sections have been replaced by four indices: Verbal

R. Frank Falk; Diane M. Moran

8

Identifying Basketball Performance Indicators in Regular Season and Playoff Games  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to identify basketball game performance indicators which best discriminate winners and losers in regular season and playoffs. The sample used was composed by 323 games of ACB Spanish Basketball League from the regular season (n=306) and from the playoffs (n=17). A previous cluster analysis allowed splitting the sample in balanced (equal or below 12 points), unbalanced (between 13 and 28 points) and very unbalanced games (above 28 points). A discriminant analysis was used to identify the performance indicators either in regular season and playoff games. In regular season games, the winning teams dominated in assists, defensive rebounds, successful 2 and 3-point field-goals. However, in playoff games the winning teams’ superiority was only in defensive rebounding. In practical applications, these results may help the coaches to accurately design training programs to reflect the importance of having different offensive set plays and also have specific conditioning programs to prepare for defensive rebounding. PMID:23717365

García, Javier; Ibáñez, Sergio J.; De Santos, Raúl Martinez; Leite, Nuno; Sampaio, Jaime

2013-01-01

9

Identifying the Potential Biosphere of Mars  

E-print Network

Our current knowledge of life on Earth indicates a basic requirement for liquid water. The locations of present liquid water are therefore the logical sites to search for current life on Mars. We develop a picture of where on Mars the regions with the highest potential near-surface liquid water abundance can be found through a study of gullies. We also use rampart craters to sound the depth of water ice on Mars and where the highest concentrations of water ice occur. We estimate that low latitude gullies and rampart craters with depths greater than 100 m at 30 degrees (absolute) latitude, greater than 1.3 km at 35 degrees and greater than 2.6 km at 40 degrees latitude will give access to current liquid water environments capable of supporting microbial life. Our data is most consistent with the formation of these gullies through shallow aquifer discharge. These features should therefore be high priority targets for further study and high-resolution imaging with HiRISE.

Eriita G. Jones; Charles H. Lineweaver

2008-12-01

10

Identifying early indicators in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder. PMID:24174009

Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon

2014-06-01

11

Identifying Potential Collapse Features Under Highways.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project goal was to develop a reconnaissance geophysical method for locating zones in coal mine regions where a highway has the potential for collapse. In 1998, two sites on Ohio Route 32 were studied: one in Jackson County and the other in Vinton Cou...

P. J. Wolfe, E. C. Hauser, B. H. Richard, J. Hick, M. Geer, B. A. Luke, M. Zoghi

2003-01-01

12

Identifying Potential Dropouts: A Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the educational structure seems to meet the needs of most students, a small but significant minority does not see the need to complete high school. To improve the identification of potential dropouts and describe the differences between dropouts and persisters, 536 Kentucky high school students and dropouts were studied. An unexpected…

Martin, Donald L., Jr.

13

Identifying potential dropouts from college physics classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hudson and Rottman (1981) established that mathematics ability is probably a secondary factor influencing dropout from college physics courses. Other factors remain to be found for predicting who will drop out or at least have difficulty with the course. When mathematics ability is coupled with general indicators of performance (total GPA and ACT natural science), prediction of performance for those

Warren Wollman; Frances Lawrenz

1984-01-01

14

Identifying potential dropouts from college physics classes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hudson and Rottman (1981) established that mathematics ability is probably a secondary factor influencing dropout from college physics courses. Other factors remain to be found for predicting who will drop out or at least have difficulty with the course. When mathematics ability is coupled with general indicators of performance (total GPA and ACT natural science), prediction of performance for those who complete the course is substantially improved. Moreover, discriminant analyses reveal who will have at least some difficulty, but not who will drop out. The problem of isolating specific weaknesses of students who have difficulty persists. Physics achievement appears to depend on mathematics ability only to the extent that students possess the ability to utilize mathematics knowledge for solving physics problems. Identification of the specific aspects of this ability as well as the specific deficiencies leading to dropout should be the object of future research. For the present, interviews might be more revealing than group testing methods.

Wollman, Warren; Lawrenz, Frances

15

Identifying Quality Indicators of SAE and FFA: A Delphi Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine quality indicators for SAE and FFA according to 36 experts across the United States. This is a part of a larger study looking at all components of the traditional three-circle model. The study utilized the Delphi technique to garner expert opinion about quality indicators in Agricultural Education. For…

Jenkins, Charles Cordell, III; Kitchel, Tracy

2009-01-01

16

Identifying mechanistic indicators of childhood asthma from blood gene expression  

EPA Science Inventory

Asthmatic individuals have been identified as a susceptible subpopulation for air pollutants. However, asthma represents a syndrome with multiple probable etiologies, and the identification of these asthma endotypes is critical to accurately define the most susceptible subpopula...

17

Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic…

Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

2013-01-01

18

Identifying Value Indicators and Social Capital in Community Health Partnerships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, public health practice is turning to the application of community collaborative models to improve population health status. Despite the growth of these activities, however, evaluations of the national demonstrations have indicated that community health partnerships fail to achieve measurable results and struggle to maintain integrity…

Hausman, Alice J.; Becker, Julie; Brawer, Rickie

2005-01-01

19

Chrysophyte cysts as potential environmental indicators.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. Many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Chrysophyte cysts have the potential to be a useful tool for modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits. -from Authors

Adam, D.P.; Mahood, A.D.

1981-01-01

20

Amu-Daria liquids potential indicated  

SciTech Connect

The Amu-Daria basin is a large, primarily gas producing basin located in the Soviet Republics of Turkmen and Uzbek and in Afghanistan. It covers an area roughly three fourths that of Texas and has estimated gas reserves on a scale of several hundred trillion cubic feet. Of these, somewhat less that 50% have been produced, proven, or indicated as probable by drilling. The basin is of current interest because roughly 66,000 sq km of exploration and producing rights in its lightly explored southern part will be put up for foreign competitive bidding by the Turkmen government later this year. The purpose of this article is to present growing evidence that significant new oil and condensate reserves, in addition to large new gas reserves, are likely to be found in the subsalt carbonate reef complexes of Upper Jurassic age in the deeper part of the basin. In fact, there is a very real possibility, that a good portion of these reserves may be found in fields of giant or even supergiant size.

O'Connor, R.B. Jr. (WaveTech Geophysical Inc., Denver, CO (US)); Sonnenberg, S.

1991-06-03

21

Identify potentially eligible participants | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Your institution’s information system is an obvious starting point for identifying potential clinical trial participants. If your medical records are electronic, then the process may be simpler. No matter which tools you use, it is important to know all the potentially eligible participants are being identified.

22

SELECTING INDICATORS OF BIODIVERSITY FOR CONSERVATION PLANNING: IDENTIFYING THE MECHANISMS BEHIND INDICATOR GROUP PERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Most conservation planning is constrained by time and funding. In particular, the selection of areas to protect biodiversity must often be completed with limited data on species distributions. Consequently, different groups of species have been proposed as indicators or surroga...

23

Indicators of ecosystem function identify alternate states in the sagebrush steppe.  

PubMed

Models of ecosystem change that incorporate nonlinear dynamics and thresholds, such as state-and-transition models (STMs), are increasingly popular tools for land management decision-making. However, few models are based on systematic collection and documentation of ecological data, and of these, most rely solely on structural indicators (species composition) to identify states and transitions. As STMs are adopted as an assessment framework throughout the United States, finding effective and efficient ways to create data-driven models that integrate ecosystem function and structure is vital. This study aims to (1) evaluate the utility of functional indicators (indicators of rangeland health, IRH) as proxies for more difficult ecosystem function measurements and (2) create a data-driven STM for the sagebrush steppe of Colorado, USA, that incorporates both ecosystem structure and function. We sampled soils, plant communities, and IRH at 41 plots with similar clayey soils but different site histories to identify potential states and infer the effects of management practices and disturbances on transitions. We found that many IRH were correlated with quantitative measures of functional indicators, suggesting that the IRH can be used to approximate ecosystem function. In addition to a reference state that functions as expected for this soil type, we identified four biotically and functionally distinct potential states, consistent with the theoretical concept of alternate states. Three potential states were related to management practices (chemical and mechanical shrub treatments and seeding history) while one was related only to ecosystem processes (erosion). IRH and potential states were also related to environmental variation (slope, soil texture), suggesting that there are environmental factors within areas with similar soils that affect ecosystem dynamics and should be noted within STMs. Our approach generated an objective, data-driven model of ecosystem dynamics for rangeland management. Our findings suggest that the IRH approximate ecosystem processes and can distinguish between alternate states and communities and identify transitions when building data-driven STMs. Functional indicators are a simple, efficient way to create data-driven models that are consistent with alternate state theory. Managers can use them to improve current model-building methods and thus apply state-and-transition models more broadly for land management decision-making. PMID:22073659

Kachergis, Emily; Rocca, Monique E; Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria E

2011-10-01

24

Dissimilar chromatographic systems to indicate and identify antioxidants from Mallotus species.  

PubMed

The genus of Mallotus contains several species commonly used as traditional medicines in oriental countries. A data set containing 39 Mallotus samples, differing in species, cultivation conditions, harvest season and/or part of the plant was used to develop fingerprints on two dissimilar chromatographic systems. An exploratory analysis with principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on both data sets individually. The results were also combined to obtain additional information on the unknown samples included in the data set. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the samples was measured and modelled as a function of the fingerprints using the orthogonal projections to latent structures (O-PLS) technique. The regression coefficients of the models were studied to indicate the peaks potentially responsible for the antioxidant activity. The indicated peaks were analyzed and identified by HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Because of the complexity of biological samples, it was aspired to separate co-eluting components based on the significant difference in chromatographic selectivity on the dissimilar systems and consequently obtain additional, complementary information on the contribution of the individual components to the antioxidant activity. The results illustrate the potential use of dissimilar chromatographic systems. Several initially co-eluting compounds could be separated on the dissimilar system. The corresponding regression coefficients provided complementary information on the potential antioxidant activity of the separated compounds. PMID:21215855

Tistaert, C; Dejaegher, B; Chataigné, G; Van Minh, C; Quetin-Leclercq, J; Vander Heyden, Y

2011-01-30

25

Identifying Potential Kidney Donors Using Social Networking Websites  

PubMed Central

Social networking sites like Facebook may be a powerful tool for increasing rates of live kidney donation. They allow for wide dissemination of information and discussion, and could lessen anxiety associated with a face-to-face request for donation. However, sparse data exist on the use of social media for this purpose. We searched Facebook, the most popular social networking site, for publicly available English-language pages seeking kidney donors for a specific individual, abstracting information on the potential recipient, characteristics of the page itself, and whether potential donors were tested. In the 91 pages meeting inclusion criteria, the mean age of potential recipients was 37 (range: 2–69); 88% were U.S. residents. Other posted information included the individual’s photograph (76%), blood type (64%), cause of kidney disease (43%), and location (71%). Thirty-two percent of pages reported having potential donors tested, and 10% reported receiving a live donor kidney transplant. Those reporting donor testing shared more potential recipient characteristics, provided more information about transplantation, and had higher page traffic. Facebook is already being used to identify potential kidney donors. Future studies should focus on how to safely, ethically, and effectively use social networking sites to inform potential donors and potentially expand live kidney donation. PMID:23600791

Chang, Alexander; Anderson, Emily E.; Turner, Hang T.; Shoham, David; Hou, Susan H.; Grams, Morgan

2013-01-01

26

Discovering Potential Pathogens among Fungi Identified as Nonsporulating Molds?  

PubMed Central

Fungal infections are increasing, particularly among immunocompromised hosts, and a rapid diagnosis is essential to initiate antifungal therapy. Often fungi cannot be identified by conventional methods and are classified as nonsporulating molds (NSM).We sequenced internal transcribed spacer regions from 50 cultures of NSM and found 16 potential pathogens that can be associated with clinical disease. In selected clinical settings, identification of NSM could prove valuable and have an immediate impact on patient management. PMID:17135442

Pounder, June I.; Simmon, Keith E.; Barton, Claudia A.; Hohmann, Sheri L.; Brandt, Mary E.; Petti, Cathy A.

2007-01-01

27

Identifying Sequence Determinants of Reduction Potentials of Metalloproteins  

PubMed Central

The reduction potential of an electron transfer protein is one of its most important functional characteristics. While the type of redox site and the protein fold are the major determinants of the reduction potential of a redox active protein, its amino acid sequence may tune the reduction potential as well. Thus, homologous proteins can often be divided into different classes, with each class characterized by a biological function and a reduction potential. Site-specific mutagenesis of the sequence determinants of the differences in the reduction potential between classes should change the reduction potential of a protein in one class to that of the other class. Here, a procedure is presented that combines energetic and bioinformatics analysis of homologous proteins for identifying sequence determinants that are also good candidates for site-specific mutations, using the [4Fe-4S]-ferredoxins and the [4Fe-4S]-HiPIPs as examples. This procedure is designed to guide site-specific mutations or more computationally expensive studies, such as molecular dynamics simulations. To make the procedure more accessible to the general scientific community, it is being implemented into CHARMMing, a web-based portal, with a library of density functional theory results for the redox site that used in the set up of Poisson-Boltzmann continuum electrostatics calculations for the protein energetics. PMID:23690205

Perrin, Bradley Scott; Ichiye, Toshiko

2013-01-01

28

ORIGINAL PAPER Soil enzyme activities as potential indicators  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Soil enzyme activities as potential indicators of soluble organic nitrogen pools on soil nitrogen status. As a major process affecting the soil-soluble organic nitrogen pool, degradation of insoluble organic nitrogen in the production of soluble organic nitrogen is mediated by a suite of soil

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

29

Identifying potential cancer driver genes by genomic data integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cancer is a genomic disease associated with a plethora of gene mutations resulting in a loss of control over vital cellular functions. Among these mutated genes, driver genes are defined as being causally linked to oncogenesis, while passenger genes are thought to be irrelevant for cancer development. With increasing numbers of large-scale genomic datasets available, integrating these genomic data to identify driver genes from aberration regions of cancer genomes becomes an important goal of cancer genome analysis and investigations into mechanisms responsible for cancer development. A computational method, MAXDRIVER, is proposed here to identify potential driver genes on the basis of copy number aberration (CNA) regions of cancer genomes, by integrating publicly available human genomic data. MAXDRIVER employs several optimization strategies to construct a heterogeneous network, by means of combining a fused gene functional similarity network, gene-disease associations and a disease phenotypic similarity network. MAXDRIVER was validated to effectively recall known associations among genes and cancers. Previously identified as well as novel driver genes were detected by scanning CNAs of breast cancer, melanoma and liver carcinoma. Three predicted driver genes (CDKN2A, AKT1, RNF139) were found common in these three cancers by comparative analysis.

Chen, Yong; Hao, Jingjing; Jiang, Wei; He, Tong; Zhang, Xuegong; Jiang, Tao; Jiang, Rui

2013-12-01

30

Identifying potential cancer driver genes by genomic data integration.  

PubMed

Cancer is a genomic disease associated with a plethora of gene mutations resulting in a loss of control over vital cellular functions. Among these mutated genes, driver genes are defined as being causally linked to oncogenesis, while passenger genes are thought to be irrelevant for cancer development. With increasing numbers of large-scale genomic datasets available, integrating these genomic data to identify driver genes from aberration regions of cancer genomes becomes an important goal of cancer genome analysis and investigations into mechanisms responsible for cancer development. A computational method, MAXDRIVER, is proposed here to identify potential driver genes on the basis of copy number aberration (CNA) regions of cancer genomes, by integrating publicly available human genomic data. MAXDRIVER employs several optimization strategies to construct a heterogeneous network, by means of combining a fused gene functional similarity network, gene-disease associations and a disease phenotypic similarity network. MAXDRIVER was validated to effectively recall known associations among genes and cancers. Previously identified as well as novel driver genes were detected by scanning CNAs of breast cancer, melanoma and liver carcinoma. Three predicted driver genes (CDKN2A, AKT1, RNF139) were found common in these three cancers by comparative analysis. PMID:24346768

Chen, Yong; Hao, Jingjing; Jiang, Wei; He, Tong; Zhang, Xuegong; Jiang, Tao; Jiang, Rui

2013-01-01

31

Identifying potential cancer driver genes by genomic data integration  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a genomic disease associated with a plethora of gene mutations resulting in a loss of control over vital cellular functions. Among these mutated genes, driver genes are defined as being causally linked to oncogenesis, while passenger genes are thought to be irrelevant for cancer development. With increasing numbers of large-scale genomic datasets available, integrating these genomic data to identify driver genes from aberration regions of cancer genomes becomes an important goal of cancer genome analysis and investigations into mechanisms responsible for cancer development. A computational method, MAXDRIVER, is proposed here to identify potential driver genes on the basis of copy number aberration (CNA) regions of cancer genomes, by integrating publicly available human genomic data. MAXDRIVER employs several optimization strategies to construct a heterogeneous network, by means of combining a fused gene functional similarity network, gene-disease associations and a disease phenotypic similarity network. MAXDRIVER was validated to effectively recall known associations among genes and cancers. Previously identified as well as novel driver genes were detected by scanning CNAs of breast cancer, melanoma and liver carcinoma. Three predicted driver genes (CDKN2A, AKT1, RNF139) were found common in these three cancers by comparative analysis. PMID:24346768

Chen, Yong; Hao, Jingjing; Jiang, Wei; He, Tong; Zhang, Xuegong; Jiang, Tao; Jiang, Rui

2013-01-01

32

Water quality studies in Kranji Catchment, Singapore : use of organic tracer and PEDs for identifying potential sewage sources  

E-print Network

The objective of this study was to identify organic compounds that could serve as indicators of potential human fecal contamination sources to the Kranji Reservoir in Singapore that could be used as confirmation indicators ...

Mendez Sagel, Adriana (Adriana Raquel)

2010-01-01

33

Costa Rican data synthesis indicates oil, gas potential  

SciTech Connect

The hydrocarbon exploration data base in Costa Rica, gathered through various recent periods, indicates promising hydrocarbon potential in the country. During 1980--94, Recope SA, the state petroleum company, performed a series of studies to evaluate the petroleum potential in the whole Costa Rican territory. As a first step, the information compiled during previous studies was re-evaluated, and later new information was collected with the aid of foreign governments and cooperating institutions. A new exploratory era began with the Costa Rican Congress` approval in 1994 of the Hydrocarbon Law, which allows private companies to participate in hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. This article brings together some highlights about Costa Rica oil potential and gives basic information on future hydrocarbon exploration and development under the regulation of the new Hydrocarbon Law.

Barrientos, J.; Bottazzi, G.; Fernandez, A.; Barboza, G. [Ministry of Environment and Energy, San Jose (Costa Rica). Hydrocarbons Directorate

1997-05-12

34

Potential theory, path integrals and the Laplacian of the indicator  

E-print Network

This paper links the field of potential theory -- i.e. the Dirichlet and Neumann problems for the heat and Laplace equation -- to that of the Feynman path integral, by postulating that the potential is equal to plus/minus the Laplacian of the indicator of the domain D. The Laplacian of the indicator is a generalized function: it is the d-dimensional analogue of the Dirac delta'-function. This function has -- according to the author's best knowledge -- not formally been defined before. We show, first, that the path integral's perturbation series (or Born series) matches the classical single and double boundary layer series of potential theory, thereby connecting two hitherto unrelated fields. Second, we show that the perturbation series is valid for all domains D that allow Green's theorem (i.e. with a finite number of corners, edges and cusps), thereby expanding the classical applicability of boundary layers. Third, we show that the minus (plus) in the potential holds for the Dirichlet (Neumann) boundary condition; showing for the first time a particularly close connection between these two classical problems. Fourth, we demonstrate that the perturbation series of the path integral converges in a monotone/alternating fashion, depending on the convexity/concavity of the domain. We also discuss the third boundary problem (which poses Robin boundary conditions) and discuss an extension to moving domains.

Rutger-Jan Lange

2013-02-04

35

Community- versus Individual-Level Indicators to Identify Pediatric Health Care Need  

PubMed Central

Increasingly, geographic information systems employing spatial data are being used to identify communities with poorer health care status. Since health care indicators are strongly linked to income, could these data, usually based on adult indicators, be used for pediatric health care need? We hypothesized that individual-level indicators such as quality of life scales (QOL) would be better than community-level indicators at identifying families with poorer health care practices. Surveys and medical record reviews were used for a sample of 174 caregivers of young children. Lower level of income was associated with poorer scores on several QOL domains, and on the primary health practices (i.e., non-urgent emergency room use and lack of age-appropriate immunization status). One community-level indicator, the medically underserved area (MUA), was almost as good as the best individual-level indicators at predicting primary health care practices. The community-level indicator of MUA appears to meet its initial intent, providing information on the location of very low-income individuals with high health care need even among a sample of Medicaid-insured children with an identified health care provider. PMID:17146711

2006-01-01

36

IDENTIFYING INDICATORS OF ECOSYSTEM HEALTH FOR A SEMIARID ECOSYSTEM: A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH  

E-print Network

on ecological science that often ignores both the role and effects of humans in managed ecosystems (Liu 2001IDENTIFYING INDICATORS OF ECOSYSTEM HEALTH FOR A SEMIARID ECOSYSTEM: A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH Tischa A). These ecosystems are subjected to a high degree of environmental variability and anthropogenic disturbance; thus

Sisk, Thomas D.

37

A Method to Identify Estuarine Macroinvertebrate Pollution Indicator Species in the Virginian Biogeogarphic Province  

EPA Science Inventory

Macroinvertebrates are commonly used as biomonitors to detect pollution impacts in estuaries. The goal of this research was to identify estuarine benthic invertebrates that could be used as indicator species to detect presence or absence of pollution in the Virginian Biogeograph...

38

Source rock, maturity data indicate potential off Namibia  

SciTech Connect

Namibia`s territorial waters occupy a large portion of West Africa`s continental shelf. The area to the 1,000 m isobath is comparable in size to the combined offshore areas of Gabon, Congo, Zaire, and Angola. Around half as much again lies in 1,000--2,500 m of water. The whole unlicensed part of this area will be open for bidding when the Third Licensing Round starts Oct. 1, 1998. Offshore Namibia is underexplored by drilling with only seven exploration wells drilled. Shell`s Kudu field represents a considerable gas resource with reserves of around 3 tcf and is presently the only commercial discovery.Namibia`s offshore area holds enormous exploration potential. Good quality sandstone reservoirs are likely to be distributed widely, and a number of prospective structural and stratigraphic traps have been identified. The recognition of Cretaceous marine oil-prone source rocks combined with the results of new thermal history reconstruction and maturity modeling studies are particularly significant in assessment of the oil potential. The paper discusses resource development and structures, oil source potential, maturity, and hydrocarbon generation.

Bray, R.; Lawrence, S. [Exploration Consultants Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom); Swart, R. [National Petroleum Corp. of Namibia Pty. Ltd., Windhoek (Namibia)

1998-08-10

39

Identifying Useful Statistical Indicators of Proximity to Instability in Stochastic Power Systems  

E-print Network

Prior research has shown that autocorrelation and variance in voltage measurements tend to increase as power systems approach instability. This paper seeks to identify the conditions under which these statistical indicators provide reliable early warning of instability in power systems. First, the paper derives and validates a semi-analytical method for quickly calculating the expected variance and autocorrelation of all voltages and currents in an arbitrary power system model. Building on this approach, the paper describes the conditions under which filtering can be used to detect these signs in the presence of measurement noise. Finally, several experiments show which types of measurements are good indicators of proximity to instability for particular types of state changes. For example, increased variance in voltages can reliably indicate the location of increased stress, while growth of autocorrelation in certain line currents is a reliable indicator of system-wide instability.

Ghanavati, Goodarz; Lakoba, Taras I

2014-01-01

40

Redox potential: An indicator of site productivity in forest management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Redox potential (Eh) is an integrated soil measurement that reflects several environmental conditions in the soil associated with aeration, moisture and carbon (organic matter) dynamics. Its measurement can be related to water table fluctuations, precipitation and landscape gradients, organic matter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics, biological diversity and plant species distribution. Redox is an excellent indicator of soil biological processes, as it is largely a reflection of microbial activities which to a large extent govern carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling. Redox thus serves as an ecological indicator of site productivity at the ecosystem scale and may be used for management purposes as its magnitude can be altered by activities such as harvesting and drainage. A threshold value of 300 mv has been documented as the critical value below which anaerobic conditions in the soil develop. However, redox measurements and its impacts on ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling and productivity, especially in forest ecosystems, have not received the attention that this "master" variable deserves, On northern Vancouver Island, Canada, regenerating stands of western redcedar-western hemlock (CH) sites exhibit symptoms of nutrient deficiencies and slow growth, but this phenomenon does not occur on adjacent western hemlock- amabalis fir (HA) sites. We tested the hypothesis that differences in nutrient supply and distribution of plant species was caused by differences in moisture regime and redox potential. Redox potential, pH, soil aeration depth (steel rods), organic matter thickness, bulk density, soil carbon store, plant species distribution and richness were measured at five old-growth and five 10-year-old cutover blocks. Results of investigations confirmed that CH forests were wetter, had redox values lower than the critical 300mv and a shallower aerated zone, compared with adjacent regenerating HA sites. Fifty percent of the CH plots had redox values less than +300 mv in the forest floor; whereas only 15 percent of the HA plots had such low values. Composition of the forest understory species was related to soil moisture/aeration. Soil aeration was the most important soil variable influencing plant species composition, explaining 25% of the plant community variability. Eh was always greater than +300 mv in the mineral soil of old growth HA forests but below +300 mv in HA clearcuts, suggesting paludification; however it was below or at this threshold in both CH forests and clearcuts. The reduction in measured redox without a noticeable change in the watertable in HA sites suggests that harvesting HA forests shifts the ecosystem towards more anaerobic conditions more similar to CH sites. In a complimentary study, the significance of redox was assessed in a cedar swamp cutover by exploring the relationships between soil redox potential and tree growth, and mineralization of C and soil C store along a gradient of moisture caused by drainage. Drainage improved aeration in the rooting zone, expressed as redox, and above- and below ground C storage; however C mineralization measured as CO2 evolution was not affected. Tree growth was positively correlated with redox potential. Our results indicate that drainage could be a useful silvicultural practice for improving the productivity of these ecosystems and that it may be possible to improve tree growth without stimulating loss of soil C. This requires that drainage improve aeration in the rooting zone while maintaining redox levels of less than +300 mV in the bulk soil, indicating that redox measurements should be incorporated into silviculture interventions to improve productivity of these forests.

Sajedi, Toktam; Prescott, Cindy; Lavkulich, Les

2010-05-01

41

Productivity, Fluency, and Grammaticality Measures from Narratives: Potential Indicators of Language Proficiency?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify potential general outcome indicators (GOIs) of language proficiency. Brief narratives were elicited from 45 kindergarten, first-grade, and third-grade children using single-picture scenes and a standardized protocol. Measures of language productivity, verbal fluency, and grammaticality were examined for…

Tilstra, Janet; McMaster, Kristen

2007-01-01

42

Kernel density surface modelling as a means to identify significant concentrations of vulnerable marine ecosystem indicators.  

PubMed

The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61/105, concerning sustainable fisheries in the marine ecosystem, calls for the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VME) from destructive fishing practices. Subsequently, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) produced guidelines for identification of VME indicator species/taxa to assist in the implementation of the resolution, but recommended the development of case-specific operational definitions for their application. We applied kernel density estimation (KDE) to research vessel trawl survey data from inside the fishing footprint of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) Regulatory Area in the high seas of the northwest Atlantic to create biomass density surfaces for four VME indicator taxa: large-sized sponges, sea pens, small and large gorgonian corals. These VME indicator taxa were identified previously by NAFO using the fragility, life history characteristics and structural complexity criteria presented by FAO, along with an evaluation of their recovery trajectories. KDE, a non-parametric neighbour-based smoothing function, has been used previously in ecology to identify hotspots, that is, areas of relatively high biomass/abundance. We present a novel approach of examining relative changes in area under polygons created from encircling successive biomass categories on the KDE surface to identify "significant concentrations" of biomass, which we equate to VMEs. This allows identification of the VMEs from the broader distribution of the species in the study area. We provide independent assessments of the VMEs so identified using underwater images, benthic sampling with other gear types (dredges, cores), and/or published species distribution models of probability of occurrence, as available. For each VME indicator taxon we provide a brief review of their ecological function which will be important in future assessments of significant adverse impact on these habitats here and elsewhere. PMID:25289667

Kenchington, Ellen; Murillo, Francisco Javier; Lirette, Camille; Sacau, Mar; Koen-Alonso, Mariano; Kenny, Andrew; Ollerhead, Neil; Wareham, Vonda; Beazley, Lindsay

2014-01-01

43

Kernel Density Surface Modelling as a Means to Identify Significant Concentrations of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystem Indicators  

PubMed Central

The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61/105, concerning sustainable fisheries in the marine ecosystem, calls for the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VME) from destructive fishing practices. Subsequently, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) produced guidelines for identification of VME indicator species/taxa to assist in the implementation of the resolution, but recommended the development of case-specific operational definitions for their application. We applied kernel density estimation (KDE) to research vessel trawl survey data from inside the fishing footprint of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) Regulatory Area in the high seas of the northwest Atlantic to create biomass density surfaces for four VME indicator taxa: large-sized sponges, sea pens, small and large gorgonian corals. These VME indicator taxa were identified previously by NAFO using the fragility, life history characteristics and structural complexity criteria presented by FAO, along with an evaluation of their recovery trajectories. KDE, a non-parametric neighbour-based smoothing function, has been used previously in ecology to identify hotspots, that is, areas of relatively high biomass/abundance. We present a novel approach of examining relative changes in area under polygons created from encircling successive biomass categories on the KDE surface to identify “significant concentrations” of biomass, which we equate to VMEs. This allows identification of the VMEs from the broader distribution of the species in the study area. We provide independent assessments of the VMEs so identified using underwater images, benthic sampling with other gear types (dredges, cores), and/or published species distribution models of probability of occurrence, as available. For each VME indicator taxon we provide a brief review of their ecological function which will be important in future assessments of significant adverse impact on these habitats here and elsewhere. PMID:25289667

Kenchington, Ellen; Murillo, Francisco Javier; Lirette, Camille; Sacau, Mar; Koen-Alonso, Mariano; Kenny, Andrew; Ollerhead, Neil; Wareham, Vonda; Beazley, Lindsay

2014-01-01

44

Identifying and Quantifying Heterogeneity in High Content Analysis: Application of Heterogeneity Indices to Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

One of the greatest challenges in biomedical research, drug discovery and diagnostics is understanding how seemingly identical cells can respond differently to perturbagens including drugs for disease treatment. Although heterogeneity has become an accepted characteristic of a population of cells, in drug discovery it is not routinely evaluated or reported. The standard practice for cell-based, high content assays has been to assume a normal distribution and to report a well-to-well average value with a standard deviation. To address this important issue we sought to define a method that could be readily implemented to identify, quantify and characterize heterogeneity in cellular and small organism assays to guide decisions during drug discovery and experimental cell/tissue profiling. Our study revealed that heterogeneity can be effectively identified and quantified with three indices that indicate diversity, non-normality and percent outliers. The indices were evaluated using the induction and inhibition of STAT3 activation in five cell lines where the systems response including sample preparation and instrument performance were well characterized and controlled. These heterogeneity indices provide a standardized method that can easily be integrated into small and large scale screening or profiling projects to guide interpretation of the biology, as well as the development of therapeutics and diagnostics. Understanding the heterogeneity in the response to perturbagens will become a critical factor in designing strategies for the development of therapeutics including targeted polypharmacology. PMID:25036749

Gough, Albert H.; Chen, Ning; Shun, Tong Ying; Lezon, Timothy R.; Boltz, Robert C.; Reese, Celeste E.; Wagner, Jacob; Vernetti, Lawrence A.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Lee, Adrian V.; Stern, Andrew M.; Schurdak, Mark E.; Taylor, D. Lansing

2014-01-01

45

7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false How are potential market participants identified for...FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? Potential market participants are...

2010-01-01

46

7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false How are potential market participants identified for...FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? Potential market participants are...

2011-01-01

47

Model to identify potentially preventable cerebral palsy of intrapartum origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A six stage model was applied to a geographically defined population of 210 singleton children born at term who had a diagnosis of cerebral palsy at 5 years of age. Thirty five children were identified as those most likely to have cerebral palsy of intrapartum origin; in 26 of these there was evidence of suboptimal care. It is suggested that

G. Gaffney; V. Flavell; A. Johnson; M. V. Squier; S. Sellers

1995-01-01

48

Imaging, Diagnosis, Prognosis Gene Expression Analysis Identifies Potential Biomarkers of  

E-print Network

NF can undergo transformationto malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). There are no identified to quantify. pNF can undergo malignant transfor- mation to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST- ment of Schwann cell precursor/Schwann cell­derived pe- ripheral nerve sheath tumors, the formation

Hammerton, James

49

Identifying Learning Styles in Learning Management Systems by Using Indications from Students ’ Behaviour  

E-print Network

Making students aware of their learning styles and presenting them with learning material that incorporates their individual learning styles has potential to make learning easier for students and increase their learning progress. This paper proposes an automatic approach for identifying learning styles with respect to the Felder-Silverman learning style model by inferring their learning styles from their behaviour during they are learning in an online course. The approach was developed for learning management systems, which are commonly used in e-learning. In order to evaluate the proposed approach, a study with 127 students was performed, comparing the results of the automatic approach with those of a

Sabine Graf; Kinshuk Tzu-chien Liu

50

Hazardous potential of manufactured nanoparticles identified by in vivo assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

New products of nanotechnologies, including nanoparticles, need to be assessed according to their biological reactivity and toxic potential. Given the large number of diverse nanomaterials, a tiered approach is favoured. The aim of our work presented here is to elaborate an in vivo assay with terrestrial invertebrates (Porcellio scaber), which could serve as a first step of hazard identification of

Janez Valant; Damjana Drobne; Kristina Sep?i?; Anita Jemec; Ksenija Kogej; Rok Kostanjšek

2009-01-01

51

Sigma-2 Receptor as Potential Indicator of Stem Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Purpose The sigma-2 (?2) receptor is a potential biomarker of proliferative status of solid tumors. Specific synthetic probes using N-substituted-9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3?-yl carbamate analogs have been designed and implemented for experimental cancer diagnosis and therapy. Procedures We employed the fluorescently-labeled ?2 receptor probe, SW120, to evaluate ?2 receptor expression in human stem cells (SC), including: bone marrow stromal (BMSC), neural progenitor (NPC), amniotic fluid (AFSC), hematopoetic (HSC) and embryonic stem cells (ESC). We concurrently evaluated the intensity of SW120 and 5-ethynyl-2?-deoxyuridine (EdU) relative to passage number and multipotency. Results We substantiated significantly higher ?2 receptor density among proliferating SC relative to lineage-restricted cell types. Additionally, cellular internalization of the ?2 receptor in SC was consistent with receptor-mediated endocytosis and confocal microscopy indicated SW120 specific co-localization with a fluorescent marker of lysosomes in all SC imaged. Conclusion These results suggest that ?2 receptors may serve to monitor stem cell differentiation in future experimental studies. PMID:21614680

Haller, Jodi L.; Panyutin, Irina; Chaudhry, Aneeka; Zeng, Chenbo; Mach, Robert H.; Frank, Joseph A.

2011-01-01

52

Ultrastructural Changes in Endothelium during Apoptosis Indicate Low Microembolic Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Apoptotic endothelium has been suggested to have microthrombotic and microembolic potential. While some describe pro-coagulant activities and platelet binding, others demonstrate maintained fibrinolytic protein and anti-platelet aggregatory activity. Canalicular fragmentation is unique to apoptotic endothelium and is suggested to facilitate size reduction of apoptotic cells to reduce microembolic potential. Despite the potential importance of apoptotic microemboli, there are no

Wei Xu; Ross Boadle; Levina Dear; Mara Cvejic; Catherine Emmanuel; Hans Zoellner

2005-01-01

53

Identifying improvement potentials in cement production with life cycle assessment.  

PubMed

Cement production is an environmentally relevant process responsible for 5% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and 7% of industrial fuel use. In this study, life cycle assessment is used to evaluate improvement potentials in the cement production process in Europe and the USA. With a current fuel substitution rate of 18% in Europe and 11% in the USA, both regions have a substantial potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save virgin resources by further increasing the coprocessing of waste fuels. Upgrading production technology would be particularly effective in the USA where many kiln systems with very low energy efficiency are still in operation. Using best available technology and a thermal substitution rate of 50% for fuels, greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by 9% for Europe and 18% for the USA per tonne of cement. Since clinker production is the dominant pollution producing step in cement production, the substitution of clinker with mineral components such as ground granulated blast furnace slag or fly ash is an efficient measure to reduce the environmental impact. Blended cements exhibit substantially lower environmental footprints than Portland cement, even if the substitutes feature lower grindability and require additional drying and large transport distances. The highest savings in CO(2) emissions and resource consumption are achieved with a combination of measures in clinker production and cement blending. PMID:21047057

Boesch, Michael Elias; Hellweg, Stefanie

2010-12-01

54

Potential of isotope analysis (C, Cl) to identify dechlorination mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloroethenes are commonly used in industrial applications, and detected as carcinogenic contaminants in the environment. Their dehalogenation is of environmental importance in remediation processes. However, a detailed understanding frequently accounted problem is the accumulation of toxic degradation products such as cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) at contaminated sites. Several studies have addressed the reductive dehalogenation reactions using biotic and abiotic model systems, but a crucial question in this context has remained open: Do environmental transformations occur by the same mechanism as in their corresponding in vitro model systems? The presented study shows the potential to close this research gap using the latest developments in compound specific chlorine isotope analysis, which make it possible to routinely measure chlorine isotope fractionation of chloroethenes in environmental samples and complex reaction mixtures.1,2 In particular, such chlorine isotope analysis enables the measurement of isotope fractionation for two elements (i.e., C and Cl) in chloroethenes. When isotope values of both elements are plotted against each other, different slopes reflect different underlying mechanisms and are remarkably insensitive towards masking. Our results suggest that different microbial strains (G. lovleyi strain SZ, D. hafniense Y51) and the isolated cofactor cobalamin employ similar mechanisms of reductive dechlorination of TCE. In contrast, evidence for a different mechanism was obtained with cobaloxime cautioning its use as a model for biodegradation. The study shows the potential of the dual isotope approach as a tool to directly compare transformation mechanisms of environmental scenarios, biotic transformations, and their putative chemical lab scale systems. Furthermore, it serves as an essential reference when using the dual isotope approach to assess the fate of chlorinated compounds in the environment.

Cretnik, Stefan; Thoreson, Kristen; Bernstein, Anat; Ebert, Karin; Buchner, Daniel; Laskov, Christine; Haderlein, Stefan; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Kliegman, Sarah; McNeill, Kristopher; Elsner, Martin

2013-04-01

55

Identifying Key Indicators for Adaptive Management of the Metropolitan Water District Integrated Resource Plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California's 2010 Integrated Resource Plan Update (IRP) describes a resource investment strategy that would meet projected demand under a range of anticipated climate and demographic conditions through 2035. The IRP also identifies that alternative or additional investments may have to be considered in order to address uncertainty over the next 25 years and posits that an adaptive management strategy is needed to decide when to make these investments. Current water planning methodologies do not, however, offer means to operationalize such an adaptive management strategy, in particular by offering Metropolitan guidance as to the conditions that ought to signal the need to make additional investments as key trends unfold over time. This talk will describe a novel application of robust decision making (RDM) methods to help Metropolitan identify such key indicators- that is the trends the agency should monitor and threshold values for those trends that suggest a need to make additional investments. We ran Metropolitan's water resource planning models in over 1000 cases to explore the performance of the IRP in a wide range of future conditions due uncertainties in future demand, climate, ground water management, and timeliness of project implementation. Cluster-finding "scenario discovery" algorithms applied to the resulting database of simulation model results identifies the key combination of future conditions - the boundaries of the coping range -- associated with success and failure of the IRP. This analysis will not only help Metropolitan implement the adaptive management aspect of its IRP, it provides a widely applicable new approach for making water management plans more cognizant and responsive to a wide range of uncertainties.

Lempert, R.; Fischbach, J.; Groves, D. G.; Bloom, E.; Goshi, B.; Nevills, J.

2011-12-01

56

Coupling groundwater modeling and biological indicators for identifying river/aquifer exchanges.  

PubMed

Future climate changes and the resulting modifications in anthropogenic activities will alter the interactions between rivers and groundwater. The quantification of these hydraulic interactions is absolutely necessary for achieving sustainable water use and requires accurate analytical methodologies. This report proposes an interdisciplinary approach to the quantitative and qualitative characterization of hydraulic interactions between rivers and shallow aquifers, wherein it outlines the advantages of coupling groundwater modeling with biological markers. As a first step, we built independent diagnostic maps of hydrological exchanges at the sector scale on the basis of hydrogeological modeling and biological indicators. In a second step, these maps were compared to provide a quantitative and qualitative understanding of exchanges between groundwater and surface water. This comparison significantly improved the calibration of groundwater models through a better assessment of boundary zones. Our approach enabled us to identify the conditions under which it could be possible to use biological indicators instead of a large set of piezometric measures. The integration of such combined tools in a future decision support system will assist governmental authorities in proposing appropriate long-term water policies for the preservation of groundwater resources, such as for supplying potable water and/or mitigating pollution risks. PMID:24567877

Graillot, Didier; Paran, Frédéric; Bornette, Gudrun; Marmonier, Pierre; Piscart, Christophe; Cadilhac, Laurent

2014-01-01

57

Potential indicators of final ecosystem services in wetlands  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous and inconsistent lists of wetland ecosystem services exist because services are identified using ambiguous definitions or categorization schemes based around divergent or ambiguous objectives. A consistent and scientific approach would provide clarity and provide greater...

58

Forecasting potential project risks through leading indicators to project outcome  

E-print Network

During project execution, the status of the project is periodically evaluated, using traditional methods or standard practices. However, these traditional methods or standard practices may not adequately identify certain issues, such as lack...

Choi, Ji Won

2007-09-17

59

MODELING POTENTIAL PATHOGEN INFECTED WATERS UTILIZING LANDSCAPE INDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The federal Clean Water Act (CWA) requires states, territories and tribal lands to assess their waters on a biennial schedule and identify, list and prioritize impaired waters not meeting water quality standards. Once a water body is listed, the state is required to develop Tota...

60

Drug-eluting balloons: future potential indications and applications.  

PubMed

The drug-eluting balloon (DEB) is an exciting new technology that holds much promise. As an evolving technology undergoing intensive research, the device is being constantly refined and its numerous potential applications studied. Though initially created to fulfil specific needs in the coronary vasculature, there is great potential for its use in other vascular territories and structures including the management of valvular, congenital heart and neuro-interventional pathologies. In addition, the application of this device in conjunction with other existing technologies may enhance the clinical results. PMID:22027720

Choo, Gim-Hooi

2011-05-01

61

AN INDICATOR OF POTENTIAL STREAM WOOD CONTRIBUTION FOR RIPARIAN FORESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

In northwestern Oregon a key function of riparian forests is to provide wood to the stream network. This function is a prominent feature of Federal and State forest practices in the region. Thus, defining indicators which are associated with this function are important for desi...

62

Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a wealth of published research on salinity tolerance of plants, neither the metabolic sites at which salt stress damages plants nor the adaptive mechanisms utilized by plants to survive under saline conditions are well understood. As a result, there are no well-defined indicators for salinity tolerance available to assist plant breeders in the improvement of salinity tolerance of important

M. Ashraf; P. J. C. Harris

2004-01-01

63

A potential individual cell malignancy indicator: focal length  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The label-free technique of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) utilizes the optical transmission spectrum of a cell in a microfluidic Fabry-Pérot (F-P) cavity to distinguish cells from cancerous cell lines and baseline normal blood cells. The classification between canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cancer cells and monocytes in canine normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) had been demonstrated with 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity. Now with a new optical model that treats the cell settled at the bottom of the cavity as a thin lens, the focal length of cells was extracted and used as an individual cell malignancy indicator.

Wang, Weina; Lear, Kevin L.

2011-03-01

64

Fragmentation patterns of evergreen oak woodlands in Southwestern Iberia: identifying key spatial indicators.  

PubMed

Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands (composed of Quercus suber L. and Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) are becoming increasingly fragmented in the human-modified landscapes of Southwestern Portugal and Spain. Previous studies have largely neglected to assess the spatial changes of oak woodlands in relation to their surrounding landscape matrix, and to characterize and quantify woodland boundaries and edges. The present study aims to fill this gap by analyzing fragmentation patterns of oak woodlands over a 50-year period (1958-2007) in three landscapes. Using archived aerial imagery from 1958, 1995 and 2007, for two consecutive periods (1958-1995 and 1995-2007), we calculated a set of landscape metrics to compare woodland fragmentation over time. Our results indicated a continuous woodland fragmentation characterized by their edge dynamics. From 1958 to 2007, the replacement of open farmland by shrubland and by new afforestation areas in the oak woodland landscape surrounding matrix, led to the highest values for edge contrast length trends of 5.0 and 12.3, respectively. Linear discriminant analysis was performed to delineate fragmented woodland structures and identify metric variables that characterize woodland spatial configuration. The edge contrast length with open farmland showed a strong correlation with F1 (correlations ranging between 0.55 and 0.98) and may be used as a proxy for oak woodland mixedness in landscape matrix. The edge dynamics of oak woodlands may result in different patterns of oak recruitment and therefore, its study may be helpful in highlighting future baselines for the sustainable management of oak woodlands. PMID:24355688

Costa, Augusta; Madeira, Manuel; Lima Santos, José; Plieninger, Tobias; Seixas, Júlia

2014-01-15

65

Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data (DEM) were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight against malaria in Zambia and other regions with seasonal transmission. This work shows that, in areas of seasonal malaria transmission, incorporating terrain-based landscape models to the planning stages of vector control allows for the exclusion of significant portions of landscape that would be unsuitable for water to accumulate and for mosquito larvae occupation. With increasing free availability of satellite imagery such as SRTM and LandSat, the development of satellite imagery-based prediction models is becoming more accessible to vector management coordinators. PMID:21050496

2010-01-01

66

Time Series Satellite Data to Identify Vegetation Response to Stress as an Indicator of Ecosystem Health.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The term 'ecosystem health' is widely used by scientists, land owners and managers, and policymakers at all levels to indicate a condition that is both aesthetically and economically acceptable. However, the expression has varying meaning for different in...

J. Lancaster, D. Mouat, R. Kuehl, W. Whitford, D. Rapport

1995-01-01

67

Michigan study finds new indicator may help identify patients with increased risk from throat cancer:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of Michigan Health System have found a new indicator that may predict which patients with a common type of throat cancer are most likely have the cancer spread to other parts of their bodies.

68

Gangs in Our Schools: Identifying Gang Indicators in Our School Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although teachers used to teach in the communities where they resided, they now commute to schools in other districts. For teachers who teach in districts that are culturally or ethnically different than their own, it may be a new experience of which to become aware or identify issues such as dealing with gang behavior. For other teachers, there…

Struyk, Ruth

2006-01-01

69

DRAFT LIST OF KEY INDICATORS IDENTIFIED BY THE SOCIOECONOMIC AND INSTITUTIONAL WORKING GROUP  

E-print Network

data) Cost of living indices ­ percent of income for housing ­ percent of income for recreation Per capita expenditures for: ­ room/board ­ recreation ­ gaming Average household income Ethnicity-time Residents Total population by census tract and block Age (using typical census data) Average household

Standiford, Richard B.

70

Identifying Potential Areas for Siting Interim Nuclear Waste Facilities Using Map Algebra and Optimization Approaches  

SciTech Connect

The renewed interest in siting new nuclear power plants in the United States has brought to the center stage, the need to site interim facilities for long-term management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In this paper, a two-stage approach for identifying potential areas for siting interim SNF facilities is presented. In the first stage, the land area is discretized into grids of uniform size (e.g., 100m x 100m grids). For the continental United States, this process resulted in a data matrix of about 700 million cells. Each cell of the matrix is then characterized as a binary decision variable to indicate whether an exclusion criterion is satisfied or not. A binary data matrix is created for each of the 25 siting criteria considered in this study. Using map algebra approach, cells that satisfy all criteria are clustered and regarded as potential siting areas. In the second stage, an optimization problem is formulated as a p-median problem on a rail network such that the sum of the shortest distance between nuclear power plants with SNF and the potential storage sites from the first stage is minimized. The implications of obtained results for energy policies are presented and discussed.

Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit [ORNL; Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Tuttle, Mark A [ORNL

2013-01-01

71

A Program Evaluation Model: Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Identify Outcome Indicators in Outcomes-Based Program Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outcomes-based program evaluation is a systematic approach to identifying outcome indicators and measuring results against those indicators. One dimension of program evaluation is assessing the level of learner acquisition to determine if learning objectives were achieved as intended. The purpose of the proposed model is to use Bloom's Taxonomy to…

McNeil, Rita C.

2011-01-01

72

Indicators of the health of the North Sea fish community: identifying reference levels for an ecosystem approach to management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shift in emphasis away from the single-species focus of traditional fisheries manage- ment towards an ecosystem approach to management requires application of indicators of ecosystem state. Further, an ecosystem approach to management requires the identifica- tion of ecological reference points against which management objectives might be set. In applying indicators, identifying reference points, and setting objectives, an obvious require-

Simon P. R. Greenstreet; Stuart I. Rogers

2006-01-01

73

Non-linear models based on simple topological indices to identify RNase III protein members.  

PubMed

Alignment-free classifiers are especially useful in the functional classification of protein classes with variable homology and different domain structures. Thus, the Topological Indices to BioPolymers (TI2BioP) methodology (Agüero-Chapin et al., 2010) inspired in both the TOPS-MODE and the MARCH-INSIDE methodologies allows the calculation of simple topological indices (TIs) as alignment-free classifiers. These indices were derived from the clustering of the amino acids into four classes of hydrophobicity and polarity revealing higher sequence-order information beyond the amino acid composition level. The predictability power of such TIs was evaluated for the first time on the RNase III family, due to the high diversity of its members (primary sequence and domain organization). Three non-linear models were developed for RNase III class prediction: Decision Tree Model (DTM), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)-model and Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The first two are alignment-free approaches, using TIs as input predictors. Their performances were compared with a non-classical HMM, modified according to our amino acid clustering strategy. The alignment-free models showed similar performances on the training and the test sets reaching values above 90% in the overall classification. The non-classical HMM showed the highest rate in the classification with values above 95% in training and 100% in test. Although the higher accuracy of the HMM, the DTM showed simplicity for the RNase III classification with low computational cost. Such simplicity was evaluated in respect to HMM and ANN models for the functional annotation of a new bacterial RNase III class member, isolated and annotated by our group. PMID:21192951

Agüero-Chapin, Guillermin; de la Riva, Gustavo A; Molina-Ruiz, Reinaldo; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Pérez-Machado, Gisselle; Vasconcelos, Vítor; Antunes, Agostinho

2011-03-21

74

Researchers Identify Biological Markers that May Indicate Poor Breast Cancer Prognosis  

Cancer.gov

A team of researchers has found an association between breast cancer survival and two proteins that, when present in the blood in high levels, are indicators of inflammation. Using data from the Health, Eating, Activity and Lifestyle (HEAL) study sponsored by the NCI, the researchers found that breast cancer patients with elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) were approximately two to three times more likely to die sooner or have their cancer return than those patients who had lower levels of these proteins, regardless of the patient's age, tumor stage, race, body mass index, or history of previous cardiovascular issues.

75

Haplotypes at ATM identify coding-sequence variation and indicate a region of extensive linkage disequilibrium.  

PubMed

Genetic variation in the human population may lead to functional variants of genes that contribute to risk for common chronic diseases such as cancer. In an effort to detect such possible predisposing variants, we constructed haplotypes for a candidate gene and tested their efficacy in association studies. We developed haplotypes consisting of 14 biallelic neutral-sequence variants that span 142 kb of the ATM locus. ATM is the gene responsible for the autosomal recessive disease ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). These ATM noncoding single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in nine CEPH families (89 individuals) and in 260 DNA samples from four different ethnic origins. Analysis of these data with an expectation-maximization algorithm revealed 22 haplotypes at this locus, with three major haplotypes having frequencies > or = .10. Tests for recombination and linkage disequilibrium (LD) show reduced recombination and extensive LD at the ATM locus, in all four ethnic groups studied. The most striking example was found in the study population of European ancestry, in which no evidence for recombination could be discerned. The potential of ATM haplotypes for detection of genetic variants through association studies was tested by analysis of 84 individuals carrying one of three ATM coding SNPs. Each coding SNP was detected by association with an ATM haplotype. We demonstrate that association studies with haplotypes for candidate genes have significant potential for the detection of genetic backgrounds that contribute to disease. PMID:11078475

Bonnen, P E; Story, M D; Ashorn, C L; Buchholz, T A; Weil, M M; Nelson, D L

2000-12-01

76

Multiple indices of diffusion identifies white matter damage in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The study of multiple indices of diffusion, including axial (DA), radial (DR) and mean diffusion (MD), as well as fractional anisotropy (FA), enables WM damage in Alzheimer's disease (AD) to be assessed in detail. Here, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were performed on scans of 40 healthy elders, 19 non-amnestic MCI (MCIna) subjects, 14 amnestic MCI (MCIa) subjects and 9 AD patients. Significantly higher DA was found in MCIna subjects compared to healthy elders in the right posterior cingulum/precuneus. Significantly higher DA was also found in MCIa subjects compared to healthy elders in the left prefrontal cortex, particularly in the forceps minor and uncinate fasciculus. In the MCIa versus MCIna comparison, significantly higher DA was found in large areas of the left prefrontal cortex. For AD patients, the overlap of FA and DR changes and the overlap of FA and MD changes were seen in temporal, parietal and frontal lobes, as well as the corpus callosum and fornix. Analysis of differences between the AD versus MCIna, and AD versus MCIa contrasts, highlighted regions that are increasingly compromised in more severe disease stages. Microstructural damage independent of gross tissue loss was widespread in later disease stages. Our findings suggest a scheme where WM damage begins in the core memory network of the temporal lobe, cingulum and prefrontal regions, and spreads beyond these regions in later stages. DA and MD indices were most sensitive at detecting early changes in MCIa. PMID:21738785

O'Dwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L W; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; O'Neill, Des; Bartley, Máiréad; Collins, D Rónán; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

2011-01-01

77

Identifying good group homes: qualitative indicators using a quality of life framework.  

PubMed

Abstract Despite change toward more individualized support, group homes are likely to remain for people with severe intellectual disability. As such, the search continues for ways to determine and maintain the quality of these settings. This article draws on in-depth qualitative analysis of participant observations conducted over 9-12 months in seven group homes for 21 people with a severe and profound level of intellectual disability. It explores the conceptualization of good outcomes and support for this group in terms of their quality of life and staff practices. The qualitative indicators of good outcomes for this group using quality of life domains can be used by auditors, community visitors, funders, advocates, or family members to guide observation and judgements about group homes. PMID:25247727

Bigby, Christine; Knox, Marie; Beadle-Brown, Julie; Bould, Emma

2014-10-01

78

Chemical and structural indicators for large redox potentials in Fe-based positive electrode materials.  

PubMed

Li-ion batteries have enabled a revolution in the way portable consumer-electronics are powered and will play an important role as large-scale electrochemical storage applications like electric vehicles and grid-storage are developed. The ability to identify and design promising new positive insertion electrodes will be vital in continuing to push Li-ion technology to its fullest potential. Utilizing a combination of computational tools and structural analysis, we report new indicators which will facilitate the recognition of phases with the desired redox potential. Most importantly of these, we find there is a strong correlation between the presence of Li ions sitting in close-proximity to the redox center of polyanionic phases and the open circuit voltage in Fe-based cathodes. This common structural feature suggests that the bonding associated with Li may have a secondary inductive effect which increases the ionic character of Fe bonds beyond what is typically expected based purely on arguments of electronegativity associated with the polyanionic group. This correlation is supported by ab initio calculations which show the Bader charge increases (reflecting an increased ionicity) in a nearly linear fashion with the experimental cell potentials. These features are demonstrated to be consistent across a wide variety of compositions and structures and should help to facilitate the design of new, high-potential, and environmentally sustainable insertion electrodes. PMID:24588538

Melot, Brent C; Scanlon, David O; Reynaud, Marine; Rousse, Gwenaëlle; Chotard, Jean-Noël; Henry, Marc; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

2014-07-23

79

A methodology for identifying potential locations for bus priority treatments in the London Network  

E-print Network

Bus priority strategies provide preferential treatment to buses operating in mixed traffic. This thesis aims at developing a methodology for identifying locations for potential bus priority implementation, referred to as ...

Machlab, Farah J. (Farah Jacinthe)

2014-01-01

80

EVOKED POTENTIALS AS INDICES OF ADAPTATION IN THE SOMATOSENSORY SYSTEM IN HUMANS: A REVIEW AND PROSPECTUS  

EPA Science Inventory

Population-level behavior of large neural aggregates can be efficiently monitored by corresponding population-level indices such as somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). The literature reviewed clearly indicates that SEPs undergo systematic and often marked changes under condit...

81

A proton current drives action potentials in genetically identified sour taste cells  

E-print Network

H. To identify acid- sensitive conductances unique to sour cells, we created genetically modified mice in which and safety of ingested food and is detected by a separate subset of cells within the taste bud (1). AlthoughA proton current drives action potentials in genetically identified sour taste cells Rui B. Chang

Liman, Emily

82

Towards a New Paradigm for Identifying Talent Potential. Research Monograph 94112.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph presents a paradigm for identifying giftedness among all groups of young people. Section 1 presents a review and critique of traditional identification approaches and highlights the limitations that tests may have for identifying talent potential among groups currently underrepresented in gifted programs. Section 2 examines the…

Frasier, Mary M.; Passow, A. Harry

83

[Association between the percentages of typical forms, acrosome abnormalities and the multiple anomalies indices: potential quality indicators?].  

PubMed

In addition to NF EN ISO 15189, the second version of "GBEA AMP", published in the official journal of the French Republic, had set for "AMP" exams, the actions to be implemented in order to achieve an efficient quality management system. As part of continuous improvement of quality, and besides our external and internal quality systems, we have been developping indicators that will allow an early detection of potential drifts within operators performing sperm morphology testing. We have extracted nearly 1900 sperm morphology tests from our database. These tests were performed by three operators. The analysis of the data collected has shown a cross correlation between the percentages of typical forms, malformative acrosomes and "MAI". We have been using these correlations as quality indicators in our laboratory in order to highlight any potential drift in reading sperm morphology tests. PMID:22294144

Laudat, Antoine; Lecourbe, Karine; Joyeux, Claudine; Burc-Struxiano, Laurence

2012-01-01

84

Use of genotoxicity tests in a TIE to identify chemicals potentially affecting human health  

SciTech Connect

Imperial Oil operates a sour gas processing plant in southern Alberta that has, for the past several years, been the focus of considerable public and regulatory concern over perceived contamination of soils and groundwater on a nearby ranch. Elevated concentrations of DOC ({approximately}140 mg/L) have been received in groundwater underlying the plant site. Two process-related chemicals, sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA), had been previously identified as the primary components of the DOC plume, although the chemicals associated with 30% of the DOC could not be identified. A risk assessment was initiated in 1994 to determine whether off-site migration of sulfolane and DIPA or of other unidentified contaminants poses a risks to human health and/or ecological receptors. One component of the risk assessment included conducting a TIE to help identify the chemical(s) in contaminated groundwater underlying the gas plant that might adversely affect human health. Three endpoints were utilized in the TIE: MicroTox, SOS-Chromotest and the Ames test. MicroTox was used since it exhibited a response to whole groundwater from the site, while the genotoxicity tests were used because DIPA reportedly causes a response in the Ames test and because of the concern over potential human health affects arising from other unidentified contaminants. Results of the TIE indicated that the chemicals causing the toxicity in the groundwater sample were water soluble compounds, with similar characteristics to the process chemicals used at the gas plant and detected at high concentrations in groundwater from the plant site. These results provided additional evidence to help focus the risk assessment on the chemicals sulfolane and diisopropanolamine.

Goudey, J.S. [HydroQual Labs. Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Shaw, R.D.; Swanson, S.M. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Nadeau, S. [Imperial Oil Resources Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31

85

Release of genetically engineered insects: a framework to identify potential ecological effects.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered (GE) insects have the potential to radically change pest management worldwide. With recent approvals of GE insect releases, there is a need for a synthesized framework to evaluate their potential ecological and evolutionary effects. The effects may occur in two phases: a transitory phase when the focal population changes in density, and a steady state phase when it reaches a new, constant density. We review potential effects of a rapid change in insect density related to population outbreaks, biological control, invasive species, and other GE organisms to identify a comprehensive list of potential ecological and evolutionary effects of GE insect releases. We apply this framework to the Anopheles gambiae mosquito - a malaria vector being engineered to suppress the wild mosquito population - to identify effects that may occur during the transitory and steady state phases after release. Our methodology reveals many potential effects in each phase, perhaps most notably those dealing with immunity in the transitory phase, and with pathogen and vector evolution in the steady state phase. Importantly, this framework identifies knowledge gaps in mosquito ecology. Identifying effects in the transitory and steady state phases allows more rigorous identification of the potential ecological effects of GE insect release. PMID:24198955

David, Aaron S; Kaser, Joe M; Morey, Amy C; Roth, Alexander M; Andow, David A

2013-10-01

86

Release of genetically engineered insects: a framework to identify potential ecological effects  

PubMed Central

Genetically engineered (GE) insects have the potential to radically change pest management worldwide. With recent approvals of GE insect releases, there is a need for a synthesized framework to evaluate their potential ecological and evolutionary effects. The effects may occur in two phases: a transitory phase when the focal population changes in density, and a steady state phase when it reaches a new, constant density. We review potential effects of a rapid change in insect density related to population outbreaks, biological control, invasive species, and other GE organisms to identify a comprehensive list of potential ecological and evolutionary effects of GE insect releases. We apply this framework to the Anopheles gambiae mosquito – a malaria vector being engineered to suppress the wild mosquito population – to identify effects that may occur during the transitory and steady state phases after release. Our methodology reveals many potential effects in each phase, perhaps most notably those dealing with immunity in the transitory phase, and with pathogen and vector evolution in the steady state phase. Importantly, this framework identifies knowledge gaps in mosquito ecology. Identifying effects in the transitory and steady state phases allows more rigorous identification of the potential ecological effects of GE insect release. PMID:24198955

David, Aaron S; Kaser, Joe M; Morey, Amy C; Roth, Alexander M; Andow, David A

2013-01-01

87

Transcriptome Profiling of Peripheral Blood Cells Identifies Potential Biomarkers for Doxorubicin Cardiotoxicity in a Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Aims Doxorubicin (DOX), a widely used anticancer agent, can cause an unpredictable cardiac toxicity which remains a major limitation in cancer chemotherapy. There is a need for noninvasive, sensitive and specific biomarkers which will allow identifying patients at risk for DOX-induced cardiotoxicity to prevent permanent cardiac damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the expression of specific genes in the peripheral blood can be used as surrogate marker(s) for DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Methods/Results Rats were treated with a single dose of DOX similar to one single dose that is often administered in humans. The cardiac and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) genome-wide expression profiling were examined using Illumina microarrays. The results showed 4,409 differentially regulated genes (DRG) in the hearts and 4,120 DRG in PBMC. Of these 2411 genes were similarly DRG (SDRG) in both the heart and PBMC. Pathway analysis of the three datasets of DRG using Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) showed that most of the genes in these datasets fell into pathways related to oxidative stress response and protein ubiquination. IPA search for potential eligible biomarkers for cardiovascular disease within the SDRG list revealed 188 molecules. Conclusions We report the first in-depth comparison of DOX-induced global gene expression profiles of hearts and PBMCs. The high similarity between the gene expression profiles of the heart and PBMC induced by DOX indicates that the PBMC transcriptome may serve as a surrogate marker of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Future directions of this research will include analysis of PBMC expression profiles of cancer patients treated with DOX-based chemotherapy to identify the cardiotoxicity risk, predict DOX-treatment response and ultimately to allow individualized anti-cancer therapy. PMID:23209553

Todorova, Valentina K.; Beggs, Marjorie L.; Delongchamp, Robert R.; Dhakal, Ishwori; Makhoul, Issam; Wei, Jeanne Y.; Klimberg, V. Suzanne

2012-01-01

88

Analytical approaches to identify potential migrants in polyester-polyurethane can coatings.  

PubMed

The safety of a polyester-polyurethane can coating has been assessed using a suite of complementary analytical methods to identify and estimate the concentrations of potential chemical migrants. The polyester was based on phthalic acids and aliphatic diols. The polyisocyanate cross-linking agent was 1-isocyanato-3-isocyanatomethyl-3,5,5-trimethyl cyclohexane homopolymer (IPDI) blocked with methylethylketone oxime (MEKO) to make a one-part formulation. The overall migrate, obtained using solvent extraction of cured films, comprised almost completely of 12 cyclic and one linear polyester oligomer up to molecular weight 800 and containing up to six monomer units. These 13 oligomers covered a total of 28 isomeric forms. Other minor components detected were plasticisers and surfactants as well as impurities present in the starting materials. There was no detectable residue of either the blocked isocyanate (<0.01 microg/dm(2)) used as the starting substance or the unblocked isocyanate (<0.02 microg/dm(2)). The level of extractable IPDI was used as an indicator of the completeness of cure in experimental coatings. These studies revealed that there was an influence of time, temperature and catalyst content. Polymerisation was also influenced by the additives used and by the ageing of the wet coating formulation over several months. These studies allow parameters to be specified to ensure that commercial production coatings receive a full cure giving low migration characteristics. PMID:19787516

Louise Bradley, Emma; Driffield, Malcolm; Guthrie, James; Harmer, Nick; Thomas Oldring, Peter Kenneth; Castle, Laurence

2009-12-01

89

Identifying the potential extracellular electron transfer pathways from a c-type cytochrome network.  

PubMed

Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is the key feature of some bacteria, such as Geobacter sulfurreducens and Shewanella oneidensis. Via EET processes, these bacteria can grow on electrode surfaces and make current output of microbial fuel cells. c-Type cytochromes can be used as carriers to transfer electrons, which play an important role in EET processes. Typically, from the inner (cytoplasmic) membrane through the periplasm to the outer membrane, they could form EET pathways. Recent studies suggest that a group of c-type cytochromes could form a network which extended the well-known EET pathways. We obtained the protein interaction information for all 41 c-type cytochromes in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, constructed a large-scale protein interaction network, and studied its structural characteristics and functional significance. Centrality analysis has identified the top 10 key proteins of the network, and 7 of them are associated with electricity production in the bacteria, which suggests that the ability of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to produce electricity might be derived from the unique structure of the c-type cytochrome network. By modularity analysis, we obtained 5 modules from the network. The subcellular localization study has shown that the proteins in these modules all have diversiform cellular compartments, which reflects their potential to form EET pathways. In particular, combination of protein subcellular localization and operon analysis, the well-known and new candidate EET pathways are obtained from the Mtr-like module, indicating that potential EET pathways could be obtained from such a c-type cytochrome network. PMID:25227320

Ding, De-Wu; Xu, Jun; Li, Ling; Xie, Jian-Ming; Sun, Xiao

2014-10-28

90

Identifying potential adverse effects using the web: a new approach to medical hypothesis generation.  

PubMed

Medical message boards are online resources where users with a particular condition exchange information, some of which they might not otherwise share with medical providers. Many of these boards contain a large number of posts and contain patient opinions and experiences that would be potentially useful to clinicians and researchers. We present an approach that is able to collect a corpus of medical message board posts, de-identify the corpus, and extract information on potential adverse drug effects discussed by users. Using a corpus of posts to breast cancer message boards, we identified drug event pairs using co-occurrence statistics. We then compared the identified drug event pairs with adverse effects listed on the package labels of tamoxifen, anastrozole, exemestane, and letrozole. Of the pairs identified by our system, 75-80% were documented on the drug labels. Some of the undocumented pairs may represent previously unidentified adverse drug effects. PMID:21820083

Benton, Adrian; Ungar, Lyle; Hill, Shawndra; Hennessy, Sean; Mao, Jun; Chung, Annie; Leonard, Charles E; Holmes, John H

2011-12-01

91

Hundreds of alterations and potential drug targets to starve tumors identified  

Cancer.gov

A massive study analyzing gene expression data from 22 tumor types has identified multiple metabolic expression changes associated with cancer. The analysis, conducted by researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (home of the Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center), also identified hundreds of potential drug targets that could cut off a tumor’s fuel supply or interfere with its ability to synthesize essential building blocks. The study was published in the online edition of Nature Biotechnology.

92

City of Hope study identifies potential therapy targeting leukemia stem cells  

Cancer.gov

New research takes aim at stubborn cancer stem cells that are thought to be responsible for treatment resistance and relapse. The study, published by Cell Press in the February 14 issue of the journal Cancer Cell, provides insight into mechanisms associated with the survival of leukemia stem cells and identifies a potential therapeutic target that is specific for these dangerously persistent cells.

93

ABSTRACT Genomics and bioinformatics have the vast potential to identify genes that cause disease by investigating  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Genomics and bioinformatics have the vast potential to identify genes that cause disease by investigating whole-genome databases. Comparison of an individual's geno- type with a genomic database these metabolic profiles with genomic, expression, and proteomic databases. Application of the knowledge of indi

Hammock, Bruce D.

94

Minimizing invasive potential of Miscanthus 3 giganteus grown for bioenergy: identifying  

E-print Network

Minimizing invasive potential of Miscanthus 3 giganteus grown for bioenergy: identifying, USA Summary 1. Many species prioritized for bioenergy crop development possess traits associated of invasive spread by bioenergy crops. Our results suggest that sterile and fertile culti- vars of M. 9

Sims, Gerald K.

95

Introduction Organic feed-grain has been identified as a potentially  

E-print Network

, and issues for producers to contemplate as they consider entering the market. Organic food sales have years. While fresh fruits and vegetables constitute the largest organic food sec- tor, organic meatsIntroduction Organic feed-grain has been identified as a potentially profitable crop for Virginia

Liskiewicz, Maciej

96

POTENTIAL USE OF ALGAE AS INDICATORS OF HYDROLOGIC PERMANENCE IN HEADWATER STREAMS: INITIAL DATA EXPLORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Periphyton from headwater intermittent streams was sampled in order to evaluate the potential use of algal assemblages as indicators of flow permanence. Streams from four forests near Cincinnati, Ohio were classified according to hydrologic permanence as ephemeral, intermittent ...

97

Drag reducing polymers as simple indicators of hemolytic potential in biomechanical devices  

E-print Network

An experimental study was carried out to determine if drag reducing polymers can be simple indicators of hemolytic potential in biomechanical devices. Specifically, three different blood pumps, known as a left ventricle ...

Shieh, Sarah

2009-01-01

98

"What is this?" Gesture as a potential cue to identify referents in discourse  

PubMed Central

This study explores whether caregivers follow the discourse-pragmatic principle of information status of referents (given vs. new) in their gestures and how children respond to their caregivers’ gestures. Chinese and American caregivers were videotaped while interacting spontaneously with their children. Their speech and gestures were coded for referential expressions. Even though Chinese caregivers gestured more often than American caregivers, we found that both groups produced more gestures when asking their children to identify new referents than when asking their children to identify given referents. In addition, both groups of children were sensitive to the gestures accompanying new referents and using these gestures to identify the referents. Thus, we conclude that gesture serves as a potential cue for both caregivers and children to identify referents according to the discourse-pragmatic principle of information status. PMID:22505785

So, Wing Chee; Lim, Jia Yi

2010-01-01

99

Development of evidence-based Australian medication-related indicators of potentially preventable hospitalisations: a modified RAND appropriateness method  

PubMed Central

Objective Indicators of potentially preventable hospitalisations have been adopted internationally as a measure of health system performance; however, few assess appropriate processes of care around medication use, that if followed may prevent hospitalisation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate evidence-based medication-related indicators of potentially preventable hospitalisations. Setting Australian primary healthcare. Participants Medical specialists, general practitioners and pharmacists. A modified RAND appropriateness method was used for the development of medication-related indicators of potentially preventable hospitalisations, which included a literature review, assessment of the strength of the supporting evidence base, an initial face and content validity by an expert panel, followed by an independent assessment of indicators by an expert clinical panel across various disciplines, using an online survey. Primary outcome measure Analysis of ratings was performed on the four key elements of preventability; the medication-related problem must be recognisable, the adverse outcomes foreseeable and the causes and outcomes identifiable and controllable. Results A total of 48 potential indicators across all major disease groupings were developed based on level III evidence or greater, that were independently assessed by 78 expert clinicians (22.1% response rate). The expert panel considered 29 of these (60.4%) sufficiently valid. Of these, 21 (72.4%) were based on level I evidence. Conclusions This study provides a set of face and content validated indicators of medication-related potentially preventable hospitalisations, linking suboptimal processes of care and medication use with subsequent hospitalisation. Further analysis is required to establish operational validity in a population-based sample, using an administrative health database. Implementation of these indicators within routine monitoring of healthcare systems will highlight those conditions where hospitalisations could potentially be avoided through improved medication management. PMID:24776711

Caughey, Gillian E; Kalisch Ellett, Lisa M; Wong, Te Ying

2014-01-01

100

Bivalves as indicators of environmental variation and potential anthropogenic impacts in the southern Barents Sea  

PubMed Central

Identifying patterns and drivers of natural variability in populations is necessary to gauge potential effects of climatic change and the expected increases in commercial activities in the Arctic on communities and ecosystems. We analyzed growth rates and shell geochemistry of the circumpolar Greenland smooth cockle, Serripes groenlandicus, from the southern Barents Sea over almost 70 years between 1882 and 1968. The datasets were calibrated via annually-deposited growth lines, and growth, stable isotope (?18O, ?13C), and trace elemental (Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn) patterns were linked to environmental variations on weekly to decadal scales. Standardized growth indices revealed an oscillatory growth pattern with a multi-year periodicity, which was inversely related to the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO), and positively related to local river discharge. Up to 60% of the annual variability in the Ba/Ca could be explained by variations in river discharge at the site closest to the rivers, but the relationship disappeared at a more distant location. Patterns of ?18O, ?13C, and Sr/Ca together provide evidence that bivalve growth ceases at elevated temperatures during the fall and recommences at the coldest temperatures in the early spring, with the implication that food, rather than temperature, is the primary driver of bivalve growth. The multi-proxy approach of combining the annually integrated information from the growth results and higher resolution geochemical results yielded a robust interpretation of biophysical coupling in the region over temporal and spatial scales. We thus demonstrate that sclerochronological proxies can be useful retrospective analytical tools for establishing a baseline of ecosystem variability in assessing potential combined impacts of climatic change and increasing commercial activities on Arctic communities. PMID:19394657

Carroll, Michael L.; Johnson, Beverly J.; Henkes, Gregory A.; McMahon, Kelton W.; Voronkov, Andrey; Ambrose, William G.; Denisenko, Stanislav G.

2009-01-01

101

Bivalves as indicators of environmental variation and potential anthropogenic impacts in the southern Barents Sea.  

PubMed

Identifying patterns and drivers of natural variability in populations is necessary to gauge potential effects of climatic change and the expected increases in commercial activities in the Arctic on communities and ecosystems. We analyzed growth rates and shell geochemistry of the circumpolar Greenland smooth cockle, Serripes groenlandicus, from the southern Barents Sea over almost 70 years between 1882 and 1968. The datasets were calibrated via annually-deposited growth lines, and growth, stable isotope (delta(18)O, delta(13)C), and trace elemental (Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn) patterns were linked to environmental variations on weekly to decadal scales. Standardized growth indices revealed an oscillatory growth pattern with a multi-year periodicity, which was inversely related to the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO), and positively related to local river discharge. Up to 60% of the annual variability in Ba/Ca could be explained by variations in river discharge at the site closest to the rivers, but the relationship disappeared at a more distant location. Patterns of delta(18)O, delta(13)C, and Sr/Ca together provide evidence that bivalve growth ceases at elevated temperatures during the fall and recommences at the coldest temperatures in the early spring, with the implication that food, rather than temperature, is the primary driver of bivalve growth. The multi-proxy approach of combining the annually integrated information from the growth results and higher resolution geochemical results yielded a robust interpretation of biophysical coupling in the region over temporal and spatial scales. We thus demonstrate that sclerochronological proxies can be useful retrospective analytical tools for establishing a baseline of ecosystem variability in assessing potential combined impacts of climatic change and increasing commercial activities on Arctic communities. PMID:19394657

Carroll, Michael L; Johnson, Beverly J; Henkes, Gregory A; McMahon, Kelton W; Voronkov, Andrey; Ambrose, William G; Denisenko, Stanislav G

2009-01-01

102

MGH Cancer Center team identifies potential treatment target for KRAS-mutated colon cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cancer Center have identified a new potential strategy for treating colon tumors driven by mutations in the KRAS gene, which usually resist both conventional and targeted treatments. In a paper appearing in the Feb. 17 issue of Cell, the team reports that targeting a later step in the pathway leading from KRAS activation to tumor growth may be able to halt the process.

103

Riverine threat indices to assess watershed condition and identify primary management capacity of agriculture natural resource management agencies.  

PubMed

Managers can improve conservation of lotic systems over large geographies if they have tools to assess total watershed conditions for individual stream segments and can identify segments where conservation practices are most likely to be successful (i.e., primary management capacity). The goal of this research was to develop a suite of threat indices to help agriculture resource management agencies select and prioritize watersheds across Missouri River basin in which to implement agriculture conservation practices. We quantified watershed percentages or densities of 17 threat metrics that represent major sources of ecological stress to stream communities into five threat indices: agriculture, urban, point-source pollution, infrastructure, and all non-agriculture threats. We identified stream segments where agriculture management agencies had primary management capacity. Agriculture watershed condition differed by ecoregion and considerable local variation was observed among stream segments in ecoregions of high agriculture threats. Stream segments with high non-agriculture threats were most concentrated near urban areas, but showed high local variability. 60 % of stream segments in the basin were classified as under U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) primary management capacity and most segments were in regions of high agricultural threats. NRCS primary management capacity was locally variable which highlights the importance of assessing total watershed condition for multiple threats. Our threat indices can be used by agriculture resource management agencies to prioritize conservation actions and investments based on: (a) relative severity of all threats, (b) relative severity of agricultural threats, and (c) and degree of primary management capacity. PMID:24390081

Fore, Jeffrey D; Sowa, Scott P; Galat, David L; Annis, Gust M; Diamond, David D; Rewa, Charles

2014-03-01

104

A genomic strategy for the functional validation of colorectal cancer genes identifies potential therapeutic targets  

PubMed Central

Summary/Abstract Genes that are highly overexpressed in tumor cells can be required for tumor cell survival, and have the potential to be selective therapeutic targets. In an attempt to identify such targets, we combined a functional genomics and a systems biology approach to assess the consequences of RNAi-mediated silencing of overexpressed genes that were selected from 140 gene expression profiles from colorectal cancers (CRC) and matched normal mucosa. In order to identify credible models for in-depth functional analysis, we first confirmed the overexpression of these genes in 25 different CRC cell lines. We then identified five candidate genes that profoundly reduced the viability of CRC cell lines when silenced with either siRNAs or shRNAs, i.e., HMGA1, TACSTD2, RRM2, RPS2, and NOL5A. These genes were further studied by systematic analysis of comprehensive gene expression profiles generated following siRNA-mediated silencing. Exploration of these RNAi-specific gene expression signatures allowed the identification of the functional space in which the five genes operate, and showed enrichment for cancer specific signaling pathways, some known to be involved in CRC. By comparing the expression of the RNAi signature genes with their respective expression levels in an independent set of primary rectal carcinomas we could recapitulate these defined RNAi signatures, therefore establishing the biologically relevance of our observations. This strategy identified the signaling pathways that are affected by the prominent oncogenes HMGA1 and TACSTD2, established a yet unknown link between RRM2 and PLK1, and identified RPS2 and NOL5A as promising potential therapeutic targets in CRC. PMID:20473941

Grade, Marian; Hummon, Amanda B.; Camps, Jordi; Emons, Georg; Spitzner, Melanie; Gaedcke, Jochen; Hoermann, Patrick; Ebner, Reinhard; Becker, Heinz; Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Beissbarth, Tim; Caplen, Natasha J.; Ried, Thomas

2010-01-01

105

The rotifer fauna of Argentine Patagonia as a potential limnological indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plankton samples of rivers, lakes, pools and minor water bodies were taken in the Patagonian Argentine provinces of Río Negro, Chubut, Neuquén and the Southern part of Buenos Aires. The relationship between physical and chemical characteristics of these waters and their rotifer fauna was analyzed. Sixty taxa were identified, and their value as indicators of temperature, pH, conductivity, total alkalinity

David Kuczynski; Ciencias Exactas

1987-01-01

106

Using Helicopter Electromagnetic Surveys to Identify Potential Hazards at Mine Waste Impoundments  

SciTech Connect

In July 2003, helicopter electromagnetic surveys were conducted at 14 coal waste impoundments in southern West Virginia. The purpose of the surveys was to detect conditions that could lead to impoundment failure either by structural failure of the embankment or by the flooding of adjacent or underlying mine works. Specifically, the surveys attempted to: 1) identify saturated zones within the mine waste, 2) delineate filtrate flow paths through the embankment or into adjacent strata and receiving streams, and 3) identify flooded mine workings underlying or adjacent to the waste impoundment. Data from the helicopter surveys were processed to generate conductivity/depth images. Conductivity/depth images were then spatially linked to georeferenced air photos or topographic maps for interpretation. Conductivity/depth images were found to provide a snapshot of the hydrologic conditions that exist within the impoundment. This information can be used to predict potential areas of failure within the embankment because of its ability to image the phreatic zone. Also, the electromagnetic survey can identify areas of unconsolidated slurry in the decant basin and beneath the embankment. Although shallow, flooded mineworks beneath the impoundment were identified by this survey, it cannot be assumed that electromagnetic surveys can detect all underlying mines. A preliminary evaluation of the data implies that helicopter electromagnetic surveys can provide a better understanding of the phreatic zone than the piezometer arrays that are typically used.

Hammack, R.W.

2008-01-01

107

Proton NMR Spectroscopic Studies on Tissue Extracts of Invertebrate Species with Pollution Indicator Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopic methods have been used to characterise tissue extracts of a series of common British invertebrate species with pollution indicator potential. These include two earthworm species Lumbricus rubellus (Hoffmeister) and Eisenia andrei (Savigny), two terrestrial isopods, Oniscus asellus (L.) and Porcellio scaber (Latreille), the diplopodous arthropod, Glomeris marginata (Villers) and a pulmonate

J. O. T Gibb; E Holmes; J. K Nicholson

1997-01-01

108

Terrestrial Evaporite Analogues for Identifying Extremophiles (Past or Present) from Potential Mars Evaporites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An understanding of terrestrial evaporite microbial biota, their markers and fossilization processes is important for identifying potential present or past life signs from extraterrestrial sources such as Mars meteorites and Mars sample return. Storrs Lake, San Salvador Island, Bahamas, Mono Lake, California and the Dead Sea, Israel represent marine and nonmarine sites for comparative investigative studies of potential Mars analogues. Variations between the sites can be attributed to salinity, pH, water chemistry, and seasonal temperature changes, all of which can affect microbial abundance, fossilization, and mineral formation. Storr's Lake, located at sea level, pH 8, salinity averaging 7 g/l. has extensive stromatolitic structures0 composed of biofilm, rods, filaments, cocci and diatoms. The fossilized organic remains are generally composed of magnesium enriched calcium carbonate. Mono Lake is 2100 meters above sea level, pH and salinity are similar to Storr's Lake, and it has various evaporite and carbonate deposits including tufa structures that vary in height from less than 1 meter to over 4 meters. Algae, cyanobacteria, diatoms, and other microbial forms are present and contribute to t e formation of evaporiteh deposits including tufas. The Dead Sea is 400 m below sea level, pH 6.3 in the upper water mass, salinity averaging 229.9 g/l, and possesses extensive salt deposits with scant evidence of microbial fossilization as large carbonate structures such as tufas and stromatolites are absent. Modern investigative tools can identify microbes from all of these environments, but confirming the presence of fossilized microbes and their biomarkers subsequent to burial and lithification is more difficult. The goal of this study is to identify these biomarkers and test their suitability for identifying extraterrestrial microbial remains.

Morris, P.; Wentworth, S.; Byrne, M.; Nelman, M.; Longazo, T.; Allen, C.; Brigmon, R.; McKay, D.

109

Mass General study identifies potential treatment target in an animal model of pancreatic cancer  

Cancer.gov

Detailed analysis of genes expressed in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) -- cells that break off from solid tumors and travel through the bloodstream -- has identified a potential treatment target in metastatic pancreatic cancer. In a report that will appear in Nature and has received advance online publication, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cancer Center investigators describe finding increased expression of WNT2, a member of a known family of oncogenes, in CTCs from a mouse model of the deadly tumor and from human patients. The Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center is made up of seven member institutions, including Massachusetts General Hospital.

110

Accuracy of a screening instrument to identify potential child abuse in emergency departments.  

PubMed

Although screening for child abuse at emergency departments (EDs) increases the detection rate of potential child abuse, an accurate instrument is lacking. This study was designed to measure the accuracy of a screening instrument for detection of potential child abuse used in EDs. In a prospective cohort study at three Dutch EDs, a 6-item screening instrument for child abuse, Escape, was completed for each child visiting the ED. The data from the completed Escape instrument was used to calculate sensitivity, specificity, and the positive/negative predictive value per item. The clinical notes and conclusions of the screen instruments of all potentially abused children reported to the hospitals' Child Abuse Teams were collected and reviewed by an expert panel. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the predictors of potential abuse. Completed Escape instruments were available for 18,275 ED visits. Forty-four of the 420 children with a positive screening result, and 11 of the 17,855 children with a negative result were identified as potentially abused. Sensitivity of the Escape instrument was 0.80 and specificity was 0.98. Univariate logistic regression showed that potentially abused children were significantly more likely to have had an aberrant answer to at least one of the items, OR=189.8, 95% CI [97.3, 370.4]. Most of the children at high risk for child abuse were detected through screening. The Escape instrument is a useful tool for ED staff to support the identification of those at high risk for child abuse. PMID:24325939

Louwers, Eveline C F M; Korfage, Ida J; Affourtit, Marjo J; Ruige, Madelon; van den Elzen, Annette P M; de Koning, Harry J; Moll, Henriëtte A

2014-07-01

111

Indications and potential sources of change in sand transport in the Brazos River, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Changes in the capacity of the Brazos River to transport sand can be identified within the context of Lane?s relation through changes in channel geometry, changes in the characteristics of suspended loads, and changes in discharge. The Brazos River channel has been undergoing continual adjustment since the 1940s. For a discharge of 5,000 cubic feet per second, the water-surface altitude has decreased 2 to 4 feet at the Hempstead and Richmond streamflow-gaging stations between 1940 and 1995. The characteristics of suspended-sediment samples at the Richmond streamflow-gaging station have changed between the periods 1969?81 and 1982?95. The amount of sand-size sediment transported in suspension has decreased. The distribution of both daily and annual-peak discharges has changed. However, the computed annual loads of suspended sand indicate no statistically significant change in the median annual load. The transport of sand in the Brazos River depends on a complex set of factors, most of which are continually changing. Potential sources of change in sand transport in the Brazos River include the effects of reservoir construction, changes in land use, and instream sand and gravel mining. Extensive reservoir construction in the Brazos River Basin has reduced sand transport by trapping sediment and by reducing the magnitude of peak discharges. However, reductions in sand transport associated with reservoir construction apparently are compensated for by increases associated with tributary sediment inflow and localized bank erosion. The total area of harvested acres of non-hay crops in the lower Brazos River Basin during 1924?92 decreased more than 75 percent from about 32 percent to about 8 percent of the total area. Correspondingly, erosion potential has decreased substantially. Several sand and gravel mining sites are located on the Brazos River between Hempstead and Rosharon. The quantity of sediment extracted by instream sand and gravel mining operations could represent from 11 to 25 percent of the total sand transported by the Brazos River. The effects of mining on sand transport could not be quantified.

Dunn, David D.; Raines, Timothy H.

2001-01-01

112

Potentialphilicity and potentialphobicity: Reactivity indicators for external potential changes from density functional reactivity theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In analogy to the electrophilicity, we define potentialphilicity indicators that represent energetically favorable ways to change the external potential of a molecule at fixed electron number. Similarly, we define a potentialphobicity to represent the least favorable way to change the external potential of a molecule. The resulting indicators should be useful for describing how molecular geometries change and predicting favorable and unfavorable ways for a reagent to approach a molecule. The linear response function enters plays a very important role in this approach, analogous to the role of the hardness for the electrophilicity or the hardness kernel for the Fukui function. The mathematical properties of the response function and its implications for these reactivity indicators are discussed in depth.

Liu, Shubin; Li, Tonglei; Ayers, Paul W.

2009-09-01

113

Structured methods for identifying and correcting potential human errors in space operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human performance plays a significant role in the development and operation of any complex system, and human errors are significant contributors to degraded performance, incidents, and accidents for technologies as diverse as medical systems, commercial aircraft, offshore oil platforms, nuclear power plants, and space systems. To date, serious accidents attributed to human error have fortunately been rare in space operations. However, as flight rates go up and the duration of space missions increases, the accident rate could increase unless proactive action is taken to identify and correct potential human errors in space operations. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has developed and applied structured methods of human error analysis to identify potential human errors, assess their effects on system performance, and develop strategies to prevent the errors or mitigate their consequences. These methods are being applied in NASA-sponsored programs to the domain of commercial aviation, focusing on airplane maintenance and air traffic management. The application of human error analysis to space operations could contribute to minimize the risks associated with human error in the design and operation of future space systems.

Nelson, William R.; Haney, Lon N.; Ostrom, Lee T.; Richards, Robert E.

114

Energy-optimised pharmacophore approach to identify potential hotspots during inhibition of Class II HDAC isoforms.  

PubMed

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are conjugated enzymes that modulate chromatin architecture by deacetylating lysine residues on the histone tails leading to transcriptional repression. Pharmacological interventions of these enzymes with small molecule inhibitors called Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have shown enhanced acetylation of the genome and are hence emerging as potential targets at the clinic. Type-specific inhibition of Class II HDACs has shown enhanced therapeutic benefits against developmental and neurodegenerative disorders. However, the structural identity of class-specific isoforms limits the potential of their inhibitors in precise targeting of their enzymes. Diverse strategies have been implemented to recognise the features in HDAC enzymes which may help in identifying isoform specificity factors. This work attempts a computational approach that combines in silico docking and energy-optimised pharmacophore (E-pharmacophore) mapping of 18 known HDAC inhibitors and has identified structural variations that regulate their interactions against the six Class II HDAC enzymes considered for the study. This combined approach establishes that inhibitors possessing higher number of aromatic rings in different structural regions might function as potent inhibitors, while inhibitors with scarce ring structures might point to compromised potency. This would aid the rationale for chemical optimisation and design of isoform selective HDAC inhibitors with enhanced affinity and therapeutic efficiency. PMID:24460542

Ganai, Shabir Ahmad; Shanmugam, Karthi; Mahadevan, Vijayalakshmi

2015-02-01

115

An indicator of chaos based on the equal-potential curves in 2D Hamiltonian flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove that the 2D Hamiltonian system is unstable if its potential satisfies {?2V}/{?r}>0 and some segments of equal-potential curves concave toward the origin in the physically accessible region for a given E. And we present a new indicator of chaos based on the equal-potential curves. We show that our criterion gives the results in good agreement with that of the technique of surface of section. It provides a new insight into the relationship between the geometrical picture and the instability for the 2D Hamiltonian dynamical systems. Finally we detect the chaotic behavior for some important potentials, and show our results in good agreement with the Poincaré plots and the new geometric criterion of HBLSL.

Li, Jiangdan; Zhang, Suying

2011-04-01

116

Using Market Research to Characterize College Students and Identify Potential Targets for Influencing Health Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Marketing campaigns, such as those developed by the tobacco industry, are based on market research, which defines segments of a population by assessing psychographic characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests). This study uses a similar approach to define market segments of college smokers, to examine differences in their health behaviors (smoking, drinking, binge drinking, exercise, diet), and to determine the validity of these segments. A total of 2,265 undergraduate students aged 18–25 years completed a 108-item online survey in fall 2008 assessing demographic, psychographic (i.e., attitudes, interests), and health-related variables. Among the 753 students reporting past 30-day smoking, cluster analysis was conducted using 21 psychographic questions and identified three market segments – Stoic Individualists, Responsible Traditionalists, and Thrill-Seeking Socializers. We found that segment membership was related to frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, and limiting dietary fat. We then developed three messages targeting each segment and conducted message testing to validate the segments on a subset of 73 smokers representing each segment in spring 2009. As hypothesized, each segment indicated greater relevance and salience for their respective message. These findings indicate that identifying qualitatively different subgroups of young adults through market research may inform the development of engaging interventions and health campaigns targeting college students.

Berg, Carla J.; Ling, Pamela M.; Guo, Hongfei; Windle, Michael; Thomas, Janet L.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; An, Lawrence C.

2013-01-01

117

Leveraging Concept-based Approaches to Identify Potential Phyto-therapies  

PubMed Central

The potential of plant-based remedies has been documented in both traditional and contemporary biomedical literature. Such types of text sources may thus be sources from which one might identify potential plant-based therapies (“phyto-therapies”). Concept-based analytic approaches have been shown to uncover knowledge embedded within biomedical literature. However, to date there has been limited attention towards leveraging such techniques for the identification of potential phyto-therapies. This study presents concept-based analytic approaches for the retrieval and ranking of associations between plants and human diseases. Focusing on identification of phyto-therapies described in MEDLINE, both MeSH descriptors used for indexing and MetaMap inferred UMLS concepts are considered. Furthermore, the identification and ranking consider both direct (i.e., plant concepts directly correlated with disease concepts) and inferred (i.e., plant concepts associated with disease concepts based on shared signs and symptoms) relationships. Based on the two scoring methodologies used in this study, it was found that a vector space model approach outperformed probabilistic reliability based inferences. An evaluation of the approach is provided based on therapeutic interventions catalogued in both ClinicalTrials.gov and NDF-RT. The promising findings from this feasibility study highlight the challenges and applicability of concept-based analytic strategies for distilling phyto-therapeutic knowledge from text based knowledge sources like MEDLINE. PMID:23665360

Sharma, Vivekanand; Sarkar, Indra Neil

2013-01-01

118

Development of biological indices for identifying and evaluating impacts of pollutants on freshwater ecosystems. Final report, June 1975-October 1980  

SciTech Connect

The ten Research Areas reported included: (1) the development of functional indices for identifying and evaluating impacts of pollutants on Aufwuchs communities, (2) relationship of protozoan colonization rates to the eutrophication process, (3) testing of methods to determine the functioning of zooplankton communities subjected to entrainment stress, (4) the use of the first steps of detritus processing (microbial decomposition) as a technique for assessing pollutional stress on aquatic communities in a river system, (5) relationship of protozoan invasion and extinction rate to the eutrophication process, (6) extension of present early colonization studies to the simultaneous evaluation of natural environmental parameters and power plant effluents and application of the early colonization approach to microbial communities in streams of the New River drainage, (7) testing of single species-community responses of protozoans from selected heavy metals, (8) the effects of selected power plant pollutants on grazer utilization of Aufwuchs, (9) investigation of bioconcentration and bioaccumulation mechanisms of the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) populations in field artificial streams and laboratory microcosms with reference to physical chemistry and diet alterations, and (10) investigation of the homeostatic regulation in bluegill sunfish following acute hypothermal shock and to other power plant related effluents.

Cairns, J. Jr.; Cherry, D.S.

1980-09-30

119

Potential Coastal Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage Locations Identified using GIS-based Topographic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale electrical energy storage could accommodate variable, weather dependent energy resources such as wind and solar. Pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHS) and compressed energy storage area (CAES) have life cycle energy and financial costs that are an order of magnitude lower than conventional electrochemical storage technologies. However PHS and CAES storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Conventional PHS requires an upper and lower reservoir separated by at least 100 m of head, but no more than 10 km in horizontal distance. Conventional PHS also impacts fresh water supplies, riparian ecosystems, and hydrologic environments. A PHS facility that uses the ocean as the lower reservoir benefits from a smaller footprint, minimal freshwater impact, and the potential to be located near off shore wind resources and population centers. Although technologically nascent, today one coastal PHS facility exists. The storage potential for coastal PHS is unknown. Can coastal PHS play a significant role in augmenting future power grids with a high faction of renewable energy supply? In this study we employ GIS-based topographic analysis to quantify the coastal PHS potential of several geographic locations, including California, Chile and Peru. We developed automated techniques that seek local topographic minima in 90 m spatial resolution shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) digital elevation models (DEM) that satisfy the following criteria conducive to PHS: within 10 km from the sea; minimum elevation 150 m; maximum elevation 1000 m. Preliminary results suggest the global potential for coastal PHS could be very significant. For example, in northern Chile we have identified over 60 locations that satisfy the above criteria. Two of these locations could store over 10 million cubic meters of water or several GWh of energy. We plan to report a global database of candidate coastal PHS locations and to estimate their energy storage capacity.

Parsons, R.; Barnhart, C. J.; Benson, S. M.

2013-12-01

120

Ecosystem greenspots: identifying potential drought, fire, and climate-change micro-refuges.  

PubMed

In response to climate change and other threatening processes there is renewed interest in the role of refugia and refuges. In bioregions that experience drought and fire, micro-refuges can play a vital role in ensuring the persistence of species. We develop and apply an approach to identifying potential micro-refuges based on a time series of remotely sensed vegetation greenness (fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by the sunlit canopy; fPAR). The primary data for this analysis were NASA MODIS 16-day L3 Global 250 m (MOD13Q1) satellite imagery. This method draws upon relevant ecological theory (source sink habitats, habitat templet) to calculate a micro-refuge index, which is analyzed for each of the major vegetation ecosystems in the case-study region (the Great Eastern Ranges of New South Wales, Australia). Potential ecosystem greenspots were identified, at a range of thresholds, based on an index derived from: the mean and coefficient of variance (COV) of fPAR over the 10-year time series; the minimum mean annual fPAR; and the COV of the 12 values of mean monthly fPAR. These greenspots were mapped and compared with (1) an index of vascular plant species composition, (2) environmental variables, and (3) protected areas. Potential micro-refuges were found within all vegetation ecosystem types. The total area of ecosystem greenspots within the upper 25% threshold was 48 406 ha; around 0.2% of the total area of native vegetation (23.9 x 10(6) ha) in the study region. The total area affected by fire was 3.4 x 10(6) ha. The results of the environmental diagnostic analysis suggest deterministic controls on the geographical distribution of potential micro-refuges that may continue to function under climate change. The approach is relevant to other regions of the world where the role of micro-refuges in the persistence of species is recognized, including across the world's arid zones and, in particular, for the Australian, southern African, and South American continents. Micro-refuge networks may play an important role in maintaining beta-diversity at the bio-region scale and contribute to the stability, resilience, and adaptive capacity of ecosystems in the face of ever-growing pressures from human-forced climate change, land use, and other threatening processes. PMID:23092021

Mackey, Brendan; Berry, Sandra; Hugh, Sonia; Ferrier, Simon; Harwood, Thomas D; Williams, Kristen J

2012-09-01

121

Integrative molecular profiling of triple negative breast cancers identifies amplicon drivers and potential therapeutic targets  

PubMed Central

Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) have a relatively poor prognosis and cannot be effectively treated with current targeted therapies. We searched for genes that have the potential to be therapeutic targets by identifying genes consistently over-expressed when amplified. Fifty-six TNBCs were subjected to high-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH), of which 24 were subjected to genome-wide gene expression analysis. TNBCs were genetically heterogeneous; no individual focal amplification was present at high frequency, although 78.6% of TNBCs harboured at least one focal amplification. Integration of aCGH and expression data revealed 40 genes significantly overexpressed when amplified, including the known oncogenes and potential therapeutic targets, FGFR2 (10q26.3), BUB3 (10q26.3), RAB20 (13q34), PKN1 (19p13.12), and NOTCH3 (19p13.12). We identified two TNBC cell lines with FGFR2 amplification, which both had constitutive activation of FGFR2. Amplified cell lines were highly sensitive to FGFR inhibitor PD173074, and to RNAi silencing of FGFR2. Treatment with PD173074 induced apoptosis resulting partly from inhibition of PI3K-AKT signalling. Independent validation using publicly available aCGH datasets revealed FGFR2 gene was amplified in 4% (6/165) of TNBC, but not in other subtypes (0/214, p=0.0065). Our analysis demonstrates that TNBCs are heterogeneous tumours with amplifications of FGFR2 in a subgroup of tumours. PMID:20101236

Turner, Nicholas; Lambros, Maryou B; Horlings, Hugo M.; Pearson, Alex; Sharpe, Rachel; Natrajan, Rachael; Geyer, Felipe C; van Kouwenhove, Marieke; Kreike, Bas; Mackay, Alan; Ashworth, Alan; van de Vijver, Marc J; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

2009-01-01

122

The Potential of Metatranscriptomics for Identifying Screening Targets for Bacterial Vaginosis  

PubMed Central

Background The ribosomal RNA content of a sample collected from a woman with bacterial vaginosis (BV) was analysed to determine the active microbial community, and to identify potential targets for further screening. Methodology/Principal Findings The sample from the BV patient underwent total RNA extraction, followed by physical subtraction of human rRNA and whole transcriptome amplification. The metatranscriptome was sequenced using Roche 454 titanium chemistry. The bioinformatics pipeline MG-RAST and desktop DNA analysis platforms were utilised to analyse results. Bacteria of the genus Prevotella (predominately P. amnii) constituted 36% of the 16S rRNA reads, followed by Megasphaera (19%), Leptotrichia/Sneathia (8%) and Fusobacterium (8%). Comparison of the abundances of several bacteria to quantitative PCR (qPCR) screening of extracted DNA revealed comparable relative abundances. This suggests a correlation between what was present and transcriptionally active in this sample: however distinct differences were seen when compared to the microbiome determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. To assess the presence of P. amnii in a larger pool of samples, 90 sexually active women were screened using qPCR. This bacterium was found to be strongly associated with BV (P<0.001, OR 23.3 (95%CI:2.9–190.7)) among the 90 women. Conclusions/Significance This study highlighted the potential of metatranscriptomics as a tool for characterising metabolically active microbiota and identifying targets for further screening. Prevotella amnii was chosen as an example target, being the most metabolically active species present in the single patient with BV, and was found to be detected at a high concentration by qPCR in 31% of cohort with BV, with an association with both oral and penile-vaginal sex. PMID:24086764

Twin, Jimmy; Bradshaw, Catriona S.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Fethers, Katherine; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.

2013-01-01

123

Mass spectrometry based metabolomics to identify potential biomarkers for resistance in barley against fusarium head blight (Fusarium graminearum).  

PubMed

Resistance in Triticeae to fusarium head blight (FHB) is quantitatively inherited. Metabolomics as a tool was used to better understand the mechanisms of resistance and to identify potential FHB resistance biomarker metabolites in barley. Five FHB-resistant two-row barley genotypes (CIho 4196, Zhedar-1, Zhedar-2, Fredrickson, and Harbin-2r) and one FHB-susceptible genotype (CH 9520-30) were each inoculated with either pathogen-suspension or mock-solution. Disease severity, quantified as the proportion of spikelets diseased, varied among genotypes, being the greatest in CH 9520-30. Spikelets were sampled, metabolites extracted with aqueous methanol, and analyzed using an LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap system. A pair wise, resistant vs. susceptible, t-test identified 1774 significant treatment peaks. Canonical discriminant analysis of peak abundance allowed the genotypes to be sorted into three clusters: (i) CH9520-30, (ii) Harbin-2r, (iii) the remaining four genotypes. The t-test was further used to identify resistance-related (RR) and pathogenesis-related (PR) metabolites. The pathogen-produced virulence factor deoxynivalenol (DON), and its detoxification product, DON-3-O-glucoside (D3G) were designated as resistance indicator (RI) metabolites. Metabolites (RR, PR, or RI) occurring in at least two resistant genotypes, showing a two-fold or greater abundance in resistant vs. susceptible lines, and also known to have plant defense functions were selected as potential FHB resistance biomarker metabolites. These included phenylalanine, p-coumaric acid, jasmonate, linolenic acid, total DON produced (TDP), and the proportion of DON converted to D3G (PDC). Total DON was the lowest in CIho 4196, while PDC was the highest in Zhedar-2. The application of RR, PR, and RI metabolites as potential biomarkers to enhance resistance is discussed. PMID:21701847

Kumaraswamy, Kenchappa G; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C; Choo, Thin M; Dion, Yves; Rioux, Sylvie

2011-08-01

124

Identifying At-Risk Employees: Modeling Psychosocial Precursors of Potential Insider Threats  

SciTech Connect

In many insider crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they can be assessed. A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employee's behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. To test the model's agreement with human resources and management professionals, we conducted an experiment with positive results. If implemented in an operational setting, the model would be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment to identify employees who pose a greater insider threat.

Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Dalton, Angela C.; Hohimer, Ryan E.

2012-01-04

125

Identifying potential misfit items in cognitive process of learning engineering mathematics based on Rasch model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The students learning outcomes clarify what students should know and be able to demonstrate after completing their course. So, one of the issues on the process of teaching and learning is how to assess students' learning. This paper describes an application of the dichotomous Rasch measurement model in measuring the cognitive process of engineering students' learning of mathematics. This study provides insights into the perspective of 54 engineering students' cognitive ability in learning Calculus III based on Bloom's Taxonomy on 31 items. The results denote that some of the examination questions are either too difficult or too easy for the majority of the students. This analysis yields FIT statistics which are able to identify if there is data departure from the Rasch theoretical model. The study has identified some potential misfit items based on the measurement of ZSTD where the removal misfit item was accomplished based on the MNSQ outfit of above 1.3 or less than 0.7 logit. Therefore, it is recommended that these items be reviewed or revised to better match the range of students' ability in the respective course.

Ataei, Sh; Mahmud, Z.; Khalid, M. N.

2014-04-01

126

Omen: identifying potential spear-phishing targets before the email is sent.  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a two year project focused on a common social engineering attack method called %22spear phishing%22. In a spear phishing attack, the user receives an email with information specifically focused on the user. This email contains either a malware-laced attachment or a link to download the malware that has been disguised as a useful program. Spear phishing attacks have been one of the most effective avenues for attackers to gain initial entry into a target network. This project focused on a proactive approach to spear phishing. To create an effective, user-specific spear phishing email, the attacker must research the intended recipient. We believe that much of the information used by the attacker is provided by the target organization's own external website. Thus when researching potential targets, the attacker leaves signs of his research in the webserver's logs. We created tools and visualizations to improve cybersecurity analysts' abilities to quickly understand a visitor's visit patterns and interests. Given these suspicious visitors and log-parsing tools, analysts can more quickly identify truly suspicious visitors, search for potential spear-phishing targeted users, and improve security around those users before the spear phishing email is sent.

Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

2013-07-01

127

Network Analysis Identifies SOD2 mRNA as a Potential Biomarker for Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence indicates that Parkinson's disease (PD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) share dysregulated molecular networks. We identified 84 genes shared between PD and T2DM from curated disease-gene databases. Nitric oxide biosynthesis, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, insulin secretion and inflammation were identified as common dysregulated pathways. A network prioritization approach was implemented to rank genes according to their distance to seed genes and their involvement in common biological pathways. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays revealed that a highly ranked gene, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), is upregulated in PD patients compared to healthy controls in 192 whole blood samples from two independent clinical trials, the Harvard Biomarker Study (HBS) and the Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers in Parkinson's disease (PROBE). The results from this study reinforce the idea that shared molecular networks between PD and T2DM provides an additional source of biologically meaningful biomarkers. Evaluation of this biomarker in de novo PD patients and in a larger prospective longitudinal study is warranted. PMID:25279756

Santiago, Jose A.; Scherzer, Clemens R.; Potashkin, Judith A.

2014-01-01

128

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jj of... - List of VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false List of VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJ...Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJ of Part 63—List of VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry CAS No. Chemical...

2011-07-01

129

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jj of... - List of VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJ...Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJ of Part 63—List of VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry CAS No. Chemical...

2010-07-01

130

Predicting Fish Growth Potential and Identifying Water Quality Constraints: A Spatially-Explicit Bioenergetics Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic impairment of water bodies represents a global environmental concern, yet few attempts have successfully linked fish performance to thermal habitat suitability and fewer have distinguished co-varying water quality constraints. We interfaced fish bioenergetics, field measurements, and Thermal Remote Imaging to generate a spatially-explicit, high-resolution surface of fish growth potential, and next employed a structured hypothesis to detect relationships among measures of fish performance and co-varying water quality constraints. Our thermal surface of fish performance captured the amount and spatial-temporal arrangement of thermally-suitable habitat for three focal species in an extremely heterogeneous reservoir, but interpretation of this pattern was initially confounded by seasonal covariation of water residence time and water quality. Subsequent path analysis revealed that in terms of seasonal patterns in growth potential, catfish and walleye responded to temperature, positively and negatively, respectively; crappie and walleye responded to eutrophy (negatively). At the high eutrophy levels observed in this system, some desired fishes appear to suffer from excessive cultural eutrophication within the context of elevated temperatures whereas others appear to be largely unaffected or even enhanced. Our overall findings do not lead to the conclusion that this system is degraded by pollution; however, they do highlight the need to use a sensitive focal species in the process of determining allowable nutrient loading and as integrators of habitat suitability across multiple spatial and temporal scales. We provide an integrated approach useful for quantifying fish growth potential and identifying water quality constraints on fish performance at spatial scales appropriate for whole-system management.

Budy, Phaedra; Baker, Matthew; Dahle, Samuel K.

2011-10-01

131

Identifying remote paleoclimate proxies with potential for inferring long-term hydroclimatic variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in the collection and analysis of paleoclimate information have allowed insights into historical environmental events and processes prior to the availability of instrumental records, enabling greater understanding of long-term environmental change and associated hydroclimatic risks. However, there is still currently a lack of paleoclimate information in many areas where such insights and long-term data are crucial (Gell et al., 2009). The Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), Australia's 'food bowl', is a prime example of this, where currently there is very limited in situ proxy data available. To date, only three studies have attempted to incorporate paleoclimate archives in the investigation of long-term hydroclimatic variability in the MDB (Gallant and Gergis, 2011, Verdon and Franks, 2007, McGowan et al., 2009). These studies utilized existing remote paleoclimate proxies of large-scale climate mechanisms (such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation) to infer MDB hydroclimatic variability, but there is a lack of studies that identify key land-based Australian regions that could be used to inform pre-instrumental MDB hydroclimatic reconstructions within the Common Era. This study identifies key locations where paleoclimate information that currently exists within Australia is most useful for expanding long-term knowledge of MDB hydroclimatology. Regions where the future collection and interpretation of as yet unrealized paleoclimate archives that are of greatest value are also identified. To pinpoint the crucial existing or potential paleoclimate proxy locations, rainfall relationships between the MDB and remote locations within Australia have been explored through correlations and principal component analysis (Jolliffe, 2002) using both the Australian High Quality gauged rainfall network (Lavery et al., 1997) and the Australian Water Availability Project interpolated gridded dataset (Jones et al., 2007). The rainfall-rainfall relationship fields were then overlain by locations of known proxy records in order to assess each record's contribution to the overall variability of MDB rainfall, as well as highlight regions where strong relationships exist and paleoclimate sources have yet to be explored. An objective analysis using optimal interpolation (Evans et al., 1998) is currently being investigated to identify the most strategic locations and quantify the benefit of obtaining and analyzing additional paleoclimate information. While this study focuses on the MDB and Australian paleoclimate archives, the techniques used could be applied to any region that currently lacks extensive instrumental records, paleoclimate proxy records or both. This would enable improved assessments of long-term interannual to multidecadal hydroclimatic risks.

Ho, M. W.; Verdon-Kidd, D. C.; Kiem, A.; Drysdale, R.

2012-12-01

132

An Empirical Comparison of Key Statistical Attributes Among Potential ICU Quality Indicators*  

PubMed Central

Objective Good quality indicators should have face validity, relevance to patients, and be able to be measured reliably. Beyond these general requirements, good quality indicators should also have certain statistical properties, including sufficient variability to identify poor performers, relative insensitivity to severity adjustment, and the ability to capture what providers do rather than patients' characteristics. We assessed the performance of candidate indicators of ICU quality on these criteria. Indicators included ICU readmission, mortality, several length of stay outcomes, and the processes of venous-thromboembolism and stress ulcer prophylaxis provision. Design Retrospective cohort study Setting One hundred thirty-eight U.S. ICUs from 2001-2008 in the Project IMPACT database. Patients Two hundred sixty-eight thousand eight hundred twenty-four patients discharged from U.S. ICUs. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results We assessed indicators' (1) variability across ICU-years; (2) degree of influence by patient vs. ICU and hospital characteristics using the Omega statistic; (3) sensitivity to severity adjustment by comparing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) between models including vs. excluding patient variables, and (4) correlation between risk adjusted quality indicators using a Spearman correlation. Large ranges of among-ICU variability were noted for all quality indicators, particularly for prolonged length of stay (4.7–71.3%) and the proportion of patients discharged home (30.6–82.0%), and ICU and hospital characteristics outweighed patient characteristics for stress ulcer prophylaxis (?, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.34–0.54), venous thromboembolism prophylaxis (?, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.53–0.61), and ICU readmissions (?, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52–0.90). Mortality measures were the most sensitive to severity adjustment (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve % difference, 29.6%); process measures were the least sensitive (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve % differences: venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, 3.4%; stress ulcer prophylaxis, 2.1%). None of the 10 indicators was clearly and consistently correlated with a majority of the other nine indicators. Conclusions No indicator performed optimally across assessments. Future research should seek to define and operationalize quality in a way that is relevant to both patients and providers. PMID:24717464

Brown, Sydney E. S.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Halpern, Scott D.

2014-01-01

133

A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Potential Susceptibility Loci for Hirschsprung Disease  

PubMed Central

Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital and heterogeneous disorder characterized by the absence of intramural nervous plexuses along variable lengths of the hindgut. Although RET is a well-established risk factor, a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HSCR has identified NRG1 as an additional susceptibility locus. To discover additional risk loci, we performed a GWAS of 123 sporadic HSCR patients and 432 unaffected controls using a large-scale platform with coverage of over 1 million polymorphic markers. The result was that our study replicated the findings of RET-CSGALNACT2-RASGEF1A genomic region (rawP?=?5.69×10?19 before a Bonferroni correction; corrP?=?4.31×10?13 after a Bonferroni correction) and NRG1 as susceptibility loci. In addition, this study identified SLC6A20 (adjP?=?2.71×10?6), RORA (adjP?=?1.26×10?5), and ABCC9 (adjP?=?1.86×10?5) as new potential susceptibility loci under adjusting the already known loci on the RET-CSGALNACT2-RASGEF1A and NRG1 regions, although none of the SNPs in these genes passed the Bonferroni correction. In further subgroup analysis, the RET-CSGALNACT2-RASGEF1A genomic region was observed to have different significance levels among subgroups: short-segment (S-HSCR, corrP?=?1.71×10?5), long-segment (L-HSCR, corrP?=?6.66×10?4), and total colonic aganglionosis (TCA, corrP>0.05). This differential pattern in the significance level suggests that other genomic loci or mechanisms may affect the length of aganglionosis in HSCR subgroups during enteric nervous system (ENS) development. Although functional evaluations are needed, our findings might facilitate improved understanding of the mechanisms of HSCR pathogenesis. PMID:25310821

Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Sul, Jae Hoon; Seo, Jeong-Meen; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Oh, Jung-Tak; Park, Kwi-Won; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jung, Soo-Min; Jung, Kyuwhan; Cho, Min Jeng; Bae, Joon Seol; Shin, Hyoung Doo

2014-01-01

134

Cheap and nasty? The potential perils of using management costs to identify global conservation priorities.  

PubMed

The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity. PMID:24260502

McCreless, Erin; Visconti, Piero; Carwardine, Josie; Wilcox, Chris; Smith, Robert J

2013-01-01

135

Evaluating stakeholder participation in water management: intermediary outcomes as potential indicators for future resource management outcomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of participation programmes, projects and activities is essential to identify whether stakeholder involvement has been successful in achieving its aims. Aims may include an improvement in water resource management such as enhanced ecological functioning, an improvement in human wellbeing and economic conditions, or overcoming a conflict between interest groups. Evaluating against "interest-based" resource management criteria requires that a desirable outcome can be identified, agreed upon and be measured at the time of evaluation. In many water management situations where collaborative approaches are applied, multiple interests and objectives are present, or stakeholders have not yet identified their own positions and priorities. Even if a resource management objective has been identified and strategy agreed upon, resource management changes tend to emerge over longer timescales and evaluation frequently takes place before they can be recognised. Evaluating against resource management criteria may lead evaluators to conclude that a programme has failed because it has not achieved a resource management objective at the time of evaluation. This presents a critical challenge to researchers assessing the effectiveness of stakeholder participation programmes. One strategy to overcome this is to conduct "goal-free" evaluation to identify what the programme is actually achieving. An evaluation framework that includes intermediary outcomes that are both tangible achievements such as innovation, creation of new organisations, and shared information and knowledge, as well as intangible achievements such as trust and network development can be applied to more broadly assess a programme's success. Analysis of case-studies in the published literature for which a resource management outcome has been achieved shows that intermediary outcomes frequently precede resource management outcomes. They seem to emerge over shorter timescales than resource management outcomes. Furthermore, failure to achieve intermediary outcomes correlates to failure to achieve resource management outcomes. Evaluating intermediary outcomes leads to both a broader assessment of a programme's achievements at the time of evaluation, and can indicate whether a programme will go on to achieve resource management objectives in the future.

Carr, Gemma; Bloeschl, Guenter; Loucks, Daniel Pete

2013-04-01

136

Determining potential indicators of Cryptosporidium oocysts throughout the wastewater treatment process.  

PubMed

Most research on wastewater treatment efficiency compliance focuses on physicochemical and microbial indicators; however, very little emphasis has been placed so far on determining suitable indicator organisms to predict the discharge level of pathogens from treatment plants. In this study, raw wastewater, activated sludge, and the resulting final effluents and biosolids in four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs A, B, C and D) were seasonally investigated for human-virulent water-borne pathogens Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis and Giardia duodenalis, and microsporidia (e.g. Encephalitozoon hellem, E. intestinalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi) between 2008 and 2009. A suite of potential microbial indicators for human-virulent protozoa and microsporidia was also determined. A combination of multiple fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunofluorescent antibody assays were applied to detect Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts, and microsporidian spores. Escherichia coli, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens spores were cultivated in selective media. Positive correlations were found between the abundance of enterococci and E. coli and abundance of Cryptosporidium oocysts (r(s) > 0.47, p < 0.01) and Giardia cysts (r(s) > 0.44, p < 0.01) at WWTPs A-D. Cryptosporidium perfringens spores were positively correlated to Cryptosporidium oocysts (r(s) = 0.40, p < 0.01) and Giardia cysts (r(s) = 0.46, p < 0.01). There was a strong positive correlation between abundance of Giardia cysts and that of Cryptosporidium oocysts (r(s) > 0.89, p < 0.01). To sum up, a suite of faecal indicator bacteria can be used as indicators for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in these activated-sludge systems (WWTPs A, B and C). Overall, Giardia duodenalis was noted to be the best Cryptosporidium indicator for human health in the community-based influent wastewater and throughout the treatment process. PMID:22339022

Cheng, H-W A; Broaders, M A; Lucy, F E; Mastitsky, S E; Graczyk, T K

2012-01-01

137

Potential High-Temperature Shape-Memory Alloys Identified in the Ti(Ni,Pt) System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Shape memory" is a unique property of certain alloys that, when deformed (within certain strain limits) at low temperatures, will remember and recover to their original predeformed shape upon heating. It occurs when an alloy is deformed in the low-temperature martensitic phase and is then heated above its transformation temperature back to an austenitic state. As the material passes through this solid-state phase transformation on heating, it also recovers its original shape. This behavior is widely exploited, near room temperature, in commercially available NiTi alloys for connectors, couplings, valves, actuators, stents, and other medical and dental devices. In addition, there are limitless applications in the aerospace, automotive, chemical processing, and many other industries for materials that exhibit this type of shape-memory behavior at higher temperatures. But for high temperatures, there are currently no commercial shape-memory alloys. Although there are significant challenges to the development of high-temperature shape-memory alloys, at the NASA Glenn Research Center we have identified a series of alloy compositions in the Ti-Ni-Pt system that show great promise as potential high-temperature shape-memory materials.

Noebe, Ronald D.; Biles, Tiffany A.; Garg, Anita; Nathal, Michael V.

2004-01-01

138

Initial Experience in Single-Incision Transumbilical Laparoscopic Liver Resection: Indications, Potential Benefits, and Limitations  

PubMed Central

Background. Single-incision transumbilical laparoscopic liver resection (SITLLR) has been recently described in limited series. We report our experience in SITLLR and discuss the future of this approach in terms of indications, potential benefits, and limitations, with a special reference to laparoscopic liver resection (LLR). Patients and Methods. Six patients underwent SITLLR. Indications were biliary cysts (3 cases), hydatid cysts (2), and colorectal liver metastasis (1). Procedures consisted in cysts unroofing, left lateral lobectomy, pericystectomy, and wedge resection. SITLLR was performed with 11?mm reusable trocar, 10 or 5?mm 30° scopes, 10?mm ultrasound probe, curved reusable instruments, and straight disposable bipolar shears. Results. Neither conversion to open surgery nor insertion of supplementary trocars was necessary. Median laparoscopic time was 105.5 minutes and median blood loss 275?mL. Median final umbilical scar length was 1.5?cm, and median length of stay was 4 days. No early or late complications occurred. Conclusion. SITLLR remains a challenging procedure. It is feasible in highly selected patients, requiring experience in hepatobiliary and laparoscopic surgery and skills in single-incision laparoscopy. Apart from cosmetic benefit, our experience and literature review did not show significant advantages if compared with multiport LLR, underlying that specific indications remain to be established. PMID:23082044

Dapri, Giovanni; DiMarco, Livia; Cadiere, Guy-Bernard; Donckier, Vincent

2012-01-01

139

High-magnification selection of spermatozoa prior to oocyte injection: confirmed and potential indications.  

PubMed

Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) involves the use of differential interference contrast microscopy at high magnification (at least ·6300) to improve the observation of live human spermatozoa (particularly by showing sperm head vacuoles that are not necessarily seen at lower magnifications) prior to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) into the oocyte. However, a decade after IMSI’s introduction, the technique’s indications and ability to increase pregnancy and/or birth rates (relative to conventional ICSI) are subject to debate. In an attempt to clarify this debate, this work performed a systematic literature review according to the PRISMA guidelines. The PubMed database was searched from 2001 onwards with the terms ‘IMSI’, ‘MSOME’ and ‘high-magnification, sperm’. Out of 168 search results, 22 relevant studies reporting IMSI outcomes in terms of blastocyst, pregnancy, delivery and/or birth rates were selected and reviewed. The studies’ methodologies and results are described and discussed herein. In view of the scarcity of head-to-head IMSI versus ICSI studies, the only confirmed indication for IMSI is recurrent implantation failure following ICSI. All other potential indications of IMSI require further investigation. PMID:24268730

Boitrelle, F; Guthauser, B; Alter, L; Bailly, M; Bergere, M; Wainer, R; Vialard, F; Albert, M; Selva, J

2014-01-01

140

Multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning for identifying rockslide modifications: potentialities and problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heart of this research is to provide an efficient methodology for a reliable acquisition and interpretation of Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) data in the application field of landslide monitoring. In particular, rockslides, which are characterized by vertical walls of rock and by a complex morphology, are of great concern in the study. In these cases the airborne laser scanning is not able to provide useful and reliable description and the terrestrial laser scanning might be the only possible choice to obtain a good and reliable description of the geomorphology or to identify the changes occurred over time. The last purpose is still a challenging task when long distances are involved because the accurate and punctual identification of displacements is not possible due to the laser beam divergence. The final purpose of the research is a proposal of a methodology which is based on TLS technology for identifying displacements and extracting geomorphological changes. The approach is clearly based on a multi-temporal analysis which is computed on several repetitions of TLS surveys performed on the area of interest. To achieve best results and optimize the processing strategy, different methods about point clouds alignment have been tested together with algorithms both for filtering and post-processing. The case study is the Collagna Landslide that is located in the North Appennines (Reggio Emilia, Italy) on the right flank of Biola torrent. The large scale composite landslide area is made both by a wide rock slide sector and a more limited earth slide sector that, after high precipitation rates, disrupted the National Road 63 in December 2008. An integrated monitoring system is installed since 2009 and comprises both point-based technologies such as extensometers, total station and global positioning system, and also area-based technologies such as airborne laser scanner, long-range TLS and ground-based radar. This choice allows to couple the advantages of both approaches. The research focuses on TLS surveys for trying to detect displacements which might be responsible for instability. Four point clouds acquired in the last two years allow to monitor the spatial displacements of the whole slope, especially focusing on the rockslide sector. It is worth to underline an important aspect which contributes to highlight the significance of the work: the mean scanning distance is about 1.3 km. Few examples exist in literature about the use of very long-range TLS for displacements investigation. By sequentially analyzing TLS surfaces, displacement maps have been obtained for the rockslide area. Confirmation have been achieved by comparing results with movements of reflectors sited on the entire slope and continuously measured by total station. Such validation strengthens the idea that TLS has serious potentialities to be successfully used for analyzing instability. Comparing surfaces is not easy at all, thus a discussion about the encountered problems will be taken into account: any significant detail about potentialities and difficulties of the alignment strategy and the processing procedure will be given together with details about the specific algorithm implemented for filtering displacements by taking into account actual geomorphological conditions.

Castagnetti, Cristina; Bertacchini, Eleonora; Capra, Alessandro; Rivola, Riccardo

2013-04-01

141

Identifying populations potentially exposed to agricultural pesticides using remote sensing and a Geographic Information System.  

PubMed Central

Pesticides used in agriculture may cause adverse health effects among the population living near agricultural areas. However, identifying the populations most likely to be exposed is difficult. We conducted a feasibility study to determine whether satellite imagery could be used to reconstruct historical crop patterns. We used historical Farm Service Agency records as a source of ground reference data to classify a late summer 1984 satellite image into crop species in a three-county area in south central Nebraska. Residences from a population-based epidemiologic study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were located on the crop maps using a geographic information system (GIS). Corn, soybeans, sorghum, and alfalfa were the major crops grown in the study area. Eighty-five percent of residences could be located, and of these 22% had one of the four major crops within 500 m of the residence, an intermediate distance for the range of drift effects from pesticides applied in agriculture. We determined the proximity of residences to specific crop species and calculated crop-specific probabilities of pesticide use based on available data. This feasibility study demonstrated that remote sensing data and historical records on crop location can be used to create historical crop maps. The crop pesticides that were likely to have been applied can be estimated when information about crop-specific pesticide use is available. Using a GIS, zones of potential exposure to agricultural pesticides and proximity measures can be determined for residences in a study. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10622770

Ward, M H; Nuckols, J R; Weigel, S J; Maxwell, S K; Cantor, K P; Miller, R S

2000-01-01

142

Immunoproteomically identified GBAA_0345, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C is a potential target for multivalent anthrax vaccine.  

PubMed

Anthrax is caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which has been used as a weapon for bioterrorism. Although current vaccines are effective, they involve prolonged dose regimens and often cause adverse reactions. High rates of mortality associated with anthrax have made the development of an improved vaccine a top priority. To identify novel vaccine candidates, we applied an immunoproteomics approach. Using sera from convalescent guinea pigs or from human patients with anthrax, we identified 34 immunogenic proteins from the virulent B. anthracis H9401. To evaluate vaccine candidates, six were expressed as recombinant proteins and tested in vivo. Two proteins, rGBAA_0345 (alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C) and rGBAA_3990 (malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase), have afforded guinea pigs partial protection from a subsequent virulent-spore challenge. Moreover, combined vaccination with rGBAA_0345 and rPA (protective antigen) exhibited an enhanced ability to protect against anthrax mortality. Finally, we demonstrated that GBAA_0345 localizes to anthrax spores and bacilli. Our results indicate that rGBAA_0345 may be a potential component of a multivalent anthrax vaccine, as it enhances the efficacy of rPA vaccination. This is the first time that sera from patients with anthrax have been used to interrogate the proteome of virulent B. anthracis vegetative cells. PMID:24273028

Kim, Yeon Hee; Kim, Kyung Ae; Kim, Yu-Ri; Choi, Min Kyung; Kim, Hye Kyeong; Choi, Ki Ju; Chun, Jeong-Hoon; Cha, Kiweon; Hong, Kee-Jong; Lee, Na Gyong; Yoo, Cheon-Kwon; Oh, Hee-Bok; Kim, Tae Sung; Rhie, Gi-eun

2014-01-01

143

Identifying Chemicals with Potential Therapy of HIV Based on Protein-Protein and Protein-Chemical Interaction Network  

PubMed Central

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a severe infectious disease that causes a large number of deaths every year. Traditional anti-AIDS drugs directly targeting the HIV-1 encoded enzymes including reverse transcriptase (RT), protease (PR) and integrase (IN) usually suffer from drug resistance after a period of treatment and serious side effects. In recent years, the emergence of numerous useful information of protein-protein interactions (PPI) in the HIV life cycle and related inhibitors makes PPI a new way for antiviral drug intervention. In this study, we identified 26 core human proteins involved in PPI between HIV-1 and host, that have great potential for HIV therapy. In addition, 280 chemicals that interact with three HIV drugs targeting human proteins can also interact with these 26 core proteins. All these indicate that our method as presented in this paper is quite promising. The method may become a useful tool, or at least plays a complementary role to the existing method, for identifying novel anti-HIV drugs. PMID:23762317

Chen, Lei; Wei, Ze-Jun; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Min; Lu, Jing; Zheng, Ming-Yue; Kong, Xiang-Yin; Cai, Yu-Dong

2013-01-01

144

Dipole potentials indicate restructuring of the membrane interface induced by gadolinium and beryllium ions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dipole component of the membrane boundary potential, phi(d), is an integral parameter that may report on the conformational state of the lipid headgroups and their hydration. In this work, we describe an experimental approach to measurements of the dipole potential changes, Deltaphi(d), and apply it in studies of Be(2+) and Gd(3+) interactions with membranes composed of phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and their mixtures. Deltaphi(d) is determined as the difference between the changes of the total boundary potential, phi(b), measured by the IFC method in planar lipid membranes and the surface potential, phi(s), determined from the electrophoretic mobility of liposomes. The Gouy-Chapman-Stern formalism, combined with the condition of mass balance, well describes the ion equilibria for these high-affinity cations. For the adsorption of Be(2+) and Gd(3+) to PC membranes, and of Mg(2+) to PS membranes, the values of Deltaphi(b) and Deltaphi(s) are the same, indicative of no change of phi(d). Binding of Gd(3+) to PS-containing membranes induces changes of phi(d) of opposite signs depending on the density of ionized PS headgroups in the bilayer. At low density, the induced Deltaphi(d) is negative (-30 mV), consistent with the effect of dehydration of the surface. At maximal density (pure PS, neutral pH), adsorption of Be(2+) or Gd(3+) induces an increase of phi(d) of 35 or 140 mV, respectively. The onset of the strong positive dipole effect on PS membranes with Gd(3+) is observed near the zero charge point and correlates with a six-fold increase of membrane tension. The observed phenomena may reflect concerted reorientation of dipole moments of PS headgroups as a result of ion adsorption and lipid condensation. Their possible implications to in-vivo effects of these high-affinity ions are discussed.

Ermakov, Y. A.; Averbakh, A. Z.; Yusipovich, A. I.; Sukharev, S.

2001-01-01

145

Use of EMCS Recorded Data to Identify Potential Savings Due to Improved HVAC Operations & Maintenance (O&M)  

E-print Network

In most chiller and boiler central plants, the energy management and control systems (EMCS) monitor and record key operation parameters and energy production continuously. A method was developed to identify potential O&M savings by using the EMCS...

Liu, M.; Zhu, Y.; Claridge, D. E.

1996-01-01

146

Potential applications of heat and cold stress indices to sporting events.  

PubMed

Many recreational and elite athletes participate in sporting events every year. However, when these events are conducted under hostile environmental conditions, whether in cold or hot climates, the risk for environmental illnesses increases. The higher the stress, the greater is the potential for performance decrements, injuries and illnesses. The most common expected heat illnesses are heat exhaustion and heatstroke, whereas hypothermia and frostbite are the most common cold injuries. However, heat and cold stress indices can minimise the risk for environmental illnesses and dehydration by following the recommendations and guidelines which accompany these indices. Stress indices should be used by athletes, coaches and officials to prevent injury and improve safety conditions for competitors and participants in recreational activities. All participants should be made aware of warning signs, susceptibility and predisposing conditions. Coaches should be aware of their responsibility with regard to the safety of their trainees, and officials should organise and plan events at times that are likely to be of low environmental stress. However, they must also be prepared and equipped with the means necessary to reduce injuries and treat cases of collapse and environmental illnesses. The lack of a friendly, small and simple device for environmental stress assessment is probably the main reason why stress indices are not commonly used. We believe that developing a new portable heat and cold stress monitor in wristwatch format for use by those exposed to environmental stress could help in the decision making process of expected hazards caused by exercising and working in hostile environments, and might help prevent heat and cold illnesses. PMID:11708400

Moran, D S

2001-01-01

147

UCSF mouse and human studies indicate that cancer prognosis may be related to newly identified immune cell  

Cancer.gov

A newly discovered population of immune cells in tumors is associated with less severe cancer outcomes in humans, and may have therapeutic potential, according to a new UC San Francisco study of 3,600 human tumors of 12 types, as well as mouse experiments.

148

CRP identifies homeostatic immune oscillations in cancer patients: a potential treatment targeting tool?  

PubMed Central

The search for a suitable biomarker which indicates immune system responses in cancer patients has been long and arduous, but a widely known biomarker has emerged as a potential candidate for this purpose. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is an acute-phase plasma protein that can be used as a marker for activation of the immune system. The short plasma half-life and relatively robust and reliable response to inflammation, make CRP an ideal candidate marker for inflammation. The high- sensitivity test for CRP, termed Low-Reactive Protein (LRP, L-CRP or hs-CRP), measures very low levels of CRP more accurately, and is even more reliable than standard CRP for this purpose. Usually, static sampling of CRP has been used for clinical studies and these can predict disease presence or recurrence, notably for a number of cancers. We have used frequent serial L-CRP measurements across three clinical laboratories in two countries and for different advanced cancers, and have demonstrated similar, repeatable observations of a cyclical variation in CRP levels in these patients. We hypothesise that these L-CRP oscillations are part of a homeostatic immune response to advanced malignancy and have some preliminary data linking the timing of therapy to treatment success. This article reviews CRP, shows some of our data and advances the reasoning for the hypothesis that explains the CRP cycles in terms of homeostatic immune regulatory cycles. This knowledge might also open the way for improved timing of treatment(s) for improved clinical efficacy. PMID:19948067

2009-01-01

149

Conserved B-Cell Epitopes among Human Bocavirus Species Indicate Potential Diagnostic Targets  

PubMed Central

Background Human bocavirus species 1–4 (HBoV1–4) have been associated with respiratory and enteric infections in children. However, the immunological mechanisms in response to HBoV infections are not fully understood. Though previous studies have shown cross-reactivities between HBoV species, the epitopes responsible for this phenomenon remain unknown. In this study, we used genomic and immunologic approaches to identify the reactive epitopes conserved across multiple HBoV species and explored their potential as the basis of a novel diagnostic test for HBoVs. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated HBoV1–3 VP2 gene fragment phage display libraries (GFPDLs) and used these libraries to analyze mouse antisera against VP2 protein of HBoV1, 2, and 3, and human sera positive for HBoVs. Using this approach, we mapped four epitope clusters of HBoVs and identified two immunodominant peptides–P1 (1MSDTDIQDQQPDTVDAPQNT20), and P2 (162EHAYPNASHPWDEDVMPDL180)–that are conserved among HBoV1–4. To confirm epitope immunogenicity, we immunized mice with the immunodominant P1 and P2 peptides identified in our screen and found that they elicited high titer antibodies in mice. These two antibodies could only recognize the VP2 of HBoV 1–4 in Western blot assays, rather than those of the two other parvoviruses human parvovirus B19 and human parvovirus 4 (PARV4). Based on our findings, we evaluated epitope-based peptide-IgM ELISAs as potential diagnostic tools for HBoVs IgM antibodies. We found that the P1+P2-IgM ELISA showed a higher sensitivity and specificity in HBoVs IgM detection than the assays using a single peptide. Conclusions/Significance The identification of the conserved B-cell epitopes among human bocavirus species contributes to our understanding of immunological cross-reactivities of HBoVs, and provides important insights for the development of HBoV diagnostic tools. PMID:24475201

Wang, Yaying; Zhou, Hongli; Wu, Chao; Paranhos-Baccala, Glaucia; Vernet, Guy; Guo, Li; Wang, Jianwei

2014-01-01

150

Remotely-Sensed Vegetation Indices Identify Mosquito Clusters of West Nile Virus Vectors in an Urban Landscape in the Northeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterogeneity in urban landscapes can influence the effectiveness of mosquito-borne disease control. We used re- motely sensed vegetation indices to discriminate among mosquito habitats within a densely populated urban en- vironment in New Haven, CT. ASTER derived vegetation indices were identified for 16 sites where adult mos- quitoes were trapped over the summer of 2004. Canonical correlation analysis showed a

Heidi Brown; Maria Diuk-Wasser; Theodore Andreadis; Durland Fish

2008-01-01

151

Potential for early warning of maalria in India using NOAA-AVHRR based vegetation health indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malaria is still a major public health problem in India with about 1 82 million cases annually and 1000 deaths As per World Health Organization WHO estimates about 1 3 million Disability Adjusted Life Years DALYs are lost annually due to malaria in India Central peninsular region of India is prone to malaria outbreaks Meteorological parameters changes in ecological conditions development of resistance in mosquito vectors development of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasite and lack of surveillance are the likely reasons of outbreaks Based on satellite data and climatic factors efforts have been made to develop Early Warning System EWS in Africa but there is no headway in this regard in India In order to find out the potential of NOAA satellite AVHRR derived Vegetation Condition Index VCI Temperature Condition Index TCI and a cumulative indicator Vegetation Health Index VHI were attempted to find out their potential for development of EWS Studies were initiated by analysing epidemiological data of malaria vis-a-vis VCI TCI and VHI from Bikaner and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan and Tumkur and Raichur districts of Karnataka Correlation coefficients between VCI and monthly malaria cases for epidemic years were computed Positive correlation 0 67 has been found with one-month lag between VCI and malaria incidence in respect of Tumkur while a negative correlation with TCI -0 45 is observed In Bikaner VCI is found to be negatively related -0 71 with malaria cases in epidemic year of 1994 Weekly

Dhiman, R. C.; Kogan, Felix; Singh, Neeru; Singh, R. P.; Dash, A. P.

152

Antioxidant potential of a polyherbal antimalarial as an indicator of its therapeutic value.  

PubMed

Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods and, in vivo, Nefang (100 and 500?mg?kg(-1)) activity was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation by the malondialdehyde and total proteins assays were carried out. P. guajava, M. indica leaf, and bark extracts had the highest antioxidant properties in all three assays, with no statistically significant difference. Rats treated with the carbon tetrachloride had a statistically significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (P < 0.05) and increase in malondialdehyde activity, total protein levels, and liver and renal function markers, whereas rats treated with Nefang showed increased levels in the former and dose-dependent decrease towards normal levels in the later. These results reveal the constituent plants of Nefang that contribute to its in vivo antioxidant potential. This activity is a good indication of the therapeutic potential of Nefang. PMID:24454347

Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Nwachiban Atchan, Achille Parfait; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Okalebo, Faith Apoelot; Guantai, Anastasia Nkatha; Agbor, Gabriel Agbor

2013-01-01

153

Antioxidant Potential of a Polyherbal Antimalarial as an Indicator of Its Therapeutic Value  

PubMed Central

Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods and, in vivo, Nefang (100 and 500?mg?kg?1) activity was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation by the malondialdehyde and total proteins assays were carried out. P. guajava, M. indica leaf, and bark extracts had the highest antioxidant properties in all three assays, with no statistically significant difference. Rats treated with the carbon tetrachloride had a statistically significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (P < 0.05) and increase in malondialdehyde activity, total protein levels, and liver and renal function markers, whereas rats treated with Nefang showed increased levels in the former and dose-dependent decrease towards normal levels in the later. These results reveal the constituent plants of Nefang that contribute to its in vivo antioxidant potential. This activity is a good indication of the therapeutic potential of Nefang. PMID:24454347

Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Nwachiban Atchan, Achille Parfait; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Okalebo, Faith Apoelot; Guantai, Anastasia Nkatha; Agbor, Gabriel Agbor

2013-01-01

154

Epigenetic screen identifies genotype-specific promoter DNA methylation and oncogenic potential of CHRNB4.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies have highlighted three major lung cancer susceptibility regions at 15q25.1, 5p15.33 and 6p21.33. To gain insight into the possible mechanistic relevance of the genes in these regions, we investigated the regulation of candidate susceptibility gene expression by epigenetic alterations in healthy and lung tumor tissues. For genes up or downregulated in lung tumors, the influence of genetic variants on DNA methylation was investigated and in vitro studies were performed. We analyzed 394 CpG units within 19 CpG islands in the susceptibility regions in a screening set of 34 patients. Significant findings were validated in an independent patient set (n=50) with available DNA and RNA. The most consistent overall DNA methylation difference between tumor and adjacent normal tissue on 15q25 was tumor hypomethylation in the promoter region of CHRNB4 with a median difference of 8% (P<0.001), which resulted in overexpression of the transcript in tumors (P<0.001). Confirming previous studies, we also found hypermethylation in CHRNA3 and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) with significant expression changes. Decitabine treatment of H1299 cells resulted in reduced methylation levels in gene promoters, elevated transcript levels of CHRNB4 and CHRNA3, and a slight downregulation of TERT demonstrating epigenetic regulation of lung cancer cells. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs421629 on 5p15.33 and rs1948, rs660652, rs8040868 and rs2036527 on 15q25.1, previously identified as lung cancer risk or nicotine-addiction modifiers, were associated with tumor DNA methylation levels in the promoters of TERT and CHRNB4 (P<0.001), respectively, in two independent sample sets (n=82; n=150). In addition, CHRNB4 knockdown in two different cell lines (A549 and H1299) resulted in reduced proliferation (PA549<0.05;PH1299<0.001) and propensity to form colonies in H1299 cells. These results suggest epigenetic deregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (nAChR) genes which in the case of CHRNB4 is strongly associated with genetic lung cancer susceptibility variants and a functional impact on tumorigenic potential. PMID:22945651

Scherf, D B; Sarkisyan, N; Jacobsson, H; Claus, R; Bermejo, J L; Peil, B; Gu, L; Muley, T; Meister, M; Dienemann, H; Plass, C; Risch, A

2013-07-11

155

Epigenetic screen identifies genotype- specific promoter DNA methylation and oncogenic potential of CHRNB4  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies have highlighted three major lung cancer susceptibility regions at 15q25.1, 5p15.33 and 6p21.33. To gain insight into the possible mechanistic relevance of the genes in these regions, we investigated the regulation of candidate susceptibility gene expression by epigenetic alterations in healthy and lung tumor tissues. For genes up- or downregulated in lung tumors the influence of genetic variants on DNA methylation was investigated and in vitro studies were performed. We analyzed 394 CpG units within 19 CpG islands in the susceptibility regions in a screening set of 34 patients. Significant findings were validated in an independent patient set (n=50) with available DNA and RNA. The most consistent overall DNA methylation difference between tumor and adjacent normal tissue on 15q25 was tumor hypomethylation in the promoter region of CHRNB4 with a median difference of 8% (p<0.001) which resulted in overexpression of the transcript in tumors (p<0.001). Confirming previous studies we also found hypermethylation in CHRNA3 and TERT with significant expression changes. Decitabine treatment of H1299 cells resulted in reduced methylation levels in gene promoters, elevated transcript levels of CHRNB4 and CHRNA3 and a slight downregulation of TERT demonstrating epigenetic regulation of lung cancer cells. SNPs rs421629 on 5p15.33 and rs1948, rs660652, rs8040868 and rs2036527 on 15q25.1, previously identified as lung cancer risk or nicotine addiction modifiers were associated with tumor DNA methylation levels in the promoters of TERT and CHRNB4 (p<0.001) respectively in two independent sample sets (n=82; n=150). In addition, CHRNB4 knock down in two different cell lines (A549 and H1299) resulted in reduced proliferation (pA549<0.05;pH1299L<0.001) and propensity to form colonies in H1299 cells. These results suggest epigenetic deregulation of nicotinic acetylcholinereceptor subunit (nAChR) genes which in the case of CHRNB4 is strongly associated with genetic lung cancer susceptibility variants and a functional impact on tumorigenic potential. PMID:22945651

Scherf, David B; Sarkisyan, Narek; Jacobsson, Hanna; Claus, Rainer; Bermejo, Justo L; Peil, Barbara; Gu, Lei; Muley, Thomas; Meister, Michael; Dienemann, Hendrik; Plass, Christoph; Risch, Angela

2012-01-01

156

National valuation of monarch butterflies indicates an untapped potential for incentive-based conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The annual migration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) has high cultural value and recent surveys indicate monarch populations are declining. Protecting migratory species is complex because they cross international borders and depend on multiple regions. Understanding how much, and where, humans place value on migratory species can facilitate market-based conservation approaches. We performed a contingent valuation study of monarchs to understand the potential for such approaches to fund monarch conservation. The survey asked U.S. respondents about the money they would spend, or have spent, growing monarch-friendly plants, and the amount they would donate to monarch conservation organizations. Combining planting payments and donations, the survey indicated U.S. households valued monarchs as a total one-time payment of $4.78–$6.64 billion, levels similar to many endangered vertebrate species. The financial contribution of even a small percentage of households through purchases or donations could generate new funding for monarch conservation through market-based approaches.

Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Loomis, John B.; Ries, Leslie; Oberhauser, Karen; Semmens, Darius; Semmens, Brice; Butterfield, Bruce; Bagstad, Ken; Goldstein, Josh; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

2013-01-01

157

Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at the beach, as indicated by an increase in the specific conductance of beach water. Understanding the dynamics of FIB sources (sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora) and transport mechanisms (dispersion and erosion from storm energy, and swash-zone groundwater discharge) is important for improving predictions of potential health risks from FIB in beach water.

Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

2013-01-01

158

A robust decision making framework for identifying dominant controls on indicators of hydrologic alteration under environmental change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projecting streamflow under environmental change (including climate and land use change) has become increasingly important for decision making related to long-term water resources planning. Most strategies for estimating these projections simply propagate downscaled climate change projections through hydrologic models. While such approaches shed light on possible changes in future streamflow, several studies have now pointed out that uncertainty is under-estimated in most cases. Moreover, studies provide conflicting results on the importance of different sources of uncertainty - parametric, downscaling approach, GCM projections used etc. Finally, inclusion of all possible sources of uncertainty may render any projection to be of limited practical value. In order to address these problems, we explore an alternative strategy for robust decision-making. Rather than analyzing forward projections of individual scenarios, we search the feasible climate-land cover space for conditions that exceed critical societally relevant thresholds defined by carefully chosen hydrologic indicators. Using available downscaled climate change data, we evaluate the probability of watersheds to transition into such vulnerable regimes with respect to the different indicators studied. This strategy allows for a better consideration of uncertainty and therefore is likely to provide information of greater value for decision-making compared to currently applied strategies. We test the proposed strategy in a medium-size watershed in the north-eastern USA.

Singh, Riddhi; Wagener, Thorsten; van Werkhoven, Kathryn; Mann, Michael E.; Crane, Robert; Ning, Liang

2013-04-01

159

Multiple Indices of Diffusion Identifies White Matter Damage in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease  

PubMed Central

The study of multiple indices of diffusion, including axial (DA), radial (DR) and mean diffusion (MD), as well as fractional anisotropy (FA), enables WM damage in Alzheimer's disease (AD) to be assessed in detail. Here, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were performed on scans of 40 healthy elders, 19 non-amnestic MCI (MCIna) subjects, 14 amnestic MCI (MCIa) subjects and 9 AD patients. Significantly higher DA was found in MCIna subjects compared to healthy elders in the right posterior cingulum/precuneus. Significantly higher DA was also found in MCIa subjects compared to healthy elders in the left prefrontal cortex, particularly in the forceps minor and uncinate fasciculus. In the MCIa versus MCIna comparison, significantly higher DA was found in large areas of the left prefrontal cortex. For AD patients, the overlap of FA and DR changes and the overlap of FA and MD changes were seen in temporal, parietal and frontal lobes, as well as the corpus callosum and fornix. Analysis of differences between the AD versus MCIna, and AD versus MCIa contrasts, highlighted regions that are increasingly compromised in more severe disease stages. Microstructural damage independent of gross tissue loss was widespread in later disease stages. Our findings suggest a scheme where WM damage begins in the core memory network of the temporal lobe, cingulum and prefrontal regions, and spreads beyond these regions in later stages. DA and MD indices were most sensitive at detecting early changes in MCIa. PMID:21738785

O'Dwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O.; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; O'Neill, Des; Bartley, Máiréad; Collins, D. Rónán; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

2011-01-01

160

Plasma Sphingolipids as Potential Indicators of Hepatic Necroinflammation in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase Level  

PubMed Central

Accurate estimation of hepatic necroinflammation caused by chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is crucial for prediction of prognosis and design of therapeutic strategy, which is particularly true for CHC patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Recent studies have shown that sphingolipids have a close relationship with hepatitis C virus infection. The present study aimed to identify plasma sphingolipids related to hepatic necroinflammation. We included 120 treatment-naïve CHC patients and 64/120 had normal ALT levels (<40 U/L). CHC patients who underwent liver biopsies were subjected to Scheuer scoring analysis for scope of hepatic inflammation. Plasma sphingolipids were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed 44 plasma sphingolipids were detected altogether. Of all detected sphingolipids, hexosylceramide (HexCer) (d18?1/22?0) and HexCer (d18?1/24?0) showed a significant difference among G0/G1, G2, and G3/G4 (P<0.05). For identifying hepatic necroinflammation (G?2), after adjusting other factors, the odds ratio (OR) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) reached 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00–1.02). Furthermore, the area under the curve (AUC) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was 0.7 (P?=?0.01) and approached that of ALT (AUC?=?0.78). However, in CHC patients with normal ALT, HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was an independent factor (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01–1.03) to identify the hepatic necroinflammation (G?2). HexCer (d18?1/22?0) not only showed the largest AUC (0.78, P?=?0.001), but also exhibited the highest specificity of all indicators. These results indicate that plasma HexCer (d18?1/22?0) is a potential indicator to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation in CHC patients. For CHC with normal ALT, the ability of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation might be superior to conventional serum indicators. PMID:24736528

Ren, Jin-Yu; Wu, Hui-Li; Liu, Mei; Liu, Hui; Ren, Feng; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Duan, Zhong-Ping

2014-01-01

161

Identifying soils with potential of expanding sulfate mineral formation using electromagnetic induction  

E-print Network

quantifying sulfate in soils that may be potentially used in highway construction using electromagnetic induction. The objectives are to: 1) document electrical conductivity (EC) variability within selected sites that contain sulfate-bearing materials, and 2...

Fox, Miranda Lynn

2004-11-15

162

Secretomes are a potential source of molecular targets for cancer therapies and indicate that APOE is a candidate biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma metastasis.  

PubMed

Identifying patients at high risk of metastasis is a major challenge in lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) therapy, therefore discovery of noninvasive biomarkers and therapeutic targets is urgent. We found significant differences between the secretomes of differentially expressed proteins in lung ADC cell lines, clinical tissue samples and serum plasma samples with high and low metastatic potential. In particular, Apolipoprotein E (APOE) levels were three-times greater in cells with lymph node metastases (LNM) than those without. Our study indicates that APOE is a potential indicator of metastatic lung ADC and that secretomes may offer a valuable resource for biomarkers of lung ADC with LNM. PMID:25098600

Liu, Zan; Gao, Yuan; Hao, Fengxia; Lou, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xiuwei; Li, Yang; Wu, Di; Xiao, Ting; Yang, Longhai; Li, Qingchang; Qiu, Xueshan; Wang, Enhua

2014-11-01

163

Use of AIRSAR to identify woody shrub invasion and other indicators of desertification in the Jornada LTER  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The replacement of semidesert grassland by woody shrubland is a widespread form of desertification. This change in physiognomy and species composition tends to sharply reduce the productivity of the land for grazing by domestic livestock, increase soil erosion and reduce soil fertility, and greatly alter many other aspects of ecosystem structure and functioning. Remote sensing methods are needed to assess and monitor shrubland encroachment. Detection of woody shrubs at low density would provide a particularly useful baseline on which to access changes, because an initially low shrub density often tends to increase even after cessation of the disturbance (e.g., overgrazing, drought, or fire suppression) responsible for triggering the initial stages of the invasion (Grover and Musick, 1990). Limited success has been achieved using optical remote sensing. In contrast to other forms of desertification, biomass does not consistently decrease with a shift from grassland to shrubland. Estimation of green vegetation amount (e.g., by NDVI) is thus of limited utility, unless the shrubs and herbaceous plants differ consistently in phenology and the area can be viewed during a season when only one of these is green. The objective of this study was to determine if the potential sensitivity of active microwave remote sensing to vegetation structure could be used to assess the degree of shrub invasion of grassland. Polarimetric Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) data were acquired for a semiarid site containing varied mixtures of shrubs and herbaceous vegetation and compared with ground observations of vegetation type and other landsurface characteristics. In this preliminary report we examine the response of radar backscatter intensity to shrub density. The response of other multipolarization parameters will be examined in future work.

Musick, H. Brad; Schaber, Gerald G.; Breed, Carol S.

1995-01-01

164

Experimental inoculation study indicates swine as a potential host for Hendra virus  

PubMed Central

Hendra virus (HeV) is a zoonotic virus from the family Paramyxoviridae causing fatal disease in humans and horses. Five-week-old Landrace pigs and 5-month-old Gottingen minipigs were inoculated with approximately 107 plaque forming units per animal. In addition to fever and depression exhibited in all infected pigs, one of the two Landrace pigs developed respiratory signs at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi) and one of the Gottingen minipigs developed respiratory signs at 5 dpi and mild neurological signs at 7 dpi. Virus was detected in all infected pigs at 2–5 dpi from oral, nasal, and rectal swabs and at 3–5 dpi from ocular swabs by real-time RT-PCR targeting the HeV M gene. Virus titers in nasal swab samples were as high as 104.6 TCID50/mL. The viral RNA was mainly distributed in tissues from respiratory and lymphoid systems at an early stage of infection and the presence of virus was confirmed by virus isolation. Pathological changes and immunohistochemical staining for viral antigen were consistent with the tissue distribution of the virus. This new finding indicates that pigs are susceptible to HeV infections and could potentially play a role as an intermediate host in transmission to humans. PMID:20167195

Li, Mingyi; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Weingartl, Hana M.

2010-01-01

165

Histidine Decarboxylase Is Identified as a Potential Biomarker of Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Patients with Acute Intestinal Obstruction  

PubMed Central

Various biomarkers currently used for the diagnosis of intestinal mucosal injury (IMI) in patients with acute intestinal obstruction have low sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, IMI, as indicated by the impaired expression of tight junction proteins, including zonula occludens-1, occludin and claudin-1, and inflammation were determined in colonic tissues of patients with 45 strangulated intestinal obstruction (STR-IO) and the adjacent “normal” colonic tissues of 35 patients with colon cancers by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR), Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and histological examination, respectively. Then, two-dimensional fluorescent difference gel electrophoresis coupled with linear trap quadrupole mass spectrometry was used to screen for potential biomarkers of IMI in the serum samples of 10 STR-IO, 10 simple intestinal obstruction (SIM-IO) and 10 normal healthy controls. A total of 35 protein spots were differentially expressed among the serum samples, and six of the proteins were identified as potential biomarkers. Among the six proteins, histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and ceruloplasmin (CP) were elevated significantly in patients with STR-IO, compared with patients with SIM-IO and healthy controls. Thus, HDC and CP were further validated by QRT-PCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, in colonic tissues, serum and urine samples. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic curves were used to show the area under the curves of HDC, CP and several established biomarkers, followed by the determination of the appropriate cutoff values and their sensitivities and specificities. It was shown that for serum and urine, HDC levels achieved sensitivities and specificities compatible to or even greater than those of established biomarkers for the diagnosis of IMI in patients with acute intestinal obstruction, although further validation in a larger cohort is required. PMID:21915437

Yang, Jian-Jun; Ma, Yan-Lei; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Hong-Qi; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Qin, Huan-Long

2011-01-01

166

The Health Informatics Trial Enhancement Project (HITE): Using routinely collected primary care data to identify potential participants for a depression trial  

PubMed Central

Background Recruitment to clinical trials can be challenging. We identified anonymous potential participants to an existing pragmatic randomised controlled depression trial to assess the feasibility of using routinely collected data to identify potential trial participants. We discuss the strengths and limitations of this approach, assess its potential value, report challenges and ethical issues encountered. Methods Swansea University's Health Information Research Unit's Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) database of routinely collected health records was interrogated, using Structured Query Language (SQL). Read codes were used to create an algorithm of inclusion/exclusion criteria with which to identify suitable anonymous participants. Two independent clinicians rated the eligibility of the potential participants' identified. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using the kappa statistic and inter-class correlation. Results The study population (N = 37263) comprised all adults registered at five general practices in Swansea UK. Using the algorithm 867 anonymous potential participants were identified. The sensitivity and specificity results > 0.9 suggested a high degree of accuracy from the algorithm. The inter-rater reliability results indicated strong agreement between the confirming raters. The Intra Class Correlation Coefficient (Cronbach's Alpha) > 0.9, suggested excellent agreement and Kappa coefficient > 0.8; almost perfect agreement. Conclusions This proof of concept study showed that routinely collected primary care data can be used to identify potential participants for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of folate augmentation of antidepressant therapy for the treatment of depression. Further work will be needed to assess generalisability to other conditions and settings and the inclusion of this approach to support Electronic Enhanced Recruitment (EER). PMID:20398303

2010-01-01

167

Exploiting Literature-derived Knowledge and Semantics to Identify Potential Prostate Cancer Drugs  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report on the performance of an automated approach to discovery of potential prostate cancer drugs from the biomedical literature. We used the semantic relationships in SemMedDB, a database of structured knowledge extracted from all MEDLINE citations using SemRep, to extract potential relationships using knowledge of cancer drugs pathways. Two cancer drugs pathway schemas were constructed using these relationships extracted from SemMedDB. Through both pathway schemas, we found drugs already used for prostate cancer therapy and drugs not currently listed as the prostate cancer medications. Our study demonstrates that the appropriate linking of relevant structured semantic relationships stored in SemMedDB can support the discovery of potential prostate cancer drugs. PMID:25392688

Zhang, Rui; Cairelli, Michael J; Fiszman, Marcelo; Kilicoglu, Halil; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Melton, Genevieve B

2014-01-01

168

Identifying cold-water coral ecosystem by using benthic foraminiferal indicators: from active reefs to the geological record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-water coral ecosystems dominated by the species Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, as well as cold-water coral carbonate mounds (fossils and/or active) occur worldwide and are especially developed along the European margin, from northern Norway to the Gulf of Cadiz and into the Alboran Sea. Their discovery is a major achievement of the last few decades and their widespread occurrence presents a challenge to understand their development, preservation and possible importance in the geologic record. On the Norwegian shelf active/living reefs are developed on elevated hard substrata. Along the Irish margin L. pertusa builds large fossil and/or active carbonate mounds. In the Gulf of Cadiz and in the Alboran Sea buried reefs and patch reefs are generally found in association with mud volcanoes. In modern oceans, they provide important ecological niches for the marine benthic fauna in the deep-sea. In comparison to the macrofauna the microfauna, particularly the foraminifera associated to these systems, are poorly known. We present here a detailed study based on quantitative analyses of benthic and planktonic foraminifera together with the statistical treatment of assemblage data collected along the Norwegian margin, in the Porcupine-Rockall region and in the Alboran Sea. The three regions were and/or are site of cold-water coral ecosystems settlements. Our study reveals that in the Porcupine/Rockall region benthic foraminiferal assemblages are strictly related to the distribution of facies. On the Norwegian margin, benthic foraminiferal habitats are weakly defined and grade one into the other preventing the sharp facies separation observed along the Irish margin (Margreth et al., 2009). In the Alboran Sea cold-water coral ecosystems and cold-water carbonate mounds are presently buried and corals are generally fragmented. However, benthic assemblages from coral-rich layers in the Alboran Sea and those from Porcupine/Rockall and Norway show remarkable similarities. In particular, epifaunal-attached species such as Discanomalina coronata, Cibicides refulgens, and Lobatula lobatula dominate the assemblages with D. coronata restricted to living cold-water coral reefs facies only and/or in co-occurrence with coral fragments. In conclusion, our data suggest that although cold-water coral ecosystems occur at different latitudes, the associated foraminiferal assemblages are consistent from Norway to the Western Mediterranean. Thus they can be used to identify these ecosystems even in the geologic record, when the corals are often strongly dissolved like in the Alboran Sea. References: Margreth, S., Rüggeberg, A. and Spezzaferri, S., 2009. Benthic foraminifera as bioindicator for cold-water coral reef ecosystems along the Irish margin. Deep Sea Res. Part I, 56: 2216-2234. This study is funded by the Swiss National Foundation Projects 200020-117928 and 200021-111694.

Margreth, Stephan; Rüggeberg, Andres; Gennari, Giordana; Spezzaferri, Silvia

2010-05-01

169

DRAFT MANUSCRIPT IN REVIEW DO NOT CITE Coastal Flooding and Environmental Justice: Identifying Potential Strategies for  

E-print Network

to be exposed to increasing risks, including coastal erosion, due to climate change and sea-level riseDRAFT MANUSCRIPT IN REVIEW DO NOT CITE 1 Coastal Flooding and Environmental Justice: Identifying MANUSCRIPT IN REVIEW DO NOT CITE 2 Abstract We explored the possible future impacts of increased coastal

Douglas, Ellen M.

170

Courting male garter snakes ( Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis ) use multiple cues to identify potential mates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating aggregations of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) in Manitoba provide a unique opportunity to identify the cues that attract a male snake and induce him to court. The snakes are abundant, tolerate human presence, and males direct courtship to a subset of other males (\\

R. Shine; R. T. Mason

2001-01-01

171

Identifying the Service Potential of an Employee Through the Use of the Self-Monitoring Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service has become a competitive advantage in the hospitality industry. The following paper identifies the theoretical characteristics required of employees to be successful in the service encounter. The necessary characteristics that an em ployee requires to be successful closely parallel Snyder's (1974) concept of self- monitoring. A person's self-monitoring tendency is related to the theoretical aspects of consumers' determinants of

William H. Samenfink

1992-01-01

172

Developing Early Warning Systems to Identify Potential High School Dropouts. Issue Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The high school dropout problem has been called a national crisis. Educators, researchers, and policymakers continue to work to identify effective dropout prevention approaches. One important element of such prevention efforts is the identification of students at highest risk for dropping out and then the targeting of resources to keep them in…

Heppen, Jessica B.; Therriault, Susan Bowles

2008-01-01

173

Diagnostics of subsynchronous vibrations in rotating machinery - methodologies to identify potential instability  

E-print Network

of this thesis is to explore means of diagnosing whether subsynchronous vibrations are benign or have the potential to become unstable. Several methods will be detailed to draw lines of demarcation between the two. Considerable focus of the research has been...

Kar, Rahul

2005-11-01

174

Identifying potential environmental impacts of large-scale deployment of dedicated bioenergy crops in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is momentum, globally, to increase the use of plant biomass for the production of heat, power and liquid transport fuels. This review assesses the evidence base for potential impacts of large-scale bioenergy crop deployment principally within the UK context, but with wider implications for Europe, the USA and elsewhere. We focus on second generation, dedicated lignocellulosic crops, but where

Rebecca L. Rowe; Gail Taylor

2009-01-01

175

NYU researchers identify new potential therapeutic target for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from the NYU Cancer Institute, an NCI-designated cancer center at NYU Langone Medical Center, have discovered a new potential therapeutic target for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), the most aggressive and common type of lymphoma in adults. The new study, published in the November 23 issue of Nature, reveals the underlying molecular mechanism contributing to the development of lymphomagenesis.

176

A Riemannian geometric mapping technique for identifying incompressible equivalents to subsonic potential flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research develops a technique for the solution of incompressible equivalents to planar steady subsonic potential flows. Riemannian geometric formalism is used to develop a gauge transformation of the length measure followed by a curvilinear coordinate transformation to map the given subsonic flow into a canonical Laplacian flow with the same boundary conditions. The effect of the transformation is to

Brian Joseph German

2007-01-01

177

Identifying potential environmental impacts of large-scale deployment of dedicated bioenergy crops in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract There is momentum, globally, to increase the use of plant biomass for the production of heat, power and liquid transport fuels. This review assesses the evidence base for potential impacts of large-scale bioenergy crop deployment principally within the UK context, but with wider implications for Europe, the USA and elsewhere. We focus on second generation, dedicated lignocellulosic crops, but

Rebecca L. Rowe; Gail Taylor

2007-01-01

178

Utilization of solar energy in developing countries: Identifying some potential markets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential use of solar electricity generated from photovoltaic cells is examined for nineteen developing nations. Energy and economic profiles are summarized for each country. A comparison is made between the use of autogeneration and photovoltaics in a rural area of Haiti.

Hein, G. F.; Siddiqi, T. A.

1978-01-01

179

A Comparison between Survey and Verbal Choice Methods of Identifying Potential Reinforcers among Employees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two methods of assessing preference for stimuli (i.e., potential reinforcers) were compared for adult administrative assistant employees. During Phase 1, a survey method and a verbal choice method of assessing preference for 6 stimuli were administered. During Phase 2, a coupon system was used to determine which categories of stimuli actually…

Wilder, David A; Therrien, Kelly; Wine, Byron

2006-01-01

180

Host susceptibility to malaria in human and mice: compatible approaches to identify potential resistant genes.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence for human genetic factors controlling the outcome of malaria infection, while molecular basis of this genetic control is still poorly understood. Case-control and family-based studies have been carried out to identify genes underlying host susceptibility to malarial infection. Parasitemia and mild malaria have been genetically linked to human chromosomes 5q31-q33 and 6p21.3, and several immune genes located within those regions have been associated with malaria-related phenotypes. Association and linkage studies of resistance to malaria are not easy to carry out in human populations, because of the difficulty in surveying a significant number of families. Murine models have proven to be an excellent genetic tool for studying host response to malaria; their use allowed mapping 14 resistance loci, eight of them controlling parasitic levels and six controlling cerebral malaria. Once quantitative trait loci or genes have been identified, the human ortholog may then be identified. Comparative mapping studies showed that a couple of human and mouse might share similar genetically controlled mechanisms of resistance. In this way, char8, which controls parasitemia, was mapped on chromosome 11; char8 corresponds to human chromosome 5q31-q33 and contains immune genes, such as Il3, Il4, Il5, Il12b, Il13, Irf1, and Csf2. Nevertheless, part of the genetic factors controlling malaria traits might differ in both hosts because of specific host-pathogen interactions. Finally, novel genetic tools including animal models were recently developed and will offer new opportunities for identifying genetic factors underlying host phenotypic response to malaria, which will help in better therapeutic strategies including vaccine and drug development. PMID:24170032

Hernandez-Valladares, Maria; Rihet, Pascal; Iraqi, Fuad A

2014-01-01

181

Endothelial cell palmitoylproteomics identifies novel lipid modified targets and potential substrates for protein acyl transferases  

PubMed Central

Rationale Protein S-palmitoylation is the post-translational attachment of a saturated 16-carbon palmitic acid to a cysteine side chain via a thioester bond. Palmitoylation can affect protein localization, trafficking, stability, and function. The extent and roles of palmitoylation in endothelial cell (EC) biology is not well understood, in part due to technological limits on palmitoylprotein detection. Objective To develop a method using acyl-biotinyl exchange (ABE) technology coupled with mass spectrometry to globally isolate and identify palmitoylproteins in EC. Methods and Results More than 150 putative palmitoyl proteins were identified in EC using ABE and mass spectrometry. Among the novel palmitoylproteins identified is superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), an intensively studied enzyme that protects all cells from oxidative damage. Mutation of cysteine 6 prevents palmitoylation, leads to reduction in SOD1 activity in vivo and in vitro, and inhibits nuclear localization, thereby supporting a functional role for SOD1 palmitoylation. Moreover, we used ABE to search for substrates of particular protein acyl transferases in EC. We found that palmitoylation of the cell adhesion protein PECAM1 is dependent on the protein acyl transferase ZDHHC21. We show that knockdown of ZDHHC21 leads to reduced levels of PECAM1 at the cell surface. Conclusions Our data demonstrate the utility of EC palmitoylproteomics to reveal new insights into the role of this important post-translational lipid modification in EC biology. PMID:22496122

Marin, Ethan P.; Derakhshan, Behrad; Lam, TuKiet T.; Davalos, Alberto; Sessa, William C.

2012-01-01

182

Comparative Genomics Identifies a Potential Marker of Human-Virulent Anaplasma phagocytophilum  

PubMed Central

We have previously described a comparative genome analysis of nine strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum that showed similarity between strains infecting humans and U.S. dogs and a more distant relationship with horse and ruminant strains. This suggested that it may be possible to distinguish human-infective strains using simple DNA sequence-based diagnostic tests. This would be of epidemiologic significance in identifying and tracking the presence of virulent strains in tick vector populations. Further analysis identified a gene that was present in several strains, including U.S. Ap-variant 1 (ruminant), MRK (horse), and European sheep, but was deleted in strains infecting U.S. humans and dogs, suggesting that it could be a useful marker of human virulence. A simple PCR test was developed to identify the presence/absence of this gene. The PCR test discriminated A. phagocytophilum strains from clinically affected humans and U.S. dogs from the strains more distantly related in genome sequence. This warrants further testing of globally diverse A. phagocytophilum strains to examine world-wide conservation of this gene.

Al-Khedery, Basima; Barbet, Anthony F.

2014-01-01

183

Trehalose as an indicator of desiccation stress in Drosophila melanogaster larvae: A potential marker of anhydrobiosis  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report confirming anhydrobiosis in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis and accumulation in larvae that hydrolyzed on rehydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis in concert with the enzymes involved in trehalose metabolism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of trehalose hydrolysis in presence of a specific trehalase inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose proposed as a reliable marker for biomonitoring of climate change studies. -- Abstract: In the current scenario of global climate change, desiccation is considered as one of the major environmental stressors for the biota exposed to altered levels of ambient temperature and humidity. Drosophila melanogaster, a cosmopolitan terrestrial insect has been chosen as a humidity-sensitive bioindicator model for the present study since its habitat undergoes frequent stochastic and/or seasonally aggravated dehydration regimes. We report here for the first time the occurrence of anhydrobiosis in D. melanogaster larvae by subjecting them to desiccation stress under laboratory conditions. Larvae desiccated for ten hours at <5% relative humidity could enter anhydrobiosis and could revive upon rehydration followed by resumption of active metabolism. As revealed by FTIR and HPLC analyzes, our findings strongly indicated the synthesis and accumulation of trehalose in the desiccating larvae. Biochemical measurements pointed out the desiccation-responsive trehalose metabolic pathway that was found to be coordinated in concert with the enzymes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase and trehalase. Further, an inhibitor-based experimental approach using deoxynojirimycin, a specific trehalase inhibitor, demonstrated the pivotal role of trehalose in larval anhydrobiosis of D. melanogaster. We therefore propose trehalose as a potential marker for the assessment of anhydrobiosis in Drosophila. The present findings thus add to the growing list of novel biochemical markers in specific bioindicator organisms for fulfilling the urgent need of environmental biomonitoring of climate change.

Thorat, Leena J. [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)] [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Gaikwad, Sushama M. [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India)] [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Nath, Bimalendu B., E-mail: bbnath@unipune.ac.in [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

2012-03-23

184

Cortical EEG oscillations and network connectivity as efficacy indices for assessing drugs with cognition enhancing potential.  

PubMed

Synchronization of electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations represents a core mechanism for cortical and subcortical networks, and disturbance in neural synchrony underlies cognitive processing deficits in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the effects of cognition enhancers (donepezil, rivastigmine, tacrine, galantamine and memantine), which are approved for symptomatic treatment of dementia, on EEG oscillations and network connectivity in conscious rats chronically instrumented with epidural electrodes in different cortical areas. Next, EEG network indices of cognitive impairments with the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine were modeled. Lastly, we examined the efficacy of cognition enhancers to normalize those aberrant oscillations. Cognition enhancers elicited systematic ("fingerprint") enhancement of cortical slow theta (4.5-6 Hz) and gamma (30.5-50 Hz) oscillations correlated with lower activity levels. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a compact cluster that corresponds to shared underlying mechanisms as compared to different drug classes. Functional network connectivity revealed consistent elevated coherent slow theta activity in parieto-occipital and between interhemispheric cortical areas. In rats instrumented with depth hippocampal CA1-CA3 electrodes, donepezil elicited similar oscillatory and coherent activities in cortico-hippocampal networks. When combined with scopolamine, the cognition enhancers attenuated the leftward shift in coherent slow delta activity. Such a consistent shift in EEG coherence into slow oscillations associated with altered slow theta and gamma oscillations may underlie cognitive deficits in scopolamine-treated animals, whereas enhanced coherent slow theta and gamma activity may be a relevant mechanism by which cognition enhancers exert their beneficial effect on plasticity and cognitive processes. The findings underscore that PCA and network connectivity are valuable tools to assess efficacy of novel therapeutic drugs with cognition enhancing potential. PMID:25181033

Ahnaou, A; Huysmans, H; Jacobs, T; Drinkenburg, W H I M

2014-11-01

185

Identifying potential sites for energy production from woody biomass. Final research report  

SciTech Connect

This study examined the economic potential of producing short-rotation hybrid poplar on agricultural lands enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) to support biomass requirements of two proposed power plants and to supplement industrial timber requirements in Minnesota. Timber product demands at six aggregated traditional forest markets and biomass demands at two power plant locations currently under consideration were considered over a hundred year planning horizon.

Rose, D.W.; Husain, S.A.

1997-05-01

186

A potential biomarker of kidney damage identified by proteomics: preliminary findings.  

PubMed

4-Aminophenol (4-AP) and D-serine are established rodent nephrotoxins that selectively damage renal proximal tubules. In an attempt to understand the mechanism of action of these toxicants in greater detail, a high throughput proteomics approach was used to profile protein changes in the plasma of animals treated with these compounds. Male Fischer 344 and Alderley Park rats were treated with increasing doses of 4-AP or D-serine and plasma samples were collected over time. Control groups received either saline or the non-toxic enantiomer, L-serine. Using high throughput two-dimensional gel analysis, a number of plasma proteins showing dose- and time-dependent regulation were identified. One toxicity-associated plasma protein was identified as the cellular enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), which is known to be required for tyrosine metabolism. The FAH gene is mutated in the human genetic disorder type I tyrosinaemia, which is associated with liver and kidney abnormalities and neurological disorders. FAH was elevated in the plasma of animals treated with 4-AP and D-serine at early time points and returned to baseline levels after 3 weeks. The protein was not elevated in the plasma of control animals or those treated with L-serine. The presence of FAH in plasma is intriguing as it is normally a cellular enzyme with no known function in plasma. It is possible that 4-AP and D-serine may work through a previously unknown mechanism in the kidney via regulation of tyrosine metabolism or FAH activity. Therefore, FAH may function in a fashion analogous to the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymes that are used to measure liver injury. The link between kidney toxicants and inherited tyrosinaemia also raises the possibility that FAH may be a marker of kidney toxicity in humans. These observations highlight the value of proteomics in identifying new biomarkers and providing new unprecedented insights into complex biological mechanisms. PMID:12944177

Bandara, Lasantha R; Kelly, Mike D; Lock, Edward A; Kennedy, Sandy

2003-01-01

187

Screening of Predicted Secreted Antigens from Mycobacterium bovis Identifies Potential Novel Differential Diagnostic Reagents? †  

PubMed Central

To date, the most promising vaccination strategies for the control of bovine tuberculosis (TB) focus on improving the efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). However, vaccination with BCG results in sensitization of animals to bovine tuberculin and compromises tests currently used for diagnosis of bovine TB infection. Thus, the development of specific diagnostic reagents capable of discriminating between infected and uninfected vaccinated animals (DIVA) is of high priority. To test the hypothesis that M. bovis-secreted proteins are likely to contain immunogenic antigens that can be used to increase the specificity of diagnostic tests, we screened 379 pools of overlapping peptides representing 119 antigens for their ability to stimulate a gamma inferferon (IFN-?) response in vitro using whole blood from both TB reactor and BCG-vaccinated animals. Peptide pools representing antigens Rv3020c and Rv2346c induced responses in 61% and 57% of the TB reactor animals, respectively, without inducing responses in any BCG-vaccinated animal studied. Furthermore, individual peptides contained within pools recognized by BCG vaccinates were identified that were specific and induced IFN-? responses in TB reactor animals. From these results, we constructed a cocktail of nine peptides representing multiple antigen targets that was recognized by 54% of TB reactor animals but also failed to induce responses in any BCG-vaccinated animal studied. In summary, we have identified three peptide cocktails for prioritization in larger trials to discriminate between M. bovis infection and BCG vaccination. PMID:20668139

Jones, Gareth J.; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Vordermeier, H. Martin

2010-01-01

188

Video Games and Mathematics Education: Studying Commercial Sports Video Games to Identify the Potential for Learning and Thinking About  

E-print Network

Video Games and Mathematics Education: Studying Commercial Sports Video Games to Identify What happens when commercial sports video games, designed for entertainment, are used in an effort is an attempt to examine the potential for connecting digital media (sports video games) to learning various

Spagnolo, Filippo

189

Providing electricity access to remote areas in India: An approach towards identifying potential areas for decentralized electricity supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the results of a preliminary attempt towards identifying potential areas in India where provision of electricity through renewable energy-based decentralized generation options can be financially more attractive as compared to extending the grid. The cost of generation of electricity from coal, hydro and nuclear power plants and also cost of transmission and distribution of electricity in the

M. R. Nouni; S. C. Mullick; T. C. Kandpal

2008-01-01

190

A NEW HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY TECHNIQUE FOR IDENTIFYING PHARMACEUTICALS AND POTENTIAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS IN DRINKING WATER SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

A New High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Technique for Identifying Pharmaceuticals and Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Drinking Water Sources Andrew H. Grange and G. Wayne Sovocool U.S.EPA, ORD, NERL, ESD, ECB, P.O. Box 93478, Las Vegas, NV 891933478 Mass spectra...

191

A model-based meta-analysis for estimating species-specific wood density and identifying potential  

E-print Network

A model-based meta-analysis for estimating species-specific wood density and identifying potential. We implemented a hierarchical Bayesian (HB) meta-analysis that incorporated sample size, variance overcomes many of the limitations of traditional meta-analyses, and the incorporation of phylogenetic

Lichstein, Jeremy W.

192

Carbamazepine as indicator for potential short-term contamination of karst springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karst aquifers are complex systems which vulnerability is very difficult to assess mainly because of the duality of recharge processes and duality of flow. Recharge to a karst aquifer occurs as diffuse or concentrated (sinkholes and dolines). Moreover, karst aquifers are formed by an unsaturated zone comprising soil, epikarst and unsaturated rock matrix, and a saturated zone formed of highly permeable conduits and low permeability matrix storage. In the case of contamination of groundwater by wastewater effluent polluted water can be either transported rapidly and have short term major risk on spring water quality or infiltrate into fractured rock matrix and therefore have a long term effect on the water quality. In order to identify the risk of wastewater infiltrating into an aquifer, researches have focused to date on the identification of indicative wastewater markers. Carbamazepine (CBZ) was frequently detected in surface water as well as in effluents of sewage treatment plants, as less than 10% of carbamazepine are usually eliminated during sewage treatment. Moreover, CBZ is not attenuated in aquifers (Heberer, 2002), is unlikely degradable or adsorbed, and can be detected in groundwater (Clara et al., 2004). Therefore, CBZ is considered to be fairly persistent in groundwater (Tixier et al., 2003), and is consequently regarded as an effective wastewater marker. In this case study, the Jeita spring in Lebanon (spring discharge: 1-20 m3/s) was monitored and sampled for major ions and micro-pollutants following a combined precipitation/snowmelt events. A total of 28 samples (major ions and micro-pollutants) were taken over a total sampling time of 16 days at interval varying between 4 and 24 hours. Based on the variation with time of discharge and electrical conductivity (monitored every 20 minutes) as well as the concentrations of the major ions, a conceptual model showing the response of the aquifer compartments to the precipitation event was generated. A breakthrough curve of the persistent micro-pollutant carbamazepine shows that CBZ enters the aquifer system through rapid flow pathways, whereas it is heavily diluted with old CBZ free waters stored in the soil/ epikarst zone released as a response to the precipitation event. Furthermore, based on travel times estimated from artificial tracer tests, the distance to the contamination source was estimated and reveals to be relatively small.

Doummar, J.; Baierl, M.; Noedler, K.; Licha, T.; Sauter, M.; Geyer, T.

2012-04-01

193

Relevant magnetic and soil parameters as potential indicators of soil conservation status of Mediterranean agroecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main sources of magnetic minerals in soils unaffected by anthropogenic pollution are iron oxides and hydroxides derived from parent materials through soil formation processes. Soil magnetic minerals can be used as indicators of environmental factors including soil forming processes, degree of pedogenesis, weathering processes and biological activities. In this study measurements of magnetic susceptibility are used to detect the presence and the concentration of soil magnetic minerals in topsoil and bulk samples in a small cultivated field, which forms a hydrological unit that can be considered to be representative of the rainfed agroecosystems of Mediterranean mountain environments. Additional magnetic studies such as isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and thermomagnetic measurements are used to identify and characterize the magnetic mineralogy of soil minerals. The objectives were to analyse the spatial variability of the magnetic parameters to assess whether topographic factors, soil redistribution processes, and soil properties such as soil texture, organic matter and carbonate contents analysed in this study, are related to the spatial distribution pattern of magnetic properties. The medians of mass specific magnetic susceptibility at low frequency (?lf) were 36.0 and 31.1 × 10-8 m3 kg-1 in bulk and topsoil samples respectively. High correlation coefficients were found between the ?lf in topsoil and bulk core samples (r = 0.951, p < 0.01). In addition, volumetric magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ in the field (?is) and values varied from 13.3 to 64.0 × 10-5 SI. High correlation coefficients were found between ?lf in topsoil measured in the laboratory and volumetric magnetic susceptibility field measurements (r = 0.894, p < 0.01). The results obtained from magnetic studies such as IRM, ARM and thermomagnetic measurements show the presence of magnetite, which is the predominant magnetic carrier, and hematite. The predominance of superparamagnetic minerals in upper soil layers suggests enrichment in pedogenic minerals. The finer soil particles, the organic matter content and the magnetic susceptibility values are statistically correlated and their spatial variability is related to similar physical processes. Runoff redistributes soil components including magnetic minerals and exports fine particles out the field. This research contributed to further knowledge on the application of soil magnetic properties to derive useful information on soil processes in Mediterranean cultivated soils.

Quijano, Laura; Chaparro, Marcos A. E.; Marié, Débora C.; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

2014-09-01

194

Molecular markers and imaging tools to identify malignant potential in Barrett's esophagus.  

PubMed

Due to its rapidly rising incidence and high mortality, esophageal adenocarcinoma is a major public health concern, particularly in Western countries. The steps involved in the progression from its predisposing condition, gastroesophageal reflux disease, to its premalignant disorder, Barrett's esophagus, and to cancer, are incompletely understood. Current screening and surveillance methods are limited by the lack of population-wide utility, incomplete sampling of standard biopsies, and subjectivity of evaluation. Advances in endoscopic ablation have raised the hope of effective therapy for eradication of high-risk Barrett's lesions, but improvements are needed in determining when to apply this treatment and how to follow patients clinically. Researchers have evaluated numerous potential molecular biomarkers with the goal of detecting dysplasia, with varying degrees of success. The combination of biomarker panels with epidemiologic risk factors to yield clinical risk scoring systems is promising. New approaches to sample tissue may also be combined with these biomarkers for less invasive screening and surveillance. The development of novel endoscopic imaging tools in recent years has the potential to markedly improve detection of small foci of dysplasia in vivo. Current and future efforts will aim to determine the combination of markers and imaging modalities that will most effectively improve the rate of early detection of high-risk lesions in Barrett's esophagus. PMID:25400987

Bennett, Michael; Mashimo, Hiroshi

2014-11-15

195

Molecular markers and imaging tools to identify malignant potential in Barrett's esophagus  

PubMed Central

Due to its rapidly rising incidence and high mortality, esophageal adenocarcinoma is a major public health concern, particularly in Western countries. The steps involved in the progression from its predisposing condition, gastroesophageal reflux disease, to its premalignant disorder, Barrett’s esophagus, and to cancer, are incompletely understood. Current screening and surveillance methods are limited by the lack of population-wide utility, incomplete sampling of standard biopsies, and subjectivity of evaluation. Advances in endoscopic ablation have raised the hope of effective therapy for eradication of high-risk Barrett’s lesions, but improvements are needed in determining when to apply this treatment and how to follow patients clinically. Researchers have evaluated numerous potential molecular biomarkers with the goal of detecting dysplasia, with varying degrees of success. The combination of biomarker panels with epidemiologic risk factors to yield clinical risk scoring systems is promising. New approaches to sample tissue may also be combined with these biomarkers for less invasive screening and surveillance. The development of novel endoscopic imaging tools in recent years has the potential to markedly improve detection of small foci of dysplasia in vivo. Current and future efforts will aim to determine the combination of markers and imaging modalities that will most effectively improve the rate of early detection of high-risk lesions in Barrett’s esophagus.

Bennett, Michael; Mashimo, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

196

Inducible In Vivo Silencing of Brd4 Identifies Potential Toxicities of Sustained BET Protein Inhibition  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY BET family proteins are novel therapeutic targets for cancer and inflammation and represent the first chromatin readers against which small-molecule inhibitors have been developed. First-generation BET inhibitors have shown therapeutic efficacy in preclinical models, but the consequences of sustained BET protein inhibition in normal tissues remain poorly characterized. Using an inducible and reversible transgenic RNAi mouse model, we show that strong suppression of the BET protein Brd4 in adult animals has dramatic effects in multiple tissues. Brd4-depleted mice display reversible epidermal hyperplasia, alopecia, and decreased cellular diversity and stem cell depletion in the small intestine. Furthermore, Brd4-suppressed intestines are sensitive to organ stress and show impaired regeneration following irradiation, suggesting that concurrent Brd4 suppression and certain cytotoxic therapies may induce undesirable synergistic effects. These findings provide important insight into Brd4 function in normal tissues and, importantly, predict several potential outcomes associated with potent and sustained BET protein inhibition. PMID:25242322

Bolden, Jessica E.; Tasdemir, Nilgun; Dow, Lukas E.; van Es, Johan H.; Wilkinson, John E.; Zhao, Zhen; Clevers, Hans; Lowe, Scott W.

2014-01-01

197

Dipole Potentials Indicate Restructuring of the Membrane Interface Induced by Gadolinium and Beryllium Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dipole component of the membrane boundary potential, ?d, is an integral parameter that may report on the conformational state of the lipid headgroups and their hydration. In this work, we describe an experimental approach to measurements of the dipole potential changes, ??d, and apply it in studies of Be2+ and Gd3+ interactions with membranes composed of phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylcholine

Yuri A. Ermakov; Alexander Z. Averbakh; Alexander I. Yusipovich; Sergei Sukharev

2001-01-01

198

Evaluating indicators for the relative responsibility for climate change - alternatives to the Brazilian proposal and global warming potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, several indicators to describe the responsibility for climate change are discussed and evaluated. During the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, the delegation of Brazil proposed to use the impact of historical emissions on the current temperature. The Kyoto Protocol uses current emissions weighted by 100-year global warming potentials (GWPs) as the basis. As a powerful indicator historical

N. Höhne; J. Harnisch

2002-01-01

199

Teacher- and school-level predictors of teacher efficacy and burnout: identifying potential areas for support.  

PubMed

Although several studies relate low teacher efficacy and high burnout to the quality of instruction and students' academic achievement, there has been limited research examining factors that predict teacher efficacy and burnout. The current study employed a longitudinal, multilevel modeling approach to examine the influence of teacher- and school-level factors on the development of both teacher efficacy and burnout. Data were collected 3 times across 2 academic years from 600 teachers at 31 elementary schools. The results indicated that both teacher efficacy and burnout increased over time. Teacher preparedness and perceptions of teacher affiliation and leadership were significantly associated with both the intercept and growth of teacher efficacy and burnout; however, school-level factors were generally unrelated to both outcomes. Implications for screenings and teacher-targeted interventions are discussed. PMID:22386082

Pas, Elise T; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Hershfeldt, Patricia A

2012-02-01

200

Determining indicators, methods and sites for monitoring potential adverse effects of genetically modified plants to the environment: the legal and conceptional framework for implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Directive 2001\\/18\\/EC commercial cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMPs) have to be monitored. The aim\\u000a of the monitoring is to identify potential adverse effects of the GMPs and their use on human health and the environment.\\u000a There are few concepts showing how GMP monitoring may be implemented. This article indicates monitoring requirements with\\u000a a focus on environmental issues.

Wiebke Züghart; Armin Benzler; Frank Berhorn; Ulrich Sukopp; Frieder Graef

2008-01-01

201

Use of comparative proteomics to identify potential resistance mechanisms in cancer treatment  

PubMed Central

Drug resistance is a major problem in successful cancer chemotherapy. Many molecular mechanisms that are responsible for drug resistance are known whereas others have yet to be discovered. Determining the exact mechanism activated in a particular case (clinical or laboratory) is a difficult task. Recently, proteomics has been applied to investigate drug resistance mechanisms in model cancer cell lines. As a result, novel mechanisms of resistance have been discovered and known mechanisms of resistance confirmed. In this paper, we wish to review recent developments and progresses in the application of proteomic tools to identify known and novel drug resistance mechanisms in drug-selected model cancer cell lines. Our combined analyses of multiple proteomic studies of various drug resistant cancer cell lines revealed that many mechanisms of resistance likely exist in any given drug-selected cancer cell line and that common mechanisms of resistance may be selected in a spectrum of cancer cell lines. These observations suggest that combination therapies targeting multiple mechanisms to sensitize drug resistant cancers may be necessary to eradicate cancers in the future. PMID:17854999

Zhang, Jian-Ting; Liu, Yang

2007-01-01

202

A Delphi exercise used to identify potential causes of variation in litter size of Ontario swine.  

PubMed

Forty-eight people, considered to the swine experts, were asked to collaborate in a Delphi exercise to identify the factors which they believed affect litter size in Ontario swine. The panel included 16 animal scientists, 16 pork producers, and 16 veterinarians in swine practice. The ten factors with the highest ratings were parity of the sow, mycotoxins in the feed, infections with porcine parvovirus or Leptospira spp., breeding gilts on their second versus first observed estrus, the timing of breeding with respect to the onset of estrus, purebred versus crossbred sows, boar overuse (bred by a boar that was mated more than six times per week), pen versus hand mating, age of gilt when first bred, and body condition of the sow at the time of conception. The experts did not agree about the effect on litter size of the sow's previous lactation, factors ensuring adequate nutrient intake during lactation, health of the sow and the boar, breed of a purebred sow, or the ease of mating the sow.Key items in the use of the Delphi technique to arrive at a consensus are discussed. PMID:17423928

Dewey, C E; Martin, S W; Friendship, R M; Kennedy, B

1992-01-01

203

The use of DRG for identifying clinical trials centers with high recruitment potential: a feasability study.  

PubMed

Recruitment of large samples of patients is crucial for evidence level and efficacy of clinical trials (CT). Clinical Trial Recruitment Support Systems (CTRSS) used to estimate patient recruitment are generally specific to Hospital Information Systems and few were evaluated on a large number of trials. Our aim was to assess, on a large number of CT, the usefulness of commonly available data as Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) databases in order to estimate potential recruitment. We used the DRG database of a large French multicenter medical institution (1.2 million inpatient stays and 400 new trials each year). Eligibility criteria of protocols were broken down into in atomic entities (diagnosis, procedures, treatments...) then translated into codes and operators recorded in a standardized form. A program parsed the forms and generated requests on the DRG database. A large majority of selection criteria could be coded and final estimations of number of eligible patients were close to observed ones (median difference = 25). Such a system could be part of the feasability evaluation and center selection process before the start of the clinical trial. PMID:25160294

Aegerter, Philippe; Bendersky, Noelle; Tran, Thi-Chien; Ropers, Jacques; Taright, Namik; Chatellier, Gilles

2014-01-01

204

Development of a Novel Virtual Screening Cascade Protocol to Identify Potential Trypanothione Reductase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

The implementation of a novel sequential computational approach that can be used effectively for virtual screening and identification of prospective ligands that bind to trypanothione reductase (TryR) is reported. The multistep strategy combines a ligand-based virtual screening for building an enriched library of small molecules with a docking protocol (AutoDock, X-Score) for screening against the TryR target. Compounds were ranked by an exhaustive conformational consensus scoring approach that employs a rank-by-rank strategy by combining both scoring functions. Analysis of the predicted ligand?protein interactions highlights the role of bulky quaternary amine moieties for binding affinity. The scaffold hopping (SHOP) process derived from this computational approach allowed the identification of several chemotypes, not previously reported as antiprotozoal agents, which includes dibenzothiepine, dibenzooxathiepine, dibenzodithiepine, and polycyclic cationic structures like thiaazatetracyclo-nonadeca-hexaen-3-ium. Assays measuring the inhibiting effect of these compounds on T. cruzi and T. brucei TryR confirm their potential for further rational optimization. PMID:19296695

2009-01-01

205

Identifying at-risk employees: A behavioral model for predicting potential insider threats  

SciTech Connect

A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employee’s behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. In many of these crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they could be assessed by a person experienced in psychosocial evaluations. We have developed a model using a Bayesian belief network with the help of human resources staff, experienced in evaluating behaviors in staff. We conducted an experiment to assess its agreement with human resources and management professionals, with positive results. If implemented in an operational setting, the model would be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment that can raise an alarm about employees who pose higher insider threat risks. In separate work, we combine this psychosocial model’s assessment with computer workstation behavior to raise the efficacy of recognizing an insider crime in the making.

Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Dalton, Angela C.

2010-09-01

206

Identifying potential predictors of pain-related disability in Turkish patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder pain  

PubMed Central

Background The aims of this study were to examine whether patients’ psychosocial profiles influence the location of pain, and to identify the clinical and psychosocial predictors of high levels of pain-related disability in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients with chronic pain at least 6?months in duration. Methods The Research Diagnostic Criteria of TMD (RDC/TMD) data for Axis I and II were obtained for 104 consecutive patients seeking treatment. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, chi-square test, One-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, and binary multiple logistic regression tests. Patients were classified into two groups according to Graded Chronic Pain Scale scores: Grade III and IV were scored for patients with high levels of pain-related disability, whereas Grade I and II were scored for patients with low disability. Results Muscle and joint pain were found in 64.9% and 31.8% of the patients, respectively, and 27.3% of the patients suffered from both muscle and joint pain. Psychosocial disability was found in 26% of patients. There were no statistically significant differences among the diagnostic subgroups with regards to the demographic, behavioral, psychological, and psychosocial characteristics. Patients with high levels of pain-related disability had significantly higher depression, somatization, pain intensity and jaw disability scores than those with low levels of pain-related disability. Patients with high levels of pain-related disability were more likely to have higher pain intensity, to report higher somatization symptoms and functional impairment, and were less likely to have joint pain than those with low levels of pain related disability. Conclusion In conclusion, the Turkish version RDC/TMD, based on a dual axis system, may be used to screen chronic TMD patients at high-risk for pain-related disability who need comprehensive care treatment program. PMID:23565825

2013-01-01

207

UNAIDS 'multiple sexual partners' core indicator: promoting sexual networks to reduce potential biases  

PubMed Central

UNAIDS proposed a set of core indicators for monitoring changes in the worldwide AIDS epidemic. This paper explores the validity and effectiveness of the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator, which is only partially captured with current available data. The paper also suggests an innovative approach for collecting more informative data that can be used to provide an accurate measure of the UNAIDS’s ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator. Specifically, the paper addresses three major limitations associated with the indicator when it is measured with respondents’ sexual behaviors. First, the indicator assumes that a person’s risk of contracting HIV/AIDS/STIs is merely a function of his/her own sexual behavior. Second, the indicator does not account for a partner’s sexual history, which is very important in assessing an individual’s risk level. Finally, the 12-month period used to define a person’s risks can be misleading, especially because HIV/AIDS theoretically has a period of latency longer than a year. The paper concludes that, programmatically, improvements in data collection are a top priority for reducing the observed bias in the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator. PMID:24647127

Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Emina, Jacques B.O.; Sankoh, Osman

2014-01-01

208

High-Content Imaging Assays for Identifying Compounds that Generate Superoxide and Impair Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Adherent Eukaryotic Cells.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced in cells as a result of aerobic metabolism. When there is an excessive production of ROS and the cell's antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed, oxidative stress occurs. The superoxide anion is a type of ROS that is produced primarily in mitochondria but is also generated in other regions of the cell including peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane, and cytosol. Here, a high-content imaging assay using the dye dihydroethidium is described for identifying compounds that generate superoxide in eukaryotic cells. A high-content imaging assay using the fluorescent dye tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester is also described to identify compounds that impair mitochondrial membrane potential in eukaryotic cells. The purpose of performing both assays is to identify compounds that (1) generate superoxide at lower concentrations than they impair mitochondrial membrane potential, (2) impair mitochondrial membrane potential at lower concentrations than they generate superoxide, (3) generate superoxide and impair mitochondrial function at similar concentrations, and (4) do not generate superoxide or impair mitochondrial membrane potential during the duration of the assays. Curr. Protoc. Toxicol. 59:25.1.1-25.1.14. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:24789364

Billis, Puja; Will, Yvonne; Nadanaciva, Sashi

2014-01-01

209

Essential role of Glu-C66 for menaquinol oxidation indicates transmembrane electrochemical potential generation by Wolinella succinogenes fumarate reductase  

PubMed Central

Quinol:fumarate reductase (QFR) is a membrane protein complex that couples the reduction of fumarate to succinate to the oxidation of quinol to quinone, in a reaction opposite to that catalyzed by the related enzyme succinate:quinone reductase (succinate dehydrogenase). In the previously determined structure of QFR from Wolinella succinogenes, the site of fumarate reduction in the flavoprotein subunit A of the enzyme was identified, but the site of menaquinol oxidation was not. In the crystal structure, the acidic residue Glu-66 of the membrane spanning, diheme-containing subunit C lines a cavity that could be occupied by the substrate menaquinol. Here we describe that, after replacement of Glu-C66 with Gln by site-directed mutagenesis, the resulting mutant is unable to grow on fumarate and the purified enzyme lacks quinol oxidation activity. X-ray crystal structure analysis of the Glu-C66 ? Gln variant enzyme at 3.1-? resolution rules out any major structural changes compared with the wild-type enzyme. The oxidation-reduction potentials of the heme groups are not significantly affected. We conclude that Glu-C66 is an essential constituent of the menaquinol oxidation site. Because Glu-C66 is oriented toward a cavity leading to the periplasm, the release of two protons on menaquinol oxidation is expected to occur to the periplasm, whereas the uptake of two protons on fumarate reduction occurs from the cytoplasm. Thus our results indicate that the reaction catalyzed by W. succinogenes QFR generates a transmembrane electrochemical potential. PMID:11186225

Lancaster, C. Roy D.; Gross, Roland; Haas, Alexander; Ritter, Michaela; Mantele, Werner; Simon, Jorg; Kroger, Achim

2000-01-01

210

POTENTIAL USE OF BENTHIC ALGAE AS HYDROLOGIC INDICATORS FOR HEADWATER STREAMS: SOME DATA EXPLORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Benthic algae were sampled to determine the utility of algal communities as indicators of hydrologic regime as part of a national survey involving habitat measurements and community assessments. Streams from four forests near Cincinnati were classified according to hydrologic pe...

211

Incidents of potential public health significance identified using national surveillance of US poison center data (2008-2012).  

PubMed

Abstract Background. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Association of Poison Control Centers conduct national surveillance on data collected by US poison centers to identify incidents of potential public health significance (IPHS). The overarching goals of this collaboration are to improve CDC's national surveillance capacity for public health threats, identify early markers of public health incidents and enhance situational awareness. The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is used as a surveillance system to automatically identify data anomalies. Purpose. To characterize data anomalies and IPHS captured by national surveillance of poison center data over 5 years. Methods. Data anomalies are identified through three surveillance methodologies: call-volume, clinical effect, and case-based. Anomalies are reviewed by a team of epidemiologists and clinical toxicologists to determine IPHS using standardized criteria. The authors reviewed IPHS identified by these surveillance activities from 2008 through 2012. Results. Call-volume surveillance identified 384 IPHS; most were related to gas and fume exposures (n = 229; 59.6%) with the most commonly implicated substance being carbon monoxide (CO) (n = 92; 22.8%). Clinical-effect surveillance identified 138 IPHS; the majority were related to gas and fume exposures (n = 58; 42.0%) and gastrointestinal complaints (n = 84; 16.2%), and the most commonly implicated substance was CO (n = 20; 14.4%). Among the 11 case-based surveillance definitions, the botulism case definition yielded the highest percentage of identified agent-specific illness. Conclusions. A small proportion of data anomalies were designated as IPHS. Of these, CO releases were the most frequently reported IPHS and gastrointestinal syndromes were the most commonly reported illness manifestations. poison center data surveillance may be used as an approach to identify exposures, illnesses, and incidents of importance at the national and state level. PMID:25175899

Law, R K; Sheikh, S; Bronstein, A; Thomas, R; Spiller, H A; Schier, J G

2014-11-01

212

Potential Collaborators at SUMC * * Shaded entries indicate external members with primary appointment at another institution  

E-print Network

A viruses in southern China 2. Identification of the emergency of animal influenza viruses with pandemic. His work to identify the infectious source of SARS coronavirus at the live-animal markets in southern by HPLC, FPLC. Gene cloning, Recombination and expression. HUANG TH thhuang@stu.edu.cn M.Med(82

MacMillan, Andrew

213

Derivation of regional crop sequences as an indicator for potential GMO dispersal on large spatial scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodological approach is presented which aims to visualise the constraints for crop sequence planning in agriculture in a regional, large-scale context. In particular, the relationship between the scope of oilseed rape cultivation and the overall regional cropping structure, the share of particular farm types and the interactions between single crops have been analysed. The identified constraints have been applied

Michael Glemnitz; Angelika Wurbs; Reinhold Roth

2011-01-01

214

Gene Expression Profiling in a Mouse Model Identifies Fetal Liver and Placenta-Derived Potential Biomarkers for Down Syndrome Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAs a first step to identify novel potential biomarkers for prenatal Down Syndrome screening, we analyzed gene expression in embryos of wild type mice and the Down Syndrome model Ts1Cje. Since current Down Syndrome screening markers are derived from placenta and fetal liver, these tissues were chosen as target.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsPlacenta and fetal liver at 15.5 days gestation were analyzed by

Jeroen L. A. Pennings; Wendy Rodenburg; Sandra Imholz; Maria P. H. Koster; Conny T. M. van Oostrom; Timo M. Breit; Peter C. J. I. Schielen; Annemieke de Vries; Gisela Nogales-Gadea

2011-01-01

215

Early Heelstrike Kinetics Are Indicative of Slip Potential During Walking Over a Contaminated Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study is to examine ground kinetics early in stance while walking on a contaminated surface and assess the potential of kinetics to quantify risk of slipping.Background: Prior studies of slipping have dismissed early ground kinetic data, and therefore no prior literature has been able to assess the viability of using these data to quantify slip

Sean T. Osis; Jay T. Worobets; Darren J. Stefanyshyn

2012-01-01

216

Electrophysiological (Event-Related Potentials) Indices of Cognitive Processing in Autistic Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Event-related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded to both auditory and visual stimuli from the scalps of nine autistic males and nine normal controls (all Ss between 12 and 22 years of age) to examine the differences in information processing strategies. Ss were tested on three different tasks: an auditory missing stimulus paradigm, a visual color…

Shibley, Ralph, Jr.; And Others

217

Event-Related Potential Indicators of Text Integration across Sentence Boundaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An event-related potentials (ERPs) study examined word-to-text integration processes across sentence boundaries. In a two-sentence passage, the accessibility of a referent for the first content word of the second sentence (the target word) was varied by the wording of the first sentence in one of the following ways: lexically (explicitly using…

Yang, Chin Lung; Perfetti, Charles A.; Schmalhofer, Franz

2007-01-01

218

Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC) Brain Potential Changes.  

PubMed

Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes). This study investigated brain direct current (DC) potential shifts-which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation-of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest-besides some limitations-that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested "attention shift". Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed. PMID:25264675

Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

2014-01-01

219

Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC) Brain Potential Changes  

PubMed Central

Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes). This study investigated brain direct current (DC) potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed. PMID:25264675

Trimmel, Karin; Schatzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

2014-01-01

220

The Potential of Using Spectral Reflectance Indices to Estimate Yield in Wheat Grown Under Reduced Irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The objectives of this research were to study the association in bread wheat between spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) and grain yield, estimate their heritability, and correlated response to selection (CR) for grain yield estimated from SRIs under reduced irrigation conditions. Reflectance was measured at three different growth stages (booting, heading and grainfilling) and five SRIs were calculated, namely normalized difference

M. A. Babar; M. van Ginkel; A. R. Klatt; B. Prasad; M. P. Reynolds

2006-01-01

221

Startle Reflex Potentiation During Aversive Picture Viewing as an Indicator of Trait Fear  

PubMed Central

Measures of fearfulness and measures of psychopathy show positive and negative associations, respectively, with startle reflex potentiation during unpleasant picture viewing. We tested the hypothesis that a common bipolar trait dimension underlies these differing associations. Blink responses to noise probes were recorded during pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures in 88 undergraduates assessed with a battery of self-report scales indexing fear and psychopathy/fearlessness. A significant positive association was found between an omnibus index of fear, consisting of scores on the first component from a PCA of these various scales, and startle potentiation during aversive picture viewing. This association was most robust, across participants overall and within gender subgroups, for scenes that were most directly threatening. Implications for psychophysiological research on individual differences and psychopathology are discussed. PMID:19055499

Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J.; Bernat, Edward M.

2009-01-01

222

Event-related potentials indicating impaired emotional attention in cerebellar stroke--a case study.  

PubMed

The cerebellum has been implicated in affective and attentional processes, but little is known about corresponding neural signatures. We investigated early and late components of event-related potentials (ERPs) to emotionally arousing pictures, with and without competing attentional tasks, in a patient with an ischemic right posterior cerebellar infarction, at two months post infarct and two year follow-up. The early posterior negativity (EPN) response to highly arousing emotional cues in the competing visual attention condition revealed that the augmentation over occipital areas, as typically seen in normals, was absent post-infarct but was restored after two years. The late positive potentials (LPP) response to highly arousing emotional cues showed augmentation over frontal areas post-infarct, and over centro-parietal regions after two years. These ERP findings suggest a specific pattern of disruption of neural function associated with emotional-behavioral disturbances following cerebellar lesions, which can revert to normal with long term recovery. PMID:23643987

Adamaszek, M; Olbrich, S; Kirkby, K C; Woldag, H; Willert, C; Heinrich, A

2013-08-26

223

Heavy metal indicator potential of the Asiatic clam ( Corbicula fluminea ) in artificial stream systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea, as a bioindicator of cadmium, copper, and zinc was studied during 28-day exposures in field artificial streams receiving river water on a once-through basis. Copper, at aquatic concentrations of 0.016 and 0.057 mg l-1, showed the greatest degree of tissue uptake and had bioconcentration factors (BCF) of 22 571 and 17 720,

Robert L. Graney; Donald S. Cherry; John Cairns

1983-01-01

224

Event-related brain potentials as indicators of smoking cue-reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Reactivity to smoking cues, shown previously by autonomic and self-report variables, was investigated in smokers and nonsmokers using event-related brain potentials (ERPs).Methods: Average ERPs to 20 color pictures of people smoking and 20 neutral pictures depicting nonsmoking themes, randomly mixed with 4 repetitions\\/stimulus, were measured from 20 light-moderate smokers and 18 nonsmokers, following a stressor. Smoker status and stimulus

Charles A. Warren; Bruce E. McDonough

1999-01-01

225

Abnormal Indices of Cell Cycle Activity in Schizophrenia and their Potential Association with Oligodendrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to determine what signaling pathways may elicit myelin-specific gene expression deficits in schizophrenia (SZ). Microarray analyses indicated that genes associated with canonical cell cycle pathways were significantly affected in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), the region exhibiting the most profound myelin-specific gene expression changes, in persons with SZ (N=16) as compared with controls (N=19).

Pavel Katsel; Kenneth L Davis; Celeste Li; Weilun Tan; Elizabeth Greenstein; Lisa B Kleiner Hoffman; Vahram Haroutunian

2008-01-01

226

NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT & SOIL & PLANT ANALYSIS Assessing Indices for Predicting Potential Nitrogen Mineralization in Soils under Different Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reliable laboratory index of N availability would be useful for making N recommendations, but no single approach has received broad acceptance across a wide range of soils. We compared several indices over a range of soil conditions to test the possibility of combining indices for predicting potentially mineralizable N (N0). Soils (0-5 and 5-15 cm) from nine tillage studies

Harry H. Schomberg; Sirio Wietholter; Timothy S. Griffi; D. Wayne Reeves; Miguel L. Cabrera; Dwight S. Fisher; Dinku M. Endale

227

Exome Sequencing Identifies Rare Deleterious Mutations in DNA Repair Genes FANCC and BLM as Potential Breast Cancer Susceptibility Alleles  

PubMed Central

Despite intensive efforts using linkage and candidate gene approaches, the genetic etiology for the majority of families with a multi-generational breast cancer predisposition is unknown. In this study, we used whole-exome sequencing of thirty-three individuals from 15 breast cancer families to identify potential predisposing genes. Our analysis identified families with heterozygous, deleterious mutations in the DNA repair genes FANCC and BLM, which are responsible for the autosomal recessive disorders Fanconi Anemia and Bloom syndrome. In total, screening of all exons in these genes in 438 breast cancer families identified three with truncating mutations in FANCC and two with truncating mutations in BLM. Additional screening of FANCC mutation hotspot exons identified one pathogenic mutation among an additional 957 breast cancer families. Importantly, none of the deleterious mutations were identified among 464 healthy controls and are not reported in the 1,000 Genomes data. Given the rarity of Fanconi Anemia and Bloom syndrome disorders among Caucasian populations, the finding of multiple deleterious mutations in these critical DNA repair genes among high-risk breast cancer families is intriguing and suggestive of a predisposing role. Our data demonstrate the utility of intra-family exome-sequencing approaches to uncover cancer predisposition genes, but highlight the major challenge of definitively validating candidates where the incidence of sporadic disease is high, germline mutations are not fully penetrant, and individual predisposition genes may only account for a tiny proportion of breast cancer families. PMID:23028338

Thompson, Ella R.; Doyle, Maria A.; Ryland, Georgina L.; Rowley, Simone M.; Choong, David Y. H.; Tothill, Richard W.; Thorne, Heather; Barnes, Daniel R.; Li, Jason; Ellul, Jason; Philip, Gayle K.; Antill, Yoland C.; James, Paul A.; Trainer, Alison H.; Mitchell, Gillian; Campbell, Ian G.

2012-01-01

228

SILAC-based quantitative proteomic approach to identify potential biomarkers from the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma secretome  

PubMed Central

The identification of secreted proteins that are differentially expressed between non-neoplastic and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells can provide potential biomarkers of ESCC. We used a SILAC-based quantitative proteomic approach to compare the secretome of ESCC cells with that of non-neoplastic esophageal squamous epithelial cells. Proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE and tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) of in-gel trypsindigested peptides was carried out on a high-accuracy qTOF mass spectrometer. In total, we identified 441 proteins in the combined secretomes, including 120 proteins with ? 2-fold upregulation in the ESCC secretome vs. that of non-neoplastic esophageal squamous epithelial cells. In this study, several potential protein biomarkers previously known to be increased in ESCC including matrix metalloproteinase 1, transferrin receptor and transforming growth factor beta-induced 68 kDa were identified as overexpressed in the ESCC-derived secretome. In addition, we identified several novel proteins that have not been previously reported to be associated with ESCC. Among the novel candidate proteins identified, protein disulfide isomerase family a member 3 (PDIA3), GDP dissociation inhibitor 2 (GDI2) and lectin galactoside binding soluble 3 binding protein (LGALS3BP) were further validated by immunoblot analysis and immunohistochemical labeling using tissue microarrays. This tissue microarray analysis showed overexpression of protein disulfide isomerase family a member 3, GDP dissociation inhibitor 2 and lectin galactoside binding soluble 3 binding protein in 93, 93 and 87% of 137 ESCC cases, respectively. Hence, we conclude that these potential biomarkers are excellent candidates for further evaluation to test their role and efficacy in the early detection of ESCC. PMID:20686364

Kashyap, Manoj Kumar; Harsha, HC; Renuse, Santosh; Pawar, Harsh; Sahasrabuddhe, Nandini A; Kim, Min-Sik; Marimuthu, Arivusudar; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Muthusamy, Babylakshmi; Kandasamy, Kumaran; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava; Mahmood, Riaz; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Meltzer, Stephen J; Kumar, Rekha V; Rustgi, Anil K

2010-01-01

229

Chargephilicity and chargephobicity: Two new reactivity indicators for external potential changes from density functional reactivity theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In analogy to the electrophilicity and the potentialphilicity, we define the chargephilicity and chargephobicity to describe the energetic response of a molecule to a change in its charge distribution. The chargephilicity captures the 'best' way to change the underlying charge distribution; the chargephobicity captures the 'worst' way to change the underlying charge distribution. The Coulomb potential induced by the linear-response function plays a very important role in this approach, analogous to the role of the hardness for the electrophilicity, the hardness kernel for the Fukui function, and the linear-response function for the potentialphilicity and potentialphobicity.

Ayers, Paul W.; Liu, Shubin; Li, Tonglei

2009-10-01

230

Measuring Progress Toward the National Education Goals: Potential Indicators and Measurement Strategies. Compendium of Interim Resource Group Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1990, the National Education Goals Panel--six governors, four members of the President's administration, and four members of Congress--enlisted the aid of six resource groups (RGs) of educators, business people, and technical experts in identifying: which indicators best measure progress toward six national education goals, data for the panel's…

National Education Goals Panel, Washington, DC.

231

Potential of a sequence-based antigenic distance measure to indicate equine influenza vaccine strain efficacy.  

PubMed

The calculation of p(epitope) values, a sequence-based measure of antigenic distance between strains, was developed for human influenza. The potential to apply the p(epitope) value to equine influenza vaccine strain selection was assessed. There was a negative correlation between p(epitope) value and vaccine efficacy for pairs of vaccine and challenge strains used in cross-protection studies in ponies that just reached statistical significance (p=0.046) only if one pair of viruses was excluded from the analysis. Thus the p(epitope) value has potential to provide additional data to consider in the decision-making process for updating equine influenza vaccine strains. However, further work is required to define the epitopes of the equine H3N8 haemagglutinin protein recognised by equine antibodies, which could lead to refinement of the p(epitope) value calculation. Furthermore, other factors such as vaccine potency and virulence of circulating strains may also influence vaccine efficacy. PMID:23831320

Daly, Janet M; Elton, Debra

2013-12-01

232

Behavioural and physiological measures following treadmill exercise as potential indicators to evaluate fatigue in sheep.  

PubMed

The welfare consequences of long-distance transportation of animals remain a controversial topic. Animals that stand for most of the long journey (especially if additional muscular activity is required to deal with postural instability) are at risk of developing fatigue. Previous observational studies of behaviour and physiology suggested either that sheep do not become markedly fatigued by long journeys or that previous methods did not adequately identify fatigue. A range of behavioural and physiological measures were made on eight pairs of sheep during and after treadmill exercise. Within each pair of sheep, a treatment sheep was walked on a treadmill at 0.5 m/s for up to 5 h or until the sheep voluntarily stopped exercising or showed other signs of reduced performance, and a control sheep was exercised for two 10-min periods on either side of the exercise period for the treatment sheep. With the exception of one sheep that only walked for 4.5 h, all treatment sheep walked for 5 h without apparent difficulty. After exercise, the plasma cortisol concentration of treatment sheep was significantly greater than that of control sheep. However, there were no significant treatment effects on plasma creatine kinase activity or blood lactate concentration. After 5 h of exercise, there was a proportionate decrease in the median frequency of the electromyogram recorded over the m. semitendinosus, and this was significantly different from control sheep. There was no evidence that treatment sheep lay down sooner or for longer after treadmill exercise than controls. In sheep tested in a maze to examine whether there was increased motivation to rest after exercise, there was no significant difference between the times taken by treatment and control sheep to obtain a food reward. Qualitative behavioural assessment of the sheep by a panel of observers identified two main dimensions of sheep demeanour, but among descriptors elicited from observers only one person used a term associated with fatigue. No significant difference was found between the scores of treatment and control sheep on these two demeanour dimensions. Thus, there was little evidence that prolonged gentle walking exercise fatigues sheep. Further development of methods to both repeatedly induce and to identify fatigue in sheep is required. PMID:23031523

Cockram, M S; Murphy, E; Ringrose, S; Wemelsfelder, F; Miedema, H M; Sandercock, D A

2012-09-01

233

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the biliary system: Potential uses and indications.  

PubMed

Conventional ultrasound (US) is the first-line imaging investigation for biliary diseases. However, it is lack of the ability to depict the microcirculation of some lesions which may lead to failure in diagnosis for some biliary diseases. The use of contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) has reached the field of bile duct disease in recent years and promising results have been achieved. In this review, the methodology, image interpretation, enhancement pattern, clinical usefulness, and indications for CEUS in the biliary system are summarized. CEUS may be indicated in the biliary system under the following circumstances: (1) Where there is a need to make a characterization of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC); (2) For differentiation diagnosis between ICC and other tumors (i.e. hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastasis) or infectious diseases; (3) For differentiation diagnosis between biliary cystadenoma and biliary cystadenocarcinoma; (4) To detect malignant change in Caroli's disease; (5) To depict the extent of Klatskin's tumor with greater clarity; (6) To make a distinction between gallbladder cholesterol polyp, adenoma and polypoid cancer; (7) To make a distinction between chronic cholecystitis with thickened wall and gallbladder cancer; (8) For differentiation diagnosis between motionless sludge and gallbladder cancer; (9) For differentiation diagnosis between common bile duct cancer and sludge or stone without acoustic shadowing; and (10) In patients who are suspected of having a drop of their percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage tube, US contrast agent can be administered to through the tube detect the site of the tube. PMID:21160719

Xu, Hui-Xiong

2009-12-31

234

Sound processing in amateur musicians and nonmusicians: event-related potential and behavioral indices.  

PubMed

To increase our understanding of auditory neurocognition in musicians, we compared nonmusicians with amateur band musicians in their neural and behavioral sound encoding accuracy. Mismatch negativity and P3a components of the auditory event-related potentials were recorded to changes in basic acoustic features (frequency, duration, location, intensity, gap) and abstract features (melodic contour and interval size). Mismatch negativity was larger in musicians than in nonmusicians for location changes whereas no statistically significant group difference was observed in response to other feature changes or in abstract-feature mismatch negativity. P3a was observed only in musicians in response to location changes. This suggests that when compared with nonmusicians, even amateur musicians have neural sound processing advantages with acoustic information most essential to their musical genre. PMID:16837859

Tervaniemi, Mari; Castaneda, Anu; Knoll, Monja; Uther, Maria

2006-07-31

235

Mid-infrared prediction of lactoferrin content in bovine milk: potential indicator of mastitis.  

PubMed

Lactoferrin (LTF) is a milk glycoprotein favorably associated with the immune system of dairy cows. Somatic cell count is often used as an indicator of mastitis in dairy cows, but knowledge on the milk LTF content could aid in mastitis detection. An inexpensive, rapid and robust method to predict milk LTF is required. The aim of this study was to develop an equation to quantify the LTF content in bovine milk using mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry. LTF was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and all milk samples were analyzed by MIR. After discarding samples with a coefficient of variation between 2 ELISA measurements of more than 5% and the spectral outliers, the calibration set consisted of 2499 samples from Belgium (n = 110), Ireland (n = 1658) and Scotland (n = 731). Six statistical methods were evaluated to develop the LTF equation. The best method yielded a cross-validation coefficient of determination for LTF of 0.71 and a cross-validation standard error of 50.55 mg/l of milk. An external validation was undertaken using an additional dataset containing 274 Walloon samples. The validation coefficient of determination was 0.60. To assess the usefulness of the MIR predicted LTF, four logistic regressions using somatic cell score (SCS) and MIR LTF were developed to predict the presence of mastitis. The dataset used to build the logistic regressions consisted of 275 mastitis records and 13 507 MIR data collected in 18 Walloon herds. The LTF and the interaction SCS × LTF effects were significant (P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively). When only the predicted LTF was included in the model, the prediction of the presence of mastitis was not accurate despite a moderate correlation between SCS and LTF (r = 0.54). The specificity and the sensitivity of models were assessed using Walloon data (i.e. internal validation) and data collected from a research herd at the University of Wisconsin - Madison (i.e. 5886 Wisconsin MIR records related to 93 mastistis events - external validation). Model specificity was better when LTF was included in the regression along with SCS when compared with SCS alone. Correct classification of non-mastitis records was 95.44% and 92.05% from Wisconsin and Walloon data, respectively. The same conclusion was formulated from the Hosmer and Lemeshow test. In conclusion, this study confirms the possibility to quantify an LTF indicator from milk MIR spectra. It suggests the usefulness of this indicator associated to SCS to detect the presence of mastitis. Moreover, the knowledge of milk LTF could also improve the milk nutritional quality. PMID:22717388

Soyeurt, H; Bastin, C; Colinet, F G; Arnould, V M-R; Berry, D P; Wall, E; Dehareng, F; Nguyen, H N; Dardenne, P; Schefers, J; Vandenplas, J; Weigel, K; Coffey, M; Théron, L; Detilleux, J; Reding, E; Gengler, N; McParland, S

2012-11-01

236

Potential Use of Spectral Reflectance Indices as a Selection Tool for Grain Yield in Winter Wheat under Great Plains Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection criteria that would facilitate increased genetic gain for grain yield would be considered advantageous in plant breeding programs. We evaluated the potential of spectral refl ectance indices (SRI) for assessing grain yield variability in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under Great Plains conditions. One experiment was conducted at two locations on the Okla- homa State University research farms

B. Prasad; B. F. Carver; M. L. Stone; M. A. Babar; W. R. Raun; A. R. Klatt

2007-01-01

237

Menopausal Symptoms among Breast Cancer Patients: A Potential Indicator of Favorable Prognosis  

PubMed Central

Menopausal symptoms have been suggested to be an indicator of better prognosis among patients treated for breast cancer, because women who experience these symptoms usually have a lower level of estrogen. We tested this hypothesis in a population-based, prospective cohort study involving 4,842 women with stage 0 to III primary breast cancer who were enrolled in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study between March 2002 and April 2006, were aged 20 to 75 years, and were recruited 6 months post-diagnosis. They were followed-up by in-person surveys and record linkages with the vital statistics registry. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of menopausal symptoms at baseline with breast cancer recurrence. Approximately 56% of patients experienced at least one menopausal symptom, including hot flashes, night sweats, and/or vaginal dryness at baseline. During a median follow-up period of 5.3 years, 720 women had a recurrence. Experiencing hot flashes or having ?2 menopausal symptoms was associated with lower risk of recurrence among premenopausal women (hazard ratio [HR]=0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.96 for hot flashes; 0.73, 0.56-0.96 for ?2 menopausal symptoms). Lower recurrence risk in relation to hot flashes was also observed among women who were not overweight/obese (HR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.64-0.99), those with relatively low waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (HR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.97), and those who used tamoxifen (HR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). Consistently experiencing multiple menopausal symptoms was associated with lower recurrence risk among women with low WHR or who used tamoxifen. This large, population-based cohort study of women with breast cancer confirms that experiencing menopausal symptoms is an indicator of favorable breast cancer prognosis. PMID:24098745

Chen, Yong; Dorjgochoo, Tsogzolmaa; Bao, Ping-Ping; Zheng, Ying; Cai, Hui; Lu, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

2013-01-01

238

The potential to reconstruct broadscale climate indices associated with southeast Australian droughts from Athrotaxis species, Tasmania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Occurrence of drought and dry periods in southeastern Australia has been linked to broad scale climate phenomena including the Southern Oscillation, Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and persistence of blocking high pressure in the Tasman Sea. We examine relationships between Athrotaxis tree ring chronologies from southern Australia extending over much of the past millennia and these broad scale indices. We also examine relationships between the chronologies, temperature, precipitation and a standardised precipitation and evapotranspiration index. Timing of significant correlations with maximum temperature varies between species. The responses of the species with broadscale indices vary with location: northern Athrotaxis cupressoides (Pencil Pine) are more strongly related to the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) than southern sites. As an exception to this, a site in the far south had significant correlations with both the SOI and IPO, opposite in sign to those observed for the northern sites. Significant spectral power at frequencies consistent with the SOI and IPO occur in all chronologies. Western and southern sites are more strongly related to a seasonalised index of SAM. These three systems have played important roles in determining moisture conditions in southeastern Australia over the past millennium. Results suggest that reconstructions of the SOI, IPO or SAM are unlikely based solely on this Athrotaxis network. The Athrotaxis network of tree ring sites, is however, likely to be an important input to multi-proxy models reconstructing the SOI, IPO or SAM in the Australian sector. The Athrotaxis network of sites is also an important extension of the existing network of Australian tree ring sites that could be used to reconstruct historical drought in southeastern Australia.

Allen, K. J.; Ogden, J.; Buckley, B. M.; Cook, E. R.; Baker, P. J.

2011-11-01

239

Secretome analysis identifies potential virulence factors of Diplodia corticola, a fungal pathogen involved in cork oak (Quercus suber) decline.  

PubMed

The characterisation of the secretome of phytopathogenic fungi may contribute to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. This is particularly relevant for Diplodia corticola, a fungal plant pathogen belonging to the family Botryosphaeriaceae, whose genome remains unsequenced. This phytopathogenic fungus is recognised as one of the most important pathogens of cork oak, being related to the decline of cork oak forests in the Iberian Peninsula. Unfortunately, secretome analysis of filamentous fungi is limited by the low protein concentration and by the presence of many interfering substances, such as polysaccharides, which affect the separation and analysis by 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis. We compared six protein extraction protocols concerning their suitability for further application with proteomic workflows. The protocols involving protein precipitation were the most efficient, with emphasis on TCA-acetone protocol, allowing us to identify the most abundant proteins on the secretome of this plant pathogen. Approximately 60% of the spots detected were identified, all corresponding to extracellular proteins. Most proteins identified were carbohydrate degrading enzymes and proteases that may be related to D. corticola pathogenicity. Although the secretome was assessed in a noninfection environment, potential virulence factors such as the putative glucan-?-glucosidase, neuraminidase, and the putative ferulic acid esterase were identified. The data obtained forms a useful basis for a deeper understanding of the pathogenicity and infection biology of D. corticola. Moreover, it will contribute to the development of proteomics studies on other members of the Botryosphaeriaceae. PMID:24863480

Fernandes, Isabel; Alves, Artur; Correia, António; Devreese, Bart; Esteves, Ana Cristina

2014-01-01

240

Exome Sequencing Identifies DLG1 as a Novel Gene for Potential Susceptibility to Crohn's Disease in a Chinese Family Study  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic variants make some contributions to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). More than 100 susceptibility loci were identified in Western IBD studies, but susceptibility gene has not been found in Chinese IBD patients till now. Sequencing of individuals with an IBD family history is a powerful approach toward our understanding of the genetics and pathogenesis of IBD. The aim of this study, which focuses on a Han Chinese CD family, is to identify high-risk variants and potentially novel loci using whole exome sequencing technique. Methods Exome sequence data from 4 individuals belonging to a same family were analyzed using bioinformatics methods to narrow down the variants associated with CD. The potential risk genes were further analyzed by genotyping and Sanger sequencing in family members, additional 401 healthy controls (HC), 278 sporadic CD patients, 123 UC cases, a pair of monozygotic CD twins and another Chinese CD family. Results From the CD family in which the father and daughter were affected, we identified a novel single nucleotide variant (SNV) c.374T>C (p.I125T) in exon 4 of discs large homolog 1 (DLG1), a gene has been reported to play mutiple roles in cell proliferation, T cell polarity and T cell receptor signaling. After genotyping among case and controls, a PLINK analysis showed the variant was of significance (P<0.05). 4 CD patients of the other Chinese family bore another non-synonymous variant c.833G>A (p.R278Q) in exon 9 of DLG1. Conclusions We have discovered novel genetic variants in the coding regions of DLG1 gene, the results support that DLG1 is a novel potential susceptibility gene for CD in Chinese patients. PMID:24937328

Song, Lu; NG, Siew Chien; Wang, Xiaobing; Chen, Liping; Yi, Fengming; Ran, Zhihua; Zhou, Rui; Xia, Bing

2014-01-01

241

Abnormal indices of cell cycle activity in schizophrenia and their potential association with oligodendrocytes.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine what signaling pathways may elicit myelin-specific gene expression deficits in schizophrenia (SZ). Microarray analyses indicated that genes associated with canonical cell cycle pathways were significantly affected in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), the region exhibiting the most profound myelin-specific gene expression changes, in persons with SZ (N=16) as compared with controls (N=19). Detected gene expression changes of key regulators of G1/S phase transition and genes central to oligodendrocyte differentiation were validated using qPCR in the ACG in an independent cohort (Ns=45/34). The relative abundance of phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (pRb) was increased in the white matter underlying the ACG in SZ subjects (Ns=12). The upregulation of cyclin D1 gene expression and the downregulation of p57(Kip2), accompanied by increased cyclin D/CDK4-dependent phosphorylation of pRb, acting as a checkpoint for G1/S phase transition, suggest abnormal cell cycle re-entry in postmitotic oligodendrocytes in SZ. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of brain samples from myelin mutant animal models, quaking and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) null mice, showed that cell cycle gene expression changes were not a necessary consequence of the reduced gene expression of structural myelin proteins, such as MAG. While, quaking, a known modulator of cell cycle activity during oligodendrocyte differentiation impairs the expression of multiple myelin genes, including those that are affected in SZ. These data suggest that the normal patterns of cell cycle gene and protein expression are disrupted in SZ and that this disruption may contribute to the oligodendroglial deficits observed in SZ. PMID:18322470

Katsel, Pavel; Davis, Kenneth L; Li, Celeste; Tan, Weilun; Greenstein, Elizabeth; Kleiner Hoffman, Lisa B; Haroutunian, Vahram

2008-11-01

242

A Systematic In Silico Search for Target Similarity Identifies Several Approved Drugs with Potential Activity against the Plasmodium falciparum Apicoplast  

PubMed Central

Most of the drugs in use against Plasmodium falciparum share similar modes of action and, consequently, there is a need to identify alternative potential drug targets. Here, we focus on the apicoplast, a malarial plastid-like organelle of algal source which evolved through secondary endosymbiosis. We undertake a systematic in silico target-based identification approach for detecting drugs already approved for clinical use in humans that may be able to interfere with the P. falciparum apicoplast. The P. falciparum genome database GeneDB was used to compile a list of ?600 proteins containing apicoplast signal peptides. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target and its predicted sequence was used to interrogate three different freely available databases (Therapeutic Target Database, DrugBank and STITCH3.1) that provide synoptic data on drugs and their primary or putative drug targets. We were able to identify several drugs that are expected to interact with forty-seven (47) peptides predicted to be involved in the biology of the P. falciparum apicoplast. Fifteen (15) of these putative targets are predicted to have affinity to drugs that are already approved for clinical use but have never been evaluated against malaria parasites. We suggest that some of these drugs should be experimentally tested and/or serve as leads for engineering new antimalarials. PMID:23555651

Bispo, Nadlla Alves; Culleton, Richard; Silva, Lourival Almeida; Cravo, Pedro

2013-01-01

243

A systematic in silico search for target similarity identifies several approved drugs with potential activity against the Plasmodium falciparum apicoplast.  

PubMed

Most of the drugs in use against Plasmodium falciparum share similar modes of action and, consequently, there is a need to identify alternative potential drug targets. Here, we focus on the apicoplast, a malarial plastid-like organelle of algal source which evolved through secondary endosymbiosis. We undertake a systematic in silico target-based identification approach for detecting drugs already approved for clinical use in humans that may be able to interfere with the P. falciparum apicoplast. The P. falciparum genome database GeneDB was used to compile a list of ?600 proteins containing apicoplast signal peptides. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target and its predicted sequence was used to interrogate three different freely available databases (Therapeutic Target Database, DrugBank and STITCH3.1) that provide synoptic data on drugs and their primary or putative drug targets. We were able to identify several drugs that are expected to interact with forty-seven (47) peptides predicted to be involved in the biology of the P. falciparum apicoplast. Fifteen (15) of these putative targets are predicted to have affinity to drugs that are already approved for clinical use but have never been evaluated against malaria parasites. We suggest that some of these drugs should be experimentally tested and/or serve as leads for engineering new antimalarials. PMID:23555651

Bispo, Nadlla Alves; Culleton, Richard; Silva, Lourival Almeida; Cravo, Pedro

2013-01-01

244

An assessment indicator for air ventilation and pollutant dispersion potential in an urban canopy with complex natural terrain and significant wind variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an urban planning context, an assessment indicator for evaluating a city's dispersion potential is beneficial, especially if the city has a complex natural terrain and significant wind variations. A study was conducted to implement an urban canopy drag indicator, taking site wind variation into account by involving both wind speed and direction in the calculations. Hong Kong (HK) was taken as an example due to its complicated natural topography and wind characteristics. A spatial distribution of an urban canopy drag over HK was determined based on wind data from 2004. The urban canopy drag values in three highly urbanized areas in HK, including Kowloon West, Kowloon East and Hong Kong Island North, were obtained and are discussed in detail. A fluid particle tracking program was developed and applied to identify the major wind paths in Kowloon West, with an area of approximately 5.5 × 6 km as an example. We analyzed the diurnal variation in the dispersion times and the major wind paths in the region during both summer and winter. Our results estimated that the horizontal dispersion times of Kowloon West during both winter and summer were approximately 20 min. By combining the wind paths from both seasons, we identified several major wind paths and critical ventilation areas in Kowloon West. This paper demonstrates the potential use of an urban canopy drag indicator for assessing air ventilation and pollutant dispersion in a city planning context.

Yim, S. H. L.; Fung, J. C. H.; Ng, E. Y. Y.

2014-09-01

245

A chemical biology approach identified PI3K as a potential therapeutic target for neurofibromatosis type 2  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the merlin tumor suppressor gene cause Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), which is a disease characterized by development of multiple benign tumors in the nervous system. The current standard of care for NF2 calls for surgical resection of the characteristic tumors, often with devastating neurological consequences. There are currently no approved non-surgical therapies for NF2. In an attempt to identify much needed targets and therapeutically active compounds for NF2 treatment, we employed a chemical biology approach using ultra-high-throughput screening. To support this goal, we created a merlin-null mouse Schwann cell (MSC) line to screen for compounds that selectively decrease their viability and proliferation. We optimized conditions for 384-well plate assays and executed a proof-of-concept screen of the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds. Further confirmatory and selectivity assays identified phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) as a potential NF2 drug target. Notably, loss of merlin function is associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway in human schwannomas. We report that AS605240, a PI3K inhibitor, decreased merlin-null MSC viability in a dose-dependent manner without significantly decreasing viability of control Schwann cells. AS605240 exerted its action on merlin-null MSCs by promoting caspase-dependent apoptosis and inducing autophagy. Additional PI3K inhibitors tested also decreased viability of merlin-null MSCs in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, our chemical genomic screen and subsequent hit validation studies have identified PI3K as potential target for NF2 therapy. PMID:25360213

Petrilli, Alejandra M; Fuse, Marisa A; Donnan, Mathew S; Bott, Marga; Sparrow, Nicklaus A; Tondera, Daniel; Huffziger, Julia; Frenzel, Corina; Malany, C Siobhan; Echeverri, Christophe J; Smith, Layton; Fernandez-Valle, Cristina

2014-01-01

246

Molecular evidence indicates that Phlebotomus major sensu lato (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the vector species of the recently-identified sandfly fever Sicilian virus variant: sandfly fever turkey virus.  

PubMed

Sandfly fever turkey virus (SFTV) is a recently-discovered sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) variant (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus), characterized during retrospective evaluation of febrile disease outbreaks in Turkey. In addition to causing sandfly fever, SFTV was observed to induce elevation of liver enzymes, and to cause thrombocytopenia in affected individuals. This study was conducted to identify vectors for phleboviruses including SFTV in Ankara province, Turkey, where evidence indicates ongoing circulation of SFTV, as well as Toscana virus. Sandfly sampling was performed in Ankara province in the vicinity or in animal housing facilities in 15 peri-domestic sites. Male sandflies were identified morphologically, whereas females were evaluated individually for Phlebovirus RNA via a nested-PCR assay with consensus primers. Selected individuals and PCR-positive sandflies were subjected to barcoding via cytochrome c oxidase sequence analyses. The source of blood meals in virus-infected sandflies was investigated using a multiplexed PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of various vertebrates. A total of 667 sandflies were captured in 11 locations. Morphological identification of males (n=226) revealed Phlebotomus major sensu lato as the most abundant species (38.9%), followed by Phlebotomus sergenti (20.4%), Phlebotomus halepensis (17.7%), Phlebotomus papatasi (10.2%), Phlebotomus simici (3.98%), Larrousius spp. (3.53%), Phlebotomus tobbi (1.32%), Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi (1.32%), and others. Virus sequences were detected in 3 (3/441) sandflies, two of which were characterized as P. major s.l. via barcoding. The detected sequences in sandflies were identified as SFTV, and were identical or similar to sequences from patients from the same area and the prototype SFTV strain. Bovine and human blood meals were demonstrated in SFTV-infected sandflies. P. major s.l. has been identified as the vector species for SFTV. Bovidae need to be evaluated as probable amplifying hosts for SFTV. PMID:22651385

Ergunay, Koray; Erisoz Kasap, Ozge; Kocak Tufan, Zeliha; Turan, Mahur H; Ozkul, Aykut; Alten, Bulent

2012-08-01

247

Transcriptome analysis of the Cryptocaryon irritans tomont stage identifies potential genes for the detection and control of cryptocaryonosis  

PubMed Central

Background Cryptocaryon irritans is a parasitic ciliate that causes cryptocaryonosis (white spot disease) in marine fish. Diagnosis of cryptocaryonosis often depends on the appearance of white spots on the surface of the fish, which are usually visible only during later stages of the disease. Identifying suitable biomarkers of this parasite would aid the development of diagnostic tools and control strategies for C. irritans. The C. irritans genome is virtually unexplored; therefore, we generated and analyzed expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of the parasite to identify genes that encode for surface proteins, excretory/secretory proteins and repeat-containing proteins. Results ESTs were generated from a cDNA library of C. irritans tomonts isolated from infected Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Clustering of the 5356 ESTs produced 2659 unique transcripts (UTs) containing 1989 singletons and 670 consensi. BLAST analysis showed that 74% of the UTs had significant similarity (E-value < 10-5) to sequences that are currently available in the GenBank database, with more than 15% of the significant hits showing unknown function. Forty percent of the UTs had significant similarity to ciliates from the genera Tetrahymena and Paramecium. Comparative gene family analysis with related taxa showed that many protein families are conserved among the protozoans. Based on gene ontology annotation, functional groups were successfully assigned to 790 UTs. Genes encoding excretory/secretory proteins and membrane and membrane-associated proteins were identified because these proteins often function as antigens and are good antibody targets. A total of 481 UTs were classified as encoding membrane proteins, 54 were classified as encoding for membrane-bound proteins, and 155 were found to contain excretory/secretory protein-coding sequences. Amino acid repeat-containing proteins and GPI-anchored proteins were also identified as potential candidates for the development of diagnostic and control strategies for C. irritans. Conclusions We successfully discovered and examined a large portion of the previously unexplored C. irritans transcriptome and identified potential genes for the development and validation of diagnostic and control strategies for cryptocaryonosis. PMID:20113487

2010-01-01

248

Zebrafish: an emerging technology for in vivo pharmacological assessment to identify potential safety liabilities in early drug discovery  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish is a well-established model organism used in developmental biology. In the last decade, this technology has been extended to the generation of high-value knowledge on safety risks of novel drugs. Indeed, the larval zebrafish appear to combine advantages of whole organism phenotypic assays and those (rapid production of results with minimal resource engagement) of in vitro high-throughput screening techniques. Thus, if appropriately evaluated, it can offer undeniable advantages in drug discovery for identification of target and off-target effects. Here, we review some applications of zebrafish to identify potential safety liabilities, particularly before lead/candidate selection. For instance, zebrafish cardiovascular system can be used to reveal decreases in heart rate and atrial–ventricular dissociation, which may signal human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel blockade. Another main area of interest is the CNS, where zebrafish behavioural assays have been and are further being developed into screening platforms for assessment of locomotor activity, convulsant and proconvulsant liability, cognitive impairment, drug dependence potential and impaired visual and auditory functions. Zebrafish also offer interesting possibilities for evaluating effects on bone density and gastrointestinal function. Furthermore, available knowledge of the renal system in larval zebrafish can allow identification of potential safety issues of drug candidates on this often neglected area in early development platforms. Although additional validation is certainly needed, the zebrafish is emerging as a versatile in vivo animal model to identify off-target effects that need investigation and further clarification early in the drug discovery process to reduce the current, high degree of attrition in development. PMID:18552866

Barros, T P; Alderton, W K; Reynolds, H M; Roach, A G; Berghmans, S

2008-01-01

249

Transcriptome analysis identifies novel responses and potential regulatory genes involved in seasonal dormancy transitions of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Dormancy of buds is a critical developmental process that allows perennial plants to survive extreme seasonal variations in climate. Dormancy transitions in underground crown buds of the model herbaceous perennial weed leafy spurge were investigated using a 23 K element cDNA microarray. These data represent the first large-scale transcriptome analysis of dormancy in underground buds of an herbaceous perennial species. Crown buds collected monthly from August through December, over a five year period, were used to monitor the changes in the transcriptome during dormancy transitions. Results Nearly 1,000 genes were differentially-expressed through seasonal dormancy transitions. Expected patterns of gene expression were observed for previously characterized genes and physiological processes indicated that resolution in our analysis was sufficient for identifying shifts in global gene expression. Conclusion Gene ontology of differentially-expressed genes suggests dormancy transitions require specific alterations in transport functions (including induction of a series of mitochondrial substrate carriers, and sugar transporters), ethylene, jasmonic acid, auxin, gibberellic acid, and abscisic acid responses, and responses to stress (primarily oxidative and cold/drought). Comparison to other dormancy microarray studies indicated that nearly half of the genes identified in our study were also differentially expressed in at least two other plant species during dormancy transitions. This comparison allowed us to identify a particular MADS-box transcription factor related to the DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX genes from peach and hypothesize that it may play a direct role in dormancy induction and maintenance through regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T. PMID:19014493

Horvath, David P; Chao, Wun S; Suttle, Jeffrey C; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Anderson, James V

2008-01-01

250

A tree-based statistical classification algorithm (CHAID) for identifying variables responsible for the occurrence of faecal indicator bacteria during waterworks operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial contamination of groundwater used for drinking water can affect public health and is of major concern to local water authorities and water suppliers. Potential hazards need to be identified in order to protect raw water resources. We propose a non-parametric data mining technique for exploring the presence of total coliforms (TC) in a groundwater abstraction well and its relationship to readily available, continuous time series of hydrometric monitoring parameters (seven year records of precipitation, river water levels, and groundwater heads). The original monitoring parameters were used to create an extensive generic dataset of explanatory variables by considering different accumulation or averaging periods, as well as temporal offsets of the explanatory variables. A classification tree based on the Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) recursive partitioning algorithm revealed statistically significant relationships between precipitation and the presence of TC in both a production well and a nearby monitoring well. Different secondary explanatory variables were identified for the two wells. Elevated water levels and short-term water table fluctuations in the nearby river were found to be associated with TC in the observation well. The presence of TC in the production well was found to relate to elevated groundwater heads and fluctuations in groundwater levels. The generic variables created proved useful for increasing significance levels. The tree-based model was used to predict the occurrence of TC on the basis of hydrometric variables.

Bichler, Andrea; Neumaier, Arnold; Hofmann, Thilo

2014-11-01

251

Entering a New Era of Body Indices: The Feasibility of a Body Shape Index and Body Roundness Index to Identify Cardiovascular Health Status  

PubMed Central

Background The Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) are well-used anthropometric predictors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but their validity is regularly questioned. Recently, A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) were introduced as alternative anthropometric indices that may better reflect health status. Objective This study assessed the capacity of ABSI and BRI in identifying cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular disease risk factors and determined whether they are superior to BMI and WC. Design and Methods 4627 Participants (54±12 years) of the Nijmegen Exercise Study completed an online questionnaire concerning CVD health status (defined as history of CVD or CVD risk factors) and anthropometric characteristics. Quintiles of ABSI, BRI, BMI, and WC were used regarding CVD prevalence. Odds ratios (OR), adjusted for age, sex, and smoking, were calculated per anthropometric index. Results 1332 participants (27.7%) reported presence of CVD or CVD risk factors. The prevalence of CVD increased across quintiles for BMI, ABSI, BRI, and WC. Comparing the lowest with the highest quintile, adjusted OR (95% CI) for CVD were significantly different for BRI 3.2 (1.4–7.2), BMI 2.4 (1.9–3.1), and WC 3.0 (1.6–5.6). The adjusted OR (95% CI) for CVD risk factors was for BRI 2.5 (2.0–3.3), BMI 3.3 (1.6–6.8), and WC 2.0 (1.6–2.5). No association was observed for ABSI in both groups. Conclusions BRI, BMI, and WC are able to determine CVD presence, while ABSI is not capable. Nevertheless, the capacity of BRI as a novel body index to identify CVD was not superior compared to established anthropometric indices like BMI and WC. PMID:25229394

Maessen, Martijn F. H.; Eijsvogels, Thijs M. H.; Verheggen, Rebecca J. H. M.; Hopman, Maria T. E.; Verbeek, Andre L. M.; de Vegt, Femmie

2014-01-01

252

Adult Fanniidae associated to pig carcasses during the winter season in a semiarid environment: initial examination of their potential as complementary PMI indicators.  

PubMed

Besides the dominant necrophagous dipteran of the families Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae usually used for post mortem interval (PMI) estimations, species of other families such as Fanniidae have frequently been reported in forensic studies. Though less abundant, these species are prevalent in decomposing carcasses with most reports being anecdotal. In this study we identified adults of the fly family Fanniidae associated to pig carcasses located under different local environmental conditions (sun and shade) in a semiarid area at Mendoza, Argentina during the winter season. We examined the potential of species of this family as indicators of PMI by measuring abundance, time of occurrence and residency time at the carcasses. We identified six species of Fanniidae: Euryomma peregrinum Meigen, Fannia albitarsis Stein, Fannia femoralis Stein, Fannia fusconotata Rondani, Fannia heydenii Wiedemann and Fannia sanihue Domínguez and Aballay. Overall, fly abundance was higher at the sunlit than at the shaded carcass. The most abundant species at the sun was F. fusconotata while at the shaded carcass F. femoralis was the most abundant species. Based on their residency time, however, species with higher potential as PMI indicators seem to be F. heydenii and F. sanihue as their residency time at the carcass was restricted to a short period of the decomposition process. Other species were present throughout most of the decomposition process or in such a low abundance (E. peregrinum) that they were not useful as indicators. These preliminary results indicate that adults of some species of Fanniidae could act as a good complementary indicator species during the winter season. In particular, F. heydenii and F. sanihue should be the focus of further studies which should also expand to other seasons. PMID:22188639

Aballay, Fernando H; Domínguez, M Cecilia; Fernández Campón, Florencia

2012-06-10

253

A cell-based fascin bioassay identifies compounds with potential anti-metastasis or cognition-enhancing functions  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The actin-bundling protein fascin is a key mediator of tumor invasion and metastasis and its activity drives filopodia formation, cell-shape changes and cell migration. Small-molecule inhibitors of fascin block tumor metastasis in animal models. Conversely, fascin deficiency might underlie the pathogenesis of some developmental brain disorders. To identify fascin-pathway modulators we devised a cell-based assay for fascin function and used it in a bidirectional drug screen. The screen utilized cultured fascin-deficient mutant Drosophila neurons, whose neurite arbors manifest the ‘filagree’ phenotype. Taking a repurposing approach, we screened a library of 1040 known compounds, many of them FDA-approved drugs, for filagree modifiers. Based on scaffold distribution, molecular-fingerprint similarities, and chemical-space distribution, this library has high structural diversity, supporting its utility as a screening tool. We identified 34 fascin-pathway blockers (with potential anti-metastasis activity) and 48 fascin-pathway enhancers (with potential cognitive-enhancer activity). The structural diversity of the active compounds suggests multiple molecular targets. Comparisons of active and inactive compounds provided preliminary structure-activity relationship information. The screen also revealed diverse neurotoxic effects of other drugs, notably the ‘beads-on-a-string’ defect, which is induced solely by statins. Statin-induced neurotoxicity is enhanced by fascin deficiency. In summary, we provide evidence that primary neuron culture using a genetic model organism can be valuable for early-stage drug discovery and developmental neurotoxicity testing. Furthermore, we propose that, given an appropriate assay for target-pathway function, bidirectional screening for brain-development disorders and invasive cancers represents an efficient, multipurpose strategy for drug discovery. PMID:22917928

Kraft, Robert; Kahn, Allon; Medina-Franco, José L.; Orlowski, Mikayla L.; Baynes, Cayla; López-Vallejo, Fabian; Barnard, Kobus; Maggiora, Gerald M.; Restifo, Linda L.

2013-01-01

254

Gene Expression Profiling in a Mouse Model Identifies Fetal Liver- and Placenta-Derived Potential Biomarkers for Down Syndrome Screening  

PubMed Central

Background As a first step to identify novel potential biomarkers for prenatal Down Syndrome screening, we analyzed gene expression in embryos of wild type mice and the Down Syndrome model Ts1Cje. Since current Down Syndrome screening markers are derived from placenta and fetal liver, these tissues were chosen as target. Methodology/Principal Findings Placenta and fetal liver at 15.5 days gestation were analyzed by microarray profiling. We confirmed increased expression of genes located at the trisomic chromosomal region. Overall, between the two genotypes more differentially expressed genes were found in fetal liver than in placenta. Furthermore, the fetal liver data are in line with the hematological aberrations found in humans with Down Syndrome as well as Ts1Cje mice. Together, we found 25 targets that are predicted (by Gene Ontology, UniProt, or the Human Plasma Proteome project) to be detectable in human serum. Conclusions/Significance Fetal liver might harbor more promising targets for Down Syndrome screening studies. We expect these new targets will help focus further experimental studies on identifying and validating human maternal serum biomarkers for Down Syndrome screening. PMID:21533146

Imholz, Sandra; Koster, Maria P. H.; van Oostrom, Conny T. M.; Breit, Timo M.; Schielen, Peter C. J. I.; de Vries, Annemieke

2011-01-01

255

Cross-comparison of the genome sequences from human, chimpanzee, Neanderthal and a Denisovan hominin identifies novel potentially compensated mutations  

PubMed Central

The recent publication of the draft genome sequences of the Neanderthal and a ~50,000-year-old archaic hominin from Denisova Cave in southern Siberia has ushered in a new age in molecular archaeology. We previously cross-compared the human, chimpanzee and Neanderthal genome sequences with respect to a set of disease-causing/disease-associated missense and regulatory mutations (Human Gene Mutation Database) and succeeded in identifying genetic variants which, although apparently pathogenic in humans, may represent a 'compensated' wild-type state in at least one of the other two species. Here, in an attempt to identify further 'potentially compensated mutations' (PCMs) of interest, we have compared our dataset of disease-causing/disease-associated mutations with their corresponding nucleotide positions in the Denisovan hominin, Neanderthal and chimpanzee genomes. Of the 15 human putatively disease-causing mutations that were found to be compensated in chimpanzee, Denisovan or Neanderthal, only a solitary F5 variant (Val1736Met) was specific to the Denisovan. In humans, this missense mutation is associated with activated protein C resistance and an increased risk of thromboembolism and recurrent miscarriage. It is unclear at this juncture whether this variant was indeed a PCM in the Denisovan or whether it could instead have been associated with disease in this ancient hominin. PMID:21807602

2011-01-01

256

Experimental antibiotic treatment identifies potential pathogens of white band disease in the endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis  

PubMed Central

Coral diseases have been increasingly reported over the past few decades and are a major contributor to coral decline worldwide. The Caribbean, in particular, has been noted as a hotspot for coral disease, and the aptly named white syndromes have caused the decline of the dominant reef building corals throughout their range. White band disease (WBD) has been implicated in the dramatic loss of Acropora cervicornis and Acropora palmata since the 1970s, resulting in both species being listed as critically endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red list. The causal agent of WBD remains unknown, although recent studies based on challenge experiments with filtrate from infected hosts concluded that the disease is probably caused by bacteria. Here, we report an experiment using four different antibiotic treatments, targeting different members of the disease-associated microbial community. Two antibiotics, ampicillin and paromomycin, arrested the disease completely, and by comparing with community shifts brought about by treatments that did not arrest the disease, we have identified the likely candidate causal agent or agents of WBD. Our interpretation of the experimental treatments is that one or a combination of up to three specific bacterial types, detected consistently in diseased corals but not detectable in healthy corals, are likely causal agents of WBD. In addition, a histophagous ciliate (Philaster lucinda) identical to that found consistently in association with white syndrome in Indo-Pacific acroporas was also consistently detected in all WBD samples and absent in healthy coral. Treatment with metronidazole reduced it to below detection limits, but did not arrest the disease. However, the microscopic disease signs changed, suggesting a secondary role in disease causation for this ciliate. In future studies to identify a causal agent of WBD via tests of Henle–Koch's postulates, it will be vital to experimentally control for populations of the other potential pathogens identified in this study. PMID:24943374

Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

2014-01-01

257

Genetic Analysis of Fin Development in Zebrafish Identifies Furin and Hemicentin1 as Potential Novel Fraser Syndrome Disease Genes  

PubMed Central

Using forward genetics, we have identified the genes mutated in two classes of zebrafish fin mutants. The mutants of the first class are characterized by defects in embryonic fin morphogenesis, which are due to mutations in a Laminin subunit or an Integrin alpha receptor, respectively. The mutants of the second class display characteristic blistering underneath the basement membrane of the fin epidermis. Three of them are due to mutations in zebrafish orthologues of FRAS1, FREM1, or FREM2, large basement membrane protein encoding genes that are mutated in mouse bleb mutants and in human patients suffering from Fraser Syndrome, a rare congenital condition characterized by syndactyly and cryptophthalmos. Fin blistering in a fourth group of zebrafish mutants is caused by mutations in Hemicentin1 (Hmcn1), another large extracellular matrix protein the function of which in vertebrates was hitherto unknown. Our mutant and dose-dependent interaction data suggest a potential involvement of Hmcn1 in Fraser complex-dependent basement membrane anchorage. Furthermore, we present biochemical and genetic data suggesting a role for the proprotein convertase FurinA in zebrafish fin development and cell surface shedding of Fras1 and Frem2, thereby allowing proper localization of the proteins within the basement membrane of forming fins. Finally, we identify the extracellular matrix protein Fibrillin2 as an indispensable interaction partner of Hmcn1. Thus we have defined a series of zebrafish mutants modelling Fraser Syndrome and have identified several implicated novel genes that might help to further elucidate the mechanisms of basement membrane anchorage and of the disease's aetiology. In addition, the novel genes might prove helpful to unravel the molecular nature of thus far unresolved cases of the human disease. PMID:20419147

Carney, Thomas J.; Feitosa, Natalia Martins; Sonntag, Carmen; Slanchev, Krasimir; Kluger, Johannes; Kiyozumi, Daiji; Gebauer, Jan M.; Coffin Talbot, Jared; Kimmel, Charles B.; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Wagener, Raimund; Schwarz, Heinz; Ingham, Phillip W.; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

2010-01-01

258

Detection of 91 potential conserved plant microRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa identifies important target genes  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an extensive class of tiny RNA molecules that regulate the expression of target genes by means of complementary base pair interactions. Although the first miRNAs were discovered in Caenorhabditis elegans, >300 miRNAs were recently documented in animals and plants, both by cloning methods and computational predictions. We present a genome-wide computational approach to detect miRNA genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Our method is based on the conservation of short sequences between the genomes of Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa) and on properties of the secondary structure of the miRNA precursor. The method was fine-tuned to take into account plant-specific properties, such as the variable length of the miRNA precursor sequences. In total, 91 potential miRNA genes were identified, of which 58 had at least one nearly perfect match with an Arabidopsis mRNA, constituting the potential targets of those miRNAs. In addition to already known transcription factors involved in plant development, the targets also comprised genes involved in several other cellular processes, such as sulfur assimilation and ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. These findings considerably broaden the scope of miRNA functions in plants. PMID:15272084

Bonnet, Eric; Wuyts, Jan; Rouze, Pierre; Van de Peer, Yves

2004-01-01

259

A systems biology approach to identify intelligence quotient score-related genomic regions, and pathways relevant to potential therapeutic treatments  

PubMed Central

Although the intelligence quotient (IQ) is the most popular intelligence test in the world, little is known about the underlying biological mechanisms that lead to the differences in human. To improve our understanding of cognitive processes and identify potential biomarkers, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of 158 IQ-related genes selected from the literature. A genomic distribution analysis demonstrated that IQ-related genes were enriched in seven regions of chromosome 7 and the X chromosome. In addition, these genes were enriched in target lists of seven transcription factors and sixteen microRNAs. Using a network-based approach, we further reconstructed an IQ-related pathway from known human pathway interaction data. Based on this reconstructed pathway, we incorporated enriched drugs and described the importance of dopamine and norepinephrine systems in IQ-related biological process. These findings not only reveal several testable genes and processes related to IQ scores, but also have potential therapeutic implications for IQ-related mental disorders. PMID:24566931

Zhao, Min; Kong, Lei; Qu, Hong

2014-01-01

260

What's down below? Current and potential future applications of geophysical techniques to identify subsurface permafrost conditions (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For infrastructure design, operations, and maintenance requirements in the North the ability to accurately and efficiently detect the presence (or absence) of ground ice in permafrost terrains is a serious challenge. Ground ice features including ice wedges, thermokarst cave-ice, and segregation ice are present in a variety of spatial scales and patterns. Currently, most engineering applications use borehole logging and sampling to extrapolate conditions at the point scale. However, there is high risk of over or under estimating the presence of frozen or unfrozen features when relying on borehole information alone. In addition, boreholes are costly, especially for planning linear structures like roads or runways. Predicted climate warming will provide further challenges for infrastructure development and transportation operations where permafrost degradation occurs. Accurately identifying the subsurface character in permafrost terrains will allow engineers and planners to cost effectively create novel infrastructure designs to withstand the changing environment. There is thus a great need for a low cost rapidly deployable, spatially extensive means of 'measuring' subsurface conditions. Geophysical measurements, both terrestrial and airborne, have strong potential to revolutionize our way of mapping subsurface conditions. Many studies in continuous and discontinuous permafrost have used geophysical measurements to identify discrete features and repeatable patterns in the subsurface. The most common measurements include galvanic and capacitive coupled resistivity, ground penetrating radar, and multi frequency electromagnetic induction techniques. Each of these measurements has strengths, weaknesses, and limitations. By combining horizontal geophysical measurements, downhole geophysics, multispectral remote sensing images, LiDAR measurements, and soil and vegetation mapping we can start to assemble a holistic view of how surface conditions and standoff measurements can be used to delineate subsurface permafrost geomorphology. This presentation will include examples of projects in Alaska and Greenland where a combination of geophysical and other measurement techniques have been used to identify subsurface conditions. These include projects at multiple locations around Interior Alaska where a variety of ground based and standoff measurements are being used to identify subsurface conditions, and infrastructure projects at Thule, Greenland, where geophysical measurements are being used to cut costs for new construction and maintenance. The expansion of the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratories' Fox Permafrost Tunnel is to provide a three dimensional test bed for geophysical measurements, and construction is aided by geophysical measurements. The array of geophysical research tools used to interrogate the subsurface in permafrost terrains can likely provide worthwhile information in non-frozen ground terrains to support sensor development and geomorphological interpretation.

Douglas, T. A.; Bjella, K.; Campbell, S. W.

2013-12-01

261

Ecology of testate amoebae and their potential use as palaeohydrologic indicators from peatland in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Testate amoebae are sensitive indicators of substrate moisture in peatlands. Over the last decades, they have been studied to reconstruct hydrological changes since the Holocene. However, these studies have been geographically restricted to North America and Europe. We conducted the first investigation of testate amoebae on the largest continental fresh water wetland in the Sanjiang Plain, China. The objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the ecology of testate amoebae in the peatlands of Northeast China and to assess the potential of using them as environmental indicators in this ecosystem. We examined modern testate amoeba assemblages and species-environmental relationships at 46 microsites within 5 waterlogged depressions. The environmental parameters measured included: depth to water table, pH, and loss on ignition. The results showed that the dominant species were Trinema complanatum type, Euglypha rotunda type, Euglypha strigosa type, and Centropyxis cassis type. Redundancy analysis demonstrates that water table depth has the most important effect on testate amoeba assemblages, explaining 16.7% (p = 0.002) of the total variance. pH was not a statistically significant factor for testate amoeba assemblages. Weighted averaging and weighted averaging partial least squares models were used to build transfer functions for depth to water table. The best performing transfer function was generated by the weighted averaging partial least squares model with an r 2 LOSO of 0.62 and RMSEPLOSO of 6.96 cm. Results indicate that testate amoebae in waterlogged depression peatland have the potential to be used as indicators for hydrological changes and for palaeohydrologic reconstructions in the Sanjiang Plain.

Song, Lihong; Li, Hongkai; Wang, Kehong; Wu, Donghui; Wu, Haitao

2014-05-01

262

Use of Phage Display To Identify Potential Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gene Products Relevant to Early Cystic Fibrosis Airway Infections  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. Treatment of established infections is difficult, even with microbiologically active agents. Thus, prevention of infection is an important goal of management. Isolates from cystic fibrosis patients appear to originate from the environment but adapt to the milieu of the airway of the cystic fibrosis patient and evolve toward a common phenotype. Identification of the antigens expressed early in infection may lead to novel targets for vaccine development. Immunogenic peptides were identified in a J404 random nonapeptide phage display library with serum from cystic fibrosis patients obtained within the first year of P. aeruginosa infection. One hundred sixty-five reactive clones were verified by plaque lift assays, and their inserts were sequenced. The sequenced nonapeptides were compared with the published sequence of strain PAO1, identifying homologies to 76 genes encoding outer membrane and secreted proteins. The majority of these were proteins involved in small-molecule transport, membrane structural proteins, and secreted factors. An in silico analysis was performed that suggested that the occurrence of multiple matches to predominantly outer membrane and secreted proteins was not attributable to random chance. Finally, gene expression array data from early isolates of P. aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients was compared with the results from phage display analysis. Eleven outer membrane and secreted proteins were common between the two data sets. These included genes involved in iron acquisition, antibiotic efflux, fimbrial biogenesis, and pyocin synthesis. These results demonstrate the feasibility and validity of this novel approach and suggest potential targets for future development. PMID:15618183

Beckmann, Christiane; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Ernst, Robert; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Miller, Samuel I.; Burns, Jane L.

2005-01-01

263

Subtractive Phage Display Selection from Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Identifies Novel Epitopes That Mimic Leishmania infantum Antigens with Potential Serodiagnosis Applications  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease that is endemic to Brazil, where dogs are the main domestic parasite reservoirs, and the percentages of infected dogs living in regions where canine VL (CVL) is endemic have ranged from 10% to 62%. Despite technological advances, some problems have been reported with CVL serodiagnosis. The present study describes a sequential subtractive selection through phage display technology from polyclonal antibodies of negative and positive sera that resulted in the identification of potential bacteriophage-fused peptides that were highly sensitive and specific to antibodies of CVL. A negative selection was performed in which phage clones were adhered to purified IgGs from healthy and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs to eliminate cross-reactive phages. The remaining supernatant nonadhered phages were submitted to positive selection against IgG from the blood serum of dogs that were infected with Leishmania infantum. Phage clones that adhered to purified IgGs from the CVL-infected serum samples were selected. Eighteen clones were identified and their reactivities tested by a phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (phage-ELISA) against the serum samples from infected dogs (n = 31) compared to those from vaccinated dogs (n = 21), experimentally infected dogs with cross-reactive parasites (n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 17). Eight clones presented sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 100%, and they showed no cross-reactivity with T. cruzi- or Ehrlichia canis-infected dogs or with dogs vaccinated with two different commercial CVL vaccines in Brazil. Our study identified eight mimotopes of L. infantum antigens with 100% accuracy for CVL serodiagnosis. The use of these mimotopes by phage-ELISA proved to be an excellent assay that was reproducible, simple, fast, and inexpensive, and it can be applied in CVL-monitoring programs. PMID:24256622

Costa, Lourena E.; Lima, Mayara I. S.; Chavez-Fumagalli, Miguel A.; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Martins, Vivian T.; Duarte, Mariana C.; Lage, Paula S.; Lopes, Eliane G. P.; Lage, Daniela P.; Ribeiro, Tatiana G.; Andrade, Pedro H. R.; de Magalhaes-Soares, Danielle F.; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A. P.; Goulart, Luiz R.

2014-01-01

264

Transcriptional Profiling of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Pancreatic Cancer Patients Identifies Novel Genes with Potential Diagnostic Utility  

PubMed Central

Background It is well known that many malignancies, including pancreatic cancer (PC), possess the ability to evade the immune system by indirectly downregulating the mononuclear cell machinery necessary to launch an effective immune response. This knowledge, in conjunction with the fact that the trancriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been shown to be altered in the context of many diseases, including renal cell carcinoma, lead us to study if any such alteration in gene expression exists in PC as it may have diagnostic utility. Methods and Findings PBMC samples from 26 PC patients and 33 matched healthy controls were analyzed by whole genome cDNA microarray. Three hundred eighty-three genes were found to be significantly different between PC and healthy controls, with 65 having at least a 1.5 fold change in expression. Pathway analysis revealed that many of these genes fell into pathways responsible for hematopoietic differentiation, cytokine signaling, and natural killer (NK) cell and CD8+ T-cell cytotoxic response. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis identified an eight-gene predictor set, consisting of SSBP2, Ube2b-rs1, CA5B, F5, TBC1D8, ANXA3, ARG1, and ADAMTS20, that could distinguish PC patients from healthy controls with an accuracy of 79% in a blinded subset of samples from treatment naïve patients, giving a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 75%. Conclusions In summary, we report the first in-depth comparison of global gene expression profiles of PBMCs between PC patients and healthy controls. We have also identified a gene predictor set that can potentially be developed further for use in diagnostic algorithms in PC. Future directions of this research should include analysis of PBMC expression profiles in patients with chronic pancreatitis as well as increasing the number of early-stage patients to assess the utility of PBMCs in the early diagnosis of PC. PMID:21347333

Baine, Michael J.; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Smith, Lynette M.; Mallya, Kavita; Sasson, Aaron R.; Brand, Randall E.; Batra, Surinder K.

2011-01-01

265

Identifying Conservation Successes, Failures and Future Opportunities; Assessing Recovery Potential of Wild Ungulates and Tigers in Eastern Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Conservation investment, particularly for charismatic and wide-ranging large mammal species, needs to be evidence-based. Despite the prevalence of this theme within the literature, examples of robust data being generated to guide conservation policy and funding decisions are rare. We present the first published case-study of tiger conservation in Indochina, from a site where an evidence-based approach has been implemented for this iconic predator and its prey. Despite the persistence of extensive areas of habitat, Indochina's tiger and ungulate prey populations are widely supposed to have precipitously declined in recent decades. The Seima Protection Forest (SPF), and broader Eastern Plains Landscape, was identified in 2000 as representing Cambodia's best hope for tiger recovery; reflected in its designation as a Global Priority Tiger Conservation Landscape. Since 2005 distance sampling, camera-trapping and detection-dog surveys have been employed to assess the recovery potential of ungulate and tiger populations in SPF. Our results show that while conservation efforts have ensured that small but regionally significant populations of larger ungulates persist, and density trends in smaller ungulates are stable, overall ungulate populations remain well below theoretical carrying capacity. Extensive field surveys failed to yield any evidence of tiger, and we contend that there is no longer a resident population within the SPF. This local extirpation is believed to be primarily attributable to two decades of intensive hunting; but importantly, prey densities are also currently below the level necessary to support a viable tiger population. Based on these results and similar findings from neighbouring sites, Eastern Cambodia does not currently constitute a Tiger Source Site nor meet the criteria of a Global Priority Tiger Landscape. However, SPF retains global importance for many other elements of biodiversity. It retains high regional importance for ungulate populations and potentially in the future for Indochinese tigers, given adequate prey and protection. PMID:23077476

O'Kelly, Hannah J.; Evans, Tom D.; Stokes, Emma J.; Clements, Tom J.; Dara, An; Gately, Mark; Menghor, Nut; Pollard, Edward H. B.; Soriyun, Men; Walston, Joe

2012-01-01

266

Potential groundwater age tracer found: Halon-1301 (CF3Br), as previously identified as CFC-13 (CF3Cl)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

dating using anthropogenic and natural tracer substances is a powerful tool for understanding groundwater dynamics for improved management of groundwater resources. Due to limitations in individual dating methods, often multiple tracers are used to reduce ambiguities. It is commonly accepted that there is a need for further complementary age tracers, in addition to current ones (e.g., tritium, SF6, and CFCs). We propose a potential new groundwater age tracer, Halon-1301 (CF3Br), which can easily be determined using gas chromatography with an attached electron capture detector (GC/ECD) developed by Busenberg and Plummer (2008). Its peak was noted by Busenberg and Plummer (2008), but they believed it to be CFC-13 (CF3Cl) at that time. We performed rigorous tests on gases containing or excluding Halon-1301 and CFC-13 and modern water samples and concluded that the two compounds have extremely similar retention times. Additionally, we found that the ECD response of CFC-13 is far too low to be detected in groundwater or air using standard volumes and sampling techniques. However, the peak areas and concentrations Busenberg and Plummer (2008) reported are in line with what would be expected for Halon-1301. Thus, we are confident that the peak formerly identified as CFC-13 is actually Halon-1301. Busenberg agrees with our findings. We further suggest that Halon-1301 has potential as a (complementary) age tracer, due to its established atmospheric history, and could hypothetically be used to date groundwater recharged in the 1970s or onward. We discuss known relevant properties, such as solubility and stability of Halon-1301 in the context of how these effect its potential application as a groundwater age tracer. Some open questions remain concerning how conservative Halon-1301 is—is it subject to degradation, retardation, and/or local contamination in groundwater. We are confident that Halon-1301 possesses important tracer relevant properties, but further work is required to fully assess its applicability and reliability as a groundwater age tracer in different groundwater environments.

Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna

2014-09-01

267

Potential of using satellite based vegetation indices and biophysical variables for the assessment of the water footprint of crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite remote sensing techniques play an important role in crop identification, acreage and production estimation, disease and stress detection, and soil and water resources characterization because they provide spatially explicit information and access to remote locations. The main objective of the study is to highlight the potential of using remote sensing techniques in the research field of water management, especially for "water footprint" assessment. In this paper, several vegetation indices (NDVI, NDWI, etc) and biophysical variables (LAI, fAPAR) are key variables to potentially be estimated by remote sensing and used in water footprint studies. The combination of these input parameters brings several limitations regarding the discrepancies in temporal and spatial resolution and data availability, which are described and discussed in detail. MODIS, Landsat, SPOT Vegetation and Meteosat data were used in order to estimate evapotranspiration and vegetation indices. The results of this study show the usefulness of satellite data for water footprint assessment and were obtained by the Remote Sensing Working Group in the framework of the ESSEM COST Action ES1106, "Assessment of EUROpean AGRIculture WATer use and trade under climate change" (EUROAGRIWAT).

Stancalie, Gh.; Nertan, A. T.; Toulios, L.; Spiliotopoulos, M.

2014-08-01

268

Leaching of zinc sulfide by thiobacillus ferrooxidans: experiments with a controlled redox potential indicate No direct bacterial mechanism  

PubMed

The role of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in bacterial leaching of mineral sulfides is controversial. Much of the controversy is due to the fact that the solution conditions, especially the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions, change during experiments. The role of the bacteria would be more easily discernible if the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions were maintained at set values throughout the experimental period. In this paper we report results obtained by using the constant redox potential apparatus described previously (P. I. Harvey and F. K. Crundwell, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:2586-2592, 1997). This apparatus is designed to control the redox potential in the leaching compartment of an electrolytic cell by reduction or oxidation of dissolved iron. By controlling the redox potential the apparatus maintains the concentrations of ferrous and ferric ions at their initial values. Experiments were conducted in the presence of T. ferrooxidans and under sterile conditions. Analysis of the conversion of zinc sulfide in the absence of the bacteria and analysis of the conversion of zinc sulfate in the presence of the bacteria produced the same results. This indicates that the only role of the bacteria under the conditions used is regeneration of ferric ions in solution. In this work we found no evidence that there is a direct mechanism for bacterial leaching. PMID:9758769

Fowler; Crundwell

1998-10-01

269

In lumbosacral plexus injuries can we identify indicators that predict spontaneous recovery or the need for surgical treatment? Results from a clinical study on 72 patients  

PubMed Central

Background Post-traumatic lumbosacral plexus injuries seem to be rare events, spontaneously recovering in high percentage: as surgery is often challenging and results in poor outcome, many Authors have advocated conservative treatment only. Nevertheless surgery should not be ruled out: in invalidating injuries, it can restore basic function in the lower extremities. Therefore, it might be necessary to establish guidelines for the management and the indication to surgery in such cases. This study aims to identify indicators predicting spontaneous recovery or the need for surgery. Method The clinical and radiological data of 72 patients with a post-traumatic lumbosacral plexus injury were reviewed. A follow up equal or superior to 3 years is available in 42 cases. Results Lumbosacral plexus injuries mostly occurred during road accidents. The incidence of associated lesions was relevant: bone injuries were found in 85% of patients, internal lesions in 30% and vascular injuries in 8%. Lumbosacral trunk and sacral plexus palsies were the most frequent injury patterns. Root avulsions were revealed in 23% of cases and only in sacral plexus and complete lumbosacral plexus injuries: L5 and S1 were the roots more prone to avulsions. About 70% of cases recovered spontaneously, mostly in 18 months. Spontaneous recovery was the rule in lumbar plexus and lumbosacral trunk injuries (where root avulsions never occurred) or in sacral and complete lumbosacral plexus palsies due to compression injuries. The causative mechanism correlated with the injury pattern, the associated bone injury being often predictive of the severity of the nerve injury. Lumbosacral plexus injuries occurred in car crashes were generally associated with fractures causing compression on the nerves, thus resulting in injuries often amenable of spontaneous recovery. Motorcycle accidents implied high kinetic energy traumas where traction played an important role, as the high percentage of sacroiliac joint separations demonstrated (found in more than 50% of cases and always associated to root avulsions). Loss of sphincteral control and excruciating leg pain were also invariably associated with avulsions. Conclusions Clinical and radiological data can help to predict the occurrence of spontaneous recovery or the need for surgery in post-traumatic lumbosacral plexus injuries. PMID:24410760

2014-01-01

270

Naphthenic acids in coastal sediments after the hebei spirit oil spill: a potential indicator for oil contamination.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NAs) as toxic components in most petroleum sources are suspected to be one of the major pollutants in the aquatic environment following oil spills, and the polarity and persistence of NAs make it a potential indicator for oil contamination. However, the contamination and potential effects of pollutants in oil spill affected areas remain unknown. To investigate NAs in oil spill affected areas, a sensitive method was first established for analysis of NAs, together with oxy-NAs in sediment samples by UPLC-QTOF-MS. Then the method was applied to determine the NA mixtures in crude oil, weathered oil, and sediments from the spilled sites after the Hebei Spirit oil spill, Taean, South Korea (Dec. 2007). Concentrations of NAs, O3-NAs, and O4-NAs were found to be 7.8-130, 3.6-44, and 0.8-20 mg kg(-1) dw in sediments from the Taean area, respectively, which were much greater than those measured in the reference sites of Manlipo and Anmyundo beaches. Concentrations of NAs were 50-100 times greater than those (0.077-2.5 mg kg(-1) dw) of PAHs in the same sediment samples, thus the ecological risk of NAs in oil spill affected areas deserves more attention. The sedimentary profiles of oil-derived NAs and background NAs centered around compounds with 21-35 and 12-21 carbons, respectively, indicating that the crude-derived NA mixtures originating from the 2007 oil spill were persistent. Acyclic NAsn=5-20 were easily degraded compared to cyclic NAsn=21-41 during the oil weathering processes, and the ratio of oxy-NAsn=21-41 relative to NAsn=21-41 could be a novel index to estimate the degree of oil weathering in sediments. Altogether, the persistent oil-derived NAsn=21-41 could be used as a potential indicator for oil-specific contamination, as such compounds would not be much affected by the properties of coastal sediments possibly due to the high sorption of the negatively charged compounds (NAs) in sediment. PMID:24579908

Wan, Yi; Wang, Beili; Khim, Jong Seong; Hong, Seongjin; Shim, Won Joon; Hu, Jianying

2014-04-01

271

Potential hazards to embryo implantation: A human endometrial in vitro model to identify unwanted antigestagenic actions of chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Embryo implantation is a crucial step in human reproduction and depends on the timely development of a receptive endometrium. The human endometrium is unique among adult tissues due to its dynamic alterations during each menstrual cycle. It hosts the implantation process which is governed by progesterone, whereas 17?-estradiol regulates the preceding proliferation of the endometrium. The receptors for both steroids are targets for drugs and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Chemicals with unwanted antigestagenic actions are potentially hazardous to embryo implantation since many pharmaceutical antiprogestins adversely affect endometrial receptivity. This risk can be addressed by human tissue-specific in vitro assays. As working basis we compiled data on chemicals interacting with the PR. In our experimental work, we developed a flexible in vitro model based on human endometrial Ishikawa cells. Effects of antiprogestin compounds on pre-selected target genes were characterized by sigmoidal concentration–response curves obtained by RT-qPCR. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) was identified as the most responsive target gene by microarray analysis. The agonistic effect of progesterone on SULT1E1 mRNA was concentration-dependently antagonized by RU486 (mifepristone) and ZK137316 and, with lower potency, by 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin. The negative control methyl acetoacetate showed no effect. The effects of progesterone and RU486 were confirmed on the protein level by Western blotting. We demonstrated proof of principle that our Ishikawa model is suitable to study quantitatively effects of antiprogestin-like chemicals on endometrial target genes in comparison to pharmaceutical reference compounds. This test is useful for hazard identification and may contribute to reduce animal studies. -- Highlights: ? We compare progesterone receptor-mediated endometrial effects of chemicals and drugs. ? 4-Nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin exert weak antigestagenic activity. ? SULT1E1 is a significant marker for endometrial antiprogestin effects. ? Ishikawa cells are a tissue-specific approach for characterization of SPRMs. ? Chemicals acting as progesterone receptor antagonists may exert antifertility effects.

Fischer, L.; Deppert, W.R. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Pfeifer, D. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)] [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Stanzel, S.; Weimer, M. [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)] [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Hanjalic-Beck, A.; Stein, A.; Straßer, M.; Zahradnik, H.P. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Schaefer, W.R., E-mail: wolfgang.schaefer@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)

2012-05-01

272

The BlueScreen-384 assay as an indicator of genotoxic hazard potential in early-stage drug discovery.  

PubMed

High-throughput cell-based techniques that permit early detection of compound-induced genotoxic damage have recently become available. Methods based on induction of the GADD45a?promoter are attractive because multiple intracellular mechanisms that detect genetic damage intersect at this checkpoint gene. Consequently, assays such as GreenScreen HC, which uses p53-competant human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells and a GADD45a-GFP reporter, have been developed. GreenScreen HC allows weekly testing of dozens of compounds using 96-well microplates, with high interassay consistency. BlueScreen HC is a recent advancement, coupling GADD45a to Gaussia luciferase, with several advantages over GADD45a-GFP including the potential for miniaturization. Here we describe implementation of a 384-well BlueScreen assay. For drug discovery programs carrying out iterative analogue synthesis around a chemical lead series, these assays permit assessment of compound genotoxic potential in parallel to, rather than subsequent to, determination of activity at a therapeutic target. We demonstrate comparability of BlueScreen-384 to GreenScreen HC and illustrate the use of BlueScreen-384 to explore the structure-activity relationship around a genotoxic lead molecule to identify nongenotoxic analogues. BlueScreen-384 can reduce the need for costly and time-consuming analogue testing in more traditional genotoxicity tests, such as the Ames test. PMID:23264450

Simpson, Kate; Bevan, Nicola; Hastwell, Paul; Eidam, Patrick; Shah, Poonam; Gogo, Elke; Rees, Steve; Brown, Andrew

2013-04-01

273

A Big Response to a “Small” Problem: Identifying the Oxidative Potential of Nanomaterials and the Physicochemical Characteristics That Play a Role  

E-print Network

this particle mixture, iron oxide (Fe2O 3) and engineered carbon black (ECB) were utilized in combination to identify potential synergistic reactions. Following in vitro exposure, both nanoparticle types are internalized into endosomes, where liberated Fe 3...

Berg, James Michael

2012-02-14

274

You know when: event-related potentials and theta/beta power indicate boundary prediction in music.  

PubMed

Neuroscientific and musicological approaches to music cognition indicate that listeners familiarized in the Western tonal tradition expect a musical phrase boundary at predictable time intervals. However, phrase boundary prediction processes in music remain untested. We analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) and event-related induced power changes at the onset and offset of a boundary pause. We made comparisons with modified melodies, where the pause was omitted and filled by tones. The offset of the pause elicited a closure positive shift (CPS), indexing phrase boundary detection. The onset of the filling tones elicited significant increases in theta and beta powers. In addition, the P2 component was larger when the filling tones started than when they ended. The responses to boundary omission suggest that listeners expected to hear a boundary pause. Therefore, boundary prediction seems to coexist with boundary detection in music segmentation. PMID:24738537

Silva, Susana; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Castro, São Luís

2014-03-01

275

Overall multi-media persistence as an indicator of potential for population-level intake of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Although it is intuitively apparent that population-level exposure to contaminants dispersed in the environment must related to the persistence of the contaminant, there has been little effort to formally quantify this link. In this paper we investigate the relationship between overall persistence in a multimedia environment and the population-level exposure as expressed by intake fraction (iF), which is the cumulative fraction of chemical emitted to the environment that is taken up by members of the population. We first confirm that for any given chemical contaminant and emission scenario the definition of iF implies that it is directly proportional to the overall multi-media persistence, P{sub OV}. We show that the proportionality constant has dimensions of time and represents the characteristic time for population intake (CTI) of the chemical from the environment. We then apply the CalTOX fate and exposure model to explore how P{sub OV} and CTI combine to determine the magnitude of iF. We find that CTI has a narrow range of possible values relative to P{sub OV} across multiple chemicals and emissions scenarios. We use data from the Canadian Environmental Protection Act Priority Substance List (PSL1) Assessments to show that exposure assessments based on empirical observation are consistent with interpretations from the model. The characteristic time for intake along different dominant exposure pathways is discussed. Results indicate that P{sub OV} derived from screening-level assessments of persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT) is a useful indicator of the potential for population-level exposure.

MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.

2003-06-01

276

Angiopoietin-2 and Angiopoietin-2/Angiopoietin-1 Ratio as Indicators of Potential Severity of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Patients with Thrombocytopenia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Angiogenic factors such as angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2) are biomarkers produced during activation and dysfunction of the vascular endothelium in several infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the serum levels of Ang-1 and Ang-2 and to establish their relationship with the main indicators of worst-case prognosis in patients with P. vivax malaria. Methods This is a retrospective case-control study nested within a cohort of symptomatic malaria patients. A potentially severe case was defined as a patient that presented at least one of the main indicators of the worst-case prognosis for falciparum malaria, as established by the World Health Organization. Ang-2 and Ang-1 and the Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio were used to analyze the role of angiopoietins as biomarkers in signaling potentially severe vivax malaria. ROC curves were generated to identify a cut-off point discriminating between the angiopoietin concentrations that were most strongly associated with potential infection severity. Results The serum levels of Ang-2 and the Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio were higher in the case group. In contrast, the serum levels of Ang-1 were lower in the cases than in the control patients. The blood count for platelets showed a positive correlation with Ang-1 and a negative correlation with Ang-2 and with the Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for serum angiopoietins, as an indicator of worst-case prognosis in a potentially severe P. vivax malarial infection, was larger in the subgroup of patients with platelet counts <75,000/µL. Conclusion This study showed that patients with predictors of worst-case prognoses for P. vivax malaria have lower Ang-1 and higher Ang-2 serum levels (and higher values for the Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio) than controls. Elevated serum levels of Ang-2 and high values for the Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio may potentially be used as predictors of worst-case prognoses for P. vivax malaria, especially in patients with thrombocytopenia. PMID:25275496

Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Alves-Junior, Eduardo Rodrigues; Rodrigues-Jesus, Clebson; Nery, Andreia Ferreira; Gasquez-Martin, Thamires Oliveira; Fontes, Cor Jesus

2014-01-01

277

Different methanotrophic potentials in stratified polar fjord waters (Storfjorden, Spitsbergen) identified by using a combination of methane oxidation techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bacterially mediated aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) is a key mechanism in controlling methane (CH4) emissions from the world's oceans to the atmosphere. In this study, we investigated MOx in the Arctic fjord Storfjorden (Spitsbergen) by applying a combination of radio-tracer based incubation assays (3H-CH4 and 14H-CH4), stable C-CH4 isotope measurements, and molecular tools (16S rRNA DGGE-fingerprinting, pmoA- and mxaF gene analyses). Strofjorden is stratified in the summertime with melt water (MW) in the upper 60 m of the water column, Arctic water (ArW) between 60-100 m and brine-enriched shelf water (BSW) down to 140 m. CH4 concentrations were supersaturated with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium (∼3 nM) throughout the water column, increasing from ∼20 nM at the surface to a maximum of 72 nM at 60 m and decreasing below. MOx rate measurements at near in situ CH4 concentrations (here measured with 3H-CH4 raising the ambient CH4 pool by <2 nM) showed a similar trend: low rates at the sea surface increasing to a maximum of ∼2.3 nM d-1 at 60 m followed by a decrease in the deeper ArW/BSW. In contrast, rate measurements with 14H-CH4 at elevated CH4 concentrations (incubations were spiked with ∼450 nM of 14H-CH4, providing an estimate of the CH4 oxidation potential) showed comparably low turnover rates (<1 nMd-1) at 60 m, but peaked in ArW/BSW at ∼100 m water depth, concomitant with increasing 14C-values in the residual CH4 pool. Our results indicate that the MOx community in the surface MW is adapted to relatively low CH4 concentrations. In contrast, the activity of the deep water MOx community is relatively low at the ambient, summertime CH4 concentrations but has the potential to increase rapidly in response to CH4 availability. A similar distinction between surface and deep water MOx is also suggested by our molecular analyses. Although, we found pmoA and maxF gene sequences throughout the water column attesting the ubiquitous presence of MOx communities in Storfjorden, deep water amplicons of pmoA and maxF were unusually long. Also a DGGE band related to the known Type I MOx Mehtylosphera was observed in deep BWS, but absent in surface MW. Apparently, different MOx communities have developed in the stratified water masses in Storfjorden, which is possibly related to the spatiotemporal variability in CH4 supply to the distinct water masses.

Mau, S.; Blees, J.; Helmke, E.; Niemann, H.; Damm, E.

2013-04-01

278

Identifying Potential Mediators and Moderators of the Association between Child Maltreatment and Bullying Perpetration and Victimization in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of literature is demonstrating associations between childhood maltreatment and bullying involvement at school. In this literature review, four potential mediators (explanatory) and three potential moderators (mitigates or exacerbates) of the association between childhood maltreatment and school bullying are proposed. Mediators…

Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Allen-Meares, Paula

2012-01-01

279

Presynaptic Membrane Potential Affects Transmitter Release in an Identified Neuron in Aplysia by Modulating the Ca2+ and K+ Currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the relationships between the modulation of transmitter release and of specific ionic currents by membrane potential in the cholinergic interneuron L10 of the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica. The presynaptic cell body was voltage-clamped under various pharmacological conditions and transmitter release from the terminals was assayed simultaneously by recording the synaptic potentials in the postsynaptic cell. When

Eli Shapiro; Vincent F. Castellucci; Eric R. Kandel

1980-01-01

280

Depth and activity of carious lesions as indicators for the regenerative potential of dental pulp after intervention.  

PubMed

Studies on dental regeneration involving interventions for pulp therapy such as regeneration and revascularization procedures are promising for the injured tooth; however, a complete replication of the original pulp tissue does not seem to take place. In cases in which we wish to preserve or maintain parts of the pulp during treatment, it is apparent that the effectiveness of healing or biological regeneration is dependent on the degree of inflammation of the pulp tissue. Thus, the control or prevention of a pulp infection is still a major issue for the clinicians. Data indicate that the typical reason for performing endodontic treatment is deep caries. The biological concept of vital pulp therapy associated with deep caries takes the treatment and evaluation of the unexposed as well as the exposed pulp into account. Interestingly, the clinical diagnosis is typically the same. Deep caries with reversible pulpitis may receive differing treatments such as excavation procedures aiming to avoid pulp exposure or more pulp invasive treatments such as pulp capping or pulpotomy. This should not be the case. Consequently, huge treatment variation is noted among clinicians based on the same caries diagnosis. Which treatment should be selected? High-quality trials are needed, and it is important to obtain information on the actual lesion depth and an estimate of the lesion activity before treatment. These may be basic indicators for the regenerative potential of dental pulp. Recent clinical trials dealing with the treatment of deep caries lesion are discussed, including pulp invasive and noninvasive concepts, to attempt to solve the task of getting the best clinical outcome for adult patients. PMID:24698699

Bjørndal, Lars; Demant, Sune; Dabelsteen, Sally

2014-04-01

281

IDENTIFYING SUITABLE INDICATORS FOR MEASURING SUSTAINABILITY OF BIOENERGY PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM PINE FORESTS IN THE U.S. SOUTH (PHASE-1)  

EPA Science Inventory

In this phase of the project, a sustainability framework was developed for four sustainability indices namely: 1) economic; 2) biodiversity; 3) greenhouse gas emission reduction and net energy ratio; and 4) soil and water quali...

282

The effects of the middle school concept on student achievement as identified by principals and the Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS) reports in selected middle schools in Texas  

E-print Network

Assessment of Middle Level Schools (TAMLS) which was completed by a random sample of middle school principals from across Texas. Student achievement and selected demographic data were obtained from the Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS) reports...

Brundrett, Robert Clinton

2005-02-17

283

Histopathological and ultrastructural perturbations in tilapia liver as potential indicators of pollution in Lake Al-Asfar, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Lake Al-Asfar (Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia) is under threat from contaminants released through human activities such as agriculture and urban and industrial developments. In the present study, histopathologic and ultrastructural changes in liver of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were analyzed to monitor the possible impact of pollution in Al-Asfar estuary. Heavy metals such as Ni, Fe, Zn, Co, Ba, Pb, and Cd were predominant in the lake water and far exceeded the international permissible limits. In fish samples, high prevalences of preneoplastic changes (50 %) and one case of cholangiocarcinoma were revealed in liver tissues. Cytological damage in fish hepatocytes included glycogen exhaustion, deformation of nuclear envelope, heterochromatin condensation, mitochondrial degeneration, vesiculation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, augmentation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and lysosomal proliferation. In conclusion, the observed biomarker responses were potential indicators of health impairment or disease in field fish populations, although there was no direct proof of a simple cause-effect relationship. This is the first biological effect assessment in Lake Al-Asfar using tilapia as suitable target species. PMID:24323321

Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M

2014-03-01

284

Identifying potential areas for biofuel production and evaluating the environmental effects: a case study of the James River Basin in the Midwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biofuels are now an important resource in the United States because of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Both increased corn growth for ethanol production and perennial dedicated energy crop growth for cellulosic feedstocks are potential sources to meet the rising demand for biofuels. However, these measures may cause adverse environmental consequences that are not yet fully understood. This study 1) evaluates the long-term impacts of increased frequency of corn in the crop rotation system on water quantity and quality as well as soil fertility in the James River Basin and 2) identifies potential grasslands for cultivating bioenergy crops (e.g. switchgrass), estimating the water quality impacts. We selected the soil and water assessment tool, a physically based multidisciplinary model, as the modeling approach to simulate a series of biofuel production scenarios involving crop rotation and land cover changes. The model simulations with different crop rotation scenarios indicate that decreases in water yield and soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration along with an increase in NO3-N load to stream water could justify serious concerns regarding increased corn rotations in this basin. Simulations with land cover change scenarios helped us spatially classify the grasslands in terms of biomass productivity and nitrogen loads, and we further derived the relationship of biomass production targets and the resulting nitrogen loads against switchgrass planting acreages. The suggested economically efficient (planting acreage) and environmentally friendly (water quality) planting locations and acreages can be a valuable guide for cultivating switchgrass in this basin. This information, along with the projected environmental costs (i.e. reduced water yield and increased nitrogen load), can contribute to decision support tools for land managers to seek the sustainability of biofuel development in this region.

Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Zhengpeng

2012-01-01

285

RECOVERY POTENTIAL AS A MEANS OF PRIORITIZING RESTORATION OF WATERS IDENTIFIED AS IMPAIRED UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT  

EPA Science Inventory

The sheer number of waterbodies identified as impaired under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act presents states with challenging decisions on which sites to address, in what order, and with what fraction of limited restoration resources. Our goal was to demonstrate a systemat...

286

Virtual Reality and Its Potential Use in Special Education. Identifying Emerging Issues and Trends in Technology for Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a 3-year study to identify emerging issues and trends in technology for special education, this paper addresses the possible contributions of virtual reality technology to educational services for students with disabilities. An example of the use of virtual reality in medical imaging introduces the paper and leads to a brief review of…

Woodward, John

287

Identifying Academic Potential in Students from Under-Represented Populations: Is Using the Ravens Progressive Matrices a Good Idea?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) and the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) were evaluated as possible instruments for identifying academically talented students in minority populations. A significantly higher proportion of minority children scored well on the RPM than on a traditional measure. Issues and concerns about using the…

Mills, Carol J.; Tissot, Sherri L.

1995-01-01

288

A genome-wide RNAi screen identifies potential drug targets in a C. elegans model of ?1-antitrypsin deficiency.  

PubMed

?1-Antitrypsin deficiency (ATD) is a common genetic disorder that can lead to end-stage liver and lung disease. Although liver transplantation remains the only therapy currently available, manipulation of the proteostasis network (PN) by small molecule therapeutics offers great promise. To accelerate the drug-discovery process for this disease, we first developed a semi-automated high-throughput/content-genome-wide RNAi screen to identify PN modifiers affecting the accumulation of the ?1-antitrypsin Z mutant (ATZ) in a Caenorhabditis elegans model of ATD. We identified 104 PN modifiers, and these genes were used in a computational strategy to identify human ortholog-ligand pairs. Based on rigorous selection criteria, we identified four FDA-approved drugs directed against four different PN targets that decreased the accumulation of ATZ in C. elegans. We also tested one of the compounds in a mammalian cell line with similar results. This methodology also proved useful in confirming drug targets in vivo, and predicting the success of combination therapy. We propose that small animal models of genetic disorders combined with genome-wide RNAi screening and computational methods can be used to rapidly, economically and strategically prime the preclinical discovery pipeline for rare and neglected diseases with limited therapeutic options. PMID:24838285

O'Reilly, Linda P; Long, Olivia S; Cobanoglu, Murat C; Benson, Joshua A; Luke, Cliff J; Miedel, Mark T; Hale, Pamela; Perlmutter, David H; Bahar, Ivet; Silverman, Gary A; Pak, Stephen C

2014-10-01

289

Genetic Analysis of Fin Development in Zebrafish Identifies Furin and Hemicentin1 as Potential Novel Fraser Syndrome Disease Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using forward genetics, we have identified the genes mutated in two classes of zebrafish fin mutants. The mutants of the first class are characterized by defects in embryonic fin morphogenesis, which are due to mutations in a Laminin subunit or an Integrin alpha receptor, respectively. The mutants of the second class display characteristic blistering underneath the basement membrane of the

Thomas J. Carney; Natália Martins Feitosa; Carmen Sonntag; Krasimir Slanchev; Johannes Kluger; Daiji Kiyozumi; Jan M. Gebauer; Jared Coffin Talbot; Charles B. Kimmel; Kiyotoshi Sekiguchi; Raimund Wagener; Heinz Schwarz; Phillip W. Ingham; Matthias Hammerschmidt

2010-01-01

290

DEVELOPMENT OF NORMAL HUMAN COLON CELL CULTURES TO IDENTIFY UNREGULATED DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBPS) WITH CARCINOGENIC POTENTIAL.  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of chlorinated surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Approximately 600 DBPs, less than half of the total organic carbon in drinking water have been identified. We are developing an in vitro system to i...

291

Development of Normal Human Colon Cell Cultures to Identify Unregulated Disiinfection By-products (DBPs) with a Carcinogenic Potential - GEMS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of chlorinated surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Approximately 600 DBPs, less that half of the total organic carbon in drinking water, have been identified of which 50 unregulated DBPs have received the ...

292

Predatory Online Behavior: Modus Operandi of Convicted Sex Offenders in Identifying Potential Victims and Contacting Minors over the Internet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sex offenders have used the Internet to identify and contact minors for sexual exploitation (Armagh, 1998; Hernandez, 2000; Lamb, 1998; Lanning, 1998). Yet little is known about how these individuals select their online victims. In order to gain a better understanding of this behavior, the online activity of 31 men who perpetrated or attempted to…

Malesky, L. Alvin, Jr.

2007-01-01

293

Transport of chemical and microbial compounds from known wastewater discharges: Potential for use as indicators of human fecal contamination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently (2005) determined using indicator bacteria. However, the culture tests used to analyze forthese bacteria require a long time to complete and do not discriminate between human and animal fecal material sources. One complementary approach is to use chemicals found in human wastewater, which would have the advantages of (1) potentially shorter analysis times than the bacterial culture tests and (2) being selected for human-source specificity. At 10 locations, water samples were collected upstream and at two successive points downstream from a wastewaster treatment plant (WWTP); a treated effluent sample was also collected at each WWTP. This sampling plan was used to determine the persistence of a chemically diverse suite of emerging contaminants in streams. Samples were also collected at two reference locations assumed to have minimal human impacts. Of the 110 chemical analytes investigated in this project, 78 were detected at least once. The number of compounds in a given sample ranged from 3 at a reference location to 50 in a WWTP effluent sample. The total analyte load at each location varied from 0.018 ??g/L at the reference location to 97.7 ??g/L in a separate WWTP effluent sample. Although most of the compound concentrations were in the range of 0.01-1.0 ??g/L, in some samples, individual concentrations were in the range of 5-38 ??g/L The concentrations of the majority of the chemicals present in the samples generally followed the expected trend: they were either nonexistent or at trace levels in the upstream samples, had their maximum concentrations in the WWTP effluent samples, and then declined in the two downstream samples. This research suggests that selected chemicals are useful as tracers of human wastewater discharge. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

Glassmeyer, S.T.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Cahill, J.D.; Zaugg, S.D.; Werner, S.L.; Meyer, M.T.; Kryak, D.D.

2005-01-01

294

Bacterial Indicator Occurrence and the Use of an F + Specific RNA Coliphage Assay to Identify Fecal Sources in Homosassa Springs, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microbiological water quality study of Homosassa Springs State Wildlife Park (HSSWP) and surrounding areas was undertaken.\\u000a Samples were collected in November of 1997 (seven sites) and again in November of 1998 (nine sites). Fecal bacterial concentrations\\u000a (total and fecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens, and enterococci) were measured as relative indicators of fecal contamination. F+-specific coliphage genotyping was performed to determine

D. W. Griffin; R. Stokes; J. B. Rose; J. H. Paul III

2000-01-01

295

Microarray Analyses of Genes Regulated by Isoflurane Anesthesia In Vivo: A Novel Approach to Identifying Potential Preconditioning Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Background While general anesthetics are recognized for their potential to render patients unconscious during surgery, exposure can also lead to long-term outcomes of both cellular damage and protection. As regards the latter, delayed anesthetic preconditioning is an evolutionarily conserved physiological response that has the potential for protecting against ischemic injury in a number of tissues. While it is known that delayed preconditioning requires de novo protein synthesis, knowledge of anesthetic-regulated genes is incomplete. In this study we used the conserved nature of preconditioning to analyze differentially regulated genes in three different rat tissues. We hypothesized that by selecting those genes regulated in multiple tissues, we could develop a focused list of gene candidates potentially involved in delayed anesthetic preconditioning. Methods Young adult male Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized with a 2% isoflurane/98% air mixture for 90 min. Immediately after anesthetic exposure, animals were killed and liver, kidney and heart were removed and total RNA was isolated. Differential gene expression was determined using rat oligonucleotide gene arrays. Array data were analyzed to select for genes that were significantly regulated in multiple tissues. Results All three tissues showed differentially regulated genes in response to a clinically relevant exposure to isoflurane. Analysis of coordinately regulated genes yielded a focused list of 34 potential gene candidates with a range of ontologies including regulation of inflammation, modulation of apoptosis, regulation of ion gradients and maintenance of energy pathways. Conclusions We conclude that, through using an analysis approach focusing on coordinately regulated genes, we were able to generate a focused list of interesting gene candidates with potential to enable future preconditioning studies. PMID:23400992

Edmands, Scott D; Hall, Adam C.; LaDow, Eva

2012-01-01

296

Lentiviral shRNA screen of human kinases identifies PLK1 as a potential therapeutic target for osteosarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an optimized systematic screen of known kinases using osteosarcoma cell lines (KHOS and U-2OS) and a lentiviral-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) human kinase library. CellTiter 96®AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay was used to measure cell growth and survival. We identified several kinases, including human polo-like kinase (PLK1), which inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells

Zhenfeng Duan; Diana Ji; Edward J. Weinstein; Xianzhe Liu; Michiro Susa; Edwin Choy; Cao Yang; Henry Mankin; Francis J. Hornicek

2010-01-01

297

A novel cell-cycle-indicator, mVenus-p27K?, identifies quiescent cells and visualizes G0-G1 transition  

PubMed Central

The quiescent (G0) phase of the cell cycle is the reversible phase from which the cells exit from the cell cycle. Due to the difficulty of defining the G0 phase, quiescent cells have not been well characterized. In this study, a fusion protein consisting of mVenus and a defective mutant of CDK inhibitor, p27 (p27K?) was shown to be able to identify and isolate a population of quiescent cells and to effectively visualize the G0 to G1 transition. By comparing the expression profiles of the G0 and G1 cells defined by mVenus-p27K?, we have identified molecular features of quiescent cells. Quiescence is also an important feature of many types of stem cells, and mVenus-p27K?-transgenic mice enabled the detection of the quiescent cells with muscle stem cell markers in muscle in vivo. The mVenus-p27K? probe could be useful in investigating stem cells as well as quiescent cells. PMID:24500246

Oki, Toshihiko; Nishimura, Koutarou; Kitaura, Jiro; Togami, Katsuhiro; Maehara, Akie; Izawa, Kumi; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Niida, Atsushi; Miyano, Satoru; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kitamura, Toshio

2014-01-01

298

Big data in chemical toxicity research: the use of high-throughput screening assays to identify potential toxicants.  

PubMed

High-throughput screening (HTS) assays that measure the in vitro toxicity of environmental compounds have been widely applied as an alternative to in vivo animal tests of chemical toxicity. Current HTS studies provide the community with rich toxicology information that has the potential to be integrated into toxicity research. The available in vitro toxicity data is updated daily in structured formats (e.g., deposited into PubChem and other data-sharing web portals) or in an unstructured way (papers, laboratory reports, toxicity Web site updates, etc.). The information derived from the current toxicity data is so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using available database management tools or traditional data processing applications. For this reason, it is necessary to develop a big data approach when conducting modern chemical toxicity research. In vitro data for a compound, obtained from meaningful bioassays, can be viewed as a response profile that gives detailed information about the compound's ability to affect relevant biological proteins/receptors. This information is critical for the evaluation of complex bioactivities (e.g., animal toxicities) and grows rapidly as big data in toxicology communities. This review focuses mainly on the existing structured in vitro data (e.g., PubChem data sets) as response profiles for compounds of environmental interest (e.g., potential human/animal toxicants). Potential modeling and mining tools to use the current big data pool in chemical toxicity research are also described. PMID:25195622

Zhu, Hao; Zhang, Jun; Kim, Marlene T; Boison, Abena; Sedykh, Alexander; Moran, Kimberlee

2014-10-20

299

Comparative proteomics of colon cancer stem cells and differentiated tumor cells identifies BIRC6 as a potential therapeutic target.  

PubMed

Patients with liver metastases from colon carcinoma show highly variable responses to chemotherapy and tumor recurrence is frequently observed. Therapy-resistant cancer stem cells have been implicated in drug resistance and tumor recurrence. However, the factors determining therapy resistance and tumor recurrence are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to gain insight into these mechanisms by comparing the proteomes of patient-derived cancer stem cell cultures and their differentiated isogenic offspring. We established colonosphere cultures derived from resection specimens of liver metastases in patients with colon cancer. These colonospheres, enriched for colon cancer stem cells, were used to establish isogenic cultures of stably differentiated nontumorigenic progeny. Proteomics based on one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to nano liquid chromatography tandem MS was used to identify proteome differences between three of these paired cultures. The resulting data were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Software. Out of a total data set of 3048 identified proteins, 32 proteins were at least twofold up-regulated in the colon cancer stem cells when compared with the differentiated cells. Pathway analysis showed that "cell death " regulation is strikingly different between the two cell types. Interestingly, one of the top-up-regulated proteins was BIRC6, which belongs to the class of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Knockdown of BIRC6 sensitized colon cancer stem cells against the chemotherapeutic drugs oxaliplatin and cisplatin. This study reveals that differentiation of colon cancer stem cells is accompanied by altered regulation of cell death pathways. We identified BIRC6 as an important mediator of cancer stem cell resistance against cisplatin and oxaliplatin. Targeting BIRC6, or other Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins, may help eradicating colon cancer stem cells. PMID:21788403

Van Houdt, W J; Emmink, B L; Pham, T V; Piersma, S R; Verheem, A; Vries, R G; Fratantoni, S A; Pronk, A; Clevers, H; Borel Rinkes, I H M; Jimenez, C R; Kranenburg, O

2011-12-01

300

Ras-Driven Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Aurora Kinase A as a Potential Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Therapeutic Target  

PubMed Central

Purpose Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) develop malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) which are often inoperable and do not respond well to current chemotherapies or radiation. The goal of this study was to utilize comprehensive gene expression analysis to identify novel therapeutic targets. Experimental Design Nerve Schwann cells and/or their precursors are the tumorigenic cell types in MPNST due to the loss of the NF1 gene, which encodes the RasGAP protein neurofibromin. Therefore, we created a transgenic mouse model, CNP-HRas12V, expressing constitutively-active HRas in Schwann cells and defined a Ras-induced gene expression signature to drive a Bayesian factor regression model analysis of differentially expressed genes in mouse and human neurofibromas and MPNSTs. We tested functional significance of Aurora kinase over-expression in MPNST in vitro and in vivo using Aurora kinase shRNAs and compounds that inhibit Aurora kinase. Results We identified 2000 genes with probability of linkage to nerve Ras signaling of which 339 were significantly differentially expressed in mouse and human NF1-related tumor samples relative to normal nerves, including Aurora kinase A (AURKA). AURKA was dramatically over-expressed and genomically amplified in MPNSTs but not neurofibromas. Aurora kinase shRNAs and Aurora kinase inhibitors blocked MPNST cell growth in vitro. Furthermore, an AURKA selective inhibitor, MLN8237, stabilized tumor volume and significantly increased survival of mice with MPNST xenografts. Conclusion Integrative cross-species transcriptome analyses combined with preclinical testing has provided an effective method for identifying candidates for molecular-targeted therapeutics. Blocking Aurora kinases may be a viable treatment platform for MPNST. PMID:22811580

Patel, Ami V.; Eaves, David; Jessen, Walter J.; Rizvi, Tilat A.; Ecsedy, Jeffrey A.; Qian, Mark G.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Perentesis, John P.; Serra, Eduard; Cripe, Timothy P.; Miller, Shyra J.; Ratner, Nancy

2013-01-01

301

A network-based framework for identifying potential synchronizations and amplifications of sediment delivery in river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

prediction of environmental response to natural and anthropogenic disturbances in a basin becomes highly uncertain using physically based distributed models, particularly when transport time scales range from tens to thousands of years, such as for sediment. Yet, such predictions are needed as changes in one part of a basin now might adversely affect other parts of the basin in years to come. In this paper, we propose a simplified network-based predictive framework of sedimentological response in a basin, which incorporates network topology, channel characteristics, and transport-process dynamics to perform a nonlinear process-based scaling of the river-network width function to a time-response function. We develop the process-scaling formulation for transport of mud, sand, and gravel, using simplifying assumptions including neglecting long-term storage, and apply the methodology to the Minnesota River Basin. We identify a robust bimodal distribution of the sedimentological response for sand of the basin which we attribute to specific source areas, and identify a resonant frequency of sediment supply where the disturbance of one area followed by the disturbance of another area after a certain period of time, may result in amplification of the effects of sediment inputs which would be otherwise difficult to predict. We perform a sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of the proposed formulation to model parameter uncertainty and use observations of suspended sediment at several stations in the basin to diagnose the model. The proposed framework has identified an important vulnerability of the Minnesota River Basin to spatial and temporal structuring of sediment delivery.

Czuba, Jonathan A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

2014-05-01

302

Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation: Facility Utilizes Energy Assessments to Identify $930,000 in Potential Annual Savings  

SciTech Connect

Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation (KUCC) used targeted energy assessments in the smelter and refinery at its Bingham Canyon Mine, near Salt Lake City, Utah. The assessment focused mainly on the energy-intensive processes of copper smelting and refining. By implementing the projects identified, KUCC could realize annual cost savings of $930,000 and annual energy savings of 452,000 MMBtu. The projects would also reduce maintenance, repair costs, waste, and environmental emissions. One project would use methane gas from an adjacent municipal dump to replace natural gas currently used to heat the refinery electrolyte.

Not Available

2004-07-01

303

c-Kit identifies a subpopulation of mesenchymal stem cells in adipose tissue with higher telomerase expression and differentiation potential.  

PubMed

The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is an easy to obtain source of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). We and others have achieved significant but suboptimal therapeutic effects with ADSCs in various settings, mainly due to low rates of differentiation into specific cell types and with the downside of undesired side effects as a consequence of the undifferentiated ADSCs. These data prompted us to find new stem cell-specific markers for ADSCs and/or subpopulations with higher differentiation potential to specific lineages. We found a subpopulation of human ADSCs, marked by c-Kit positiveness, resides in a perivascular location, and shows higher proliferative activity and self-renewal capacity, higher telomerase activity and expression, higher in vitro adipogenic efficiency, a higher capacity for the maintenance of cardiac progenitors, and higher pancreatogenic and hepatogenic efficiency independently of CD105 expression. Our data suggests that the isolation of ADSC subpopulations with anti-c-Kit antibodies allows for the selection of a more homogeneous subpopulation with increased cardioprotective properties and increased adipogenic and endodermal differentiation potential, providing a useful tool for specific therapies in regenerative medicine applications. PMID:24713343

Blazquez-Martinez, A; Chiesa, M; Arnalich, F; Fernandez-Delgado, J; Nistal, M; De Miguel, M P

2014-01-01

304

Rapid, potentially automatable, method extract biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to detect and identify BW agents  

SciTech Connect

The program proposes to concentrate on the rapid recovery of signature biomarkers based on automated high-pressure, high-temperature solvent extraction (ASE) and/or supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to produce lipids, nucleic acids and proteins sequentially concentrated and purified in minutes with yields especially from microeukaryotes, Gram-positive bacteria and spores. Lipids are extracted in higher proportions greater than classical one-phase, room temperature solvent extraction without major changes in lipid composition. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with or without derivatization, electrospray ionization (ESI) and highly specific detection by mass spectrometry (MS) particularly with (MS){sup n} provides the detection, identification and because the signature lipid biomarkers are both phenotypic as well as genotypic biomarkers, insights into potential infectivity of BW agents. Feasibility has been demonstrated with detection, identification, and determination of infectious potential of Cryptosporidium parvum at the sensitivity of a single oocyst (which is unculturable in vitro) and accurate identification and prediction, pathogenicity, and drug-resistance of Mycobacteria spp.

White, D.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Science Div.; Burkhalter, R.S.; Smith, C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology; Whitaker, K.W. [Microbial Insights, Inc., Rockford, TN (United States)

1997-12-31

305

Identifying the potential sources of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate contamination in the sediment of the Houjing River in southern Taiwan.  

PubMed

Sediment samples were analyzed for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), an organic endocrine disruptor, in Houjing River in southern Taiwan. The average DEHP concentration at 10 sampling locations, spanning from upper, middle, and lower segments of the stream, was calculated at 3.81+/-6.36mgkg(-1)drywt. Highest concentration was recorded at the Jhongsing Bridge (20.22mgkg(-1)drywt.) near the Dashe Industrial Park, followed by the Renwu Bridge (8.93mgkg(-1)drywt.) near the Renwu Industrial Park. The surface sediment concentration of DEHP was found to be higher in the dry season (October and December), and lower in the wet (flood) season (August), indicating that sources of DEHP remained active and continued to recharge the Houjing River. Vertical sediment core analysis revealed that highest concentration occurred at the depth of 40-60cm, indicating that historical discharges of DEPH may have been higher than recent years. Domestic comparison of DEHP concentrations in sediment from highest to lowest could be categorized as northern, southern, central, and eastern Taiwan, respectively, and seemed to be positively correlated with population density and/or industrial activity. Compared to other countries, DEHP concentration of the Houjing River was relatively higher than rivers studied in Japan, Germany, Italy, and Malaysia, and was relatively lower than the Aire and Trent Rivers in the United Kingdom. PMID:18456397

Lin, Chitsan; Lee, Cheng-Jin; Mao, Wen-Ming; Nadim, Farhad

2009-01-15

306

Use of identical assay conditions for cocaine analog binding and dopamine uptake to identify potential cocaine antagonists.  

PubMed

The addictive and euphorogenic properties of cocaine are thought to result from inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Recent evidence suggests that dopamine and cocaine bind to distinct sites on the transporter protein. Therefore it should be possible to design drugs which specifically inhibit cocaine recognition by the DAT while permitting the transporter to maintain its function of accumulating dopamine. One way to monitor such activity is to compare the inhibition constants of test agents for inhibition of radiolabelled dopamine uptake (Kiuptake) and inhibition of the binding of a cocaine ligand such as [3H]2 beta-carbomethoxy-3 beta-3 beta-(fluorophenyl)tropane (CFT; Kibind) and select for compounds with Kiuptake/Kibind ratios greater than unity. Because others have shown that compounds can exhibit Kiuptake/Kibind ratios greater than unity when the assays are performed under non-identical conditions, we have established these assays under identical conditions of time, temperature and buffer using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line which stably expresses the human DAT. Kinetic and saturation analyses were performed on both assay and over 200 structurally diverse compounds were screened. Using identical assay parameters, several series of compounds having Kiuptake/Kibind ratios significantly greater than unity were identified. Such compounds include local anesthetics (procaine, dibucaine, tolperisone, dyclonine, diperodone), antipsychotic agents (10-(diethylaminopropionyl)phenothiazine), antidepressants (desipramine, imipramine, protriptyline), a diuretic (5-N-methyl-N-isobutyl-amilioride), an anticholinergic agent (prindinol), a PKC inhibitor (H-8), a calcium channel antagonist (loperamide) and an antimalarial compound (chloroquine). To our knowledge, even though these compounds exhibit low binding affinities (3-24 microM), they represent some of the most cocaine site-selective compounds identified to date using identical assay parameters. PMID:9330920

Slusher, B S; Tiffany, C W; Olkowski, J L; Jackson, P F

1997-10-25

307

Use of previous screening mammograms to identify features indicating cases that would have a possible gain in prognosis following earlier detection.  

PubMed

False-negative screening mammograms generally refer to breast cancers that were overlooked or misinterpreted at screening. An important question is whether earlier detection could have made a difference in the prognosis of the women concerned. We reviewed screening and diagnostic mammograms of 234 screen-detected and interval cancer cases (aged 44-84 years) diagnosed between 1991 and 1996 in the Nijmegen breast cancer screening programme. A lesion was visible on 117 (50%) of the screening mammograms prior to the diagnosis of breast cancer. Fifty-one out of the 117 cancers had poor prognostic characteristics at diagnosis (i.e. N+ and/or T2+) and could potentially have benefited from an earlier diagnosis ('possible gain'). The 'possible gain' cases were more often characterised by architectural distortion (29 vs. 10%; P=0.01) or a high-density mass (25 vs. 13%; P=0.06) on the mammogram prior to diagnosis than the 58 'no gain' cases. Our study shows that architectural distortion and non-spiculated high-density masses on the mammogram prior to diagnosis are associated with a possible gain in prognosis. Earlier detection of the carcinomas preceded by these signs may well have an impact on breast cancer mortality and thus warrant extra attention in radiological practice. PMID:12888373

Broeders, M J M; Onland-Moret, N C; Rijken, H J T M; Hendriks, J H C L; Verbeek, A L M; Holland, R

2003-08-01

308

Potential mechanisms for hypoalgesia induced by anti-nerve growth factor immunoglobulin are identified using autoimmune nerve growth factor deprivation  

PubMed Central

Nerve growth factor (NGF) antagonism has long been proposed as a chronic pain treatment. In 2010, the FDA suspended clinical trials using tanezumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-NGF antibody, to treat osteoarthritis due to worsening joint damage in 16 patients. Increased physical activity in the absence of acute pain which normally prevents self harm was purported as a potential cause. Such an adverse effect is consistent with an extension of tanezumab's primary mechanism of action by decreasing pain sensitivity below baseline levels. In animal inflammatory pain models, NGF antagonism decreases intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density and attenuates increases in expression of nociception related proteins, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). Little is known of the effects of NGF antagonism in noninflamed animals and the hypoalgesia that ensues. In the current study, we immunized rats with NGF or cytochrome C (cytC) and examined 1) nocifensive behaviors with thermal latencies, mechanical thresholds, the hot plate test, and the tail flick test, 2) IENF density, and 3) expression of CGRP, SP, voltage-gated sodium channel 1.8 (Nav1.8), and glutaminase in subpopulations of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons separated by size and isolectin B4 (IB4) labeling. Rats with high anti-NGF titers had delayed responses on the hot plate test but no other behavioral abnormalities. Delayed hot plate responses correlated with lower IENF density. CGRP and SP expression was decreased principally in medium (400-800 ?m2) and small neurons (<400 ?m2), respectively, regardless of IB4 labeling. Expression of Nav1.8 was only decreased in small and medium IB4 negative neurons. NGF immunization appears to result in a more profound antagonism of NGF than tanezumab therapy, but we hypothesize that decreases in IENF density and nociception related protein expression are potential mechanisms for tanezumab induced hypoalgesia. PMID:21802499

Hoffman, E. Matthew; Zhang, Zijia; Anderson, Michael B.; Schechter, Ruben; Miller, Kenneth E.

2011-01-01

309

Subsurface fracture patterns in the PACMANUS hydrothermal system identified from downhole measurements and their potential implications for fluid circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean Drilling Leg 193 drilled 13 holes in an active hydrothermal vent system associated with felsic volcanism in the Manus Basin along the western margin of the Pacific plate. This hydrothermal field is located near the crest of the northeast trending Pual Ridge, which is a 500- to 700-m-high felsic neovolcanic edifice that appears to be constructed of stacked subhorizontal lava flows with negligible sediment cover. Wireline and logging-while drilling (LWD) measurements were obtained from 4 holes in order to characterize the subsurface volcanic architecture of the system, determine the structural relationships and associated hydrological processes, and assess the mineralization and alteration patterns of the active PACMANUS hydrothermal field. A series of downhole temperature profiles show a very high post-drilling thermal rebound in this area with changes in temperature of over 200 deg C in five days. Highly resistive subvertical features that may correspond to high concentrations of silica and/or anhydrate suggest potential fluid flow patterns. Downhole measurements show high gamma ray anomalies usually associated with high uranium content that corresponds to intensely fractured and brecciated intervals also suggesting potential hydrothermal fluid flow. Fracture patterns from Formation Micro Scanner (FMS) and LWD Resistivity-at-the-Bit (RAB) measurements show NNE-SSW strike orientations. Earthquake focal mechanism solutions show strike slip events in the proximity of the drilled area with approximately NE-SW orientations for the main compressional stresses. These relationships suggest that fluid flow in this area could be highly influenced by shallow volcanism underneath the Pual Ridge and to some lesser extent, to localized earthquake activity.

Iturrino, G. J.; Bartetzko, A.

2002-12-01

310

Aqueous and lipid nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomic profiles of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa show potential as an indicator species for environmental metabolomics.  

PubMed

The common pasture earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa has often been neglected in environmental metabolomics in favor of species easily bred in the laboratory. The present study assigns aqueous metabolites in A. caliginosa using high-resolution 1- and 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In total, 51 aqueous metabolites were identified, including typical amino acids (alanine, leucine, asparagine, phenylalanine), sugars (maltose, glucose), the dominant earthworm-specific 2-hexyl-5-ethyl-furansulfonate, and several previously unreported metabolites (oxoglutarate, putrescine). Examining the lesser-known earthworm lipid metabolome showed various lipid fatty acyl chains, cholesterol, and phosphatidylcholine. To briefly test if the NMR metabolomic techniques could differentiate A. caliginosa from different sites, earthworms were collected from 2 adjacent farms. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis detected metabolomic differences, suggesting the worms from the 2 sites differed in their energy metabolism, as indicated by altered levels of alanine, glutamine, glutamate, malate, fumarate, and lipids. Evidence of greater utilization of lipid energy reserves and onset of protein catabolism was also present. While the precise cause of the metabolomic differences could not be determined, the results show the potential of this species for further environmental metabolomic studies. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2313-2322. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:24995628

Brown, Jeffrey N; Samuelsson, Linda; Bernardi, Giuliana; Gooneratne, Ravi; Larsson, D G Joakim

2014-10-01

311

Proteomics of Genetically Engineered Mouse Mammary Tumors Identifies Fatty Acid Metabolism Members as Potential Predictive Markers for Cisplatin Resistance*  

PubMed Central

In contrast to various signatures that predict the prognosis of breast cancer patients, markers that predict chemotherapy response are still elusive. To detect such predictive biomarkers, we investigated early changes in protein expression using two mouse models for distinct breast cancer subtypes who have a differential knock-out status for the breast cancer 1, early onset (Brca1) gene. The proteome of cisplatin-sensitive BRCA1-deficient mammary tumors was compared with that of cisplatin-resistant mammary tumors resembling pleomorphic invasive lobular carcinoma. The analyses were performed 24 h after administration of the maximum tolerable dose of cisplatin. At this time point, drug-sensitive BRCA1-deficient tumors showed DNA damage, but cells were largely viable. By applying paired statistics and quantitative filtering, we identified highly discriminatory markers for the sensitive and resistant model. Proteins up-regulated in the sensitive model are involved in centrosome organization, chromosome condensation, homology-directed DNA repair, and nucleotide metabolism. Major discriminatory markers that were up-regulated in the resistant model were predominantly involved in fatty acid metabolism, such as fatty-acid synthase. Specific inhibition of fatty-acid synthase sensitized resistant cells to cisplatin. Our data suggest that exploring the functional link between the DNA damage response and cancer metabolism shortly after the initial treatment may be a useful strategy to predict the efficacy of cisplatin. PMID:23397111

Warmoes, Marc; Jaspers, Janneke E.; Xu, Guotai; Sampadi, Bharath K.; Pham, Thang V.; Knol, Jaco C.; Piersma, Sander R.; Boven, Epie; Jonkers, Jos; Rottenberg, Sven; Jimenez, Connie R.

2013-01-01

312

High-throughput screen identifies disulfiram as a potential therapeutic for triple-negative breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents an aggressive subtype, for which radiation and chemotherapy are the only options. Here we describe the identification of disulfiram, an FDA-approved drug used to treat alcoholism, as well as the related compound thiram, as the most potent growth inhibitors following high-throughput screens of 3185 compounds against multiple TNBC cell lines. The average IC50 for disulfiram was ~300 nM. Drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) analysis identified IQ motif-containing factors IQGAP1 and MYH9 as direct binding targets of disulfiram. Indeed, knockdown of these factors reduced, though did not completely abolish, cell growth. Combination treatment with 4 different drugs commonly used to treat TNBC revealed that disulfiram synergizes most effectively with doxorubicin to inhibit cell growth of TNBC cells. Disulfiram and doxorubicin cooperated to induce cell death as well as cellular senescence, and targeted the ESA+/CD24-/low/CD44+ cancer stem cell population. Our results suggest that disulfiram may be repurposed to treat TNBC in combination with doxorubicin. PMID:23974104

Robinson, Tyler JW; Pai, Melody; Liu, Jeff C; Vizeacoumar, Frederick; Sun, Thomas; Egan, Sean E; Datti, Alessandro; Huang, Jing; Zacksenhaus, Eldad

2013-01-01

313

Potential Autonomic Risk Factors for Chronic TMD: Descriptive Data and Empirically Identified Domains from the OPPERA Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Several case-control studies have been conducted that examine the association between autonomic variables and persistent pain conditions; however, there is a surprising dearth of published studies in this area that have focused on temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The current study presents autonomic findings from the baseline case-control study of the OPPERA (Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment) cooperative agreement. Measures of arterial blood pressure, heart rate, heart rate variability, and indirect measures of baroreflex sensitivity were assessed at rest and in response to a physical (orthostatic) and psychological (Stroop) stressors in 1633 TMD-free controls and 185 TMD cases. In bivariate and demographically adjusted analyses, greater odds of TMD case status were associated with elevated heart rates, reduced heart rate variability, and reduced surrogate measures of baroreflex sensitivity across all experimental procedures. Principal component analysis was undertaken to identify latent constructs revealing five components. These findings provide evidence of associations between autonomic factors and TMD. Future prospective analyses in the OPPERA cohort will determine if the presence of these autonomic factors predicts increased risk for developing new onset TMD. PMID:22074754

Maixner, William; Greenspan, Joel D.; Dubner, Ronald; Bair, Eric; Mulkey, Flora; Miller, Vanessa; Knott, Charles; Slade, Gary D.; Ohrbach, Richard; Diatchenko, Luda; Fillingim, Roger B.

2011-01-01

314

Identifying potential synergies and trade-offs for meeting food security and climate change objectives in sub-Saharan Africa.  

PubMed

Potential interactions between food production and climate mitigation are explored for two situations in sub-Saharan Africa, where deforestation and land degradation overlap with hunger and poverty. Three agriculture intensification scenarios for supplying nitrogen to increase crop production (mineral fertilizer, herbaceous legume cover crops--green manures--and agroforestry--legume improved tree fallows) are compared to baseline food production, land requirements to meet basic caloric requirements, and greenhouse gas emissions. At low population densities and high land availability, food security and climate mitigation goals are met with all intensification scenarios, resulting in surplus crop area for reforestation. In contrast, for high population density and small farm sizes, attaining food security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions require mineral fertilizers to make land available for reforestation; green manure or improved tree fallows do not provide sufficient increases in yields to permit reforestation. Tree fallows sequester significant carbon on cropland, but green manures result in net carbon dioxide equivalent emissions because of nitrogen additions. Although these results are encouraging, agricultural intensification in sub-Saharan Africa with mineral fertilizers, green manures, or improved tree fallows will remain low without policies that address access, costs, and lack of incentives. Carbon financing for small-holder agriculture could increase the likelihood of success of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries programs and climate change mitigation but also promote food security in the region. PMID:20453198

Palm, Cheryl A; Smukler, Sean M; Sullivan, Clare C; Mutuo, Patrick K; Nyadzi, Gerson I; Walsh, Markus G

2010-11-16

315

Identifying potential synergies and trade-offs for meeting food security and climate change objectives in sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Potential interactions between food production and climate mitigation are explored for two situations in sub-Saharan Africa, where deforestation and land degradation overlap with hunger and poverty. Three agriculture intensification scenarios for supplying nitrogen to increase crop production (mineral fertilizer, herbaceous legume cover crops—green manures—and agroforestry—legume improved tree fallows) are compared to baseline food production, land requirements to meet basic caloric requirements, and greenhouse gas emissions. At low population densities and high land availability, food security and climate mitigation goals are met with all intensification scenarios, resulting in surplus crop area for reforestation. In contrast, for high population density and small farm sizes, attaining food security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions require mineral fertilizers to make land available for reforestation; green manure or improved tree fallows do not provide sufficient increases in yields to permit reforestation. Tree fallows sequester significant carbon on cropland, but green manures result in net carbon dioxide equivalent emissions because of nitrogen additions. Although these results are encouraging, agricultural intensification in sub-Saharan Africa with mineral fertilizers, green manures, or improved tree fallows will remain low without policies that address access, costs, and lack of incentives. Carbon financing for small-holder agriculture could increase the likelihood of success of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries programs and climate change mitigation but also promote food security in the region. PMID:20453198

Palm, Cheryl A.; Smukler, Sean M.; Sullivan, Clare C.; Mutuo, Patrick K.; Nyadzi, Gerson I.; Walsh, Markus G.

2010-01-01

316

Diatom Communities and Metrics as Indicators of Urbanization Effects on Streams and Potential Moderation by Landscape Green Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

Diatoms are very useful and important indicators of anthropogenic impacts on streams because they are the foundation of primary production and are responsive to nutrients, conductivity, and habitat conditions. We characterized relationships of diatom assemblages with water chemis...

317

A thermal profile method to identify potential ground-water discharge areas and preferred salmonid habitats for long river reaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The thermal regime of riverine systems is a major control on aquatic ecosystems. Ground water discharge is an important abiotic driver of the aquatic ecosystem because it provides preferred thermal structure and habitat for different types of fish at different times in their life history. In large diverse river basins with an extensive riverine system, documenting the thermal regime and ground-water discharge is difficult and problematic. A method was developed to thermally profile long (5-25 kilometers) river reaches by towing in a Lagrangian framework one or two probes that measure temperature, depth, and conductivity. One probe is towed near the streambed and, if used, a second probe is towed near the surface. The probes continuously record data at 1-3-second intervals while a Global Positioning System logs spatial coordinates. The thermal profile provides valuable information about spatial and temporal variations in habitat, and, notably, indicates ground-water discharge areas. This method was developed and tested in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, in summer 2001 during low flows in an extreme drought year. The temperature profile comprehensively documents the longitudinal distribution of a river's temperature regime that cannot be captured by fixed station data. The example profile presented exhibits intra-reach diversity that reflects the many factors controlling the temperature of a parcel of water as it moves downstream. Thermal profiles provide a new perspective on riverine system temperature regimes that represent part of the aquatic habitat template for lotic community patterns.

Vaccaro, J.J.; Maloy, K.J.

2006-01-01

318

Development of computational fluid dynamics--habitat suitability (CFD-HSI) models to identify potential passage--Challenge zones for migratory fishes in the Penobscot River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics-habitat suitability (CFD–HSI) model was developed to identify potential zones of shallow depth and high water velocity that may present passage challenges for five anadromous fish species in the Penobscot River, Maine, upstream from two existing dams and as a result of the proposed future removal of the dams. Potential depth-challenge zones were predicted for larger species at the lowest flow modeled in the dam-removal scenario. Increasing flows under both scenarios increased the number and size of potential velocity-challenge zones, especially for smaller species. This application of the two-dimensional CFD–HSI model demonstrated its capabilities to estimate the potential effects of flow and hydraulic alteration on the passage of migratory fish.

Haro, Alexander J.; Dudley, Robert W.; Chelminski, Michael

2012-01-01

319

A Potential Novel Spontaneous Preterm Birth Gene, AR, Identified by Linkage and Association Analysis of X Chromosomal Markers  

PubMed Central

Preterm birth is the major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. In many cases, it has severe life-long consequences for the health and neurological development of the newborn child. More than 50% of all preterm births are spontaneous, and currently there is no effective prevention. Several studies suggest that genetic factors play a role in spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB). However, its genetic background is insufficiently characterized. The aim of the present study was to perform a linkage analysis of X chromosomal markers in SPTB in large northern Finnish families with recurrent SPTBs. We found a significant linkage signal (HLOD ?=?3.72) on chromosome locus Xq13.1 when the studied phenotype was being born preterm. There were no significant linkage signals when the studied phenotype was giving preterm deliveries. Two functional candidate genes, those encoding the androgen receptor (AR) and the interleukin-2 receptor gamma subunit (IL2RG), located near this locus were analyzed as candidates for SPTB in subsequent case-control association analyses. Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these genes and an AR exon-1 CAG repeat, which was previously demonstrated to be functionally significant, were analyzed in mothers with preterm delivery (n?=?272) and their offspring (n?=?269), and in mothers with exclusively term deliveries (n?=?201) and their offspring (n?=?199), all originating from northern Finland. A replication study population consisting of individuals born preterm (n?=?111) and term (n?=?197) from southern Finland was also analyzed. Long AR CAG repeats (?26) were overrepresented and short repeats (?19) underrepresented in individuals born preterm compared to those born at term. Thus, our linkage and association results emphasize the role of the fetal genome in genetic predisposition to SPTB and implicate AR as a potential novel fetal susceptibility gene for SPTB. PMID:23227263

Karjalainen, Minna K.; Huusko, Johanna M.; Ulvila, Johanna; Sotkasiira, Jenni; Luukkonen, Aino; Teramo, Kari; Plunkett, Jevon; Anttila, Verneri; Palotie, Aarno; Haataja, Ritva; Muglia, Louis J.; Hallman, Mikko

2012-01-01

320

Plasma Membrane Proteomics of Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines Identifies Potential Targets for Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment  

PubMed Central

The use of broad spectrum chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer results in substantial and debilitating side effects, necessitating the development of targeted therapies to limit tumor proliferation and prevent metastasis. In recent years, the list of approved targeted therapies has expanded, and it includes both monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors that interfere with key proteins involved in the uncontrolled growth and migration of cancer cells. The targeting of plasma membrane proteins has been most successful to date, and this is reflected in the large representation of these proteins as targets of newer therapies. In view of these facts, experiments were designed to investigate the plasma membrane proteome of a variety of human breast cancer cell lines representing hormone-responsive, ErbB2 over-expressing and triple negative cell types, as well as a benign control. Plasma membranes were isolated by using an aqueous two-phase system, and the resulting proteins were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Overall, each of the cell lines expressed some unique proteins, and a number of proteins were expressed in multiple cell lines, but in patterns that did not always follow traditional clinical definitions of breast cancer type. From our data, it can be deduced that most cancer cells possess multiple strategies to promote uncontrolled growth, reflected in aberrant expression of tyrosine kinases, cellular adhesion molecules, and structural proteins. Our data set provides a very rich and complex picture of plasma membrane proteins present on breast cancer cells, and the sorting and categorizing of this data provides interesting insights into the biology, classification, and potential treatment of this prevalent and debilitating disease. PMID:25029196

Ziegler, Yvonne S.; Moresco, James J.; Tu, Patricia G.; Yates, John R.; Nardulli, Ann M.

2014-01-01

321

Dinoflagellate cysts from surface sediments of Saldanha Bay, South Africa: an indication of the potential risk of harmful algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and abundance of dinoflagellate cysts from recent coastal sediments in Saldanha Bay, was investigated, and compared to the cyst assemblages of the adjacent coastal upwelling system as reflected in the sediments off Lambert's Bay on the southern Namaqua shelf. Twenty-two cyst types were identified from three sample sites off Lambert's Bay with recorded abundances between 1726 and 1863

L. B. Joyce; G. C. Pitcher; A. du Randt; P. M. S. Monteiro

2005-01-01

322

Identifying potential receptors and routes of contaminant exposure in the traditional territory of the Ouje-Bougoumou Cree: land use and a geographical information system.  

PubMed

Great concern has been raised with respect to the 13 traplines that constitute the traditional territory of the Ouje-Bougoumou Cree located in the James Bay region of northern Quebec, Canada, with respect to mine wastes originating from three local mines. As a result, an "Integrative Risk Assessment" was initiated consisting of three interrelated components: a comprehensive human health study, an assessment of the existing ecological/environmental database, and a land use/potential sites of concern study. In this paper, we document past and present land use in the traditional territory of the Ouje-Bougoumou Cree for 72 heads of households, including 13 tallymen, and use a Geographic Information System (GIS) to layer harvest/hunting and gathering/collecting data over known mining areas and potential sites of concern. In this way, potential receptors of contamination and routes of human exposure were identified. Areas of overlap with respect to land use activity and mining operations were relatively extensive for certain harvesting activities (e.g., beaver, Castor canadensis and various species of game birds), less so for fish harvesting (all species) and water collection, and relatively restrictive for large mammal harvesting and collection of fire wood (and other collection activities). Potential receptors of contaminants associated with mining activity (e.g., fish and small mammals) and potential routes of exposure (e.g., ingestion of contaminated game and drinking of contaminated water) were identified. PMID:16897501

Tsuji, Leonard J S; Manson, Harry; Wainman, Bruce C; Vanspronsen, Eric P; Shecapio-Blacksmith, Joseph; Rabbitskin, Tommy

2007-04-01

323

Event-Related Potential (ERP) Indices of Infants' Recognition of Familiar and Unfamiliar Objects in Two and Three Dimensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We measured infants' recognition of familiar and unfamiliar 3-D objects and their 2-D representations using event-related potentials (ERPs). Infants differentiated familiar from unfamiliar objects when viewing them in both two and three dimensions. However, differentiation between the familiar and novel objects occurred more quickly when infants…

Carver, Leslie J.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Dawson, Geraldine

2006-01-01

324

Aerobic Fitness and Cognitive Development: Event-Related Brain Potential and Task Performance Indices of Executive Control in Preadolescent Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between aerobic fitness and executive control was assessed in 38 higher- and lower-fit children (M[subscript age] = 9.4 years), grouped according to their performance on a field test of aerobic capacity. Participants performed a flanker task requiring variable amounts of executive control while event-related brain potential

Hillman, Charles H.; Buck, Sarah M.; Themanson, Jason R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Castelli, Darla M.

2009-01-01

325

Somatic cell apoptosis markers and pathways in human ejaculated sperm: potential utility as indicators of sperm quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we extended earlier work to determine whether sperm respond to somatic cell apoptotic stimuli and whether apoptotic phenotypes are significant indicators of human sperm quality. We evaluated ejaculated sperm from fertile donors and subfertile patients following purification of fractions of high and low motility. In unstimulated conditions, caspase enzy- matic activity was higher in motile fractions from

S. L. Taylor; S. L. Weng; P. Fox; E. H. Duran; M. S. Morshedi; S. Oehninger; S. J. Beebe

2004-01-01

326

The clinical response to total sleep deprivation and recovery sleep in geriatric depression: potential indicators of antidepressant treatment outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical response to antidepressant treatment in late-life depression is often delayed and highly variable. Better indicators of antidepressant efficacy are needed early in the course of treatment, so that augmentation strategies or alternative treatments may be initiated. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether the change in the Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) after 36 h of

Cameron R Hernandez; Gwenn S Smith; Patricia R Houck; Bruce G Pollock; Benoit Mulsant; Mary Amanda Dew; Charles F Reynolds III

2000-01-01

327

TRANSPORT OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS FROM KNOWN WSTEWATER DISCHARGES: POTENTIAL CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently ascertained using indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci. However, the tests to analyze for these bacteria require 24 to 48 hours to complete, and do not discriminate between human and animal...

328

Somatosensory-evoked potentials indicate increased unpleasantness of noxious stimuli in response to increasing stimulus intensities in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, it has been shown in rats that specific characteristics of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) recorded from different sites on the scalp correlate differently to the amount of unpleasantness experienced by the animal following noxious stimulation. It was shown that the SEP recorded from vertex (Vx-SEP) did correlate with the unpleasantness, whereas the SEP recorded from the primary somatosensory cortex (SI-SEP)

Hugo van Oostrom; Peter J. Stienen; Ruud van den Bos; Harry N. M. de Groot; Ludo J. Hellebrekers

2007-01-01

329

Isotopic compositions of tropical East African flora and their potential as source indicators of organic matter in coastal marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The C and N stable isotope compositions of some flora of East Africa from coastal Tanzania and Amboseli National Park (Kenya) are used to assess if they can be used as a terrestrial end member during the estimation of terrestrial fraction in coastal marine sediments. The results of C isotope composition of various tree leaves, which average -29.3 ± 1.4%, indicate that these tropical higher land plant species follow a Calvin-Benson or non-Kranz (C 3) type of metabolism. The results for grass species, which average -13.2 ± 2.4%, indicate that most of them follow a Hatch-Slack or Kranz (C 4) type of metabolism. However, some of the succulent plants from the Amboseli National Park have ?13C values that average -14.7%, an indication that they follow a CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) type of metabolism. The N isotope values are relatively higher than expected for the terrestrial organic material. The average ?15N values for both tree and grass samples are higher than 5% and fall within the range normally considered to be marine. The high enrichment in 15N may be related to the environmental conditions in which plants thrive. Plants growing in sandy, dry and overgrazed environments are expected to be enriched in 15N owing to full utilisation of all available N species, regardless of their isotopic compositions. Other processes which may cause an enrichment in 15N include adsorption by various types of clay minerals, supply of 15N-enriched nitrate through sea-spray, and local denitrification, especially in swampy and lake margins where the input of organic matter may be higher than the rate of decomposition. The stable isotopic composition of organic C and N for surficial organic matter for the coastal marine sediments averages -17.0 ± 0.9% and 5.4 ± 1.1%, respectively. These values indicate a substantial contribution of C 4 plants and sea grasses. However, contribution of C 4 relative to that of sea grasses can not be evaluated owing to the fact that there is no significant difference in the isotopic compositions between the two groups. In the savannah environment, where a contribution from the C 4 types of plants might be substantial, the ?13C value for a terrestrial end member needs to be established prior to evaluation of the terrestrially derived organic matter in the marine environment. Owing to a significant contribution of sea grasses to the total organic matter preserved in coastal marine sediments, the stable isotopes of organic C seem to have a limited applicability as source indicators in the East African coastal waters. Furthermore, the results indicate that N stable isotopes seem to have a limited applicability as source indicators in coastal waters of East Africa. However, more work needs to be conducted to determine the terrestrial and sea grass end member values for the coastal areas.

Muzuka, Alfred N. N.

1999-04-01

330

Use of oxidoreduction potential as an indicator to regulate 1,3-propanediol fermentation by Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic fermentation was relatively difficult to optimize due to lack of monitoring parameters. In this paper, a new method\\u000a was reported using extracellular oxidoreduction potential (ORP) to monitor 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) biosynthesis process by\\u000a Klebsiella pneumoniae. In batch fermentation, cell growth, 1,3-propanediol production and by-products distribution were studied at four different\\u000a ORP levels: 10, ?140, ?190 and ?240 mV. From the results,

Chenyu Du; Hui Yan; Yanping Zhang; Y. Li; Z. Cao

2006-01-01

331

Sentinel birds in wild-bird resting sites as potential indicators for West Nile virus infections in Germany.  

PubMed

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus with wild birds as its natural hosts. Ravens, falcons and jays are highly susceptible for WNV and develop deadly encephalitis, while other bird species undergo only subclinical infections. Migratory birds are efficient vectors for geographic spreading of WNV. Until now, WNV infections have not been diagnosed in Germany, but infections in humans and horses have occurred recently in Austria, Hungary and Italy. To investigate potential WNV introduction by infected wild birds, we have monitored the serological status of ducks in three national sentinel stations. No WNV-positive reactions were found, whereas sera from coots from northern Iran were positive. PMID:20437062

Ziegler, Ute; Seidowski, Diana; Globig, Anja; Fereidouni, Sasan R; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H

2010-06-01

332

[The advanced oxidation protein products as potential diagnostic and prognostic factor in diseases of the indicated participation of oxidative stress].  

PubMed

The possibility of diagnostic and/or prognostic use of measuring the concentration of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) in chronic diseases with well-documented involvement of oxidative stress (OS) in their pathogenesis were the subject of numerous studies. In the present study discussed the pathological conditions and disorders, in which the role of OS and oxidative damage of proteins is also indicated as one of the factors in their etiopathogenesis. The presented data concerned clinical and diagnostic aspects of AOPPs as well as biochemical mechanisms of disturbances in the infection and autoimmune diseases, cancers, genetic and neurological diseases. Participation of AOPPs in disturbances connected with fertility, pregnancy delivery and prematurity are also shown. Moreover the single literature data concerning other pathological states, in which AOPPs are also becoming the object of intensive investigations are presented. The review and application possibilities of AOPPs measurement as useful marker for diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring the course of these diseases were performed. Diagnostic or prognostic utility of AOPPs are especially indicated in the course of rheumatoid arthritis, development of pregnancy complication both in mother and child, and dementia. However, AOPPs measurement seems to be most promising in plasma or urine in course of cancer diseases. PMID:24864097

Piwowar, Agnieszka

2014-01-01

333

Regional differences in species composition and toxigenic potential among Fusarium head blight isolates from Uruguay indicate a risk of nivalenol contamination in new wheat production areas.  

PubMed

Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, and frequently contaminate grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that pose a serious threat to food safety and animal health. The species identity and trichothecene toxin potential of 151 FGSC isolates collected from wheat in Uruguay were determined via multilocus genotyping. Although F. graminearum with the 15ADON trichothecene type accounted for 86% of the isolates examined, five different FGSC species and all three trichothecene types were identified in this collection. This is the first report of Fusarium asiaticum, Fusarium brasilicum, Fusarium cortaderiae, and Fusarium austroamericanum from Uruguay. In addition, we observed significant (P<0.001) regional differences in the composition of FGSC species and trichothecene types within Uruguay. Isolates of F. graminearum with the 15ADON type were the most prevalent in western provinces (95%), while F. asiaticum (43%) and the NIV type (61%) predominated in the new wheat production zone in Cerro Largo along Uruguay's eastern border with Brazil. F. graminearum isolates (15ADON type) were significantly (P<0.005) more aggressive on wheat than were isolates from the other species examined (NIV or 3ADON types). However, F. graminearum isolates (15ADON type) were significantly (P<0.05) more sensitive to tebuconazole than isolates from other species (NIV type). These results document substantial heterogeneity among the pathogens responsible for FHB in Uruguay. In addition, the regional predominance of the NIV trichothecene type is of significant concern to food safety and indicates that additional monitoring of nivalenol levels in grain may be required. PMID:23856007

Umpiérrez-Failache, M; Garmendia, G; Pereyra, S; Rodríguez-Haralambides, A; Ward, T J; Vero, S

2013-08-16

334

The use of local indicators of spatial association to improve LiDAR-derived predictions of potential amphibian breeding ponds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined whether spatially explicit information improved models that use LiDAR return signal intensity to discriminate in-pond habitat from terrestrial habitat at 24 amphibian breeding ponds. The addition of Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) to LiDAR return intensity data significantly improved predictive models at all ponds, reduced residual error by as much as 74%, and appeared to improve models by reducing classification errors associated with types of in-pond vegetation. We conclude that LISA statistics can help maximize the information content that can be extracted from time resolved LiDAR return data in models that predict the occurrence of small, seasonal ponds. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

Julian, J.T.; Young, J.A.; Jones, J.W.; Snyder, C.D.; Wright, C.W.

2009-01-01

335

[The value of glucose-positive coliform bacteria and potentially pathogenic bacteria as indicators of epidemiological safety of tap water].  

PubMed

Due to intensive anthropogenic pollution of water environment generally accepted indicators of epidemic security of water bodies - common bacteria and thermotolerant coliform bacteria do not always permit to obtain an objective characterization of bacterial contamination of tap water. From the point of view of authors the integral index - glucose positive coliform bacteria most adequately reflect the sanitary-hygienic and epidemiological situation of water bodies. In monitoring for bacterial quality of tap water it is advisable to determine glucose positive coliform bacteria, that will provide the relevance of estimation of the epidemiological safety of water use. According to the method developed by the authors the calculation of the index of population risk of acute intestinal infections occurrence in dependence on the quality of tap water in Azov and Tsimlyansk towns. PMID:23458011

Zhuravlev, P V; Aleshnia, V V; Panasovets, O P; Morozova, A A; Artemova, T Z; Talaeva, Iu G; Zaga?nova, A V; Gipp, E K

2012-01-01

336

[The significance of glucose positive coliform bacteria and potentially pathogenic bacteria as an indicator of epidemiological safety of tap water].  

PubMed

Due to intensive anthropogenic pollution of water environment generally accepted indicators of epidemic security of water bodies--common bacteria (CB) and thermotolerant coliform bacteria (TCB) do not always permit to obtain an objective characterization of bacterial contamination of tap water. From the point of view of authors the integral index--glucose positive coliform bacteria most adequately reflect the sanitary-hygienic and epidemiological situation of water bodies. In monitoring for bacterial quality of tap water it is advisable to determine glucose positive coliform bacteria, that will provide the relevance of estimation of the epidemiological safety of water use. According to the method developed by the authors the calculation of the index of population risk of acute intestinal infections (AHI) occurrence in dependence on the quality of tap water in Azov and Tsimlyansk towns. PMID:23805697

Zhuravlev, P V; Aleshnya, V V; Panasovets, O P; Morozova, A A; Artemova, T Z; Talaeva, Yu G; Zagaynova, A V

2013-01-01

337

The Alaris auditory evoked potential monitor as an indicator of seizure inducibility and duration during electroconvulsive therapy: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Precise control of anesthetic depth during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is crucial because most intravenous anesthetics have anticonvulsant effects. In this study, we investigated the association between anesthetic depth measured by the Alaris auditory evoked potential index (AAI) and seizure inducibility and seizure duration during ECT. Methods Sixty-four ECTs were evaluated in 12 consecutive patients. General anesthesia was performed with a thiopental-based method. The relationship between the pre-ictal AAI, seizure activity and seizure duration was analyzed, and a possible threshold pre-ictal AAI to induce a seizure duration of at least 25 seconds was calculated. Results Forty-one of the 64 ECT stimuli successfully induced seizure activity that lasted longer than 25 seconds. Pre-ictal AAI was significantly correlated to seizure duration (r?=?0.54, p?

2014-01-01

338

Sediment geochemistry as potential sea-level indicators to assess coseismic vertical displacements above the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly the entire 4000-km-long Alaska-Aleutian megathrust has ruptured in large or great (Mw ?8) earthquakes in the past 100 years, yet paleoseismic records of earlier events are only documented east of Kodiak Is. in the region of the 1964 Alaska earthquake. The Mw 9.2 1964 earthquake dropped the coast along Cook Inlet and Turnagain Arm by ?1.8 m and raised shore platforms around Prince William Sound by ?3 m. Evidence of sudden (coseismic) vertical displacements during megathrust earthquakes are archived in coastal sediments as sharp stratigraphic contacts that record rapid relative sea-level (RSL) changes. We use geochemical analyses of coastal sediments to detect sudden RSL changes at 2 sites above the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust. One site on Knik Arm near Anchorage subsided ~0.6 m during the 1964 earthquake. The other site overlies the Shumagin Islands segment of the megathrust, without rupture since before 1903. Relative to terrestrial sources of sediment, marine sources should be enriched in ?13C, ?15N, and have higher C:N, and Cl- concentrations. Our analyses will test whether these geochemical proxies can provide evidence for sudden RSL change across stratigraphic contacts that record coseismic uplift or subsidence. Coseismic subsidence should be represented by contacts that place sediment with enriched ?13C, ?15N signatures, elevated C:N and Cl- concentrations over sediment with lower values of these geochemical proxies and the reverse for coseismic uplift. A 1-2 m tall, ~0.5-km-long bluff along Knik Arm exposes three buried wetland soils overlain by gray mud. The soils become faint and pinch out to the northeast near a large tidal channel. Other studies of similar buried soils at adjacent sites suggest the youngest soil at Knik Arm subsided in 1964. 14C analyses of plant fossils in two older soils will provide age estimates for earlier events. We will apply the proposed geochemical methods to 20 samples collected along a forested upland to tidal mud flat transect to distinguish terrestrial from marine sediment. On Simeonof Is., stratigraphy beneath a peat bog adjacent to a tidal lagoon consists of basal marine sand overlain by ~0.6-1.5 m of peat. The presence of Arachnoidiscus japonicas, benthic marine diatom, implies a marine sand source. Sphagnum spp. and absence of marine foraminifera indicate freshwater peat. We analyzed ?13C, ?15N, and C:N from bulk sediment, and Cl- from water soluble fraction of sediment in a 1.3-m bog core. Freshwater peat at depths of 0.0-26.0, and 33.0-78.5 cm have ?13C ranging from -25.02 to -27.35 ‰, ?15N from 3.30-9.93‰, C:N of 10.16-17.89, and Cl- concentrations of 0.9-25.9 mg/L. Sand dominated intervals at 26.0-33.0, and 78.5-130 cm have ?13C ranging from -17.24 to -26.50‰, ?15N from 8.30-11.11‰ , C:N of 0.30-29.6 and Cl- concentrations of 0.7-19.3 mg/L. The data also indicate that average ?13C and ?15N values are enriched in marine sand relative to freshwater peat, respectively by 3.27‰ and 3.10‰. Also C:N ratios and Cl- concentrations are lower in marine sand, respectively by 23.1 and 0.1 mg/L. Hence, ?13C and ?15N show promise as geochemical proxies to distinguish terrestrial from marine sediment for future Alaska-Aleutian paleoseismic studies west of Kodiak Is.

Bender, A. M.; Witter, R. C.; Munk, L. A.

2012-12-01

339

Well Measured Developing Indicators for Comprehensive and Sustainable Transport Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides guidance on the selection of indicators for comprehensive and sustainable transportation planning. It discusses the concept of sustainability and the role of indicators in planning, describes factors to consider when selecting indicators, identifies potential problems with conventional indicators, describes examples of indicators and indicator sets, and provides recommendations for selecting indicators for use in a particular situation.

Todd Litman

2005-01-01

340

Proteomic analysis of phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea as a potential tool for identifying pathogenicity factors, therapeutic targets and for basic research.  

PubMed

Botrytis cinerea is a phytopathogenic fungus causing disease in a substantial number of economically important crops. In an attempt to identify putative fungal virulence factors, the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) protein profile from two B. cinerea strains differing in virulence and toxin production were compared. Protein extracts from fungal mycelium obtained by tissue homogenization were analyzed. The mycelial 2-DE protein profile revealed the existence of qualitative and quantitative differences between the analyzed strains. The lack of genomic data from B. cinerea required the use of peptide fragmentation data from MALDI-TOF/TOF and ESI ion trap for protein identification, resulting in the identification of 27 protein spots. A significant number of spots were identified as malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The different expression patterns revealed by some of the identified proteins could be ascribed to differences in virulence between strains. Our results indicate that proteomic analysis are becoming an important tool to be used as a starting point for identifying new pathogenicity factors, therapeutic targets and for basic research on this plant pathogen in the postgenomic era. PMID:17124592

Fernández-Acero, Francisco Javier; Jorge, Inmaculada; Calvo, Enrique; Vallejo, Inmaculada; Carbú, María; Camafeita, Emilio; Garrido, Carlos; López, Juan Antonio; Jorrin, Jesús; Cantoral, Jesús Manuel

2007-03-01

341

SCS-CN and GIS-based approach for identifying potential water harvesting sites in the Kali Watershed, Mahi River Basin, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kali sub-watershed is situated in the semi-arid region of Gujarat, India and forms a part of the Mahi River Watershed. This watershed receives an average annual rainfall of 900mm mainly between July and September. Due to high runoff potential, evapo-transpiration and poor infiltration, drought like situation prevails in this area from December to June almost every year. In this paper, augmentation of water resource is proposed by construction of runoff harvesting structures like check dam, percolation pond, farm pond, well and subsurface dyke. The site suitability for different water harvesting structures is determined by considering spatially varying parameters like runoff potential, slope, fracture pattern and micro-watershed area. GIS is utilised as a tool to store, analyse and integrate spatial and attribute information pertaining to runoff, slope, drainage and fracture. The runoff derived by SCS-CN method is a function of runoff potential which can be expressed in terms of runoff coefficient (ratio between the runoff and rainfall) which can be classified into three classes, viz., high (>40%), moderate (20-40%) and low (<20%). In addition to IMSD, FAO specifications for water harvesting/recharging structures, parameters such as effective storage, rock mass permeability are herein considered to augment effective storage. Using the overlay and decision tree concepts in GIS, potential water harvesting sites are identified. The derived sites are field investigated for suitability and implementation. In all, the accuracy of the site selection at implementation level varies from 80-100%.

Ramakrishnan, D.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Kusuma, K. N.

2009-08-01

342

Modeling the potential spread of the recently identified non-native panther grouper (Chromileptes altivelis) in the Atlantic using a cellular automaton approach.  

PubMed

The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli) is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles), which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, the panther grouper is not yet thought to have an established breeding population in the Atlantic. Using a proven modeling technique developed to track the lionfish invasion, presented is the first known estimation of the potential spread of panther grouper in the Atlantic. The employed cellular automaton-based computer model examines the life history of the subject species including fecundity, mortality, and reproductive potential and combines this with habitat preferences and physical oceanic parameters to forecast the distribution and periodicity of spread of this potential new invasive species. Simulations were examined for origination points within one degree of capture locations of panther grouper from the United States Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database to eliminate introduction location bias, and two detailed case studies were scrutinized. The model indicates three primary locations where settlement is likely given the inputs and limits of the model; Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach, the Cape Hatteras Tropical Limit/Myrtle Beach South Carolina, and Florida Keys/Ten Thousand Islands locations. Of these locations, Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach has the highest settlement rate in the model and is indicated as the area in which the panther grouper is most likely to become established. This insight is valuable if attempts are to be made to halt this potential marine invasive species. PMID:24009726

Johnston, Matthew W; Purkis, Sam J

2013-01-01

343

Structure-Guided Lead Optimization of Triazolopyrimidine-Ring Substituents Identifies Potent Plasmodium falciparum Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors with Clinical Candidate Potential  

SciTech Connect

Drug therapy is the mainstay of antimalarial therapy, yet current drugs are threatened by the development of resistance. In an effort to identify new potential antimalarials, we have undertaken a lead optimization program around our previously identified triazolopyrimidine-based series of Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) inhibitors. The X-ray structure of PfDHODH was used to inform the medicinal chemistry program allowing the identification of a potent and selective inhibitor (DSM265) that acts through DHODH inhibition to kill both sensitive and drug resistant strains of the parasite. This compound has similar potency to chloroquine in the humanized SCID mouse P. falciparum model, can be synthesized by a simple route, and rodent pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated it has excellent oral bioavailability, a long half-life and low clearance. These studies have identified the first candidate in the triazolopyrimidine series to meet previously established progression criteria for efficacy and ADME properties, justifying further development of this compound toward clinical candidate status.

Coteron, Jose M.; Marco, Maria; Esquivias, Jorge; Deng, Xiaoyi; White, Karen L.; White, John; Koltun, Maria; El Mazouni, Farah; Kokkonda, Sreekanth; Katneni, Kasiram; Bhamidipati, Ravi; Shackleford, David M.; Angulo-Barturen, Inigo; Ferrer, Santiago B.; Jimenez-Diaz, Maria Belen; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Charman, William N.; Bathurst, Ian; Floyd, David; Matthews, David; Burrows, Jeremy N.; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.; Charman, Susan A.; Phillips, Margaret A. (UWASH); (MMV, Switzerland); (GSK); (Monash); (UW); (UTSMC)

2012-02-27

344

Proteomic analysis of serum proteins in triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice: implications for identifying biomarkers for use to screen potential candidate therapeutic drugs for early Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting the elderly worldwide. There is an urgent need to identify novel biomarkers of early AD. This study aims to search for potential early protein biomarkers in serum from a triple transgenic (PS1M146V/APPSwe/TauP301L) mouse model. Proteomic analysis via two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis was performed on serum samples from wild-type (WT) and triple transgenic mice that were treated with or without coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) (800 mg/kg body weight/day), a powerful endogenous antioxidant displaying therapeutic benefits against AD pathology and cognitive impairment in multiple AD mouse models, for a period of three months beginning at two months of age. A total of 15 differentially expressed serum proteins were identified between the WT and AD transgenic mice. The administration of CoQ10 was found to alter the changes in the differentially expressed serum proteins by upregulating 10 proteins and down-regulating 10 proteins. Among the proteins modulated by CoQ10, clusterin and ?-2-macroglobulin were validated via ELISA assay. These findings revealed significant changes in serum proteins in the AD mouse model at an early pathological stage and demonstrated that administration of CoQ10 could modulate these changes in serum proteins. Our study suggested that these differentially expressed serum proteins could serve as potential protein biomarkers of early AD and that screening for potential candidate AD therapeutic drugs and monitoring of therapeutic effects could be performed via measurement of the changes in these differentially expressed serum proteins. PMID:24496070

Sui, Xiaojing; Ren, Xiaohu; Huang, Peiwu; Li, Shuiming; Ma, Quan; Ying, Ming; Ni, Jiazuan; Liu, Jianjun; Yang, Xifei

2014-01-01

345

Fluorescence spectroscopy as a highly potential single-entity tool to identify chromophores and fluorophores: study on neoplastic human brain lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy are powerful tools to differentiate normal and malignant tissue based on the emissions from endogenous fluorophores and diffuse reflection of absorbers such as hemoglobin. However, separate analytical methods are used for the identification of fluorophores and hemoglobin. The estimation of fluorophores and hemoglobin simultaneously using a single technique of autofluorescence spectroscopy is reported, and its diagnostic potential on clinical tissue samples is potentially exploited. Surgically removed brain tissues from patients that are later identified pathologically as astrocytoma, glioma, meningioma, and schwannoma are studied. The emissions from prominent fluorophores collagen, flavin adenine dinucleotide, phospholipids, and porphyrin are analyzed at 320 and 410 nm excitations. The hemoglobin concentration is also calculated from the ratio of fluorescence emissions at 500 and 570 nm. A better classification of normal and tumor tissues is yielded for 410 nm excitation compared to 320 nm when diagnostic algorithm based on linear discriminant analysis is used. The potential of fluorescence spectroscopy as a single entity to evaluate the prominent fluorophores as well as the hemoglobin concentration within normal and tumor brain tissues is emphasized.

Nazeer, Shaiju S.; Saraswathy, Ariya; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Jayasree, Ramapurath S.

2013-06-01

346

Sequential strategy to identify a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia: Report of potential linkage on chromosome 22q12-q13.1: Part 1  

SciTech Connect

To identify genes responsible for the susceptibility for schizophrenia, and to test the hypothesis that schizophrenia is etiologically heterogeneous, we have studied 39 multiplex families from a systematic sample of schizophrenic patients. Using a complex autosomal dominant model, which considers only those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder as affected, a random search of the genome for detection of linkage was undertaken. Pairwise linkage analyses suggest a potential linkage (LRH = 34.7 or maximum lod score = 1.54) for one region (22q12-q13.1). Reanalyses, varying parameters in the dominant model, maximized the LRH at 660.7 (maximum lod score 2.82). This finding is of sufficient interest to warrant further investigation through collaborative studies. 72 refs., 5 tabs.

Pulver, A.E.; Wolyniec, P.S.; Lasseter, V.K. [The John Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

1994-03-15

347

Identifying bacteria in human urine: current practice and the potential for rapid, near-patient diagnosis by sensing volatile organic compounds.  

PubMed

Urinary tract infection (UTI) represents a significant burden for the National Health Service. Extensive research has been directed towards rapid detection of UTI in the last thirty years. A wide range of microbiological and chemical techniques are now available to identify and quantify bacteria in urine. However, there is a clear and present need for near, rapid, sensitive, reliable analytical methods, preferably with low-running costs, that could allow early detection of UTI and other diseases in urine. Here we review the "state of the art" of current practice for the detection of bacteria in urine and describe the advantages of the recent "e-nose" technology as a potential tool for rapid, near-patient diagnosis of UTI, by sensing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). PMID:11758602

Guernion, N; Ratcliffe, N M; Spencer-Phillips, P T; Howe, R A

2001-10-01

348

Object-Based Classification as an Alternative Approach to the Traditional Pixel-Based Classification to Identify Potential Habitat of the Grasshopper Sparrow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional method of identifying wildlife habitat distribution over large regions consists of pixel-based classification of satellite images into a suite of habitat classes used to select suitable habitat patches. Object-based classification is a new method that can achieve the same objective based on the segmentation of spectral bands of the image creating homogeneous polygons with regard to spatial or spectral characteristics. The segmentation algorithm does not solely rely on the single pixel value, but also on shape, texture, and pixel spatial continuity. The object-based classification is a knowledge base process where an interpretation key is developed using ground control points and objects are assigned to specific classes according to threshold values of determined spectral and/or spatial attributes. We developed a model using the eCognition software to identify suitable habitats for the Grasshopper Sparrow, a rare and declining species found in southwestern Québec. The model was developed in a region with known breeding sites and applied on other images covering adjacent regions where potential breeding habitats may be present. We were successful in locating potential habitats in areas where dairy farming prevailed but failed in an adjacent region covered by a distinct Landsat scene and dominated by annual crops. We discuss the added value of this method, such as the possibility to use the contextual information associated to objects and the ability to eliminate unsuitable areas in the segmentation and land cover classification processes, as well as technical and logistical constraints. A series of recommendations on the use of this method and on conservation issues of Grasshopper Sparrow habitat is also provided.

Jobin, Benoît; Labrecque, Sandra; Grenier, Marcelle; Falardeau, Gilles

2008-01-01

349

Object-based classification as an alternative approach to the traditional pixel-based classification to identify potential habitat of the grasshopper sparrow.  

PubMed

The traditional method of identifying wildlife habitat distribution over large regions consists of pixel-based classification of satellite images into a suite of habitat classes used to select suitable habitat patches. Object-based classification is a new method that can achieve the same objective based on the segmentation of spectral bands of the image creating homogeneous polygons with regard to spatial or spectral characteristics. The segmentation algorithm does not solely rely on the single pixel value, but also on shape, texture, and pixel spatial continuity. The object-based classification is a knowledge base process where an interpretation key is developed using ground control points and objects are assigned to specific classes according to threshold values of determined spectral and/or spatial attributes. We developed a model using the eCognition software to identify suitable habitats for the Grasshopper Sparrow, a rare and declining species found in southwestern Québec. The model was developed in a region with known breeding sites and applied on other images covering adjacent regions where potential breeding habitats may be present. We were successful in locating potential habitats in areas where dairy farming prevailed but failed in an adjacent region covered by a distinct Landsat scene and dominated by annual crops. We discuss the added value of this method, such as the possibility to use the contextual information associated to objects and the ability to eliminate unsuitable areas in the segmentation and land cover classification processes, as well as technical and logistical constraints. A series of recommendations on the use of this method and on conservation issues of Grasshopper Sparrow habitat is also provided. PMID:17985180

Jobin, Benoît; Labrecque, Sandra; Grenier, Marcelle; Falardeau, Gilles

2008-01-01

350

Immuno-proteomic analysis of human immune responses to experimental Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane vesicle vaccines identifies potential cross-reactive antigens.  

PubMed

Human volunteers were vaccinated with experimental Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B vaccines based on strain H44/76 detoxified L3 lipooligosaccharide (LOS)-derived outer membrane vesicles (OMV) or the licensed Cuban vaccine, VA-MENGOC-BC. Some volunteers were able to elicit cross-bactericidal antibodies against heterologous L2-LOS strain (760676). An immuno-proteomic approach was used to identify potential targets of these cross-bactericidal antibodies using an L2-LOS derived OMV preparation. A total of nine immuno-reactive spots were detected in this proteome: individuals vaccinated with the detoxified OMVs showed an increase in post-vaccination serum reactivity with Spots 2-8, but not with Spots 1 and 9. Vaccination with VA-MENGOC-BC induced sera that showed increased reactivity with all of the protein spots. Vaccinees showed increases in serum bactericidal activity (SBA) against the heterologous L2-LOS expressing strain 760676, which correlated, in general, with immunoblot reactivity. The identities of proteins within the immuno-reactive spots were determined. These included not only well-studied antigens such as Rmp, Opa, PorB and FbpA (NMB0634), but also identified novel antigens such as exopolyphosphatase (NMB1467) and ?-glutamyltranspeptidase (NMB1057) enzymes and a putative cell binding factor (NMB0345) protein. Investigating the biological properties of such novel antigens may provide candidates for the development of second generation meningococcal vaccines. PMID:24486354

Williams, Jeannette N; Weynants, Vincent; Poolman, Jan T; Heckels, John E; Christodoulides, Myron

2014-03-01

351

Identifying Live Bird Markets with the Potential to Act as Reservoirs of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus: A Survey in Northern Viet Nam and Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Wet markets are common in many parts of the world and may promote the emergence, spread and maintenance of livestock pathogens, including zoonoses. A survey was conducted in order to assess the potential of Vietnamese and Cambodian live bird markets (LBMs) to sustain circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 (HPAIV H5N1). Thirty Vietnamese and 8 Cambodian LBMs were visited, and structured interviews were conducted with the market managers and 561 Vietnamese and 84 Cambodian traders. Multivariate and cluster analysis were used to construct a typology of traders based on their poultry management practices. As a result of those practices and large poultry surplus (unsold poultry reoffered for sale the following day), some poultry traders were shown to promote conditions favorable for perpetuating HPAIV H5N1 in LBMs. More than 80% of these traders operated in LBMs located in the most densely populated areas, Ha Noi and Phnom Penh. The profiles of sellers operating at a given LBM could be reliably predicted using basic information about the location and type of market. Consequently, LBMs with the largest combination of risk factors for becoming virus reservoirs could be easily identified, potentially allowing control strategies to be appropriately targeted. These findings are of particular relevance to resource-scarce settings with extensively developed LBM systems, commonly found in South-East Asia. PMID:22675502

Fournie, Guillaume; Guitian, Javier; Desvaux, Stephanie; Mangtani, Punam; Ly, Sowath; Cong, Vu Chi; San, Sorn; Dung, Do Huu; Holl, Davun; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Vong, Sirenda; Ghani, Azra C.

2012-01-01

352

A molecular approach to identifying the natural prey of the African creeping water bug Naucoris, a potential reservoir of Mycobacterium ulcerans.  

PubMed

The extra-oral digestion of creeping water bugs (Naucoridae: Hemiptera) hinders the study of their diet using the standard method of identifying prey body parts in the gut. Genetic methods are available, but rely on PCR tests or similar diagnostics to confirm suspected prey. Where the potential prey is unknown and a broad search for all possible prey is desirable, methods that can potentially capture any prey item are required. Naucoris sp. is known to harbor Mycobacterium ulcerans (Actinomycetales: Mycobacteriaceae), the causative bacterium of Buruli ulcer. Outbreaks of Buruli ulcer have been associated with disturbed freshwater habitats, but the mode of transmission to humans remains unclear. Here we examine the diet of Naucoris sp., a dominant aquatic predator in water bodies in Ghana where the prevalence of Buruli ulcer is high. We cloned and sequenced 576 PCR products (mtDNA rrnL, cox1) isolated from the gut of 60 Naucoris sp. individuals to determining diet composition as broadly as possible. Using phylogenetic analysis of newly sequenced clones and 6 potential prey taxa collected from the site, sequences isolated from Naucoris sp. guts matched locally collected Coleoptera (Hydrophilidae). Blastn queries to GenBank of other clone sequences produced matches to (Anura) (n = 1), Rotifera (n = 5), and fungi (n = 4) as additional components of the diet. Our results suggest that sp. in this Buruli ulcer-endemic area feeds on a wide range of prey and body sizes, and that the approach could be successfully applied to studies of aquatic food webs where morphological identification of prey is impossible and where little or no a priori knowledge is available. PMID:22934669

Gamboa, Maribet; Kimbirauskas, Ryan K; Merritt, Richard W; Monaghan, Michael T

2012-01-01

353

A Molecular Approach to Identifying the Natural Prey of the African Creeping Water Bug Naucoris, A Potential Reservoir of Mycobacterium ulcerans  

PubMed Central

The extra-oral digestion of creeping water bugs (Naucoridae: Hemiptera) hinders the study of their diet using the standard method of identifying prey body parts in the gut. Genetic methods are available, but rely on PCR tests or similar diagnostics to confirm suspected prey. Where the potential prey is unknown and a broad search for all possible prey is desirable, methods that can potentially capture any prey item are required. Naucoris sp. is known to harbor Mycobacterium ulcerans (Actinomycetales: Mycobacteriaceae), the causative bacterium of Buruli ulcer. Outbreaks of Buruli ulcer have been associated with disturbed freshwater habitats, but the mode of transmission to humans remains unclear. Here we examine the diet of Naucoris sp., a dominant aquatic predator in water bodies in Ghana where the prevalence of Buruli ulcer is high. We cloned and sequenced 576 PCR products (mtDNA rrnL, cox1) isolated from the gut of 60 Naucoris sp. individuals to determining diet composition as broadly as possible. Using phylogenetic analysis of newly sequenced clones and 6 potential prey taxa collected from the site, sequences isolated from Naucoris sp. guts matched locally collected Coleoptera (Hydrophilidae). Blastn queries to GenBank of other clone sequences produced matches to (Anura) (n = 1), Rotifera (n = 5), and fungi (n = 4) as additional components of the diet. Our results suggest that sp. in this Buruli ulcer-endemic area feeds on a wide range of prey and body sizes, and that the approach could be successfully applied to studies of aquatic food webs where morphological identification of prey is impossible and where little or no a priori knowledge is available. PMID:22934669

Gamboa, Maribet; Kimbirauskas, Ryan K.; Merritt, Richard W.; Monaghan, Michael T.

2012-01-01

354

High-Throughput Transcriptomic and RNAi Analysis Identifies AIM1, ERGIC1, TMED3 and TPX2 as Potential Drug Targets in Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases and there is a need for more efficient and targeted methods of treatment. In this study, the potential of gene expression data and RNA interference technique were combined to advance future personalized prostate cancer therapeutics. To distinguish the most promising in vivo prevalidated prostate cancer drug targets, a bioinformatic analysis was carried out using genome-wide gene expression data from 9873 human tissue samples. In total, 295 genes were selected for further functional studies in cultured prostate cancer cells due to their high mRNA expression in prostate, prostate cancer or in metastatic prostate cancer samples. Second, RNAi based cell viability assay was performed in VCaP and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Based on the siRNA results, gene expression patterns in human tissues and novelty, endoplasmic reticulum function associated targets AIM1, ERGIC1 and TMED3, as well as mitosis regulating TPX2 were selected for further validation. AIM1, ERGIC1, and TPX2 were shown to be highly expressed especially in prostate cancer tissues, and high mRNA expression of ERGIC1 and TMED3 associated with AR and ERG oncogene expression. ERGIC1 silencing specifically regulated the proliferation of ERG oncogene positive prostate cancer cells and inhibited ERG mRNA expression in these cells, indicating that it is a potent drug target in ERG positive subgroup of prostate cancers. TPX2 expression associated with PSA failure and TPX2 silencing reduced PSA expression, indicating that TPX2 regulates androgen receptor mediated signaling. In conclusion, the combinatorial usage of microarray and RNAi techniques yielded in a large number of potential novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets, for future development of targeted and personalized approaches for prostate cancer management. PMID:22761906

Vainio, Paula; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Kohonen, Pekka; Fey, Vidal; Mirtti, Tuomas; Alanen, Kalle A.; Perala, Merja; Kallioniemi, Olli; Iljin, Kristiina

2012-01-01

355

Identifying sources and assessing potential risk of heavy metals in soils from direct exposure to children in a mine-impacted city, Changsha, China.  

PubMed

Heavy metal pollutants in soils can usually enter the human body and pose heath risks through a soil-crop-human body pathway (indirect exposure) or soil-human body pathway (direct exposure). Previous studies often neglected the direct exposure in human health risk assessment, especially for children. We collected surface soil samples from urban and suburb areas in Changsha City, China, to analyze the content ofAs, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. A combination of principal component analysis, geostatistics, and triangulated irregular network (TIN) model was successfully used to discriminate the sources of heavy metals. The direct exposure method, sequential indicator simulation, and geographical information system (GIS) technologies were used to perform a health risk assessment of heavy metal exposure to children living in the study area. Results show that heavy metal contamination in Changsha may originate from coal usage and industrial activities. One thousand equiprobable realizations suggest that not all sites within the study area may be suitable for housing or allotments without remediation. Most high hazard indexes are located in the suburb and mining areas. Moreover, arsenic presents a high health risk in comparison with other elements. Compared with inhalation and dermal contact in direct soil exposure, soil ingestion is the largest contribution to potential health risks for children. This study indicates that we should attach great importance to the direct soil exposure for children's health. PMID:21043267

Wang, Zhenxing; Chai, Liyuan; Yang, Zhihui; Wang, Yunyan; Wang, Haiying

2010-01-01

356

Comparisons between in vitro whole cell imaging and in vivo zebrafish-based approaches for identifying potential human hepatotoxicants earlier in pharmaceutical development.  

PubMed

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major cause of attrition during both the early and later stages of the drug development and marketing process. Reducing or eliminating drug-induced severe liver injury, especially those that lead to liver transplants or death, would be tremendously beneficial for patients. Therefore, developing new pharmaceuticals that have the highest margins and attributes of hepatic safety would be a great accomplishment. Given the current low productivity of pharmaceutical companies and the high costs of bringing new medicines to market, any early screening assay(s) to identify and eliminate pharmaceuticals with the potential to cause severe liver injury in humans would be of economic value as well. The present review discusses the background, proof-of-concept, and validation studies associated with high-content screening (HCS) by two major pharmaceutical companies (Pfizer Inc and Jansen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson) for detecting compounds with the potential to cause human DILI. These HCS assays use fluorescent-based markers of cell injury in either human hepatocytes or HepG2 cells. In collaboration with Evotec, an independent contract lab, these two companies also independently evaluated larval zebrafish as an early-stage in vivo screen for hepatotoxicity in independently conducted, blinded assessments. Details about this model species, the need for bioanalysis, and, specifically, the outcome of the phenotypic-based zebrafish screens are presented. Comparing outcomes in zebrafish against both HCS assays suggests an enhanced detection for hepatotoxicants of most DILI concern when used in combination with each other, based on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration DILI classification list. PMID:22242931

Hill, Adrian; Mesens, Natalie; Steemans, Margino; Xu, Jinghai James; Aleo, Michael D

2012-02-01

357

A genome-wide association study for somatic cell score using the Illumina high-density bovine beadchip identifies several novel QTL potentially related to mastitis susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Mastitis is an inflammation-driven disease of the bovine mammary gland that occurs in response to physical damage or infection and is one of the most costly production-related diseases in the dairy industry worldwide. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic loci associated with somatic cell score (SCS), an indicator trait of mammary gland inflammation. A total of 702 Holstein-Friesian bulls were genotyped for 777,962 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and associated with SCS phenotypes. The SCS phenotypes were expressed as daughter yield deviations (DYD) based on a large number of progeny performance records. A total of 138 SNPs on 15 different chromosomes reached genome-wide significance (corrected p-value ? 0.05) for association with SCS (after correction for multiple testing). We defined 28 distinct QTL regions and a number of candidate genes located in these QTL regions were identified. The most significant association (p-value = 1.70 × 10?7) was observed on chromosome 6. This QTL had no known genes annotated within it, however, the Ensembl Genome Browser predicted the presence of a small non-coding RNA (a Y RNA gene) in this genomic region. This Y RNA gene was 99% identical to human RNY4. Y RNAs are a rare type of non-coding RNA that were originally discovered due to their association with the autoimmune disease, systemic lupus erythematosus. Examining small-RNA sequencing (RNAseq) data being generated by us in multiple different mastitis-pathogen challenged cell-types has revealed that this Y RNA is expressed (but not differentially expressed) in these cells. Other QTL regions identified in this study also encoded strong candidate genes for mastitis susceptibility. A QTL region on chromosome 13, for example, was found to contain a cluster of ?-defensin genes, a gene family with known roles in innate immunity. Due to the increased SNP density, this study also refined the boundaries for several known QTL for SCS and mastitis. PMID:24223582

Meredith, Brian K.; Berry, Donagh P.; Kearney, Francis; Finlay, Emma K.; Fahey, Alan G.; Bradley, Daniel G.; Lynn, David J.

2013-01-01

358

Cilengitide-Induced Temporal Variations in Transvascular Transfer Parameters of Tumor Vasculature in a Rat Glioma Model: Identifying Potential MRI Biomarkers of Acute Effects  

PubMed Central

Increased efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) 4-8 h after Cilengitide treatment has been reported. We hypothesized that the effects of Cilengitide on tumor transvascular transfer parameters might underlie, and thus predict, this potentiation. Athymic rats with orthotopic U251 glioma were studied at ~21 days after implantation using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI. Vascular parameters, viz: plasma volume fraction (vp), forward volume transfer constant (Ktrans) and interstitial volume fraction (ve) of a contrast agent, were determined in tumor vasculature once before, and again in cohorts 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h after Cilengitide administration (4 mg/kg; N = 31; 6-7 per cohort). Perfusion-fixed brain sections were stained for von Willebrand factor to visualize vascular segments. A comparison of pre- and post-treatment parameters showed that the differences between MR indices before and after Cilengitide treatment pivoted around the 8 h time point, with 2 and 4 h groups showing increases, 12 and 24 h groups showing decreases, and values at the 8 h time point close to the baseline. The vascular parameter differences between group of 2 and 4 h and group of 12 and 24 h were significant for Ktrans (p = 0.0001 and ve (p = 0,0271). Vascular staining showed little variation with time after Cilengitide. The vascular normalization occurring 8 h after Cilengitide treatment coincided with similar previous reports of increased treatment efficacy when RT followed Cilengitide by 8 h. Pharmacological normalization of vasculature has the potential to increase sensitivity to RT. Evaluating acute temporal responses of tumor vasculature to putative anti-angiogenic drugs may help in optimizing their combination with other treatment modalities. PMID:24376814

Nagaraja, Tavarekere N.; Aryal, Madhava P.; Brown, Stephen L.; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Mikkelsen, Tom; Yang, James J.; Panda, Swayamprava; Keenan, Kelly A.; Cabral, Glauber; Ewing, James R.

2013-01-01

359

The use of transformed IMR90 cell model to identify the potential extra-telomeric effects of hTERT in cell migration and DNA damage response  

PubMed Central

Background Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the catalytic subunit of telomesase, is responsible for telomere maintenance and its reactivation is implicated in almost 90% human cancers. Recent evidences show that hTERT is essential for neoplastic transformation independent of its canonical function. However, the roles of hTERT in the process remain elusive. In the current work, we explore the extra-telomeric role of hTERT in the neoplastic transformation of fibroblast IMR90. Results Here we established transformed IMR90 cells by co-expression of three oncogenic factors, namely, H-Ras, SV40 Large-T antigen and hTERT (RSH). The RSH-transformed cells acquired hallmarks of cancer, such as they can grow under anchorage independent conditions; self-sufficient in growth signals; attenuated response to apoptosis; and possessed recurrent chromosomal abnormalities. Furthermore, the RSH-transformed cells showed enhanced migration capability which was also observed in IMR90 cells expressing hTERT alone, indicating that hTERT plays a role in cell migration, and thus possibly contribute to their metastatic potential during tumor transformation. This notion was further supported by our microarray analysis. In addition, we found that Ku70 were exclusively upregulated in both RSH-transformed IMR90 cells and hTERT-overexpressing IMR90 cells, suggesting the potential role of hTERT in DNA damage response (DDR). Conclusions Collectively, our study revealed the extra-telomeric effects of hTERT in cell migration and DDR during neoplastic transformation. PMID:25098897

2014-01-01

360

A Drug-Repositioning Screening Identifies Pentetic Acid as a Potential Therapeutic Agent for Suppressing the Elastase-Mediated Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium of clinical significance, produces elastase as a predominant exoprotease. Here, we screened a library of chemical compounds currently used for human medication and identified diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA, pentetic acid) as an agent that suppresses the production of elastase. Elastase activity found in the prototype P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 was significantly decreased when grown with a concentration as low as 20 ?M DTPA. Supplementation with Zn(2+) or Mn(2+) ions restored the suppressive effect of DTPA, suggesting that the DTPA-mediated decrease in elastase activity is associated with ion-chelating activity. In DTPA-treated PAO1 cells, transcription of the elastase-encoding lasB gene and levels of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), a molecule that mediates P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS), were significantly downregulated, reflecting the potential involvement of the PQS QS system in DTPA-mediated elastase suppression. Biofilm formation was also decreased by DTPA treatment. When A549 alveolar type II-like adenocarcinoma cells were infected with PAO1 cells in the presence of DTPA, A549 cell viability was substantially increased. Furthermore, the intranasal delivery of DTPA to PAO1-infected mice alleviated the pathogenic effects of PAO1 cells in the animals. Together, our results revealed a novel function for a known molecule that may help treat P. aeruginosa airway infection. PMID:25246397

Gi, Mia; Jeong, Junhui; Lee, Keehoon; Lee, Kang-Mu; Toyofuku, Masanori; Yong, Dong Eun; Yoon, Sang Sun; Choi, Jae Young

2014-12-01

361

Potentially Novel Candidate Biomarkers for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Identified Using an Integrated Cell Line-based Discovery Strategy*  

PubMed Central

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) can arise from the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx or hypopharynx, and is the sixth leading cancer by incidence worldwide. The 5-year survival rate of HNSCC patients remains static at 40–60%. Hence, biomarkers which can improve detection of HNSCC or early recurrences should improve clinical outcome. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods have emerged as promising approaches for biomarker discovery. As one approach, mass-spectrometric identification of proteins shed or secreted from cancer cells can contribute to the identification of potential biomarkers for HNSCC and our understanding of tumor behavior. In the current study, mass spectrometry-based proteomic profiling was performed on the conditioned media (i.e. secretome) of head and neck cancer (HNC) cell lines (FaDu, UTSCC8 and UTSCC42a) in addition to gene expression microarrays to identify over-expressed transcripts in the HNSCC cells in comparison to a normal control cell line. This integrated data set was systematically mined using publicly available resources (Human Protein Atlas and published proteomic/transcriptomic data) to prioritize putative candidates for validation. Subsequently, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blotting, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and ELISAs were performed to verify selected markers. Our integrated analyses identified 90 putative protein biomarkers that were secreted or shed to the extracellular space and over-expressed in HNSCC cell lines, relative to controls. Subsequently, the over-expression of five markers was verified in vitro at the transcriptional and translational levels using qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. IHC-based validation conducted in two independent cohorts comprising of 40 and 39 HNSCC biopsies revealed that high tumor expression of PLAU, IGFBP7, MMP14 and THBS1 were associated with inferior disease-free survival, and increased risk of disease progression or relapse. Furthermore, as demonstrated using ELISAs, circulating levels of PLAU and IGFBP7 were significantly higher in the plasma of HNSCC patients compared with healthy individuals. PMID:22918226

Sepiashvili, Lusia; Hui, Angela; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Shi, Willa; Su, Susie; Xu, Wei; Huang, Shao Hui; O'Sullivan, Brian; Waldron, John; Irish, Jonathan C.; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Liu, Fei-Fei; Kislinger, Thomas

2012-01-01

362

A Novel Highly Divergent Protein Family Identified from a Viviparous Insect by RNA-seq Analysis: A Potential Target for Tsetse Fly-Specific Abortifacients  

PubMed Central

In tsetse flies, nutrients for intrauterine larval development are synthesized by the modified accessory gland (milk gland) and provided in mother's milk during lactation. Interference with at least two milk proteins has been shown to extend larval development and reduce fecundity. The goal of this study was to perform a comprehensive characterization of tsetse milk proteins using lactation-specific transcriptome/milk proteome analyses and to define functional role(s) for the milk proteins during lactation. Differential analysis of RNA-seq data from lactating and dry (non-lactating) females revealed enrichment of transcripts coding for protein synthesis machinery, lipid metabolism and secretory proteins during lactation. Among the genes induced during lactation were those encoding the previously identified milk proteins (milk gland proteins 1–3, transferrin and acid sphingomyelinase 1) and seven new genes (mgp4–10). The genes encoding mgp2–10 are organized on a 40 kb syntenic block in the tsetse genome, have similar exon-intron arrangements, and share regions of amino acid sequence similarity. Expression of mgp2–10 is female-specific and high during milk secretion. While knockdown of a single mgp failed to reduce fecundity, simultaneous knockdown of multiple variants reduced milk protein levels and lowered fecundity. The genomic localization, gene structure similarities, and functional redundancy of MGP2–10 suggest that they constitute a novel highly divergent protein family. Our data indicates that MGP2–10 function both as the primary amino acid resource for the developing larva and in the maintenance of milk homeostasis, similar to the function of the mammalian casein family of milk proteins. This study underscores the dynamic nature of the lactation cycle and identifies a novel family of lactation-specific proteins, unique to Glossina sp., that are essential to larval development. The specificity of MGP2–10 to tsetse and their critical role during lactation suggests that these proteins may be an excellent target for tsetse-specific population control approaches. PMID:24763277

Benoit, Joshua B.; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Michalkova, Veronika; Krause, Tyler B.; Bohova, Jana; Zhang, Qirui; Baumann, Aaron A.; Mireji, Paul O.; Takac, Peter; Denlinger, David L.; Ribeiro, Jose M.; Aksoy, Serap

2014-01-01

363

A novel highly divergent protein family identified from a viviparous insect by RNA-seq analysis: a potential target for tsetse fly-specific abortifacients.  

PubMed

In tsetse flies, nutrients for intrauterine larval development are synthesized by the modified accessory gland (milk gland) and provided in mother's milk during lactation. Interference with at least two milk proteins has been shown to extend larval development and reduce fecundity. The goal of this study was to perform a comprehensive characterization of tsetse milk proteins using lactation-specific transcriptome/milk proteome analyses and to define functional role(s) for the milk proteins during lactation. Differential analysis of RNA-seq data from lactating and dry (non-lactating) females revealed enrichment of transcripts coding for protein synthesis machinery, lipid metabolism and secretory proteins during lactation. Among the genes induced during lactation were those encoding the previously identified milk proteins (milk gland proteins 1-3, transferrin and acid sphingomyelinase 1) and seven new genes (mgp4-10). The genes encoding mgp2-10 are organized on a 40 kb syntenic block in the tsetse genome, have similar exon-intron arrangements, and share regions of amino acid sequence similarity. Expression of mgp2-10 is female-specific and high during milk secretion. While knockdown of a single mgp failed to reduce fecundity, simultaneous knockdown of multiple variants reduced milk protein levels and lowered fecundity. The genomic localization, gene structure similarities, and functional redundancy of MGP2-10 suggest that they constitute a novel highly divergent protein family. Our data indicates that MGP2-10 function both as the primary amino acid resource for the developing larva and in the maintenance of milk homeostasis, similar to the function of the mammalian casein family of milk proteins. This study underscores the dynamic nature of the lactation cycle and identifies a novel family of lactation-specific proteins, unique to Glossina sp., that are essential to larval development. The specificity of MGP2-10 to tsetse and their critical role during lactation suggests that these proteins may be an excellent target for tsetse-specific population control approaches. PMID:24763277

Benoit, Joshua B; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Michalkova, Veronika; Krause, Tyler B; Bohova, Jana; Zhang, Qirui; Baumann, Aaron A; Mireji, Paul O; Taká?, Peter; Denlinger, David L; Ribeiro, Jose M; Aksoy, Serap

2014-04-01

364

Pollen and Phytoliths from Fired Ancient Potsherds as Potential Indicators for Deciphering Past Vegetation and Climate in Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China  

PubMed Central

It is demonstrated that palynomorphs can occur in fired ancient potsherds when the firing temperature was under 350°C. Pollen and phytoliths recovered from incompletely fired and fully fired potsherds (ca. 2700 yrs BP) from the Yanghai Tombs, Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China can be used as potential indicators for reconstructing past vegetation and corresponding climate in the area. The results show a higher rate of recovery of pollen and phytoliths from incompletely fired potsherds than from fully fired ones. Charred phytoliths recovered from both fully fired and incompletely fired potsherds prove that degree and condition of firing result in a permanent change in phytolith color. The palynological data, together with previous data of macrobotanical remains from the Yanghai Tombs, suggest that temperate vegetation and arid climatic conditions dominated in the area ca. 2700 yrs BP. PMID:22761901

Yao, Yi-Feng; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Hong-En; Ferguson, David K.; Hueber, Francis; Ghosh, Ruby; Bera, Subir; Li, Cheng-Sen

2012-01-01

365

Hydrochemical field investigations at a potential CO2 storage site - analysis of natural salinisation processes as an indicator for deep reaching flow processes in Eastern Brandenburg (Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers may cause an upward brine migration as a result of the pressure increase and brine displacement in the reservoir. With regard to a possible endangerment for regional freshwater resources the understanding of natural and induced migration processes of brines is therefore of great importance for the evaluation of potential storage sites. Within the framework of the BMBF project 'brine - CO2 storage in Eastern Brandenburg' (Germany), hydrochemical investigations were carried out to get an idea of the sources of salinisation, the migration pathways and the current processes and interactions between salt- and freshwater aquifers above a potential CO2 storage reservoir. This reservoir is located at a salt anticline structure in a Lower Triassic sandstone formation at a depth of about 1000 m. Since the 19th century freshwater salinisation and salinised soils in part with populations of halophytes were observed in Brandenburg. Both, fault zones in the Mesozoic/Tertiary and Pleistocene erosion processes led locally to a leakage of the Oligocene Rupelian clay formation, the most important confining layer between Mesozoic saltwater and Cenozoic freshwater aquifers, and thus potential migration pathways for brines. Possible sources for the salinisation are the leaching of deep Permian salt structures as well as in situ brackish or marine waters from Tertiary and Mesozoic sediments. Still unclear is especially the timescale of the salinisation processes in the shallow aquifers. To answer these questions, extensive groundwater samples from Pleistocene, Tertiary and Mesozoic aquifers down to depths of 450 m were taken in an investigation area of 50 x 50 km2 surrounding the potential storage site. In addition, deep thermal waters in Brandenburg in depths down to 1700 m were sampled to have comparable data for the storage reservoir and the deep caprock formations. Field parameters and a wide range of hydrochemical indicators (anions, cations, trace elements) were analysed to obtain information about characteristic reactions and hydraulic pathways between the aquifers. This was complemented by the measuring of the stable and unstable isotopes. 34S/18O(SO4) illustrate the origin and genesis of dissolved sulfate as well as reduction and oxidation processes. 87Sr/86Sr are valuable indicators of water-rock interactions and a tracer for the origin of salinity. The stable water isotopes (18O/2H) give a picture about the climatic conditions of the groundwater recharge and the influence of brackish or marine waters. With the aid of radio-isotopes (3T/3He, 4He, 14C) the mean residence time respectivly a relative age of groundwaters were determined. The results show that upward brine migration from the Mesozoic aquifers and Permian salt structures is responsible for the salinisation of the freshwater aquifers indicating deep reaching flow processes, which connect the shallow freshwater with deep saline aquifers. The natural salinisation processes have only a slow temporal dynamic. A clear correlation of groundwater age and salinisation respectivly depth were found in the investigation area indicating ages of the salinised waters in the freshwater aquifers up to several 1000 years. These data can be used for calibrating hydrogeological models for the site characterisation.

Endler, Ricarda; Jahnke, Christoph; Ludwig, Oliver

2013-04-01

366

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by the aquatic plants Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Potamogeton malaianus Miq. and their potential use for contamination indicators and in wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The concentrations of heavy metals in the leaves of two aquatic plants Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Potamogeton malaianus Miq., and the corresponding water and sediment samples from the Donghe River in Jishou City of Hunan Province, China were studied to investigate metal contamination from the intensive industrial activities in the surrounding area. Results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments, especially Cd, Mn and Pb, were much higher than the eco-toxic threshold values developed by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Between the two plant species, P. pectinatus showed the higher capacity in metal accumulation. The highest concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn were found in the leaves of P. pectinatus, reaching 596, 318, 62.4, 6590 and 16,000 mg kg(-1) (DW), respectively. Significantly positive relationships were observed among the concentrations of Zn, Cu and Mn in the leaves of both aquatic plants and those in water, indicating the potential use of the two plants for pollution monitoring of these metals. In addition, a laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the ability of P. pectinatus and P. malaianus to remove heavy metals from contaminated river water. The average removal efficiencies by P. pectinatus and P. malaianus for Cd, Pb, Mn, Zn and Cu from the spiked Donghe River water were 92%, 79%, 86%, 67% and 70%, respectively. The results indicated that P. pectinatus and P. malaianus had high capabilities to remove heavy metals directly from the contaminated water. The potential use of these plants in wastewater treatment is worth further exploration. PMID:18178241

Peng, Kejian; Luo, Chunling; Lou, Laiqing; Li, Xiangdong; Shen, Zhenguo

2008-03-15

367

A simple model that identifies potential effects of sea-level rise on estuarine and estuary-ecotone habitat locations for salmonids in Oregon, USA.  

PubMed

Diadromous aquatic species that cross a diverse range of habitats (including marine, estuarine, and freshwater) face different effects of climate change in each environment. One such group of species is the anadromous Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). Studies of the potential effects of climate change on salmonids have focused on both marine and freshwater environments. Access to a variety of estuarine habitat has been shown to enhance juvenile life-history diversity, thereby contributing to the resilience of many salmonid species. Our study is focused on the effect of sea-level rise on the availability, complexity, and distribution of estuarine, and low-freshwater habitat for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), steelhead (anadromous O. mykiss), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) along the Oregon Coast under future climate change scenarios. Using LiDAR, we modeled the geomorphologies of five Oregon estuaries and estimated a contour associated with the current mean high tide. Contour intervals at 1- and 2-m increments above the current mean high tide were generated, and changes in the estuary morphology were assessed. Because our analysis relied on digital data, we compared three types of digital data in one estuary to assess the utility of different data sets in predicting the changes in estuary shape. For each salmonid species, changes in the amount and complexity of estuarine edge habitats varied by estuary. The simple modeling approach we applied can also be used to identify areas that may be most amenable to pre-emptive restoration actions to mitigate or enhance salmonid habitat under future climatic conditions. PMID:23689791

Flitcroft, Rebecca; Burnett, Kelly; Christiansen, Kelly

2013-07-01

368

A Simple Model that Identifies Potential Effects of Sea-Level Rise on Estuarine and Estuary-Ecotone Habitat Locations for Salmonids in Oregon, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diadromous aquatic species that cross a diverse range of habitats (including marine, estuarine, and freshwater) face different effects of climate change in each environment. One such group of species is the anadromous Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.). Studies of the potential effects of climate change on salmonids have focused on both marine and freshwater environments. Access to a variety of estuarine habitat has been shown to enhance juvenile life-history diversity, thereby contributing to the resilience of many salmonid species. Our study is focused on the effect of sea-level rise on the availability, complexity, and distribution of estuarine, and low-freshwater habitat for Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), steelhead (anadromous O. mykiss), and coho salmon ( O. kisutch) along the Oregon Coast under future climate change scenarios. Using LiDAR, we modeled the geomorphologies of five Oregon estuaries and estimated a contour associated with the current mean high tide. Contour intervals at 1- and 2-m increments above the current mean high tide were generated, and changes in the estuary morphology were assessed. Because our analysis relied on digital data, we compared three types of digital data in one estuary to assess the utility of different data sets in predicting the changes in estuary shape. For each salmonid species, changes in the amount and complexity of estuarine edge habitats varied by estuary. The simple modeling approach we applied can also be used to identify areas that may be most amenable to pre-emptive restoration actions to mitigate or enhance salmonid habitat under future climatic conditions.

Flitcroft, Rebecca; Burnett, Kelly; Christiansen, Kelly

2013-07-01

369

Identifying areas with potential for high indoor radon levels: analysis of the national airborne radiometric reconnaissance data for California and the Pacific Northwest  

SciTech Connect

Radon-222 is an important indoor air pollutant which, through the inhalation of its radioactive decay products, accounts for nearly half of the effective dose equivalent to the public from natural ionizing radiation. Indoor radon concentrations vary widely, largely because of local and regional differences in the rate of entry from sources. The major sources are soil and rock near building foundations, earth-based building materials, and domestic water; of these, soil and rock are thought to be predominant in many buildings with higher-than-average concentrations. Thus, one key factor in determining radon source potential is the concentration of radium, the progenitor of radon, in surficial rocks and soils. Aerial radiometric data were analyzed, collected for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, for seven Western states to: (1) provide information on the spatial distribution of radium contents in surficial geologic materials for those states; and (2) investigate approaches for using the aerial data, which have been collected throughout the contiguous United States and Alaska, to identify areas where high indoor radon levels may be common. Radium concentrations were found to be relatively low in central and western portions of Washington, Oregon, and northern California; they were found to be relatively high in central and southern California. A field validation study, conducted along two flight-line segments near Spokane, Washington, showed close correspondence between the aerial data, in situ measurements of both radium content and radon flux from soil, and laboratory measurements of both radium content of and radon emanation rate from soil samples. 99 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.

Moed, B.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Schwehr, M.B.; Van Heuvelen, A.

1984-04-01

370

Taurine detected using high-resolution magic angle spinning 1H nuclear magnetic resonance: A potential indicator of early myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a unique non-invasive method for detecting cardiac metabolic changes. However, MRS in cardiac diagnosis is limited due to insensitivity and low efficiency. Taurine (Tau) is the most abundant free amino acid in the myocardium. We hypothesized that Tau levels may indicate myocardial ischemia and early infarction. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups according to different time points during the course of myocardial ischemia, which was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Infarcted myocardial tissue was obtained for high-resolution magic angle spinning 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Results were validated via high-performance liquid chromatography. The Tau levels in the ischemic myocardial tissue were reduced significantly within 5 min compared with those in the control group (relative ratio from 20.27±6.48 to 8.81±0.04, P<0.05) and were maintained for 6 h post-ischemia. Tau levels declined more markedly (56.5%) than creatine levels (48.5%) at 5 min after ligation. This suggests that Tau may have potential as an indicator in the early detection of myocardial ischemia by 1H MRS. PMID:23408155

YANG, YUNLONG; YANG, LIN; ZHANG, YUE; GU, XINGHUA; XU, DANLING; FANG, FANG; SUN, AIJUN; WANG, KEQIANG; YU, YIHUA; ZUO, JI; GE, JUNBO

2013-01-01

371

Identifying careless responses in survey data.  

PubMed

When data are collected via anonymous Internet surveys, particularly under conditions of obligatory participation (such as with student samples), data quality can be a concern. However, little guidance exists in the published literature regarding techniques for detecting careless responses. Previously several potential approaches have been suggested for identifying careless respondents via indices computed from the data, yet almost no prior work has examined the relationships among these indicators or the types of data patterns identified by each. In 2 studies, we examined several methods for identifying careless responses, including (a) special items designed to detect careless response, (b) response consistency indices formed from responses to typical survey items, (c) multivariate outlier analysis, (d) response time, and (e) self-reported diligence. Results indicated that there are two distinct patterns of careless response (random and nonrandom) and that different indices are needed to identify these different response patterns. We also found that approximately 10%-12% of undergraduates completing a lengthy survey for course credit were identified as careless responders. In Study 2, we simulated data with known random response patterns to determine the efficacy of several indicators of careless response. We found that the nature of the data strongly influenced the efficacy of the indices to identify careless responses. Recommendations include using identified rather than anonymous responses, incorporating instructed response items before data collection, as well as computing consistency indices and multivariate outlier analysis to ensure high-quality data. PMID:22506584

Meade, Adam W; Craig, S Bartholomew

2012-09-01

372

An odontological study of ovicaprine herding strategies in the North Atlantic islands. The potential of dental enamel defects for identifying secondary product utilisation in an archaeological context.  

E-print Network

??Recent debate concerning the suitability of mortality profile analysis for identifying secondary product utilisation within archaeozoological assemblages has prompted the search for alternative methodologies. This… (more)

Ewens, Vicky Jane

2010-01-01

373

Transcriptome analysis of various flower and silique development stages indicates a set of class III peroxidase genes potentially involved in pod shattering in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background Plant class III peroxidases exist as a large multigenic family involved in numerous functions suggesting a functional specialization of each gene. However, few genes have been linked with a specific function. Consequently total peroxidase activity is still used in numerous studies although its relevance is questionable. Transcriptome analysis seems to be a promising tool to overcome the difficulties associated with the study of this family. Nevertheless available microarrays are not completely reliable for this purpose. We therefore used a macroarray dedicated to the 73 class III peroxidase genes of A. thaliana to identify genes potentially involved in flower and fruit development. Results The observed increase of total peroxidase activity during development was actually correlated with the induction of only a few class III peroxidase genes which supports the existence of a functional specialization of these proteins. We identified peroxidase genes that are predominantly expressed in one development stage and are probable components of the complex gene networks involved in the reproductive phase. An attempt has been made to gain insight into plausible functions of these genes by collecting and analyzing the expression data of different studies in plants. Peroxidase activity was additionally observed in situ in the silique dehiscence zone known to be involved in pod shattering. Because treatment with a peroxidase inhibitor delayed pod shattering, we subsequently studied mutants of transcription factors (TF) controlling this mechanism. Three peroxidases genes -AtPrx13, AtPrx30 and AtPrx55- were altered by the TFs involved in pod shatter. Conclusions Our data illustrated the problems caused by linking only an increase in total peroxidase activity to any specific development stage or function. The activity or involvement of specific class III peroxidase genes needs to be assessed. Several genes identified in our study had not been linked to any particular development stage or function until now. Notably AtPrx13, which is one of the peroxidase genes not present on commercially available microarrays. A systematic survey of class III peroxidase genes expression is necessary to reveal specific class III peroxidase gene functions and the regulation and evolution of this key multifunctional enzyme family. The approach used in this study highlights key individual genes that merit further investigation. PMID:20920253

2010-01-01

374

Raman microspectroscopy-based identification of individual fungal spores as potential indicators of indoor contamination and moisture-related building damage.  

PubMed

We present an application of Raman microspectroscopy (RMS) for the rapid characterization and identification of individual spores from several species of microfungi. The RMS-based methodology requires minimal sample preparation and small sample volumes for analyses. Hence, it is suitable for preserving sample integrity while providing micrometer-scale spatial resolution required for the characterization of individual cells. We present the acquisition of unique Raman spectral signatures from intact fungal spores dispersed on commercially available aluminum foil substrate. The RMS-based method has been used to compile a reference library of Raman spectra from several species of microfungi typically associated with damp indoor environments. The acquired reference spectral library has subsequently been used to identify individual microfungal spores through direct comparison of the spore Raman spectra with the reference spectral signatures in the library. Moreover, the distinct peak structures of Raman spectra provide detailed insight into the overall chemical composition of spores. We anticipate potential application of this methodology in the fields of public health, forensic sciences, and environmental microbiology. PMID:22533607

Ghosal, Sutapa; Macher, Janet M; Ahmed, Kadra

2012-06-01

375

Subsurface occurrence and potential source areas of chlorinated ethenes identified using concentrations and concentration ratios, Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, conducted a study during 2003-05 to characterize the subsurface occurrence and identify potential source areas of the volatile organic compounds classified as chlorinated ethenes at U.S. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS-JRB) at Fort Worth, Texas. The solubilized chlorinated ethenes detected in the alluvial aquifer originated as either released solvents (tetrachloroethene [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE], and trans-1,2-dichloroethene [trans-DCE]) or degradation products of the released solvents (TCE, cis-1,2-dichloroethene [cis-DCE], and trans-DCE). The combined influences of topographic- and bedrock-surface configurations result in a water table that generally slopes away from a ground-water divide approximately coincident with bedrock highs and the 1-mile-long aircraft assembly building at AFP4. Highest TCE concentrations (10,000 to 920,000 micrograms per liter) occur near Building 181, west of Building 12, and at landfill 3. Highest PCE concentrations (500 to 920 micrograms per liter) occur near Buildings 4 and 5. Highest cis-DCE concentrations (5,000 to 710,000 micrograms per liter) occur at landfill 3. Highest trans-DCE concentrations (1,000 to 1,700 micrograms per liter) occur just south of Building 181 and at landfill 3. Ratios of parent-compound to daughter-product concentrations that increase in relatively short distances (tens to 100s of feet) along downgradient ground-water flow paths can indicate a contributing source in the vicinity of the increase. Largest increases in ratio of PCE to TCE concentrations are three orders of magnitude from 0.01 to 2.7 and 7.1 between nearby wells in the northeastern part of NAS-JRB. In the northern part of NAS-JRB, the largest increases in TCE to total DCE concentration ratios relative to ratios at upgradient wells are from 17 to 240 or from 17 to 260. In the southern part of NAS-JRB, the largest ratio increases with respect to those at upgradient wells are from 22 and 24 to 130, and from 0 and 7.2 to 71. Numerous maximum historical ratios of trans-DCE to cis-DCE are greater than 1, which can indicate that trans-DCE likely was released as a solvent and does not occur only as a result of degradation of TCE. High concentrations of TCE, PCE, cis-DCE, and trans-DCE, abrupt increases in ratios of PCE to TCE and TCE to total DCE, and ratios of trans-DCE to cis-DCE greater than 1 were used to identify 16 potential source areas of chlorinated ethenes at NAS-JRB. The evidence for some of the potential source areas is stronger than for others, but each area reflects one or more of the conditions indicative of chlorinated ethenes entering the aquifer. Potential source areas supported by the strongest evidence are Building 181, between buildings 4 and 5, just west of Building 12, and landfills 1 and 3. The highest historical TCE concentration in the study area, 920,000 micrograms per liter, is near Building 181. The potential source area between Buildings 4 and 5 primarily is identified by notably high PCE concentrations (to 920 micrograms per liter). Primary evidence for the potential source are just west of Building 12 is the notably high TCE concentrations (for example, 160,000 micrograms per liter) that appear to originate in the area. Primary evidence for the potential source area at landfills 1 and (primarily) 3 is the magnitudes of TCE concentrations (for example, two in the 100,000-to-920,000-microgram-per-liter range), cis-DCE concentrations (several in the 5,000-to-710,000-microgram-per-liter range), and trans-DCE concentrations (several in the 500-to-1,700-microgram-per-liter range). The ratio of trans-DCE to cis-DCE at one well in landfill 3 (6.7) is appreciably above the threshold that can indicate likely solvent release as opposed to TCE degradation alone.

Garcia, C. Amanda

2005-01-01

376

Genetic Segregation of Brain Gene Expression Identifies Retinaldehyde Binding Protein 1 and Syntaxin 12 as Potential Contributors to Ethanol Preference in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic strains of mice represent an important resource for research on the biological determinants of complex diseases and behavioral phenotypes. To date, the approaches used have had little success in identifying causal genes. We have evaluated brain gene expression in C57BL\\/6J (B6) and DBA\\/2J (D2) inbred mouse strains using differential display to identify a number of sequences showing significant expression

Julie A. Treadwell; Kara B. Pagniello; Shiva M. Singh

2004-01-01

377

Why Create a LinkedIn Profile? LinkedIn is a great Social Media resource for job seekers! Use LinkedIn to identify potential job  

E-print Network

Why Create a LinkedIn Profile? LinkedIn is a great Social Media resource for job seekers! Use and serves as a tool for you to share your skills, education and career interests with potential employers

Bystroff, Chris

378

Evolution of a Genome-Encoded Bias in Amino Acid Biosynthetic Pathways Is a Potential Indicator of Amino Acid Dynamics in the Environment  

PubMed Central

Overcoming the stress of starvation is one of an organism’s most challenging phenotypic responses. Those organisms that frequently survive the challenge, by virtue of their fitness, will have evolved genomes that are shaped by their specific environments. Understanding this genotype–environment–phenotype relationship at a deep level will require quantitative predictive models of the complex molecular systems that link these aspects of an organism’s existence. Here, we treat one of the most fundamental molecular systems, protein synthesis, and the amino acid biosynthetic pathways involved in the stringent response to starvation. These systems face an inherent logical dilemma: Building an amino acid biosynthetic pathway to synthesize its product—the cognate amino acid of the pathway—may require that very amino acid when it is no longer available. To study this potential “catch-22,” we have created a generic model of amino acid biosynthesis in response to sudden starvation. Our mathematical analysis and computational results indicate that there are two distinctly different outcomes: Partial recovery to a new steady state, or full system failure. Moreover, the cell’s fate is dictated by the cognate bias, the number of cognate amino acids in the corresponding biosynthetic pathway relative to the average number of that amino acid in the proteome. We test these implications by analyzing the proteomes of over 1,800 sequenced microbes, which reveals statistically significant evidence of low cognate bias, a genetic trait that would avoid the biosynthetic quandary. Furthermore, these results suggest that the pattern of cognate bias, which is readily derived by genome sequencing, may provide evolutionary clues to an organism’s natural environment. PMID:25118252

Fasani, Rick A.; Savageau, Michael A.

2014-01-01

379

Evolution of a genome-encoded bias in amino Acid biosynthetic pathways is a potential indicator of amino Acid dynamics in the environment.  

PubMed

Overcoming the stress of starvation is one of an organism's most challenging phenotypic responses. Those organisms that frequently survive the challenge, by virtue of their fitness, will have evolved genomes that are shaped by their specific environments. Understanding this genotype-environment-phenotype relationship at a deep level will require quantitative predictive models of the complex molecular systems that link these aspects of an organism's existence. Here, we treat one of the most fundamental molecular systems, protein synthesis, and the amino acid biosynthetic pathways involved in the stringent response to starvation. These systems face an inherent logical dilemma: Building an amino acid biosynthetic pathway to synthesize its product-the cognate amino acid of the pathway-may require that very amino acid when it is no longer available. To study this potential "catch-22," we have created a generic model of amino acid biosynthesis in response to sudden starvation. Our mathematical analysis and computational results indicate that there are two distinctly different outcomes: Partial recovery to a new steady state, or full system failure. Moreover, the cell's fate is dictated by the cognate bias, the number of cognate amino acids in the corresponding biosynthetic pathway relative to the average number of that amino acid in the proteome. We test these implications by analyzing the proteomes of over 1,800 sequenced microbes, which reveals statistically significant evidence of low cognate bias, a genetic trait that would avoid the biosynthetic quandary. Furthermore, these results suggest that the pattern of cognate bias, which is readily derived by genome sequencing, may provide evolutionary clues to an organism's natural environment. PMID:25118252

Fasani, Rick A; Savageau, Michael A

2014-11-01

380

State Application Identifier Applicant Identifier  

E-print Network

with 501C3 IRS Status (Other than Institution of Higher Education) National Institutes of Health 203 in Learning Potential for Language and Literacy Yes No USA: UNITED STATES CT: Connecticut M: Nonprofit