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1

Identifying Indices of Happiness and Unhappiness Among Adults With Autism: Potential Targets for Behavioral Assessment and Intervention  

PubMed Central

Research is increasingly demonstrating the importance of monitoring indices of happiness as part of behavioral programs for individuals who have severe intellectual disabilities. We evaluated a practitioner-oriented process for identifying and validating individualized indices of this private event among three adults with autism who were nonvocal or minimally vocal. Caregiver surveys were administered to obtain agreement regarding behavior displayed when the individuals were happy and unhappy, as well as situations in which they were likely to experience happiness and unhappiness. Observations corroborated caregiver opinion in that participants displayed more happiness indices in situations reported to be accompanied by happiness, and for the most part, more unhappiness indices in reported unhappiness situations. Subsequent choices by each participant supported the validity of the individualized indices. Results are discussed regarding how identifying happiness indices can be a useful component of behavioral applications, as well as guidelines and cautions regarding use of the indices in routine practice.

Parsons, Marsha B; Reid, Dennis H; Bentley, Erik; Inman, Amy; Lattimore, L. Perry

2012-01-01

2

Identifying Novel Drug Indications through Automated Reasoning  

PubMed Central

Background With the large amount of pharmacological and biological knowledge available in literature, finding novel drug indications for existing drugs using in silico approaches has become increasingly feasible. Typical literature-based approaches generate new hypotheses in the form of protein-protein interactions networks by means of linking concepts based on their cooccurrences within abstracts. However, this kind of approaches tends to generate too many hypotheses, and identifying new drug indications from large networks can be a time-consuming process. Methodology In this work, we developed a method that acquires the necessary facts from literature and knowledge bases, and identifies new drug indications through automated reasoning. This is achieved by encoding the molecular effects caused by drug-target interactions and links to various diseases and drug mechanism as domain knowledge in AnsProlog, a declarative language that is useful for automated reasoning, including reasoning with incomplete information. Unlike other literature-based approaches, our approach is more fine-grained, especially in identifying indirect relationships for drug indications. Conclusion/Significance To evaluate the capability of our approach in inferring novel drug indications, we applied our method to 943 drugs from DrugBank and asked if any of these drugs have potential anti-cancer activities based on information on their targets and molecular interaction types alone. A total of 507 drugs were found to have the potential to be used for cancer treatments. Among the potential anti-cancer drugs, 67 out of 81 drugs (a recall of 82.7%) are indeed known cancer drugs. In addition, 144 out of 289 drugs (a recall of 49.8%) are non-cancer drugs that are currently tested in clinical trials for cancer treatments. These results suggest that our method is able to infer drug indications (original or alternative) based on their molecular targets and interactions alone and has the potential to discover novel drug indications for existing drugs.

Tari, Luis; Vo, Nguyen; Liang, Shanshan; Patel, Jagruti; Baral, Chitta; Cai, James

2012-01-01

3

Potential Indicators of Stress Response Identified by Expressed Sequence Tag Analysis of Hemocytes and Embryos from the American Oyster, Crassostrea virginica  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   A pilot program was initiated to identify genes from the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, that are potentially involved in the stress response for use as bioindicators of exposure to environmental pollutants and\\u000a to toxic and infectious agents. A PCR-based method was used to construct cDNA libraries from pooled embryos and the hemocytes\\u000a of a single individual. A total of

Matthew J. Jenny; Amy H. Ringwood; Eric R. Lacy; Alan J. Lewitus; Jason W. Kempton; Paul S. Gross; Gregory W. Warr; Robert W. Chapman

2002-01-01

4

Biotechnological valorization potential indicator for lignocellulosic materials.  

PubMed

This report introduces the biotechnological valorization potential indicator (BVPI) concept, a metric to measure the degree of suitability of lignocellulosic materials to be used as feedstock in a biorefinery framework. This indicator groups the impact of the main factors influencing upgrade-ability, both the biological/chemical nature of the materials, and the economical, technological and geographical factors. The BVPI was applied to the identification of the most relevant opportunities and constraints pertaining to the lignocellulosic by-products from the Portuguese agro-industrial cluster. Several by-products were identified with a high valorization potential, e.g., rice husks, brewery's spent grain, tomato pomace, carob pulp, de-alcoholized grape bagasse, and extracted olive bagasse, that would greatly benefit from the further development of specific biotechnology processes, specifically concerning the upgrade of their hemicellulosic fraction. PMID:18061896

Duarte, Luís C; Esteves, Maria P; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Gírio, Francisco M

2007-12-01

5

Identifying Basketball Performance Indicators in Regular Season and Playoff Games  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to identify basketball game performance indicators which best discriminate winners and losers in regular season and playoffs. The sample used was composed by 323 games of ACB Spanish Basketball League from the regular season (n=306) and from the playoffs (n=17). A previous cluster analysis allowed splitting the sample in balanced (equal or below 12 points), unbalanced (between 13 and 28 points) and very unbalanced games (above 28 points). A discriminant analysis was used to identify the performance indicators either in regular season and playoff games. In regular season games, the winning teams dominated in assists, defensive rebounds, successful 2 and 3-point field-goals. However, in playoff games the winning teams’ superiority was only in defensive rebounding. In practical applications, these results may help the coaches to accurately design training programs to reflect the importance of having different offensive set plays and also have specific conditioning programs to prepare for defensive rebounding.

Garcia, Javier; Ibanez, Sergio J.; De Santos, Raul Martinez; Leite, Nuno; Sampaio, Jaime

2013-01-01

6

Developing a Monitoring System for Indicators in Middle Childhood: Identifying Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper builds on an initial paper (Moore and Theokas, Child Indicators Research, 2008 DOI 10.1007\\/s12187-008-9011-9) that conceptualizes elements of well-being relevant for the middle childhood period, identifies potential constructs and\\u000a develops criteria for indicators. Here, we follow up by identifying a set of 20 indicator constructs, half positive and half\\u000a negative. Of these 20, half measure child well-being and

Kristin Anderson Moore; Sharon Vandivere; Astrid Atienza; Tatia Thiot

2008-01-01

7

Identifying potential dropouts from college physics classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hudson and Rottman (1981) established that mathematics ability is probably a secondary factor influencing dropout from college physics courses. Other factors remain to be found for predicting who will drop out or at least have difficulty with the course. When mathematics ability is coupled with general indicators of performance (total GPA and ACT natural science), prediction of performance for those

Warren Wollman; Frances Lawrenz

1984-01-01

8

Identifying mechanistic indicators of childhood asthma from blood gene expression  

EPA Science Inventory

Asthmatic individuals have been identified as a susceptible subpopulation for air pollutants. However, asthma represents a syndrome with multiple probable etiologies, and the identification of these asthma endotypes is critical to accurately define the most susceptible subpopula...

9

The significance of prenatally identified isolated clubfoot: Is amniocentesis indicated?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to determine the significance of finding an isolated clubfoot on a prenatal sonogram. Study Design: All fetuses found to have an isolated congenital clubfoot over a 9-year period were retrospectively identified. Fetuses with associated anomalies were excluded. Review of medical records for obstetric and neonatal outcome and pathologic and cytogenic results were tabulated. Results: Eighty-seven fetuses

Thomas D. Shipp; Beryl R. Benacerraf

1998-01-01

10

Identifying Indicators of Written Expression Proficiency for Middle School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the reliability and validity of curriculum-based measurement indicators in written expression for 112 middle school students. The most reliable and valid predictor of student writing proficiency as measured by both teacher ratings and a district writing test was correct minus incorrect word sequences. (Contains references.)…

Espin, Christine; Shin, Jongho; Deno, Stanley L.; Skare, Stacy; Robinson, Steven; Benner, Barb

2000-01-01

11

Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic…

Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

2013-01-01

12

Identifying indicators of reactivity for chemical reductants in sediments.  

PubMed

To conduct site-specific exposure assessments for contaminants containing reducible functional groups, it is imperative to know the identity and reactivity of chemical reductants in natural sediments and to associate their reactivity with easily measurable sediment properties. For this purpose the reactivity, as defined by pseudofirst order reduction rate constants for p-cyanonitrobenzene (pCNB), was measured in twenty-one natural sediments of different origins that were incubated to attain both anoxic (less reducing) and anaerobic (microbially reducing) conditions. The reactivity of the anoxic sediments increased with pH and an increasing amount of Fe(II) added. A good electron balance between pCNB reduction and Fe(II) consumption was observed for anaerobic sediments of high solids loading (50 g/L), but not when solids loading was 5 g/L. Based on cluster and regression analysis, pCNB reactivity in the anaerobic sediments correlates strongly with aqueous Fe(II) concentrations for sediments with low organic carbon (OC) content (<4.2%), but with dissolved OC concentrations (DOC) for the sediments with high OC content (>6.4%). These observations indicate surface-associated Fe(II) and reduced DOC are the predominant reductants in the anaerobic sediments, and that aqueous Fe(II) and DOC will serve as readily measurable indicators of pCNB reactivity in these systems. PMID:23088410

Zhang, Huichun; Weber, Eric J

2012-12-19

13

Wairakite: A Potential Indicator of Fluid Mixing  

SciTech Connect

Wairakite is a common geothermal mineral. Detailed paragenetic studies indicate that wairakite typically forms after the deposition of epidote {plus_minus} prehnite and later anhydrite + calcite. Epidote and prehnite are interpreted as products of early, high temperature alteration associated with upswelling reservoir fluids whereas calcite and anhydrite are related to descending acidic condensates. Calculated stability relationships among the calc silicate minerals indicates that cooling and/or decreasing pH will lead to the deposition of wairakite instead of epidote, whereas decreasing pH favors wairakite over prehnite. We infer, from the petrographic relationships, that these changes occur when descending condensate mixes with the in-situ reservoir fluids during the waning stages of geothermal activity. Fluid inclusion measurements indicate wairakite is commonly deposited between temperatures of {approx}235 and 300 C.

Moore, J; Bruton, C; Powell, T

2005-01-28

14

Noble gas, a potential nuclear proliferation indicator  

SciTech Connect

In the post-Cold War era, it appears that nuclear proliferation will be a continuing problem. At least one reliable technique to detect nuclear activities is needed to deter potential proliferators. This paper proposes a candidate technique for detection. Early efforts to measure nuclear fuel performance resulted in the consideration of a variety of potential techniques. In 1965, Maeck proposed determination of nuclear fuel burnup based on the ratio of two stable fission product isotopes of the same element. Maeck proposed using three ratios: [sup 84]Kr/[sup 83]Kr, [sup 132]Xe/[sup 131]Xe, and [sup 144]Nd/[sup 143]Nd. More recent work includes useful application of krypton and xenon isotope correlation techniques to safeguards at nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. The safeguards application requires very precise measurement of the fission product isotopes, detailed fuel exposure history, and knowledge of the neutron spectrum. Meeting all these requirements is extremely difficult and requires carefully controlled conditions. The most likely scenario for a proliferator to produce nuclear material suitable for weapons applications is reprocessing of reactor fuel to recover the plutonium. Since useful amounts of plutonium are produced in all uranium-fueled reactors, reprocessing the reactor fuel would be much easier and less expensive than mining and enriching uranium to weapons-grade material. Reprocessing nuclear reactor fuel releases the noble gases krypton and xenon from the fuel. Because capture of the noble gases is difficult, expensive, and produces a radiation hazard, the gases will normally be released during reprocessing. These factors provide the basis for this proposed technique of detecting proliferators.

Chapman, T.C. (Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Idaho Falls (United States))

1993-01-01

15

Identifying indicators of illegal behaviour: carnivore killing in human-managed landscapes.  

PubMed

Managing natural resources often depends on influencing people's behaviour, however effectively targeting interventions to discourage environmentally harmful behaviours is challenging because those involved may be unwilling to identify themselves. Non-sensitive indicators of sensitive behaviours are therefore needed. Previous studies have investigated people's attitudes, assuming attitudes reflect behaviour. There has also been interest in using people's estimates of the proportion of their peers involved in sensitive behaviours to identify those involved, since people tend to assume that others behave like themselves. However, there has been little attempt to test the potential of such indicators. We use the randomized response technique (RRT), designed for investigating sensitive behaviours, to estimate the proportion of farmers in north-eastern South Africa killing carnivores, and use a modified logistic regression model to explore relationships between our best estimates of true behaviour (from RRT) and our proposed non-sensitive indicators (including farmers' attitudes, and estimates of peer-behaviour). Farmers' attitudes towards carnivores, question sensitivity and estimates of peers' behaviour, predict the likelihood of farmers killing carnivores. Attitude and estimates of peer-behaviour are useful indicators of involvement in illicit behaviours and may be used to identify groups of people to engage in interventions aimed at changing behaviour. PMID:21795272

St John, Freya A V; Keane, Aidan M; Edwards-Jones, Gareth; Jones, Lauren; Yarnell, Richard W; Jones, Julia P G

2011-07-27

16

The validity of mmpi scales to identify potential child abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important objective of child abuse research has been to develop psychometric instruments for use in predicting potential abusers. Nine MMPI scales which have been developed to identify the personality traits of potential abusers were assessed with another sample of known abusers (n=19). The results of this cross?validation study showed that all nine scales appropriately classified a lower percentage of

Michael J. Furlong; Donald A. Leton

1977-01-01

17

Potential identifiability and preventability of adverse events using information systems.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential ability of computerized information systems (ISs) to identify and prevent adverse events in medical patients. DESIGN: Clinical descriptions of all 133 adverse events identified through chart review for a cohort of 3,138 medical patients were evaluated by two reviewers. MEASUREMENTS: For each adverse event, three hierarchical levels of IS sophistication were considered: Level 1--demographics, results for all diagnostic tests, and current medications would be available on-line; Level 2--all orders would be entered on-line by physicians; and Level 3--additional clinical data, such as automated problem lists, would be available on-line. Potential for event identification and potential for event prevention were scored by each reviewer according to two distinct sets of event monitors. RESULTS: Of all the adverse events, 53% were judged identifiable using Level 1 information, 58% were judged identifiable using Level 2 information, and 89% were judged identifiable using Level 3 information. The highest-yield event monitors for identifying adverse events were "panic" laboratory results, unexpected transfer to an intensive care unit, and hospital-incurred trauma. With information from Levels 1, 2, and 3, 5%, 13%, and 23% of the adverse events, respectively, were judged preventable. For preventing these adverse events, guided-dose algorithms, drug-laboratory checks, and drug-patient characteristic checks held the most potential.

Bates, D W; O'Neil, A C; Boyle, D; Teich, J; Chertow, G M; Komaroff, A L; Brennan, T A

1994-01-01

18

Identifying Problems and Potential Drop-Outs Among College Freshmen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research project was to identify potential dropouts among entering freshmen at Kingsborough Community College (KCC) and some of the characteristics that might be related to the decision to leave college prior to earning the associate degree. Results of a survey of the Fall 1978 incoming freshmen provided descriptive data…

Willner, Eric

19

Community versus Individual-Level Indicators to Identify Pediatric Health Care Need  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, geographic information systems employing spatial data are being used to identify communities with poorer health\\u000a care status. Since health care indicators are strongly linked to income, could these data, usually based on adult indicators,\\u000a be used for pediatric health care need? We hypothesized that individual-level indicators such as quality of life scales (QOL)\\u000a would be better than community-level indicators

Cheryl Zlotnick

2007-01-01

20

Collaboration Indices for Monitoring Potential Problems in Online Small Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study is to test the validity and reliability of three collaboration indices ("quantity", "equality", "and shareness") proposed by Jahng et al. (2010). The present study repeated the quantitative assessment of Jahng et al., and performed a further qualitative analysis to identify possible factors that might be associated with…

Jahng, Namsook

2013-01-01

21

Phospho-Proteomic Screen Identifies Potential Therapeutic Targets in Melanoma  

PubMed Central

Therapies directed against receptor tyrosine kinases are effective in many cancer subtypes, including lung and breast cancer. We used a phospho-proteomic platform to identify active receptor tyrosine kinases that might represent therapeutic targets in a panel of twenty-five melanoma cell strains. We detected activated receptors including TYRO3, AXL, MERTK, EPHB2, MET, IGF1R, EGFR, KIT, HER3, and HER4. Statistical analysis of receptor tyrosine kinase activation as well as ligand and receptor expression indicates that some receptors, such as FGFR3, may be activated via autocrine circuits. shRNA knockdown targeting three of the active kinases identified in the screen, AXL, HER3, and IGF1R, inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells and knockdown of active AXL also reduced melanoma cell migration. The changes in cellular phenotype observed upon AXL knockdown appear to be modulated via the STAT3 signaling pathway, while the IGF1R-dependent alterations seem to be regulated by the AKT signaling pathway. Ultimately, this study identifies several novel targets for therapeutic intervention in melanoma.

Tworkoski, Kathryn; Singhal, Garima; Szpakowski, Sebastian; Zito, Christina Ivins; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; Muthusamy, Viswanathan; Bosenberg, Marcus; Krauthammer, Michael; Halaban, Ruth; Stern, David F.

2011-01-01

22

Costa Rican data synthesis indicates oil, gas potential  

SciTech Connect

The hydrocarbon exploration data base in Costa Rica, gathered through various recent periods, indicates promising hydrocarbon potential in the country. During 1980--94, Recope SA, the state petroleum company, performed a series of studies to evaluate the petroleum potential in the whole Costa Rican territory. As a first step, the information compiled during previous studies was re-evaluated, and later new information was collected with the aid of foreign governments and cooperating institutions. A new exploratory era began with the Costa Rican Congress` approval in 1994 of the Hydrocarbon Law, which allows private companies to participate in hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. This article brings together some highlights about Costa Rica oil potential and gives basic information on future hydrocarbon exploration and development under the regulation of the new Hydrocarbon Law.

Barrientos, J.; Bottazzi, G.; Fernandez, A.; Barboza, G. [Ministry of Environment and Energy, San Jose (Costa Rica). Hydrocarbons Directorate

1997-05-12

23

A Method to Identify Estuarine Macroinvertebrate Pollution Indicator Species in the Virginian Biogeogarphic Province  

EPA Science Inventory

Macroinvertebrates are commonly used as biomonitors to detect pollution impacts in estuaries. The goal of this research was to identify estuarine benthic invertebrates that could be used as indicator species to detect presence or absence of pollution in the Virginian Biogeograph...

24

Sorption behavior of potential organic wastewater indicators with soils.  

PubMed

Soil-aquifer treatment is a wastewater treatment and reclamation option to facilitate beneficial water reuse. The fate of wastewater originated micropollutants in the soil-aquifer system is important to understand. In the study the sorption behavior of potential wastewater indicators such as two antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, primidone), one sulfonamide (sulfamethoxazole), and one corrosion inhibitor (benzotriazole) were determined with three natural soils (Lufa 2.2, Euro Soil 5, and Wulpen sand) that differed in pH, organic carbon content and particle size distribution. As aqueous phase a 0.01M CaCl(2) solution as well as the effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant was used. Affinities of all analytes to the soil increased from Wulpen sand, over Lufa 2.2 to Euro Soil 5, indicating that the organic carbon contents might be crucial for sorption. Isotherms were well described by the Freundlich model. Sorption was mainly close to linear (n=0.93-1.07) for most target compounds and soils. Desorption gave rise to a small hysteresis only for Euro Soil 5 which was likely artificial, due to slow desorption kinetics beyond 24h used in the experiment. All sorption studies confirmed that Carbamazepine, Benzotriazole and Primidone are appropriate to be used as wastewater indicator substances based on their low sorption affinity to soils, while the suitability of Sulfamethoxazole is limited due to the formation of non-extractable residues, especially at lower pH values. PMID:19095277

Yu, Liang; Fink, Guido; Wintgens, Thomas; Melin, Thomas; Ternes, Thomas A

2008-12-03

25

Redox potential: An indicator of site productivity in forest management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Redox potential (Eh) is an integrated soil measurement that reflects several environmental conditions in the soil associated with aeration, moisture and carbon (organic matter) dynamics. Its measurement can be related to water table fluctuations, precipitation and landscape gradients, organic matter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics, biological diversity and plant species distribution. Redox is an excellent indicator of soil biological processes, as it is largely a reflection of microbial activities which to a large extent govern carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling. Redox thus serves as an ecological indicator of site productivity at the ecosystem scale and may be used for management purposes as its magnitude can be altered by activities such as harvesting and drainage. A threshold value of 300 mv has been documented as the critical value below which anaerobic conditions in the soil develop. However, redox measurements and its impacts on ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling and productivity, especially in forest ecosystems, have not received the attention that this "master" variable deserves, On northern Vancouver Island, Canada, regenerating stands of western redcedar-western hemlock (CH) sites exhibit symptoms of nutrient deficiencies and slow growth, but this phenomenon does not occur on adjacent western hemlock- amabalis fir (HA) sites. We tested the hypothesis that differences in nutrient supply and distribution of plant species was caused by differences in moisture regime and redox potential. Redox potential, pH, soil aeration depth (steel rods), organic matter thickness, bulk density, soil carbon store, plant species distribution and richness were measured at five old-growth and five 10-year-old cutover blocks. Results of investigations confirmed that CH forests were wetter, had redox values lower than the critical 300mv and a shallower aerated zone, compared with adjacent regenerating HA sites. Fifty percent of the CH plots had redox values less than +300 mv in the forest floor; whereas only 15 percent of the HA plots had such low values. Composition of the forest understory species was related to soil moisture/aeration. Soil aeration was the most important soil variable influencing plant species composition, explaining 25% of the plant community variability. Eh was always greater than +300 mv in the mineral soil of old growth HA forests but below +300 mv in HA clearcuts, suggesting paludification; however it was below or at this threshold in both CH forests and clearcuts. The reduction in measured redox without a noticeable change in the watertable in HA sites suggests that harvesting HA forests shifts the ecosystem towards more anaerobic conditions more similar to CH sites. In a complimentary study, the significance of redox was assessed in a cedar swamp cutover by exploring the relationships between soil redox potential and tree growth, and mineralization of C and soil C store along a gradient of moisture caused by drainage. Drainage improved aeration in the rooting zone, expressed as redox, and above- and below ground C storage; however C mineralization measured as CO2 evolution was not affected. Tree growth was positively correlated with redox potential. Our results indicate that drainage could be a useful silvicultural practice for improving the productivity of these ecosystems and that it may be possible to improve tree growth without stimulating loss of soil C. This requires that drainage improve aeration in the rooting zone while maintaining redox levels of less than +300 mV in the bulk soil, indicating that redox measurements should be incorporated into silviculture interventions to improve productivity of these forests.

Sajedi, Toktam; Prescott, Cindy; Lavkulich, Les

2010-05-01

26

The Nordic maintenance care program: the clinical use of identified indications for preventive care  

PubMed Central

Background Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent condition and has been found to be recurrent and persistent in a majority of cases. Chiropractors have a preventive strategy, maintenance care (MC), aimed towards minimizing recurrence and progression of such conditions. The indications for recommending MC have been identified in the Nordic countries from hypothetical cases. This study aims to investigate whether these indications are indeed used in the clinical encounter. Methods Data were collected in a multi-center observational study in which patients consulted a chiropractor for their non-specific LBP. Patient baseline information was a) previous duration of the LBP, b) the presence of previous episodes of LBP and c) early improvement with treatment. The chiropractors were asked if they deemed each individual patient an MC candidate. Logistic regression analyses (uni– and multi-level) were used to investigate the association of the patient variables with the chiropractor’s decision. Results The results showed that “previous episodes” with LBP was the strongest predictor for recommending MC, and that the presence of all predictors strengthens the frequency of this recommendation. However, there was considerable heterogeneity among the participating chiropractors concerning the recommendation of MC. Conclusions The study largely confirms the clinical use of the previously identified indications for recommending MC for recurrent and persistent LBP. Previous episodes of LBP was the strongest indicator.

2013-01-01

27

GIS-BASED SPATIAL INDICES FOR IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL NUTRIENT EXPORT AT WATERSHED SCALE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spatial indices for identifying potential pollution resulting from manure spread on agricultural lands were developed for evaluating lands in support of decision and policy-making. An existing nutrient delivery ratio was modified by calculating actual distance that water would have to travel to reac...

28

Potential theory, path integrals and the Laplacian of the indicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper links the field of potential theory — i.e. the Dirichlet and Neumann problems for the heat and Laplace equation — to that of the Feynman path integral, by postulating the following seemingly ill-defined potential: V(x):=? {{?^2}}/2nabla_x^2{1_{{xin D}}} where the volatility is the reciprocal of the mass (i.e. m = 1/ ? 2) and ? = 1. The Laplacian of the indicator can be interpreted using the theory of distributions: it is the d-dimensional analogue of the Dirac ?'-function, which can formally be defined as partial_x^2{1_{x>0 }} . We show, first, that the path integral's perturbation series (or Born series) matches the classical single and double boundary layer series of potential theory, thereby connecting two hitherto unrelated fields. Second, we show that the perturbation series is valid for all domains D that allow Green's theorem (i.e. with a finite number of corners, edges and cusps), thereby expanding the classical applicability of boundary layers. Third, we show that the minus (plus) in the potential holds for the Dirichlet (Neumann) boundary condition; showing for the first time a particularly close connection between these two classical problems. Fourth, we demonstrate that the perturbation series of the path integral converges as follows: mode of convergence absorbed propagator reflected propagator convex domain alternating monotone concave domain monotone alternating
We also discuss the third boundary problem (which poses Robin boundary conditions) and discuss an extension to moving domains.

Lange, Rutger-Jan

2012-11-01

29

Terrorists and Hazmat: A Methodology to Identify Potential Routes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Malicious entities may use hazardous materials as a weapon by hijacking a vehicle and transporting it to a desired target.\\u000a This work presents a methodology to identify possible hijacked vehicles’ routes to vulnerable targets, assuming that probabilities\\u000a of interception by law enforcement agents depend on the investment in defense resources. The methodology to identify hijacked\\u000a vehicles’ routes incorporates the dual

Rodrigo A. Garrido

30

IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL SOURCES OF BACKGROUND CONTAMINATION IN RT-PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

Extraction of nucleic acids from low biomass samples, such as drinking water, is particularly sensitive to potential background contamination because the contaminating material is minimally diluted by the sample. The presence of bacterial DNA in Taq DNA polymerase is wel...

31

7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.6 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? Potential market...

2013-01-01

32

Identifying obesity indicators which best correlate with type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity has been shown to be a prognostic indicator of type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, the power of different obesity indicators in the detection of T2D remains controversial. This study evaluates the detecting power of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) for the presence of T2D in undiagnosed diabetics among the Chinese population. Methods Individuals were selected from an ongoing large-scale population-based Beijing Community Pre-Diabetes (BCPD) study cohort. The oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed to diagnose diabetes. A total of 220 new cases of T2D and 1,868 normal blood glucose subjects were analyzed. ROC curve analyses were used to compare the association of different obesity indicators with T2D and determine the optimal cut-off points of the best predictor for identifying T2D in men and women. Results All indicators positively correlated with presence of T2D in both men and women. In women, WC, WHR and WHTR were similar, but were better in identifying T2D when compared to BMI (P?

2012-01-01

33

Risk indicators to identify intimate partner violence in the emergency department  

PubMed Central

Background Intimate partner violence against women is prevalent and is associated with poor health outcomes. Understanding indicators of exposure to intimate partner violence can assist health care professionals to identify and respond to abused women. This study was undertaken to determine the strength of association between selected evidence-based risk indicators and exposure to intimate partner violence. Methods In this cross-sectional study of 768 English-speaking women aged 18–64 years who presented to 2 emergency departments in Ontario, Canada, participants answered questions about risk indicators and completed the Composite Abuse Scale to determine their exposure to intimate partner violence in the past year. Results Intimate partner violence was significantly associated with being separated, in a common-law relationship or single (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–3.71); scoring positive for depression (OR = 4.26, 95% CI 2.11–8.60) or somatic symptoms (OR = 4.09, 95% CI 2.18–7.67); having a male partner who was employed less than part time (OR = 5.12, 95% CI 2.46–10.64), or having a partner with an alcohol (OR = 4.36, 95% CI 2.16–8.81) or drug problem (OR = 4.63, 95% CI 1.89–11.38). Each unit increase in the number of indicators corresponded to a four-fold increase in the risk of intimate partner violence (OR = 3.92, 95% CI 3.06–5.02); women with 3 or more indicators had a greater than 50% probability of a positive score on the Composite Abuse Scale. Intimate partner violence was not associated with pregnancy status. Conclusion Specific characteristics of male partners, relationships and women’s mental health are significantly related to exposure to intimate partner violence in the past year. Identification of these indicators has implications for the clinical care of women who present to health care settings.

Jamieson, Ellen; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin; Worster, Andrew; MacMillan, Harriet L

2007-01-01

34

Tracking in-house accounts receivable can identify potential problems.  

PubMed

Developing a program to track in-house accounts receivables can help hospitals identify cases that may result in bad debt or charity care write-offs. A case management approach that includes analysis of patients' financial, social, and clinical information will allow hospitals to work ahead of problems rather than behind them. PMID:10107596

Moore, R E

1990-09-01

35

Identifying potential market niches for Demand Responsive Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

In principle, Demand Responsive Transport services, or paratransit in US nomenclature, offer public transport providers a more flexible and potentially more cost effective delivery option than conventional bus services, particularly in situations of low demand. However in practice, there are many examples of promising DRT schemes that have failed, for a number of reasons. One recurring feature appears to be

Lisa Davison; Marcus Enoch; Tim Ryley; Mohammed Quddus; Chao Wang

2012-01-01

36

Potential of isotope analysis (C, Cl) to identify dechlorination mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloroethenes are commonly used in industrial applications, and detected as carcinogenic contaminants in the environment. Their dehalogenation is of environmental importance in remediation processes. However, a detailed understanding frequently accounted problem is the accumulation of toxic degradation products such as cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) at contaminated sites. Several studies have addressed the reductive dehalogenation reactions using biotic and abiotic model systems, but a crucial question in this context has remained open: Do environmental transformations occur by the same mechanism as in their corresponding in vitro model systems? The presented study shows the potential to close this research gap using the latest developments in compound specific chlorine isotope analysis, which make it possible to routinely measure chlorine isotope fractionation of chloroethenes in environmental samples and complex reaction mixtures.1,2 In particular, such chlorine isotope analysis enables the measurement of isotope fractionation for two elements (i.e., C and Cl) in chloroethenes. When isotope values of both elements are plotted against each other, different slopes reflect different underlying mechanisms and are remarkably insensitive towards masking. Our results suggest that different microbial strains (G. lovleyi strain SZ, D. hafniense Y51) and the isolated cofactor cobalamin employ similar mechanisms of reductive dechlorination of TCE. In contrast, evidence for a different mechanism was obtained with cobaloxime cautioning its use as a model for biodegradation. The study shows the potential of the dual isotope approach as a tool to directly compare transformation mechanisms of environmental scenarios, biotic transformations, and their putative chemical lab scale systems. Furthermore, it serves as an essential reference when using the dual isotope approach to assess the fate of chlorinated compounds in the environment.

Cretnik, Stefan; Thoreson, Kristen; Bernstein, Anat; Ebert, Karin; Buchner, Daniel; Laskov, Christine; Haderlein, Stefan; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Kliegman, Sarah; McNeill, Kristopher; Elsner, Martin

2013-04-01

37

Biologically Controlled Minerals as Potential Indicators of Life (Abstract Only).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Minerals can be produced and deposited either by abiotic or biologic means. Regardless of their origin, mineral crystals reflect the environment conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, chemical composition, and redox potential) present during crystal for...

D. E. Schwartz R. L. Mancinelli E. Kaneshiro

1991-01-01

38

Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a wealth of published research on salinity tolerance of plants, neither the metabolic sites at which salt stress damages plants nor the adaptive mechanisms utilized by plants to survive under saline conditions are well understood. As a result, there are no well-defined indicators for salinity tolerance available to assist plant breeders in the improvement of salinity tolerance of important

M. Ashraf; P. J. C. Harris

2004-01-01

39

Human brain potentials indicate morphological decomposition in visual word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem homographs are pairs of words with the same orthographic description of their stem but which are semantically and morphologically unrelated (e.g. in Spanish: rata\\/rato (rat\\/moment)). In priming tasks, stem homographs produce inhibition, unlike morphologically related words (loca\\/loco (madwoman\\/madman)) which produce facilitation. An event-related potentials study was conducted to compare morphological and stem homographic priming effects. The results show a

Horacio Barber; Alberto Dom??nguez; Manuel de Vega

2002-01-01

40

Schooling behavior of tadpoles: a potential indicator of ototoxicity.  

PubMed

Fish and tadpoles in schools use hair cells of their lateral line system to assess their position in relation to neighbors. This suggests that pharmaceutical agents that damage hair cells in the mammalian inner ear may also alter geometry in fish and tadpole schools. We used a computer-based image analysis system to examine the effect of the ototoxic aminoglycoside antibiotic, streptomycin, on school geometry for tadpoles of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. Tadpoles exposed to streptomycin in the surrounding water show a general tendency toward clumping, and an increase in the distance over which they orient parallel to neighbors, compared to controls. These behavioral responses appear in 18 min or less, and are evident in some tadpoles exposed to concentrations as low as 5 micrograms/ml. Results suggest that analysis of spatial relations in tadpole schools could serve as a method for rapidly detecting ototoxic potential of agents suspected of damaging hair cells. PMID:7134246

Lum, A M; Wassersug, R J; Potel, M J; Lerner, S A

1982-08-01

41

INDICATORS OF FINANCIAL HEALTH AS IDENTIFIED BY BUSINESS OFFICERS OF SMALL LIBERAL ARTS COLLEGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to determine those financial and nonfinancial measures used by small, independent, four year liberal arts colleges to assess their financial condition and the importance placed on these specific indicators.^ Through review of the body of literature which addresses financial health indices and attendance at seminars and meetings demonstrating how to define and determine financial

BARBARA ELLEN BLACK

1982-01-01

42

Cluster analysis for identifying sub-groups and selecting potential discriminatory variables in human encephalitis  

PubMed Central

Background Encephalitis is an acute clinical syndrome of the central nervous system (CNS), often associated with fatal outcome or permanent damage, including cognitive and behavioural impairment, affective disorders and epileptic seizures. Infection of the central nervous system is considered to be a major cause of encephalitis and more than 100 different pathogens have been recognized as causative agents. However, a large proportion of cases have unknown disease etiology. Methods We perform hierarchical cluster analysis on a multicenter England encephalitis data set with the aim of identifying sub-groups in human encephalitis. We use the simple matching similarity measure which is appropriate for binary data sets and performed variable selection using cluster heatmaps. We also use heatmaps to visually assess underlying patterns in the data, identify the main clinical and laboratory features and identify potential risk factors associated with encephalitis. Results Our results identified fever, personality and behavioural change, headache and lethargy as the main characteristics of encephalitis. Diagnostic variables such as brain scan and measurements from cerebrospinal fluids are also identified as main indicators of encephalitis. Our analysis revealed six major clusters in the England encephalitis data set. However, marked within-cluster heterogeneity is observed in some of the big clusters indicating possible sub-groups. Overall, the results show that patients are clustered according to symptom and diagnostic variables rather than causal agents. Exposure variables such as recent infection, sick person contact and animal contact have been identified as potential risk factors. Conclusions It is in general assumed and is a common practice to group encephalitis cases according to disease etiology. However, our results indicate that patients are clustered with respect to mainly symptom and diagnostic variables rather than causal agents. These similarities and/or differences with respect to symptom and diagnostic measurements might be attributed to host factors. The idea that characteristics of the host may be more important than the pathogen is also consistent with the observation that for some causes, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV), encephalitis is a rare outcome of a common infection.

2010-01-01

43

Zone I retroperitoneal hematoma identified by computed tomography scan as an indicator of significant abdominal injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: All zone I retroperitoneal hematomas (Z1RPHs) identified at laparotomy for blunt trauma traditionally require exploration. The purpose of this study was to correlate patient outcome after blunt abdominal trauma with the presence of Z1RPH diagnosed on admission computed tomography (CT) scan. Methods: This is a retrospective review of patients with blunt trauma who were admitted to a Level 1

Richard A. Falcone; Fred A. Luchette; K. Ann Choe; Gregory Tiao; Michael Ottaway; Kenneth Davis; James M. Hurst; Jay A. Johannigman; Scott B. Frame

1999-01-01

44

Gangs in Our Schools: Identifying Gang Indicators in Our School Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although teachers used to teach in the communities where they resided, they now commute to schools in other districts. For teachers who teach in districts that are culturally or ethnically different than their own, it may be a new experience of which to become aware or identify issues such as dealing with gang behavior. For other teachers, there…

Struyk, Ruth

2006-01-01

45

Comparison of selection indices to identify productive dry bean lines under diverse environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was designed to quantify the effect of seasonal rainfall on production of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Rift Valley of East Africa, where insufficient soil moisture often limits productivity, and compare methods to identify productive lines. Twenty dry bean lines were evaluated for seed yield in a randomized complete-block design under soil moisture stress and nonstress

A. Abebe; M. A. Brick; R. A. Kirkby

1998-01-01

46

A Preliminary Examination to Identify the Presence of Quality Indicators in Single-Subject Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scholars in the field of special education put forth a series of papers that proposed quality indicators for specific research designs that must be present for a study to be considered of high quality, as well as standards for evaluating a body of research to determine whether a practice is evidence-based. The purpose of this article was to pilot…

Tankersley, Melody; Cook, Bryan G.; Cook, Lysandra

2008-01-01

47

A Preliminary Examination to Identify the Presence of Quality Indicators in Single-subject Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholars in the field of special education put forth a series of papers that proposed quality indicators for specific research designs that must be present for a study to be considered of high quality, as well as standards for evaluating a body of research to determine whether a practice is evidence-based. The purpose of this article was to pilot test

Melody Tankersley

2008-01-01

48

Using growth traits and adipose function to identify indicators of heifer fertility  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The identification of early indicators of fertility would increase profitability by improving the quality of heifers chosen to enter the breeding herd. Growth traits are closely linked to age at puberty and could be predictors of initiation of reproductive cycles and heifer fertility. Adipose has ...

49

Monitoring Freshwater Biodiversity at Large Scales: An Assessment of Potential Indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conservation of freshwater biodiversity is a priority for both government agencies and national and international conservation organizations. A number of large-scale conservation plans specifically targeting freshwater biodiversity have been, or will soon be, implemented across the globe. Although numerous potential biodiversity indicators have been proposed for monitoring the status of freshwater ecosystems, few of these indicators have been evaluated. Choice of indicator is especially problematic in many parts of the developing world, where biodiversity data are sparse in general and budgets are limited. In contrast, many developed countries have created freshwater biological assessment programs, which are generally based on measuring aspects of macroinvertebrate assemblages. However, macroinvertebrate-based assessments have not been generally applied to biodiversity conservation, and the extent to which macroinvertebrate-based measures reflect trends or responses in other taxa is unclear. We reviewed the extensive biodiversity and bioassessment literature to identify a practical set of biodiversity indicators for monitoring the success of freshwater conservation plans. After defining the properties that such indicators should possess, we concluded that no single extant indicator can adequately assess the biodiversity status of freshwater fauna. We highlight areas for further research and suggest combinatorial approaches that may prove adequate in the interim.

Simmons, T.; Hawkins, C. P.; Thieme, M.

2005-05-01

50

Using bacterial biomarkers to identify early indicators of cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbation onset.  

PubMed

Acute periods of pulmonary exacerbation are the single most important cause of morbidity in cystic fibrosis patients, and may be associated with a loss of lung function. Intervening prior to the onset of a substantially increased inflammatory response may limit the associated damage to the airways. While a number of biomarker assays based on inflammatory markers have been developed, providing useful and important measures of disease during these periods, such factors are typically only elevated once the process of exacerbation has been initiated. Identifying biomarkers that can predict the onset of pulmonary exacerbation at an early stage would provide an opportunity to intervene before the establishment of a substantial immune response, with major implications for the advancement of cystic fibrosis care. The precise triggers of pulmonary exacerbation remain to be determined; however, the majority of models relate to the activity of microbes present in the patient's lower airways of cystic fibrosis. Advances in diagnostic microbiology now allow for the examination of these complex systems at a level likely to identify factors on which biomarker assays can be based. In this article, we discuss key considerations in the design and testing of assays that could predict pulmonary exacerbations. PMID:21405970

Rogers, Geraint B; Hoffman, Lucas R; Johnson, Matt W; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Schwarze, Jürgen; Carroll, Mary P; Bruce, Kenneth D

2011-03-01

51

Multiple Indices of Diffusion Identifies White Matter Damage in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The study of multiple indices of diffusion, including axial (DA), radial (DR) and mean diffusion (MD), as well as fractional anisotropy (FA), enables WM damage in Alzheimer's disease (AD) to be assessed in detail. Here, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were performed on scans of 40 healthy elders, 19 non-amnestic MCI (MCIna) subjects, 14 amnestic MCI (MCIa) subjects and 9 AD patients. Significantly higher DA was found in MCIna subjects compared to healthy elders in the right posterior cingulum/precuneus. Significantly higher DA was also found in MCIa subjects compared to healthy elders in the left prefrontal cortex, particularly in the forceps minor and uncinate fasciculus. In the MCIa versus MCIna comparison, significantly higher DA was found in large areas of the left prefrontal cortex. For AD patients, the overlap of FA and DR changes and the overlap of FA and MD changes were seen in temporal, parietal and frontal lobes, as well as the corpus callosum and fornix. Analysis of differences between the AD versus MCIna, and AD versus MCIa contrasts, highlighted regions that are increasingly compromised in more severe disease stages. Microstructural damage independent of gross tissue loss was widespread in later disease stages. Our findings suggest a scheme where WM damage begins in the core memory network of the temporal lobe, cingulum and prefrontal regions, and spreads beyond these regions in later stages. DA and MD indices were most sensitive at detecting early changes in MCIa.

O'Dwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O.; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; O'Neill, Des; Bartley, Mairead; Collins, D. Ronan; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

2011-01-01

52

Identifying Latent Clinical Taxa, III: An Empirical Trial of the Normal Single-Indicator Method, Using MMPI Scale 5 to Identify the Sexes1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of identifying latent taxa employing only a single indicator-variable but relying on the idealization of intra-taxon distribution normality was applied to real data, consisting of the Masculinity-femininity scores (MMPI Scale 5) of 665 females and 410 males. Making arbitrary cut-and-try assignments of the six latent distribution parameters Nm, m x , ?m, Nf, f x , ?f (the

P. E. Meehl; D. T. Lykken; M. R. Burdick; G. R. Schoener

53

Thermal Field Indicator for Identifying Active Faults and its Instability From Laboratory Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the thermal filed and strain field during deformation of faults is the physical basis to clarify whether satellite infrared information and the ground temperature field can be used to study fault activity. This study attempts to discuss these problems by experiments in the laboratory. The two-direction servo-control system was used to load on the samples with compressional and extensional en echelon faults. An infrared thermal image system and a contact-type thermometer recorded synchronously variations of the bright temperature field of infrared radiation and temperature field during deformation of the rock specimens. A digital CCD camera and a soft ware based on the digital speckle correlation method (DSCM) was utilized to capture images and to analyze them, yielding processes of displacement and strain fields. The experimental result shows as follows: 1 The temperature is highest at the jog area of the compressional en echelon faults, whereas that is lowest at the extensional en echelon faults prior to failure of the jog area. The record by DSCM displays that the mean strain of the jog area is largest for the compressional en echelon faults, while that is smallest for the extensional en echelon faults. These mean that the temperature field has clear responses to the opposite stress states at the jog areas of two kinds of en echelon faults, providing an indicator for determining whether the fault segment has slid. 2 The en echelon faults experience two deformation stages from stress building up and fault propagating at the jog area to unstable sliding along the fault. Correspondingly the mechanism of heating-up is turned from strain heating into frictional heating. Three kinds of phenomena have been observed at the jog area and its vicinity during the stage of transformation. They are temperature drop, fast fluctuation of temperature, and pulses of temperature rising, respectively. Mechanism of these phenomena is discussed. 3 These variations of the thermal field at the jog area are followed by swift rise of temperature along the fault. The onset of temperature rise along fault occurs 2-3 seconds prior to its unstable slip. However, the temperature drop of the jog area happens about 20 seconds before the unstable slip of the fault and the appearance of temperature rising pulses is 10-20 seconds earlier than that of the unstable slip. They are precursors to unstable slip of the fault. These experimental analyses demonstrate that observations and studies on the thermal variations at the sensitive portion of a faults comparing with other relevant data are of great importance for detecting precursors ahead of unstable slip of active fault.

Ma, J.; Liu, L.; Liu, P.; Ma, S.

2007-12-01

54

EVOKED POTENTIALS AS INDICES OF ADAPTATION IN THE SOMATOSENSORY SYSTEM IN HUMANS: A REVIEW AND PROSPECTUS  

EPA Science Inventory

Population-level behavior of large neural aggregates can be efficiently monitored by corresponding population-level indices such as somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). The literature reviewed clearly indicates that SEPs undergo systematic and often marked changes under condit...

55

Looking Beyond the Bright Lights: Identifying Canadian Indicators of Health for Children in Rural and Northern Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indicators of health are important to inform public health policies and identify health disparities among population sub-groups.\\u000a However, to date most indicator-driven health reports: a) have focused primarily on illness, such as rates of mortality and\\u000a common chronic conditions; b) have come from an adult health care perspective; or c) have not considered the influence of\\u000a geographical location on health.

Alain Paul Gauthier; Nancy L. Young; Susan J. Snelling; Ellen Sears; Tricia Burke

2011-01-01

56

Study of eight GWAS-identified common variants for association with obesity-related indices in Chinese children at puberty  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified some common variants associated with obesity risk in European descents. However, their influences on obesity-related indices for the Chinese children at puberty are not widely clear yet. To address this question, we conducted a study that aims to examine effects of eight previously reported GWAS single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on four obesity-related indices in a

J Wang; H Mei; W Chen; Y Jiang; W Sun; F Li; Q Fu; F Jiang

2012-01-01

57

Using a watershed-centric approach to identify potentially impacted beaches  

EPA Science Inventory

Beaches can be affected by a variety of contaminants. Of particular concern are beaches impacted by human fecal contamination and urban runoff. This poster demonstrates a methodology to identify potentially impacted beaches using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Since h...

58

A proteomic view of isoproterenol induced cardiac hypertrophy: Prohibitin identified as a potential biomarker in rats  

PubMed Central

Background The present study aimed at using a proteomics based approach to: a) analyze and contrast the proteome of the healthy and isoproterenol induced hypertrophied hearts and b) identify potential biomarkers for diagnosis of cardiac hypertrophy. Methods Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were administered isoproterenol (ISO, 5 mg/kg, sc, once daily) for 14 days to induce cardiac hypertrophy. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase (~ 55%) in the heart weight to tail length ratio after 14 days of treatment and cardiac hypertrophy was evidenced by significant increase of ?-MHC and ANP, two indicative markers of cardiac hypertrophy, in the treated heart compared to that of control. Following confirmation of hypertrophy, 2DE of the tissue samples was done followed by MS/MS analysis of the protein spots to obtain a proteomic view for identification of novel biomarkers. Results Several important proteins were identified by proteomics analysis. They belong to the major functional categories such as cholesterol and protein metabolism, muscle contraction and development, transport, TCAcycle, ATP-biosynthesis, chaperone, signal transduction, DNA synthesis and ubiquitinisation. Careful examination of these protein spots by image analysis led to the successful identification of 7 differentially expressed proteins in the diseased sample. Further extension of this work for validation of differential expression of these proteins was also achieved by RTPCR and western blotting. Conclusions Our results demonstrate characteristic protein expression profile in control and hypertrophy condition in SD rats and also expand the existing knowledge on differentially expressed proteins in hypertrophy. The study signifies the importance of reduced expression of a novel protein such as Prohibitin (PHB) which may be associated with the cardiomyocytes growth and cardiac hypertrophy. However, further work is necessary to confirm the role of PHB in human heart and its potential role in diagnostic and therapeutic intervention in the clinic.

2013-01-01

59

Morbidity and Risk of Subsequent Diagnosis of HIV: A Population Based Case Control Study Identifying Indicator Diseases for HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Early identification of persons with undiagnosed HIV infection is an important health care issue. We examined associations between diseases diagnosed in hospitals and risk of subsequent HIV diagnosis. Methods In this population-based case control study, cases were persons with incident HIV infection diagnosed in Denmark between 1 January 1995 and 1 June 2008. Risk-set sampling was used to identify 19 age- and gender-matched population controls for each HIV case, using the HIV diagnosis date as the index date for both cases and controls. Prior hospital diagnoses obtained from Danish medical databases were first categorized into 22 major disease categories (excluding AIDS-defining diseases except tuberculosis) and then subdivided into 161 subcategories, allowing us to examine specific diseases as potential HIV indicators by conditional logistic regression. Results The study included 2,036 HIV cases and 35,718 controls. Persons with the following disease categories had a high risk of HIV diagnosis during the subsequent 5-year period: sexually transmitted infections and viral hepatitis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]?=?12.3, 95% CI: 9.60–15.7), hematological diseases (aOR?=?4.28, 3.13–5.85), lower respiratory tract infections (aOR?=?3.98, 3.14–5.04)), CNS infections (aOR?=?3.44, 1.74–6.80), skin infections (aOR?=?3.05, 2.47–3.75), other infections (aOR?=?4.64, 3.89–5.54), and substance abuse (aOR?=?2.60, 2.06–3.29). Several specific diseases were associated with aORs >20 including syphilis, hepatitis A, non “A” viral hepatitis, herpes zoster, candida infection, endocarditis, thrombocytopenia, and opioid abuse. Conclusions Targeted testing for HIV in patients diagnosed with diseases associated with HIV may lead to earlier treatment and thereby reduced morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission.

S?gaard, Ole S.; Lohse, Nicolai; ?stergaard, Lars; Kronborg, Gitte; R?ge, Birgit; Gerstoft, Jan; S?rensen, Henrik T.; Obel, Niels

2012-01-01

60

Analysis of the Methods Used for Identifying Potential School Dropouts. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report analyzes the research methods used in the identification of potential dropouts. This program was administered under Title I (ESEA, 1965) in the District of Columbia (see also ED 049 319). Three forms were used in the evaluation of Title I students identified as potential dropouts during the school year 1967-68: (1) Student…

Neyman, C. A., Jr.

61

Identifying Potential Communicative Acts in Children with Developmental and Physical Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Inventory of Potential Communicative Acts (IPCA) was given to 20 children with developmental and physical disabilities. Results indicate the IPCA is an efficient means for collecting accurate, verifiable data of the potential communicative acts of children with severe communication impairment associated with a range of developmental and…

Sigafoos, Jeff; Woodyatt, Gail; Keen, Deb; Tait, Kathleen; Tucker, Madonna; Roberts-Pennell, Donna; Pittendreigh, Nicole

2000-01-01

62

Evaluation of indicated suicide risk prevention approaches for potential high school dropouts.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 indicated preventive interventions, postintervention and at 9-month follow-up. METHODS: Drawn from a pool of potential high school dropouts, 460 youths were identified as being at risk for suicide and participated in 1 of 3 conditions randomly assigned by school: (1) Counselors CARE (C-CARE) (n = 150), a brief one-to-one assessment and crisis intervention; (2) Coping and Support Training (CAST) (n = 155), a small-group skills-building and social support intervention delivered with C-CARE; and (3) usual-care control (n = 155). Survey instruments were administered pre-intervention, following C-CARE (4 weeks), following CAST (10 weeks), and at a 9-month follow-up. RESULTS: Growth curve analyses showed significant rates of decline in attitude toward suicide and suicidal ideation associated with the experimental interventions. C-CARE and CAST, compared with usual care, also were effective in reducing depression and hopelessness. Among females, reductions in anxiety and anger were greater in response to the experimental programs. CAST was most effective in enhancing and sustaining personal control and problem-solving coping for males and females. CONCLUSIONS: School-based, indicated prevention approaches are feasible and effective for reducing suicidal behaviors and related emotional distress and for enhancing protective factors.

Thompson, E A; Eggert, L L; Randell, B P; Pike, K C

2001-01-01

63

Hundreds of alterations and potential drug targets to starve tumors identified  

Cancer.gov

A massive study analyzing gene expression data from 22 tumor types has identified multiple metabolic expression changes associated with cancer. The analysis, conducted by researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (home of the Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center), also identified hundreds of potential drug targets that could cut off a tumor’s fuel supply or interfere with its ability to synthesize essential building blocks. The study was published in the online edition of Nature Biotechnology.

64

The PSA nadir that indicates potential cure after radiotherapy for prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe prostate-specific antigen nadir that indicates potential cure by radiotherapy has never been established. We determined this nadir level and used it to define precisely disease freedom after radiotherapy.

Frank A. Critz; A. Keith Levinson; W. Hamilton Williams; David A. Holladay; Clinton T. Holladay; Eric A. Klein; Patrick J. Kupelian

1997-01-01

65

Evaluation of the criteria to identify single-fibre potentials in human muscle fibres.  

PubMed

The criterion normally used to identify a potential generated by a single muscle fibre (SFAP) is that it must have identical shape at consecutive discharges. Technical problems accompanying the recording of single-fibre electromyographic (SFEMG) potentials introduce certain variability in the shape of these potentials, thereby compromising the ability to detect pure SFAPs. This study aims to determine the conditions necessary for two fibres to generate a compound potential that fulfils the single-fibre criterion. This has been done by analysing the alterations in the waveform of compound spikes formed by the summation of two SFAPs whose relative weight in the composite potential can differ considerably. Several factors responsible for this shape variability, with a geometrical, physiological or accidental origin, have been included in our study. It has been shown that a distant interfering component will be hardly detected in the composite potential if it is smaller than approximately 15 % of the main component. For this interfering component to generate a notch in the rising phase of the compound potential, it must be greater than about 30 % of the main component. A compound potential will fulfil the single-fibre criterion if the time dispersion between the individual components is less than 80-120 ?s. These results permit the estimation of the amplitude of interfering potentials so they could be useful in fibre density studies. The article also emphasises the inherent variability of SFEMG potentials and the impact of this variability on jitter estimation. PMID:22806128

Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Gila, Luis; Dimitrova, Nonna Alexandrovna

2012-07-18

66

A Riemannian geometric mapping technique for identifying incompressible equivalents to subsonic potential flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research develops a technique for the solution of incompressible equivalents to planar steady subsonic potential flows. Riemannian geometric formalism is used to develop a gauge transformation of the length measure followed by a curvilinear coordinate transformation to map the given subsonic flow into a canonical Laplacian flow with the same boundary conditions. The effect of the transformation is to distort both the immersed profile shape and the domain interior nonuniformly as a function of local flow properties. The method represents the full nonlinear generalization of the classical methods of Prandtl-Glauert and Karman-Tsien. Unlike the classical methods which are "corrections," this method gives exact results in the sense that the inverse mapping produces the subsonic full potential solution over the original airfoil, up to numerical accuracy. The motivation for this research was provided by an observed analogy between linear potential flow and the special theory of relativity that emerges from the invariance of the d'Alembert wave equation under Lorentz transformations. This analogy is well known in an operational sense, being leveraged widely in linear unsteady aerodynamics and acoustics, stemming largely from the work of Kussner. Whereas elements of the special theory can be invoked for compressibility effects that are linear and global in nature, the question posed in this work was whether other mathematical techniques from the realm of relativity theory could be used to similar advantage for effects that are nonlinear and local. This line of thought led to a transformation leveraging Riemannian geometric methods common to the general theory of relativity. A gauge transformation is used to geometrize compressibility through the metric tensor of the underlying space to produce an equivalent incompressible flow that lives not on a plane but on a curved surface. In this sense, forces owing to compressibility can be ascribed to the geometry of space in much the same way that general relativity ascribes gravitational forces to the curvature of space-time. Although the analogy with general relativity is fruitful, it is important not to overstate the similarities between compressibility and the physics of gravity, as the interest for this thesis is primarily in the mathematical framework and not physical phenomenology or epistemology. The thesis presents the philosophy and theory for the transformation method followed by a numerical method for practical solutions of equivalent incompressible flows over arbitrary closed profiles. The numerical method employs an iterative approach involving the solution of the equivalent incompressible flow with a panel method, the calculation of the metric tensor for the gauge transformation, and the solution of the curvilinear coordinate mapping to the canonical flow with a finite difference approach for the elliptic boundary value problem. This method is demonstrated for non-circulatory flow over a circular cylinder and both symmetric and lifting flows over a NACA 0012 profile. Results are validated with accepted subcritical full potential test cases available in the literature. For chord-preserving mapping boundary conditions, the results indicate that the equivalent incompressible profiles thicken with Mach number and develop a leading edge droop with increased angle of attack. Two promising areas of potential applicability of the method have been identified. The first is in airfoil inverse design methods leveraging incompressible flow knowledge including heuristics and empirical data for the potential field effects on viscous phenomena such as boundary layer transition and separation. The second is in aerodynamic testing using distorted similarity-scaled models.

German, Brian Joseph

67

Identifying pollutant sources in tidally mixed systems: case study of fecal indicator bacteria from marinas in Newport Bay, southern California.  

PubMed

This study investigates the contribution of several marinas to fecal indicator bacteria impairment in Newport Bay, a regionally important tidal embayment in southern California. Three different fecal indicator bacteria groups were assayed, including total coliform, Escherichia coli, and enterococci bacteria, all measured using the IDEXX Colilert and Enterolert system. To document temporal variability in the fecal indicator bacteria signal, water column samples (n = 4132) were collected from two marinas over time scales ranging from hours to months. To document spatial variability of the fecal indicator bacteria signal, water column and sediment samples were collected from a number of sites (n = 11 to 36, depending on the study) in and around the two marinas, over spatial scales ranging from meters to kilometers. To identify the dominant temporal and spatial patterns in these data a statistical approach--Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis--was utilized. Finally, to clarify the transport pathways responsible for the observed temporal and spatial patterns, fecal indicator bacteria data were compared to simultaneous measurements of tidal flow, temperature, and salinity. The results of this field effort collectively implicate runoff--both dry weather runoff at sampling sites located near some storm drains and wet weather runoff at all sites--as a primary source of fecal indicator bacteria in the water column and subtidal sediments. The results and analysis presented here reinforce the growing body of evidence that management of fecal indicator bacteria impairment in the coastal waters of southern California will require developing long-term strategies for treating nonpoint sources of both dry weather and stormwater runoff. PMID:16382928

Jeong, Youngsul; Grant, Stanley B; Ritter, Scott; Pednekar, Abhishek; Candelaria, Linda; Winant, Clinton

2005-12-01

68

Leadership Succession in New South Wales Catholic Schools: Identifying Potential Principals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on research conducted on leadership succession in New South Wales Catholic schools in order to identify potential principals using data collected from middle and senior management staff (n=943). Explains that short-term targeting of this population may be helpful, but impediments to leadership succession need to be addressed. (CMK)|

Dorman, Jeffrey P.; D'Arbon, Tony

2003-01-01

69

Identifying potentially cost effective chronic care programs for people with COPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review published evidence regarding the cost effectiveness of multi-component COPD programs and to illustrate how potentially cost effective programs can be identified. Methods: Systematic search of Medline and Cochrane databases for evaluations of multicomponent disease management or chronic care programs for adults with COPD, describing process, intermediate, and end results of care. Data were independently extracted by two

L. M. G. Steuten; K. M. M. Lemmens; A. P. Nieboer; H. J. M. Vrijhoef

2009-01-01

70

Identifying potential CSCW applications by means of activity theory concepts: a case example  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents some novel concepts and models derived from Activity Theory for to identify a potential CSCW application. It is suggested that the six elements of the structure of the activity concept might be useful for differentiating between areas of support, and that three levels of support are needed in order to cope with both routine and emergent features

Kari Kuutti; Tuula Arvonen

1992-01-01

71

Stem Water Potential is a Sensitive Indicator of Grapevine Water Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dawn leaf water potential (dawnC), leaf water potential (leafC) and stem water potential (stemC) were measured on mature leaves to determine non-irrigated vine water status in vineyards during the growing season. StemC was the most discriminating indicator for both moderate and severe water deficits. The diÄerence between stemC and leafC (DC) provided an indirect measurement of mean leaf transpiration which

XAVIER CHONE; CORNELIS VAN LEEUWEN; DENIS DUBOURDIEU

2001-01-01

72

A spatial modeling approach to identify potential butternut restoration sites in Mammoth Cave National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Incorporation of disease resistance is nearly complete for several important North American hardwood species threatened by exotic fungal diseases. The next important step toward species restoration would be to develop reliable tools to delineate ideal restoration sites on a landscape scale. We integrated spatial modeling and remote sensing techniques to delineate potential restoration sites for Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) trees, a hardwood species being decimated by an exotic fungus, in Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP), Kentucky. We first developed a multivariate habitat model to determine optimum Butternut habitats within MCNP. Habitat characteristics of 54 known Butternut locations were used in combination with eight topographic and land use data layers to calculate an index of habitat suitability based on Mahalanobis distance (D2). We used a bootstrapping technique to test the reliability of model predictions. Based on a threshold value for the D2 statistic, 75.9% of the Butternut locations were correctly classified, indicating that the habitat model performed well. Because Butternut seedlings require extensive amounts of sunlight to become established, we used canopy cover data to refine our delineation of favorable areas for Butternut restoration. Areas with the most favorable conditions to establish Butternut seedlings were limited to 291.6 ha. Our study provides a useful reference on the amount and location of favorable Butternut habitat in MCNP and can be used to identify priority areas for future Butternut restoration. Given the availability of relevant habitat layers and accurate location records, our approach can be applied to other tree species and areas. ?? 2006 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

Thompson, L. M.; van, Manen, F. T.; Schlarbaum, S. E.; DePoy, M.

2006-01-01

73

Water Mites (Acari: Hydrachnida) of Ozark Streams - Abundance, Species Richness, and Potential as Environmental Indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because water mites are tightly linked to other stream metazoans through parasitism and predation, they are potentially effective indicators of environmental quality. Meiofauna (80 ?m to 1 mm) were sampled from headwater riffles of 11 Ozark streams to determine relative abundance and densities of major meiofauna taxa. Water mites comprised 15.3% of the organisms collected exceeded only by chironomids (50.2%) and oligochaetes (17.8%), and mean water mite density among the 11 streams was 265 organisms per liter. The two streams that differed the most in environmental quality were sampled using techniques suitable for identification of species. An estimated 32 species from 20 genera and 13 families were found in the least disturbed stream; an estimated 19 species from 13 genera and 8 families were found in the most disturbed stream. This preliminary finding supports the notion that water mite species richness declines in response to environmental disturbance. Many species could only be identified as morphospecies of particular genera, but the ongoing taxonomic revision of Hydrachnida is expected to provide needed information. A collaborative effort between those interested in taxonomy/systematics of water mites and ecologists interested in the significance of water mites in aquatic communities could prove mutually beneficial.

Radwell, A. J.; Brown, A. V.

2005-05-01

74

Bivalves as indicators of environmental variation and potential anthropogenic impacts in the southern Barents Sea.  

PubMed

Identifying patterns and drivers of natural variability in populations is necessary to gauge potential effects of climatic change and the expected increases in commercial activities in the Arctic on communities and ecosystems. We analyzed growth rates and shell geochemistry of the circumpolar Greenland smooth cockle, Serripes groenlandicus, from the southern Barents Sea over almost 70 years between 1882 and 1968. The datasets were calibrated via annually-deposited growth lines, and growth, stable isotope (delta(18)O, delta(13)C), and trace elemental (Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn) patterns were linked to environmental variations on weekly to decadal scales. Standardized growth indices revealed an oscillatory growth pattern with a multi-year periodicity, which was inversely related to the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO), and positively related to local river discharge. Up to 60% of the annual variability in Ba/Ca could be explained by variations in river discharge at the site closest to the rivers, but the relationship disappeared at a more distant location. Patterns of delta(18)O, delta(13)C, and Sr/Ca together provide evidence that bivalve growth ceases at elevated temperatures during the fall and recommences at the coldest temperatures in the early spring, with the implication that food, rather than temperature, is the primary driver of bivalve growth. The multi-proxy approach of combining the annually integrated information from the growth results and higher resolution geochemical results yielded a robust interpretation of biophysical coupling in the region over temporal and spatial scales. We thus demonstrate that sclerochronological proxies can be useful retrospective analytical tools for establishing a baseline of ecosystem variability in assessing potential combined impacts of climatic change and increasing commercial activities on Arctic communities. PMID:19394657

Carroll, Michael L; Johnson, Beverly J; Henkes, Gregory A; McMahon, Kelton W; Voronkov, Andrey; Ambrose, William G; Denisenko, Stanislav G

2009-04-25

75

49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat identification...STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.917 ...identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...

2010-10-01

76

49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat identification...STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.917 ...identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...

2009-10-01

77

Comparison of Various Anthropometric and Body Fat Indices in Identifying Cardiometabolic Disturbances in Chinese Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Background Although many adiposity indices may be used to predict obesity-related health risks, uncertainty remains over which of them performs best. Objective This study compared the predictive capability of direct and indirect adiposity measures in identifying people at higher risk of metabolic abnormalities. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study recruited 2780 women and 1160 men. Body weight and height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) were measured and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. Body fat (and percentage of fat) over the whole body and the trunk were determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Blood pressure, fasting lipid profiles, and glucose and urine acid levels were assessed. Results In women, the ROC and the multivariate logistic regression analyses both showed that WHtR consistently had the best performance in identifying hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, diabetes/IFG, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). In men, the ROC analysis showed that WHtR was the best predictor of hypertension, WHtR and WC were equally good predictors of dyslipidemia and MetS, and WHtR was the second-best predictor of hyperuricemia and diabetes/IFG. The multivariate logistic regression also found WHtR to be superior in discriminating between MetS, diabetes/IFG, and dyslipidemia while BMI performed better in predicting hypertension and hyperuricemia in men. The BIA-derived indices were the second-worst predictors for all of the endpoints, and HC was the worst. Conclusion WHtR was the best predictor of various metabolic abnormalities. BMI may be used as an alternative measure of obesity for identifying hypertension in both sexes.

Zhang, Zhe-qing; Deng, Juan; He, Li-ping; Ling, Wen-hua; Su, Yi-xiang; Chen, Yu-ming

2013-01-01

78

Structured methods for identifying and correcting potential human errors in aviation operations  

SciTech Connect

Human errors have been identified as the source of approximately 60% of the incidents and accidents that occur in commercial aviation. It can be assumed that a very large number of human errors occur in aviation operations, even though in most cases the redundancies and diversities built into the design of aircraft systems prevent the errors from leading to serious consequences. In addition, when it is acknowledged that many system failures have their roots in human errors that occur in the design phase, it becomes apparent that the identification and elimination of potential human errors could significantly decrease the risks of aviation operations. This will become even more critical during the design of advanced automation-based aircraft systems as well as next-generation systems for air traffic management. Structured methods to identify and correct potential human errors in aviation operations have been developed and are currently undergoing testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL).

Nelson, W.R.

1997-10-01

79

Integrative molecular profiling of triple negative breast cancers identifies amplicon drivers and potential therapeutic targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) have a relatively poor prognosis and cannot be effectively treated with current targeted therapies. We searched for genes that have the potential to be therapeutic targets by identifying genes consistently overexpressed when amplified. Fifty-six TNBCs were subjected to high-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), of which 24 were subjected to genome-wide gene expression analysis. TNBCs

N. Turner; M. B. Lambros; H. M. Horlings; A. Pearson; R. Sharpe; R. Natrajan; F. C. Geyer; Kouwenhove van M; B. Kreike; A. Mackay; A. Ashworth; Vijver van de M. J; J. S. Reis-Filho

2010-01-01

80

A novel fault-tree approach for identifying potential causes of satellite reaction wheel failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to unforeseen circumstances and naturally occurring faults, it is desired that an on-board fault-diagnosis system of a space vehicle be capable of detecting, isolating, identifying or classifying faults in the system. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed which strengthens existing efficient fault-detection mechanisms with an additional ability to classify different types of faults to effectively determine potential

A. Barua; P. Sinha; K. Khorasani; S. Tafazoli

2005-01-01

81

CRP identifies homeostatic immune oscillations in cancer patients: a potential treatment targeting tool?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for a suitable biomarker which indicates immune system responses in cancer patients has been long and arduous, but a widely known biomarker has emerged as a potential candidate for this purpose. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is an acute-phase plasma protein that can be used as a marker for activation of the immune system. The short plasma half-life and relatively

Brendon J Coventry; Martin L Ashdown; Michael A Quinn; Svetomir N Markovic; Steven L Yatomi-Clarke; Andrew P Robinson

2009-01-01

82

Deep Sequencing Identifies Viral and Wasp Genes with Potential Roles in Replication of Microplitis demolitor Bracovirus  

PubMed Central

Viruses in the genus Bracovirus (BV) (Polydnaviridae) are symbionts of parasitoid wasps that specifically replicate in the ovaries of females. Recent analysis of expressed sequence tags from two wasp species, Cotesia congregata and Chelonus inanitus, identified transcripts related to 24 different nudivirus genes. These results together with other data strongly indicate that BVs evolved from a nudivirus ancestor. However, it remains unclear whether BV-carrying wasps contain other nudivirus-like genes and what types of wasp genes may also be required for BV replication. Microplitis demolitor carries Microplitis demolitor bracovirus (MdBV). Here we characterized MdBV replication and performed massively parallel sequencing of M. demolitor ovary transcripts. Our results indicated that MdBV replication begins in stage 2 pupae and continues in adults. Analysis of prereplication- and active-replication-stage ovary RNAs yielded 22 Gb of sequence that assembled into 66,425 transcripts. This breadth of sampling indicated that a large percentage of genes in the M. demolitor genome were sequenced. A total of 41 nudivirus-like transcripts were identified, of which a majority were highly expressed during MdBV replication. Our results also identified a suite of wasp genes that were highly expressed during MdBV replication. Among these products were several transcripts with conserved roles in regulating locus-specific DNA amplification by eukaryotes. Overall, our data set together with prior results likely identify the majority of nudivirus-related genes that are transcriptionally functional during BV replication. Our results also suggest that amplification of proviral DNAs for packaging into BV virions may depend upon the replication machinery of wasps.

2012-01-01

83

ASSESSING SALT MARSH HEALTH: A TEST OF THE UTILITY OF FIVE POTENTIAL INDICATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the utility of five measures of salt marsh function, focusing on angiosperms and microbes, as potential indicators of salt marsh health. We studied twelve salt marsh creeks around Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, USA, six of which were polluted with metals and\\/or organic compounds and six of which were relatively pristine. Physical variables (sediment clay-silt content, creek water salinity)

Steven C. Pennings; V. Dan Wall; Darrin J. Moore; Mala Pattanayek; Tracy L. Buck; James J. Alberts

2002-01-01

84

Exploring the space-time distribution of potential solar radiation in Greece, introducing radiation indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation is a key factor for a lot of natural processes and human activities. The influence of local geographical characteristics of a specific surface (such as slope, aspect, altitude and shading) on the amount of incoming potential solar radiation is very important. In this paper two indices are introduced in order to quantify this effect and facilitate the mapping

N. Mamassis; I. G. Apostolidou

2009-01-01

85

POTENTIAL USE OF FEATHER CHEMISTRY AS AN INDICATOR OF RELATIVE GROWTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

AasraAcr.-We explored the potential for using the elemental composition of feathers as an indicator of intraspecific variation in postnatal development. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine the chemical profile of back and tail feathers of Bald Eagle (Huliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings from Saskatchewan. Growth variables included parameters of Gompertz equations for weight, the rate of body feather development,

GARY R. BORTOLOTTI

1986-01-01

86

Lichens of the Page environs as potential indicators of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because lichens are potentially sensitive indicators of air pollution, a survey of the lichen flora of the Page environment was conducted to establish the nature of the lichen communities prior to the initial operation of the Navaho Power Plant. These data will be used as a base line for comparing future changes in the lichen flora. Altogether 147 species in

1974-01-01

87

Indications and potential sources of change in sand transport in the Brazos River, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Changes in the capacity of the Brazos River to transport sand can be identified within the context of Lane?s relation through changes in channel geometry, changes in the characteristics of suspended loads, and changes in discharge. The Brazos River channel has been undergoing continual adjustment since the 1940s. For a discharge of 5,000 cubic feet per second, the water-surface altitude has decreased 2 to 4 feet at the Hempstead and Richmond streamflow-gaging stations between 1940 and 1995. The characteristics of suspended-sediment samples at the Richmond streamflow-gaging station have changed between the periods 1969?81 and 1982?95. The amount of sand-size sediment transported in suspension has decreased. The distribution of both daily and annual-peak discharges has changed. However, the computed annual loads of suspended sand indicate no statistically significant change in the median annual load. The transport of sand in the Brazos River depends on a complex set of factors, most of which are continually changing. Potential sources of change in sand transport in the Brazos River include the effects of reservoir construction, changes in land use, and instream sand and gravel mining. Extensive reservoir construction in the Brazos River Basin has reduced sand transport by trapping sediment and by reducing the magnitude of peak discharges. However, reductions in sand transport associated with reservoir construction apparently are compensated for by increases associated with tributary sediment inflow and localized bank erosion. The total area of harvested acres of non-hay crops in the lower Brazos River Basin during 1924?92 decreased more than 75 percent from about 32 percent to about 8 percent of the total area. Correspondingly, erosion potential has decreased substantially. Several sand and gravel mining sites are located on the Brazos River between Hempstead and Rosharon. The quantity of sediment extracted by instream sand and gravel mining operations could represent from 11 to 25 percent of the total sand transported by the Brazos River. The effects of mining on sand transport could not be quantified.

Dunn, David D.; Raines, Timothy H.

2001-01-01

88

Triangulation of the human, chimpanzee, and Neanderthal genome sequences identifies potentially compensated mutations.  

PubMed

Triangulation of the human, chimpanzee, and Neanderthal genome sequences with respect to 44,348 disease-causing or disease-associated missense mutations and 1,712 putative regulatory mutations listed in the Human Gene Mutation Database was employed to identify genetic variants that are apparently pathogenic in humans but which may represent a "compensated" wild-type state in at least one of the other two species. Of 122 such "potentially compensated mutations" (PCMs) identified, 88 were deemed "ancestral" on the basis that the reported wild-type Neanderthal nucleotide was identical to that of the chimpanzee. Another 33 PCMs were deemed to be "derived" in that the Neanderthal wild-type nucleotide matched the human but not the chimpanzee wild-type. For the remaining PCM, all three wild-type states were found to differ. Whereas a derived PCM would require compensation only in the chimpanzee, ancestral PCMs are useful as a means to identify sites of possible adaptive differences between modern humans on the one hand, and Neanderthals and chimpanzees on the other. Ancestral PCMs considered to be disease-causing in humans were identified in two Neanderthal genes (DUOX2, MAMLD1). Because the underlying mutations are known to give rise to recessive conditions in human, it is possible that they may also have been of pathological significance in Neanderthals. Hum Mutat 31:1-8, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21064102

Zhang, Guojie; Pei, Zhang; Krawczak, Michael; Ball, Edward V; Mort, Matthew; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard; Cooper, David N

2010-12-01

89

Mass General study identifies potential treatment target in an animal model of pancreatic cancer  

Cancer.gov

Detailed analysis of genes expressed in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) -- cells that break off from solid tumors and travel through the bloodstream -- has identified a potential treatment target in metastatic pancreatic cancer. In a report that will appear in Nature and has received advance online publication, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cancer Center investigators describe finding increased expression of WNT2, a member of a known family of oncogenes, in CTCs from a mouse model of the deadly tumor and from human patients. The Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center is made up of seven member institutions, including Massachusetts General Hospital.

90

Mandatory reporting of “imminent” death to identify organ donors: History, controversy, and potential solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To review the history of mandatory reporting for the purpose of identifying potential organ and tissue donors, and the controversy\\u000a around the terms, “imminent” or “impending” death, and to suggest a solution to this controversy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Source  In this narrative review, published papers were retrieved based on a Medline search using the terms, “mandatory reporting”\\u000a and “organ donation.” In addition, unpublished data

Peter Dodek

2003-01-01

91

Transcript Profiling and RNA Interference as Tools to Identify Small Molecule Mechanisms and Therapeutic Potential  

PubMed Central

Summary The identification of the mechanism-of-action and therapeutic potential of bioactive small molecules remain considerable challenges in the field of drug discovery and chemical biology. Apart from traditional target identification techniques, new tools have emerged that can significantly aid mechanism elucidation efforts. The development of pattern matching algorithms that compare transcription profile data to analogous data on compounds with known cellular targets allows for mechanistic insights without the need to synthesize chemically modified probes. In addition, such methods can be used to connect small molecules to particular disease states, thus aiding the rational identification of candidate therapeutics. Another method with considerable potential is whole-genome RNAi screening, a technique that can identify critical upstream proteins involved in a small molecule’s mechanism-of-action. Several proof-of-concept studies using compounds with known cellular targets suggest this tool will enable mechanistic characterization of bioactive small molecules with unknown mechanisms. This review highlights recent successes in using these pattern matching and chemical genetic tools, with the goal of uncovering small molecule mechanisms and identifying therapeutic candidates for disease treatment.

Palchaudhuri, Rahul; Hergenrother, Paul J.

2011-01-01

92

Potential for diamond in kimberlites from Michigan and Montana as indicated by garnet xenocryst compositions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Williams kimberlite in north-central Montana and the Lake Ellen kimberlite in northern Michigan contain diagnostic xenoliths and xenocrysts which indicate that diamonds may be present. To date, however, no diamonds have been reported from either locality. In this study, particular compositions of garnet xenocrysts which are associated with diamond elsewhere were sought as an indication of the potential for diamond in the Williams and Lake Ellen kimberlites. For this study, garnets were carefully selected for purple color in order to increase the chance of finding the subcalcic chrome-rich compositions that are associated with the presence of diamond. -Author

McGee, E. S.

1988-01-01

93

Proteomic Analysis of Saliva Identifies Potential Biomarkers for Orthodontic Tooth Movement  

PubMed Central

Orthodontic treatment has been shown to induce inflammation, followed by bone remodelling in the periodontium. These processes trigger the secretion of various proteins and enzymes into the saliva. This study aims to identify salivary proteins that change in expression during orthodontic tooth movement. These differentially expressed proteins can potentially serve as protein biomarkers for the monitoring of orthodontic treatment and tooth movement. Whole saliva from three healthy female subjects were collected before force application using fixed appliance and at 14 days after 0.014?? Niti wire was applied. Salivary proteins were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) over a pH range of 3–10, and the resulting proteome profiles were compared. Differentially expressed protein spots were then identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Nine proteins were found to be differentially expressed; however, only eight were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Four of these proteins—Protein S100-A9, immunoglobulin J chain, Ig alpha-1 chain C region, and CRISP-3—have known roles in inflammation and bone resorption.

Ellias, Mohd Faiz; Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Abdul Rahman, Mariati; Senafi, Shahidan; Megat Abdul Wahab, Rohaya

2012-01-01

94

Developing consensus on hospital prescribing indicators of potential harms amenable to decision support.  

PubMed

AIM: To develop a list of prescribing indicators specific for the hospital setting that would facilitate the prospective collection of high severity and/or high frequency prescribing errors, which are also amenable to electronic clinical decision support (CDS). METHOD: A two-stage consensus technique (electronic Delphi) was carried out with 20 experts across England. Participants were asked to score prescribing errors using a five-point Likert scale for their likelihood of occurrence and the severity of the most likely outcome. These were combined to produce risk scores, from which median scores were calculated for each indicator across the participants in the study. The degree of consensus between the participants was defined as the proportion that gave a risk score in the same category as the median. Indicators were included if a consensus of 80% or more was achieved. RESULTS: A total of 80 prescribing errors were identified by consensus as being high or extreme risk. The most common drug classes named within the indicators were antibiotics (n=13), antidepressants (n=8), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n=6), and opioid analgesics (n=6).The most frequent error type identified as high or extreme risk were those classified as clinical contraindications (n=29/80). CONCLUSION: 80 high-risk prescribing errors in the hospital setting have been identified by an expert panel. These indicators can serve as a standardised, validated tool for the collection of prescribing data in both paper-based and electronic prescribing processes. This can assess the impact of safety improvement initiatives such as the implementation of electronic clinical decision support. PMID:23362926

Thomas, S K; McDowell, S E; Hodson, J; Nwulu, U; Howard, R L; Avery, A J; Slee, A; Coleman, J J

2013-01-31

95

Assessing salt marsh health: A test of the utility of five potential indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the utility of five measures of salt marsh function, focusing on angiosperms and microbes, as potential indicators\\u000a of salt marsh health. We studied twelve salt marsh creeks around Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, USA, six of which were\\u000a polluted with metals and\\/or organic compounds and six of which were relatively pristine. Physical variables (sediment clay-silt\\u000a content, creek water salinity)

Steven C. Pennings; V. Dan Wall; Darrin J. Moore; Mala Pattanayek; Tracy L. Buck; James J. Alberts

2002-01-01

96

Evoked potential indices of selective hemispheric engagement in affective and phonetic tasks.  

PubMed

Evoked potentials (EPs) to a probe click stimulus were recorded from left and right temporal areas of dextral adults engaged in phonetic and prosodic processing of an emotionally charged tape recorded conversation. Attenuation of the probe EP amplitudes was significantly greater in the left and right hemispheres during the phonetic and prosodic tasks, respectively, indicating lateral dominance shifts depending on selective processing of linguistic vs affective cues conveyed by the same speech signals. PMID:6621869

Papanicolaou, A C; Levin, H S; Eisenberg, H M; Moore, B D

1983-01-01

97

The geomagnetic solar flare effect identified by SIIG as an indicator of a solar flare observed by GOES satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the efficiency of geomagnetic solar flare effects (gsfe) in X solar flare detection; so during the period 1999-2007 a comparison between solar flare (sf) observed by satellites of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) programme and gsfe published by the Service International des Indices Geomagnetiques (SIIG) is made. Solar flares (sfs) are one of the most powerful manifestations of the solar activity. Because the far UV and soft and hard X-ray solar flare radiation is absorbed by the ionosphere, the ionized gas density increases (ionospheric solar flare effect, isfe) and a sudden enhancement of geomagnetic field near Earth surface (geomagnetic solar flare effect, gsfe) is produced. The solar X-ray flux is systematically recorded since 1975 by GOES satellites, and gsfe are declared by geomagnetic observatories since 1957. We corroborate that the identification of sf using gsfe is affected by several factors: the intensity and average growth rate of solar flare radiation when quicker is it more easily the sf is detected as gsfe; the position of the geomagnetic observatory, we found that observatories placed at summer hemisphere identify more easily the sf, so the uneven geographical distribution of observatories make the sf identification difficult; the existing geomagnetic perturbation previous to sf, and the likeness between the gsfe and other geomagnetic variations. This work shows that gsfe recorded as associated to sf is a poor detector of sf even if it is intense. Some of these inconveniences can be avoided if the distribution of the observatories is improved and the identification of a sf is made using simultaneously gsfe, solar wind parameters and isfe.

Van Zele, M. A.; Meza, A.

2011-09-01

98

Retroviral integration mutagenesis in mice and comparative analysis in human AML identify reduced PTP4A3 expression as a prognostic indicator.  

PubMed

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) results from multiple genetic and epigenetic aberrations, many of which remain unidentified. Frequent loss of large chromosomal regions marks haplo-insufficiency as one of the major mechanisms contributing to leukemogenesis. However, which haplo-insufficient genes (HIGs) are involved in leukemogenesis is largely unknown and powerful experimental strategies aimed at their identification are currently lacking. Here, we present a new approach to discover HIGs, using retroviral integration mutagenesis in mice in which methylated viral integration sites and neighbouring genes were identified. In total we mapped 6 genes which are flanked by methylated viral integration sites (mVIS). Three of these, i.e., Lrmp, Hcls1 and Prkrir, were up regulated and one, i.e., Ptp4a3, was down regulated in the affected tumor. Next, we investigated the role of PTP4A3 in human AML and we show that PTP4A3 expression is a negative prognostic indicator, independent of other prognostic parameters. In conclusion, our novel strategy has identified PTP4A3 to potentially have a role in AML, on one hand as a candidate HIG contributing to leukemogenesis in mice and on the other hand as a prognostic indicator in human AML. PMID:22028901

Beekman, Renée; Valkhof, Marijke; Erkeland, Stefan J; Taskesen, Erdogan; Rockova, Veronika; Peeters, Justine K; Valk, Peter J M; Löwenberg, Bob; Touw, Ivo P

2011-10-20

99

Slow negative potential shifts indicating verbal cognitive learning in a concept formation task.  

PubMed

It is well-known clinically that patients with left frontal lesions are impaired in their verbal-cognitive learning ability. Starting from such observations, it is of particular interest whether the event-related cerebral potential shifts recorded in healthy human subjects would indicate a left frontal lobe involvement in verbal-cognitive learning tasks. In a concept formation paradigm, subjects learned by trial and error to transform letters into Morse codes. This cognitive performance was accompanied by a slow negative potential shift (SP) that in frontal recordings was lateralized towards the left hemisphere. off results show in a later stage of learning, in which the experience of the preceding trial and error learning could be integrated, an increasing slow negativity over the frontal cortex. Ss also participated in a control task with already known letter/Morse code combinations. Again, a negative potential shift occurred within the stimulus-response interval, however, it was smaller in amplitude. PMID:3449487

Lang, M; Lang, W; Uhl, F; Kornhuber, A; Deecke, L; Kornhuber, H H

1987-01-01

100

Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1: emerging pharmacology and indications for cardiovascular biology.  

PubMed

Transient receptor potential anykrin 1 (TRPA1) is a member of the TRP superfamily, representing the sole member of the TRPA subfamily. It has many identified endogenous and exogenous agonists, comprising largely of chemical irritants and products of oxidative stress. Classically located on sensory neurone endings, TRPA1 has developed a strong presence in pain and inflammatory studies, where it is now becoming an intriguing clinical drug target. TRPA1 is increasingly recognized in a growing number of neuronal and non-neuronal locations with expanding expression and activity profiles providing evidence of a role for TRPA1 in other systems. Interest in discovering the pharmacological and functional roles of TRPA1 is increasing and diversifying into many areas. Historically, compounds now known as TRPA1 agonists have demonstrated cardiovascular activity, modulating activities in both the heart and the vasculature. Now TRPA1 has been identified as the receptor via which these compounds can act, these studies are being revisited and expanded on using current techniques. It is therefore timely to review the current knowledge of TRPA1 receptor presence and activities of relevance to the cardiovascular system, summarizing findings to date and identifying potential areas for future investigation. PMID:20950342

Bodkin, J V; Brain, S D

2010-11-09

101

HLA-B*4413 identified in a UK Caucasoid potential bone marrow donor.  

PubMed

We describe a novel allele belonging to the B*44 allele group. HLA-B*4413 was identified in a Caucasoid potential bone marrow donor from the Anthony Nolan Bone Marrow Trust register. Initial HLA typing of this donor revealed unusual serological reactivity. Further investigation was carried out by reference strand conformation analysis (RSCA) and sequence-based typing (SBT) using DNA extracted from an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B-cell line made from this donor (AMI005AN). In this individual, two B*44 alleles were revealed upon initial investigation: B*4409 and a previously unseen allele which has been named B*4413. B*4413 is identical to B*44031 except for a unique nucleotide substitution resulting in an amino acid difference at residue 61 in the alpha1 helix. PMID:10746795

Cox, S T; McWhinnie, A; Prokupek, B; Madrigal, J A; Little, A M

2000-02-01

102

Exome Sequencing of Only Seven Qataris Identifies Potentially Deleterious Variants in the Qatari Population  

PubMed Central

The Qatari population, located at the Arabian migration crossroads of African and Eurasia, is comprised of Bedouin, Persian and African genetic subgroups. By deep exome sequencing of only 7 Qataris, including individuals in each subgroup, we identified 2,750 nonsynonymous SNPs predicted to be deleterious, many of which are linked to human health, or are in genes linked to human health. Many of these SNPs were at significantly elevated deleterious allele frequency in Qataris compared to other populations worldwide. Despite the small sample size, SNP allele frequency was highly correlated with a larger Qatari sample. Together, the data demonstrate that exome sequencing of only a small number of individuals can reveal genetic variations with potential health consequences in understudied populations.

Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L.; Fuller, Jennifer; Hackett, Neil R.; Salit, Jacqueline; Malek, Joel A.; Al-Dous, Eman; Chouchane, Lotfi; Zirie, Mahmoud; Jayoussi, Amin; Mahmoud, Mai A.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Mezey, Jason G.

2012-01-01

103

Unusual phyletic distribution of peptidases as a tool for identifying potential drug targets  

PubMed Central

Eukaryote homologues of carboxypeptidases Taq have been discovered by Niemirowicz et al. in the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease. This is surprising, because the peptidase family was thought to be restricted to bacteria and archaea. In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, the authors propose that the Trypanosoma carboxypeptidases are potential drug targets for treatment of the disease. The authors also propose that the presence of the genes in the zooflagellates can be explained by a horizontal transfer of an ancestral gene from a prokaryote. Because peptidases are popular drug targets, identifying parasite or pathogen peptidases that have no homologues in their hosts would be a method to select the most promising targets. To understand how unusual this phyletic distribution is among the 183 families of peptidases, several other examples of horizontal transfers are presented, as well as some unusual losses of peptidase genes.

Rawlings, Neil D.

2006-01-01

104

Integrative molecular profiling of triple negative breast cancers identifies amplicon drivers and potential therapeutic targets.  

PubMed

Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) have a relatively poor prognosis and cannot be effectively treated with current targeted therapies. We searched for genes that have the potential to be therapeutic targets by identifying genes consistently overexpressed when amplified. Fifty-six TNBCs were subjected to high-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), of which 24 were subjected to genome-wide gene expression analysis. TNBCs were genetically heterogeneous; no individual focal amplification was present at high frequency, although 78.6% of TNBCs harboured at least one focal amplification. Integration of aCGH and expression data revealed 40 genes significantly overexpressed when amplified, including the known oncogenes and potential therapeutic targets, FGFR2 (10q26.3), BUB3 (10q26.3), RAB20 (13q34), PKN1 (19p13.12) and NOTCH3 (19p13.12). We identified two TNBC cell lines with FGFR2 amplification, which both had constitutive activation of FGFR2. Amplified cell lines were highly sensitive to FGFR inhibitor PD173074, and to RNAi silencing of FGFR2. Treatment with PD173074 induced apoptosis resulting partly from inhibition of PI3K-AKT signalling. Independent validation using publicly available aCGH data sets revealed FGFR2 gene was amplified in 4% (6/165) of TNBC, but not in other subtypes (0/214, P=0.0065). Our analysis demonstrates that TNBCs are heterogeneous tumours with amplifications of FGFR2 in a subgroup of tumours. PMID:20101236

Turner, N; Lambros, M B; Horlings, H M; Pearson, A; Sharpe, R; Natrajan, R; Geyer, F C; van Kouwenhove, M; Kreike, B; Mackay, A; Ashworth, A; van de Vijver, M J; Reis-Filho, J S

2010-01-18

105

The Potential of Metatranscriptomics for Identifying Screening Targets for Bacterial Vaginosis  

PubMed Central

Background The ribosomal RNA content of a sample collected from a woman with bacterial vaginosis (BV) was analysed to determine the active microbial community, and to identify potential targets for further screening. Methodology/Principal Findings The sample from the BV patient underwent total RNA extraction, followed by physical subtraction of human rRNA and whole transcriptome amplification. The metatranscriptome was sequenced using Roche 454 titanium chemistry. The bioinformatics pipeline MG-RAST and desktop DNA analysis platforms were utilised to analyse results. Bacteria of the genus Prevotella (predominately P. amnii) constituted 36% of the 16S rRNA reads, followed by Megasphaera (19%), Leptotrichia/Sneathia (8%) and Fusobacterium (8%). Comparison of the abundances of several bacteria to quantitative PCR (qPCR) screening of extracted DNA revealed comparable relative abundances. This suggests a correlation between what was present and transcriptionally active in this sample: however distinct differences were seen when compared to the microbiome determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. To assess the presence of P. amnii in a larger pool of samples, 90 sexually active women were screened using qPCR. This bacterium was found to be strongly associated with BV (P<0.001, OR 23.3 (95%CI:2.9–190.7)) among the 90 women. Conclusions/Significance This study highlighted the potential of metatranscriptomics as a tool for characterising metabolically active microbiota and identifying targets for further screening. Prevotella amnii was chosen as an example target, being the most metabolically active species present in the single patient with BV, and was found to be detected at a high concentration by qPCR in 31% of cohort with BV, with an association with both oral and penile-vaginal sex.

Twin, Jimmy; Bradshaw, Catriona S.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Fethers, Katherine; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.

2013-01-01

106

Identifying At-Risk Employees: Modeling Psychosocial Precursors of Potential Insider Threats  

SciTech Connect

In many insider crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they can be assessed. A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employee's behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. To test the model's agreement with human resources and management professionals, we conducted an experiment with positive results. If implemented in an operational setting, the model would be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment to identify employees who pose a greater insider threat.

Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Dalton, Angela C.; Hohimer, Ryan E.

2012-01-04

107

Application of positive matrix factorization to identify potential sources of PAHs in soil of Dalian, China.  

PubMed

Soil derived sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the region of Dalian, China were investigated using positive matrix factorization (PMF). Three factors were separated based on PMF for the statistical investigation of the datasets both in summer and winter. These factors were dominated by the pattern of single sources or groups of similar sources, showing seasonal and regional variations. The main sources of PAHs in Dalian soil in summer were the emissions from coal combustion average (46%), diesel engine (30%), and gasoline engine (24%). In winter, the main sources were the emissions from coal-fired boiler (72%), traffic average (20%), and gasoline engine (8%). These factors with strong seasonality indicated that coal combustion in winter and traffic exhaust in summer dominated the sources of PAHs in soil. These results suggested that PMF model was a proper approach to identify the sources of PAHs in soil. PMID:19201072

Wang, Degao; Tian, Fulin; Yang, Meng; Liu, Chenlin; Li, Yi-Fan

2009-02-07

108

A filtering strategy identifies FOXQ1 as a potential effector of lamin A dysfunction.  

PubMed

Small increases in the expression of wild-type prelamin A are sufficient to recapitulate the reduced cell proliferation and altered nuclear membrane morphology observed in cells expressing progerin, the mutant lamin A associated with progeria. We hypothesized that the manifestation of these phenotypes in cells expressing elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A or progerin is caused by the same molecular effectors, which play a central role in the onset of the progeroid phenotype. To experimentally test this hypothesis, we compared the transcriptomes of isogenic diploid fibroblasts expressing progerin or elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A with that of wild-type fibroblasts. We subsequently used the reversion towards normal of two phenotypes, reduced cell growth and dismorphic nuclei, by treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI) or overexpression of ZMPSTE24, as a filtering strategy to identify genes linked to the onset of these two phenotypes. Through this analysis we identified the gene encoding for the transcription factor FOXQ1, as a gene whose expression is induced in both cells expressing progerin and elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A, and subsequently reduced in both cell types upon conditions that ameliorate the phenotypes. We overexpressed FOXQ1 in normal fibroblasts and demonstrated that increased levels of this factor lead to the development of both features that were used in the filtering strategy. These findings suggest a potential link between this transcription factor and cell dysfunction induced by altered prelamin A metabolism. PMID:22948034

Candelario, Jose; Chen, Leng-Ying; Marjoram, Paul; Reddy, Sita; Comai, Lucio

2012-08-01

109

A filtering strategy identifies FOXQ1 as a potential effector of lamin A dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Small increases in the expression of wild-type prelamin A are sufficient to recapitulate the reduced cell proliferation and altered nuclear membrane morphology observed in cells expressing progerin, the mutant lamin A associated with progeria. We hypothesized that the manifestation of these phenotypes in cells expressing elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A or progerin is caused by the same molecular effectors, which play a central role in the onset of the progeroid phenotype. To experimentally test this hypothesis, we compared the transcriptomes of isogenic diploid fibroblasts expressing progerin or elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A with that of wild-type fibroblasts. We subsequently used the reversion towards normal of two phenotypes, reduced cell growth and dismorphic nuclei, by treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI) or overexpression of ZMPSTE24, as a filtering strategy to identify genes linked to the onset of these two phenotypes. Through this analysis we identified the gene encoding for the transcription factor FOXQ1, as a gene whose expression is induced in both cells expressing progerin and elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A, and subsequently reduced in both cell types upon conditions that ameliorate the phenotypes. We overexpressed FOXQ1 in normal fibroblasts and demonstrated that increased levels of this factor lead to the development of both features that were used in the filtering strategy. These findings suggest a potential link between this transcription factor and cell dysfunction induced by altered prelamin A metabolism.

Candelario, Jose; Chen, Leng-Ying; Marjoram, Paul; Reddy, Sita; Comai, Lucio

2012-01-01

110

Structured methods for identifying and correcting potential human errors in space operations.  

PubMed

Human performance plays a significant role in the development and operation of any complex system, and human errors are significant contributors to degraded performance, incidents, and accidents for technologies as diverse as medical systems, commercial aircraft, offshore oil platforms, nuclear power plants, and space systems. To date, serious accidents attributed to human error have fortunately been rare in space operations. However, as flight rates go up and the duration of space missions increases, the accident rate could increase unless proactive action is taken to identity and correct potential human errors in space operations. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has developed and applied structured methods of human error analysis to identify potential human errors, assess their effects on system performance, and develop strategies to prevent the errors or mitigate their consequences. These methods are being applied in NASA-sponsored programs to the domain of commercial aviation, focusing on airplane maintenance and air traffic management. The application of human error analysis to space operations could contribute to minimize the risks associated with human error in the design and operation of future space systems. PMID:11541925

Nelson, W R; Haney, L N; Ostrom, L T; Richards, R E

111

Predicting fish growth potential and identifying water quality constraints: a spatially-explicit bioenergetics approach.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic impairment of water bodies represents a global environmental concern, yet few attempts have successfully linked fish performance to thermal habitat suitability and fewer have distinguished co-varying water quality constraints. We interfaced fish bioenergetics, field measurements, and Thermal Remote Imaging to generate a spatially-explicit, high-resolution surface of fish growth potential, and next employed a structured hypothesis to detect relationships among measures of fish performance and co-varying water quality constraints. Our thermal surface of fish performance captured the amount and spatial-temporal arrangement of thermally-suitable habitat for three focal species in an extremely heterogeneous reservoir, but interpretation of this pattern was initially confounded by seasonal covariation of water residence time and water quality. Subsequent path analysis revealed that in terms of seasonal patterns in growth potential, catfish and walleye responded to temperature, positively and negatively, respectively; crappie and walleye responded to eutrophy (negatively). At the high eutrophy levels observed in this system, some desired fishes appear to suffer from excessive cultural eutrophication within the context of elevated temperatures whereas others appear to be largely unaffected or even enhanced. Our overall findings do not lead to the conclusion that this system is degraded by pollution; however, they do highlight the need to use a sensitive focal species in the process of determining allowable nutrient loading and as integrators of habitat suitability across multiple spatial and temporal scales. We provide an integrated approach useful for quantifying fish growth potential and identifying water quality constraints on fish performance at spatial scales appropriate for whole-system management. PMID:21769519

Budy, Phaedra; Baker, Matthew; Dahle, Samuel K

2011-07-17

112

International comparison of cave radon concentrations identifying the potential alpha radiation risks to British cave users  

SciTech Connect

Elevated concentrations of {sup 222}Rn have been recorded in many limestone caves throughout the world. As prolonged exposure to high radon concentrations has been linked to cancer and tumors, particularly of the lung, a national survey of radon in British caves was undertaken. Passive radon detectors were exposed at 250 sites in 47 caves over four 7-d sampling periods. Mean concentrations ranging from 454-8,868 Bq m{sup {minus}3} were recorded. In one system, in the Peak District, radon concentrations of 155,000 Bq m{sup {minus}3} were recorded. The results indicate that the potential radiation dose from a single 4-h trip could exceed the national average annual background radiation dose (for the UK) from radon of 1.25 mSv. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

Hyland, R.; Gunn, J. [Univ. of Huddersfield (United Kingdom)

1994-08-01

113

Measuring Quality in Higher Education: Can a Performance Indicator Approach Be Extended to Identifying the Quality of Students' Union Provision?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The desire to enhance the quality of the services provided by higher education institutions in the UK has led to the development of a series of benchmarking performance indicators to aid the quality management process. This paper examines whether or not similar indicators could be developed for use as tools in the management of quality within…

Rodgers, Timothy

2008-01-01

114

ITIH4: A New Potential Biomarker of "Toxin Syndrome" in Coronary Heart Disease Patient Identified with Proteomic Method  

PubMed Central

Objective. This trial aims to look for the protein biomarker of “toxin syndrome” of CHD patients. Methods. We have performed two trials in this paper. The first trial was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the plasma proteome in unstable angina (UA) patients by Maldi-Tof Mass. The second trial was a nested case-control study in 1503 stable CHD patients with one-year followup for acute cardiovascular events (ACEs). Results. In the RCT study, 12 protein spots were found to be the differential protein for the significant differences between the difference of before and after treatment in group A and group B; 2 of them (3207.37?Da and 4279.95?Da) was considered to be unique to “toxin syndrome” for being differential proteins of group B but not group A. These 2 spots were identified as Isoform 1 of Fibrinogen alpha chain precursor (FGA, 3207.37?Da) and Isoform 2 of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4, 4279.95?Da), respectively. In the nested case-control study, the result of Western blot demonstrated that protein expression of ITIH4 in the group with followup ACEs was significantly lower than the matched group without followup ACEs (P = 0.027). Conclusion. ITIH4 might be a new potential biomarker of CHD “toxin syndrome” in TCM, indicating the potential role in early identifying high-risk CHD patients in stable period.

Xu, Hao; Shang, Qinghua; Chen, Hao; Du, Jianpeng; Wen, Jianyan; Li, Geng; Shi, Dazhuo; Chen, Keji

2013-01-01

115

Evaluating stakeholder participation in water management: intermediary outcomes as potential indicators for future resource management outcomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of participation programmes, projects and activities is essential to identify whether stakeholder involvement has been successful in achieving its aims. Aims may include an improvement in water resource management such as enhanced ecological functioning, an improvement in human wellbeing and economic conditions, or overcoming a conflict between interest groups. Evaluating against "interest-based" resource management criteria requires that a desirable outcome can be identified, agreed upon and be measured at the time of evaluation. In many water management situations where collaborative approaches are applied, multiple interests and objectives are present, or stakeholders have not yet identified their own positions and priorities. Even if a resource management objective has been identified and strategy agreed upon, resource management changes tend to emerge over longer timescales and evaluation frequently takes place before they can be recognised. Evaluating against resource management criteria may lead evaluators to conclude that a programme has failed because it has not achieved a resource management objective at the time of evaluation. This presents a critical challenge to researchers assessing the effectiveness of stakeholder participation programmes. One strategy to overcome this is to conduct "goal-free" evaluation to identify what the programme is actually achieving. An evaluation framework that includes intermediary outcomes that are both tangible achievements such as innovation, creation of new organisations, and shared information and knowledge, as well as intangible achievements such as trust and network development can be applied to more broadly assess a programme's success. Analysis of case-studies in the published literature for which a resource management outcome has been achieved shows that intermediary outcomes frequently precede resource management outcomes. They seem to emerge over shorter timescales than resource management outcomes. Furthermore, failure to achieve intermediary outcomes correlates to failure to achieve resource management outcomes. Evaluating intermediary outcomes leads to both a broader assessment of a programme's achievements at the time of evaluation, and can indicate whether a programme will go on to achieve resource management objectives in the future.

Carr, Gemma; Bloeschl, Guenter; Loucks, Daniel Pete

2013-04-01

116

A proton current drives action potentials in genetically identified sour taste cells.  

PubMed

Five tastes have been identified, each of which is transduced by a separate set of taste cells. Of these sour, which is associated with acid stimuli, is the least understood. Genetic ablation experiments have established that sour is detected by a subset of taste cells that express the TRP channel PKD2L1 and its partner PKD1L3, however the mechanisms by which this subset of cells detects acids remain unclear. Previous efforts to understand sour taste transduction have been hindered because sour responsive cells represent only a small fraction of cells in a taste bud, and numerous ion channels with no role in sour sensing are sensitive to acidic pH. To identify acid-sensitive conductances unique to sour cells, we created genetically modified mice in which sour cells were marked by expression of YFP under the control of the PKD2L1 promoter. To measure responses to sour stimuli we developed a method in which suction electrode recording is combined with UV photolysis of NPE-caged proton. Using these methods, we report that responses to sour stimuli are not mediated by Na(+) permeable channels as previously thought, but instead are mediated by a proton conductance specific to PKD2L1-expressing taste cells. This conductance is sufficient to drive action potential firing in response to acid stimuli, is enriched in the apical membrane of PKD2L1-expressing taste cells and is not affected by targeted deletion of the PKD1L3 gene. We conclude that, during sour transduction, protons enter through an apical proton conductance to directly depolarize the taste cell membrane. PMID:21098668

Chang, Rui B; Waters, Hang; Liman, Emily R

2010-11-23

117

A proton current drives action potentials in genetically identified sour taste cells  

PubMed Central

Five tastes have been identified, each of which is transduced by a separate set of taste cells. Of these sour, which is associated with acid stimuli, is the least understood. Genetic ablation experiments have established that sour is detected by a subset of taste cells that express the TRP channel PKD2L1 and its partner PKD1L3, however the mechanisms by which this subset of cells detects acids remain unclear. Previous efforts to understand sour taste transduction have been hindered because sour responsive cells represent only a small fraction of cells in a taste bud, and numerous ion channels with no role in sour sensing are sensitive to acidic pH. To identify acid-sensitive conductances unique to sour cells, we created genetically modified mice in which sour cells were marked by expression of YFP under the control of the PKD2L1 promoter. To measure responses to sour stimuli we developed a method in which suction electrode recording is combined with UV photolysis of NPE-caged proton. Using these methods, we report that responses to sour stimuli are not mediated by Na+ permeable channels as previously thought, but instead are mediated by a proton conductance specific to PKD2L1-expressing taste cells. This conductance is sufficient to drive action potential firing in response to acid stimuli, is enriched in the apical membrane of PKD2L1-expressing taste cells and is not affected by targeted deletion of the PKD1L3 gene. We conclude that, during sour transduction, protons enter through an apical proton conductance to directly depolarize the taste cell membrane.

Chang, Rui B.; Waters, Hang; Liman, Emily R.

2010-01-01

118

Research resource: A genome-wide study identifies potential new target genes for POU1F1.  

PubMed

The pituitary transcription factor POU1F1 is required for the differentiation of lactotrope, thyrotrope, and somatotrope cells. Its expression is maintained in the adult and is crucial for the expression of prolactin, GH, and TSH?-subunit. Different studies indicated that POU1F1 could also have other functions in these cells. The identification of new targets of this factor could be useful to obtain a better understanding of these functions. To address this question we combined data obtained from expression microarrays and from chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-chips. Gene expression microarray assays were used to detect genes that have their expression modified in somatolactotrope GH4C1 cells by the expression of a dominant-negative form of POU1F1, POU1F1(R271W), and led to the identification of 1346 such genes. ChIP-chip experiments were performed from mouse pituitaries and identified 1671 POU1F1-binding sites in gene-promoter regions. Intersecting the gene expression and the ChIP-chip data yielded 121 potential new direct targets. The initial set of 1346 genes identified using the microarrays, as well as the 121 potential new direct targets, were analyzed with DAVID bioinformatics resource for gene ontology term enrichment and cluster. This analysis revealed enrichment in different terms related to protein synthesis and transport, to apoptosis, and to cell division. The present study represents an integrative genome-wide approach to identify new target genes of POU1F1 and downstream networks controlled by this factor. PMID:22638072

Herman, Jean-Paul; Jullien, Nicolas; Guillen, Séverine; Enjalbert, Alain; Pellegrini, Isabelle; Franc, Jean-Louis

2012-05-25

119

Integrin ?6?4 identifies an adult distal lung epithelial population with regenerative potential in mice  

PubMed Central

Laminins and their integrin receptors are implicated in epithelial cell differentiation and progenitor cell maintenance. We report here that a previously unrecognized subpopulation of mouse alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) expressing the laminin receptor ?6?4, but little or no pro–surfactant C (pro-SPC), is endowed with regenerative potential. Ex vivo, this subpopulation expanded clonally as progenitors but also differentiated toward mature cell types. Integrin ?4 itself was not required for AEC proliferation or differentiation. An in vivo embryonic lung organoid assay, which we believe to be novel, was used to show that purified ?4+ adult AECs admixed with E14.5 lung single-cell suspensions and implanted under kidney capsules self-organized into distinct Clara cell 10-kDa secretory protein (CC10+) airway-like and SPC+ saccular structures within 6 days. Using a bleomycin model of lung injury and an SPC-driven inducible cre to fate-map AECs, we found the majority of type II AECs in fibrotic areas were not derived from preexisting type II AECs, demonstrating that SPC– progenitor cells replenished type II AECs during repair. Our findings support the idea that there is a stable AEC progenitor population in the adult lung, provide in vivo evidence of AEC progenitor cell differentiation after parenchymal injury, and identify a strong candidate progenitor cell for maintenance of type II AECs during lung repair.

Chapman, Harold A.; Li, Xiaopeng; Alexander, Jonathan P.; Brumwell, Alexis; Lorizio, Walter; Tan, Kevin; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Wei, Ying; Vu, Thiennu H.

2011-01-01

120

Urine Metabolomic Analysis Identifies Potential Biomarkers and Pathogenic Pathways in Kidney Cancer  

PubMed Central

Abstract Kidney cancer is the seventh most common cancer in the Western world, its incidence is increasing, and it is frequently metastatic at presentation, at which stage patient survival statistics are grim. In addition, there are no useful biofluid markers for this disease, such that diagnosis is dependent on imaging techniques that are not generally used for screening. In the present study, we use metabolomics techniques to identify metabolites in kidney cancer patients' urine, which appear at different levels (when normalized to account for urine volume and concentration) from the same metabolites in nonkidney cancer patients. We found that quinolinate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, and gentisate are differentially expressed at a false discovery rate of 0.26, and these metabolites are involved in common pathways of specific amino acid and energetic metabolism, consistent with high tumor protein breakdown and utilization, and the Warburg effect. When added to four different (three kidney cancer-derived and one “normal”) cell lines, several of the significantly altered metabolites, quinolinate, ?-ketoglutarate, and gentisate, showed increased or unchanged cell proliferation that was cell line-dependent. Further evaluation of the global metabolomics analysis, as well as confirmation of the specific potential biomarkers using a larger sample size, will lead to new avenues of kidney cancer diagnosis and therapy.

Kim, Kyoungmi; Taylor, Sandra L.; Ganti, Sheila; Guo, Lining; Osier, Michael V.

2011-01-01

121

RNAi phenotype profiling of kinases identifies potential therapeutic targets in Ewing's sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Background Ewing's sarcomas are aggressive musculoskeletal tumors occurring most frequently in the long and flat bones as a solitary lesion mostly during the teen-age years of life. With current treatments, significant number of patients relapse and survival is poor for those with metastatic disease. As part of novel target discovery in Ewing's sarcoma, we applied RNAi mediated phenotypic profiling to identify kinase targets involved in growth and survival of Ewing's sarcoma cells. Results Four Ewing's sarcoma cell lines TC-32, TC-71, SK-ES-1 and RD-ES were tested in high throughput-RNAi screens using a siRNA library targeting 572 kinases. Knockdown of 25 siRNAs reduced the growth of all four Ewing's sarcoma cell lines in replicate screens. Of these, 16 siRNA were specific and reduced proliferation of Ewing's sarcoma cells as compared to normal fibroblasts. Secondary validation and preliminary mechanistic studies highlighted the kinases STK10 and TNK2 as having important roles in growth and survival of Ewing's sarcoma cells. Furthermore, knockdown of STK10 and TNK2 by siRNA showed increased apoptosis. Conclusion In summary, RNAi-based phenotypic profiling proved to be a powerful gene target discovery strategy, leading to successful identification and validation of STK10 and TNK2 as two novel potential therapeutic targets for Ewing's sarcoma.

2010-01-01

122

Assessment of potential indicators for protein-energy malnutrition in the algorithm for integrated management of childhood illness.  

PubMed Central

Potential indicators were assessed for the two classifications of protein-energy malnutrition in the guidelines for integrated management of childhood illness: severe malnutrition, which requires immediate referral to hospital, and very low weight, which calls for feeding assessment, nutritional counselling and follow-up. Children aged < 2 years require feeding assessment and counselling as a preventive intervention. For severe malnutrition, we examined 1202 children admitted to a Kenyan hospital for any association of the indicators with mortality within one month. Bipedal oedema indicating kwashiorkor, and two marasmus indicators (visible severe wasting and weight-for-height (WFH) Z-score of < -3) were associated with a significantly increased mortality risk (odds ratios, 3.1-3.9). Very low weight-for-age (WFA) (Z-score of < -4.4) was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. Because first-level health facilities generally lack length-boards, bipedal oedema and visible severe wasting were chosen as indicators of severe malnutrition. To assess potential WFA thresholds for the very low weight classification, our primary source of data came from 1785 Kenyan outpatient children, but we also examined data from surveys in Nepal, Bolivia, and Togo. We examined the performance of WFA at various thresholds to identify children with low WFH and, for children aged < or = 2 years, low height-for-age (HFA). Use of a WFA threshold Z-score of < -2 identified a considerable proportion of children (from 13% in Bolivia to 68% in Nepal) which, in most settings, would pose an enormous burden on the health facility. Among ill children in Kenya, a threshold WFA Z-score of < -3 had a sensitivity of 89-100% to detect children with WFH Z-scores of < -3, and, with an identification rate of 9%, would avoid overburdening the clinics. Potential modifications include use of a more restrictive cut-off in countries with high rates of stunting, or the elimination of the WFA screen in order to concentrate efforts on intervention for all children below the 2-year age cut-off. Key issues in every country include the capacity to provide counselling for many children and linkage to nutritional improvement programmes in the community.

Bern, C.; Zucker, J. R.; Perkins, B. A.; Otieno, J.; Oloo, A. J.; Yip, R.

1997-01-01

123

Assessment of potential indicators for protein-energy malnutrition in the algorithm for integrated management of childhood illness.  

PubMed

Potential indicators were assessed for the two classifications of protein-energy malnutrition in the guidelines for integrated management of childhood illness: severe malnutrition, which requires immediate referral to hospital, and very low weight, which calls for feeding assessment, nutritional counselling and follow-up. Children aged < 2 years require feeding assessment and counselling as a preventive intervention. For severe malnutrition, we examined 1202 children admitted to a Kenyan hospital for any association of the indicators with mortality within one month. Bipedal oedema indicating kwashiorkor, and two marasmus indicators (visible severe wasting and weight-for-height (WFH) Z-score of < -3) were associated with a significantly increased mortality risk (odds ratios, 3.1-3.9). Very low weight-for-age (WFA) (Z-score of < -4.4) was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. Because first-level health facilities generally lack length-boards, bipedal oedema and visible severe wasting were chosen as indicators of severe malnutrition. To assess potential WFA thresholds for the very low weight classification, our primary source of data came from 1785 Kenyan outpatient children, but we also examined data from surveys in Nepal, Bolivia, and Togo. We examined the performance of WFA at various thresholds to identify children with low WFH and, for children aged < or = 2 years, low height-for-age (HFA). Use of a WFA threshold Z-score of < -2 identified a considerable proportion of children (from 13% in Bolivia to 68% in Nepal) which, in most settings, would pose an enormous burden on the health facility. Among ill children in Kenya, a threshold WFA Z-score of < -3 had a sensitivity of 89-100% to detect children with WFH Z-scores of < -3, and, with an identification rate of 9%, would avoid overburdening the clinics. Potential modifications include use of a more restrictive cut-off in countries with high rates of stunting, or the elimination of the WFA screen in order to concentrate efforts on intervention for all children below the 2-year age cut-off. Key issues in every country include the capacity to provide counselling for many children and linkage to nutritional improvement programmes in the community. PMID:9529721

Bern, C; Zucker, J R; Perkins, B A; Otieno, J; Oloo, A J; Yip, R

1997-01-01

124

An indicator of probable semicircular canal dehiscence: ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to high frequencies.  

PubMed

The n10 component of the ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) to sound and vibration stimuli is a crossed response that has enhanced amplitude and decreased threshold in patients with CT-verified superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD). However, demonstrating enhanced VEMP amplitude and reduced VEMP thresholds requires multiple trials and can be very time consuming and tiring for patients, so a specific indicator of probable SCD that is fast and not tiring would be preferred. Here we report a 1-trial indicator: that the oVEMP n10 in response to a very high frequency stimulus (4000 Hz), either air-conducted sound (ACS) or bone conducted vibration (BCV), is such a fast indicator of probable SCD. In 22 healthy subjects, oVEMP n10 at 4000 Hz was not detectable; however, in all 22 CT-verified SSCD patients tested, oVEMP n10 responses were clearly present to 4000 Hz to either ACS or BCV stimuli. PMID:23674567

Manzari, Leonardo; Burgess, Ann M; McGarvie, Leigh A; Curthoys, Ian S

2013-05-14

125

Initial Experience in Single-Incision Transumbilical Laparoscopic Liver Resection: Indications, Potential Benefits, and Limitations  

PubMed Central

Background. Single-incision transumbilical laparoscopic liver resection (SITLLR) has been recently described in limited series. We report our experience in SITLLR and discuss the future of this approach in terms of indications, potential benefits, and limitations, with a special reference to laparoscopic liver resection (LLR). Patients and Methods. Six patients underwent SITLLR. Indications were biliary cysts (3 cases), hydatid cysts (2), and colorectal liver metastasis (1). Procedures consisted in cysts unroofing, left lateral lobectomy, pericystectomy, and wedge resection. SITLLR was performed with 11?mm reusable trocar, 10 or 5?mm 30° scopes, 10?mm ultrasound probe, curved reusable instruments, and straight disposable bipolar shears. Results. Neither conversion to open surgery nor insertion of supplementary trocars was necessary. Median laparoscopic time was 105.5 minutes and median blood loss 275?mL. Median final umbilical scar length was 1.5?cm, and median length of stay was 4 days. No early or late complications occurred. Conclusion. SITLLR remains a challenging procedure. It is feasible in highly selected patients, requiring experience in hepatobiliary and laparoscopic surgery and skills in single-incision laparoscopy. Apart from cosmetic benefit, our experience and literature review did not show significant advantages if compared with multiport LLR, underlying that specific indications remain to be established.

Dapri, Giovanni; DiMarco, Livia; Cadiere, Guy-Bernard; Donckier, Vincent

2012-01-01

126

Proxy Indicators for Identifying Iron Deficiency among Anemic Vegetarians in an Area Prevalent for Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims: The study aimed to determine the proportion of iron deficiency (ID) anemia (IDA) among vegans in northeast Thailand and to explore whether mathematical formulas derived from red blood cell (RBC) indices are applicable for IDA screening in the study population. Methods: Blood samples from 234 individuals (age 6–45 years) living in a vegan community were taken. Complete

Kasama Wongprachum; Kanokwan Sanchaisuriya; Pattara Sanchaisuriya; Sirivara Siridamrongvattana; Suwanna Manpeun; Frank P. Schlep

2012-01-01

127

Dipole potentials indicate restructuring of the membrane interface induced by gadolinium and beryllium ions.  

PubMed Central

The dipole component of the membrane boundary potential, phi(d), is an integral parameter that may report on the conformational state of the lipid headgroups and their hydration. In this work, we describe an experimental approach to measurements of the dipole potential changes, Deltaphi(d), and apply it in studies of Be(2+) and Gd(3+) interactions with membranes composed of phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and their mixtures. Deltaphi(d) is determined as the difference between the changes of the total boundary potential, phi(b), measured by the IFC method in planar lipid membranes and the surface potential, phi(s), determined from the electrophoretic mobility of liposomes. The Gouy-Chapman-Stern formalism, combined with the condition of mass balance, well describes the ion equilibria for these high-affinity cations. For the adsorption of Be(2+) and Gd(3+) to PC membranes, and of Mg(2+) to PS membranes, the values of Deltaphi(b) and Deltaphi(s) are the same, indicative of no change of phi(d). Binding of Gd(3+) to PS-containing membranes induces changes of phi(d) of opposite signs depending on the density of ionized PS headgroups in the bilayer. At low density, the induced Deltaphi(d) is negative (-30 mV), consistent with the effect of dehydration of the surface. At maximal density (pure PS, neutral pH), adsorption of Be(2+) or Gd(3+) induces an increase of phi(d) of 35 or 140 mV, respectively. The onset of the strong positive dipole effect on PS membranes with Gd(3+) is observed near the zero charge point and correlates with a six-fold increase of membrane tension. The observed phenomena may reflect concerted reorientation of dipole moments of PS headgroups as a result of ion adsorption and lipid condensation. Their possible implications to in-vivo effects of these high-affinity ions are discussed.

Ermakov, Y A; Averbakh, A Z; Yusipovich, A I; Sukharev, S

2001-01-01

128

Identifying patients with axial spondyloarthritis in primary care: how useful are items indicative of inflammatory back pain?  

PubMed Central

Background The value of clinical items defining inflammatory back pain to identify patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) in primary care is unclear. Objective To identify predictive clinical parameters for a diagnosis of axial SpA in patients with chronic back pain presenting in primary care. Methods Consecutive patients aged <45 years (n=950) with back pain for >2 months who presented to orthopaedic surgeons (n=143) were randomised based on four key questions for referral to rheumatologists (n=36) for diagnosis. Results The rheumatologists saw 322 representative patients (mean age 36 years, 50% female, median duration of back pain 30 months). 113 patients (35%) were diagnosed as axial SpA (62% HLA B27+), 47 (15%) as ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and 66 (21%) as axial non-radiographic SpA (nrSpA). Age at onset ?35 years, improvement by exercise, improvement with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, waking up in the second half of the night and alternating buttock pain were identified as most relevant for diagnosing axial SpA by multiple regression analysis. Differences between AS and nrSpA were detected. No single item was predictive, but ?3 items proved useful for good sensitivity and specificity by receiver operating characteristic modelling. Conclusion This study shows that a preselection in primary care of patients with back pain based on a combination of clinical items is useful to facilitate the diagnosis of axial SpA.

Braun, A; Saracbasi, E; Grifka, J; Schnitker, J; Braun, J

2011-01-01

129

Characterizing the successful student in general chemistry and physical science classes in terms of Jung's personality types as identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A student's success in a science class can depend upon previous experiences, motivation, and the level of interest in the subject. Since psychological type is intrinsic to a person's whole being, it can be influential upon the student's motivation and interests. Thus, a study of student psychological types versus the level of success in a class, as measured by a percentage, has potential to uncover certain personality characteristics which may be helpful to or which may hinder a student's learning environment. This study was initiated, using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, to evaluate any correlation between a student's personality type and his/her performance in a science class. A total of 1041 students from three classes: Chemistry 121/122, Chemistry 112, Physical Science 100, volunteered for the study. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the levels of significance among sixteen personality types' averages. The results reveal that for the Chemistry 1121/122 course, the average score of the INTJ personality type was 5.1 to 12.6 points higher than every other personality type. The ANOVA identifies 3 personality types with averages significantly below the INTJ at the p < 0.05 significance level. The ANOVA analysis for the Chemistry 112 course identified significances between student scores at p = 0.08. The significance level for the differences among scores for the Physical Science 100 course was determined at a level of p = 0.02. Significance levels for p < 0.05 and <0.01 were identified between several groups in this course. The data suggest, that although personality type may not predict a particular student's success in a science class, students with certain personality traits may be favored in a chemistry class due the structure of the instruction and the presentation of the subject matter.

Riley, Wayne David

1998-11-01

130

Multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning for identifying rockslide modifications: potentialities and problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heart of this research is to provide an efficient methodology for a reliable acquisition and interpretation of Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) data in the application field of landslide monitoring. In particular, rockslides, which are characterized by vertical walls of rock and by a complex morphology, are of great concern in the study. In these cases the airborne laser scanning is not able to provide useful and reliable description and the terrestrial laser scanning might be the only possible choice to obtain a good and reliable description of the geomorphology or to identify the changes occurred over time. The last purpose is still a challenging task when long distances are involved because the accurate and punctual identification of displacements is not possible due to the laser beam divergence. The final purpose of the research is a proposal of a methodology which is based on TLS technology for identifying displacements and extracting geomorphological changes. The approach is clearly based on a multi-temporal analysis which is computed on several repetitions of TLS surveys performed on the area of interest. To achieve best results and optimize the processing strategy, different methods about point clouds alignment have been tested together with algorithms both for filtering and post-processing. The case study is the Collagna Landslide that is located in the North Appennines (Reggio Emilia, Italy) on the right flank of Biola torrent. The large scale composite landslide area is made both by a wide rock slide sector and a more limited earth slide sector that, after high precipitation rates, disrupted the National Road 63 in December 2008. An integrated monitoring system is installed since 2009 and comprises both point-based technologies such as extensometers, total station and global positioning system, and also area-based technologies such as airborne laser scanner, long-range TLS and ground-based radar. This choice allows to couple the advantages of both approaches. The research focuses on TLS surveys for trying to detect displacements which might be responsible for instability. Four point clouds acquired in the last two years allow to monitor the spatial displacements of the whole slope, especially focusing on the rockslide sector. It is worth to underline an important aspect which contributes to highlight the significance of the work: the mean scanning distance is about 1.3 km. Few examples exist in literature about the use of very long-range TLS for displacements investigation. By sequentially analyzing TLS surfaces, displacement maps have been obtained for the rockslide area. Confirmation have been achieved by comparing results with movements of reflectors sited on the entire slope and continuously measured by total station. Such validation strengthens the idea that TLS has serious potentialities to be successfully used for analyzing instability. Comparing surfaces is not easy at all, thus a discussion about the encountered problems will be taken into account: any significant detail about potentialities and difficulties of the alignment strategy and the processing procedure will be given together with details about the specific algorithm implemented for filtering displacements by taking into account actual geomorphological conditions.

Castagnetti, Cristina; Bertacchini, Eleonora; Capra, Alessandro; Rivola, Riccardo

2013-04-01

131

Gravity wave kinetic, potential, and vertical fluctuation energies as indicators of different frequency gravity waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An advantage of examining atmospheric gravity waves using high vertical-resolution radiosonde data over other measurement techniques is that horizontal wind, temperature, and vertical ascent rate can be measured directly. This allows the kinetic, potential, and vertical velocity fluctuation energies to be derived independently. Each of these gravity wave energies is shown to have sensitivity to different gravity wave frequencies. Observed correlations among these energies are consistent with this, and simulations of these correlations are shown to constrain gravity wave frequency spectra. The climatology of these energies shows quite different variations with month of the year and with latitude such that the vertical fluctuation energy seems to be a better indicator of convectively forced higher-frequency gravity waves.

Geller, Marvin A.; Gong, Jie

2010-06-01

132

Comparative proteomics of glioma stem cells and differentiated tumor cells identifies S100A9 as a potential therapeutic target.  

PubMed

Recent studies have suggested the existence of a small subset of cancer cells called cancer stem cells (CSCs), which possess the ability to initiate malignancies, promote tumor formation, drive metastasis, and evade conventional chemotherapies. Elucidation of the specific signaling pathway and mechanism underlying the action of CSCs might improve the efficacy of cancer treatments. In this study, we analyzed differentially expressed proteins between glioma stem cells and differentiated tumor cells isolated from the human glioma cell line, U251, via iTRAQ-tagging combined with two dimensional liquid chromatography tandem MS analysis to identify proteins correlated with specific features of CSCs. Out of a total data set of 559 identified proteins, 29 proteins were up-regulated in the glioma stem cells when compared with the differentiated cells. Interestingly, The expression level of S100A9 was fivefold higher in glioma stem cells than differentiated cells. Similar results were also observed in glioma stem cells derived from other glioma cells. More importantly, knockdown of S100A9 by RNA interference suppressed the proliferation of glioma stem cell line and decreased the growth of xenograft tumors in vivo. Taken together, these results indicate that the tumorigenesis potential of CSCs arises from highly expressed S100A9. J. Cell. Biochem. 114: 2795-2808, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23836528

Chen, Song; Zhao, Hongxin; Deng, Jinmu; Liao, Peng; Xu, Zhongye; Cheng, Yuan

2013-12-01

133

Identifying Chemicals with Potential Therapy of HIV Based on Protein-Protein and Protein-Chemical Interaction Network  

PubMed Central

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a severe infectious disease that causes a large number of deaths every year. Traditional anti-AIDS drugs directly targeting the HIV-1 encoded enzymes including reverse transcriptase (RT), protease (PR) and integrase (IN) usually suffer from drug resistance after a period of treatment and serious side effects. In recent years, the emergence of numerous useful information of protein-protein interactions (PPI) in the HIV life cycle and related inhibitors makes PPI a new way for antiviral drug intervention. In this study, we identified 26 core human proteins involved in PPI between HIV-1 and host, that have great potential for HIV therapy. In addition, 280 chemicals that interact with three HIV drugs targeting human proteins can also interact with these 26 core proteins. All these indicate that our method as presented in this paper is quite promising. The method may become a useful tool, or at least plays a complementary role to the existing method, for identifying novel anti-HIV drugs.

Chen, Lei; Wei, Ze-Jun; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Min; Lu, Jing; Zheng, Ming-Yue; Kong, Xiang-Yin; Cai, Yu-Dong

2013-01-01

134

Nasopharyngeal electrode recording of somatosensory evoked potentials as an indicator in brain death.  

PubMed

Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded in 28 comatose patients, eight of whom were progressing from coma to eventual brain death and in 11 brain dead patients using electrodes over the scalp, neck and nasopharynx (nasopharyngeal electrode). This recording technique was used to assess the different derivation of brainstem P14 wave activity. It showed that in the midfrontal scalp to the nasopharynx derivation a clear P14 was present in all comatose patients. This component disappeared during the passage from coma to brain death. In a separate group, simultaneous direct recordings in the vicinity of the dorsal column nuclei and with a nasopharyngeal electrode were made in five patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures at the craniocervical junction with the same somatosensory evoked potential monitor. We found that the P14 recorded with the nasopharyngeal electrode in the neurosurgical patients corresponded in latency and morphology with the P14 recorded directly on the surface of the craniocervical junction and more specifically in the vicinity of the nucleus cuneatus. The nasopharyngeal electrode provides non-invasive access to the ventral brainstem at the medullo-pontine level and the disappearance of the P14 shows a clear sign of involvement of the craniocervical junction in brain dead patients. Our study showed that with a simple montage the nasopharyngeal electrode is an effective non-invasive monitor for brainstem activity and can be used as an early diagnostic indicator of brainstem death. PMID:10050218

Roncucci, P; Lepori, P; Mok, M S; Bayat, A; Logi, F; Marino, A

1999-02-01

135

Phenology of Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on cranberry and blueberry indicates potential for gene flow.  

PubMed

Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a pest of cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon (Aiton) (Ericales: Ericaceae), and highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum (L.) (Ericales: Ericaceae), in North America. In British Columbia, Canada, D. oxycoccana was first found on highbush blueberry in 1991 and then on cranberry seven years later. Because many cranberry and highbush blueberry farms are adjacent to one another, we hypothesized that D. oxycoccana was moving from highbush blueberry onto cranberry. Cranberry and highbush blueberry differ in phenology, and adaptation to these different phenologies may result in host races or cryptic species on these two crops. We recognized the alternative hypothesis that D. oxycoccana had arrived as immature stages with cranberry vines imported from another region of North America. During spring and summer, we recorded the phenology of D. oxycoccana and the development of plant shoots from three cranberry and three highbush blueberry farms to determine whether the opportunity exists for successful movement of D. oxycoccana between the two crops. Our results show that D. oxycoccana from cranberry and highbush blueberry overlap in phenology for much of the season, indicating a high potential for movement and gene flow. However, differences were seen in number of larvae per shoot, location of pupae, and heat unit accumulation during larval development suggesting that instead there may be the potential for host race or cryptic species formation. PMID:22928299

Cook, Melissa A; Fitzpatrick, Sheila M; Roitberg, Bernard D

2012-08-01

136

Potential New Genes for Resistance to Mycosphaerella Graminicola Identified in Triticum Aestivum x Lophopyrum Elongatum Disomic Substitution Lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lophopyrum species carry many desirable agronomic traits, including disease resistance, which can be transferred to wheat by interspecific hybridizations. To identify potentially new genes for disease and insect resistance carried by individual Lophopyrum chromosomes, 19 of 21 possible wheat cultiv...

137

Some Potential Material Supply Constraints in the Deployment of Photovoltaic Solar Electric Systems. A Preliminary Screening to Identify Critical Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this study are to: (1) identify potential material supply constraints which could seriously impede the large scale installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems; (2) provide a functional description of materials used in the construction of s...

R. L. Watts W. E. Gurwell C. H. Bloomster S. A. Smith T. A. Nelson

1978-01-01

138

National valuation of monarch butterflies indicates an untapped potential for incentive-based conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The annual migration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) has high cultural value and recent surveys indicate monarch populations are declining. Protecting migratory species is complex because they cross international borders and depend on multiple regions. Understanding how much, and where, humans place value on migratory species can facilitate market-based conservation approaches. We performed a contingent valuation study of monarchs to understand the potential for such approaches to fund monarch conservation. The survey asked U.S. respondents about the money they would spend, or have spent, growing monarch-friendly plants, and the amount they would donate to monarch conservation organizations. Combining planting payments and donations, the survey indicated U.S. households valued monarchs as a total one-time payment of $4.78–$6.64 billion, levels similar to many endangered vertebrate species. The financial contribution of even a small percentage of households through purchases or donations could generate new funding for monarch conservation through market-based approaches.

Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Loomis, John B.; Ries, Leslie; Oberhauser, Karen; Semmens, Darius; Semmens, Brice; Butterfield, Bruce; Bagstad, Ken; Goldstein, Josh; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

2013-01-01

139

Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at the beach, as indicated by an increase in the specific conductance of beach water. Understanding the dynamics of FIB sources (sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora) and transport mechanisms (dispersion and erosion from storm energy, and swash-zone groundwater discharge) is important for improving predictions of potential health risks from FIB in beach water.

Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

2013-01-01

140

Novel Modeling of Combinatorial miRNA Targeting Identifies SNP with Potential Role in Bone Density  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators that bind to their target mRNAs through base complementarity. Predicting miRNA targets is a challenging task and various studies showed that existing algorithms suffer from high number of false predictions and low to moderate overlap in their predictions. Until recently, very few algorithms considered the dynamic nature of the interactions, including the effect of less specific interactions, the miRNA expression level, and the effect of combinatorial miRNA binding. Addressing these issues can result in a more accurate miRNA:mRNA modeling with many applications, including efficient miRNA-related SNP evaluation. We present a novel thermodynamic model based on the Fermi-Dirac equation that incorporates miRNA expression in the prediction of target occupancy and we show that it improves the performance of two popular single miRNA target finders. Modeling combinatorial miRNA targeting is a natural extension of this model. Two other algorithms show improved prediction efficiency when combinatorial binding models were considered. ComiR (Combinatorial miRNA targeting), a novel algorithm we developed, incorporates the improved predictions of the four target finders into a single probabilistic score using ensemble learning. Combining target scores of multiple miRNAs using ComiR improves predictions over the naïve method for target combination. ComiR scoring scheme can be used for identification of SNPs affecting miRNA binding. As proof of principle, ComiR identified rs17737058 as disruptive to the miR-488-5p:NCOA1 interaction, which we confirmed in vitro. We also found rs17737058 to be significantly associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in two independent cohorts indicating that the miR-488-5p/NCOA1 regulatory axis is likely critical in maintaining BMD in women. With increasing availability of comprehensive high-throughput datasets from patients ComiR is expected to become an essential tool for miRNA-related studies.

Coronnello, Claudia; Hartmaier, Ryan; Arora, Arshi; Huleihel, Luai; Pandit, Kusum V.; Bais, Abha S.; Butterworth, Michael; Kaminski, Naftali; Stormo, Gary D.; Oesterreich, Steffi; Benos, Panayiotis V.

2012-01-01

141

Measured coral luminescence as a freshwater proxy: comparison with visual indices and a potential age artefact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Illuminating slices from massive coral skeletons under ultraviolet light can reveal bright luminescent lines in nearshore corals affected by freshwater river flows. The occurrence and intensity of these lines in long-lived corals can then be used to reconstruct past river flow and rainfall, extending the instrumental records of past tropical climate variability considerably. Earlier studies from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, have used visual assessments of luminescent line intensity to develop semi-quantitative (though potentially subjective) indices of spatial and temporal variations in freshwater flows. Annual visual assessments and relative coral luminescence intensity (measured by fluorescence spectroscopy) and growth variables are first compared for 89 Porites coral colonies from 30 reefs throughout the length and breadth of the GBR. This demonstrates that simple visual assessments can provide useful information, in the absence of quantitative measurements, of this proxy freshwater tracer. The annual range of measured luminescence between the preceding winter minimum and summer maximum, rather than annual average or annual maximum luminescence is shown to be the most robust measure of freshwater flow. Second, from analyses of the coral colony data and over 40-century-long or longer coral core records, attention is drawn to a potential age artefact in annual average and annual maximum measured coral luminescence. These variables show a significant decline through time, similar to the observed decline in average skeletal density. Although the reasons for this decline are unknown, it could compromise interpretation of long-term variations in freshwater flows and subsequent climatic inferences. This artefact does not appear to affect the annual luminescence range which, it is concluded, is a robust proxy for inter-annual variations in river flow and rainfall.

Lough, J. M.

2011-03-01

142

Nuclear medicine in the acute clinical setting: indications, imaging findings, and potential pitfalls.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine imaging provides valuable functional information that complements information obtained with anatomic imaging techniques in the evaluation of patients with specific acute clinical manifestations. Nuclear medicine studies are most often used in conjunction with other imaging modalities and as a problem-solving tool. Under certain circumstances a nuclear medicine study may be indicated as the first-line imaging modality, as in the case of renal scintigraphy for transplant dysfunction in the early postoperative period. Nuclear imaging may be preferred when a conventional first-line study is contraindicated or when it is important to minimize radiation exposure. The portability of nuclear imaging offers particular advantages for the evaluation of critically ill patients whose clinical condition is unstable and who cannot be safely transported out of the intensive care unit. The ability to visualize physiologic and pathophysiologic processes over relatively long time periods without adding to the patient's radiation exposure contributes to the high diagnostic sensitivity of several types of nuclear medicine studies. Viewing the acquired images in the cine mode adds to the value of these studies for diagnosing and characterizing dynamic abnormalities such as intermittent internal bleeding and bile or urine leakage. In this pictorial review, the spectrum of nuclear medicine studies commonly performed in the acute care setting is reviewed according to body systems and organs, with detailed descriptions of the indications, technical considerations, findings, and potential pitfalls of each type of study. Supplemental material available at http://radiographics.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/rg.332125098/-/DC1. PMID:23479703

Uliel, Livnat; Mellnick, Vincent M; Menias, Christine O; Holz, Andrew L; McConathy, Jonathan

143

Identifying the potential organizational impact of an educational peer review program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on educational peer review (EPR) has focused on evaluating EPR's impact on faculty and\\/or student learning outcomes; no literature exists on the potential organizational impact. A qualitative (case study) research design explored perceptions of 17 faculty and 10 administrators within a school of nursing in an Ontario university regarding the potential impact of an EPR program on organizational

Kate E. Toth; Colleen A. McKey

2010-01-01

144

Scale-dependent non-Gaussianities in the CMB data identified with Minkowski functionals and scaling indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present further investigations of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data by means of the Minkowski functionals and the scaling index method. In order to test for non-Gaussianities (NGs) with respect to scale dependences, we use the so-called surrogate maps, in which possible phase correlations of the Fourier phases of the original WMAP data and the simulations, respectively, are destroyed by applying a shuffling scheme to the maps. A statistical comparison of the original maps with the surrogate maps then allows us to test for the existence of higher order correlations (HOCs) in the original maps, also and especially on well-defined Fourier modes. We calculate the ?-normalized deviation between the Minkowski functionals of original data and 500 surrogates for different hemispheres in the sky and find ecliptic hemispherical asymmetries between the northern and southern ecliptic sky. Using Minkowski functionals as an image analysis technique sensitive to HOCs, we find deviations from Gaussianity in the WMAP data with an empirical probability p > 99.8 per cent when considering the low ?-range with ?? = [2, 20]. The analysis technique of the scaling indices leads to the same results for this ?-interval with a slightly lower deviation but still at p > 99.8 per cent. Although the underlying foreground reduction methods of the maps differ from each other, we find similar results for the WMAP seven-year internal linear combination map and the WMAP seven-year needlet-based ILC map for deviations from Gaussianity in the low ?-range. Our results point once more to a cosmological nature of the signal. For a higher ?-range with ?? = [120, 300], the results differ between the two image analysis techniques and between the two maps which makes an intrinsic nature of the signal on this ?-range less likely. When we decrease the size of the analysed sky regions for the low-? study, we do not find signatures of NG in the northern ecliptic sky. In the south, we find individual spots which show deviations from Gaussianity. In addition, we investigate non-Gaussian cosmic microwave background simulations that depend on the fNL parameter of the local type. These simulations with flocalNL = [0, ±100, ±1000] cannot account for the detected signatures on the low ?-range.

Modest, H. I.; Räth, C.; Banday, A. J.; Rossmanith, G.; Sütterlin, R.; Basak, S.; Delabrouille, J.; Górski, K. M.; Morfill, G. E.

2013-01-01

145

Potential additional indicators for pacemaker requirement in isolated congenital atrioventricular block.  

PubMed

Low heart rate is the predominantly used indication for pacemaker intervention in patients with isolated congenital atrioventricular block (CAVB). The aim of this study was to compare the difference in heart rates recorded with ECG and Holter monitoring between paced (PM) and nonpaced (NPM) patients with isolated CAVB before pacemaker implantation to identify additional predictors for future PM need. Retrospective evaluation of atrial and ventricular rates (electrocardiography) and minimal and maximal (Holter) heart rates in 129 CAVB patients prior to PM implantation (n = 93) was performed, and results are expressed in V adjusted for age and sex. The average V score for the atrial rate was 0.51 (n = 50) in the PM group and 0.60 (n = 22) in the NPM group (not-significant). The average z score for the ventricular (average) rate was -0.91 (n = 83) in the PM group and -0.93 (n = 33) in the NPM group (not-significant). Minimal heart rate was -0.94 (n = 61) in the PM group and -0.86 (n = 25) in the NPM group (not significant). Maximal heart rate was -0.96 (n = 61) in the PM group and -0.95 (n = 26) in the NPM group (not significant). Initial recordings of the average heart rate and the minimal and maximal heart rate recorded during Holter monitoring do not seem to predict future pacemaker need in patients with CAVB. Studies with exercise stress tests are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:16933076

Breur, J M P J; Udink ten Cate, F E A; Kapusta, L; Boramanand, N; Cohen, M I; Crosson, J E; Lubbers, L J; Friedman, A H; Brenner, J I; Vetter, V L; Meijboom, E J

2006-08-23

146

Gene expression profiles in 3D tumor analogs indicate compressive strain differentially enhances metastatic potential.  

PubMed

Non-physiological mechanobiological stimuli typically occur in tumors and are considered to promote cancer spreading. Non-fluid related pressure (solid stress), which arises as tumors grow against adjacent tissues, is among the least studied endogenous stimuli due to challenges in replicating the in vivo environment. To this end, the novel devices well-pressor and the videomicroscopy-compatible optic-pressor were developed to exert precise compressive strain on cells in 3D gels in absence of other mechanical stimuli and soluble gradients. Glioblastoma (U87, HGL21) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells in 1% agarose hydrogels were exposed to 50% compressive strain for 3 h (0.25-0.05 kPa). Live imaging showed that cells elongate and deflect vertically to the load. This stimulation is shown for the first time to differentially regulate metastasis-associated genes. Furthermore, a group of differentially expressed genes was identified in all cell types, both by microarrays and confirmed by RT-PCR for select genes (caveolin-1, integrin-?1, Rac1), indicating shared response mechanisms. These genes are functionally linked and involved in decreasing cell-cell contact, increasing ECM degradation, and ultimately promoting invasion. Caveolin could orchestrate these responses while the uPA and PI3K/Akt systems could play major roles. Future work will focus on specific molecular partnerships under compression and their impact on cancer progression. PMID:20559731

Demou, Zoe N

2010-06-18

147

Identifying cold-water coral ecosystem by using benthic foraminiferal indicators: from active reefs to the geological record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-water coral ecosystems dominated by the species Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, as well as cold-water coral carbonate mounds (fossils and/or active) occur worldwide and are especially developed along the European margin, from northern Norway to the Gulf of Cadiz and into the Alboran Sea. Their discovery is a major achievement of the last few decades and their widespread occurrence presents a challenge to understand their development, preservation and possible importance in the geologic record. On the Norwegian shelf active/living reefs are developed on elevated hard substrata. Along the Irish margin L. pertusa builds large fossil and/or active carbonate mounds. In the Gulf of Cadiz and in the Alboran Sea buried reefs and patch reefs are generally found in association with mud volcanoes. In modern oceans, they provide important ecological niches for the marine benthic fauna in the deep-sea. In comparison to the macrofauna the microfauna, particularly the foraminifera associated to these systems, are poorly known. We present here a detailed study based on quantitative analyses of benthic and planktonic foraminifera together with the statistical treatment of assemblage data collected along the Norwegian margin, in the Porcupine-Rockall region and in the Alboran Sea. The three regions were and/or are site of cold-water coral ecosystems settlements. Our study reveals that in the Porcupine/Rockall region benthic foraminiferal assemblages are strictly related to the distribution of facies. On the Norwegian margin, benthic foraminiferal habitats are weakly defined and grade one into the other preventing the sharp facies separation observed along the Irish margin (Margreth et al., 2009). In the Alboran Sea cold-water coral ecosystems and cold-water carbonate mounds are presently buried and corals are generally fragmented. However, benthic assemblages from coral-rich layers in the Alboran Sea and those from Porcupine/Rockall and Norway show remarkable similarities. In particular, epifaunal-attached species such as Discanomalina coronata, Cibicides refulgens, and Lobatula lobatula dominate the assemblages with D. coronata restricted to living cold-water coral reefs facies only and/or in co-occurrence with coral fragments. In conclusion, our data suggest that although cold-water coral ecosystems occur at different latitudes, the associated foraminiferal assemblages are consistent from Norway to the Western Mediterranean. Thus they can be used to identify these ecosystems even in the geologic record, when the corals are often strongly dissolved like in the Alboran Sea. References: Margreth, S., Rüggeberg, A. and Spezzaferri, S., 2009. Benthic foraminifera as bioindicator for cold-water coral reef ecosystems along the Irish margin. Deep Sea Res. Part I, 56: 2216-2234. This study is funded by the Swiss National Foundation Projects 200020-117928 and 200021-111694.

Margreth, Stephan; Rüggeberg, Andres; Gennari, Giordana; Spezzaferri, Silvia

2010-05-01

148

Trehalose as an indicator of desiccation stress in Drosophila melanogaster larvae: a potential marker of anhydrobiosis.  

PubMed

In the current scenario of global climate change, desiccation is considered as one of the major environmental stressors for the biota exposed to altered levels of ambient temperature and humidity. Drosophila melanogaster, a cosmopolitan terrestrial insect has been chosen as a humidity-sensitive bioindicator model for the present study since its habitat undergoes frequent stochastic and/or seasonally aggravated dehydration regimes. We report here for the first time the occurrence of anhydrobiosis in D. melanogaster larvae by subjecting them to desiccation stress under laboratory conditions. Larvae desiccated for ten hours at <5% relative humidity could enter anhydrobiosis and could revive upon rehydration followed by resumption of active metabolism. As revealed by FTIR and HPLC analyzes, our findings strongly indicated the synthesis and accumulation of trehalose in the desiccating larvae. Biochemical measurements pointed out the desiccation-responsive trehalose metabolic pathway that was found to be coordinated in concert with the enzymes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase and trehalase. Further, an inhibitor-based experimental approach using deoxynojirimycin, a specific trehalase inhibitor, demonstrated the pivotal role of trehalose in larval anhydrobiosis of D. melanogaster. We therefore propose trehalose as a potential marker for the assessment of anhydrobiosis in Drosophila. The present findings thus add to the growing list of novel biochemical markers in specific bioindicator organisms for fulfilling the urgent need of environmental biomonitoring of climate change. PMID:22387478

Thorat, Leena J; Gaikwad, Sushama M; Nath, Bimalendu B

2012-02-23

149

Xylem transcription profiles indicate potential metabolic responses for economically relevant characteristics of Eucalyptus species  

PubMed Central

Background Eucalyptus is one of the most important sources of industrial cellulose. Three species of this botanical group are intensively used in breeding programs: E. globulus, E. grandis and E. urophylla. E. globulus is adapted to subtropical/temperate areas and is considered a source of high-quality cellulose; E. grandis grows rapidly and is adapted to tropical/subtropical climates; and E. urophylla, though less productive, is considered a source of genes related to robustness. Wood, or secondary xylem, results from cambium vascular differentiation and is mostly composed of cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses. In this study, the xylem transcriptomes of the three Eucalyptus species were investigated in order to provide insights on the particularities presented by each of these species. Results Data analysis showed that (1) most Eucalyptus genes are expressed in xylem; (2) most genes expressed in species-specific way constitutes genes with unknown functions and are interesting targets for future studies; (3) relevant differences were observed in the phenylpropanoid pathway: E. grandis xylem presents higher expression of genes involved in lignin formation whereas E. urophylla seems to deviates the pathway towards flavonoid formation; (4) stress-related genes are considerably more expressed in E. urophylla, suggesting that these genes may contribute to its robustness. Conclusions The comparison of these three transcriptomes indicates the molecular signatures underlying some of their distinct wood characteristics. This information may contribute to the understanding of xylogenesis, thus increasing the potential of genetic engineering approaches aiming at the improvement of Eucalyptus forest plantations productivity.

2013-01-01

150

Potential regrowth and recolonization of salmonellae and indicators in biosolids and biosolid-amended soil.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the potential for conversion of Class B to Class A biosolids with respect to salmonellae and fecal coliforms during solar drying in concrete lined drying beds. Anaerobically (8% solids) and aerobically (2% solids) digested Class B biosolids were pumped into field-scale drying beds, and microbial populations and environmental conditions were monitored. Numbers of fecal coliforms and salmonellae decreased as temperature and rate of desiccation increased. After 3 to 4 weeks, Class A requirements were achieved in both biosolids for the pathogens and the indicators. However, following rainfall events, significant increase in numbers was observed for both fecal coliforms and salmonellae. In laboratory studies, regrowth of fecal coliforms was observed in both biosolids and biosolid-amended soil, but the regrowth of salmonellae observed in the concrete-lined drying beds did not occur. These laboratory studies demonstrated that pathogens decreased in numbers when soil was amended with biosolids. Based on serotyping, the increased numbers of salmonellae seen in the concrete lined drying beds following rainfall events was most likely due to recolonization due to contamination from fecal matter introduced by animals and not from regrowth of salmonellae indigenous to biosolids. Overall, we conclude that the use of concrete-lined beds created a situation in which moisture added as rainfall accumulated in the beds, promoting the growth of fecal coliforms and salmonellae added from external sources. PMID:16000779

Zaleski, Kathleen J; Josephson, Karen L; Gerba, Charles P; Pepper, Ian L

2005-07-01

151

Real-Time PCR Diagnostics for Detecting and Identifying Potential Bioweapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial contents: Diagnostics Systems Division, Diagnostics and Patient Care: Goals, Diagnostic Essentials, Impact of Diagnostics and Patient Care, Diagnostic Time Constraint, Classical Methods for Identifying Biological Agents, Diagnostic Sensitivity Req...

D. Norwood

2003-01-01

152

Daily electromyography in females with Parkinson's disease: A potential indicator of frailty.  

PubMed

Females with Parkinson's disease (PD) are at increased risk for frailty, yet are often excluded from frailty studies. Daily electromyography (EMG) recordings of muscle activity can dissociate stages of frailty and indicate functional decline in non-neurological conditions. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether muscle activity can be used to identify frailty phenotypes in females with PD. EMG during a typical 6.5-h day was examined in biceps brachii, triceps brachii, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris on less-affected PD side. Muscle activity was quantified through burst (>2% maximum exertion, >0.1s) and gap characteristics (<1% maximum exertion, >0.1s). Differences across frailty phenotype (nonfrail, prefrail, frail) and muscle (biceps brachii, BB; triceps brachii, TB; vastus lateralis, VL; biceps femoris, BF) were evaluated with a 2-way repeated measure ANOVA for each burst/gap characteristic. Thirteen right-handed females (mean=67±8 years) were classified as nonfrail (n=4), prefrail (n=6), and frail (n=3) according to the Cardiovascular Health Study frailty index (CHSfi). Frail females had 73% decreased gaps and 48% increased burst duration compared with nonfrail. Decreased gaps may be interpreted as reduced muscle recovery time, which may result in earlier onset fatigue and eventually culminating in frailty. Longer burst durations suggest more muscle activity is required to initiate movement leading to slower movement time in frail females with PD. This is the first study to use EMG to dissociate frailty phenotypes in females with PD during routine daily activities and provides insight into how PD-associated motor declines contributes to frailty and functional decline. PMID:24063869

Roland, Kaitlyn P; Jones, Gareth R; Jakobi, Jennifer M

2013-08-27

153

Frequency-dependent attenuation as a potential indicator of oil saturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At seismic frequencies, wave-induced fluid flow is a major cause of P-wave attenuation in partially saturated porous rocks. Attenuation is of great importance for the oil industry in the interpretation of seismic field data. Here, the effects on P-wave attenuation resulting from changes in oil saturation are studied for media with coexisting water, oil, and gas. For that, creep experiments are numerically simulated by solving Biot's equations for consolidation of poroelastic media with the finite-element method. The experiments yield time-dependent stress-strain relations that are used to calculate the complex P-wave modulus from which frequency-dependent P-wave attenuation is determined. The models are layered media with periodically alternating triplets of layers. Models consisting of triplets of layers having randomly varying layer thicknesses are also considered. The layers in each triplet are fully saturated with water, oil, and gas. The layer saturated with water has lower porosity and permeability than the layers saturated with oil and gas. These models represent hydrocarbon reservoirs in which water is the wetting fluid preferentially saturating regions of lower porosity. The results from the numerical experiments showed that increasing oil saturation, connected to a decrease in gas saturation, resulted in a significant increase of attenuation at low frequencies (lower than 2 Hz). Furthermore, replacing the oil with water resulted in a distinguishable behavior of the frequency-dependent attenuation. These results imply that, according to the physical mechanism of wave-induced fluid flow, frequency-dependent attenuation in media saturated with water, oil, and gas is a potential indicator of oil saturation.

Quintal, Beatriz

2012-07-01

154

Identifying Leadership Potential: The Process of Principals within a Charter School Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of strong educational leadership for American K-12 schools cannot be overstated. As such, school districts need to actively recruit and develop leaders. One way to do so is for school officials to become more strategic in leadership identification and development. If contemporary leaders are strategic about whom they identify and…

Waidelich, Lynn A.

2012-01-01

155

Diversity and Biocatalytic Potential of Epoxide Hydrolases Identified by Genome Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epoxide hydrolases play an important role in the biodegradation of organic compounds and are potentially useful in enantioselective biocatalysis. An analysis of various genomic databases revealed that about 20% of sequenced organisms contain one or more putative epoxide hydrolase genes. They were found in all domains of life, and many fungi and actinobacteria contain several putative epoxide hydrolase-encoding genes. Multiple

Dick B. Janssen; Marcel G. Wubbolts; Michael Arand; Jaap Kingma; Bert van Loo

2006-01-01

156

Identifying potential environmental impacts of large-scale deployment of dedicated bioenergy crops in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is momentum, globally, to increase the use of plant biomass for the production of heat, power and liquid transport fuels. This review assesses the evidence base for potential impacts of large-scale bioenergy crop deployment principally within the UK context, but with wider implications for Europe, the USA and elsewhere. We focus on second generation, dedicated lignocellulosic crops, but where

Rebecca L. Rowe; Gail Taylor

2009-01-01

157

Whole-genome analysis of Leptospira interrogans to identify potential vaccine candidates against leptospirosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptospirosis is an important global human and veterinary health problem. Humans can be infected by exposure to chronically infected animals and their environment. An important focus of the current leptospiral research is the identification of outer membrane proteins (OMPs). Due to their location, leptospiral OMPs are likely to be relevant in host–pathogen interactions, hence their potential ability to stimulate heterologous

Marcia Gamberini; Ricardo M. Gómez; Marina V. Atzingen; Elizabeth A. L. Martins; Silvio A. Vasconcellos; Eliete C. Romero; Luciana C. C. Leite; Paulo L. Ho; Ana L. T. O. Nascimento

2005-01-01

158

NYU researchers identify new potential therapeutic target for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from the NYU Cancer Institute, an NCI-designated cancer center at NYU Langone Medical Center, have discovered a new potential therapeutic target for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), the most aggressive and common type of lymphoma in adults. The new study, published in the November 23 issue of Nature, reveals the underlying molecular mechanism contributing to the development of lymphomagenesis.

159

The potential of urinary androstdiene markers to identify 4-androstenediol (4-ADIOL) administration in athletes.  

PubMed

Doping control laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) require criteria that allow endogenous steroids to be distinguished from their synthetic analogues in urine. Methodology based on "looking outside the metabolic box" was used in this study to identify diagnostic urinary markers of 4-androstenediol (4-ADIOL) administration. Androst-2,4-diene-17-one and androst-3,5-diene-17-one are proposed to be formed in urine from acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-ADIOL sulfoconjugate, a major phase II metabolic product of 4-ADIOL. The presence of these markers in the routine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) steroid screen was suitable to identify samples requiring confirmation by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) - to measure the carbon isotope ratio (?(13)C) of the androstdiene markers and confirm their likely synthetic origin based on depleted (13)C content. PMID:21177052

Cawley, Adam T; Trout, Graham J; Kazlauskas, Rymantas; George, Adrian V

2010-12-21

160

The potential of urinary androstdiene markers to identify 4-androstenediol (4-ADIOL) administration in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doping control laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) require criteria that allow endogenous steroids to be distinguished from their synthetic analogues in urine. Methodology based on “looking outside the metabolic box” was used in this study to identify diagnostic urinary markers of 4-androstenediol (4-ADIOL) administration. Androst-2,4-diene-17-one and androst-3,5-diene-17-one are proposed to be formed in urine from acid-catalyzed hydrolysis

Adam T. Cawley; Graham J. Trout; Rymantas Kazlauskas; Adrian V. George

2011-01-01

161

Integrated protein network and microarray analysis to identify potential biomarkers after myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant proportion of patients develop left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and heart failure (HF) after acute myocardial\\u000a infarction (MI). Existing biomarkers of HF provide limited information after MI. To identify new prognostic biomarkers in\\u000a MI patients, we designed an approach combining protein interaction networks and microarray analysis of blood cells. Blood\\u000a samples for RNA and protein analysis were taken from

Yvan Devaux; Francisco Azuaje; Mélanie Vausort; Céline Yvorra; Daniel R. Wagner

2010-01-01

162

A novel in silico approach to identify potential therapeutic targets in human bacterial pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, genome-sequencing projects of pathogens and humans have revolutionized microbial drug target identification.\\u000a Of the several known genomic strategies, subtractive genomics has been successfully utilized for identifying microbial drug\\u000a targets. The present work demonstrates a novel genomics approach in which codon adaptation index (CAI), a measure used to\\u000a predict the translational efficiency of a gene based on synonymous

Umashankar Vetrivel; Gurunathan Subramanian; Sudarsanam Dorairaj

163

Gene expression profiling of breast cell lines identifies potential new basal markers.  

PubMed

A better molecular characterization of breast cell lines (BCL) may help discover new markers to apply to tumour samples. We performed gene and protein expression profiling of 31 BCL using whole-genome DNA microarrays and immunohistochemistry (IHC) on 'cell microarrays' (CMA), respectively. Global hierarchical clustering discriminated two groups of BCL: group I corresponded to luminal cell lines, group II to basal and mesenchymal cell lines. Correlations with centroids calculated from a published 'intrinsic 500-gene set' assigned 15 cell lines as luminal, eight as basal and four as mesenchymal. A set of 1.233 genes was differentially expressed between basal and luminal samples. Mesenchymal and basal subtypes were rather similar and discriminated by only 227 genes. The expression of 10 proteins (CAV1, CD44, EGFR, MET, ETS1, GATA3, luminal cytokeratin CK19, basal cytokeratin CK5/6, CD10, and ERM protein moesin) encoded by luminal vs basal discriminator genes confirmed the subtype classification and the validity of the identified markers. Our BCL basal/luminal signature correctly re-classified the published series of tumour samples that originally served to identify the molecular subtypes, suggesting that the identified markers should be useful for tumour classification and might represent promising targets for disease management. PMID:16288205

Charafe-Jauffret, E; Ginestier, C; Monville, F; Finetti, P; Adélaïde, J; Cervera, N; Fekairi, S; Xerri, L; Jacquemier, J; Birnbaum, D; Bertucci, F

2006-04-01

164

Endothelial cell palmitoylproteomics identifies novel lipid modified targets and potential substrates for protein acyl transferases  

PubMed Central

Rationale Protein S-palmitoylation is the post-translational attachment of a saturated 16-carbon palmitic acid to a cysteine side chain via a thioester bond. Palmitoylation can affect protein localization, trafficking, stability, and function. The extent and roles of palmitoylation in endothelial cell (EC) biology is not well understood, in part due to technological limits on palmitoylprotein detection. Objective To develop a method using acyl-biotinyl exchange (ABE) technology coupled with mass spectrometry to globally isolate and identify palmitoylproteins in EC. Methods and Results More than 150 putative palmitoyl proteins were identified in EC using ABE and mass spectrometry. Among the novel palmitoylproteins identified is superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), an intensively studied enzyme that protects all cells from oxidative damage. Mutation of cysteine 6 prevents palmitoylation, leads to reduction in SOD1 activity in vivo and in vitro, and inhibits nuclear localization, thereby supporting a functional role for SOD1 palmitoylation. Moreover, we used ABE to search for substrates of particular protein acyl transferases in EC. We found that palmitoylation of the cell adhesion protein PECAM1 is dependent on the protein acyl transferase ZDHHC21. We show that knockdown of ZDHHC21 leads to reduced levels of PECAM1 at the cell surface. Conclusions Our data demonstrate the utility of EC palmitoylproteomics to reveal new insights into the role of this important post-translational lipid modification in EC biology.

Marin, Ethan P.; Derakhshan, Behrad; Lam, TuKiet T.; Davalos, Alberto; Sessa, William C.

2012-01-01

165

Array comparative genomic hybridization identifies novel potential therapeutic targets in cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a rare tumour with a dismal prognosis. As conventional medical management offers minimal survival benefit, surgery currently represents the only chance of cure. We evaluated DNA copy number (CN) alterations in CC to identify novel therapeutic targets. Methods DNA was extracted from 32 CC samples. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array comparative genomic hybridization was performed using microarray slides containing 3400 BAC clones covering the whole human genome at distances of 1 Mb. Data were analysed within the R statistical environment. Results DNA CN gains (89 regions) occurred more frequently than DNA CN losses (55 regions). Six regions of gain were identified in all cases on chromosomes 16, 17, 19 and 22. Twenty regions were frequently gained on chromosomes 1, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 19, 20 and 21. The BAC clones covering ERBB2, MEK2 and PDGFB genes were gained in all cases. Regions covering MTOR, VEGFR 3, PDGFA, RAF1, VEGFA and EGFR genes were frequently gained. Conclusions We identified CN gains in the region of 11 useful molecular targets. Findings of variable gains in some regions in this and other studies support the argument for molecular stratification before treatment for CC so that treatment can be tailored to the individual patient.

McKay, Siobhan C; Unger, Kristian; Pericleous, Stephanos; Stamp, Gordon; Thomas, Gerry; Hutchins, Robert R; Spalding, Duncan R C

2011-01-01

166

Tumor antigen precursor protein profiles of adult and pediatric brain tumors identify potential targets for immunotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives We evaluated and compared tumor antigen precursor protein (TAPP) profiles in adult and pediatric brain tumors of 31 genes\\u000a related to tumor associated antigens (TAA) for possible use in immunotherapy. Antigens were selected based on their potential\\u000a to stimulate T cell responses against tumors of neuroectodermal origin. Methods Thirty-seven brain tumor specimens from 11 adult and 26 pediatric patients

Jian Gang Zhang; Carol A. Kruse; Lara Driggers; Neil Hoa; Jeffrey Wisoff; Jeffrey C. Allen; David Zagzag; Elizabeth W. Newcomb; Martin R. Jadus

2008-01-01

167

Carbamazepine as indicator for potential short-term contamination of karst springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karst aquifers are complex systems which vulnerability is very difficult to assess mainly because of the duality of recharge processes and duality of flow. Recharge to a karst aquifer occurs as diffuse or concentrated (sinkholes and dolines). Moreover, karst aquifers are formed by an unsaturated zone comprising soil, epikarst and unsaturated rock matrix, and a saturated zone formed of highly permeable conduits and low permeability matrix storage. In the case of contamination of groundwater by wastewater effluent polluted water can be either transported rapidly and have short term major risk on spring water quality or infiltrate into fractured rock matrix and therefore have a long term effect on the water quality. In order to identify the risk of wastewater infiltrating into an aquifer, researches have focused to date on the identification of indicative wastewater markers. Carbamazepine (CBZ) was frequently detected in surface water as well as in effluents of sewage treatment plants, as less than 10% of carbamazepine are usually eliminated during sewage treatment. Moreover, CBZ is not attenuated in aquifers (Heberer, 2002), is unlikely degradable or adsorbed, and can be detected in groundwater (Clara et al., 2004). Therefore, CBZ is considered to be fairly persistent in groundwater (Tixier et al., 2003), and is consequently regarded as an effective wastewater marker. In this case study, the Jeita spring in Lebanon (spring discharge: 1-20 m3/s) was monitored and sampled for major ions and micro-pollutants following a combined precipitation/snowmelt events. A total of 28 samples (major ions and micro-pollutants) were taken over a total sampling time of 16 days at interval varying between 4 and 24 hours. Based on the variation with time of discharge and electrical conductivity (monitored every 20 minutes) as well as the concentrations of the major ions, a conceptual model showing the response of the aquifer compartments to the precipitation event was generated. A breakthrough curve of the persistent micro-pollutant carbamazepine shows that CBZ enters the aquifer system through rapid flow pathways, whereas it is heavily diluted with old CBZ free waters stored in the soil/ epikarst zone released as a response to the precipitation event. Furthermore, based on travel times estimated from artificial tracer tests, the distance to the contamination source was estimated and reveals to be relatively small.

Doummar, J.; Baierl, M.; Noedler, K.; Licha, T.; Sauter, M.; Geyer, T.

2012-04-01

168

A potential biomarker of kidney damage identified by proteomics: preliminary findings.  

PubMed

4-Aminophenol (4-AP) and D-serine are established rodent nephrotoxins that selectively damage renal proximal tubules. In an attempt to understand the mechanism of action of these toxicants in greater detail, a high throughput proteomics approach was used to profile protein changes in the plasma of animals treated with these compounds. Male Fischer 344 and Alderley Park rats were treated with increasing doses of 4-AP or D-serine and plasma samples were collected over time. Control groups received either saline or the non-toxic enantiomer, L-serine. Using high throughput two-dimensional gel analysis, a number of plasma proteins showing dose- and time-dependent regulation were identified. One toxicity-associated plasma protein was identified as the cellular enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), which is known to be required for tyrosine metabolism. The FAH gene is mutated in the human genetic disorder type I tyrosinaemia, which is associated with liver and kidney abnormalities and neurological disorders. FAH was elevated in the plasma of animals treated with 4-AP and D-serine at early time points and returned to baseline levels after 3 weeks. The protein was not elevated in the plasma of control animals or those treated with L-serine. The presence of FAH in plasma is intriguing as it is normally a cellular enzyme with no known function in plasma. It is possible that 4-AP and D-serine may work through a previously unknown mechanism in the kidney via regulation of tyrosine metabolism or FAH activity. Therefore, FAH may function in a fashion analogous to the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymes that are used to measure liver injury. The link between kidney toxicants and inherited tyrosinaemia also raises the possibility that FAH may be a marker of kidney toxicity in humans. These observations highlight the value of proteomics in identifying new biomarkers and providing new unprecedented insights into complex biological mechanisms. PMID:12944177

Bandara, Lasantha R; Kelly, Mike D; Lock, Edward A; Kennedy, Sandy

169

Dipole Potentials Indicate Restructuring of the Membrane Interface Induced by Gadolinium and Beryllium Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dipole component of the membrane boundary potential, ?d, is an integral parameter that may report on the conformational state of the lipid headgroups and their hydration. In this work, we describe an experimental approach to measurements of the dipole potential changes, ??d, and apply it in studies of Be2+ and Gd3+ interactions with membranes composed of phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylcholine

Yuri A. Ermakov; Alexander Z. Averbakh; Alexander I. Yusipovich; Sergei Sukharev

2001-01-01

170

An Analysis of Bond Issue Elections as Indicators of Socio-Economic Development Potential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Index of Development Potential based primarily on the success communities have had in passing bond issues is suggested in this paper. Ten Texas communities were studied using an index composed of 3 measures: the ratio of bond issue success, total bond expenditure per capita, and labor force potential. A composite score was derived from these…

Preston, James D.; Spiekerman, Danette

171

Slicing tree's geometric potential: an indicator for layout problems based on slicing tree structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose an indicator to measure the capacity of a slicing tree to generate geometrically acceptable solutions for layout problems based on the slicing tree structure. This indicator can predict if, by making the appropriate cuts, the tree structure is able to generate layouts that satisfy the geometrical restrictions imposed on the items to be arranged. It

J. A. Diego-Mas; M. C. Santamarina-Siurana; V. A. Cloquell-Ballester; J. Alcaide-Marzal

2008-01-01

172

A NEW HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY TECHNIQUE FOR IDENTIFYING PHARMACEUTICALS AND POTENTIAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS IN DRINKING WATER SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

A New High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Technique for Identifying Pharmaceuticals and Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Drinking Water Sources Andrew H. Grange and G. Wayne Sovocool U.S.EPA, ORD, NERL, ESD, ECB, P.O. Box 93478, Las Vegas, NV 891933478 Mass spectra...

173

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jj of... - List of VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 Ç Protection of Environment Ç 11 Ç 2013-07-01 Ç 2013-07-01 Ç false Ç List of VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry Ç 5 Ç Table 5 to Subpart JJ of Part 63 Ç Protection of Environment Ç ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) Ç AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) Ç NATIONAL EMISSION...

2013-07-01

174

Gene Expression-Based Chemical Genomics Identifies Potential Therapeutic Drugs in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. Currently, only sorafenib is approved by the FDA for advanced HCC treatment; therefore, there is an urgent need to discover candidate therapeutic drugs for HCC. We hypothesized that if a drug signature could reverse, at least in part, the gene expression signature of HCC, it might have the potential to inhibit HCC-related pathways and thereby treat HCC. To test this hypothesis, we first built an integrative platform, the “Encyclopedia of Hepatocellular Carcinoma genes Online 2”, dubbed EHCO2, to systematically collect, organize and compare the publicly available data from HCC studies. The resulting collection includes a total of 4,020 genes. To systematically query the Connectivity Map (CMap), which includes 6,100 drug-mediated expression profiles, we further designed various gene signature selection and enrichment methods, including a randomization technique, majority vote, and clique analysis. Subsequently, 28 out of 50 prioritized drugs, including tanespimycin, trichostatin A, thioguanosine, and several anti-psychotic drugs with anti-tumor activities, were validated via MTT cell viability assays and clonogenic assays in HCC cell lines. To accelerate their future clinical use, possibly through drug-repurposing, we selected two well-established drugs to test in mice, chlorpromazine and trifluoperazine. Both drugs inhibited orthotopic liver tumor growth. In conclusion, we successfully discovered and validated existing drugs for potential HCC therapeutic use with the pipeline of Connectivity Map analysis and lab verification, thereby suggesting the usefulness of this procedure to accelerate drug repurposing for HCC treatment.

Chang, Peter Mu-Hsin; Lai, Jin-Mei; Hsu, Chun-Nan; Chao, Kun-Mao; Kao, Cheng-Yan; Huang, Chi-Ying F.

2011-01-01

175

Teacher- and school-level predictors of teacher efficacy and burnout: identifying potential areas for support.  

PubMed

Although several studies relate low teacher efficacy and high burnout to the quality of instruction and students' academic achievement, there has been limited research examining factors that predict teacher efficacy and burnout. The current study employed a longitudinal, multilevel modeling approach to examine the influence of teacher- and school-level factors on the development of both teacher efficacy and burnout. Data were collected 3 times across 2 academic years from 600 teachers at 31 elementary schools. The results indicated that both teacher efficacy and burnout increased over time. Teacher preparedness and perceptions of teacher affiliation and leadership were significantly associated with both the intercept and growth of teacher efficacy and burnout; however, school-level factors were generally unrelated to both outcomes. Implications for screenings and teacher-targeted interventions are discussed. PMID:22386082

Pas, Elise T; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Hershfeldt, Patricia A

2011-08-15

176

Determining indicators, methods and sites for monitoring potential adverse effects of genetically modified plants to the environment: the legal and conceptional framework for implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Directive 2001\\/18\\/EC commercial cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMPs) have to be monitored. The aim\\u000a of the monitoring is to identify potential adverse effects of the GMPs and their use on human health and the environment.\\u000a There are few concepts showing how GMP monitoring may be implemented. This article indicates monitoring requirements with\\u000a a focus on environmental issues.

Wiebke Züghart; Armin Benzler; Frank Berhorn; Ulrich Sukopp; Frieder Graef

2008-01-01

177

VFA and ammonia from residential food waste as indicators of odor potential.  

PubMed

Research was conducted to determine suitable chemical parameters as indicators of odor from decomposing food wastes. Prepared food scraps were stored in 18 l plastic buckets (2 kg wet weight each) at 20 °C and 8 °C to reproduce high and low temperature conditions. After 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of storage, the odor from the buckets were marked to an intensity scale of 0 (no odor) to 5 (intense) and the corresponding leachate analyzed for volatile fatty acids, ammonia and total organic carbon. A linear relationship between odor intensity and the measured parameter indicates a suitable odor indicator. Odor intensified with longer storage period and warmer surroundings. The study found ammonia and isovaleric acid to be promising odor indicators. For this food waste mixture, offensive odors were emitted if the ammonia and isovaleric acid contents exceeded 360 mg/l and 940 mg/l, respectively. PMID:22819598

Qamaruz-Zaman, N; Milke, M W

2012-07-20

178

INTRACELLULAR OXIDATION-REDUCTION STUDIES II. REDUCTION POTENTIALS OF MARINE OVA AS SHOWN BY INDICATORS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A NEW approach to the problems of cellular metabolism was opened by J. and D. Needham(8) who used the micro-injection of reversible indicators to determine the oxidation-reduction intensity of living protoplasm. Prerequisites for this work were the elaboration of a series, as yet incomplete, of such indicators, and the electrometric standardisation of the position of each dye on the scale

ROBERT CHAMBERS; HERBERT POLLACK

179

Proteomic profiling of mammary carcinomas identifies C7orf24, a gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase, as a potential cancer biomarker.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women today and is the most common cancer (excluding skin cancers) among women in the Western world. Although cancers detected by screening mammography are significantly smaller than nonscreening ones, noninvasive biomarkers for detection of breast cancer as early as possible are an urgent need as the risk of recurrence and subsequent death is closely related to the stage of the disease at the time of primary surgery. A set of 123 primary breast tumors and matched normal tissue was analyzed by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, and a novel protein, C7orf24, was identified as being upregulated in cancer cells. Protein expression levels of C7orf24 were evaluated by immunohistochemical assays to qualify deregulation of this protein. Analysis of C7orf24 expression showed up-regulation in 36.4 and 23.4% of cases present in the discovery sample set (123 samples) and in an independent large TMA validation data set (2197 samples) of clinically annotated breast cancer specimens, respectively. Survival analysis showed that C7orf24 overexpression defines a subgroup of breast tumors with poor clinical outcome. Up-regulation of C7orf24 was also found in other cancer types. Four of these were investigated in greater detail, and we found that a proportion of tumors (58% in cervical, 38% in lung, 72% in colon, and 46% in breast cancer) expressed C7orf24 at levels exceeding those seen in normal samples. The observed overexpression of this protein in different types of cancer suggests deregulation of C7orf24 to be a general event in epithelial carcinogenesis, indicating that this protein may play an important role in cancer cell biology and thus constitute a novel therapeutic target. Furthermore, as C7orf24 is externalized to the tissue extracellular fluid and can be detected in serum, this protein also represents a potential serological marker. PMID:20527979

Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Friis, Esbern; Timmermans-Wielenga, Vera; Rank, Fritz; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Moreira, José M A

2010-08-01

180

Diversity and Biocatalytic Potential of Epoxide Hydrolases Identified by Genome Analysis†  

PubMed Central

Epoxide hydrolases play an important role in the biodegradation of organic compounds and are potentially useful in enantioselective biocatalysis. An analysis of various genomic databases revealed that about 20% of sequenced organisms contain one or more putative epoxide hydrolase genes. They were found in all domains of life, and many fungi and actinobacteria contain several putative epoxide hydrolase-encoding genes. Multiple sequence alignments of epoxide hydrolases with other known and putative ?/?-hydrolase fold enzymes that possess a nucleophilic aspartate revealed that these enzymes can be classified into eight phylogenetic groups that all contain putative epoxide hydrolases. To determine their catalytic activities, 10 putative bacterial epoxide hydrolase genes and 2 known bacterial epoxide hydrolase genes were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The production of active enzyme was strongly improved by fusion to the maltose binding protein (MalE), which prevented inclusion body formation and facilitated protein purification. Eight of the 12 fusion proteins were active toward one or more of the 21 epoxides that were tested, and they converted both terminal and nonterminal epoxides. Four of the new epoxide hydrolases showed an uncommon enantiopreference for meso-epoxides and/or terminal aromatic epoxides, which made them suitable for the production of enantiopure (S,S)-diols and (R)-epoxides. The results show that the expression of epoxide hydrolase genes that are detected by analyses of genomic databases is a useful strategy for obtaining new biocatalysts.

van Loo, Bert; Kingma, Jaap; Arand, Michael; Wubbolts, Marcel G.; Janssen, Dick B.

2006-01-01

181

Development of a Novel Virtual Screening Cascade Protocol to Identify Potential Trypanothione Reductase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

The implementation of a novel sequential computational approach that can be used effectively for virtual screening and identification of prospective ligands that bind to trypanothione reductase (TryR) is reported. The multistep strategy combines a ligand-based virtual screening for building an enriched library of small molecules with a docking protocol (AutoDock, X-Score) for screening against the TryR target. Compounds were ranked by an exhaustive conformational consensus scoring approach that employs a rank-by-rank strategy by combining both scoring functions. Analysis of the predicted ligand?protein interactions highlights the role of bulky quaternary amine moieties for binding affinity. The scaffold hopping (SHOP) process derived from this computational approach allowed the identification of several chemotypes, not previously reported as antiprotozoal agents, which includes dibenzothiepine, dibenzooxathiepine, dibenzodithiepine, and polycyclic cationic structures like thiaazatetracyclo-nonadeca-hexaen-3-ium. Assays measuring the inhibiting effect of these compounds on T. cruzi and T. brucei TryR confirm their potential for further rational optimization.

2009-01-01

182

Identifying at-risk employees: A behavioral model for predicting potential insider threats  

SciTech Connect

A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employee’s behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. In many of these crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they could be assessed by a person experienced in psychosocial evaluations. We have developed a model using a Bayesian belief network with the help of human resources staff, experienced in evaluating behaviors in staff. We conducted an experiment to assess its agreement with human resources and management professionals, with positive results. If implemented in an operational setting, the model would be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment that can raise an alarm about employees who pose higher insider threat risks. In separate work, we combine this psychosocial model’s assessment with computer workstation behavior to raise the efficacy of recognizing an insider crime in the making.

Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Dalton, Angela C.

2010-09-01

183

Indications of a shallow potential in {sup 48}Ca+{sup 96}Zr fusion reactions  

SciTech Connect

Fusion data for {sup 48}Ca+{sup 96}Zr are analyzed by coupled-channels calculations. Puzzling features of a previous analysis are eliminated by applying a potential that has a shallow pocket in the entrance channel. Thus the observed S factor for fusion, which develops a maximum at low energy, can be reproduced fairly well. The high-energy data can also be accounted for but that requires the use of a weak, short-ranged imaginary potential that absorbs the incoming flux near the location of the minimum of the potential pocket. Predictions of the fusion hindrance in other Ca+Zr systems are made and are compared with the systematics that has been developed previously.

Esbensen, H.; Jiang, C. L. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2009-06-15

184

Novel Peptide Marker Corresponding to Salivary Protein gSG6 Potentially Identifies Exposure to Anopheles Bites  

PubMed Central

Background In order to improve malaria control, and under the aegis of WHO recommendations, many efforts are being devoted to developing new tools for identifying geographic areas with high risk of parasite transmission. Evaluation of the human antibody response to arthropod salivary proteins could be an epidemiological indicator of exposure to vector bites, and therefore to risk of pathogen transmission. In the case of malaria, which is transmitted only by anopheline mosquitoes, maximal specificity could be achieved through identification of immunogenic proteins specific to the Anopheles genus. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the IgG response to the Anopheles gambiae gSG6 protein, from its recombinant form to derived synthetic peptides, could be an immunological marker of exposure specific to Anopheles gambiae bites. Methodology/Principal Findings Specific IgG antibodies to recombinant gSG6 protein were observed in children living in a Senegalese area exposed to malaria. With the objective of optimizing Anopheles specificity and reproducibility, we designed five gSG6-based peptide sequences using a bioinformatic approach, taking into consideration i) their potential antigenic properties and ii) the absence of cross-reactivity with protein sequences of other arthropods/organisms. The specific anti-peptide IgG antibody response was evaluated in exposed children. The five gSG6 peptides showed differing antigenic properties, with gSG6-P1 and gSG6-P2 exhibiting the highest antigenicity. However, a significant increase in the specific IgG response during the rainy season and a positive association between the IgG level and the level of exposure to Anopheles gambiae bites was significant only for gSG6-P1. Conclusions/Significance This step-by-step approach suggests that gSG6-P1 could be an optimal candidate marker for evaluating exposure to Anopheles gambiae bites. This marker could be employed as a geographic indicator, like remote sensing techniques, for mapping the risk of malaria. It could also represent a direct criterion of efficacy in evaluation of vector control strategies.

Poinsignon, Anne; Cornelie, Sylvie; Mestres-Simon, Montserrat; Lanfrancotti, Alessandra; Rossignol, Marie; Boulanger, Denis; Cisse, Badara; Sokhna, Cheikh; Arca, Bruno; Simondon, Francois; Remoue, Franck

2008-01-01

185

Why confining to vegetation indices? Exploiting the potential of improved spectral observations using radiative transfer models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation indices (VI) combine mathematically a few selected spectral bands to minimize undesired effects of soil background, illumination conditions and atmospheric perturbations. In this way, the relation to vegetation biophysical variables is enhanced. Albeit numerous experiments found close relationships between vegetation indices and several important vegetation biophysical variables, well known shortcomings and drawbacks remain. Important limitations of VIs are illustrated and discussed in this paper. As most of the limitations can be overcome using physically-based radiative transfer models (RTM), advantages and limits of RTM are also presented.

Atzberger, Clement; Richter, Katja; Vuolo, Francesco; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Schlerf, Martin

2011-10-01

186

Validation of Brain Event-Related Potentials as Indicators of Cognitive Styles, Abilities, and Aptitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty Navy recruits were given 11 paper-and-pencil tests of cognitive styles, abilities, and aptitudes. Visual, auditory, and bimodal brain event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes were recorded from each of these subjects. Product-moment and canonical correlational analyses, as well as principal-factor analysis and varimax rotation, were…

Federico, Pat-Anthony; And Others

187

Electrophysiological (Event-Related Potentials) Indices of Cognitive Processing in Autistic Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Event-related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded to both auditory and visual stimuli from the scalps of nine autistic males and nine normal controls (all Ss between 12 and 22 years of age) to examine the differences in information processing strategies. Ss were tested on three different tasks: an auditory missing stimulus paradigm, a visual color…

Shibley, Ralph, Jr.; And Others

188

Evaluation of microbial methods as potential indicators of soil quality in historical agricultural fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In agricultural ecosystems that have had consistent cropping histories, standard microbial methods may be used to evaluate past and present practices. Our objective was to evaluate several microbial methods that best indicate cropping histories and soil quality on long-term plots. We selected soil microbial carbon (C), phospholipid analyses, direct counts of total fungal and bacterial biomass, and soil enzymes (phosphatases)

D. Jordan; R. J. Kremer; W. A. Bergfield; K. Y. Kim; V. N. Cacnio

1995-01-01

189

Startle reflex potentiation during aversive picture viewing as an indicator of trait fear.  

PubMed

Measures of fearfulness and measures of psychopathy show positive and negative associations, respectively, with startle reflex potentiation during unpleasant picture viewing. We tested the hypothesis that a common bipolar trait dimension underlies these differing associations. Blink responses to noise probes were recorded during pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures in 88 undergraduates assessed with a battery of self-report scales indexing fear and psychopathy/fearlessness. A significant positive association was found between an omnibus index of fear, consisting of scores on the first component from a principal components analysis of these various scales, and startle potentiation during aversive picture viewing. This association was most robust, across participants overall and within gender subgroups, for scenes that were most directly threatening. Implications for psychophysiological research on individual differences and psychopathology are discussed. PMID:19055499

Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J; Bernat, Edward M

2008-11-15

190

Physical examination of potential tissue donors: results of a risk management procedure to identify the critical elements of the physical examination.  

PubMed

To identify critical elements of physical examination (PE) of potential tissue donors that could help to improve the safety of tissue transplantation. Physical signs were identified that can indicate the presence of a contraindication mentioned in EU Directive 2006/17/EC and that can theoretically be detected at PE. A risk assessment was designed, according to the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis model. Signs were scored on several aspects, taking into account various control measures, either required in the EU Directive or additional non-required measures. 106 signs associated with general and tissue-specific contraindications were identified. Signs of advanced infection with HIV, hepatitis B/C and syphilis (n = 13, 12.3%) can be omitted, since these contraindications will be detected by the required serological testing. With the required control measures, risk priorities are unacceptably "high" for 17.3% of the signs. For 64.5% of the signs, additional control measures are possible, which result in acceptable risk priorities for all signs. This risk management procedure identified the minimal necessary content of PE in potential tissue donors. Furthermore, risks associated with tissue donation were elucidated and possible risk control measures were identified as well as their impact on the safety of tissue transplantation. PMID:21863335

van Wijk, Marja J; van Geyt, Caroline; Laven, Audrey B H; Beele, Hilde; Bokhorst, Arlinke G

2011-08-24

191

Cortical evoked potentials as indicators of auditory-visual cross-modal association in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were studied from scalp locations Cz and Oz on 37 adults aged 20–22 years during sensori-sensorial\\u000a association of a weak sound (S) and a strong flash of light (L). After sound alone repetition (habituation), S-L association\\u000a modified AEP: first, it caused a generalized orienting response expressed as increasing of Cz and Oz amplitude AEPs. Then,\\u000a this

N. Bruneau; S. Roux; B. Garreau; J. Martineau; G. Lelord

1990-01-01

192

[Helical tomotherapy in oncology: new indications and innovative potentials with advanced radiotherapy technology].  

PubMed

Helical tomotherapy (HT) has been recently introduced in clinical practice in order to improve the quality of radiotherapy delivery in patients with malignant neoplasms. HT is a method of CT image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) designed to achieve highly conformal dose distribution in various body sites for the cure of many tumors. This review briefly describes the wide potential impact of HT upon either clinical practice or technologic research in oncology. PMID:20178305

Corvò, Renzo

2009-12-01

193

Identifying simulators of cognitive deficit through combined use of neuropsychological test performance and event-related potentials.  

PubMed

Event-related potential (ERP) methods for identifying malingering of cognitive deficit assume that elements of brain/cognitive functioning are not under a person's direct control, whereas neuropsychological methods assume that malingered cognitive deficit will present differently than true impairment in terms of level or pattern of errors on tests of cognitive function. Two studies were conducted to examine the combined use of neuropsychological and ERP methods for identifying malingering because of the potential independence of these approaches. All normal control participants performing at their best level (n = 25) were correctly classified by both ERP and neuropsychological methods. All participants simulating cognitive deficit (n = 35) were correctly classified on the basis of a positive outcome on either the neuropsychological or the ERP method. Results suggest that the neuropsychological and psychophysiological measures of malingering that were studied contribute non-redundant information in the classification of simulators. PMID:10649540

Ellwanger, J; Tenhula, W N; Rosenfeld, J P; Sweet, J J

1999-12-01

194

NMR-based metabolomics using earthworms as potential indicators for soil health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil health is key for sustainable productivity and adaptation to climate change. Agricultural practice can significantly\\u000a impact on soil health. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of two land management regimes on organisms (earthworms)\\u000a that may be used as indicators for soil health via NMR metabolomics. Earthworms are important in the soil decomposition process\\u000a and viewed

Simone J. Rochfort; Vilnis Ezernieks; Alan L. Yen

2009-01-01

195

Potential for Trichoptera communities as biological indicators of morphological degradation in riverine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many rivers in southern Africa are increasingly threatened by accelerating geomorphological degradation due to unsustainable\\u000a agricultural practices and deforestation. Thus, there is a critical need for biological indicators of morphological degradation\\u000a in running waters. This study analysed the composition and abundance of Trichoptera taxa from 32 sites from rivers in eastern\\u000a and northwestern Zimbabwe in relation to geomorphological and land

Albert Chakona; Crispen Phiri; Jenny A. Day

2009-01-01

196

When affective cues broaden thought: Evidence from event-related potentials associated with identifying emotionally expressive faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Divergent theoretical perspectives predict that the valence of affective cues impacts the breadth and flexibility of cognition, but extant data have not clarified whether such effects transpire extemporaneously or only later via processes of evaluation or selection from among thoughts already generated. The present investigation found more prominent electro-cortical event-related-potential (P3) responses among participants focused on identifying a positively valenced

Antonio L. Freitas; Anne Katz; Allen Azizian; Nancy K. Squires

2008-01-01

197

Gene Expression Profiling in a Mouse Model Identifies Fetal Liver and Placenta-Derived Potential Biomarkers for Down Syndrome Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAs a first step to identify novel potential biomarkers for prenatal Down Syndrome screening, we analyzed gene expression in embryos of wild type mice and the Down Syndrome model Ts1Cje. Since current Down Syndrome screening markers are derived from placenta and fetal liver, these tissues were chosen as target.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsPlacenta and fetal liver at 15.5 days gestation were analyzed by

Jeroen L. A. Pennings; Wendy Rodenburg; Sandra Imholz; Maria P. H. Koster; Conny T. M. van Oostrom; Timo M. Breit; Peter C. J. I. Schielen; Annemieke de Vries; Gisela Nogales-Gadea

2011-01-01

198

The utility of stream habitat and biota for identifying potential conflicting forest land uses: Montane riparian areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rinne, J.N., 1990. The utility of stream habitat and biota for identifying potential conflicting forest land uses: Montane riparian areas. For. Ecol. Manage., 33\\/34: 363-383. Investigations since 1960 on the effects of land-management practices on riparian-stream systems often have produced contradictory results. Inconsistencies have occurred, in part, because of efforts that have not been totally comprehensive and, in part, because

John N. Rinne

1990-01-01

199

Potential new genes for resistance to Mycosphaerella graminicola identified in Triticum aestivum  ×  Lophopyrum elongatum disomic substitution lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lophopyrum species carry many desirable agronomic traits, including disease resistance, which can be transferred to wheat by interspecific\\u000a hybridization. To identify potentially new genes for disease and insect resistance carried by individual Lophopyrum chromosomes, 19 of 21 possible wheat cultivar Chinese Spring × Lophopyrum elongatum disomic substitution lines were tested for resistance to barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), cereal yellow dwarf virus

Joseph M. Anderson; Dennis L. Bucholtz; Nagesh Sardesai; Judith B. Santini; Gábor Gyulai; Christie E. Williams; Stephen B. Goodwin

2010-01-01

200

A numerical study on indicators of long-range transport potential for anthropogenic particulate matters over northeast Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several indicators of the long-range transport potential of particulate matters have been proposed. These indicators can be used in the interpretation of the long-range transport process over northeast Asia. In order to characterize the indicators of long-range transport potential for days during which the concentration of particulate matter is high, we first classified these days during which PM10 concentration was high into two extreme synoptic cases: long-range transport (LRT) case, and local emission with stagnation (LES) case. The classification employed here was on the basis of semi-empirical approach by employing the synoptic meteorological variables including relative vorticity, vorticity advection, and geostrophic wind speed/direction at a geopotential level of over 850 hPa. Simulation results of the two cases using the MM5-CMAQ modeling system were contrasted to determine suitable indicators of LRT potential.The results showed that the most effective indicator is the ratio of aromatic organic compounds to NOx, with correlation coefficients of 0.70 for toluene/NOx, and 0.72 for xylene/NOx. The ratios of N-containing species such as NOx (or NOy) to CO were the next best alternative indicators, with correlation coefficients of 0.53-0.62. The sulfur conversion ratios such as SO42-/(SO2 + SO42-) and SO42-/SO2 suggested good indicators for high sulfate condition (i.e., SO42- > 10 ?g m-3). However, carbon aerosol ratio OC/EC did not show clearly separated regression lines distinguishing the LRT and LES cases, implying that ratios of both sulfur conversion in less polluted atmosphere and carbon aerosol should be considered carefully using them with confidence about their indication of the LRT potential over northeast Asia.

Kim, Cheol-Hee; Park, Sin-Young; Kim, Yun-Jong; Chang, Lim-Seok; Song, Sang-Keun; Moon, Yun-Seob; Song, Chang-Keun

2012-10-01

201

Cross-polar cap potential difference, auroral electrojet indices, and solar wind parameters  

SciTech Connect

The cross-polar cap potential difference {Phi} (KRM) is estimated from ground magnetic perturbation data through the magnetometer inversion method of Kamide, Richmond, and Matsushita (FRM), combined with an empirical ionospheric conductance distribution estimated from the DMSP X ray image data. A significant correlation is found between {Phi} (KRM) and the AE(12) index. {Phi} (KRM) is then compared with the potential difference estimated from a more direct method of the satellite electric field measurements and also with {Phi}(IMF) is found to be linearly correlated with {Phi} (IMF) based on solar wind parameters. {Phi} IMF is found to be linearly correlated with {Phi}(KRM), as {Phi}(IMF) = 29.8 + 0.999 {Phi} (KRM), with the highest correlation obtained for a 40-min lag in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Note that {Phi}(IMF) is systematically larger than {Phi} (KRM) by 30 kV, suggesting the possibility that the theoretical method overestimates the cross-polar cap potential difference. During steady southward IMF periods were steady {Phi} (IMF) variations are expected, significant fluctuations in calculated {Phi} (KRM) values are obtained. Since the decrease in {Phi} (KRM) is closely associated with enhancements in auroral particle precipitation during these periods, a highly correlative relation between {Phi} (IMF) and {Phi} (KRM) cannot be deduced unless the phases of substorms are taken into account. The overall high correlation between them, however, supports the view expressed by Wolf et al. (1986) that directly driven processes are more important than unloading processes during disturbed periods.

Ahn, B.H. (Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Korea) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Kamide, Y. (Kyoto Sangyo Univ., (Japan)); Kroehl, H.W.; Gorney, D.J. (Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1992-02-01

202

Investigating mitochondrial redox potential with redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein indicators.  

PubMed

Current methods for determining ambient redox potential in cells are labor-intensive and generally require destruction of tissue. This precludes single cell or real time studies of changes in redox poise that result from metabolic processes or environmental influences. By substitution of surface-exposed residues on the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) with cysteines in appropriate positions to form disulfide bonds, reduction-oxidation-sensitive GFPs (roGFPs) have been created. roGFPs have two fluorescence excitation maxima at about 400 and 490 nm and display rapid and reversible ratiometric changes in fluorescence in response to changes in ambient redox potential in vitro and in vivo. Crystal structure analyses of reduced and oxidized crystals of roGFP2 at 2.0- and 1.9-A resolution, respectively, reveal in the oxidized state a highly strained disulfide and localized main chain structural changes that presumably account for the state-dependent spectral changes. roGFP1 has been targeted to the mitochondria in HeLa cells. Fluorometric measurements on these cells using a fluorescence microscope or in cell suspension using a fluorometer reveal that the roGFP1 probe is in dynamic equilibrium with the mitochondrial redox status and responds to membrane-permeable reductants and oxidants. The roGFP1 probe reports that the matrix space in HeLa cell mitochondria is highly reducing, with a midpoint potential near -360 mV (assuming mitochondrial pH approximately 8.0 at 37 degrees C). In other work (C. T. Dooley, T. M. Dore, G. Hanson, W. C. Jackson, S. J. Remington, and R. Y. Tsien, submitted for publication), it is shown that the cytosol of HeLa cells is also unusually reducing but somewhat less so than the mitochondrial matrix. PMID:14722062

Hanson, George T; Aggeler, Robert; Oglesbee, Devin; Cannon, Mark; Capaldi, Roderick A; Tsien, Roger Y; Remington, S James

2004-01-13

203

Further diversity at HLA-A and -B loci identified in Afro-Caribbean potential bone marrow donors.  

PubMed

Two novel HLA-A and three novel HLA-B alleles were identified within a group of Afro-Caribbean individuals who were recruited as potential donors for the Anthony Nolan Bone Marrow Trust Register. HLA typing was performed on DNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells using sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) probes for HLA-A and -B loci. Eight individuals analysed exhibited hybridisation patterns for which a type could not be assigned. DNA from these individuals was further typed by two methodologies: direct sequencing of PCR products and reference strand conformation analysis (RSCA). The direct sequencing results allowed the identification of new alleles but did not allow confirmation of the cis/trans orientation of the new sequence motifs identified. RSCA analysis confirmed the results obtained by SSO and direct sequencing and in addition confirmed the cis/trans orientation of the new sequences. One individual possesses a new A*30 allele--A*3008 and two individuals possess an identical new A*74 allele--A*7404. The three novel HLA-B alleles were identified in three individuals: B*0812, B*1554 and B*4503 respectively. For the remaining two samples, A*2612 was identified. At present Caucasoid individuals, and therefore Caucasoid phenotypes, are predominantly represented on the various different volunteer bone marrow donor registries. The examples presented here highlight the potential for identification of further polymorphisms within the HLA system as more individuals from the much-needed ethnic minorities are recruited onto bone marrow donor registers. PMID:11169261

Cox, S T; McWhinnie, A J; Koester, R P; Heine, U; Holman, R; Madrigal, J A; Little, A M

2001-01-01

204

Indication to renal biopsy in DM2 patients: potential role of intrarenal resistive index.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is generally based, rather than on histological confirmation, on clinical criteria (long history of diabetes, presence of proteinuria, diabetic retinopathy or peripheral neuropathy). This clinical approach has perhaps limited utility in DM2 patients, because only 50% of them show microvascular complications in presence of nephropathy. Eco-colour-Doppler sampling of interlobular renal arteries and determination of their resistance indices (RI), was proposed in the differential diagnosis of numerous nephropathies. Aim of this study was to evaluate whether RI can be useful in discerning non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD), in order to better define indications to perform renal biopsy among proteinuric DM2 patients. All patients were submitted to: echo-colour-Doppler study of renal vessels; systematic screening for diabetic retinopathy; needle renal biopsy. RI resulted to be significantly higher in diabetic glomerulosclerosis (GSD) group as compared with NDRD group, while no significant difference was found with respect to NDRDs overlapping GSD (overlapping group). The last one showed however median RI significantly higher than isolated NDRD group. Normalized chi square Pearson for the hypothesis that RI can predict GSD resulted 0.73, while it resulted 0.43 for the hypothesis that diabetic retinopathy can predict GSD. Echo-colour-Doppler can significantly contribute, more than the other parameters proposed (nephritic or nephrotic syndrome, hematuria, diabetic retinopathy), to the identification of underlying nephropathy in DM2 subjects. In the light of our experience, it seems that the detection of RI values > 0.72 suggests the diagnosis of GSD or mixed forms, reducing the indications to renal biopsy only in presence of values < 0.72. PMID:23427765

Insalaco, Monica; Zamboli, Pasquale; Floccari, Fulvio; Marrocco, Fulvio; Andrulli, Simeone; Logias, Francesco; Di Lullo, Luca; Fiorini, Fulvio; Granata, Antonio

2012-12-01

205

Application of remote sensing and GIS analysis for identifying groundwater potential zone in parts of Kodaikanal Taluk, South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater potential zones were demarcated with the help of remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. The study area is composed rocks of Archaean age and charnockite dominated over others. The parameters considered for identifying the groundwater potential zone of geology slope, drainage density, geomorphic units and lineament density were generated using the resource sat (IRS P6 LISS IV MX) data and survey of India (SOI) toposheets of scale 1:50000 and integrated them with an inverse distance weighted (IDW) model based on GIS data to identify the groundwater potential of the study area. Suitable weightage factors were assigned for each category of these parameters. For the various geomorphic units, weightage factors were assigned based on their capability to store ground-water. This procedure was repeated for all the other layers and resultant layers were reclassified. The reclassified layers were then combined to demarcate zones as very good, good, moderate, low, and poor. This groundwater potentiality information could be used for effective identification of suitable locations for extraction of potable water for rural populations.

Bagyaraj, Murugesan; Ramkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Venkatramanan, Senapathi; Gurugnanam, Balasubramanian

2013-03-01

206

Behavioural and physiological measures following treadmill exercise as potential indicators to evaluate fatigue in sheep.  

PubMed

The welfare consequences of long-distance transportation of animals remain a controversial topic. Animals that stand for most of the long journey (especially if additional muscular activity is required to deal with postural instability) are at risk of developing fatigue. Previous observational studies of behaviour and physiology suggested either that sheep do not become markedly fatigued by long journeys or that previous methods did not adequately identify fatigue. A range of behavioural and physiological measures were made on eight pairs of sheep during and after treadmill exercise. Within each pair of sheep, a treatment sheep was walked on a treadmill at 0.5 m/s for up to 5 h or until the sheep voluntarily stopped exercising or showed other signs of reduced performance, and a control sheep was exercised for two 10-min periods on either side of the exercise period for the treatment sheep. With the exception of one sheep that only walked for 4.5 h, all treatment sheep walked for 5 h without apparent difficulty. After exercise, the plasma cortisol concentration of treatment sheep was significantly greater than that of control sheep. However, there were no significant treatment effects on plasma creatine kinase activity or blood lactate concentration. After 5 h of exercise, there was a proportionate decrease in the median frequency of the electromyogram recorded over the m. semitendinosus, and this was significantly different from control sheep. There was no evidence that treatment sheep lay down sooner or for longer after treadmill exercise than controls. In sheep tested in a maze to examine whether there was increased motivation to rest after exercise, there was no significant difference between the times taken by treatment and control sheep to obtain a food reward. Qualitative behavioural assessment of the sheep by a panel of observers identified two main dimensions of sheep demeanour, but among descriptors elicited from observers only one person used a term associated with fatigue. No significant difference was found between the scores of treatment and control sheep on these two demeanour dimensions. Thus, there was little evidence that prolonged gentle walking exercise fatigues sheep. Further development of methods to both repeatedly induce and to identify fatigue in sheep is required. PMID:23031523

Cockram, M S; Murphy, E; Ringrose, S; Wemelsfelder, F; Miedema, H M; Sandercock, D A

2012-09-01

207

Personality traits of endodontic residents indicate potential for becoming endodontic faculty.  

PubMed

Dental schools across America are challenged by the shortage of qualified faculty to fill vacant positions. This project, conducted through survey methodology, focused on obtaining a basic understanding of the personality types that seek out and maintain positions as full-time endodontic educators and compared those educators with endodontic residents to define similarities and differences that could lead to strategies to recruit those residents into academic endodontic education to assist in alleviating the faculty shortage in dentistry. All full-time endodontic faculty and residents were invited to participate. The Myers Briggs type indicator form M was administered electronically to faculty and postgraduates/residents. A 38.8% faculty and 21.3% resident response rate was achieved. Survey results were analyzed by using description statistics and chi-square tests. Results of the study indicate that there are parallel personality preferences of residents and faculty resulting in recommendations of early identification of academic interest, structured mentoring, faculty development of residents, and the implementation of debt-reduction strategies to ease entry into academic dentistry. PMID:17368332

O'Neill, Paula N; Svec, Timothy A; Ludington, John R; Suchina, John A

2007-04-01

208

Song performance and elaboration as potential indicators of male quality in Java sparrows.  

PubMed

Bird songs have evolved under sexual selection pressure. Songs include multiple features that are subject to female preference, but recent comparative research has indicated evolutionary tradeoffs between song performance and complexity in some species. Trill, a repetition of the same sound, is a performance-related song trait; higher trill performance can be achieved at the cost of song complexity at the among-species or population level. The aim of this study was to examine whether such tradeoffs also account for within-species variation in Java sparrow songs, which include both multiple trill types and non-trill parts. We found a great individual variation in trill proportion, trill performance, and song complexity. A positive association between trill performance and body size suggested that trills can serve as an indicator of male quality. However, contrary to the tradeoffs predicted by previous studies based on other passerine species, trill performance and song complexity, i.e., note repertoire, were positively correlated: males in better condition can sing songs with larger note repertoires and higher trill performance, which may explain how trills and non-trill notes are both maintained and have co-evolved by sexual selection in Java sparrow songs. PMID:23876390

Kagawa, Hiroko; Soma, Masayo

2013-07-19

209

Sedimentary ladderane core lipids as potential indicators of hypoxia in the East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) is an important process in many suboxic to anoxic marine environments for converting fixed nitrogen to N2, and has a major impact on the marine nitrogen cycle. Ladderane core lipids have been utilized as an indicator of the contribution of anammox to the marine nitrogen cycles. However, such studies have not been reported for the China seas and little is known about the importance of anammox within the nitrogen cycle of these marginal seas. In the research reported here, the ladderane core lipid contents of 17 surface sediment samples from the East China Sea are reported, and their spatial distribution is investigated. C18 -[5]-ladderane FAME, C20-[5]-ladderane FAME and C20-[3]-ladderane FAME have all been detected, suggesting that the anammox bacteria are widely present within the study area. The total contents of the three ladderane lipids (?FAMEs) range from 24-355 ng/g (weight of dry sediments), with higher contents occurring in the Minzhe Mud Zone and broadly coincident with the spatial distribution of hypoxia. It is suggested that the sedimentary ladderane core lipids are mainly produced in the water column and their sedimentary contents can be used as indicators of water column hypoxia.

Zhao, Zongshan; Cao, Yali; Li, Li; Song, Guodong; Yang, Hongmei; Liu, Sumei; Zhao, Meixun

2013-01-01

210

Using indicator kriging for the evaluation of arsenic potential contamination in an abandoned mining area (Portugal).  

PubMed

Mining and mineral-processing activities can modify the environment in a variety of ways. Sulfide mineralization is notorious for producing waters with high metal contents. Arsenic is commonly associated with sulfide mineralization and is considered to be toxic in the environment at low levels. The studied abandoned mining area is located in central Portugal and the resulting tailings and rejected materials were deposited and exposed to the air and water for the last 50 years. Sixteen water sample-points were collected. One of these was collected outside the mining influence, with the aim of obtaining a reference background. The risk assessment, concerning the proximity to abandoned mineralized deposits, needs the evaluation of intrinsic and specific vulnerabilities aiming the quantification of the anthropogenic activities. In this study, two indicator variables were constructed. The first one (I(1)), a specific vulnerability, considers the arsenic water supply standard value (0.05 mg/L), and the probability of it being exceeded is dependent on the geologic and hydrological characteristics of the studied area and also on the anthropogenic activities. The second one (I(2)), an intrinsic vulnerability, considers arsenic background limit as cut-off value, and depends only on the geologic and hydro-geological characteristics of the studied area. At Segura, the arsenic water content found during December 2006 (1.190 mg/L) was higher than the arsenic water content detected in October 2006 (0.636 mg/L) which could be associated to the arsenic released from Fe oxy-hydroxide. At Segura abandoned mining area, the iso-probability maps of October 2006 and December 2006, show strong anomalies associated with the water drainage from abandoned mining activities. Near the village, the probability of exceeding the arsenic background value is high but lower than the probability of exceeding the arsenic water supply value. The arsenic anomalies indicate a high probability for water arsenic contamination and those waters should not be used for human consumption. PMID:23220092

Antunes, I M H R; Albuquerque, M T D

2012-12-05

211

Menopausal Symptoms among Breast Cancer Patients: A Potential Indicator of Favorable Prognosis.  

PubMed

Menopausal symptoms have been suggested to be an indicator of better prognosis among patients treated for breast cancer, because women who experience these symptoms usually have a lower level of estrogen. We tested this hypothesis in a population-based, prospective cohort study involving 4,842 women with stage 0 to III primary breast cancer who were enrolled in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study between March 2002 and April 2006, were aged 20 to 75 years, and were recruited 6 months post-diagnosis. They were followed-up by in-person surveys and record linkages with the vital statistics registry. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of menopausal symptoms at baseline with breast cancer recurrence. Approximately 56% of patients experienced at least one menopausal symptom, including hot flashes, night sweats, and/or vaginal dryness at baseline. During a median follow-up period of 5.3 years, 720 women had a recurrence. Experiencing hot flashes or having ?2 menopausal symptoms was associated with lower risk of recurrence among premenopausal women (hazard ratio [HR]=0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.96 for hot flashes; 0.73, 0.56-0.96 for ?2 menopausal symptoms). Lower recurrence risk in relation to hot flashes was also observed among women who were not overweight/obese (HR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.64-0.99), those with relatively low waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (HR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.97), and those who used tamoxifen (HR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). Consistently experiencing multiple menopausal symptoms was associated with lower recurrence risk among women with low WHR or who used tamoxifen. This large, population-based cohort study of women with breast cancer confirms that experiencing menopausal symptoms is an indicator of favorable breast cancer prognosis. PMID:24098745

Chen, Yong; Dorjgochoo, Tsogzolmaa; Bao, Ping-Ping; Zheng, Ying; Cai, Hui; Lu, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

2013-09-30

212

The potential to reconstruct broadscale climate indices associated with southeast Australian droughts from Athrotaxis species, Tasmania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Occurrence of drought and dry periods in southeastern Australia has been linked to broad scale climate phenomena including the Southern Oscillation, Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and persistence of blocking high pressure in the Tasman Sea. We examine relationships between Athrotaxis tree ring chronologies from southern Australia extending over much of the past millennia and these broad scale indices. We also examine relationships between the chronologies, temperature, precipitation and a standardised precipitation and evapotranspiration index. Timing of significant correlations with maximum temperature varies between species. The responses of the species with broadscale indices vary with location: northern Athrotaxis cupressoides (Pencil Pine) are more strongly related to the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) than southern sites. As an exception to this, a site in the far south had significant correlations with both the SOI and IPO, opposite in sign to those observed for the northern sites. Significant spectral power at frequencies consistent with the SOI and IPO occur in all chronologies. Western and southern sites are more strongly related to a seasonalised index of SAM. These three systems have played important roles in determining moisture conditions in southeastern Australia over the past millennium. Results suggest that reconstructions of the SOI, IPO or SAM are unlikely based solely on this Athrotaxis network. The Athrotaxis network of tree ring sites, is however, likely to be an important input to multi-proxy models reconstructing the SOI, IPO or SAM in the Australian sector. The Athrotaxis network of sites is also an important extension of the existing network of Australian tree ring sites that could be used to reconstruct historical drought in southeastern Australia.

Allen, K. J.; Ogden, J.; Buckley, B. M.; Cook, E. R.; Baker, P. J.

2011-11-01

213

Menopausal Symptoms among Breast Cancer Patients: A Potential Indicator of Favorable Prognosis  

PubMed Central

Menopausal symptoms have been suggested to be an indicator of better prognosis among patients treated for breast cancer, because women who experience these symptoms usually have a lower level of estrogen. We tested this hypothesis in a population-based, prospective cohort study involving 4,842 women with stage 0 to III primary breast cancer who were enrolled in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study between March 2002 and April 2006, were aged 20 to 75 years, and were recruited 6 months post-diagnosis. They were followed-up by in-person surveys and record linkages with the vital statistics registry. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of menopausal symptoms at baseline with breast cancer recurrence. Approximately 56% of patients experienced at least one menopausal symptom, including hot flashes, night sweats, and/or vaginal dryness at baseline. During a median follow-up period of 5.3 years, 720 women had a recurrence. Experiencing hot flashes or having ?2 menopausal symptoms was associated with lower risk of recurrence among premenopausal women (hazard ratio [HR]=0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.96 for hot flashes; 0.73, 0.56-0.96 for ?2 menopausal symptoms). Lower recurrence risk in relation to hot flashes was also observed among women who were not overweight/obese (HR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.64-0.99), those with relatively low waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (HR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.97), and those who used tamoxifen (HR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). Consistently experiencing multiple menopausal symptoms was associated with lower recurrence risk among women with low WHR or who used tamoxifen. This large, population-based cohort study of women with breast cancer confirms that experiencing menopausal symptoms is an indicator of favorable breast cancer prognosis.

Chen, Yong; Dorjgochoo, Tsogzolmaa; Bao, Ping-Ping; Zheng, Ying; Cai, Hui; Lu, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

2013-01-01

214

Exome sequencing identifies rare deleterious mutations in DNA repair genes FANCC and BLM as potential breast cancer susceptibility alleles.  

PubMed

Despite intensive efforts using linkage and candidate gene approaches, the genetic etiology for the majority of families with a multi-generational breast cancer predisposition is unknown. In this study, we used whole-exome sequencing of thirty-three individuals from 15 breast cancer families to identify potential predisposing genes. Our analysis identified families with heterozygous, deleterious mutations in the DNA repair genes FANCC and BLM, which are responsible for the autosomal recessive disorders Fanconi Anemia and Bloom syndrome. In total, screening of all exons in these genes in 438 breast cancer families identified three with truncating mutations in FANCC and two with truncating mutations in BLM. Additional screening of FANCC mutation hotspot exons identified one pathogenic mutation among an additional 957 breast cancer families. Importantly, none of the deleterious mutations were identified among 464 healthy controls and are not reported in the 1,000 Genomes data. Given the rarity of Fanconi Anemia and Bloom syndrome disorders among Caucasian populations, the finding of multiple deleterious mutations in these critical DNA repair genes among high-risk breast cancer families is intriguing and suggestive of a predisposing role. Our data demonstrate the utility of intra-family exome-sequencing approaches to uncover cancer predisposition genes, but highlight the major challenge of definitively validating candidates where the incidence of sporadic disease is high, germline mutations are not fully penetrant, and individual predisposition genes may only account for a tiny proportion of breast cancer families. PMID:23028338

Thompson, Ella R; Doyle, Maria A; Ryland, Georgina L; Rowley, Simone M; Choong, David Y H; Tothill, Richard W; Thorne, Heather; Barnes, Daniel R; Li, Jason; Ellul, Jason; Philip, Gayle K; Antill, Yoland C; James, Paul A; Trainer, Alison H; Mitchell, Gillian; Campbell, Ian G

2012-09-27

215

Exome Sequencing Identifies Rare Deleterious Mutations in DNA Repair Genes FANCC and BLM as Potential Breast Cancer Susceptibility Alleles  

PubMed Central

Despite intensive efforts using linkage and candidate gene approaches, the genetic etiology for the majority of families with a multi-generational breast cancer predisposition is unknown. In this study, we used whole-exome sequencing of thirty-three individuals from 15 breast cancer families to identify potential predisposing genes. Our analysis identified families with heterozygous, deleterious mutations in the DNA repair genes FANCC and BLM, which are responsible for the autosomal recessive disorders Fanconi Anemia and Bloom syndrome. In total, screening of all exons in these genes in 438 breast cancer families identified three with truncating mutations in FANCC and two with truncating mutations in BLM. Additional screening of FANCC mutation hotspot exons identified one pathogenic mutation among an additional 957 breast cancer families. Importantly, none of the deleterious mutations were identified among 464 healthy controls and are not reported in the 1,000 Genomes data. Given the rarity of Fanconi Anemia and Bloom syndrome disorders among Caucasian populations, the finding of multiple deleterious mutations in these critical DNA repair genes among high-risk breast cancer families is intriguing and suggestive of a predisposing role. Our data demonstrate the utility of intra-family exome-sequencing approaches to uncover cancer predisposition genes, but highlight the major challenge of definitively validating candidates where the incidence of sporadic disease is high, germline mutations are not fully penetrant, and individual predisposition genes may only account for a tiny proportion of breast cancer families.

Thompson, Ella R.; Doyle, Maria A.; Ryland, Georgina L.; Rowley, Simone M.; Choong, David Y. H.; Tothill, Richard W.; Thorne, Heather; Barnes, Daniel R.; Li, Jason; Ellul, Jason; Philip, Gayle K.; Antill, Yoland C.; James, Paul A.; Trainer, Alison H.; Mitchell, Gillian; Campbell, Ian G.

2012-01-01

216

Potential use of indices of disease severity in the evaluation and design of medical technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been argued that technology is a major driver of health care costs. However, it is possible that the inappropriate use of technology accounts for some of this rise in costs. Thus, the development of tools for assessing the outcomes of patient care in many dimensions could lead to a more appropriate use of technology with attendant cost savings. However, the determination of outcomes is dependent on controlling for the severity of patients' primary and comorbid diseases. Recently, a variety of instruments have been developed and validated for the assessment of disease severity. These instruments, coupled with data regarding definitive and surrogate outcomes, provide a means for analyzing and perfecting the use of technology. Moreover, when these techniques are coupled with economic analysis it appears possible to model the health care interaction for any given disease condition and to identify figures of merit for technologies which, if developed, would provide cost savings while maintaining or improving the quality of care. Thus, the development of appropriate measures of outcomes and disease severity offer the opportunity to more properly and efficiently employ the technology of today, while pointing the way to technology which, if developed, would provide a greater cost savings tomorrow.

Re, Richard N.; Krousel-Wood, M. A.

1995-10-01

217

Slow fluorescent indicators of membrane potential: a survey of different approaches to probe response analysis.  

PubMed

Basic tenets related to the use of three main classes of potentiometric redistribution fluorescent dyes (carbocyanines, oxonols, and rhodamines) are discussed in detail. They include the structure/function relationship, formation of nonfluorescent (H-type) and fluorescent (J-type) dimers and higher aggregates, probe partitioning between membranes and medium and binding to membranes and intracellular components (with attendant changes in absorption and emission spectra, fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime). The crucial importance of suitable probe-to-cell concentration ratio and selection of optimum monitored fluorescence wavelength is illustrated in schematic diagrams and possible artifacts or puzzling results stemming from faulty experimental protocol are pointed out. Special attention is paid to procedures used for probe-response calibration (potential clamping by potassium in the presence of valinomycin, use of gramicidin D in combination with N-methylglucamine, activation of Ca-dependent K-channels by A23187, the null-point technique). Among other problems treated are dye toxicity, interaction with mitochondria and other organelles, and possible effects of intracellular pH and the quantity of cytosolic proteins and/or RNA on probe response. Individual techniques using redistribution dyes (fluorescence measurements in cuvettes, flow cytometry and microfluorimetry of individual cells including fluorescence confocal microscopy) are discussed in terms of reliability, limitations and drawbacks, and selection of suitable probes. Up-to-date examples of application of slow dyes illustrate the broad range of problems in which these probes can be used. PMID:8691353

Plásek, J; Sigler, K

1996-04-01

218

Plant DNA: A new substrate for carbon stable isotope analysis and a potential paleoenvironmental indicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ? 13C value of fossil plant materials can be used to gain insight into the dominant photosynthetic pathway, as well as other environmental attributes, of ancient plant ecosystems. Nucleotide sequences from land-plant nucleic acids extracted from 400 ka sediments have been recognized as the oldest authenticated fossil DNA, making the inference of plant taxonomy possible in substrates devoid of plant macro- and microfossils. If the C isotope relationship between bulk plant tissue and associated plant nucleic acids were known, fossil plant nucleic acids could be analyzed for ? 13C values and used as land-plant isotopic substrates within mixed organic material. Toward this end, we present ? 13C analyses of nucleic acids isolated from 12 higher-plant species that span the full phylogenetic diversity of seed plants. Extracted nucleic acids were dominated by double-stranded DNA containing fragments of rbcL gene ˜ 350 base pairs in length. The C isotope compositions of plant nucleic acids were found to be enriched in 13C relative to bulk plant tissue by a constant value (1.39 ‰ ). This study represents the first comparison of the ? 13C value of nucleic acids to the ? 13C value of bulk tissue for multicellular organisms; our results contrasted with the minimal fractionations reported for microorganisms. Because the isotopic enrichment ? 13C is constant across tracheophytes, the ? 13C value of fossil plant DNA can be used as a paleoenvironmental indicator, eliminating the need for morphological recognition of fossil plant material in paleoenvironmental studies.

Jahren, H.; Petersen, G.; Seberg, O.

2003-12-01

219

Plant DNA: A new substrate for carbon stable isotope analysis and a potential paleoenvironmental indicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?13C value of fossil plant materials can be used to gain insight into the dominant photosynthetic pathway, as well as other environmental attributes, of ancient plant ecosystems. Nucleotide sequences from land plant nucleic acids extracted from 400 ka fossil sediments have been recognized as the oldest authenticated fossil deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), making the inference of plant taxonomy possible in substrates devoid of plant macrofossils and microfossils. If the C isotope relationship between bulk plant tissue and associated plant nucleic acids were known, fossil plant nucleic acids could be analyzed for ?13C value and used as land plant isotopic substrates within mixed organic material. Toward this end, we present ?13C analyses of nucleic acids isolated from 12 higher plant species that span the full phylogenetic diversity of seed plants. Extracted nucleic acids were dominated by double-stranded DNA containing fragments of rbcL gene ˜350 base pairs in length. The C isotope compositions of plant nucleic acids were found to be enriched in 13C relative to bulk plant tissue by a constant value = 1.39‰. This study represents the first comparison of the ?13C value of nucleic acids to the ?13C value of bulk tissue for multicellular organisms; our results contrasted with the minimal fractionations reported for microorganisms. Because the isotopic enrichment is constant across tracheophytes, the ?13C value of fossil plant DNA can be used as a paleoenvironmental indicator, eliminating the need for morphological recognition of fossil plant material in paleoenvironmental studies.

Jahren, A. Hope; Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole

2004-03-01

220

Stable isotopes and inorganic elements as potential indicators of timber geographic origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Illegal logging is a major cause of worldwide deforestation. For regulation of such illegally harvested timber, we have to develop identification methods of timber geographic origin. In our 5-year project, chemical fingerprinting techniques using stable isotope ratios (?13C, ?18O, ?15N) and inorganic element concentrations (Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sr, V, Zn ) have been applied to tropical (Shorea spp.) and temperate (Pinus spp.) timber. Since the tropical timber does not have visible annual rings, we used wood taken from the whole radius for chemical analysis. Among the chemical parameters tested, oxygen and carbon isotope ratios have shown the strongest correlation with the geographic origin (latitude and longitude). By plotting the data on a ?13C-?18O map, we could separate wood from Borneo and Philippines, which are 1000km apart. However, separation of wood from among different areas in Borneo was not possible. Temperate timber has clealy visible annual rings and development of stable isotope time series is easier. By applying "dendroprovenancing" method (Eckstein et al., 1975) to carbon isotope time series, we could achieve provenancing of timber at higher spatial resolution. Estimated timber origins were 100-300 km away from the actual origins (Kagawa et al. 2009, submitted). Inorganic elements reflected soil type and soil water conditions rather than longitude and latitude of the habitat and were not effective indicators for provenancing wood.

Kagawa, A.; Abe, H.; Fujii, T.; Itoh, Y.

2008-12-01

221

Mycobacterium bovis DNA Detection in Colostrum as a Potential Indicator of Vaccination Effectiveness against Bovine Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a problem on many dairy farms in Mexico, as well as a public health risk. We previously found a high frequency of Mycobacterium bovis DNA in colostrum from dairy cows using a nested PCR to detect mpb70. Since there are no reliable in vivo tests to determine the effectiveness of booster Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against bTB, in this work we monitored M. bovis DNA in colostrum by using this nested PCR. In order to decrease the risk of adverse reactions in animals likely containing viable M. bovis, a single application of BCG and a subunit vaccine (EEP-1) formulated with M. bovis culture filtrate proteins (CFP) and a copolymer as the adjuvant was performed in tuberculin skin test-negative cattle (TST?), while TST reactor animals (TST+) received EEP-1 only. Booster immunization using EEP-1 was applied to both groups, 2 months after primary vaccination to whole herds and 12 months later to lactating cows. Colostrum samples were collected from 6 farms where the cows were vaccinated over a 12-month period postvaccination and, for comparison, from one control farm where the cows were not vaccinated with comparable bTB prevalence. We observed an inverse relationship between the frequency of M. bovis DNA detection and time postvaccination at the first (P < 0.001) and second (P < 0.0001) 6-month periods. Additionally, the concentration of gamma interferon (IFN-?) was higher in mpb70 PCR-positive colostrum samples (P = 0.0003). These results suggest that M. bovis DNA frequency in colostrum could be a potentially useful biomarker for bTB vaccine efficacy on commercial dairy farms.

Herrera-Rodriguez, Sara E.; Gordiano-Hidalgo, Maria Alejandra; Lopez-Rincon, Gonzalo; Bojorquez-Narvaez, Luis; Padilla-Ramirez, Francisco Javier; Pereira-Suarez, Ana Laura; Flores-Valdez, Mario Alberto

2013-01-01

222

Identifying outcome-based indicators and developing a curriculum for a continuing medical education programme on rational prescribing using a modified Delphi process  

PubMed Central

Background Continuing medical education (CME) is compulsory for physicians in Iran. Recent studies in Iran show that modifications of CME elements are necessary to improve the effectiveness of the educational programmes. Other studies point to an inappropriate, even irrational drug prescribing. Based on a needs assessment study regarding CME for general physicians in the East Azerbaijan province in Iran, rational prescribing practice was recognized as a high priority issue. Considering different educational methods, outcome-based education has been proposed as a suitable approach for CME. The purpose of the study was to obtain experts' consensus about appropriate educational outcomes of rational prescribing for general physicians in CME and developing curricular contents for this education. Methods The study consisted of two phases: The first phase was conducted using a two-round Delphi consensus process to identify the outcome-based educational indicators regarding rational prescribing for general physicians in primary care (GPs). In the second phase the agreed indicators were submitted to panels of experts for assessment and determination of content for a CME program in the field. Results Twenty one learning outcomes were identified through a modified Delphi process. The indicators were used by the panels of experts and six educational topics were determined for the CME programme and the curricular content of each was defined. The topics were 1) Principles of prescription writing, 2) Adverse drug reactions, 3) Drug interactions, 4) Injections, 5) Antibiotic therapy, and 6) Anti-inflammatory agents therapy. One of the topics was not directly related to any outcome, raising a question about the need for a discussion on constructive alignment. Conclusions Consensus on learning outcomes was achieved and an educational guideline was designed. Before suggesting widespread use in the country the educational package should be tested in the CME context.

Esmaily, Hamideh M; Savage, Carl; Vahidi, Rezagoli; Amini, Abolghasem; Zarrintan, Mohammad Hossein; Wahlstrom, Rolf

2008-01-01

223

Integrative genome-wide expression and promoter DNA methylation profiling identifies a potential novel panel of ovarian cancer epigenetic biomarkers.  

PubMed

To identify epigenetic-based biomarkers for diagnosis of ovarian cancer we performed MeDIP-Chip in A2780 and CaOV3 ovarian cancer cell lines. Validation by Sequenom massARRAY methylation analysis confirmed a panel of six gene promoters (ARMCX1, ICAM4, LOC134466, PEG3, PYCARD & SGNE1) where hypermethylation discriminated 27 serous ovarian cancer clinical samples versus 12 normal ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSE) (ROC of 0.98). Notably, CpG sites across the transcription start site of a potential long-intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) gene (LOC134466), was shown to be hypermethylated in 81% of serous EOC and could differentiate tumours from OSE (p<0.05). We propose that this potential biomarker panel holds great promise as a diagnostic test for high-grade (Type II) serous ovarian cancer. PMID:22155104

Gloss, Brian S; Patterson, Kate I; Barton, Caroline A; Gonzalez, Maria; Scurry, James P; Hacker, Neville F; Sutherland, Robert L; O'Brien, Philippa M; Clark, Susan J

2011-12-09

224

Potentiation of GABA(A) receptor-mediated Cl-current by urotensin peptides in identified Aplysia neurons.  

PubMed

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate and invertebrate central nervous systems, including those of molluscs. The effects of extracellularly applied urotensin peptides (urotensin I (UI) and urotensin II (UII)) on the GABA-induced Cl- current recorded from identified neurons (R9 and R12) of Aplysia kurodai were investigated using voltage-clamp and pressure ejection techniques. Focal application of 100 nM UI and UII potentiated the GABA-induced Cl- current without affecting the resting membrane conductance and holding current. The increase was completely reversible. The GABA-induced Cl- current also was potentiated by bath-applied UI and UII (5-10 nM). The potentiating effects of UI and UII on the GABA-induced Cl- current were concentration-dependent and completely reversible. These results suggest that neurotensin peptides may decrease neuronal excitability by potentiating the GABA(A) receptor-mediated Cl- current in the neurons of mammalian and invertebrate central nervous systems. PMID:10369221

Sawada, M; Ichinose, M

1999-06-01

225

Membrane potential dependence of intracellular pH regulation by identified glial cells in the leech central nervous system.  

PubMed Central

1. We have measured the intracellular pH (pHi) and membrane potential of identified glial cells in the central nervous system of the leech, Hirudo medicinalis, using double-barrelled pH-sensitive microelectrodes. 2. When extracellular K+ concentration was increased, the glial membrane potential decreased and pHi increased; lowering the extracellular K+ concentration hyperpolarized the glial membrane and decreased pHi. These pHi changes were largely dependent upon the presence of CO2-HCO3-; in nominally CO2-HCO3(-)-free saline solution, they were 50-80% smaller. 3. The steady-state pHi of the glial cells in CO2-HCO3(-)-buffered saline solution strongly correlated with the membrane potential between -40 and -90 mV. The slope of this relationship was 60 mV/pH unit. 4. The neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (50 microM), which hyperpolarizes the glial membrane, also produced a large, CO2-HCO3(-)-dependent decrease in pHi. The size of the pHi change depended upon the amplitude of the membrane hyperpolarization. 5. The increase in pHi produced by the membrane depolarization in 20 mM-K+ was abolished in Na(+)-free saline. Removal of external Na+ in the presence of 20 mM-K+ reversed the pHi increase. 6. The pHi increase in 20 mM-K+ was also inhibited by the stilbene 4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS, 0.5 mM). In a DIDS-poisoned preparation a small decrease of pHi was observed in 20 mM-K+ both in the presence and nominal absence of CO2-HCO3-. 7. In neurones, neither CO2-HCO3- nor 20 mM-K+ produced an intracellular alkanization. The steady-state pHi of several identified neurones was not correlated with the membrane potential. 8. We conclude that in glial cells, but not in neurones, the pHi is dependent upon the membrane potential. This membrane potential dependence is due to the activity of the electrogenic Na(+)-HCO3- co-transporter in the glial cell membrane.

Deitmer, J W; Szatkowski, M

1990-01-01

226

Aerobic Fitness and Cognitive Development: Event-Related Brain Potential and Task Performance Indices of Executive Control in Preadolescent Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between aerobic fitness and executive control was assessed in 38 higher- and lower-fit children (Mage = 9.4 years), grouped according to their performance on a field test of aerobic capacity. Participants performed a flanker task requiring variable amounts of executive control while event-related brain potential responses and task performance were assessed. Results indicated that higher-fit children performed more

Jason R. Themanson; Charles H. Hillman; Sarah M. Buck; Matthew B. Pontifex; Darla M. Castelli

2009-01-01

227

Meta-Analysis Indicates That the European GWAS-Identified Risk SNP rs1344706 within ZNF804A Is Not Associated with Schizophrenia in Han Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Recent genetic association studies have implicated several candidate susceptibility variants for schizophrenia among general populations. Rs1344706, an intronic SNP within ZNF804A, was identified as one of the most compelling candidate risk SNPs for schizophrenia in Europeans through genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and replications as well as large-scale meta-analyses. However, in Han Chinese, the results for rs1344706 are inconsistent, and whether rs1344706 is an authentic risk SNP for schizophrenia in Han Chinese is inconclusive. Here, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis of rs1344706 with schizophrenia in Chinese population by combining all available case-control samples (N?=?12), including a total of 8,982 cases and 12,342 controls. The results of our meta-analysis were not able to confirm an association of rs1344706 A-allele with schizophrenia (p?=?0.10, odds ratio?=?1.06, 95% confidence interval?=?0.99–1.13). Such absence of association was further confirmed by the non-superiority test (p?=?0.0003), suggesting that rs1344706 is not a risk SNP for schizophrenia in Han Chinese. Detailed examinations of individual samples revealed potential sampling bias in previous replication studies in Han Chinese. The absence of rs1344706 association in Han Chinese suggest a potential genetic heterogeneity in the susceptibility of schizophrenia on this locus and also demonstrate the difficulties in replicating genome-wide association findings of schizophrenia across different ethnic populations.

Luo, Xiong-jian; Gao, Lei; Qi, Xue-bin; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Su, Bing

2013-01-01

228

Meta-analysis indicates that the European GWAS-identified risk SNP rs1344706 within ZNF804A is not associated with schizophrenia in Han Chinese population.  

PubMed

Recent genetic association studies have implicated several candidate susceptibility variants for schizophrenia among general populations. Rs1344706, an intronic SNP within ZNF804A, was identified as one of the most compelling candidate risk SNPs for schizophrenia in Europeans through genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and replications as well as large-scale meta-analyses. However, in Han Chinese, the results for rs1344706 are inconsistent, and whether rs1344706 is an authentic risk SNP for schizophrenia in Han Chinese is inconclusive. Here, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis of rs1344706 with schizophrenia in Chinese population by combining all available case-control samples (N?=?12), including a total of 8,982 cases and 12,342 controls. The results of our meta-analysis were not able to confirm an association of rs1344706 A-allele with schizophrenia (p?=?0.10, odds ratio?=?1.06, 95% confidence interval?=?0.99-1.13). Such absence of association was further confirmed by the non-superiority test (p?=?0.0003), suggesting that rs1344706 is not a risk SNP for schizophrenia in Han Chinese. Detailed examinations of individual samples revealed potential sampling bias in previous replication studies in Han Chinese. The absence of rs1344706 association in Han Chinese suggest a potential genetic heterogeneity in the susceptibility of schizophrenia on this locus and also demonstrate the difficulties in replicating genome-wide association findings of schizophrenia across different ethnic populations. PMID:23776546

Li, Ming; Zhang, Hui; Luo, Xiong-jian; Gao, Lei; Qi, Xue-bin; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Su, Bing

2013-06-12

229

Identifying the serotonin transporter signal in Western blot studies of the neurotoxic potential of MDMA and related drugs.  

PubMed

A number of published studies have questioned the serotonin neurotoxic potential of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") and related drugs (fenfluramine, p-chloroamphetamine) based upon results from Western blot studies using a custom synthesized serotonin transporter (SERT) antibody that found no reduction in the abundance of a 50kDa protein after substituted amphetamine treatment. The purpose of this study was to collect Western blot data using the same SERT antibody used in those studies, but with positive and negative controls to identify the SERT protein signal. A 63-68 kDa band that had the regional distribution expected of rat brain SERT, was decreased by 5,7-DHT, and was absent in SERT KO animals was identified as the SERT protein. Significant, lasting decreases in the abundance of the 63-68 kDa band were evident in the rat brain after treatment with MDMA and related drugs (FEN, PCA). Thus, when the band corresponding to the SERT protein is identified in Western blots through the use of positive and negative controls, reduced abundance of the SERT protein can be readily demonstrated after substituted amphetamine treatment. These data provide further evidence of lasting loss of the SERT protein after exposure to MDMA and other substituted amphetamines. PMID:21633976

McLane, Michael W; McCann, Una; Ricaurte, George

2011-06-17

230

Zebrafish: an emerging technology for in vivo pharmacological assessment to identify potential safety liabilities in early drug discovery  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish is a well-established model organism used in developmental biology. In the last decade, this technology has been extended to the generation of high-value knowledge on safety risks of novel drugs. Indeed, the larval zebrafish appear to combine advantages of whole organism phenotypic assays and those (rapid production of results with minimal resource engagement) of in vitro high-throughput screening techniques. Thus, if appropriately evaluated, it can offer undeniable advantages in drug discovery for identification of target and off-target effects. Here, we review some applications of zebrafish to identify potential safety liabilities, particularly before lead/candidate selection. For instance, zebrafish cardiovascular system can be used to reveal decreases in heart rate and atrial–ventricular dissociation, which may signal human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel blockade. Another main area of interest is the CNS, where zebrafish behavioural assays have been and are further being developed into screening platforms for assessment of locomotor activity, convulsant and proconvulsant liability, cognitive impairment, drug dependence potential and impaired visual and auditory functions. Zebrafish also offer interesting possibilities for evaluating effects on bone density and gastrointestinal function. Furthermore, available knowledge of the renal system in larval zebrafish can allow identification of potential safety issues of drug candidates on this often neglected area in early development platforms. Although additional validation is certainly needed, the zebrafish is emerging as a versatile in vivo animal model to identify off-target effects that need investigation and further clarification early in the drug discovery process to reduce the current, high degree of attrition in development.

Barros, T P; Alderton, W K; Reynolds, H M; Roach, A G; Berghmans, S

2008-01-01

231

Integration of photomosaics and stratigraphy in the Western Appalachian Basin as an aid to identify potential hydrocarbon reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Paleozoic stratigraphy of the southern Lake Erie region is commonly interpreted as being dominated by flat-lying sedimentary rocks. Recent surface stratigraphic studies in New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio have revealed the widespread presence of NW- and NE-trending folds and faults exposed along stream beds, and in bluffs along the southern Lake Erie shoreline. A black shale unit, previously unknown in northwestern Pennsylvania, was also discovered and its lateral continuity mapped. The shale forms a disconformable contact with the overlying Northeast Shale. Ship-based photomosaics were made of bluffs along Lake Erie, and integrated with land-based stratigraphic sections to map the continuity of units, identify displacement zones, and identify low amplitude folds. The black shale unit aided identification of offset and folding. Faults observed at the surface off-set Devonian and Mississippian rocks, and unconsolidated Quaternary sediments. Subsurface wrench faults, apparently extending into Precambrian rocks, have been identified by others. These wrench faults are generally perpendicular to the strike of the Appalachian Mountains, and are known as cross-strike discontinuities (CSDs). Principle zones of displacement associated with the CSDs can be recognized at the surface by numerous fractures having little offset, aligned drainage systems, and zones of increased hydrocarbon productivity and fluid migration. Increased hydrocarbons production occurs where reservoirs are cross-cut by the faults. The faults offset various reservoirs in Pennsylvania and Ohio in the subsurface. Identifying the location of these faults at the surface may provide information that leads top the discovery of new potential reservoirs.

Wegweiser, M.D. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-09-01

232

Adult Fanniidae associated to pig carcasses during the winter season in a semiarid environment: initial examination of their potential as complementary PMI indicators.  

PubMed

Besides the dominant necrophagous dipteran of the families Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae usually used for post mortem interval (PMI) estimations, species of other families such as Fanniidae have frequently been reported in forensic studies. Though less abundant, these species are prevalent in decomposing carcasses with most reports being anecdotal. In this study we identified adults of the fly family Fanniidae associated to pig carcasses located under different local environmental conditions (sun and shade) in a semiarid area at Mendoza, Argentina during the winter season. We examined the potential of species of this family as indicators of PMI by measuring abundance, time of occurrence and residency time at the carcasses. We identified six species of Fanniidae: Euryomma peregrinum Meigen, Fannia albitarsis Stein, Fannia femoralis Stein, Fannia fusconotata Rondani, Fannia heydenii Wiedemann and Fannia sanihue Domínguez and Aballay. Overall, fly abundance was higher at the sunlit than at the shaded carcass. The most abundant species at the sun was F. fusconotata while at the shaded carcass F. femoralis was the most abundant species. Based on their residency time, however, species with higher potential as PMI indicators seem to be F. heydenii and F. sanihue as their residency time at the carcass was restricted to a short period of the decomposition process. Other species were present throughout most of the decomposition process or in such a low abundance (E. peregrinum) that they were not useful as indicators. These preliminary results indicate that adults of some species of Fanniidae could act as a good complementary indicator species during the winter season. In particular, F. heydenii and F. sanihue should be the focus of further studies which should also expand to other seasons. PMID:22188639

Aballay, Fernando H; Domínguez, M Cecilia; Fernández Campón, Florencia

2011-12-19

233

A cell-based fascin bioassay identifies compounds with potential anti-metastasis or cognition-enhancing functions.  

PubMed

The actin-bundling protein fascin is a key mediator of tumor invasion and metastasis and its activity drives filopodia formation, cell-shape changes and cell migration. Small-molecule inhibitors of fascin block tumor metastasis in animal models. Conversely, fascin deficiency might underlie the pathogenesis of some developmental brain disorders. To identify fascin-pathway modulators we devised a cell-based assay for fascin function and used it in a bidirectional drug screen. The screen utilized cultured fascin-deficient mutant Drosophila neurons, whose neurite arbors manifest the 'filagree' phenotype. Taking a repurposing approach, we screened a library of 1040 known compounds, many of them FDA-approved drugs, for filagree modifiers. Based on scaffold distribution, molecular-fingerprint similarities, and chemical-space distribution, this library has high structural diversity, supporting its utility as a screening tool. We identified 34 fascin-pathway blockers (with potential anti-metastasis activity) and 48 fascin-pathway enhancers (with potential cognitive-enhancer activity). The structural diversity of the active compounds suggests multiple molecular targets. Comparisons of active and inactive compounds provided preliminary structure-activity relationship information. The screen also revealed diverse neurotoxic effects of other drugs, notably the 'beads-on-a-string' defect, which is induced solely by statins. Statin-induced neurotoxicity is enhanced by fascin deficiency. In summary, we provide evidence that primary neuron culture using a genetic model organism can be valuable for early-stage drug discovery and developmental neurotoxicity testing. Furthermore, we propose that, given an appropriate assay for target-pathway function, bidirectional screening for brain-development disorders and invasive cancers represents an efficient, multipurpose strategy for drug discovery. PMID:22917928

Kraft, Robert; Kahn, Allon; Medina-Franco, José L; Orlowski, Mikayla L; Baynes, Cayla; López-Vallejo, Fabian; Barnard, Kobus; Maggiora, Gerald M; Restifo, Linda L

2012-08-23

234

Indicator organisms in meat and poultry slaughter operations: their potential use in process control and the role of emerging technologies.  

PubMed

Measuring commonly occurring, nonpathogenic organisms on poultry products may be used for designing statistical process control systems that could result in reductions of pathogen levels. The extent of pathogen level reduction that could be obtained from actions resulting from monitoring these measurements over time depends upon the degree of understanding cause-effect relationships between processing variables, selected output variables, and pathogens. For such measurements to be effective for controlling or improving processing to some capability level within the statistical process control context, sufficiently frequent measurements would be needed to help identify processing deficiencies. Ultimately the correct balance of sampling and resources is determined by those characteristics of deficient processing that are important to identify. We recommend strategies that emphasize flexibility, depending upon sampling objectives. Coupling the measurement of levels of indicator organisms with practical emerging technologies and suitable on-site platforms that decrease the time between sample collections and interpreting results would enhance monitoring process control. PMID:21819672

Saini, Parmesh K; Marks, Harry M; Dreyfuss, Moshe S; Evans, Peter; Cook, L Victor; Dessai, Uday

2011-08-01

235

Gene Expression Profiling in a Mouse Model Identifies Fetal Liver- and Placenta-Derived Potential Biomarkers for Down Syndrome Screening  

PubMed Central

Background As a first step to identify novel potential biomarkers for prenatal Down Syndrome screening, we analyzed gene expression in embryos of wild type mice and the Down Syndrome model Ts1Cje. Since current Down Syndrome screening markers are derived from placenta and fetal liver, these tissues were chosen as target. Methodology/Principal Findings Placenta and fetal liver at 15.5 days gestation were analyzed by microarray profiling. We confirmed increased expression of genes located at the trisomic chromosomal region. Overall, between the two genotypes more differentially expressed genes were found in fetal liver than in placenta. Furthermore, the fetal liver data are in line with the hematological aberrations found in humans with Down Syndrome as well as Ts1Cje mice. Together, we found 25 targets that are predicted (by Gene Ontology, UniProt, or the Human Plasma Proteome project) to be detectable in human serum. Conclusions/Significance Fetal liver might harbor more promising targets for Down Syndrome screening studies. We expect these new targets will help focus further experimental studies on identifying and validating human maternal serum biomarkers for Down Syndrome screening.

Imholz, Sandra; Koster, Maria P. H.; van Oostrom, Conny T. M.; Breit, Timo M.; Schielen, Peter C. J. I.; de Vries, Annemieke

2011-01-01

236

Cross-comparison of the genome sequences from human, chimpanzee, Neanderthal and a Denisovan hominin identifies novel potentially compensated mutations.  

PubMed

The recent publication of the draft genome sequences of the Neanderthal and a ?50,000-year-old archaic hominin from Denisova Cave in southern Siberia has ushered in a new age in molecular archaeology. We previously cross-compared the human, chimpanzee and Neanderthal genome sequences with respect to a set of disease-causing/disease-associated missense and regulatory mutations (Human Gene Mutation Database) and succeeded in identifying genetic variants which, although apparently pathogenic in humans, may represent a 'compensated' wild-type state in at least one of the other two species. Here, in an attempt to identify further 'potentially compensated mutations' (PCMs) of interest, we have compared our dataset of disease-causing/disease-associated mutations with their corresponding nucleotide positions in the Denisovan hominin, Neanderthal and chimpanzee genomes. Of the 15 human putatively disease-causing mutations that were found to be compensated in chimpanzee, Denisovan or Neanderthal, only a solitary F5 variant (Val1736Met) was specific to the Denisovan. In humans, this missense mutation is associated with activated protein C resistance and an increased risk of thromboembolism and recurrent miscarriage. It is unclear at this juncture whether this variant was indeed a PCM in the Denisovan or whether it could instead have been associated with disease in this ancient hominin. PMID:21807602

Zhang, Guojie; Pei, Zhang; Ball, Edward V; Mort, Matthew; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard; Cooper, David N

2011-07-01

237

Cross-comparison of the genome sequences from human, chimpanzee, Neanderthal and a Denisovan hominin identifies novel potentially compensated mutations  

PubMed Central

The recent publication of the draft genome sequences of the Neanderthal and a ~50,000-year-old archaic hominin from Denisova Cave in southern Siberia has ushered in a new age in molecular archaeology. We previously cross-compared the human, chimpanzee and Neanderthal genome sequences with respect to a set of disease-causing/disease-associated missense and regulatory mutations (Human Gene Mutation Database) and succeeded in identifying genetic variants which, although apparently pathogenic in humans, may represent a 'compensated' wild-type state in at least one of the other two species. Here, in an attempt to identify further 'potentially compensated mutations' (PCMs) of interest, we have compared our dataset of disease-causing/disease-associated mutations with their corresponding nucleotide positions in the Denisovan hominin, Neanderthal and chimpanzee genomes. Of the 15 human putatively disease-causing mutations that were found to be compensated in chimpanzee, Denisovan or Neanderthal, only a solitary F5 variant (Val1736Met) was specific to the Denisovan. In humans, this missense mutation is associated with activated protein C resistance and an increased risk of thromboembolism and recurrent miscarriage. It is unclear at this juncture whether this variant was indeed a PCM in the Denisovan or whether it could instead have been associated with disease in this ancient hominin.

2011-01-01

238

Potential immunogenic polypeptides of Burkholderia pseudomallei identified by shotgun expression library and evaluation of their efficacy for serodiagnosis of melioidosis.  

PubMed

The search for novel immunogenic polypeptides to improve the accuracy and reliability of serologic diagnostic methods for Burkholderia pseudomallei infection is ongoing. We employed a rapid and efficient approach to identify such polypeptides with sera from melioidosis patients using a small insert genomic expression library created from clinically confirmed local virulent isolates of B. pseudomallei. After 2 rounds of immunoscreening, 6 sero-positive clones expressing immunogenic peptides were sequenced and their identities were: benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit, a putative 200 kDa antigen p200, phosphotransferase enzyme family protein, short chain dehydrogenase and 2 hypothetical proteins. These immunogens were then transferred to an ELISA platform for further large scale screening. By combining shotgun expression library and ELISA assays, we identified 2 polypeptides BPSS1904 (benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit) and BPSL3130 (hypothetical protein), which had sensitivities of 78.9% and 79.4% and specificities of 88.1% and 94.8%, respectively in ELISA test, thus suggesting that both are potential candidate antigens for the serodiagnosis of infections caused by B. pseudomallei. PMID:23532805

Puah, Suat Moi; Puthucheary, S D; Chua, Kek Heng

2013-03-13

239

Potential Immunogenic Polypeptides of Burkholderia pseudomallei Identified by Shotgun Expression Library and Evaluation of Their Efficacy for Serodiagnosis of Melioidosis  

PubMed Central

The search for novel immunogenic polypeptides to improve the accuracy and reliability of serologic diagnostic methods for Burkholderia pseudomallei infection is ongoing. We employed a rapid and efficient approach to identify such polypeptides with sera from melioidosis patients using a small insert genomic expression library created from clinically confirmed local virulent isolates of B. pseudomallei. After 2 rounds of immunoscreening, 6 sero-positive clones expressing immunogenic peptides were sequenced and their identities were: benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit, a putative 200 kDa antigen p200, phosphotransferase enzyme family protein, short chain dehydrogenase and 2 hypothetical proteins. These immunogens were then transferred to an ELISA platform for further large scale screening. By combining shotgun expression library and ELISA assays, we identified 2 polypeptides BPSS1904 (benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit) and BPSL3130 (hypothetical protein), which had sensitivities of 78.9% and 79.4% and specificities of 88.1% and 94.8%, respectively in ELISA test, thus suggesting that both are potential candidate antigens for the serodiagnosis of infections caused by B. pseudomallei.

Puah, Suat Moi; Puthucheary, SD; Chua, Kek Heng

2013-01-01

240

Genetic analysis of fin development in zebrafish identifies furin and hemicentin1 as potential novel fraser syndrome disease genes.  

PubMed

Using forward genetics, we have identified the genes mutated in two classes of zebrafish fin mutants. The mutants of the first class are characterized by defects in embryonic fin morphogenesis, which are due to mutations in a Laminin subunit or an Integrin alpha receptor, respectively. The mutants of the second class display characteristic blistering underneath the basement membrane of the fin epidermis. Three of them are due to mutations in zebrafish orthologues of FRAS1, FREM1, or FREM2, large basement membrane protein encoding genes that are mutated in mouse bleb mutants and in human patients suffering from Fraser Syndrome, a rare congenital condition characterized by syndactyly and cryptophthalmos. Fin blistering in a fourth group of zebrafish mutants is caused by mutations in Hemicentin1 (Hmcn1), another large extracellular matrix protein the function of which in vertebrates was hitherto unknown. Our mutant and dose-dependent interaction data suggest a potential involvement of Hmcn1 in Fraser complex-dependent basement membrane anchorage. Furthermore, we present biochemical and genetic data suggesting a role for the proprotein convertase FurinA in zebrafish fin development and cell surface shedding of Fras1 and Frem2, thereby allowing proper localization of the proteins within the basement membrane of forming fins. Finally, we identify the extracellular matrix protein Fibrillin2 as an indispensable interaction partner of Hmcn1. Thus we have defined a series of zebrafish mutants modelling Fraser Syndrome and have identified several implicated novel genes that might help to further elucidate the mechanisms of basement membrane anchorage and of the disease's aetiology. In addition, the novel genes might prove helpful to unravel the molecular nature of thus far unresolved cases of the human disease. PMID:20419147

Carney, Thomas J; Feitosa, Natália Martins; Sonntag, Carmen; Slanchev, Krasimir; Kluger, Johannes; Kiyozumi, Daiji; Gebauer, Jan M; Coffin Talbot, Jared; Kimmel, Charles B; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Wagener, Raimund; Schwarz, Heinz; Ingham, Phillip W; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

2010-04-15

241

Heterologous Expression Studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Reveal Two Distinct Trypanosomatid CaaX Protease Activities and Identify Their Potential Targets? †  

PubMed Central

The CaaX tetrapeptide motif typically directs three sequential posttranslational modifications, namely, isoprenylation, proteolysis, and carboxyl methylation. In all eukaryotic systems evaluated to date, two CaaX proteases (Rce1 and Ste24/Afc1) have been identified. Although the Trypanosoma brucei genome also encodes two putative CaaX proteases, the lack of detectable T. brucei Ste24 activity in trypanosome cell extracts has suggested that CaaX proteolytic activity within this organism is solely attributed to T. brucei Rce1 (J. R. Gillespie et al., Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 153:115-124. 2007). In this study, we demonstrate that both T. brucei Rce1 and T. brucei Ste24 are enzymatically active when heterologously expressed in yeast. Using a-factor and GTPase reporters, we demonstrate that T. brucei Rce1 and T. brucei Ste24 possess partially overlapping specificities much like, but not identical to, their fungal and human counterparts. Of interest, a CaaX motif found on a trypanosomal Hsp40 protein was not cleaved by either T. brucei CaaX protease when examined in the context of the yeast a-factor reporter but was cleaved by both in the context of the Hsp40 protein itself when evaluated using an in vitro radiolabeling assay. We further demonstrate that T. brucei Rce1 is sensitive to small molecules previously identified as inhibitors of the yeast and human CaaX proteases and that a subset of these compounds disrupt T. brucei Rce1-dependent localization of our GTPase reporter in yeast. Together, our results suggest the conserved presence of two CaaX proteases in trypanosomatids, identify an Hsp40 protein as a substrate of both T. brucei CaaX proteases, support the potential use of small molecule CaaX protease inhibitors as tools for cell biological studies on the trafficking of CaaX proteins, and provide evidence that protein context influences T. brucei CaaX protease specificity.

Mokry, David Z.; Manandhar, Surya P.; Chicola, Kristen A.; Santangelo, George M.; Schmidt, Walter K.

2009-01-01

242

Measurement of extravascular lung water using the single indicator method in patients: research and potential clinical value  

PubMed Central

Extravascular lung water includes all of the fluid within the lung but outside of the vasculature. Lung water increases as a result of increased hydrostatic vascular pressure or from an increase in lung endothelial and epithelial permeability or both. Experimentally, extravascular lung water has been measured gravimetrically. Clinically, the chest radiograph is used to determine whether extravascular lung water is present but is an insensitive instrument for determining the quantity of lung water. Bedside measurement of extravascular lung water in patients is now possible using a single indicator thermodilution method. This review critically evaluates the experimental and clinical evidence supporting the potential value of measuring extravascular lung water in patients using the single indicator method.

Liu, Kathleen D.; Matthay, Michael A.

2009-01-01

243

Investigation of the human brain metabolome to identify potential markers for early diagnosis and therapeutic targets of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

A study combining high resolution mass spectrometry (liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry, UPLC-QTof-MS) and chemometrics for the analysis of post-mortem brain tissue from subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 15) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 15) was undertaken. The huge potential of this metabolomics approach for distinguishing AD cases is underlined by the correct prediction of disease status in 94-97% of cases. Predictive power was confirmed in a blind test set of 60 samples, reaching 100% diagnostic accuracy. The approach also indicated compounds significantly altered in concentration following the onset of human AD. Using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), a multivariate model was created for both modes of acquisition explaining the maximum amount of variation between sample groups (Positive Mode-R2 = 97%; Q2 = 93%; root mean squared error of validation (RMSEV) = 13%; Negative Mode-R2 = 99%; Q2 = 92%; RMSEV = 15%). In brain extracts, 1264 and 1457 ions of interest were detected for the different modes of acquisition (positive and negative, respectively). Incorporation of gender into the model increased predictive accuracy and decreased RMSEV values. High resolution UPLC-QTof-MS has not previously been employed to biochemically profile post-mortem brain tissue, and the novel methods described and validated herein prove its potential for making new discoveries related to the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of degenerative brain disorders. PMID:23252551

Graham, Stewart F; Chevallier, Olivier P; Roberts, Dominic; Hölscher, Christian; Elliott, Christopher T; Green, Brian D

2013-01-08

244

Use of magnitude-squared coherence to identify the maximum driving response band of the somatosensory evoked potential.  

PubMed

The present study proposes to apply magnitude-squared coherence (MSC) to the somatosensory evoked potential for identifying the maximum driving response band. EEG signals, leads [Fpz'-Cz'] and [C3'-C4'], were collected from two groups of normal volunteers, stimulated at the rate of 4.91 (G1: 26 volunteers) and 5.13 Hz (G2: 18 volunteers). About 1400 stimuli were applied to the right tibial nerve at the motor threshold level. After applying the anti-aliasing filter, the signals were digitized and then further low-pass filtered (200 Hz, 6th order Butterworth and zero-phase). Based on the rejection of the null hypothesis of response absence (MSC(f) > 0.0060 with 500 epochs and the level of significance set at a = 0.05), the beta and gamma bands, 15-66 Hz, were identified as the maximum driving response band. Taking both leads together ("logical-OR detector", with a false-alarm rate of a = 0.05, and hence a = 0.0253 for each derivation), the detection exceeded 70% for all multiples of the stimulation frequency within this range. Similar performance was achieved for MSC of both leads but at 15, 25, 35, and 40 Hz. Moreover, the response was detected in [C3'-C4'] at 35.9 Hz and in [Fpz'-Cz'] at 46.2 Hz for all members of G2. Using the "logical-OR detector" procedure, the response was detected at the 7th multiple of the stimulation frequency for the series as a whole (considering both groups). Based on these findings, the MSC technique may be used for monitoring purposes. PMID:17160269

Infantosi, A F C; Melges, D B; Tierra-Criollo, C J

2006-12-01

245

Computational analysis of anti-HIV-1 antibody neutralization panel data to identify potential functional epitope residues  

PubMed Central

Advances in single-cell antibody cloning methods have led to the identification of a variety of broadly neutralizing anti–HIV-1 antibodies. We developed a computational tool (Antibody Database) to help identify critical residues on the HIV-1 envelope protein whose natural variation affects antibody activity. Our simplifying assumption was that, for a given antibody, a significant portion of the dispersion of neutralization activity across a panel of HIV-1 strains is due to the amino acid identity or glycosylation state at a small number of specific sites, each acting independently. A model of an antibody’s neutralization IC50 was developed in which each site contributes a term to the logarithm of the modeled IC50. The analysis program attempts to determine the set of rules that minimizes the sum of the residuals between observed and modeled IC50 values. The predictive quality of the identified rules may be assessed in part by whether there is support for rules within individual viral clades. As a test case, we analyzed antibody 8ANC195, an anti-glycoprotein gp120 antibody of unknown specificity. The model for this antibody indicated that several glycosylation sites were critical for neutralization. We evaluated this prediction by measuring neutralization potencies of 8ANC195 against HIV-1 in vitro and in an antibody therapy experiment in humanized mice. These experiments confirmed that 8ANC195 represents a distinct class of glycan-dependent anti–HIV-1 antibody and validated the utility of computational analysis of neutralization panel data.

West, Anthony P.; Scharf, Louise; Horwitz, Joshua; Klein, Florian; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.

2013-01-01

246

Leaching of Zinc Sulfide by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Experiments with a Controlled Redox Potential Indicate No Direct Bacterial Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The role of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in bacterial leaching of mineral sulfides is controversial. Much of the controversy is due to the fact that the solution conditions, especially the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions, change during experiments. The role of the bacteria would be more easily discernible if the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions were maintained at set values throughout the experimental period. In this paper we report results obtained by using the constant redox potential apparatus described previously (P. I. Harvey and F. K. Crundwell, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:2586–2592, 1997). This apparatus is designed to control the redox potential in the leaching compartment of an electrolytic cell by reduction or oxidation of dissolved iron. By controlling the redox potential the apparatus maintains the concentrations of ferrous and ferric ions at their initial values. Experiments were conducted in the presence of T. ferrooxidans and under sterile conditions. Analysis of the conversion of zinc sulfide in the absence of the bacteria and analysis of the conversion of zinc sulfate in the presence of the bacteria produced the same results. This indicates that the only role of the bacteria under the conditions used is regeneration of ferric ions in solution. In this work we found no evidence that there is a direct mechanism for bacterial leaching.

Fowler, T. A.; Crundwell, F. K.

1998-01-01

247

Sorptive behavior of nitro-PAHs in street runoff and their potential as indicators of diesel vehicle exhaust particles.  

PubMed

This is the first report to reveal the particle-water distribution of nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and to discuss their potential risks and utility as indicators of diesel vehicle exhaust particles (DEP). Time-series samples of runoff were collected from a highway, and NPAHs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to study their dynamic behavior. The concentrations of total NPAHs ranged from 11 to 73 ng/L in particulate phase (>0.7 mcirom) and from 2.3 to 4.9 ng/L in dissolved phase (<0.7 microm). Like their PAH analogs, most (81-97%) NPAHs were associated with particulate matter. The organic carbon-normalized in situ partition coefficients (Koc') of NPAHs observed in runoff events (10(5.8-6.3) for 2-nitrofluoranthene and 10(5.8-6.2) for 1-nitropyrene [1-NP]) were more than 1 order of magnitude higher than those expected from their Kow, indicating great affinity for particulate matter such as soot. Concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs adjusted by potency equivalency factors and induction equivalency factors showed that the potential risks of NPAHs were smaller than those of PAHs by a factor of more than a hundred for the particulate phase and morethan fourforthe dissolved phase. Comparison of concentrations and compositions of NPAHs and PAHs among runoff, DEP, gasoline vehicle exhaust particles, boiler exhaust particles, and aerosols suggested that the ratio of 1-NP to total PAHs (1-NP/PAH) is a useful indicator of DEP for source apportionment of PAHs among traffic-related sources. Source-apportionment of PAHs in the runoff by 1-NP/PAH and methylphenanthrene/phenanthrene ratios suggested that most PAHs in the runoff except the second flush peak were derived from DEP but that other pyrogenic sources contributed to the particles at the second flush and thus to the overall runoff particles. PMID:18351085

Murakami, Michio; Yamada, Junya; Kumata, Hidetoshi; Takada, Hideshige

2008-02-15

248

Identifying flood deposits in lake sediments : Changing frequencies and potential links to long-term climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to improve the understanding of long-term variability in flood frequency and how they relate to climate change, we have developed a method that objectively identifies the sedimentary imprint of individual river floods in downstream lake basins. Here we have applied the method to two lake sediment records collected from two different mountainous areas in Southern Norway, resulting in detailed records of Holocene river-flood activity covering the last c. 10,000 years. Identification of historically known floods during instrumental and historical times (AD 1958, 1938, 1860 and 1789) suggest that the approach is reliable not just for recent times, but also for the entire Holocene. The results indicate that both frequency and distribution of floods over southern Norway has changed significantly during the Holocene. Flood frequency was, for example, highest over the last 2300 years when recorded flood frequency was about 2-3 times higher than the Holocene mean. During the early and middle Holocene flood frequency was on the contrary generally low; around half of the Holocene mean. The two examined flood records, retrieved from lakes lying c. 70 km apart, reveal subtle differences, but nonetheless produce a pattern that alternates on centennial timescales. Our results indicate that these differences cannot be explained by local conditions associated with the respective catchments. Moreover, we rule out possible external factors such as altitudinal changes due to isostatic movement, changes in vegetation cover etc. The present regional discharge regime is dominated by spring-summer snow-melt and we conclude that the observed changes in flood frequency most likely is attributed to changes in snow cover, which primarily is a function of winter precipitation and the accumulation (integrated over decades) of perennial snowfields in the mountains.

Støren, E.; Paasche, Ø.; Dahl, S. O.; Nesje, A.; Kolstad, E.

2012-04-01

249

Using PharmGKB to train text mining approaches for identifying potential gene targets for pharmacogenomic studies.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using PharmGKB, a pharmacogenomic database, as a source of training data in combination with text of MEDLINE abstracts for a text mining approach to identification of potential gene targets for pathway-driven pharmacogenomics research. We used the manually curated relations between drugs and genes in PharmGKB database to train a support vector machine predictive model and applied this model prospectively to MEDLINE abstracts. The gene targets suggested by this approach were subsequently manually reviewed. Our quantitative analysis showed that a support vector machine classifiers trained on MEDLINE abstracts with single words (unigrams) used as features and PharmGKB relations used for supervision, achieve an overall sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 69%. The subsequent qualitative analysis showed that gene targets "suggested" by the automatic classifier were not anticipated by expert reviewers but were subsequently found to be relevant to the three drugs that were investigated: carbamazepine, lamivudine and zidovudine. Our results show that this approach is not only feasible but may also find new gene targets not identifiable by other methods thus making it a valuable tool for pathway-driven pharmacogenomics research. PMID:22564551

Pakhomov, S; McInnes, B T; Lamba, J; Liu, Y; Melton, G B; Ghodke, Y; Bhise, N; Lamba, V; Birnbaum, A K

2012-05-04

250

USING PharmGKB TO TRAIN TEXT MINING APPROACHES FOR IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL GENE TARGETS FOR PHARMACOGENOMIC STUDIES  

PubMed Central

The main objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using PharmGKB, a pharmacogenomic database, as a source of training data in combination with text of MEDLINE abstracts for a text mining approach to identification of potential gene targets for pathway-driven pharmacogenomics research. We used the manually curated relations between drugs and genes in PharmGKB database to train a support vector machine predictive model and applied this model prospectively to MEDLINE abstracts. The gene targets suggested by this approach were subsequently manually reviewed. Our quantitative analysis showed that a support vector machine classifiers trained on MEDLINE abstracts with single words (unigrams) used as features and PharmGKB relations used for supervision, achieve an overall sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 69%. The subsequent qualitative analysis showed that gene targets “suggested” by the automatic classifier were not anticipated by expert reviewers but were subsequently found to be relevant to the three drugs that were investigated: carbamazepine, lamivudine and zidovudine. Our results show that this approach is not only feasible but may also find new gene targets not identifiable by other methods thus making it a valuable tool for pathway-driven pharmacogenomics research.

PAKHOMOV, S.; MCINNES, B.T.; LAMBA, J.; LIU, Y.; MELTON, G.B.; GHODKE, Y.; BHISE, N.; LAMBA, V.; BIRNBAUM, A.K.

2012-01-01

251

Glycan microarray profiling of parasite infection sera identifies the LDNF glycan as a potential antigen for serodiagnosis of Trichinellosis  

PubMed Central

Diagnostic methods for parasite infections still highly depend on the identification of the parasites by direct methods such as microscopic examination of blood, stool and tissue biopsies. Serodiagnosis is often carried out to complement the direct methods, however few synthetic antigens with sufficient sensitivity and specificity are available. Here we evaluated a glycan microarray approach to select for synthetic glycan antigens that could be used for serodiagnosis of parasitic infections. Using a glycan array containing over 250 different glycan antigens, we identified GalNAc?1-4(Fuc?1-3)GlcNAc-R (LDNF) as a glycan antigen that is recognized by antibodies from Trichinella-infected individuals. We synthesized a neoglycoconjugate, consisting of 5 LDNF molecules covalently coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA), and used this neoglycoconjugate as an antigen to develop a highly sensitive total-Ig ELISA for serological screening of trichinellosis. The results indicate that glycan microarrays constitute a promising technology for fast and specific identification of parasite glycan antigens to improve serodiagnosis of different parasitic infections, either using an ELISA format, or parasite-specific glycan-arrays.

Aranzamendi, Carmen; Tefsen, Boris; Jansen, Montse; Chiumiento, Lorena; Bruschi, Fabrizio; Kortbeek, Titia; Smith, David F.; Cummings, Richard D.; Pinelli, Elena; Die, Irma Van

2012-01-01

252

Extensive bacterial diversity indicates the potential operation of a dynamic micro-ecology within domestic rainwater storage systems.  

PubMed

The concept that domestic rainwater storage tanks may host sustainable microbial ecosystems has not previously been addressed. The bacterial diversity, cultivated from more than 80 samples from 22 tanks at various locations across eastern Australia, is presented here as prima facie evidence for the potential operation of a functional micro-ecology within rainwater storage systems. Cultivated isolates were found to comprise members of four major bacterial divisions; Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, including more than 200 species from 80 different genera. The pattern of abundance distribution was typical of that observed in most natural communities, comprising a small number of abundant taxa and a multitude of rare taxa, while the specific composition resembled that previously described in a number of natural aquatic systems. Although Proteobacteria from alpha, beta and gamma sub-classes were dominant, a set of core taxa comprising representative genera from all four phyla could be identified. Coliform and other species specifically associated with faecal material comprised <15% of the species identified, and represented <1.5% of total average abundance. The composition of the cultivated populations and scope of diversity present, suggested that rainwater tanks may support functional ecosystems comprising complex communities of environmental bacteria, which may have beneficial implications for the quality of harvested rainwater. PMID:19596393

Evans, Craig A; Coombes, Peter J; Dunstan, R Hugh; Harrison, Tracey

2009-09-15

253

Overall multi-media persistence as an indicator of potential for population-level intake of environmental contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Although it is intuitively apparent that population-level exposure to contaminants dispersed in the environment must related to the persistence of the contaminant, there has been little effort to formally quantify this link. In this paper we investigate the relationship between overall persistence in a multimedia environment and the population-level exposure as expressed by intake fraction (iF), which is the cumulative fraction of chemical emitted to the environment that is taken up by members of the population. We first confirm that for any given chemical contaminant and emission scenario the definition of iF implies that it is directly proportional to the overall multi-media persistence, P{sub OV}. We show that the proportionality constant has dimensions of time and represents the characteristic time for population intake (CTI) of the chemical from the environment. We then apply the CalTOX fate and exposure model to explore how P{sub OV} and CTI combine to determine the magnitude of iF. We find that CTI has a narrow range of possible values relative to P{sub OV} across multiple chemicals and emissions scenarios. We use data from the Canadian Environmental Protection Act Priority Substance List (PSL1) Assessments to show that exposure assessments based on empirical observation are consistent with interpretations from the model. The characteristic time for intake along different dominant exposure pathways is discussed. Results indicate that P{sub OV} derived from screening-level assessments of persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT) is a useful indicator of the potential for population-level exposure.

MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.

2003-06-01

254

Ceriodaphnia dubia as a Potential Bio-Indicator for Assessing Acute Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticle Toxicity in Fresh Water Environment.  

PubMed

Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h) in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h) puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake) as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES) analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system. PMID:24040143

Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Humayun, Ahmed; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

2013-09-05

255

Ceriodaphnia dubia as a Potential Bio-Indicator for Assessing Acute Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticle Toxicity in Fresh Water Environment  

PubMed Central

Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h) in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h) puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake) as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES) analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system.

Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Humayun, Ahmed; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

2013-01-01

256

ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

An international symposium on ecological indicators was developed to explore both the potential of ecological indicators and the issues surrounding their development and implementation. his symposium presented state-of-the-science information on the identification, application re...

257

The IGF-1 Receptor Identifies a Pool of Human Cardiac Stem Cells with Superior Therapeutic Potential for Myocardial Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Rationale Age and coronary artery disease may negatively affect the function of human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs) and their potential therapeutic efficacy for autologous cell transplantation in the failing heart. Objective Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and 2 (IGF-2), and angiotensin II (Ang II) and their receptors, IGF-1R, IGF-2R and AT1R, were characterized in c-kit-positive-hCSCs to establish whether these systems would allow us to separate hCSC classes with different growth reserve in the aging and diseased myocardium. Methods and Results C-kit-positive-hCSCs were collected from myocardial samples obtained from 24 patients, 48 to 86 years of age, undergoing elective cardiac surgery for coronary artery disease. The expression of IGF-1R in hCSCs recognized a young cell phenotype defined by long telomeres, high telomerase activity, enhanced cell proliferation and attenuated apoptosis. In addition to IGF-1, IGF-1R-positive-hCSCs secreted IGF-2 that promoted myocyte differentiation. Conversely, the presence of IGF-2R and AT1R, in the absence of IGF-1R, identified senescent hCSCs with impaired growth reserve and increased susceptibility to apoptosis. The ability of IGF-1R-positive-hCSCs to regenerate infarcted myocardium was then compared with that of unselected c-kit-positive-hCSCs. IGF-1R-positive-hCSCs improved cardiomyogenesis and vasculogenesis. Pretreatment of IGF-1R-positive-hCSCs with IGF-2 resulted in the formation of more mature myocytes and superior recovery of ventricular structure. Conclusions hCSCs expressing only IGF-1R synthesize both IGF-1 and IGF-2, which are potent modulators of stem cell replication, commitment to the myocyte lineage and myocyte differentiation, pointing to this hCSC subset as the ideal candidate cell for the management of human heart failure.

D'Amario, Domenico; Cabral-Da-Silva, Mauricio; Zheng, Hanqiao; Fiorini, Claudia; Goichberg, Polina; Steadman, Elisabeth; Ferreira-Martins, Joao; Sanada, Fumihiro; Piccoli, Marco; Cappetta, Donato; D'Alessandro, David A.; Michler, Robert E.; Hosoda, Toru; Anastasia, Luigi; Rota, Marcello; Leri, Annarosa; Anversa, Piero; Kajstura, Jan

2012-01-01

258

Hormone variations in serum and milk of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) as potential indicators of treatment with recombinant bovine somatotropin.  

PubMed

Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is used to increase milk yield in cows, but it has been forbidden in some countries and in the EU. However, rbST misuse represents a concern in both bovine and buffalo dairy production. A number of studies on rbST treatment have been performed on bovines, but there are few data on buffaloes. In this study, we treated eight lactating buffaloes with biweekly injections of a slow-release formulation of rbST, for five cycles of administration, and analysed total ST and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) variations in serum and IGF-1 in milk. The aim was to assess their power as potential indicators of rbST-treatment. Blood was collected on days 2, 5, 9 and 14 of each cycle, and milk on days 2, 9 and 14 of cycles 2 and 5. Results showed an extraordinary increase in ST levels on day 2 in treated animals, followed by a rapid decrease over the following days, while a significant increase in IGF-1 was observed both in serum and in milk throughout most of each cycle. These results suggest that serum ST levels are a good indicator of treatment. However, the rapid decrease after the peak limits the useful period of sample collection. PMID:21843393

Castigliego, Lorenzo; Li, Xiao Ning; Armani, Andrea; Grifoni, Goffredo; Boselli, Carlo; Rosati, Remo; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Guidi, Alessandra

2011-08-16

259

Happy and fearful emotion in cues and targets modulate event-related potential indices of gaze-directed attentional orienting  

PubMed Central

The goal of the present study was to characterize the effects of valence in facial cues and object targets on event-related potential (ERPs) indices of gaze-directed orienting. Participants were shown faces at fixation that concurrently displayed dynamic gaze shifts and expression changes from neutral to fearful or happy emotions. Emotionally-salient target objects subsequently appeared in the periphery and were spatially congruent or incongruent with the gaze direction. ERPs were time-locked to target presentation. Three sequential ERP components were modulated by happy emotion, indicating a progression from an expression effect to a gaze-by-expression interaction to a target emotion effect. These effects included larger P1 amplitude over contralateral occipital sites for targets following happy faces, larger centrally distributed N1 amplitude for targets following happy faces with leftward gaze, and faster P3 latency for positive targets. In addition, parietally distributed P3 amplitude was reduced for validly cued targets following fearful expressions. Results are consistent with accounts of attentional broadening and motivational approach by happy emotion, and facilitation of spatially directed attention in the presence of fearful cues. The findings have implications for understanding how socioemotional signals in faces interact with each other and with emotional features of objects in the environment to alter attentional processes.

Fichtenholtz, Harlan M.; Hopfinger, Joseph B.; Graham, Reiko; Detwiler, Jacqueline M.

2007-01-01

260

Identifying potentially active volcanoes in the Andes: Radiometric evidence for late Pleistocene-early Holocene eruptions at Volcán Imbabura, Ecuador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent eruptions from volcanoes with no previously known historical activity in Chile and Indonesia have raised the importance of the early identification of potentially active centers for the purpose of hazard assessment. Here we bring radiometric evidence ( 14 C, 39 Ar- 40 Ar) of previously unrecognized but significant magmatic activity at partly eroded Imbabura volcano (Ecuador) in late Pleistocene to early Holocene times, on whose perimeter live more than 300,000 persons. Following an effusive stage from 50 to 30 ka with the emplacement of andesitic lava flows on different flanks of its edifice, the activity became explosive with the generation of andesitic block-and-ash flows on its eastern side, beginning at ~ 35 ka cal BP. Subsequently a flank collapse associated with a volcanic blast occurred on the volcano's SW flank at ~ 30 ka cal BP. The resulting debris avalanche and blast breccias cover an area now heavily populated around San Pablo Lake and its source was later concealed by successive dome building episodes at Huarmi which produced ~ 2.8 km 3 of silicic andesite. Renewed dome activity at the edifice's Taita summit occurred at ~ 17 ka cal BP and continued intermittently into early Holocene times, as indicated by pyroclastic flow deposits overlying a palaeosoil dated at ~ 9 ka cal BP. In summary, this study reveals an eruptive behavior characterized by a low recurrence rate but with quite large eruptions, a pattern which is also observed at other silicic volcanoes of Ecuador's Western Cordillera. It is now imperative to reconsider the origin and source of the many tephra layers catalogued in Holocene lacustrine sediments in the Imbabura area. Tephra and lava volume estimates for Imbabura volcano converted to Dense Rock Equivalent values yield a minimum magmatic output rate of 0.13 km 3 /ka in the past 35,000 years, which argues for sustained magma production for this volcano in recent geological times. The Imbabura example thus raises the question of how to improve population preparedness for volcanoes with infrequent eruptions, and how to guide authorities' decisions concerning the development of urban areas and infrastructures near presently inactive but potentially highly dangerous volcanoes.

Le Pennec, J. L.; Ruiz, A. G.; Eissen, J. P.; Hall, M. L.; Fornari, M.

2011-09-01

261

Temperature Dependence of Magnetic Susceptibility as a Potential indicator of fine-scale oxyexsolution in igneous rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rock magnetic characterization is an essential prerequisite for paleomagnetic research. David Dunlop's contributions in rock magnetism have provided a better understanding of the fundamental physical processes related to natural remanent magnetizations, greatly facilitating the application of such magnetizations to geological and geophysical questions. Here we report an apparent conflict between scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and magnetic analyses of mafic dikes cutting the ~3.2 Ga Kaap Valley Pluton (South Africa). At face value, the SEM data suggest that the magnetic remanence carrier is homogeneous titanomagnetite of intermediate composition (x ~ 0.4-0.5). Such a carrier should have Curie temperatures of ~350-400 degrees C. In contrast, the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility (k) reveals the presence of a magnetic phase with a Curie temperature close to 585 C, consistent with pure magnetite. A characteristic peak observed at -153 C, associated with the Verwey transition, further indicates high magnetite stoichiometry. Irreversibility of k(T) curves was observed upon heating and cooling in argon. On heating, the samples show a gradual increase of k with a pronounced Hopkinson peak, followed by a sharp decrease to the Curie temperature. However, on cooling, the Hopkinson peak disappears and the k(T) values trace a curve lower than the heating curve, with a broad maximum at 350-450 C. We interpret the observed k(T) behavior as reflecting the presence of very fine magnetite-ilmenite intergrowths produced by oxyexsolution. We speculate that the k(T) irreversibility may be caused by partial homogenization of the intergrowths upon heating. We suggest that the intergrowths were not identified using conventional SEM analysis because of their very small (<50 nm) size. This interpretation is supported by analyses using a high-resolution field-emission gun scanning electron microscope. Because of the characteristic changes with heating, we further propose that k(T) data may be a sensitive indicator of fine-scale oxyexsolution in some igneous rocks.

Smirnov, A. V.; Bauch, D. G.; Tarduno, J. A.

2005-12-01

262

Potential of Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit to identify precipitating systems and associated upper-level features in the Mediterranean region: Case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) observations to identify and characterize precipitating systems in the Mediterranean region is explored. Single channels or combination channels from AMSU-A are used to detect and locate upper level potential vorticity anomalies that are often associated with intensification of surface low systems and occurrence of extreme events, while AMSU-B data is used

B. M. Funatsu; C. Claud; J.-P. Chaboureau

2007-01-01

263

Lobular In-Situ Neoplasia on Breast Core Needle Biopsy: Imaging Indication and Pathologic Extent Can Identify Which Patients Require Excisional Biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The surgical management of lobular in-situ neoplasia (LN) identified by core needle biopsy (CNB) is currently variable. Our\\u000a institution has routinely excised LN on CNB since 2003, allowing for an unbiased assessment of upgrade rates.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cases of LN on CNB, including atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) and lobular carcinoma-in-situ (LCIS), were identified in\\u000a our pathology database. CNBs with concurrent pleomorphic LCIS,

Mara H. Rendi; Suzanne M. Dintzis; Constance D. Lehman; Kristine E. Calhoun; Kimberly H. Allison

264

Different methanotrophic potentials in stratified polar fjord waters (Storfjorden, Spitsbergen) identified by using a combination of methane oxidation techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bacterially mediated aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) is a key mechanism in controlling methane (CH4) emissions from the world's oceans to the atmosphere. In this study, we investigated MOx in the Arctic fjord Storfjorden (Spitsbergen) by applying a combination of radio-tracer based incubation assays (3H-CH4 and 14H-CH4), stable C-CH4 isotope measurements, and molecular tools (16S rRNA DGGE-fingerprinting, pmoA- and mxaF gene analyses). Strofjorden is stratified in the summertime with melt water (MW) in the upper 60 m of the water column, Arctic water (ArW) between 60-100 m and brine-enriched shelf water (BSW) down to 140 m. CH4 concentrations were supersaturated with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium (∼3 nM) throughout the water column, increasing from ∼20 nM at the surface to a maximum of 72 nM at 60 m and decreasing below. MOx rate measurements at near in situ CH4 concentrations (here measured with 3H-CH4 raising the ambient CH4 pool by <2 nM) showed a similar trend: low rates at the sea surface increasing to a maximum of ∼2.3 nM d-1 at 60 m followed by a decrease in the deeper ArW/BSW. In contrast, rate measurements with 14H-CH4 at elevated CH4 concentrations (incubations were spiked with ∼450 nM of 14H-CH4, providing an estimate of the CH4 oxidation potential) showed comparably low turnover rates (<1 nMd-1) at 60 m, but peaked in ArW/BSW at ∼100 m water depth, concomitant with increasing 14C-values in the residual CH4 pool. Our results indicate that the MOx community in the surface MW is adapted to relatively low CH4 concentrations. In contrast, the activity of the deep water MOx community is relatively low at the ambient, summertime CH4 concentrations but has the potential to increase rapidly in response to CH4 availability. A similar distinction between surface and deep water MOx is also suggested by our molecular analyses. Although, we found pmoA and maxF gene sequences throughout the water column attesting the ubiquitous presence of MOx communities in Storfjorden, deep water amplicons of pmoA and maxF were unusually long. Also a DGGE band related to the known Type I MOx Mehtylosphera was observed in deep BWS, but absent in surface MW. Apparently, different MOx communities have developed in the stratified water masses in Storfjorden, which is possibly related to the spatiotemporal variability in CH4 supply to the distinct water masses.

Mau, S.; Blees, J.; Helmke, E.; Niemann, H.; Damm, E.

2013-04-01

265

Identifying Potential Mediators and Moderators of the Association between Child Maltreatment and Bullying Perpetration and Victimization in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A growing body of literature is demonstrating associations between childhood maltreatment and bullying involvement at school. In this literature review, four potential mediators (explanatory) and three potential moderators (mitigates or exacerbates) of the association between childhood maltreatment and school bullying are proposed. Mediators…

Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Allen-Meares, Paula

2012-01-01

266

Early event-related potentials indicate context-specific target processing for eye and hand motor systems.  

PubMed

Concurrent eye and hand movements toward a common visual target require different motor programs based on identical visual input. We used event-related brain potentials (ERP) to determine if and when the processing of the visual target differs for the two motor systems. The N2, an index for target evaluation, was more negative for the target of a hand than of an eye movement in two experiments. A possible interpretation for this finding is different visual target processing. Targets for hand movements require a different weighting of visual information, for example concerning features such as surface structure which are important for hand but not for eye movements. In experiment 2, the early C1-component, which had an average maximum at 67ms following target onset, was significantly more negative when subjects pointed at the stimuli. Traditionally, the C1 has been regarded as a sensory component, but recent studies have linked it to higher order processing, such as attention and expectations. Thus, the present data indicate that target processing for eye or hand movements is already context-specific during early visual information processing. We suggest that differences in a target's relevance for upcoming movements modify target processing as well as sensory expectations. PMID:23968690

Wehrspaun, Claudia C; Pfabigan, Daniela M; Sailer, Uta

2013-08-19

267

Three tropical seagrasses as potential bio-indicators to trace metals in Xincun Bay, Hainan Island, South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of the trace metals Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn were measured in seawater, rhizosphere sediments, interstitial water, and the tissues of three tropical species of seagrasses ( Thalassia hemprichii, Enhalus acoroides and Cymodocea rotundata) from Xincun Bay of Hainan Island, South China. We analyzed different environmental compartments and the highest concentrations of Pb and Zn were found in the interstitial and seawater. The concentrations of Cd and Zn were significantly higher in blades compared with roots or rhizomes in T. hemprichii and E. acoroides, respectively. A metal pollution index (MPI) demonstrated that sediment, interstitial water, and seagrasses in the sites located nearest anthropogenic sources of pollution had the most abundant metal concentrations. There was obvious seasonal variation of these metals in the three seagrasses with higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in January and Cd in July. Furthermore, the relationships between metal concentrations in seagrasses and environmental compartments were positively correlated significantly. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) demonstrated that Cd from the tissues of the three seagrasses might be absorbed from the sediment by the roots. However, for C. rotundata, Zn is likely to be derived from the seawater through its blades. Therefore, the blades of T. hemprichii, E. acoroides and C. rotundata are potential bio-indicators to Cd content in sediment, and additionally Zn content ( C. rotundata only) in seawater.

Li, Lei; Huang, Xiaoping

2012-03-01

268

QRS complex duration enhancement as ventricular late potential indicator by signal-averaged ECG using time-amplitude alignments.  

PubMed

Ventricular late potentials (VLPs) are small-amplitude waves with a short duration that appear at the end part of the QRS complex, making a QRS complex duration larger. The signal-averaged electrocardiography (ECG) technique enhances VLPs and beats, assuming noise as the only random variable. However, ECG signals are not completely stationary and different elongations appear in both time and amplitude in each beat. This research proposes to use piecewise linear approximation to segment each beat and performs the alignment of the beats using the technique known as derivative dynamic time-warping to have beats better aligned and consequently enhance the presence of VLPs. We recorded high-resolution ECGs (HRECGs) from 50 subjects in supine position with no heart-stroke antecedents. VLPs were created synthetically and added to the HRECGs. Two cases were evaluated: (i) duration of the QRS complexes with VLPs without beats alignment, and (ii) duration of QRS complexes with VLPs using beats alignment in time and amplitude. Considering QRS duration as an indicative of VLP presence, results show that when using beats alignment in time and amplitude it is possible to reach a sensitivity of 0.96 and a specificity of 0.52, as opposed to 0.72 and 0.40, respectively, when using only averaging without beats alignment in time and amplitude. PMID:23446922

Avitia, Roberto L; Reyna, Marco A; Bravo-Zanoguera, Miguel E; Cetto, Lucio A

2013-04-01

269

Diversity studies of Salmonella incidents in some domestic livestock and their potential relevance as indicators of niche width.  

PubMed Central

This study attempts to determine whether or not livestock are becoming more susceptible to epidemics of salmonella infections by the analysis of published data on the annual number of reported infections in various animals. The number of incidents reported each year may be subject to a variety of biases due to temporal and geographical differences in reporting practices. This study analysed these reports by the calculation of diversity indices which are not subject to some of these potential biases. The relationship between the ecological concept of niche width and the diversity of species or types occupying that niche is discussed. The diversity of salmonella types reported in fowl has shown a highly significant decline over the 13-year period 1976-88. It is suggested that this declining diversity may be related to the declining niche width of the biotope available to this pathogen. Although speculative, this reduction in niche width could be related to a declining genetic diversity in the host animals or to an increasing intensification of animal husbandry.

Hunter, P. R.; Izsak, J.

1990-01-01

270

Presynaptic Membrane Potential Affects Transmitter Release in an Identified Neuron in Aplysia by Modulating the Ca2+ and K+ Currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have examined the relationships between the modulation of transmitter release and of specific ionic currents by membrane potential in the cholinergic interneuron L10 of the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica. The presynaptic cell body was voltage-clamped under various pharmacological conditions and transmitter release from the terminals was assayed simultaneously by recording the synaptic potentials in the postsynaptic cell. When cell L10 was voltage-clamped from a holding potential of -60 mV in the presence of tetrodotoxin, graded transmitter release was evoked by depolarizing command pulses in the membrane voltage range (-35 mV to +10 mV) in which the Ca2+ current was also increasing. Depolarizing the holding potential of L10 results in increased transmitter output. Two ionic mechanisms contribute to this form of plasticity. First, depolarization inactivates some K+ channels so that depolarizing command pulses recruit a smaller K+ current. In unclamped cells the decreased K+ conductance causes spike-broadening and increased influx of Ca2+ during each spike. Second, small depolarizations around resting potential (-55 mV to -35 mV) activate a steady-state Ca2+ current that also contributes to the modulation of transmitter release, because, even with most presynaptic K+ currents blocked pharmacologically, depolarizing the holding potential still increases transmitter release. In contrast to the steady-state Ca2+ current, the transient inward Ca2+ current evoked by depolarizing clamp steps is relatively unchanged from various holding potentials.

Shapiro, Eli; Castellucci, Vincent F.; Kandel, Eric R.

1980-01-01

271

Study to Measure Nursing Activity and Productivity to Identify Potential Benefits in Preparation for the Implementation of Hospital Information Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the potential for increasing nursing productivity through the reduction of indirect care time. To that end, the current percentage of indirect care time is measured using the methodology developed by Misener in 1983. The amount of dire...

L. Ward-Lee

1989-01-01

272

Genome wide screens in yeast to identify potential binding sites and target genes of DNA-binding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of all binding sites for transcriptional activators and repressors is essential for compu- tationally aided identification of transcriptional networks. The techniques developed for defining the binding sites of transcription factors tend to be cumbersome and not adaptable to high throughput. We refined a versatile yeast strategy to rapidly and efficiently identify genomic targets of DNA-binding proteins. Yeast expressing a

Jue Zeng; Jizhou Yan; Ting Wang; Deborah Mosbrook-Davis; Kyle T. Dolan; Ryan Christenensen; Gary D. Stormo; David Haussler; Richard H. Lathrop; Rainer K. Brachmann; Shawn M. Burgess

2008-01-01

273

Virtual Reality and Its Potential Use in Special Education. Identifying Emerging Issues and Trends in Technology for Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of a 3-year study to identify emerging issues and trends in technology for special education, this paper addresses the possible contributions of virtual reality technology to educational services for students with disabilities. An example of the use of virtual reality in medical imaging introduces the paper and leads to a brief review of…

Woodward, John

274

Reading at the Instructional Level with Children Identified as Learning Disabled: Potential Implications for Response-to-Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum-based assessment assesses the match between curriculum and student skill by computing the percentage of known words in a reading task and comparing it to the instructional level criterion of 93% to 97% known. The current study examined the effect of preteaching unknown words to 29 third-grade children identified as learning disabled…

Burns, Matthew K.

2007-01-01

275

DEVELOPMENT OF NORMAL HUMAN COLON CELL CULTURES TO IDENTIFY UNREGULATED DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBPS) WITH CARCINOGENIC POTENTIAL.  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of chlorinated surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Approximately 600 DBPs, less than half of the total organic carbon in drinking water have been identified. We are developing an in vitro system to i...

276

Development of Normal Human Colon Cell Cultures to Identify Unregulated Disiinfection By-products (DBPs) with a Carcinogenic Potential - GEMS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of chlorinated surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Approximately 600 DBPs, less that half of the total organic carbon in drinking water, have been identified of which 50 unregulated DBPs have received the ...

277

Transcriptome analysis of the Cryptocaryon irritans tomont stage identifies potential genes for the detection and control of cryptocaryonosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cryptocaryon irritans is a parasitic ciliate that causes cryptocaryonosis (white spot disease) in marine fish. Diagnosis of cryptocaryonosis often depends on the appearance of white spots on the surface of the fish, which are usually visible only during later stages of the disease. Identifying suitable biomarkers of this parasite would aid the development of diagnostic tools and control strategies

Yogeswaran Lokanathan; Adura Mohd-Adnan; Kiew-Lian Wan; Sheila Nathan

2010-01-01

278

RECOVERY POTENTIAL AS A MEANS OF PRIORITIZING RESTORATION OF WATERS IDENTIFIED AS IMPAIRED UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT  

EPA Science Inventory

The sheer number of waterbodies identified as impaired under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act presents states with challenging decisions on which sites to address, in what order, and with what fraction of limited restoration resources. Our goal was to demonstrate a systemat...

279

A Comparison of Canopy Evapotranspiration for Maize and Two Perennial Grass Species Identified as Potential Bioenergy Crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Perennial rhizomatous grasses (PRGs) that utilize the C4 photosynthetic pathway are considered one of the most promising vegetation types to accommodate a cellulosic feedstock for renewable energy production. The potential widespread use of biomass crops for renewable energy production has sparked n...

280

Utilization of alkaline phosphatase fusions to identify secreted proteins, including potential efflux proteins and virulence factors from Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The targeted genomic strategy of random fusions to a partial gene encoding a signal sequence-deficient fragment of bacterial alkaline phosphatase was utilized to screen for secreted proteins in Helicobacter pylori. The rationale for targeting extracytoplasmic proteins was based on the hypothesis that most virulence factors and vaccine candidates are secreted or exported proteins. In addition, extracytosolic proteins represent good potential

James E Bina; Francis Nano; Robert E. W Hancock

1997-01-01

281

Multidisciplinary approach to identify, characterize and minimize, potential health and environmental problems associated with chemically complex mixtures: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemists, biologists, and ecologists at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories are developing a data-base to evaluate risk to man and the environment from large-scale deployment of various synfuel options. Since 1976, chemically complex materials produced by several coal liquefaction processes and under various stages of process design and operating conditions have been screened for potential health and environmental effects. Biologically active

Gray

1984-01-01

282

A comparative analysis of total serum miRNA profiles identifies novel signature that is highly indicative of metastatic melanoma: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Quantification of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) has recently become feasible and reliable, with most efforts focusing on miRNAs overexpressed by cancer cells. Objective: Identification of a characteristic circulating miRNAs profile in melanoma patients. Methods: We conducted a pilot study comprised of unbiased qPCR comparison of serum miRNA profiles between metastatic melanoma patients and healthy donors. Results: Loss of two normal serum-miRNAs, miR-29c and miR-324-3p, is highly indicative of metastatic melanoma. Hierarchical clustering analysis supported the results and clearly distinguished melanoma patients from healthy donors, metastatic colon and renal cancer patients. Discussion and conclusions: This approach is independent of tumor heterogeneity and is expected to have superior biomarker performances. PMID:23902289

Greenberg, Eyal; Besser, Michal J; Ben-Ami, Eytan; Shapira-Frommer, Ronnie; Itzhaki, Orit; Zikich, Dragoslav; Levy, Daphna; Kubi, Adva; Eyal, Eran; Onn, Amir; Cohen, Yehudit; Barshack, Iris; Schachter, Jacob; Markel, Gal

2013-07-29

283

USING VARIABILITY TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL STATE AND TRANSITION STAGES OF A TROPICAL TALLGRASS SITE IN NORTHEAST AUSTRALIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conceptual state [S(i)] and transition models are used to help define landscape condition in northeast Australia, but there are no standards for amount(s) of indicators that define state conditions. Endemic variability in the distribution of vegetation also makes describing condition changes difficu...

284

Global Health Education: a cross-sectional study among German medical students to identify needs, deficits and potential benefits (Part 2 of 2: Knowledge gaps and potential benefits)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Germany, educational deficits or potential benefits involved in global health education have not been analysed till now. OBJECTIVE: We assess the importance medical students place on learning about social determinants of health (SDH) and assess their knowledge of global health topics in relation to (i) mobility patterns, their education in (ii) tropical medicine or (iii) global health. METHODS:

Kayvan Bozorgmehr; Johannes Menzel-Severing; Kirsten Schubert; Peter Tinnemann

2010-01-01

285

DNA oligonucleotide microarray technology identifies fisp-12 among other potential fibrogenic genes following murine unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO): Modulation during epithelial-mesenchymal transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA oligonucleotide microarray technology identifies fisp-12 among other potential fibrogenic genes following murine unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO): Modulation during epithelial-mesenchymal transition.BackgroundTubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis are pathologic hallmarks of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Here we have used DNA microarray technology to monitor the transcriptomic responses to murine unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) with a view to identifying molecular modulators of tubulointerstitial fibrosis.MethodsUsing

Debra F. Higgins; David W. P. Lappin; Niamh E. Kieran; Hans J. Anders; Ronald W. G. Watson; FRANK STRUTZ; DETLEF SCHLONDORFF; Volker H. Haase; John M. Fitzpatrick; CATHERINE GODSON; Hugh R. Brady

2003-01-01

286

Lentiviral shRNA screen of human kinases identifies PLK1 as a potential therapeutic target for osteosarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an optimized systematic screen of known kinases using osteosarcoma cell lines (KHOS and U-2OS) and a lentiviral-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) human kinase library. CellTiter 96®AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay was used to measure cell growth and survival. We identified several kinases, including human polo-like kinase (PLK1), which inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells

Zhenfeng Duan; Diana Ji; Edward J. Weinstein; Xianzhe Liu; Michiro Susa; Edwin Choy; Cao Yang; Henry Mankin; Francis J. Hornicek

2010-01-01

287

Microarray analysis of gliomas reveals chromosomal position-associated gene expression patterns and identifies potential immunotherapy targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gliomas are among the most aggressive malignant tumors and the most refractory to therapy, in part due to the propensity for\\u000a malignant cells to disseminate diffusely throughout the brain. Here, we have used 27 K cDNA microarrays to investigate global\\u000a gene expression changes between normal brain and high-grade glioma (glioblastoma multiforme) to try and better understand\\u000a gliomagenesis and to identify new

Oscar Persson; Morten Krogh; Lao H. Saal; Elisabet Englund; Jian Liu; Ramon Parsons; Nils Mandahl; Åke Borg; Bengt Widegren; Leif G. Salford

2007-01-01

288

A human dendritic cell-based method to identify CD4+ T-cell epitopes in potential protein allergens.  

PubMed

We developed an assay to determine the location of immunodominant CD4(+) T-cell epitopes in any protein. The method uses CD4(+) T cells from community donors in conjunction with dendritic cells derived in vitro. Synthetic peptides constructed to describe the sequence of the protein of interest are cocultured with dendritic cells and CD4(+) T cells, and T-cell proliferation is measured. Data are compiled over a large replicate of human donors to pinpoint immunodominant, usually promiscuous epitope regions. We have applied this technique to a known food allergen, the Brazil nut 2S storage globulin protein, and to two potential food allergens, the Cry1Ab and Cry3Aa proteins. We show epitope data for these three proteins. This assay can be used as a tool to guide the selection and qualification of future potential food transgenes. PMID:12573915

Stickler, Marcia; Mucha, Jeanette; Estell, David; Power, Scott; Harding, Fiona

2003-02-01

289

A human dendritic cell-based method to identify CD4+ T-cell epitopes in potential protein allergens.  

PubMed Central

We developed an assay to determine the location of immunodominant CD4(+) T-cell epitopes in any protein. The method uses CD4(+) T cells from community donors in conjunction with dendritic cells derived in vitro. Synthetic peptides constructed to describe the sequence of the protein of interest are cocultured with dendritic cells and CD4(+) T cells, and T-cell proliferation is measured. Data are compiled over a large replicate of human donors to pinpoint immunodominant, usually promiscuous epitope regions. We have applied this technique to a known food allergen, the Brazil nut 2S storage globulin protein, and to two potential food allergens, the Cry1Ab and Cry3Aa proteins. We show epitope data for these three proteins. This assay can be used as a tool to guide the selection and qualification of future potential food transgenes.

Stickler, Marcia; Mucha, Jeanette; Estell, David; Power, Scott; Harding, Fiona

2003-01-01

290

Identifying potentially active volcanoes in the Andes: Radiometric evidence for late Pleistocene-early Holocene eruptions at Volcán Imbabura, Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent eruptions from volcanoes with no previously known historical activity in Chile and Indonesia have raised the importance of the early identification of potentially active centers for the purpose of hazard assessment. Here we bring radiometric evidence (14C,39Ar–40Ar) of previously unrecognized but significant magmatic activity at partly eroded Imbabura volcano (Ecuador) in late Pleistocene to early Holocene times, on whose

J. L. Le Pennec; A. G. Ruiz; J. P. Eissen; M. L. Hall; M. Fornari

2011-01-01

291

Ultralate cerebral potentials in a patient with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I indicate preserved C-fibre function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late and ultralate cerebral potentials in response to cutaneous heat (CO2 laser pulses) and electrical nerve stimuli were studied in a patient with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I who showed severe impairment of myelinated nerve fibre function. Cerebral potentials in response to electrical stimuli were absent (tibial nerve) or small (median nerve). With the laser pulses applied to

J Lankers; A Frieling; K Kunze; B Bromm

1991-01-01

292

Assessing the potential hazard of chemical substances for the terrestrial environment. Development of hazard classification criteria and quantitative environmental indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazard assessment constitutes an essential tool in order to evaluate the potential effects of chemical substances on organisms and ecosystems. It includes as a first step, hazard identification, which must detect the potential dangers of the substance (i.e. the kind of effects that the substance may produce), and a second step to quantify each danger and to set the expected

J. V. Tarazona; A. Fresno; S. Aycard; C. Ramos; M. M. Vega; G. Carbonell

2000-01-01

293

Using Simplified English to identify potential problems for non-native speakers in the language of engineering examination papers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing sensitivity to the challenges posed by the language of examination papers and of instruction in scientific subjects, especially for non-native speakers of English. It has been observed that in addition to technical subject-specific vocabulary, non-technical words such as instructional verbs have been sources of difficulty, and there are indications that other ‘ordinary’ English words cause problems.

Sandra Harrison; Roger Morgan

2012-01-01

294

Lymph vascular invasion in invasive mammary carcinomas identified by the endothelial lymphatic marker D2-40 is associated with other indicators of poor prognosis  

PubMed Central

Background Immunohistochemical studies of lymphatic vessels have been limited by a lack of specific markers. Recently, the novel D2-40 antibody, which selectively marks endothelium of lymphatic vessels, was released. The aim of our study is to compare lymphatic and blood vessel invasion detected by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) versus that detected by immunohistochemistry, relating them with morphologic and molecular prognostic factors. Methods We selected 123 cases of invasive mammary carcinomas stratified into three subgroups according to axillary lymph node status: macrometastases, micrometastases, and lymph node negative. Lymphatic (LVI) and blood (BVI) vessel invasion were evaluated by H&E and immunohistochemistry using the D2-40 and CD31 antibodies, and related to histologic tumor type and grade, estrogen and progesterone receptors, E-cadherin, Ki67, p53, and Her2/neu expression. Results LVI was detected in H&E-stained sections in 17/123 cases (13.8%), and in D2-40 sections in 35/123 cases (28.5%) (Kappa = 0.433). BVI was detected in H&E-stained sections in 5/123 cases (4.1%), and in CD31 stained sections in 19/123 cases (15.4%) (Kappa = 0.198). LVI is positively related to higher histologic grade (p = 0.013), higher Ki67 expression (p = 0.00013), and to the presence of macrometastases (p = 0.002), and inversely related to estrogen (p = 0.0016) and progesterone (p = 0.00017) receptors expression. Conclusion D2-40 is a reliable marker of lymphatic vessels and is a useful tool for lymphatic emboli identification in immunostained sections of breast carcinomas with higher identification rates than H&E. Lymphatic vessel invasion was related to other features (high combined histologic grade, high Ki67 score, negative hormone receptors expression) associated with worse prognosis, probable reflecting a potential for lymphatic metastatic spread and aggressive behavior.

Marinho, Vanessa FZ; Metze, Konradin; Sanches, Fernanda SF; Rocha, Gislene FS; Gobbi, Helenice

2008-01-01

295

Periostin identified as a potential biomarker of prostate cancer by iTRAQ-proteomics analysis of prostate biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Proteomics may help us better understand the changes of multiple proteins involved in oncogenesis and progression of prostate\\u000a cancer(PCa) and identify more diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. The aim of this study was to screen biomarkers of PCa\\u000a by the proteomics analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification(iTRAQ).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The patients undergoing prostate biopsies were classified into 3 groups according

Chuanyu Sun; Chao Song; Zhicheng Ma; Ke Xu; Yang Zhang; Hong Jin; Shijun Tong; Weihong Ding; Guowei Xia; Qiang Ding

2011-01-01

296

Rapid, potentially automatable, method extract biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to detect and identify BW agents  

SciTech Connect

The program proposes to concentrate on the rapid recovery of signature biomarkers based on automated high-pressure, high-temperature solvent extraction (ASE) and/or supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to produce lipids, nucleic acids and proteins sequentially concentrated and purified in minutes with yields especially from microeukaryotes, Gram-positive bacteria and spores. Lipids are extracted in higher proportions greater than classical one-phase, room temperature solvent extraction without major changes in lipid composition. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with or without derivatization, electrospray ionization (ESI) and highly specific detection by mass spectrometry (MS) particularly with (MS){sup n} provides the detection, identification and because the signature lipid biomarkers are both phenotypic as well as genotypic biomarkers, insights into potential infectivity of BW agents. Feasibility has been demonstrated with detection, identification, and determination of infectious potential of Cryptosporidium parvum at the sensitivity of a single oocyst (which is unculturable in vitro) and accurate identification and prediction, pathogenicity, and drug-resistance of Mycobacteria spp.

White, D.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Science Div.; Burkhalter, R.S.; Smith, C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology; Whitaker, K.W. [Microbial Insights, Inc., Rockford, TN (United States)

1997-12-31

297

A co-clinical approach identifies mechanisms and potential therapies for androgen deprivation resistance in prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Here we report an integrated analysis that leverages data from treatment of genetic mouse models of prostate cancer along with clinical data from patients to elucidate new mechanisms of castration resistance. We show that castration counteracts tumor progression in a Pten loss-driven mouse model of prostate cancer through the induction of apoptosis and proliferation block. Conversely, this response is bypassed with deletion of either Trp53 or Zbtb7a together with Pten, leading to the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Mechanistically, the integrated acquisition of data from mouse models and patients identifies the expression patterns of XAF1, XIAP and SRD5A1 as a predictive and actionable signature for CRPC. Notably, we show that combined inhibition of XIAP, SRD5A1 and AR pathways overcomes castration resistance. Thus, our co-clinical approach facilitates the stratification of patients and the development of tailored and innovative therapeutic treatments. PMID:23727860

Lunardi, Andrea; Ala, Ugo; Epping, Mirjam T; Salmena, Leonardo; Clohessy, John G; Webster, Kaitlyn A; Wang, Guocan; Mazzucchelli, Roberta; Bianconi, Maristella; Stack, Edward C; Lis, Rosina; Patnaik, Akash; Cantley, Lewis C; Bubley, Glenn; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Gerald, William L; Montironi, Rodolfo; Signoretti, Sabina; Loda, Massimo; Nardella, Caterina; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

2013-06-02

298

Cell-based small-molecule compound screen identifies fenretinide as potential therapeutic for translocation-positive rhabdomyosarcoma.  

PubMed

A subset of paediatric sarcomas are characterized by chromosomal translocations encoding specific oncogenic transcription factors. Such fusion proteins represent tumor specific therapeutic targets although so far it has not been possible to directly inhibit their activity by small-molecule compounds. In this study, we hypothesized that screening a small-molecule library might identify already existing drugs that are able to modulate the transcriptional activity of PAX3/FOXO1, the fusion protein specifically found in the pediatric tumor alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS). Towards this end, we established a reporter cell line based on the well characterized PAX3/FOXO1 target gene AP2ß. A library enriched in mostly FDA approved drugs was screened using specific luciferase activity as read-out and normalized for cell viability. The most effective inhibitor identified from this screen was Fenretinide. Treatment with this compound resulted in down-regulation of PAX3/FOXO1 mRNA and protein levels as well as in reduced expression of several of its direct target genes, but not of wild-type FOXO1, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, fenretinide induced reactive oxygen species and apoptosis as shown by caspase 9 and PARP cleavage and upregulated miR-9. Importantly, it demonstrated a significant anti-tumor effect in vivo. These results are similar to earlier reports for two other pediatric tumors, namely neuroblastoma and Ewing sarcoma, where fenretinide is under clinical development. Our results suggest that fenretinide might represent a novel treatment option also for translocation-positive rhabdomyosarcoma. PMID:23372815

Herrero Martín, David; Boro, Aleksandar; Schäfer, Beat W

2013-01-25

299

Diatom Communities and Metrics as Indicators of Urbanization Effects on Streams and Potential Moderation by Landscape Green Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

Diatoms are very useful and important indicators of anthropogenic impacts on streams because they are the foundation of primary production and are responsive to nutrients, conductivity, and habitat conditions. We characterized relationships of diatom assemblages with water chemis...

300

Using community-based participatory research to identify potential interventions to overcome barriers to adolescents' healthy eating and physical activity  

PubMed Central

Using a community-based participatory research approach, we explored adolescent, parent, and community stakeholder perspectives on barriers to healthy eating and physical activity, and intervention ideas to address adolescent obesity. We conducted 14 adolescent focus groups (n = 119), 8 parent focus groups (n = 63), and 28 interviews with community members (i.e., local experts knowledgeable about youth nutrition and physical activity). Participants described ecological and psychosocial barriers in neighborhoods (e.g., lack of accessible nutritious food), in schools (e.g., poor quality of physical education), at home (e.g., sedentary lifestyle), and at the individual level (e.g., lack of nutrition knowledge). Participants proposed interventions such as nutrition classes for families, addition of healthy school food options that appeal to students, and non-competitive physical education activities. Participants supported health education delivered by students. Findings demonstrate that community-based participatory research is useful for revealing potentially feasible interventions that are acceptable to community members.

Goh, Ying-Ying; Sipple-Asher, Bessie Ko; Uyeda, Kimberly; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Olarita-Dhungana, Josephina; Ryan, Gery W.; Schuster, Mark A.

2010-01-01

301

Potential mechanisms for hypoalgesia induced by anti-nerve growth factor immunoglobulin are identified using autoimmune nerve growth factor deprivation  

PubMed Central

Nerve growth factor (NGF) antagonism has long been proposed as a chronic pain treatment. In 2010, the FDA suspended clinical trials using tanezumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-NGF antibody, to treat osteoarthritis due to worsening joint damage in 16 patients. Increased physical activity in the absence of acute pain which normally prevents self harm was purported as a potential cause. Such an adverse effect is consistent with an extension of tanezumab's primary mechanism of action by decreasing pain sensitivity below baseline levels. In animal inflammatory pain models, NGF antagonism decreases intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density and attenuates increases in expression of nociception related proteins, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). Little is known of the effects of NGF antagonism in noninflamed animals and the hypoalgesia that ensues. In the current study, we immunized rats with NGF or cytochrome C (cytC) and examined 1) nocifensive behaviors with thermal latencies, mechanical thresholds, the hot plate test, and the tail flick test, 2) IENF density, and 3) expression of CGRP, SP, voltage-gated sodium channel 1.8 (Nav1.8), and glutaminase in subpopulations of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons separated by size and isolectin B4 (IB4) labeling. Rats with high anti-NGF titers had delayed responses on the hot plate test but no other behavioral abnormalities. Delayed hot plate responses correlated with lower IENF density. CGRP and SP expression was decreased principally in medium (400-800 ?m2) and small neurons (<400 ?m2), respectively, regardless of IB4 labeling. Expression of Nav1.8 was only decreased in small and medium IB4 negative neurons. NGF immunization appears to result in a more profound antagonism of NGF than tanezumab therapy, but we hypothesize that decreases in IENF density and nociception related protein expression are potential mechanisms for tanezumab induced hypoalgesia.

Hoffman, E. Matthew; Zhang, Zijia; Anderson, Michael B.; Schechter, Ruben; Miller, Kenneth E.

2011-01-01

302

A study of U.S. orchards to identify potential sources of Escherichia coli O157:H7.  

PubMed

The association of unpasteurized apple cider with Escherichia coli O157:H7 foodborne illness has led to increased interest in potential reservoirs of this pathogen in the orchard. Fourteen U.S. orchards were surveyed in autumn 1999 to determine the incidence and prevalence of E. coli O157:H7, E. coli, total aerobic microflora, and yeasts and molds. Fruit samples (n = 63) (eight apple and two pear varieties) and soil, water, and fecal samples were collected. Samples were plated on (i) tryptic soy agar for total mesophilic aerobic count, (ii) E. coli and coliform Petrifilm for total coliforms and E. coli, and (iii) yeast and mold Petrifilm. Samples positive for coliforms and E. coli were enriched and tested for E. coli O157:H7. Fruit was also tested for internalization of microflora by aseptically removing the core, stem, and calyx areas, and the individual sections were assessed for the categories of microflora listed above. E. coli was detected in soil and water and in 6% of fruit samples (three pear samples and one apple sample), generally collected from areas previously designated as high risk in this study. However, no E. coli O157:H7 was found. Coliforms were found in 74% of fruit samples and were internalized in the cores of 40% of fruit tested. Yeasts and molds were internalized in 96.7% of samples and aerobic bacteria in 89.6%. E. coli was not found to be internalized. Total aerobic counts and total coliforms were higher in dropped and damaged fruit (P < 0.05). Findings suggest that dropped or damaged fruit should not be included in fruit designated for the production of unpasteurized juice or for the fresh or fresh-cut market. In addition, orchards should be located away from potential sources of contamination, such as pastures. PMID:11563507

Riordan, D C; Sapers, G M; Hankinson, T R; Magee, M; Mattrazzo, A M; Annous, B A

2001-09-01

303

Potential mechanisms for hypoalgesia induced by anti-nerve growth factor immunoglobulin are identified using autoimmune nerve growth factor deprivation.  

PubMed

Nerve growth factor (NGF) antagonism has long been proposed as a chronic pain treatment. In 2010, the FDA suspended clinical trials using tanezumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-NGF antibody, to treat osteoarthritis due to worsening joint damage in 16 patients. Increased physical activity in the absence of acute pain which normally prevents self-harm was purported as a potential cause. Such an adverse effect is consistent with an extension of tanezumab's primary mechanism of action by decreasing pain sensitivity below baseline levels. In animal inflammatory pain models, NGF antagonism decreases intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density and attenuates increases in expression of nociception-related proteins, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). Little is known of the effects of NGF antagonism in noninflamed animals and the hypoalgesia that ensues. In the current study, we immunized rats with NGF or cytochrome C (cytC) and examined (1) nocifensive behaviors with thermal latencies, mechanical thresholds, the hot plate test, and the tail flick test, (2) IENF density, and (3) expression of CGRP, SP, voltage-gated sodium channel 1.8 (Nav1.8), and glutaminase in subpopulations of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons separated by size and isolectin B4 (IB4) labeling. Rats with high anti-NGF titers had delayed responses on the hot plate test but no other behavioral abnormalities. Delayed hot plate responses correlated with lower IENF density. CGRP and SP expression was decreased principally in medium (400-800 ?m(2)) and small neurons (<400 ?m(2)), respectively, regardless of IB4 labeling. Expression of Nav1.8 was only decreased in small and medium IB4 negative neurons. NGF immunization appears to result in a more profound antagonism of NGF than tanezumab therapy, but we hypothesize that decreases in IENF density and nociception-related protein expression are potential mechanisms for tanezumab-induced hypoalgesia. PMID:21802499

Hoffman, E M; Zhang, Z; Anderson, M B; Schechter, R; Miller, K E

2011-07-28

304

ISD97, a computer program to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity  

SciTech Connect

A computer program, ISD97, was developed to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity. The ISD97 code operates using a two-step process. A deconvolution of the data is carried out using the maximum entropy method, and a map of activity on the ground that fits the data within experimental error is generated. This maximum entropy map is then analyzed to determine the locations and magnitudes of potential areas of elevated activity that are consistent with the data. New deconvolutions are then carried out for each potential area of elevated activity identified by the code. Properties of the algorithm are demonstrated using data from actual field measurements.

Reginatto, M.; Shebell, P.; Miller, K.M.

1997-10-01

305

Glyoxalase 1 as a candidate for indicating the metastatic potential of SN12C human renal cell carcinoma cell clones.  

PubMed

Three clones with differential metastatic potential were established from the parental SN12C human renal cell carcinoma (HRCC). We previously reported that in the two high metastatic SN12C clones, two isoforms of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (UCH?L1) showed decreased expression by using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2?DE) covering a pH range (pH 3.0?10.0) followed by liquid chromatography?tandem mass spectrometry. However, in the case of the low metastatic clone, the spot volume for UCH?L1 was almost the same as for the parental SN12C. In the present study, we found one protein spot which was correlated with the metastatic potential of SN12C clones by using 2?DE over a narrow pH range (pH 4.0?7.0). The protein glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) appeared to be directly proportional to the metastatic potential of the SN12C clones. GLO1 was the only protein which consistently varied according to the metastatic potentials of SN12C clones. GLO1 was increased in high metastatic cell lines by western blot analysis. These findings suggest that GLO1 is associated with the metastatic potential of SN12C HRCC clones. We expanded our experimental range to include clones of scirrhous gastric cancer cell lines (OCUM?2M, OCUM?2D and OCUM?2MLN) and similar results were obtained, thereby further strengthening our original findings. PMID:23982595

Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Wang, Yufeng; Baron, Byron; Kitagawa, Takao; Tokuda, Kazuhiro; Hirakawa, Kosei; Yashiro, Masakazu; Naito, Seiji; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

2013-08-27

306

Recombinant yeast screen for new inhibitors of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 identifies potential drugs to treat obesity  

PubMed Central

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a key enzyme of fatty acid metabolism with multiple isozymes often expressed in different eukaryotic cellular compartments. ACC-made malonyl-CoA serves as a precursor for fatty acids; it also regulates fatty acid oxidation and feeding behavior in animals. ACC provides an important target for new drugs to treat human diseases. We have developed an inexpensive nonradioactive high-throughput screening system to identify new ACC inhibitors. The screen uses yeast gene-replacement strains depending for growth on cloned human ACC1 and ACC2. In “proof of concept” experiments, growth of such strains was inhibited by compounds known to target human ACCs. The screen is sensitive and robust. Medium-size chemical libraries yielded new specific inhibitors of human ACC2. The target of the best of these inhibitors was confirmed with in vitro enzymatic assays. This compound is a new drug chemotype inhibiting human ACC2 with 2.8 ?M IC50 and having no effect on human ACC1 at 100 ?M.

Marjanovic, Jasmina; Chalupska, Dominika; Patenode, Caroline; Coster, Adam; Arnold, Evan; Ye, Alice; Anesi, George; Lu, Ying; Okun, Ilya; Tkachenko, Sergey; Haselkorn, Robert; Gornicki, Piotr

2010-01-01

307

Global transcriptomic profiling of aspen trees under elevated [CO2] to identify potential molecular mechanisms responsible for enhanced radial growth.  

PubMed

Aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees growing under elevated [CO(2)] at a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) site produced significantly more biomass than control trees. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed increase in biomass by producing transcriptomic profiles of the vascular cambium zone (VCZ) and leaves, and then performed a comparative study to identify significantly changed genes and pathways after 12 years exposure to elevated [CO(2)]. In leaves, elevated [CO(2)] enhanced expression of genes related to Calvin cycle activity and linked pathways. In the VCZ, the pathways involved in cell growth, cell division, hormone metabolism, and secondary cell wall formation were altered while auxin conjugation, ABA synthesis, and cytokinin glucosylation and degradation were inhibited. Similarly, the genes involved in hemicellulose and pectin biosynthesis were enhanced, but some genes that catalyze important steps in lignin biosynthesis pathway were inhibited. Evidence from systemic analysis supported the functioning of multiple molecular mechanisms that underpin the enhanced radial growth in response to elevated [CO(2)]. PMID:23065025

Wei, Hairong; Gou, Jiqing; Yordanov, Yordan; Zhang, Huaxin; Thakur, Ramesh; Jones, Wendy; Burton, Andrew

2012-10-13

308

Potential Psychosocial Risk Factors for Chronic TMD: Descriptive Data and Empirically Identified Domains from the OPPERA Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Case-control studies have consistently associated psychosocial factors with chronic pain in general, and with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) specifically. Moreover, a handful of prospective studies suggest that pre-existing psychosocial characteristics represent risk factors for new onset TMD. The current study presents psychosocial findings from the baseline case-control study of the Orofacial Pain Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) cooperative agreement. For this study, 1,633 TMD-free controls and 185 TMD cases completed a battery of psychosocial instruments assessing general psychosocial adjustment and personality, affective distress, psychosocial stress, somatic awareness, and pain coping and catastrophizing. In bivariate and demographically-adjusted analyses, odds of TMD were associated with higher levels of psychosocial symptoms, affective distress, somatic awareness, and pain catastrophizing. Among controls, significant gender and ethnic group differences in psychosocial measures were observed, consistent with previous findings. Principal component analysis was undertaken to identify latent constructs revealing four components: stress and negative affectivity, global psychosocial symptoms, passive pain coping, and active pain coping. These findings provide further evidence of associations between psychosocial factors and TMD. Future prospective analyses in the OPPERA cohort will determine if the premorbid presence of these psychosocial factors predicts increased risk for developing new-onset TMD.

Fillingim, Roger B.; Ohrbach, Richard; Greenspan, Joel D.; Knott, Charles; Dubner, Ronald; Bair, Eric; Baraian, Cristina; Slade, Gary D.; Maixner, William

2011-01-01

309

Identifying potential synergies and trade-offs for meeting food security and climate change objectives in sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Potential interactions between food production and climate mitigation are explored for two situations in sub-Saharan Africa, where deforestation and land degradation overlap with hunger and poverty. Three agriculture intensification scenarios for supplying nitrogen to increase crop production (mineral fertilizer, herbaceous legume cover crops—green manures—and agroforestry—legume improved tree fallows) are compared to baseline food production, land requirements to meet basic caloric requirements, and greenhouse gas emissions. At low population densities and high land availability, food security and climate mitigation goals are met with all intensification scenarios, resulting in surplus crop area for reforestation. In contrast, for high population density and small farm sizes, attaining food security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions require mineral fertilizers to make land available for reforestation; green manure or improved tree fallows do not provide sufficient increases in yields to permit reforestation. Tree fallows sequester significant carbon on cropland, but green manures result in net carbon dioxide equivalent emissions because of nitrogen additions. Although these results are encouraging, agricultural intensification in sub-Saharan Africa with mineral fertilizers, green manures, or improved tree fallows will remain low without policies that address access, costs, and lack of incentives. Carbon financing for small-holder agriculture could increase the likelihood of success of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries programs and climate change mitigation but also promote food security in the region.

Palm, Cheryl A.; Smukler, Sean M.; Sullivan, Clare C.; Mutuo, Patrick K.; Nyadzi, Gerson I.; Walsh, Markus G.

2010-01-01

310

Identifying potential synergies and trade-offs for meeting food security and climate change objectives in sub-Saharan Africa.  

PubMed

Potential interactions between food production and climate mitigation are explored for two situations in sub-Saharan Africa, where deforestation and land degradation overlap with hunger and poverty. Three agriculture intensification scenarios for supplying nitrogen to increase crop production (mineral fertilizer, herbaceous legume cover crops--green manures--and agroforestry--legume improved tree fallows) are compared to baseline food production, land requirements to meet basic caloric requirements, and greenhouse gas emissions. At low population densities and high land availability, food security and climate mitigation goals are met with all intensification scenarios, resulting in surplus crop area for reforestation. In contrast, for high population density and small farm sizes, attaining food security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions require mineral fertilizers to make land available for reforestation; green manure or improved tree fallows do not provide sufficient increases in yields to permit reforestation. Tree fallows sequester significant carbon on cropland, but green manures result in net carbon dioxide equivalent emissions because of nitrogen additions. Although these results are encouraging, agricultural intensification in sub-Saharan Africa with mineral fertilizers, green manures, or improved tree fallows will remain low without policies that address access, costs, and lack of incentives. Carbon financing for small-holder agriculture could increase the likelihood of success of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries programs and climate change mitigation but also promote food security in the region. PMID:20453198

Palm, Cheryl A; Smukler, Sean M; Sullivan, Clare C; Mutuo, Patrick K; Nyadzi, Gerson I; Walsh, Markus G

2010-05-07

311

A thermal profile method to identify potential ground-water discharge areas and preferred salmonid habitats for long river reaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The thermal regime of riverine systems is a major control on aquatic ecosystems. Ground water discharge is an important abiotic driver of the aquatic ecosystem because it provides preferred thermal structure and habitat for different types of fish at different times in their life history. In large diverse river basins with an extensive riverine system, documenting the thermal regime and ground-water discharge is difficult and problematic. A method was developed to thermally profile long (5-25 kilometers) river reaches by towing in a Lagrangian framework one or two probes that measure temperature, depth, and conductivity. One probe is towed near the streambed and, if used, a second probe is towed near the surface. The probes continuously record data at 1-3-second intervals while a Global Positioning System logs spatial coordinates. The thermal profile provides valuable information about spatial and temporal variations in habitat, and, notably, indicates ground-water discharge areas. This method was developed and tested in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, in summer 2001 during low flows in an extreme drought year. The temperature profile comprehensively documents the longitudinal distribution of a river's temperature regime that cannot be captured by fixed station data. The example profile presented exhibits intra-reach diversity that reflects the many factors controlling the temperature of a parcel of water as it moves downstream. Thermal profiles provide a new perspective on riverine system temperature regimes that represent part of the aquatic habitat template for lotic community patterns.

Vaccaro, J. J.; Maloy, K. J.

2006-01-01

312

Selective processing of pain-related word stimuli in subclinical depression as indicated by event-related brain potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intense discussion still exists as to whether pain and depression are causally related or independent of each other. To investigate processing of pain-related word stimuli in subclinically depressed individuals, we designed an event-related potentials study in a group control design. Pain words and neutral words were presented to 16 subclinically depressed and 16 control participants. Behavioral and electrophysiological measures

Christoph Nikendei; Wilhelm Dengler; Georg Wiedemann; Paul Pauli

2005-01-01

313

REDOX POTENTIAL IN THE TISSUE OF COLD-STORED APPLES AS AN INDICATOR OF ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY AND BROWNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under conditions of oxygen deficiency and lack of substrate of enzymatic browning that can develop inside apple flesh damaged by a redox electrode, a chemical balance appears. Redox measurements allow the determination of the kinetics of biochemical reaction lasting up to ten minutes within apple tissue, and of the redox potential distribution in apple tissue - the parameters specific for

A. P. Kuczy?ski

1999-01-01

314

Aerobic Fitness and Cognitive Development: Event-Related Brain Potential and Task Performance Indices of Executive Control in Preadolescent Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relationship between aerobic fitness and executive control was assessed in 38 higher- and lower-fit children (M[subscript age] = 9.4 years), grouped according to their performance on a field test of aerobic capacity. Participants performed a flanker task requiring variable amounts of executive control while event-related brain potential

Hillman, Charles H.; Buck, Sarah M.; Themanson, Jason R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Castelli, Darla M.

2009-01-01

315

A potential novel spontaneous preterm birth gene, AR, identified by linkage and association analysis of X chromosomal markers.  

PubMed

Preterm birth is the major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. In many cases, it has severe life-long consequences for the health and neurological development of the newborn child. More than 50% of all preterm births are spontaneous, and currently there is no effective prevention. Several studies suggest that genetic factors play a role in spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB). However, its genetic background is insufficiently characterized. The aim of the present study was to perform a linkage analysis of X chromosomal markers in SPTB in large northern Finnish families with recurrent SPTBs. We found a significant linkage signal (HLOD = 3.72) on chromosome locus Xq13.1 when the studied phenotype was being born preterm. There were no significant linkage signals when the studied phenotype was giving preterm deliveries. Two functional candidate genes, those encoding the androgen receptor (AR) and the interleukin-2 receptor gamma subunit (IL2RG), located near this locus were analyzed as candidates for SPTB in subsequent case-control association analyses. Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these genes and an AR exon-1 CAG repeat, which was previously demonstrated to be functionally significant, were analyzed in mothers with preterm delivery (n = 272) and their offspring (n = 269), and in mothers with exclusively term deliveries (n = 201) and their offspring (n = 199), all originating from northern Finland. A replication study population consisting of individuals born preterm (n = 111) and term (n = 197) from southern Finland was also analyzed. Long AR CAG repeats (? 26) were overrepresented and short repeats (? 19) underrepresented in individuals born preterm compared to those born at term. Thus, our linkage and association results emphasize the role of the fetal genome in genetic predisposition to SPTB and implicate AR as a potential novel fetal susceptibility gene for SPTB. PMID:23227263

Karjalainen, Minna K; Huusko, Johanna M; Ulvila, Johanna; Sotkasiira, Jenni; Luukkonen, Aino; Teramo, Kari; Plunkett, Jevon; Anttila, Verneri; Palotie, Aarno; Haataja, Ritva; Muglia, Louis J; Hallman, Mikko

2012-12-05

316

Somatic cell apoptosis markers and pathways in human ejaculated sperm: potential utility as indicators of sperm quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we extended earlier work to determine whether sperm respond to somatic cell apoptotic stimuli and whether apoptotic phenotypes are significant indicators of human sperm quality. We evaluated ejaculated sperm from fertile donors and subfertile patients following purification of fractions of high and low motility. In unstimulated conditions, caspase enzy- matic activity was higher in motile fractions from

S. L. Taylor; S. L. Weng; P. Fox; E. H. Duran; M. S. Morshedi; S. Oehninger; S. J. Beebe

2004-01-01

317

Sources and growth dynamics of fecal indicator bacteria in a coastal wetland system and potential impacts to adjacent waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal wetlands are receiving increased attention as a putative source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in Southern California coastal waters. We examined temporal trends of water and sediment-associated FIB after rain events along with spatial sediment characteristics at two sites within the Santa Ana River wetlands and made comparisons to FIB levels observed in adjacent surf zone waters. During the

Melissa Evanson; Richard F. Ambrose

2006-01-01

318

Indicators of metastatic potential induced by low-power irradiation at photosensitizer threshold dose in mouse melanoma M2R  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of pheophorbide a-sensitized melanotic M2Rcells inside threshold dose leads to development of a minimum of three of the properties of metastasing tumor cells: cell proliferation, synthesis of tPA, and loss of alpha 4 integrins. Collagenase synthesis can be assumed from loss of contact to the growth substrate. The suspected metastatic potential has to be proven now by animal experiments.

Danielowski, Till; Moser, Joerg G.

1996-01-01

319

Somatosensory-evoked potentials indicate increased unpleasantness of noxious stimuli in response to increasing stimulus intensities in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, it has been shown in rats that specific characteristics of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) recorded from different sites on the scalp correlate differently to the amount of unpleasantness experienced by the animal following noxious stimulation. It was shown that the SEP recorded from vertex (Vx-SEP) did correlate with the unpleasantness, whereas the SEP recorded from the primary somatosensory cortex (SI-SEP)

Hugo van Oostrom; Peter J. Stienen; Ruud van den Bos; Harry N. M. de Groot; Ludo J. Hellebrekers

2007-01-01

320

Multi-trial biomarker approach in Meganyctiphanes norvegica: a potential early indicator of health status of the Mediterranean “whale sanctuary”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to propose a suite of biomarkers (BPMO activity, NADPH-cytocrome c reductase, NADH-ferricyanide reductase, esterases, porphyrins, vitellogenin and zona radiata proteins) and residue levels (organochlorines, PAHs and heavy metals) in the zooplanktonic euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica as a potential multi-disciplinary diagnostic tool for assessment of the health status of the Mediterranean “whale sanctuary”. Very little difference

M. C Fossi; J. F Borsani; R Di Mento; L Marsili; S Casini; G Neri; G Mori; S Ancora; C Leonzio; R Minutoli; G Notarbartolo di Sciara

2002-01-01

321

Comparative genomic analysis of Escherichia coli O104:H4 stx2 prophage reveals a potential new method to identify virulence factors.  

PubMed

This study investigated the process of virulence acquisition in a Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 strain, TY-2482, by comparing the sequence of stx2 (Shiga toxin 2) prophage with the sequences of 1421 complete bacterial genomes and analyzing the evolutionary relationships of the stx2 prophage-like regions identified. The results showed a strong positive correlation between the evolutionary distance and the distance to switch sites of GC skew, suggesting that the loci near these sites are "hotspots" for insertions. These findings represent a potential new method to identify virulence factors in bacterial genomes. PMID:22920506

Du, Pengcheng; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Haiyin; Chen, Chen

2012-08-24

322

Global Health Education: a cross-sectional study among German medical students to identify needs, deficits and potential benefits (Part 2 of 2: Knowledge gaps and potential benefits)  

PubMed Central

Background In Germany, educational deficits or potential benefits involved in global health education have not been analysed till now. Objective We assess the importance medical students place on learning about social determinants of health (SDH) and assess their knowledge of global health topics in relation to (i) mobility patterns, their education in (ii) tropical medicine or (iii) global health. Methods Cross-sectional study among medical students from all 36 medical schools in Germany using a web-based, semi-structured questionnaire. Participants were recruited via mailing-lists of students' unions, all medical students registered in 2007 were eligible to participate in the study. We captured international mobility patterns, exposure to global health learning opportunities and attitudes to learning about SDH. Both an objective and subjective knowledge assessment were performed. Results 1126 online-replies were received and analysed. International health electives in developing countries correlated significantly with a higher importance placed on all provided SDH (p ? 0.006). Participation in tropical medicine (p < 0.03) and global health courses (p < 0.02) were significantly associated with a higher rating of 'culture, language and religion' and the 'economic system'. Global health trainings correlated with significantly higher ratings of the 'educational system' (p = 0.007) and the 'health system structure' (p = 0.007), while the item 'politics' was marginally significant (p = 0.053). In the knowledge assessment students achieved an average score of 3.6 (SD 1.5; Mdn 4.0), 75% achieved a score of 4.0 or less (Q25 = 3.0; Q75 = 4.0) from a maximum achievable score of 8.0. A better performance was associated with international health electives (p = 0.032), participation in tropical medicine (p = 0.038) and global health (p = 0.258) courses. Conclusion The importance medical students in our sample placed on learning about SDH strongly interacts with students' mobility, and participation in tropical medicine and global health courses. The knowledge assessment revealed deficits and outlined needs to further analyse education gaps in global health. Developing concerted educational interventions aimed at fostering students' engagement with SDH could make full use of synergy effects inherent in student mobility, tropical medicine and global health education.

2010-01-01

323

Efficacy of Quality Criteria to Identify Potentially Harmful Information: A Cross-sectional Survey of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Web Sites  

PubMed Central

Background Many users search the Internet for answers to health questions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a particularly common search topic. Because many CAM therapies do not require a clinician's prescription, false or misleading CAM information may be more dangerous than information about traditional therapies. Many quality criteria have been suggested to filter out potentially harmful online health information. However, assessing the accuracy of CAM information is uniquely challenging since CAM is generally not supported by conventional literature. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine whether domain-independent technical quality criteria can identify potentially harmful online CAM content. Methods We analyzed 150 Web sites retrieved from a search for the three most popular herbs: ginseng, ginkgo and St. John's wort and their purported uses on the ten most commonly used search engines. The presence of technical quality criteria as well as potentially harmful statements (commissions) and vital information that should have been mentioned (omissions) was recorded. Results Thirty-eight sites (25%) contained statements that could lead to direct physical harm if acted upon. One hundred forty five sites (97%) had omitted information. We found no relationship between technical quality criteria and potentially harmful information. Conclusions Current technical quality criteria do not identify potentially harmful CAM information online. Consumers should be warned to use other means of validation or to trust only known sites. Quality criteria that consider the uniqueness of CAM must be developed and validated.

Walji, Muhammad; Sagaram, Smitha; Sagaram, Deepak; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson, Craig; Mirza, Nadeem Q

2004-01-01

324

Use of oxidoreduction potential as an indicator to regulate 1,3-propanediol fermentation by Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic fermentation was relatively difficult to optimize due to lack of monitoring parameters. In this paper, a new method\\u000a was reported using extracellular oxidoreduction potential (ORP) to monitor 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) biosynthesis process by\\u000a Klebsiella pneumoniae. In batch fermentation, cell growth, 1,3-propanediol production and by-products distribution were studied at four different\\u000a ORP levels: 10, ?140, ?190 and ?240 mV. From the results,

Chenyu Du; Hui Yan; Yanping Zhang; Y. Li; Z. Cao

2006-01-01

325

Proteomic analysis of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicates the involvement of cytoskeleton, oligodendrocyte, energy metabolism and new potential markers in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is likely to be a consequence of serial alterations in a number of genes that, together with environmental factors, will lead to the establishment of the illness. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is implicated in schizophrenia and executes high functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts, correct social behavior and personality expression. We performed a comparative proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of pools from 9 schizophrenia and 7 healthy control patients' dorsolateral prefrontal cortex aiming to identify, by mass spectrometry, alterations in protein expression that could be related to the disease. In schizophrenia-derived samples, our analysis revealed 10 downregulated and 14 upregulated proteins. These included alterations previously implicated in schizophrenia, such as oligodendrocyte-related proteins (myelin basic protein and transferrin), as well as malate dehydrogenase, aconitase, ATP synthase subunits and cytoskeleton-related proteins. Also, six new putative disease markers were identified, including energy metabolism, cytoskeleton and cell signaling proteins. Our data not only reinforces the involvement of proteins previously implicated in schizophrenia, but also suggests new markers, providing further information to foster the comprehension of this important disease. PMID:19110265

Martins-de-Souza, Daniel; Gattaz, Wagner F; Schmitt, Andrea; Maccarrone, Giuseppina; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Eva; Eberlin, Marcos N; Souza, Gustavo H M F; Marangoni, Sérgio; Novello, José C; Turck, Christoph W; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

2008-12-24

326

Predictive analysis of transmissible quinolone resistance indicates Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as a potential source of a novel family of Qnr determinants  

PubMed Central

Background Predicting antibiotic resistance before it emerges at clinical settings constitutes a novel approach for preventing and fighting resistance of bacterial pathogens. To analyse the possibility that novel plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance determinants (Qnr) can emerge and disseminate among bacterial pathogens, we searched the presence of those elements in nearly 1000 bacterial genomes and metagenomes. Results We have found a number of novel potential qnr genes in the chromosomes of aquatic bacteria and in metagenomes from marine organisms. Functional studies of the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Smqnr gene show that plasmid-encoded SmQnr confers quinolone resistance upon its expression in a heterologous host. Conclusion Altogether, the data presented in our work support the notion that predictive studies on antibiotic resistance are feasible, using currently available information on bacterial genomes and with the aid of bioinformatic and functional tools. Our results confirm that aquatic bacteria can be the origin of plasmid-encoded Qnr, and highlight the potential role of S. maltophilia as a source of novel Qnr determinants.

Sanchez, Maria B; Hernandez, Alvaro; Rodriguez-Martinez, Jose M; Martinez-Martinez, Luis; Martinez, Jose L

2008-01-01

327

Physical fitness, but not acute exercise modulates event-related potential indices for executive control in healthy adolescents.  

PubMed

Physical activity and aerobic exercise in particular, promotes health and effective cognitive functioning. To elucidate mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical fitness and acute exercise, behavioral and electrophysiological indices of task preparation and response inhibition as a part of executive functions were assessed in a modified version of an Eriksen flanker task subsequent to an acute bout of aerobic exercise and a period of rest, respectively. 35 higher- and lower-fit adolescents between 13 and 14 years of age participated in a controlled cross-over study design. Results indicate that higher-fit individuals show significantly greater CNV amplitudes, reflecting enhanced task preparation processes, as well as decreased amplitudes in N2, indexing more efficient executive control processes. P3 amplitudes associated with the allocation of attentional and memory control neither showed influences of physical fitness nor the acute bout of exercise. Furthermore, acute aerobic exercise was not related to any of the dependent measures. The current findings suggest that physical fitness, but not an acute bout of aerobic exercise enhances cognitive processing by increasing attentional allocation to stimulus encoding during task preparation. PMID:19285042

Stroth, Sanna; Kubesch, Sabine; Dieterle, Katrin; Ruchsow, Martin; Heim, Rüdiger; Kiefer, Markus

2009-03-11

328

Use of the clam Asaphis deflorata as a potential indicator of organochlorine bioaccumulation in Hong Kong coastal sediments.  

PubMed

In order to test its ability as a bioaccumulator, the deposit feeding clam Asaphis deflorata, collected from a clean coastal area in Hong Kong (Ding Chau, Ma On Shan), was exposed to field-collected sediments representing a gradient of contamination. Sediments were collected from four sites, namely Shek O in the southeast of Hong Kong Island, Ap Lei Chau in Aberdeen district, Tai Kok Tsui in the Mong Kok waterfront, and To Kwa Wan near Kowloon City pier. Shek O was the cleanest and To Kwa Wan was the most polluted site. Replicate 30L fiberglass tanks containing equal numbers of organisms were maintained for 28 days, with equal quantities of sediment and filtered seawater. Prior to this the animals were depurated for 10 days in clean sediment. During the 28-day holding period, sampling of both sediment and clams was performed on days 0, 10 and 28, along with condition index measurements. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in sediments showed that Shek O was the cleanest of the sites, followed by Ap Lei Chau, Tai Kok Tsui and To Kwa Wan. There were marked differences among the sites, especially in PAH concentrations, with To Kwa Wan showing extremely high sediment concentrations. Following exposure, the biota concentrations of various organochlorine pesticides and PCBs suggested that there was sediment concentration-dependent accumulation by A. deflorata on day 10 of the experiment. However, there was no significant increase on day 28 for any of the compounds tested. Contaminant concentrations in clams feeding on Shek O sediments were minimal and almost the same on all sampling days, indicating the presence of only baseline contaminant concentrations. The condition indices (CI) of the clams on various sampling days showed that the animals were relatively more stable in sediment from Shek O. There were some deaths in all the test tanks (including those containing Shek O sediments). In addition, clams appeared to bury faster in the cleaner Shek O sediment and remained buried, unlike those in the sediment from the other locations, where some remained predominantly on the surface. Nevertheless, despite not completely burying, the clams in other test sediments still exhibited sediment concentration-dependent tissue accumulation. The results of the investigation indicate the possibility of developing a standard test protocol for bioaccumulation by sediment dwelling invertebrates, for practical use in Hong Kong, using A. deflorata. PMID:18448129

Moganti, Shanti; Richardson, Bruce J; McClellan, Katherine; Martin, Michael; Lam, Paul K S; Zheng, Gene J

2008-04-29

329

Assessment of F-RNA coliphage as a potential indicator of enteric virus contamination of hog carcasses.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is common in pigs, and some swine HEV strains are closely related to human strains. The zoonotic transmission of HEV is now well established. HEV can be detected by molecular techniques, but the significance of the presence of viral nucleic acid is questionable when foods are subjected to virus inactivation treatments. F-RNA coliphages are attractive candidates as indicators for enteric viruses because they are similar in size and survival characteristics and can be rapidly cultured. Information on the contamination of hog carcasses with enteric or hepatic viruses during slaughter is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence and levels of contamination of hog carcasses with F-RNA coliphages, HEV, total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli at different stages of the dressing process. Hog carcasses entering the commercial slaughter facility are heavily contaminated with F-RNA coliphages and HEV. Subsequent processes such as scalding, singing, and pasteurization can reduce the incidence and levels of F-RNA coliphages and HEV substantially to almost undetectable levels. Large discrepancies between the amount of viral nucleic acid and infectious F-RNA coliphage particles, both at high levels and low levels of contamination, were observed. The prevalence and levels of viable F-RNA coliphages were lower than those of total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and E. coli in the anal area and on random sites before pasteurization. At a research abattoir, there was no overall mean reduction of viable F-RNA coliphages recovered from random sites before pasteurization and after washing, whereas overall mean reductions of 1.2, 2.6, and 2.9 log CFU for total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and E. coli, respectively, were obtained. These findings suggest that bacteria such as coliforms and E. coli may not be suitable as indicators for enteric viruses in a meat processing environment. PMID:22856576

Jones, T H; Johns, M W

2012-08-01

330

Environmental Factors Influencing Human Viral Pathogens and Their Potential Indicator Organisms in the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis: the First Scandinavian Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out in order to investigate human enteric virus contaminants in mussels from three sites on the west coast of Sweden, representing a gradient of anthropogenic influence. Mussels were sampled monthly during the period from February 2000 to July 2001 and analyzed for adeno-, entero-, Norwalk-like, and hepatitis A viruses as well as the potential viral indicator

Bodil E. Hernroth; Ann-Christine Conden-Hansson; Ann-Sofi Rehnstam-Holm; Rosina Girones; Annika K. Allard

2002-01-01

331

EXTFUNNEL: Stata module to produce graphical augmentations to the funnel plot to indicate the potential impact of a new study on an existing meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

extfunnel creates graphical overlay augmentations to the funnel plot. The purpose of these overlays is to display the potential impact a new study would have on an existing meta-analysis, providing an indication of the robustness of the meta-analysis to the addition of new evidence. Thus, these extend the use of the funnel plot beyond assessments of publication biases. Two main

Michael J. Crowther

2011-01-01

332

How to detect indications of potential sources of bias in peer review: A generalized latent variable modeling approach exemplified by a gender study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The universalism norm of the ethos of science requires that contributions to science are not excluded because of the contributors’ gender, nationality, social status, or other irrelevant criteria. Here, a generalized latent variable modeling approach is presented that grant program managers at a funding organization can use in order to obtain indications of potential sources of bias in their peer

Lutz Bornmann; Rüdiger Mutz; Hans-dieter Daniel

2008-01-01

333

Fumaric acid in apple juice: a potential indicator of microbial spoilage of apples used as raw material.  

PubMed

The effects of heat treatment (evaporation and excessive heating), and microbial contamination (Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium expansum and Lactobacillus plantarum) as sources of fumaric acid formation in apple juice concentrates were investigated. Fumaric acid formed in apple juice did not exceed 1.0 mg l(-1) during both commercial-scale evaporation and laboratory-scale excessive heat treatment, indicating that malic dehydration is not the primary source of fumaric acid formation. However, R. stolonifer and L. plantarum produced 18.23 +/- 0.82 and 5.39 +/- 0.31 mg l(-1) fumaric acid as determined in the raw juice obtained from contaminated apples after 5 days of incubation. The mean fumaric acid content of apple juice concentrates manufactured in 2000, 2001 and 2002 were determined as 4.9 +/- 1.9, 5.7 +/- 2.8 and 4.1 +/- 2.6 mg l(-1), respectively. The overall results suggest that the primary source of fumaric acid in apple juice concentrate is the use of apples decayed by certain microorganisms capable of producing fumaric acid. PMID:15370835

Gökmen, V; Acar, J

2004-07-01

334

Description and evaluation of imposex in Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Strombidae): a potential bio-indicator of tributyltin pollution.  

PubMed

Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is an important gastropod species within the study area and was traditionally collected for food by the locals. The objective of the present study is to assess the incidence of imposex and its severity in this species. Adult conchs were sampled during their main reproductive period, from October 2005 to January 2006, at Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor Straits, Malaysia. A total of 32.81% of adult females showed imposex characteristics, with varying degrees of severity though. The relative penis size (RPS) index ranged from 1.74 to 33.29 (mean = 13.40 ± 2.27, n = 21), while the relative penis length (RPL) index ranged from 6.28 to 55.19 (mean = 25.83 ± 3.33, n = 21). The use of vas deferens sequence (VDS) index was however cannot be applied as the presence of egg groove obscured any vas deferens development in affected females. Sequence of imposex (male penis) development in female conch, from merely a small stump to an advance male penis homologous was therefore carefully analyzed and described, and an alternative imposex classification scheme was proposed. S. canarium can be a good indicator for monitoring of organotin pollution within the study area. However, more studies are needed in order to further develop and test its validity and application, such as its correlation with levels of pollutant within the tissues and the environment, as well as its application on other Strombus species. PMID:20824325

Cob, Zaidi Che; Arshad, Aziz; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Abd Ghaffar, Mazlan

2010-09-08

335

When do asymmetrical full-field pattern reversal visual evoked potentials indicate visual pathway dysfunction in children?  

PubMed

Our study aimed to find out the association between full-field pattern reversal visual evoked potential (pVEP) transoccipital asymmetries and half-field pVEP transoccipital distributions in children. Over a six-month period, 46 patients (mean age: 9 years 9 months) had both monocular full-field and half-field pVEPs to test checks subtending 50 min of arc in a 35 degree full-field and 0-17.5 degree lateral half-field. Silver-silver chloride electrodes placed at Oz, O1 and O2 were referred to Fz. Monocular full-field data were categorised according to the degree of transoccipital asymmetry. Half-field data were measured and summated to see whether they explained any full-field asymmetry. In this cohort of 46 patients, eight (17%) patients had symmetrically distributed monocular full-field pVEPs for each eye. Four of these patients had normal half-field pVEP distributions for each eye, but the other four showed a half-field deficit in one or both eyes. Of the 38 patients with asymmetrically distributed full-field pVEPs in at least one eye, 17 (44%) patients showed a half-field deficit, 20 (53%) showed responsive, but symmetrically distributed half-field responses, and one patient (3%) showed typical half-field distributions. Half-field pVEPs can help explain full-field asymmetries and should be attempted in any child able to co-operate with testing and in whom visual pathway dysfunction is suspected. PMID:21046194

Mellow, Tessa B; Liasis, Alki; Lyons, Ruth; Thompson, Dorothy

2010-11-03

336

Faecal indicator pollution from a dairy farm in Ayrshire, Scotland: source apportionment, risk assessment and potential of mitigation measures.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were (i) to apportion sources of faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS) loads from a dairy farm to a stream in the Irvine catchment; (ii) to assess efficacy of pollution mitigation measures installed on this farm; (iii) to assess frequency with which observed FC loads contribute to high risk of failure of coastal bathing water to meet microbial standards. FC and FS loads in a primary stream running through the farm were estimated at up to four stations (above the farm, above the steading, below the farm and below a pre-existing 0.6 ha area of open water/wetland), in summer 2004 and 2005. During this period, steading and field mitigation measures were being installed. We estimated that farm FC loads likely to cause bathing water failure were 8.9 x 10(8) colony-forming units (cfu) ha(-1)d(-1) (guideline standards) and 1.7 x 10(10)cfu ha(-1)d(-1) (mandatory standards). In 2005, the guideline exceedance risk (42%) was associated about equally with field and steading sources, whereas the mandatory exceedance risk (11%) was mainly due to steading sources. The pond/wetland below the farm reduced these exceedance risks to 20% and <1%, respectively, but was a source of FS at high discharge. The exceedence curves below the farm were similar in 2004 and 2005, despite lower flows and installation of pollution mitigation measures. The results suggest that further mitigation efforts on this farm should be focused on improving management of the steading FC sources and that wetlands to receive steading runoff can be cost:effective mitigation tools for faecal indicator pollution. PMID:18001813

Vinten, A J A; Sym, G; Avdic, K; Crawford, Colin; Duncan, A; Merrilees, D W

2007-09-25

337

A qualitative analysis of the congruency of Jungian psychological preferences identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the human resource development role of instructor\\/facilitator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this ethnographic study was to describe and explain the congruency of psychological preferences identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the human resource development (HRD) role of instructor\\/facilitator. This investigation was conducted with 23 HRD professionals who worked in the Miami, Florida area as instructors\\/facilitators with adult learners in job-related contexts.^ The study was conducted using

Rafael Martinez

1996-01-01

338

Development and evaluation of an immunoassay for biological monitoring chlorophenols in urine as potential indicators of occupational exposure.  

PubMed

Trichlorophenols (TCP) eliminated by the urine can be considered as potential biomarkers of exposure of many chemicals (chlorophenols, chlorophenoxy acid herbicides, prochloraz, lindane, hexachlorobenzene, etc). High-throughput screening methods are necessary to carry out efficient monitoring programs that may help to prevent certain occupational health diseases. For this purpose, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol detection has been developed using polyclonal antisera raised against 3-(3-hydroxy-2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)propanoic acid (hapten 5) covalently coupled by the mixed anhydride (MA) method to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). The indirect ELISA uses a heterologous coating antigen prepared by conjugation of 3-(2-hydroxy-3,6-dichlorophenyl)propanoic acid (hapten 4) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) using the active ester (AE) method. The optimum hapten density for the coating antigen was found to be 3 mol of hapten/mol of protein. The assay shows a limit of detection of 0.245 +/- 0.116 microg L(-1), and it is performed on 96-well microtiter plates in about 1.5 h. The ELISA reported recognizes on a much less extent other chlorinated phenols, such as 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TtCP, 21%), 2,4,5-TCP (12%) and 2,3,5-TCP (15%); however, brominated phenols (BP) are even more recognized than the corresponding chlorinated analogues (ex. 2,4,6-TBP, 710%; 2,4-DBP, 119%). With the aim of finding an explanation for this behavior, theoretical calculations have been performed for those and other halogenated phenols (2,4,6-triiodophenol and 2,4,6-trifluorophenol) to clarify which physicochemical parameter can explain better the recognition pattern observed. Finally, the assay has been adapted to the analysis of urine samples. The studies have shown that a limit of detection of 1 microg L(-1) can be accomplished on this biological matrix by combining the ELISA procedure with a C18 solid-phase extraction method. PMID:11811424

Galve, Roger; Nichkova, Mikaela; Camps, Francisco; Sanchez-Baeza, Francisco; Marco, M-Pilar

2002-01-15

339

Proteomic profiling of high glucose primed monocytes identifies cyclophilin A as a potential secretory marker of inflammation in type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Hyperglycemia is widely recognized to be a potent stimulator of monocyte activity, which is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We analyzed the monocyte proteome for potential markers that would enhance the ability to screen for early inflammatory status in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), using proteomic technologies. Monocytic cells (THP-1) were primed with high glucose (HG), their protein profiles were analyzed using 2DE and the downregulated differentially expressed spots were identified using MALDI TOF/MS. We selected five proteins that were secretory in function with the help of bioinformatic programs. A predominantly downregulated protein identified as cyclophilin A (sequence coverage 98%) was further validated by immunoblotting experiments. The cellular mRNA levels of cyclophilin A in various HG-primed cells were studied using qRT-PCR assays and it was observed to decrease in a dose-dependent manner. LC-ESI-MS was used to identify this protein in the conditioned media of HG-primed cells and confirmed by Western blotting as well as ELISA. Cyclophilin A was also detected in the plasma of patients with diabetes. We conclude that cyclophilin A is secreted by monocytes in response to HG. Given the paracrine and autocrine actions of cyclophilin A, the secreted immunophilin could be significant for progression of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. Our study also provides evidence that analysis of monocyte secretome is a viable strategy for identifying candidate plasma markers in diabetes. PMID:22930659

Ramachandran, Surya; Venugopal, Anila; Sathisha, K; Reshmi, G; Charles, Sona; Divya, G; Chandran, N S Pratap; Mullassari, Ajit; Pillai, M Radhakrishna; Kartha, C C

2012-09-01

340

SCS-CN and GIS-based approach for identifying potential water harvesting sites in the Kali Watershed, Mahi River Basin, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kali sub-watershed is situated in the semi-arid region of Gujarat, India and forms a part of the Mahi River Watershed. This watershed receives an average annual rainfall of 900mm mainly between July and September. Due to high runoff potential, evapo-transpiration and poor infiltration, drought like situation prevails in this area from December to June almost every year. In this paper, augmentation of water resource is proposed by construction of runoff harvesting structures like check dam, percolation pond, farm pond, well and subsurface dyke. The site suitability for different water harvesting structures is determined by considering spatially varying parameters like runoff potential, slope, fracture pattern and micro-watershed area. GIS is utilised as a tool to store, analyse and integrate spatial and attribute information pertaining to runoff, slope, drainage and fracture. The runoff derived by SCS-CN method is a function of runoff potential which can be expressed in terms of runoff coefficient (ratio between the runoff and rainfall) which can be classified into three classes, viz., high (>40%), moderate (20-40%) and low (<20%). In addition to IMSD, FAO specifications for water harvesting/recharging structures, parameters such as effective storage, rock mass permeability are herein considered to augment effective storage. Using the overlay and decision tree concepts in GIS, potential water harvesting sites are identified. The derived sites are field investigated for suitability and implementation. In all, the accuracy of the site selection at implementation level varies from 80-100%.

Ramakrishnan, D.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Kusuma, K. N.

2009-08-01

341

Modeling the Potential Spread of the Recently Identified Non-Native Panther Grouper (Chromileptes altivelis) in the Atlantic Using a Cellular Automaton Approach  

PubMed Central

The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli) is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles), which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, the panther grouper is not yet thought to have an established breeding population in the Atlantic. Using a proven modeling technique developed to track the lionfish invasion, presented is the first known estimation of the potential spread of panther grouper in the Atlantic. The employed cellular automaton-based computer model examines the life history of the subject species including fecundity, mortality, and reproductive potential and combines this with habitat preferences and physical oceanic parameters to forecast the distribution and periodicity of spread of this potential new invasive species. Simulations were examined for origination points within one degree of capture locations of panther grouper from the United States Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database to eliminate introduction location bias, and two detailed case studies were scrutinized. The model indicates three primary locations where settlement is likely given the inputs and limits of the model; Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach, the Cape Hatteras Tropical Limit/Myrtle Beach South Carolina, and Florida Keys/Ten Thousand Islands locations. Of these locations, Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach has the highest settlement rate in the model and is indicated as the area in which the panther grouper is most likely to become established. This insight is valuable if attempts are to be made to halt this potential marine invasive species.

Johnston, Matthew W.; Purkis, Sam J.

2013-01-01

342

Indices of potential lead hazard.  

PubMed Central

This review is concerned with the concentrations of lead in human whole blood, erythrocytes, plasma, serum, soft tissues, bone, and urine. The extent to which redistribution of some of the bound lead occurs is outlines. The effects of lead on enzyme activities and on the accumulation of metabolic intermediates in the blood and urine are described. A brief section deals with the range of signs and symptoms that can occur and differences seen between symptomatic children and adults.

Posner, H S

1977-01-01

343

Structure-guided lead optimization of triazolopyrimidine-ring substituents identifies potent Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors with clinical candidate potential.  

PubMed

Drug therapy is the mainstay of antimalarial therapy, yet current drugs are threatened by the development of resistance. In an effort to identify new potential antimalarials, we have undertaken a lead optimization program around our previously identified triazolopyrimidine-based series of Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) inhibitors. The X-ray structure of PfDHODH was used to inform the medicinal chemistry program allowing the identification of a potent and selective inhibitor (DSM265) that acts through DHODH inhibition to kill both sensitive and drug resistant strains of the parasite. This compound has similar potency to chloroquine in the humanized SCID mouse P. falciparum model, can be synthesized by a simple route, and rodent pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated it has excellent oral bioavailability, a long half-life and low clearance. These studies have identified the first candidate in the triazolopyrimidine series to meet previously established progression criteria for efficacy and ADME properties, justifying further development of this compound toward clinical candidate status. PMID:21696174

Coteron, Jose M; Marco, María; Esquivias, Jorge; Deng, Xiaoyi; White, Karen L; White, John; Koltun, Maria; El Mazouni, Farah; Kokkonda, Sreekanth; Katneni, Kasiram; Bhamidipati, Ravi; Shackleford, David M; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Ferrer, Santiago B; Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J; Charman, William N; Bathurst, Ian; Floyd, David; Matthews, David; Burrows, Jeremy N; Rathod, Pradipsinh K; Charman, Susan A; Phillips, Margaret A

2011-07-14

344

Structure-guided lead optimization of triazolopyrimidine-ring substituents identifies potent Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors with clinical candidate potential  

PubMed Central

Drug therapy is the mainstay of antimalarial therapy, yet current drugs are threatened by the development of resistance. In an effort to identify new potential anti-malarials we have undertaken a lead optimization program around our previously identified triazolopyrimidine-based series of Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) inhibitors. The X-ray structure of PfDHODH was used to inform the medicinal chemistry program allowing the identification of a potent and selective inhibitor (DSM265) that acts through DHODH inhibition to kill both sensitive and drug resistant strains of the parasite. This compound has similar potency to chloroquine in the humanized SCID mouse P. falciparum model, can be synthesized by a simple route, and rodent pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated it has excellent oral bioavailability, a long half-life and low clearance. These studies have identified the first candidate in the triazolopyrimidine series to meet previously established progression criteria for efficacy and ADME properties, justifying further development of this compound towards clinical candidate status.

Coteron, Jose M.; Marco, Maria; Esquivias, Jorge; Deng, Xiaoyi; White, Karen L.; White, John; Koltun, Maria; Mazouni, Farah El; Kokkonda, Sreekanth; Katneni, Kasiram; Bhamidipati, Ravi; Shackleford, David M.; Barturen, Inigo Angulo; Ferrer, Santiago B.; Jimenez-Diaz, Maria Belen; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Charman, William N.; Bathurst, Ian; Floyd, David; Matthews, David; Burrows, Jeremy N.; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.; Charman, Susan A.; Phillips, Margaret A.

2011-01-01

345

Structure-Guided Lead Optimization of Triazolopyrimidine-Ring Substituents Identifies Potent Plasmodium falciparum Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors with Clinical Candidate Potential  

SciTech Connect

Drug therapy is the mainstay of antimalarial therapy, yet current drugs are threatened by the development of resistance. In an effort to identify new potential antimalarials, we have undertaken a lead optimization program around our previously identified triazolopyrimidine-based series of Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) inhibitors. The X-ray structure of PfDHODH was used to inform the medicinal chemistry program allowing the identification of a potent and selective inhibitor (DSM265) that acts through DHODH inhibition to kill both sensitive and drug resistant strains of the parasite. This compound has similar potency to chloroquine in the humanized SCID mouse P. falciparum model, can be synthesized by a simple route, and rodent pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated it has excellent oral bioavailability, a long half-life and low clearance. These studies have identified the first candidate in the triazolopyrimidine series to meet previously established progression criteria for efficacy and ADME properties, justifying further development of this compound toward clinical candidate status.

Coteron, Jose M.; Marco, Maria; Esquivias, Jorge; Deng, Xiaoyi; White, Karen L.; White, John; Koltun, Maria; El Mazouni, Farah; Kokkonda, Sreekanth; Katneni, Kasiram; Bhamidipati, Ravi; Shackleford, David M.; Angulo-Barturen, Inigo; Ferrer, Santiago B.; Jimenez-Diaz, Maria Belen; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Charman, William N.; Bathurst, Ian; Floyd, David; Matthews, David; Burrows, Jeremy N.; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.; Charman, Susan A.; Phillips, Margaret A. (UWASH); (MMV, Switzerland); (GSK); (Monash); (UW); (UTSMC)

2012-02-27

346

A radionuclide tracer is used to identify potential contamination zones on the Alaskan shelf in response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

SciTech Connect

On March 24, 1989, the tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground and spilled over 10 million gallons of crude oil into Prince William Sound (PWS). Alaska, a deep fjord supporting large populations of birds, fish, marine mammals, and benthic organisms. We participated in 2 cruises in May and October to identify specific sedimentary areas and benthic habitats on the Alaskan shelf that may be potentially contaminated by crude oil. To identify benthic areas of potential oil impact, we measured the distribution of Beryllium-7 ([sup 7]Be 53.3-d half-life), an atmospherically deposited radioisotope, in 24 sediment cores collected in PWS and along the Kenai Peninsula at water depths ranging from 80-775 m. Like petroleum hydrocarbons, [sup 7]Be rapidly sorbs to suspended matter in coastal waters and tends to accumulate in sedimentary areas where suspended matter accumulates. The sedimentary distribution of [sup 7]Be was used to identify benthic areas that may be subject to oil contamination and for tracing dispersal and fate of this energy-related contaminant. [sup 210]Pb and [sub 137]Cs were also measured to determine an associated sediment accumulation rate at selected sites. No detectable levels of [sup 7]Be were found in surface sediments at about half of the stations. This suggests that little or no material from the water column has accumulated here in the last 3 months. Sites on the eastern side of Knight Island and along the Kenai Peninsula, downstream of the spill, had [sup 7]Be accumulation inventories ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 pCi/cm[sup 2] occurred at a site on the western side of Montague Island (246 m depth) within the the tidal mixing zone of PWS and the Gulf of Alaska. The high value suggests that water-column materials are focusing and depositing at this site so this benthic habitat may likely be affected by the oil spill. Data from new and reoccupied stations during the October cruise will be presented and areas of potential impact from oil contamination discussed.

Grebmeier, J.M. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)); Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1990-01-09

347

Identifying Live Bird Markets with the Potential to Act as Reservoirs of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus: A Survey in Northern Viet Nam and Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Wet markets are common in many parts of the world and may promote the emergence, spread and maintenance of livestock pathogens, including zoonoses. A survey was conducted in order to assess the potential of Vietnamese and Cambodian live bird markets (LBMs) to sustain circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 (HPAIV H5N1). Thirty Vietnamese and 8 Cambodian LBMs were visited, and structured interviews were conducted with the market managers and 561 Vietnamese and 84 Cambodian traders. Multivariate and cluster analysis were used to construct a typology of traders based on their poultry management practices. As a result of those practices and large poultry surplus (unsold poultry reoffered for sale the following day), some poultry traders were shown to promote conditions favorable for perpetuating HPAIV H5N1 in LBMs. More than 80% of these traders operated in LBMs located in the most densely populated areas, Ha Noi and Phnom Penh. The profiles of sellers operating at a given LBM could be reliably predicted using basic information about the location and type of market. Consequently, LBMs with the largest combination of risk factors for becoming virus reservoirs could be easily identified, potentially allowing control strategies to be appropriately targeted. These findings are of particular relevance to resource-scarce settings with extensively developed LBM systems, commonly found in South-East Asia.

Fournie, Guillaume; Guitian, Javier; Desvaux, Stephanie; Mangtani, Punam; Ly, Sowath; Cong, Vu Chi; San, Sorn; Dung, Do Huu; Holl, Davun; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Vong, Sirenda; Ghani, Azra C.

2012-01-01

348

High-throughput Screening in Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Neurons Identifies Potentiators of ?-Amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate-type Glutamate Receptors  

PubMed Central

Stem cell biology offers advantages to investigators seeking to identify new therapeutic molecules. Specifically, stem cells are genetically stable, scalable for molecular screening, and function in cellular assays for drug efficacy and safety. A key hurdle for drug discoverers of central nervous system disease is a lack of high quality neuronal cells. In the central nervous system, ?-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) subtype glutamate receptors mediate the vast majority of excitatory neurotransmissions. Embryonic stem (ES) cell protocols were developed to differentiate into neuronal subtypes that express AMPA receptors and were pharmacologically responsive to standard compounds for AMPA potentiation. Therefore, we hypothesized that stem cell-derived neurons should be predictive in high-throughput screens (HTSs). Here, we describe a murine ES cell-based HTS of a 2.4 × 106 compound library, the identification of novel chemical “hits” for AMPA potentiation, structure function relationship of compounds and receptors, and validation of chemical leads in secondary assays using human ES cell-derived neurons. This reporting of murine ES cell derivatives being formatted to deliver HTS of greater than 106 compounds for a specific drug target conclusively demonstrates a new application for stem cells in drug discovery. In the future new molecular entities may be screened directly in human ES or induced pluripotent stem cell derivatives.

McNeish, John; Roach, Marsha; Hambor, John; Mather, Robert J.; Weibley, Laura; Lazzaro, John; Gazard, Justin; Schwarz, Jacob; Volkmann, Robert; Machacek, David; Stice, Steve; Zawadzke, Laura; O'Donnell, Christopher; Hurst, Raymond

2010-01-01

349

Development and validation of a stability indicating HPLC method for simultaneous determination of four novel fluoroquinolone dimers as potential antibacterial agents.  

PubMed

A series of novel 6-fluoro1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-3-quinoline carboxylic acid dimers were synthesized as potential antibacterial agents from commercially available substituted fluorobenzoic acids. A stability indicating HPLC method was developed to determine these novel fluoroquinolone dimers using a systematic method development approach. Samples were subjected to stress conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation; and analyzed to demonstrate the specificity and stability indicating ability of the developed method. The precision for all four fluoroquinolone dimers was within 2.0% RSD. Calibration curves were linear (LOQ, 150%), with regression coefficients >0.99 for all dimers. The method was conveniently applied for determining purity and assay of these four novel fluoroquinolone dimers. PMID:22030076

Khan, Muzaffar; Reddy, C Naveen Kumar; Ravindra, G; Reddy, K V S R Krishna; Dubey, P K

2011-10-04

350

A Molecular Approach to Identifying the Natural Prey of the African Creeping Water Bug Naucoris, A Potential Reservoir of Mycobacterium ulcerans  

PubMed Central

The extra-oral digestion of creeping water bugs (Naucoridae: Hemiptera) hinders the study of their diet using the standard method of identifying prey body parts in the gut. Genetic methods are available, but rely on PCR tests or similar diagnostics to confirm suspected prey. Where the potential prey is unknown and a broad search for all possible prey is desirable, methods that can potentially capture any prey item are required. Naucoris sp. is known to harbor Mycobacterium ulcerans (Actinomycetales: Mycobacteriaceae), the causative bacterium of Buruli ulcer. Outbreaks of Buruli ulcer have been associated with disturbed freshwater habitats, but the mode of transmission to humans remains unclear. Here we examine the diet of Naucoris sp., a dominant aquatic predator in water bodies in Ghana where the prevalence of Buruli ulcer is high. We cloned and sequenced 576 PCR products (mtDNA rrnL, cox1) isolated from the gut of 60 Naucoris sp. individuals to determining diet composition as broadly as possible. Using phylogenetic analysis of newly sequenced clones and 6 potential prey taxa collected from the site, sequences isolated from Naucoris sp. guts matched locally collected Coleoptera (Hydrophilidae). Blastn queries to GenBank of other clone sequences produced matches to (Anura) (n = 1), Rotifera (n = 5), and fungi (n = 4) as additional components of the diet. Our results suggest that sp. in this Buruli ulcer-endemic area feeds on a wide range of prey and body sizes, and that the approach could be successfully applied to studies of aquatic food webs where morphological identification of prey is impossible and where little or no a priori knowledge is available.

Gamboa, Maribet; Kimbirauskas, Ryan K.; Merritt, Richard W.; Monaghan, Michael T.

2012-01-01

351

Axinopsida serricata shell encrustation: a potential indicator of organic enrichment conditions in sediments in the southern Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada.  

PubMed

We evaluate the potential of the geographic and within-sediment distribution patterns of rust-coloured shell encrustations on an abundant subtidal bivalve, Axinopsida serricata (Carpenter, 1864) as geochemical indicators of organic enrichment from marine municipal outfalls. The progressive development of shell encrustation over the life of the animals is suggested by heavier encrustations on large shells compared to smaller shells regardless of the geochemical conditions of the habitat. Heavy encrustations decline in an exponential manner at sediment acid volatile sulphide (AVS) levels>7 micromol/g. Analyses show that the reddish shell encrustations are from an amorphous iron oxide or hydroxy-oxide likely micro-biologically mediated; the oxides appear to be embedded within the inner matrix of an organic layer, with a chemically distinct outer layer. A schematic model is proposed which shows how enrichment of labile organic carbon around outfalls affects the availability of dissolved iron in sediments and leads to less extensive encrustations on bivalve shells. Predominantly sandy sediments with low organic loading have much less potential for iron oxide deposition than silty sediments due to greater oxygen penetration into the surface sediment. Shell encrustation appears to be relatively persistent and indicative of long-term conditions, regardless of spatial and temporal fluctuations in sediment geochemistry. With more research on development over the life-cycle of the animal, the pattern of A. serricata shell encrustation has the potential to rapidly provide a map of cumulative labile organic loading and oxygen penetration of sediments around municipal outfalls on the west coast of North America where this species is common. However, caution must be used in interpreting results, since background sediment characteristics (substrate type, bottom currents and sediment transport) can affect encrustation patterns. PMID:18954901

Burd, Brenda; Macdonald, Robie; van Roodselaar, Albert; Wright, Cindy

2008-09-02

352

Gene expression profiling in male B6C3F1 mouse livers exposed to kava identifies - Changes in drug metabolizing genes and potential mechanisms linked to kava toxicity  

PubMed Central

The association of kava products with liver-related health risks has prompted regulatory action in many countries. We used a genome-wide gene expression approach to generate global gene expression profiles from the livers of male B6C3F1 mice administered kava extract by gavage for 14 weeks, and identified the differentially expressed drug metabolizing genes in response to kava treatments. Analyses of gene functions and pathways reveal that the levels of significant numbers of genes involving drug metabolism were changed and that the pathways involving xenobiotics metabolism, Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response, mitochondrial functions and others, were altered. Our results indicate that kava extract can significantly modulate drug metabolizing enzymes, potentially leading to herb–drug interactions and hepatotoxicity.

Guo, Lei; Shi, Qiang; Dial, Stacey; Xia, Qingsu; Mei, Nan; Li, Quanzhen; Chan, Po-Chuen; Fu, Peter

2010-01-01

353

Structure-Function Studies Using Deletion Mutants Identify Domains of gC1qR/p33 as Potential Therapeutic Targets for Vascular Permeability and Inflammation  

PubMed Central

The endothelial cell receptor complex for kininogen (HK) comprises gC1qR, cytokeratin 1, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor and is essential for activation of the kinin system that leads to bradykinin (BK) generation. Of these, gC1qR/p33 constitutes a high affinity site for HK – the BK precursor – and is therefore critical for the assembly of the kinin-generating cascade. Previous studies have identified a putative HK site within the C-terminal domain (residues 204–218) of gC1qR recognized by mAb 74.5.2. In these studies, we used information from the crystal structure of gC1qR, to engineer several deletion (?) mutants and test their ability to bind and/or support BK generation. While deletion of residues 204–218 (gC1qR?204–218), showed significantly reduced binding to HK, BK generation was not affected when tested by a sensitive bradykinin immunoassay. In fact, all of the gC1qR deletion mutants supported BK generation with the exception of gC1qR?154–162 and a point mutation in which Trp 233 was substituted with Gly. Binding studies also identified the existence of two additional sites at residues 144–162 and 190–202. Moreover, binding of HK to a synthetic peptide 190–202 was inhibited by mAbs 48 and 83, but not by mAb 74.5.2. Since a single residue separates domains 190–202 and 204–218, they may be part of a highly stable HK binding pocket and therefore a potential target for drug design to prevent vascular permeability and inflammation.

Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Jesty, Jolyon; Xu, Sulan; Vinayagasundaram, Rama; Vinayagasundaram, Uma; Ji, Yan; Valentino, Alisa; Hosszu, Kinga K.; Mathew, Sally; Joseph, Kusumam; Kaplan, Allen P.; Peerschke, Ellinor I. B.

2011-01-01

354

The Yeast Three-Hybrid System as an Experimental Platform to Identify Proteins Interacting with Small Signaling Molecules in Plant Cells: Potential and Limitations  

PubMed Central

Chemical genetics is a powerful scientific strategy that utilizes small bioactive molecules as experimental tools to unravel biological processes. Bioactive compounds occurring in nature represent an enormous diversity of structures that can be used to dissect functions of biological systems. Once the bioactivity of a natural or synthetic compound has been critically evaluated the challenge remains to identify its molecular target and mode of action, which usually is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. To facilitate this task, we decided to implement the yeast three-hybrid (Y3H) technology as a general experimental platform to scan the whole Arabidopsis proteome for targets of small signaling molecules. The Y3H technology is based on the yeast two-hybrid system and allows direct cloning of proteins that interact in vivo with a synthetic hybrid ligand, which comprises the biologically active molecule of interest covalently linked to methotrexate (Mtx). In yeast nucleus the hybrid ligand connects two fusion proteins: the Mtx part binding to dihydrofolate reductase fused to a DNA-binding domain (encoded in the yeast strain), and the bioactive molecule part binding to its potential protein target fused to a DNA-activating domain (encoded on a cDNA expression vector). During cDNA library screening, the formation of this ternary, transcriptional activator complex leads to reporter gene activation in yeast cells, and thereby allows selection of the putative targets of small bioactive molecules of interest. Here we present the strategy and experimental details for construction and application of a Y3H platform, including chemical synthesis of different hybrid ligands, construction of suitable cDNA libraries, the choice of yeast strains, and appropriate screening conditions. Based on the results obtained and the current literature we discuss the perspectives and limitations of the Y3H approach for identifying targets of small bioactive molecules.

Cottier, Stephanie; Monig, Timon; Wang, Zheming; Svoboda, Jiri; Boland, Wilhelm; Kaiser, Markus; Kombrink, Erich

2011-01-01

355

Tumor grafts derived from sarcoma patients retain tumor morphology, viability, and invasion potential and indicate disease outcomes in the chick chorioallantoic membrane model.  

PubMed

The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay was used to evaluate whether xenotransplanted sarcomas retain the histological characteristics and functional behavior of the original tumors. Metabolically active tumor tissue, identified by dynamic-contrast MRI, from 28 patients with a bone or soft-tissue tumors was applied to the CAM. Angiogenesis and graft and host behaviors were evaluated. The essential features and immunohistochemical characteristics of the original tumors were maintained, illustrating the diversity of sarcomas. Graft viability was inversely related to patient survival, but longer follow-up and more patients are needed to relate tumor graft behavior to natural history. We conclude that the CAM assay is a potential prognostic and predictive preclinical xenograft model for tumors that are difficult to culture in vitro, such as sarcomas; therefore, the use of the CAM assay may facilitate personalized medicine. PMID:22841668

Sys, Gwen; Van Bockstal, Mieke; Forsyth, Ramses; Balke, Maurice; Poffyn, Bart; Uyttendaele, Dirk; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

2012-07-24

356

Determination of polyamine metabolome in plasma and urine by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method: application to identify potential markers for human hepatic cancer.  

PubMed

To evaluate the potential relationship between cancer and polyamine metabolome, a UHPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of polyamine precursors, polyamines, polyamine catabolite in human plasma and urine. Polyamine precursors including L-ornithine, lysine, L-arginine and S-adenosyl-L-methionine; polyamines including 1,3-diaminopropane, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, agmatine, N-acetylputrescine, N-acetylspermine and N-acetylspermidine; polyamine catabolite including ?-aminobutyric acid had been determined. The analytes were extracted from plasma and urine samples by protein precipitation procedure, and then separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS column with 0.05% heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA) in methanol and 0.05% HFBA in water. The detection was performed on UHPLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in the positive ion and multiple reaction-monitoring mode. The limits of quantitation for all analytes were within 0.125-31.25 ng mL(-1) in plasma and urine. The absolute recoveries of analytes from plasma and urine were all more than 50%. By means of the method developed, the plasma and urine samples from hepatic cancer patients and healthy age-matched volunteers had been successfully determined. Results showed that putrescine and spermidine in hepatic cancerous plasma were significant higher than those in healthy ones, while spermidine, spermine and N-acetylspermidine in hepatic cancerous urine were significant higher than those in healthy ones. The methods demonstrated the changes of polyamine metabolome occurring in plasma and urine from human subjects with hepatic cancer. It could be a powerful manner to indicate and treat hepatic cancer in its earliest indicative stages. PMID:23890604

Liu, Ran; Li, Qing; Ma, Ran; Lin, Xiaohui; Xu, Huarong; Bi, Kaishun

2013-07-03

357

Pollen and Phytoliths from Fired Ancient Potsherds as Potential Indicators for Deciphering Past Vegetation and Climate in Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China  

PubMed Central

It is demonstrated that palynomorphs can occur in fired ancient potsherds when the firing temperature was under 350°C. Pollen and phytoliths recovered from incompletely fired and fully fired potsherds (ca. 2700 yrs BP) from the Yanghai Tombs, Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China can be used as potential indicators for reconstructing past vegetation and corresponding climate in the area. The results show a higher rate of recovery of pollen and phytoliths from incompletely fired potsherds than from fully fired ones. Charred phytoliths recovered from both fully fired and incompletely fired potsherds prove that degree and condition of firing result in a permanent change in phytolith color. The palynological data, together with previous data of macrobotanical remains from the Yanghai Tombs, suggest that temperate vegetation and arid climatic conditions dominated in the area ca. 2700 yrs BP.

Yao, Yi-Feng; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Hong-En; Ferguson, David K.; Hueber, Francis; Ghosh, Ruby; Bera, Subir; Li, Cheng-Sen

2012-01-01

358

Hydrochemical field investigations at a potential CO2 storage site - analysis of natural salinisation processes as an indicator for deep reaching flow processes in Eastern Brandenburg (Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers may cause an upward brine migration as a result of the pressure increase and brine displacement in the reservoir. With regard to a possible endangerment for regional freshwater resources the understanding of natural and induced migration processes of brines is therefore of great importance for the evaluation of potential storage sites. Within the framework of the BMBF project 'brine - CO2 storage in Eastern Brandenburg' (Germany), hydrochemical investigations were carried out to get an idea of the sources of salinisation, the migration pathways and the current processes and interactions between salt- and freshwater aquifers above a potential CO2 storage reservoir. This reservoir is located at a salt anticline structure in a Lower Triassic sandstone formation at a depth of about 1000 m. Since the 19th century freshwater salinisation and salinised soils in part with populations of halophytes were observed in Brandenburg. Both, fault zones in the Mesozoic/Tertiary and Pleistocene erosion processes led locally to a leakage of the Oligocene Rupelian clay formation, the most important confining layer between Mesozoic saltwater and Cenozoic freshwater aquifers, and thus potential migration pathways for brines. Possible sources for the salinisation are the leaching of deep Permian salt structures as well as in situ brackish or marine waters from Tertiary and Mesozoic sediments. Still unclear is especially the timescale of the salinisation processes in the shallow aquifers. To answer these questions, extensive groundwater samples from Pleistocene, Tertiary and Mesozoic aquifers down to depths of 450 m were taken in an investigation area of 50 x 50 km2 surrounding the potential storage site. In addition, deep thermal waters in Brandenburg in depths down to 1700 m were sampled to have comparable data for the storage reservoir and the deep caprock formations. Field parameters and a wide range of hydrochemical indicators (anions, cations, trace elements) were analysed to obtain information about characteristic reactions and hydraulic pathways between the aquifers. This was complemented by the measuring of the stable and unstable isotopes. 34S/18O(SO4) illustrate the origin and genesis of dissolved sulfate as well as reduction and oxidation processes. 87Sr/86Sr are valuable indicators of water-rock interactions and a tracer for the origin of salinity. The stable water isotopes (18O/2H) give a picture about the climatic conditions of the groundwater recharge and the influence of brackish or marine waters. With the aid of radio-isotopes (3T/3He, 4He, 14C) the mean residence time respectivly a relative age of groundwaters were determined. The results show that upward brine migration from the Mesozoic aquifers and Permian salt structures is responsible for the salinisation of the freshwater aquifers indicating deep reaching flow processes, which connect the shallow freshwater with deep saline aquifers. The natural salinisation processes have only a slow temporal dynamic. A clear correlation of groundwater age and salinisation respectivly depth were found in the investigation area indicating ages of the salinised waters in the freshwater aquifers up to several 1000 years. These data can be used for calibrating hydrogeological models for the site characterisation.

Endler, Ricarda; Jahnke, Christoph; Ludwig, Oliver

2013-04-01

359

Composite auditory evoked potentials index is not a good indicator of depth of anesthesia in propofol-fentanyl anesthesia: Randomized comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background: The composite auditory evoked potentials index (cAAI) was considered a measure of overall balance between noxious stimulation, analgesia, and hypnosis; while bispectral index (BIS) shows only hypnosis, and auditory evoked potentials index (AAI) shows response to stimuli. The present study compared the performance of cAAI, BIS, and AAI in propofol-fentanyl anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients for abdominal surgery aged 30-65 years with ASA physical status I or II were randomly divided into three groups by an envelope method. Anesthesia was induced with midazolam, propofol, and fentanyl alongwith an epidural block. When hemodynamics were stable during surgery, propofol infusion rate was fixed at 4 mg/kg/h for 10 min, then increased to 6 mg/kg/h and kept it for 10 min. AAI (AEP version 1.4), cAAI (AEP version 1.6), or BIS (A-2000) was monitored in each 15 patients, and the performance of three indices was compared. Results: All three indices decreased significantly before intubation. Only the AAI increased significantly by intubation. During anesthesia except for at propofol 6 mg/kg/h, the cAAI was significantly higher than the AAI. Only the AAI was significantly lower at propofol 6 mg/kg/h than at 4 mg/kg/h. The cAAI had the largest and AAI had the smallest inter-individual variations. The cAAI was higher than the manufacturer's recommended range of general anesthesia. Conclusion: In propofol-fentanyl anesthesia, AAI might be better to discriminate anesthetic depth than cAAI and BIS.

Nishiyama, Tomoki

2013-01-01

360

Carotid-radial pulse wave velocity as an alternative tool for the evaluation of endothelial function during pregnancy: potential role in identifying hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.  

PubMed

Preeclampsia/eclampsia syndrome, a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity, has been recognized as a condition with a globally impaired endothelial function (EF). The possibility of identifying early subclinical endothelial damage during pregnancy could be of value in classifying the different hypertensive states of pregnancy, and have a positive impact in the understanding of this syndrome, as well as on the appropriate treatment of these patients. Reactive hyperemia-related changes in carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWVcr) were proposed as an alternative tool for the evaluation of EF in patients with cardiovascular risk factors. If impaired EF, which follows hypertensive disorders of pregnancy can be assessed using PWVcr changes remains still unknown. Aims: To assess and compare reactive hyperemia-related changes in PWVcr and FMD in pregnant women (healthy and with hypertensive disorders) and non pregnant women. Methods: Healthy pregnant (HP; n=13), preeclamptic (PE; n=7), non-proteinuric hypertensive (NPH; n=6) and non-pregnant (NP; n=32) women were included. Left PWVcr (strain gauge mechano-transducers), left brachial arterial diameter (B-Mode ultrasound) and blood flow velocity (Doppler ultrasound) were measured before (baseline) and after the transient ischemia of the left forearm were determined. Results: One minute after the cuff deflation, PWVcr decreased in HP (6.9 ± 1.5 to 6.0 ± 0.9 m/s, p<0.001) and in NP (8.1 ± 0.9 to 7.4 ± 0.9 m/s; p<0.001). NPH showed a blunted hyperemic PWVcr response (6.6 ± 1.4 to 6.7 ± 1.0 m/s; p=0.91), whereas PE showed a tendency to increase (6.0 ± 0.7 to 6.4 ± 0.8 m/s; p=0.10). Reactive hyperemia PWVcr response (?PWVcr in %) differed comparing HP with NPH (-12% vs. +2%; p<0.01) and with PE (-12 vs. +6%; p <0.01), whereas no differences were found between NHP and PE (p=1.00). Conclusion: HP showed an enhanced PWVcr reduction, whereas PE and NPH showed a blunted hyperemic PWVcr response. Carotid-radial PWVcr analysis could have a potential role in the assessment of pregnancy to study EF with a potential clinical application in predicting pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia. PMID:23367199

Torrado, Juan; Farro, Ignacio; Farro, Federico; Bia, Daniel; Zócalo, Yanina; Sosa, Claudio; Scasso, Santiago; Alonso, Justo; Armentano, Ricardo L

2012-01-01

361

Small interfering RNA library screen identified polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) as a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer that uniquely eliminates tumor-initiating cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) high rate of relapse is thought to be due to the presence of tumor-initiating cells (TICs), molecularly defined as being CD44high/CD24-/low. TICs are resilient to chemotherapy and radiation. However, no currently accepted molecular target exists against TNBC and, moreover, TICs. Therefore, we sought the identification of kinase targets that inhibit TNBC growth and eliminate TICs. Methods A genome-wide human kinase small interfering RNA (siRNA) library (691 kinases) was screened against the TNBC cell line SUM149 for growth inhibition. Selected siRNAs were then tested on four different breast cancer cell lines to confirm the spectrum of activity. Their effect on the CD44high subpopulation and sorted CD44high/CD24-/low cells of SUM149 also was studied. Further studies were focused on polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), including its expression in breast cancer cell lines, effect on the CD44high/CD24-/low TIC subpopulation, growth inhibition, mammosphere formation, and apoptosis, as well as the activity of the PLK1 inhibitor, BI 2536. Results Of the 85 kinases identified in the screen, 28 of them were further silenced by siRNAs on MDA-MB-231 (TNBC), BT474-M1 (ER+/HER2+, a metastatic variant), and HR5 (ER+/HER2+, a trastuzumab-resistant model) cells and showed a broad spectrum of growth inhibition. Importantly, 12 of 28 kinases also reduced the CD44high subpopulation compared with control in SUM149. Further tests of these 12 kinases directly on a sorted CD44high/CD24-/low TIC subpopulation of SUM149 cells confirmed their effect. Blocking PLK1 had the greatest growth inhibition on breast cancer cells and TICs by about 80% to 90% after 72 hours. PLK1 was universally expressed in breast cancer cell lines, representing all of the breast cancer subtypes, and was positively correlated to CD44. The PLK1 inhibitor BI 2536 showed similar effects on growth, mammosphere formation, and apoptosis as did PLK1 siRNAs. Finally, whereas paclitaxel, doxorubicin, and 5-fluorouracil enriched the CD44high/CD24-/low population compared with control in SUM149, subsequent treatment with BI 2536 killed the emergent population, suggesting that it could potentially be used to prevent relapse. Conclusion Inhibiting PLK1 with siRNA or BI 2536 blocked growth of TNBCs including the CD44high/CD24-/low TIC subpopulation and mammosphere formation. Thus, PLK1 could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of TNBC as well as other subtypes of breast cancer.

2012-01-01

362

Identifying areas with potential for high indoor radon levels: analysis of the national airborne radiometric reconnaissance data for California and the Pacific Northwest  

SciTech Connect

Radon-222 is an important indoor air pollutant which, through the inhalation of its radioactive decay products, accounts for nearly half of the effective dose equivalent to the public from natural ionizing radiation. Indoor radon concentrations vary widely, largely because of local and regional differences in the rate of entry from sources. The major sources are soil and rock near building foundations, earth-based building materials, and domestic water; of these, soil and rock are thought to be predominant in many buildings with higher-than-average concentrations. Thus, one key factor in determining radon source potential is the concentration of radium, the progenitor of radon, in surficial rocks and soils. Aerial radiometric data were analyzed, collected for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, for seven Western states to: (1) provide information on the spatial distribution of radium contents in surficial geologic materials for those states; and (2) investigate approaches for using the aerial data, which have been collected throughout the contiguous United States and Alaska, to identify areas where high indoor radon levels may be common. Radium concentrations were found to be relatively low in central and western portions of Washington, Oregon, and northern California; they were found to be relatively high in central and southern California. A field validation study, conducted along two flight-line segments near Spokane, Washington, showed close correspondence between the aerial data, in situ measurements of both radium content and radon flux from soil, and laboratory measurements of both radium content of and radon emanation rate from soil samples. 99 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.

Moed, B.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Schwehr, M.B.; Van Heuvelen, A.

1984-04-01

363

A Novel Approach to Pharmaco-EEG for Investigating Analgesics: Assessment of Spectral Indices in Single-Sweep Evoked Brain Potentials.  

PubMed

AIMS: To compare results from analysis of averaged and single-sweep EPs by visual inspection and spectral analysis in order to identify an objective measure for the analgesic effect of buprenorphine and fentanyl. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy males were included in a randomized study to assess the changes in EPs after 110 sweeps of painful electrical stimulation to the median nerve following treatment with buprenorphine, fentanyl or placebo patches. Bone pressure, cutaneous heat and electrical pain ratings were assessed. EPs and pain assessments were obtained before drug administration, 24, 48, 72, and 144 hours after beginning of treatment. Features from EPs were extracted by three different approaches: 1) Visual inspection of amplitude and latency of the main peaks in the average EPs; 2) Spectral distribution of the average EPs; and 3) spectral distribution of the EPs from single-sweeps. RESULTS: Visual inspection revealed no difference between active treatments and placebo (all P>0.05). Spectral distribution of the averaged potentials showed a decrease in the beta(12-32Hz) band for fentanyl (P=0.036), which however did not correlate to pain ratings. Spectral distribution in the single-sweep EPs revealed significant increases in the theta, alpha and beta bands for buprenorphine (all P<0.05) as well as theta band increase for fentanyl (P=0.05). For buprenorphine, beta band activity correlated to bone pressure and cutaneous heat pain (both P=0.04; r=0.90). CONCLUSION: In conclusion single-sweep spectral band analysis increases the information on the brains response to opioids and may be used to identify the response to analgesics. PMID:23521205

Gram, Mikkel; Graversen, Carina; Nielsen, Anders K; Arendt-Nielsen, Thomas; Mørch, Carsten D; Andresen, Trine; Drewes, Asbjørn M

2013-03-25

364

MicroRNA profiling in locally advanced esophageal cancer indicates a high potential of miR-192 in prediction of multimodality therapy response.  

PubMed

To identify possible predictive markers, our study aimed to characterize microRNA (miRNA) profiles of responder and nonresponder in the multimodality therapy of locally advanced esophageal cancer. Initially, a microarray-based approach was performed including eight patients with esophageal cancer. Patients received neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgical resection. Major histopathological response was defined if resected specimens contained less than 10% vital tumor cells (major/minor response: 4/4 patients). Intratumoral RNA was isolated from both, pretherapeutic tissue biopsies in addition to corresponding surgical specimens. The profile of 768 miRNAs was analyzed in 16 specimens (preneoadjuvant and postneoadjuvant therapy). Selected miRNAs were than analyzed on pretherapeutic and post-therapeutic biopsies of 80 patients with esophageal cancer, who underwent multimodality therapy (major/minor response: 30/50 patients). Comprehensive miRNA profiling identified miRNAs in pretherapeutic biopsies that were significantly different between major/minor responders. Based on the microarray results, miR-192, miR-194 and miR-622 were selected and the dysregulated miRNAs were studied on an extended series of esophageal cancer patients. The expression of miR-192, miR-194 and miR-622 was significantly reduced after neoadjuvant therapy confirming the array profiling data. Importantly, the pretherapeutic intratumoral expression of miR-192 and miR-194 was significantly associated with the histopathologic response of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma to multimodal therapeutic treatment. Therefore, in patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy, miR-192 and miR-194 in pretherapeutic biopsies are considered as indicators of major histopathologic regression. PMID:23649428

Odenthal, M; Bollschweiler, E; Grimminger, P P; Schröder, W; Brabender, J; Drebber, U; Hölscher, A H; Metzger, R; Vallböhmer, D

2013-06-03

365

Transcriptome analysis of various flower and silique development stages indicates a set of class III peroxidase genes potentially involved in pod shattering in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background Plant class III peroxidases exist as a large multigenic family involved in numerous functions suggesting a functional specialization of each gene. However, few genes have been linked with a specific function. Consequently total peroxidase activity is still used in numerous studies although its relevance is questionable. Transcriptome analysis seems to be a promising tool to overcome the difficulties associated with the study of this family. Nevertheless available microarrays are not completely reliable for this purpose. We therefore used a macroarray dedicated to the 73 class III peroxidase genes of A. thaliana to identify genes potentially involved in flower and fruit development. Results The observed increase of total peroxidase activity during development was actually correlated with the induction of only a few class III peroxidase genes which supports the existence of a functional specialization of these proteins. We identified peroxidase genes that are predominantly expressed in one development stage and are probable components of the complex gene networks involved in the reproductive phase. An attempt has been made to gain insight into plausible functions of these genes by collecting and analyzing the expression data of different studies in plants. Peroxidase activity was additionally observed in situ in the silique dehiscence zone known to be involved in pod shattering. Because treatment with a peroxidase inhibitor delayed pod shattering, we subsequently studied mutants of transcription factors (TF) controlling this mechanism. Three peroxidases genes -AtPrx13, AtPrx30 and AtPrx55- were altered by the TFs involved in pod shatter. Conclusions Our data illustrated the problems caused by linking only an increase in total peroxidase activity to any specific development stage or function. The activity or involvement of specific class III peroxidase genes needs to be assessed. Several genes identified in our study had not been linked to any particular development stage or function until now. Notably AtPrx13, which is one of the peroxidase genes not present on commercially available microarrays. A systematic survey of class III peroxidase genes expression is necessary to reveal specific class III peroxidase gene functions and the regulation and evolution of this key multifunctional enzyme family. The approach used in this study highlights key individual genes that merit further investigation.

2010-01-01

366

The Exploration of Indicators of Imagination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although early studies in the fields of education and psychology appreciated the value of imagination, little work has been done pertaining to indicators of imagination. This study synthesized early works on imagination done between 1900 and 2011 to clarify its meaning and identify potential indicators. Then, two groups of samples were collected…

Liang, Chaoyun; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Chang, Yuhsuan; Lin, Li-Jhong

2012-01-01

367

Potential of the HAQ score as clinical indicator suggesting comprehensive multidisciplinary assessments: the Swedish TIRA cohort 8 years after diagnosis of RA.  

PubMed

This study explores the potential of the health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) score as a clinical indicator that can be used to suggest comprehensive multidisciplinary assessments, by relating it to more general aspects of disability. In a cohort of 132 patients with early RA (mean age 55, 68% women), 28 joint count Disease Activity Scores (DAS-28), HAQ, and Short Form 36 (SF-36) scores were registered at annual follow-up visits 8 years after diagnosis. The patients were tentatively sub-grouped into a high-HAQ group (HAQ ? 1 at the 8-year follow-up) and a low-HAQ group. The high-HAQ group, comprising 36% of the cohort, had a higher mean HAQ score at inclusion and beyond at all visits compared to the low-HAQ group, and 24% of all individual patients in the high-HAQ group had a HAQ score ? 1 at inclusion. Although the DAS-28 improved in both groups, patients in the high-HAQ group also had significantly more persistent disability according to the SF-36: five scales at each follow-up visit and all eight scales at the majority of the visits. Individual RA patients with HAQ ? 1 probably have considerable persistent disabilities according to the SF-36. The HAQ score could be used as a clinical indicator suggesting comprehensive multidisciplinary assessments of the components of disability and corresponding interventions, in addition to the established use of HAQ at group levels and in parallel with the medication strategy based on DAS-28. PMID:22249375

Thyberg, Ingrid; Dahlström, Ö; Björk, M; Arvidsson, P; Thyberg, M

2012-01-17

368

Effects of long-term ultraviolet radiation: the white form of Metridium senile (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) as a potential biological indicator for ultraviolet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetically identical individuals of the white form of Metridium senile were kept in the laboratory for 40 months, during almost 2 years of which they were irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) radiation simulating the shape of the solar UV spectrum. The living and experimental conditions were largely matched to the conditions in the sea anemones' natural habitat on the North Sea coast. Controls were shielded from direct radiation or irradiated with only the visible range of the spectrum; for the UV tests, the UV component corresponded either to the conditions in the natural habitat or to twice or 4 times this dose. All experiments were preceded by a several-month settling-in period, and UV irradiation was always begun at a low intensity. Under these conditions UV was not lethal but produced many parameter changes, of which only those that were irreversible for the entire duration of the experiment, from September 1992 to August 1994, are described here. The body mass fell significantly in all three UV-radiation modes. All irradiated animals positioned themselves so as to be less exposed to the radiation, and all changed colour from white to brown. These responses are discussed with reference to the potential of M. senile as an indicator or monitor for UV in the northern European coastal region. Field analyses are currently being conducted to demonstrate the extent to which the present results apply to field conditions.

Westholt, R.; Kestler, P.; Sicken, O.; Westheide, W.

2001-02-01

369

Using Terrestrial Ecosystem Survey Data to Identify Potential Habitat for the Mexican Spotted Owl on National Forest System Lands: A Pilot Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We assessed the usefulness of Terrestrial Ecosystem Survey (TES) data as a means of identifying habitat for the Mexican spotted owl ( Strix occidentalis lucida) in three National Forests in Arizona. This spatial data set incorporates information on soils,...

J. L. Ganey M. A. Benoit

2002-01-01

370

Environmental Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Environment Canada has developed a set of environmental indicators that are easily measurable and provide useful clues on the state of the environment. This Web site provides a listing of those indicators that Environment Canada monitors. For each indicator, there is a detailed description of the environmental indicator, how it relates to larger environmental problems, and what is being done to reduce the threat. A number of Web links are provided for further information on each indicator.

2007-12-12

371

Ability of an Atlantic Bottlenosed Dolphin to Discriminate Between, and Potentially Identify to Individual, the Whistles of Another Species, the Spotted Dolphin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discrimination tests using as the subject a juvenile male Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, indicated that it was possible for him to learn to discriminate between the whistles of two female spotted dolphins, Stenella plagiodon. (Author)

M. C. Caldwell N. R. Hall D. K. Caldwell

1971-01-01

372

Identifying harms.  

PubMed

Moral disagreements often revolve around the issue of harm to others. Identifying harms, however, is a contested enterprise. This paper provides a conceptual toolbox for identifying harms, and so possible wrongdoing, by drawing several distinctions. First, I distinguish between four modes of human vulnerability, forming four ways in which one can be in a harmed state. Second, I argue for the intrinsic disvalue of harm and so distinguish the presence of harm from the fact that it is instrumental to or constitutive of a valued act, practice or way of life. Finally, I distinguish between harm and wrongdoing, arguing that while harm is a normative concept requiring justification, not all harmed states are automatically unjustified. The advantage of this view is that it refocuses the moral debate on the normative issues involved while establishing a common basis to which both sides can agree: the presence of harm to others. PMID:21434956

Harrosh, Shlomit

2011-03-25

373

Identify Symmetry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit will teach you how to identify symmetry in everyday objects and mathematical shapes in lines and rotational symmetry. What is line symmetry? Click on the link to find out: Line Symmetry Here is a line activity to see if you understand it: Line Symmetry Class Zone See if you understand the concepts by doing the following quiz: Line Symmetry Work Now for rotational symmetry: Rotational Symmetry See if you understand rotational symmetry by taking this quiz: Rotational Symmetry Work ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-03-03

374

Identifying Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this environmental science activity (page 3 of the PDF), leaners will identify and explain the causes of erosion. They will observe the effects of erosion on the surrounding area and further explore examples of erosion online. An extension activity allows learners to make a hands-on model of soil erosion. Though this was created as a pre-visit activity for a workshop about water flow and erosion, it makes a great stand-alone activity as well!

Cosi

2009-01-01

375

Analysis of SNPs with an effect on gene expression identifies UBE2L3 and BCL3 as potential new risk genes for Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for Crohn's disease (CD) have identified loci explaining similar to 20% of the total genetic risk of CD. Part of the other genetic risk loci is probably partly hidden among signals discarded by the multiple testing correction needed in the analysis of GWAS data. Strategies for finding these hidden loci require large replication cohorts and are

K. Fransen; M. C. Visschedijk; S. van Sommeren; J. Y. Y. Fu; L. Franke; E. A. M. Festen; P. C. F. Stokkers; A. A. van Bodegraven; J. B. A. Crusius; D. W. Hommes; P. Zanen; D. J. de Jong; C. Wijmenga; C. C. van Diemen; R. K. Weersma

2010-01-01

376

Protein Chip Array Profiling Analysis in Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Identified Serum Amyloid A Protein as a Biomarker Potentially Useful in Monitoring the Extent of Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A new strain of coronavirus (CoV) has caused an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syn- drome (SARS), with 8098 individuals being infected and 774 deaths worldwide. We carried out protein chip array profiling analysis in an attempt to identify biomarkers that might be useful in monitoring the clinical course of SARS patients. Methods: We performed surface-enhanced laser desorp- tion

Timothy T. C. Yip; Johnny W. M. Chan; William C. S. Cho; Tai-Tung Yip; Zheng Wang; Ting-Lok Kwan; Stephen C. K. Law; Dominic N. C. Tsang; John K. C. Chan; King-Chung Lee; Wai-Wai Cheng; Victor W. S. Ma; Christine Yip; Cadmon K. P. Lim; Roger K. C. Ngan; Joseph S. K. Au; Angel Chan; Wilina W. L. Lim

377

Use of polymorphisms in the noncoding region of the human mitochondrial genome to identify potential contamination of human leukemia-lymphoma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of the complete sequence of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has proven extremely useful in phylogenetic studies, forensic science and the determination of chimerism after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In this study, we could demonstrate that the analysis of mtDNA polymorphisms is a quick and reliable method to identify contamination of human hematopoietic cell lines. This assay is based

Grit Hutter; Christina Nickenig; Henk Garritsen; Frank Hellenkamp; Andre Hoerning; Wolfgang Hiddemann; Martin Dreyling

2004-01-01

378

Sequential strategy to identify a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia: Report of potential linkage on chromosome 22q12-q13.1: Part 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify genes responsible for the susceptibility for schizophrenia, and to test the hypothesis that schizophrenia is etiologically heterogeneous, we have studied 39 multiplex families from a systematic sample of schizophrenic patients. Using a complex autosomal dominant model, which considers only those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder as affected, a random search of the genome for detection

Ann E. Pulver; P. S. Wolyniec; V. K. Lasseter; Laura Kasch; Gerald Nestadt; Stylianos Antonarakis; David Housman; Haig H. Kazazian; Deborah Meyers; Jurg Ott; Malgorzata Lamacz; Kung-Yee Liang; John Hanfelt; Gail Ullrich; Nicola DeMarchi; Elango Ramu; Paul R. McHugh; Lawrence Adler; Marion Thomas; William T. Carpenter; Theo Manschreck; C. T. Gordon; Michelle Kimberland; Robert Babb; Jennifer Puck; Barton Childs

1994-01-01

379

Potential improvements in the therapeutic ratio of prostate cancer irradiation: dose escalation of pathologically identified tumour nodules using intensity modulated radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to improve the therapeutic ratio in prostate cancer by dose escalation of intraprostatic tumour nodules (IPTNs) was investigated using a simultaneous integrated boost technique. The prostate and organs-at-risk were outlined on CT images from six prostate cancer patients. Positions of IPTNs were transferred onto the CT images from prostate maps derived from sequential

C M NUTTING; C M CORBISHLEY; B SANCHEZ; V P COSGROVE; S WEBB; D P DEARNALEY

380

Efficacy of quality criteria to identify potentially harmful information: a cross-sectional survey of complementary and alternative medicine web sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many users search the Internet for answers to health questions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a particularly common search topic. Because many CAM therapies do not require a clinician's prescription, false or misleading CAM information may be more dangerous than information about traditional therapies. Many quality criteria have been suggested to filter out potentially harmful online health information.

Muhammad Walji; Smitha Sagaram; Deepak Sagaram; Funda Meric-Bernstam; Craig Johnson; Nadeem Q Mirza; Elmer V Bernstam

2004-01-01

381

Event-related potentials when identifying or color-naming threatening schematic stimuli in spider phobic and non-phobic individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous studies revealed increased parietal late positive potentials (LPPs) in response to spider pictures in spider phobic individuals. This study searched for basic features of fear-relevant stimuli by investigating whether schematic spider images are sufficient to evoke differential behavioral as well as differential early and late ERP responses in spider phobic, social phobic (as a clinical control group), and

Iris-Tatjana Kolassa; Frauke Musial; Stephan Kolassa; Wolfgang HR Miltner

2006-01-01

382

Expression of Erk5 in Early Stage Breast Cancer and Association with Disease Free Survival Identifies this Kinase as a Potential Therapeutic Target  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Breast cancer is the most common neoplasia in women. Even though advances in its treatment have improved disease outcome, some patients relapse. Therefore, attempts to better define the molecular determinants that drive breast cancer cell proliferation may help in defining potential therapeutic targets. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) play important roles in tumorigenesis. One of them, Erk5, has been linked

Juan Carlos Montero; Alberto Ocaña; Mar Abad; María Jesús Ortiz-Ruiz; Atanasio Pandiella; Azucena Esparís-Ogando

2009-01-01

383

Interaction of Ethambutol with Human Organic Cation Transporters of the SLC22 Family Indicates Potential for Drug-Drug Interactions during Antituberculosis Therapy.  

PubMed

According to the 2012 WHO global tuberculosis (TB) report (http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/75938/1/9789241564502_eng.pdf), the death rate for tuberculosis was over 1.4 million patients in 2011, with ?9 million new cases diagnosed. Moreover, the frequency of comorbidity with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with diabetes is on the rise, increasing the risk of these patients for experiencing drug-drug interactions (DDIs) due to polypharmacy. Ethambutol is considered a first-line antituberculosis drug. Ethambutol is an organic cation at physiological pH, and its major metabolite, 2,2'-(ethylenediimino)dibutyric acid (EDA), is zwitterionic. Therefore, we assessed the effects of ethambutol and EDA on the function of human organic cation transporter 1 (hOCT1), hOCT2, and hOCT3 and that of EDA on organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) and hOAT3. Potent inhibition of hOCT1- and hOCT2-mediated transport by ethambutol (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 92.6 ± 10.9 and 253.8 ± 90.8 ?M, respectively) was observed. Ethambutol exhibited much weaker inhibition of hOCT3 (IC50 = 4.1 ± 1.6 mM); however, significant inhibition (>80%) was observed at physiologically relevant concentrations in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract after oral dosing. EDA failed to exhibit any inhibitory effects that warranted further investigation. DDI analysis indicated a strong potential for ethambutol interaction on hOCT1 expressed in enterocytes and hepatocytes and on hOCT3 in enterocytes, which would alter absorption, distribution, and excretion of coadministered cationic drugs, suggesting that in vivo pharmacokinetic studies are necessary to confirm drug safety and efficacy. In particular, TB patients with coexisting HIV or diabetes might experience significant DDIs in situations of coadministration of ethambutol and clinical therapeutics known to be hOCT1/hOCT3 substrates (e.g., lamivudine or metformin). PMID:23917312

Pan, Xiaolei; Wang, Li; Gründemann, Dirk; Sweet, Douglas H

2013-08-05

384

Gene Expression Profiling of Liposarcoma Identifies Distinct Biological Types\\/Subtypes and Potential Therapeutic Targets in Well-Differentiated and Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification of liposarcoma into three biological types encompassing five subtypes, (a) well-differentiated\\/dediffer- entiated, (b) myxoid\\/round cell, and (c) pleomorphic, based on morphologic features and cytogenetic aberrations, is widely accepted. However, diagnostic discordance remains even among expert sarcoma pathologists. We sought to develop a more systematic approach to liposarcoma classification based on gene expression analysis and to identify subtype-specific differentially expressed

Nicholas D. Socci; Grazia Ambrosini; Elliot Sambol; Penelope Decarolis; Yuhsin Wu; Rachael O'Connor; Robert Maki; Chris Sander; Gary K. Schwartz; Cristina R. Antonescu

2007-01-01

385

Genomic differences between Campylobacter jejuni isolates identify surface membrane and flagellar function gene products potentially important for colonizing the chicken intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Campylobacter spp. are one of the leading bacterial etiologic agents of acute human gastroenteritis among industrialized countries. Poultry\\u000a are implicated as a major source of the organism for human illness; however, the factors involved with colonization of poultry\\u000a gastrointestinal systems remain unclear. Genomics and proteomics analyses were used to identify differences between poor-\\u000a versus robust-colonizing Campylobacter jejuni isolates, 11168(GS) and

Kelli L. Hiett; Alain Stintzi; Tracy M. Andacht; Robin L. Kuntz; Bruce S. Seal

2008-01-01

386

Identifying Careless Responses in Survey Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

When data are collected via anonymous Internet surveys, particularly under conditions of obligatory participation (such as with student samples), data quality can be a concern. However, little guidance exists in the published literature regarding techniques for detecting careless responses. Previously several potential approaches have been suggested for identifying careless respondents via indices computed from the data, yet almost no prior

Adam W. Meade; S. Bartholomew Craig

2012-01-01

387

CD49f and CD61 identify Her2/neu-induced mammary tumor-initiating cells that are potentially derived from luminal progenitors and maintained by the integrin-TGF? signaling.  

PubMed

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/Neu is overexpressed in 20-30% of breast cancers and associated with aggressive phenotypes and poor prognosis. For deciphering the role of HER2/Neu in breast cancer, mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Her2/neu transgenic mice that develop mammary tumors resembling human HER2-subtype breast cancer have been established. Several recent studies have revealed that HER2/Neu is overexpressed in and regulates self renewal of breast tumor-initiating cells (TICs). However, in the MMTV-Her2/neu transgenic mouse model, the identity of TICs remains elusive, despite previous studies showing supportive evidence for existence of TICs in Her2/neu-induced mammary tumors. Through systematic screening and characterization, we identified that surface markers CD49f, CD61 and ESA were aberrantly overexpressed in Her2-overexpressing mammary tumor cells. Analysis of these markers and CD24 detected anomalous expansion of the luminal progenitor population in preneoplastic mammary glands of Her2/neu transgenic mice, indicating that aberrant luminal progenitors originated in Her2-induced mammary tumors. The combined markers, CD49f and CD61, further delineated the CD49f(high)CD61(high)-sorted fraction as a TIC-enriched population, which displayed increased tumorsphere formation ability, enhanced tumorigenicity both in vitro and in vivo and drug resistance to pacitaxel and doxorubicin. Moreover, the TIC-enriched population manifested increased transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) signaling and exhibited gene expression signatures of stemness, TGF? signaling and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Our findings that self-renewal and clonogenicity of TICs were suppressed by pharmacologically inhibiting the TGF? signaling further indicate that the TGF? pathway is vital for maintenance of the TIC population. Finally, we showed that the integrin-?3 (CD61) signaling pathway was required for sustaining active TGF? signaling and self-renewal of TICs. We for the first time developed a technique to highly enrich TICs from mammary tumors of Her2/neu transgenic mice, unraveled their properties and identified the cooperative integrin-?3-TGF? signaling axis as a potential therapeutic target for HER2-induced TICs. PMID:21996747

Lo, P-K; Kanojia, D; Liu, X; Singh, U P; Berger, F G; Wang, Q; Chen, H

2011-09-26

388

Protein Expression Profiling Identifies Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Cyclophilin A as Potential Molecular Targets in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for lung cancer have had no significant impact on lung cancer mortality over the last several decades. This study used a matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) discovery platform to generate protein expression profiles in search of overexpressed proteins in lung tumors as potentially novel molecular targets. Two differentially expressed protein peaks at

Michael J. Campa; Michael Z. Wang; Brandon Howard; Michael C. Fitzgerald; Edward F. Patz

2003-01-01

389

Subtoxic concentrations of allergenic haptens induce LC migration and maturation in a human organotypic skin explant culture model: a novel method for identifying potential contact allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accelerated migration of Langerhans cells (LCs) out of the epidermis and up-regulation of maturation markers, upon treatment with subtoxic concentrations of chemicals, were used as the criteria to determine the potential of allergenic chemicals capable of inducing a hapten-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Here we report the findings of a study in which seven chemicals, coded and tested in a

Cynthia L. Lehe; John J. L. Jacobs; Chi Mei Hua; P. Courtellemont; Graham R. Elliott; Pranab K. Das

2006-01-01

390

Identifying Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two part activity will allow students to investigate biological diversity in the area of their school. They will first prepare a taxonomic key to distinguish between the four insects or spiders that they have selected. All of the keys are combined and students then perform a transect study of a neighborhood field or school playing ground. Finally as a class students will compile a list of the animals and plants that are found within a mile of their school. They may need to use field guides, local resources, taxonomic keys, and species lists to help identify these organisms. Once they have compiled their list they will organize the species into the taxonomic groups they have studied.

Dispezio, Michael

391

Biomarkers of Exposure to Toxic Substances Volume 7: Identification of Potential Serum Protein Biomarkers Indicative of Low Level Kidney Degradation in Response to Toxin Exposures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Potential serum biomarkers to subclinical nephrotoxin exposures were evaluated based on differential protein expression between control and dosed samples in rat serum. Proteins of interest demonstrated up-regulation at a minimum 1.5 fold increase in prote...

C. A. Mauzy C. L. Woolard P. A. Shiyanov

2009-01-01

392

The inherent variability of water stress indicators in apple, nectarine and pear orchards, and the validity of a leaf-selection procedure for water potential measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following two topics were examined: (1) The variability in the measurement of leaf water potential (LWP), stem water potential\\u000a (SWP), maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS), and soil water tension (SWT) in apple, nectarine and pear orchards; and (2) The\\u000a validity of a leaf-selection procedure for SWP measurements in commercial apple orchards. 27 trees were selected in an apple\\u000a orchard,

Amos Naor; Yoni Gal; Moti Peres

2006-01-01

393

Bioinformatic Analysis of Patient-Derived ASPS Gene Expressions and ASPL-TFE3 Fusion Transcript Levels Identify Potential Therapeutic Targets  

PubMed Central

Gene expression data, collected from ASPS tumors of seven different patients and from one immortalized ASPS cell line (ASPS-1), was analyzed jointly with patient ASPL-TFE3 (t(X;17)(p11;q25)) fusion transcript data to identify disease-specific pathways and their component genes. Data analysis of the pooled patient and ASPS-1 gene expression data, using conventional clustering methods, revealed a relatively small set of pathways and genes characterizing the biology of ASPS. These results could be largely recapitulated using only the gene expression data collected from patient tumor samples. The concordance between expression measures derived from ASPS-1 and both pooled and individual patient tumor data provided a rationale for extending the analysis to include patient ASPL-TFE3 fusion transcript data. A novel linear model was exploited to link gene expressions to fusion transcript data and used to identify a small set of ASPS-specific pathways and their gene expression. Cellular pathways that appear aberrantly regulated in response to the t(X;17)(p11;q25) translocation include the cell cycle and cell adhesion. The identification of pathways and gene subsets characteristic of ASPS support current therapeutic strategies that target the FLT1 and MET, while also proposing additional targeting of genes found in pathways involved in the cell cycle (CHK1), cell adhesion (ARHGD1A), cell division (CDC6), control of meiosis (RAD51L3) and mitosis (BIRC5), and chemokine-related protein tyrosine kinase activity (CCL4).

Covell, David G.; Wallqvist, Anders; Kenney, Susan; Vistica, David T.

2012-01-01

394

Thermal indicator for wells  

DOEpatents

Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying