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1

Primary Responsibilities 1. Identify potential accident hazards.  

E-print Network

Primary Responsibilities 1. Identify potential accident hazards. 2. Be alert or prevent accidents-service trainings Benefits 1. Leadership Role 2. Flexible Hours 3. Good Pay 4. Great Experience/Résumé builder 5 and organizational skills 3. Experience in public facility management 4. Strong problem-solving skills 5. Self

2

Identifying node role in social network based on multiple indicators.  

PubMed

It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role. PMID:25089823

Huang, Shaobin; Lv, Tianyang; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Yange; Zheng, Weimin; Wen, Chao

2014-01-01

3

Identifying Indicators of State Change and Forecasting Future Vulnerability  

E-print Network

Threshold Dynamics in Boreal Ecosystems · Models good at estimating changes in organic layer thickness and permafrost vulnerability. · Don't simulate changes in forest productivity due to changes in vegetation shiftIdentifying Indicators of State Change and Forecasting Future Vulnerability in Alaskan Boreal

Ruess, Roger W.

4

Potential Therapeutic Targets Identified in Multiple Myeloma  

Cancer.gov

Description: Researchers have identified molecular changes in multiple myeloma cells that activate an important biological pathway associated with cell growth and survival, thereby revealing potential new targets for drugs to treat this cancer. The researchers, led by a team from the NCI, have shown that malignant cells in multiple myeloma frequently harbor mutations that activate what is called the NF-kappaB signaling pathway, which plays a key role in promoting cell growth and preventing programmed cell death.

5

Developing a Monitoring System for Indicators in Middle Childhood: Identifying Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper builds on an initial paper (Moore and Theokas, Child Indicators Research, 2008 DOI 10.1007\\/s12187-008-9011-9) that conceptualizes elements of well-being relevant for the middle childhood period, identifies potential constructs and\\u000a develops criteria for indicators. Here, we follow up by identifying a set of 20 indicator constructs, half positive and half\\u000a negative. Of these 20, half measure child well-being and

Kristin Anderson Moore; Sharon Vandivere; Astrid Atienza; Tatia Thiot

2008-01-01

6

Identifying Quality Indicators of SAE and FFA: A Delphi Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine quality indicators for SAE and FFA according to 36 experts across the United States. This is a part of a larger study looking at all components of the traditional three-circle model. The study utilized the Delphi technique to garner expert opinion about quality indicators in Agricultural Education. For

Jenkins, Charles Cordell, III; Kitchel, Tracy

2009-01-01

7

Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic

Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

2013-01-01

8

Identifying novel drug indications through automated reasoning Authors and Affiliations  

E-print Network

hypotheses in the form of protein-protein interactions networks by means of linking concepts based effects caused by drug-target interactions and links to various diseases as domain knowledge in Ans of these drugs have potential anti-cancer activities based on information on their targets and molecular

Baral, Chitta

9

Selection indices to identify drought-tolerant grain sorghum cultivars.  

PubMed

Twenty-five cultivars of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] were examined under both drought stress and normal conditions in 4 experiments. In each condition, genotypes were evaluated in a factorial experiment using a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Eight drought tolerance indices including stability tolerance index, mean productivity (MP), geometric MP, harmonic mean, stress susceptibility index, tolerance index, yield index, and yield stability index were estimated for each genotype based on grain yield under drought (Ys) and irrigated conditions (Yp). The results indicated that there were positive and significant correlations among Yp and Ys with geometric MP, MP, harmonic mean, and stability tolerance index, indicating that these factors are better predictors of Yp and Ys than tolerance index, stress susceptibility index, yield stability index, and yield index. Based on adjusted means at Yp and Ys, indices geometric MP, MP, harmonic mean, and stability tolerance index, unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster and biplot analysis, the most tolerant cultivars were '9929020', '9929034', and 'N 95B'. PMID:25501191

Menezes, C B; Ticona-Benavente, C A; Tardin, F D; Cardoso, M J; Bastos, E A; Nogueira, D W; Portugal, A F; Santos, C V; Schaffert, R E

2014-01-01

10

Wairakite: A Potential Indicator of Fluid Mixing  

SciTech Connect

Wairakite is a common geothermal mineral. Detailed paragenetic studies indicate that wairakite typically forms after the deposition of epidote {plus_minus} prehnite and later anhydrite + calcite. Epidote and prehnite are interpreted as products of early, high temperature alteration associated with upswelling reservoir fluids whereas calcite and anhydrite are related to descending acidic condensates. Calculated stability relationships among the calc silicate minerals indicates that cooling and/or decreasing pH will lead to the deposition of wairakite instead of epidote, whereas decreasing pH favors wairakite over prehnite. We infer, from the petrographic relationships, that these changes occur when descending condensate mixes with the in-situ reservoir fluids during the waning stages of geothermal activity. Fluid inclusion measurements indicate wairakite is commonly deposited between temperatures of {approx}235 and 300 C.

Moore, J; Bruton, C; Powell, T

2005-01-28

11

Potential new indications of topical calcineurin inhibitors.  

PubMed

The topical calcineurin inhibitors pimecrolimus (Elidel) and tacrolimus (Protopic) were initially developed for the treatment of atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis), a chronic or chronically relapsing skin condition most prevalent in infants and children. Their main advantages compared with conventional topical corticosteroid therapy are that they are more selective in their mode of action, do not induce skin atrophy and are not associated with significant systemic absorption. In addition, topical calcineurin inhibitors may represent a useful alternative to topical corticosteroids for the treatment of a number of other inflammatory skin diseases. Preferred sites for the use of topical calcineurin inhibitors are areas such as the face, neck, flexures, and genital areas, which are more susceptible to topical corticosteroid side effects. The efficacy of topical calcineurin inhibitors has been demonstrated for flexural psoriasis, seborrhoeic, contact and hand eczema. Preliminary data also support the efficacy of topical calcineurin inhibitors in lichen planus, facial lupus erythematosus, autoimmune bullous dermatosis, and vitiligo. In these latter indications, controlled studies are needed to better understand the efficacy and safety of topical calcineurin inhibitors and their role in disease management. PMID:18174692

Luger, Thomas; Paul, Carle

2007-01-01

12

SELECTING INDICATORS OF BIODIVERSITY FOR CONSERVATION PLANNING: IDENTIFYING THE MECHANISMS BEHIND INDICATOR GROUP PERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Most conservation planning is constrained by time and funding. In particular, the selection of areas to protect biodiversity must often be completed with limited data on species distributions. Consequently, different groups of species have been proposed as indicators or surroga...

13

Identifying indicators of illegal behaviour: carnivore killing in human-managed landscapes  

PubMed Central

Managing natural resources often depends on influencing people's behaviour, however effectively targeting interventions to discourage environmentally harmful behaviours is challenging because those involved may be unwilling to identify themselves. Non-sensitive indicators of sensitive behaviours are therefore needed. Previous studies have investigated people's attitudes, assuming attitudes reflect behaviour. There has also been interest in using people's estimates of the proportion of their peers involved in sensitive behaviours to identify those involved, since people tend to assume that others behave like themselves. However, there has been little attempt to test the potential of such indicators. We use the randomized response technique (RRT), designed for investigating sensitive behaviours, to estimate the proportion of farmers in north-eastern South Africa killing carnivores, and use a modified logistic regression model to explore relationships between our best estimates of true behaviour (from RRT) and our proposed non-sensitive indicators (including farmers' attitudes, and estimates of peer-behaviour). Farmers' attitudes towards carnivores, question sensitivity and estimates of peers' behaviour, predict the likelihood of farmers killing carnivores. Attitude and estimates of peer-behaviour are useful indicators of involvement in illicit behaviours and may be used to identify groups of people to engage in interventions aimed at changing behaviour. PMID:21795272

St John, Freya A. V.; Keane, Aidan M.; Edwards-Jones, Gareth; Jones, Lauren; Yarnell, Richard W.; Jones, Julia P. G.

2012-01-01

14

Using SCOPE to identify potential regulatory motifs in coregulated genes.  

PubMed

SCOPE is an ensemble motif finder that uses three component algorithms in parallel to identify potential regulatory motifs by over-representation and motif position preference. Each component algorithm is optimized to find a different kind of motif. By taking the best of these three approaches, SCOPE performs better than any single algorithm, even in the presence of noisy data. In this article, we utilize a web version of SCOPE to examine genes that are involved in telomere maintenance. SCOPE has been incorporated into at least two other motif finding programs and has been used in other studies. The three algorithms that comprise SCOPE are BEAM, which finds non-degenerate motifs (ACCGGT), PRISM, which finds degenerate motifs (ASCGWT), and SPACER, which finds longer bipartite motifs (ACCnnnnnnnnGGT). These three algorithms have been optimized to find their corresponding type of motif. Together, they allow SCOPE to perform extremely well. Once a gene set has been analyzed and candidate motifs identified, SCOPE can look for other genes that contain the motif which, when added to the original set, will improve the motif score. This can occur through over-representation or motif position preference. Working with partial gene sets that have biologically verified transcription factor binding sites, SCOPE was able to identify most of the rest of the genes also regulated by the given transcription factor. Output from SCOPE shows candidate motifs, their significance, and other information both as a table and as a graphical motif map. FAQs and video tutorials are available at the SCOPE web site which also includes a "Sample Search" button that allows the user to perform a trial run. Scope has a very friendly user interface that enables novice users to access the algorithm's full power without having to become an expert in the bioinformatics of motif finding. As input, SCOPE can take a list of genes, or FASTA sequences. These can be entered in browser text fields, or read from a file. The output from SCOPE contains a list of all identified motifs with their scores, number of occurrences, fraction of genes containing the motif, and the algorithm used to identify the motif. For each motif, result details include a consensus representation of the motif, a sequence logo, a position weight matrix, and a list of instances for every motif occurrence (with exact positions and "strand" indicated). Results are returned in a browser window and also optionally by email. Previous papers describe the SCOPE algorithms in detail. PMID:21673638

Martyanov, Viktor; Gross, Robert H

2011-01-01

15

BRAF mutation as a potential marker to identify the proximal colon serrated polyps with malignant potential  

PubMed Central

A large number of serrated polyps with malignant potential in the proximal colon were underestimated using currently available criteria mostly based on architectural and cytological features, contributing to proximal interval colorectal cancers. Recently, increasing evidences indicate that BRAF(V600E) mutation is a specific molecular feature and driver of the serrated pathway, and proximal serrated polyps with BRAF(V600E) mutation have a high risk of progression to malignancy. We proposed that immunohistochemical detection of BRAF(V600E) using a BRAF(V600E) mutation-specific antibody is a feasible technique for reproducibly identifying proximal serrated polyps with malignant potential in clinical practice, which may need more aggressive treatment and vigilant clinical monitoring. PMID:25550768

Fu, Xiangsheng; Zhang, Xiaoyan

2014-01-01

16

Identifying Potential Kidney Donors Using Social Networking Websites  

PubMed Central

Social networking sites like Facebook may be a powerful tool for increasing rates of live kidney donation. They allow for wide dissemination of information and discussion, and could lessen anxiety associated with a face-to-face request for donation. However, sparse data exist on the use of social media for this purpose. We searched Facebook, the most popular social networking site, for publicly available English-language pages seeking kidney donors for a specific individual, abstracting information on the potential recipient, characteristics of the page itself, and whether potential donors were tested. In the 91 pages meeting inclusion criteria, the mean age of potential recipients was 37 (range: 269); 88% were U.S. residents. Other posted information included the individuals photograph (76%), blood type (64%), cause of kidney disease (43%), and location (71%). Thirty-two percent of pages reported having potential donors tested, and 10% reported receiving a live donor kidney transplant. Those reporting donor testing shared more potential recipient characteristics, provided more information about transplantation, and had higher page traffic. Facebook is already being used to identify potential kidney donors. Future studies should focus on how to safely, ethically, and effectively use social networking sites to inform potential donors and potentially expand live kidney donation. PMID:23600791

Chang, Alexander; Anderson, Emily E.; Turner, Hang T.; Shoham, David; Hou, Susan H.; Grams, Morgan

2013-01-01

17

Identifying potential kidney donors using social networking web sites.  

PubMed

Social networking sites like Facebook may be a powerful tool for increasing rates of live kidney donation. They allow for wide dissemination of information and discussion and could lessen anxiety associated with a face-to-face request for donation. However, sparse data exist on the use of social media for this purpose. We searched Facebook, the most popular social networking site, for publicly available English-language pages seeking kidney donors for a specific individual, abstracting information on the potential recipient, characteristics of the page itself, and whether potential donors were tested. In the 91 pages meeting inclusion criteria, the mean age of potential recipients was 37 (range: 2-69); 88% were US residents. Other posted information included the individual's photograph (76%), blood type (64%), cause of kidney disease (43%), and location (71%). Thirty-two percent of pages reported having potential donors tested, and 10% reported receiving a live-donor kidney transplant. Those reporting donor testing shared more potential recipient characteristics, provided more information about transplantation, and had higher page traffic. Facebook is already being used to identify potential kidney donors. Future studies should focus on how to safely, ethically, and effectively use social networking sites to inform potential donors and potentially expand live kidney donation. PMID:23600791

Chang, Alexander; Anderson, Emily E; Turner, Hang T; Shoham, David; Hou, Susan H; Grams, Morgan

2013-01-01

18

COLIPHAGES AS POTENTIAL VIRAL INDICATORS OF FECAL POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Friedman, Stephanie D. In press. Coliphages as Potential Viral Indicators of Fecal Pollution (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems of the Gulf of Mexico and Southeastern United States, 6-9 October ...

19

Identifying Sequence Determinants of Reduction Potentials of Metalloproteins  

PubMed Central

The reduction potential of an electron transfer protein is one of its most important functional characteristics. While the type of redox site and the protein fold are the major determinants of the reduction potential of a redox active protein, its amino acid sequence may tune the reduction potential as well. Thus, homologous proteins can often be divided into different classes, with each class characterized by a biological function and a reduction potential. Site-specific mutagenesis of the sequence determinants of the differences in the reduction potential between classes should change the reduction potential of a protein in one class to that of the other class. Here, a procedure is presented that combines energetic and bioinformatics analysis of homologous proteins for identifying sequence determinants that are also good candidates for site-specific mutations, using the [4Fe-4S]-ferredoxins and the [4Fe-4S]-HiPIPs as examples. This procedure is designed to guide site-specific mutations or more computationally expensive studies, such as molecular dynamics simulations. To make the procedure more accessible to the general scientific community, it is being implemented into CHARMMing, a web-based portal, with a library of density functional theory results for the redox site that used in the set up of Poisson-Boltzmann continuum electrostatics calculations for the protein energetics. PMID:23690205

Perrin, Bradley Scott; Ichiye, Toshiko

2013-01-01

20

Costa Rican data synthesis indicates oil, gas potential  

SciTech Connect

The hydrocarbon exploration data base in Costa Rica, gathered through various recent periods, indicates promising hydrocarbon potential in the country. During 1980--94, Recope SA, the state petroleum company, performed a series of studies to evaluate the petroleum potential in the whole Costa Rican territory. As a first step, the information compiled during previous studies was re-evaluated, and later new information was collected with the aid of foreign governments and cooperating institutions. A new exploratory era began with the Costa Rican Congress` approval in 1994 of the Hydrocarbon Law, which allows private companies to participate in hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. This article brings together some highlights about Costa Rica oil potential and gives basic information on future hydrocarbon exploration and development under the regulation of the new Hydrocarbon Law.

Barrientos, J.; Bottazzi, G.; Fernandez, A.; Barboza, G. [Ministry of Environment and Energy, San Jose (Costa Rica). Hydrocarbons Directorate

1997-05-12

21

Identifying potential cancer driver genes by genomic data integration  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a genomic disease associated with a plethora of gene mutations resulting in a loss of control over vital cellular functions. Among these mutated genes, driver genes are defined as being causally linked to oncogenesis, while passenger genes are thought to be irrelevant for cancer development. With increasing numbers of large-scale genomic datasets available, integrating these genomic data to identify driver genes from aberration regions of cancer genomes becomes an important goal of cancer genome analysis and investigations into mechanisms responsible for cancer development. A computational method, MAXDRIVER, is proposed here to identify potential driver genes on the basis of copy number aberration (CNA) regions of cancer genomes, by integrating publicly available human genomic data. MAXDRIVER employs several optimization strategies to construct a heterogeneous network, by means of combining a fused gene functional similarity network, gene-disease associations and a disease phenotypic similarity network. MAXDRIVER was validated to effectively recall known associations among genes and cancers. Previously identified as well as novel driver genes were detected by scanning CNAs of breast cancer, melanoma and liver carcinoma. Three predicted driver genes (CDKN2A, AKT1, RNF139) were found common in these three cancers by comparative analysis. PMID:24346768

Chen, Yong; Hao, Jingjing; Jiang, Wei; He, Tong; Zhang, Xuegong; Jiang, Tao; Jiang, Rui

2013-01-01

22

Identifying potential cancer driver genes by genomic data integration.  

PubMed

Cancer is a genomic disease associated with a plethora of gene mutations resulting in a loss of control over vital cellular functions. Among these mutated genes, driver genes are defined as being causally linked to oncogenesis, while passenger genes are thought to be irrelevant for cancer development. With increasing numbers of large-scale genomic datasets available, integrating these genomic data to identify driver genes from aberration regions of cancer genomes becomes an important goal of cancer genome analysis and investigations into mechanisms responsible for cancer development. A computational method, MAXDRIVER, is proposed here to identify potential driver genes on the basis of copy number aberration (CNA) regions of cancer genomes, by integrating publicly available human genomic data. MAXDRIVER employs several optimization strategies to construct a heterogeneous network, by means of combining a fused gene functional similarity network, gene-disease associations and a disease phenotypic similarity network. MAXDRIVER was validated to effectively recall known associations among genes and cancers. Previously identified as well as novel driver genes were detected by scanning CNAs of breast cancer, melanoma and liver carcinoma. Three predicted driver genes (CDKN2A, AKT1, RNF139) were found common in these three cancers by comparative analysis. PMID:24346768

Chen, Yong; Hao, Jingjing; Jiang, Wei; He, Tong; Zhang, Xuegong; Jiang, Tao; Jiang, Rui

2013-01-01

23

Sustained attention deficits in relation to psychometrically identified schizotypy: Evaluating a potential endophenotypic marker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustained attention deficits have been posited as a potential endophenotypic marker of vulnerability to schizophrenia. Prior studies have indicated that schizophrenia patients, their first-degree relatives, and psychosis-prone individuals, identified on the basis of measures of positive schizotypy, have demonstrated sustained attention deficits. To date, there have been no published reports of sustained attention deficits in individuals with negative schizotypy, as

Diane C. Gooding; Christie W. Matts; Elizabeth A. Rollmann

2006-01-01

24

Indices for bioavailability and biotransformation potential of contaminants in soils.  

PubMed

Bioavailability is an important consideration in risk assessment of soil contaminants and in the selection of appropriate remediation technologies for polluted sites. The present study examined the bioavailability and biodegradation potential of phenanthrene with respect to a pseudomonad in 15 different soils through separate measurements of mineralization, transformation, and desorption to a polymeric infinite sink (Tenax) after 180-d sterile pre-equilibration with phenanthrene. Fractions strongly resistant to desorption and mineralization at long times were evident in all cases. After correcting for bioconversion (moles mineralized per mole transformed) determined in aqueous particle-free soil extracts, a correlation was found between the biotransformation-resistant fraction and the Tenax desorption-resistant fraction. Indices are proposed to assess bioavailability (BAt) and biotransformation potential (BTPt) of a compound in a soil based on parallel desorption and degradation studies over a selected period t. The BAt is the ratio of moles biotransformed to moles desorbed to an infinite sink, and it reflects the biotransformation rate relative to the maximal desorption rate. Values of BA30 (30-d values) ranged from 0.64 (for dark gray silt loam) to 1.12 (Wurtsmith Air Force Base [AFB] 2B, Oscoda, MI, USA). The BTPt is the ratio between moles biotransformed and moles of contaminant remaining sorbed after maximal desorption. The BTPt provides an indication of the maximum extent of biotransformation that may be expected in a system, assuming desorption is a prerequisite for biodegradation. Values of BTP30 ranged between 0.3 (Wurtsmith AFB 1B) and 13 (Mount Pleasant silt loam, NY, USA). The combination of BAt and BTPt provides insights regarding the relationship between physical availability (desorption) and biological processes (biotransformation kinetics, toxicity, other soil factors) that occur during biodegradation and are suggested to represent the remediation potential of the chemical. The BA30 values less than 0.9 and BTP30 values less than five indicate poor potential for site remediation. PMID:15230309

Braida, Washington J; White, Jason C; Pignatello, Joseph J

2004-07-01

25

The abilities of new anthropometric indices in identifying cardiometabolic abnormalities, and influence of residence area and lifestyle on these anthropometric indices in a Chinese community-dwelling population  

PubMed Central

Objective The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and cardiometabolic abnormalities, the influence of residence area, occupation, and lifestyle on new anthropometric indices, and the relationship between anthropometric indices and cardiometabolic abnormalities in a Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods The study included 4,868 residents through a large health check-up program in Beijing. Results Overall obesity existed in 22.2% of men and 28.1% of women. 67.1% of men and 65.2% of women were overweight. 65.99% of men and 65.97% of women had central obesity. Residents of rural areas, manual workers, and smokers had significantly higher anthropometric indices. The power of each anthropometric index varied for identifying different cardiometabolic abnormalities, and the ability of the waist-to-height ratio to identify participants with greater than one or two cardiometabolic abnormalities was optimal. The appropriate cut-off values of all anthropometric indices for cardiometabolic abnormalities were obtained. Conclusion Overweight is common for both sexes in the Peoples Republic of China, as are general and central obesity. Residents of rural areas, manual workers, and smokers have significantly higher anthropometric indices. Waist-to-height ratio has the ability to reflect the compound risk of different cardiometabolic abnormalities and the greatest potential to be widely applied in clinical practice. PMID:24477219

Fu, Shihui; Luo, Leiming; Ye, Ping; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Bing; Bai, Yongyi; Bai, Jie

2014-01-01

26

A Method to Identify Estuarine Macroinvertebrate Pollution Indicator Species in the Virginian Biogeogarphic Province  

EPA Science Inventory

Macroinvertebrates are commonly used as biomonitors to detect pollution impacts in estuaries. The goal of this research was to identify estuarine benthic invertebrates that could be used as indicator species to detect presence or absence of pollution in the Virginian Biogeograph...

27

Obtaining subjects consent to publish identifying personal information: current practices and identifying potential issues  

PubMed Central

Background In studies publishing identifying personal information, obtaining consent is regarded as necessary, as it is impossible to ensure complete anonymity. However, current journal practices around specific points to consider when obtaining consent, the contents of consent forms and how consent forms are managed have not yet been fully examined. This study was conducted to identify potential issues surrounding consent to publish identifying personal information. Methods Content analysis was carried out on instructions for authors and consent forms developed by academic journals in four fields (as classified by Journal Citation Reports): medicine general and internal, genetics and heredity, pediatrics, and psychiatry. An online questionnaire survey of editors working for journals that require the submission of consent forms was also conducted. Results Instructions for authors were reviewed for 491 academic journals (132 for medicine general and internal, 147 for genetics and heredity, 100 for pediatrics, and 112 for psychiatry). Approximately 40% (203: 74 for medicine general and internal, 31 for genetics and heredity, 58 for pediatrics, and 40 for psychiatry) stated that subject consent was necessary. The submission of consent forms was required by 30% (154) of the journals studied, and 10% (50) provided their own consent forms for authors to use. Two journals mentioned that the possible effects of publication on subjects should be considered. Many journal consent forms mentioned the difficulties in ensuring complete anonymity of subjects, but few addressed the study objective, the subjects right to refuse consent and the withdrawal of consent. The main reason for requiring the submission of consent forms was to confirm that consent had been obtained. Conclusion Approximately 40% of journals required subject consent to be obtained. However, differences were observed depending on the fields. Specific considerations were not always documented. There is a need to address issues around the study objective, subjects right to refuse consent and the withdrawal of consent. Whether responsibility for ensuring that the consent form has been signed lies with publishers also needs to be discussed. PMID:24267590

2013-01-01

28

Kernel Density Surface Modelling as a Means to Identify Significant Concentrations of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystem Indicators  

PubMed Central

The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61/105, concerning sustainable fisheries in the marine ecosystem, calls for the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VME) from destructive fishing practices. Subsequently, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) produced guidelines for identification of VME indicator species/taxa to assist in the implementation of the resolution, but recommended the development of case-specific operational definitions for their application. We applied kernel density estimation (KDE) to research vessel trawl survey data from inside the fishing footprint of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) Regulatory Area in the high seas of the northwest Atlantic to create biomass density surfaces for four VME indicator taxa: large-sized sponges, sea pens, small and large gorgonian corals. These VME indicator taxa were identified previously by NAFO using the fragility, life history characteristics and structural complexity criteria presented by FAO, along with an evaluation of their recovery trajectories. KDE, a non-parametric neighbour-based smoothing function, has been used previously in ecology to identify hotspots, that is, areas of relatively high biomass/abundance. We present a novel approach of examining relative changes in area under polygons created from encircling successive biomass categories on the KDE surface to identify significant concentrations of biomass, which we equate to VMEs. This allows identification of the VMEs from the broader distribution of the species in the study area. We provide independent assessments of the VMEs so identified using underwater images, benthic sampling with other gear types (dredges, cores), and/or published species distribution models of probability of occurrence, as available. For each VME indicator taxon we provide a brief review of their ecological function which will be important in future assessments of significant adverse impact on these habitats here and elsewhere. PMID:25289667

Kenchington, Ellen; Murillo, Francisco Javier; Lirette, Camille; Sacau, Mar; Koen-Alonso, Mariano; Kenny, Andrew; Ollerhead, Neil; Wareham, Vonda; Beazley, Lindsay

2014-01-01

29

Kernel density surface modelling as a means to identify significant concentrations of vulnerable marine ecosystem indicators.  

PubMed

The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61/105, concerning sustainable fisheries in the marine ecosystem, calls for the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VME) from destructive fishing practices. Subsequently, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) produced guidelines for identification of VME indicator species/taxa to assist in the implementation of the resolution, but recommended the development of case-specific operational definitions for their application. We applied kernel density estimation (KDE) to research vessel trawl survey data from inside the fishing footprint of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) Regulatory Area in the high seas of the northwest Atlantic to create biomass density surfaces for four VME indicator taxa: large-sized sponges, sea pens, small and large gorgonian corals. These VME indicator taxa were identified previously by NAFO using the fragility, life history characteristics and structural complexity criteria presented by FAO, along with an evaluation of their recovery trajectories. KDE, a non-parametric neighbour-based smoothing function, has been used previously in ecology to identify hotspots, that is, areas of relatively high biomass/abundance. We present a novel approach of examining relative changes in area under polygons created from encircling successive biomass categories on the KDE surface to identify "significant concentrations" of biomass, which we equate to VMEs. This allows identification of the VMEs from the broader distribution of the species in the study area. We provide independent assessments of the VMEs so identified using underwater images, benthic sampling with other gear types (dredges, cores), and/or published species distribution models of probability of occurrence, as available. For each VME indicator taxon we provide a brief review of their ecological function which will be important in future assessments of significant adverse impact on these habitats here and elsewhere. PMID:25289667

Kenchington, Ellen; Murillo, Francisco Javier; Lirette, Camille; Sacau, Mar; Koen-Alonso, Mariano; Kenny, Andrew; Ollerhead, Neil; Wareham, Vonda; Beazley, Lindsay

2014-01-01

30

Identifying and Quantifying Heterogeneity in High Content Analysis: Application of Heterogeneity Indices to Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

One of the greatest challenges in biomedical research, drug discovery and diagnostics is understanding how seemingly identical cells can respond differently to perturbagens including drugs for disease treatment. Although heterogeneity has become an accepted characteristic of a population of cells, in drug discovery it is not routinely evaluated or reported. The standard practice for cell-based, high content assays has been to assume a normal distribution and to report a well-to-well average value with a standard deviation. To address this important issue we sought to define a method that could be readily implemented to identify, quantify and characterize heterogeneity in cellular and small organism assays to guide decisions during drug discovery and experimental cell/tissue profiling. Our study revealed that heterogeneity can be effectively identified and quantified with three indices that indicate diversity, non-normality and percent outliers. The indices were evaluated using the induction and inhibition of STAT3 activation in five cell lines where the systems response including sample preparation and instrument performance were well characterized and controlled. These heterogeneity indices provide a standardized method that can easily be integrated into small and large scale screening or profiling projects to guide interpretation of the biology, as well as the development of therapeutics and diagnostics. Understanding the heterogeneity in the response to perturbagens will become a critical factor in designing strategies for the development of therapeutics including targeted polypharmacology. PMID:25036749

Gough, Albert H.; Chen, Ning; Shun, Tong Ying; Lezon, Timothy R.; Boltz, Robert C.; Reese, Celeste E.; Wagner, Jacob; Vernetti, Lawrence A.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Lee, Adrian V.; Stern, Andrew M.; Schurdak, Mark E.; Taylor, D. Lansing

2014-01-01

31

7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.6 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? Potential market...

2013-01-01

32

7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.6 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? Potential market...

2012-01-01

33

7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.6 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? Potential market...

2011-01-01

34

7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?  

...potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.6 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? Potential market...

2014-01-01

35

7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false How are potential market participants identified for...FARMERS MARKET 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? Potential market participants are...

2010-01-01

36

Sigma-2 Receptor as Potential Indicator of Stem Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Purpose The sigma-2 (?2) receptor is a potential biomarker of proliferative status of solid tumors. Specific synthetic probes using N-substituted-9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3?-yl carbamate analogs have been designed and implemented for experimental cancer diagnosis and therapy. Procedures We employed the fluorescently-labeled ?2 receptor probe, SW120, to evaluate ?2 receptor expression in human stem cells (SC), including: bone marrow stromal (BMSC), neural progenitor (NPC), amniotic fluid (AFSC), hematopoetic (HSC) and embryonic stem cells (ESC). We concurrently evaluated the intensity of SW120 and 5-ethynyl-2?-deoxyuridine (EdU) relative to passage number and multipotency. Results We substantiated significantly higher ?2 receptor density among proliferating SC relative to lineage-restricted cell types. Additionally, cellular internalization of the ?2 receptor in SC was consistent with receptor-mediated endocytosis and confocal microscopy indicated SW120 specific co-localization with a fluorescent marker of lysosomes in all SC imaged. Conclusion These results suggest that ?2 receptors may serve to monitor stem cell differentiation in future experimental studies. PMID:21614680

Haller, Jodi L.; Panyutin, Irina; Chaudhry, Aneeka; Zeng, Chenbo; Mach, Robert H.; Frank, Joseph A.

2011-01-01

37

IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL SOURCES OF BACKGROUND CONTAMINATION IN RT-PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

Extraction of nucleic acids from low biomass samples, such as drinking water, is particularly sensitive to potential background contamination because the contaminating material is minimally diluted by the sample. The presence of bacterial DNA in Taq DNA polymerase is wel...

38

Identifying prospective antifouling coatings for venturis: Zeta potential measurements of oxides at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of research to determine the zeta potential of oxides responsible for fouling of heat transfer, venturi, and other flow measurement device surfaces. Fouling deposits formed on these surfaces reduce mass flow rates of water, causing power reductions of as much as 3 to 4%. There is considerable evidence that deposit formation can be prevented by coating the critical surfaces with a coating material that electrostatically repels the suspended fouling particulates. The zeta potential can be used as a parameter to identify and determine the best coating material to be employed for fouling prevention. The research entailed the development of the equipment necessary for zeta potential measurements, measurement of zeta potentials of oxides and coatings of interest to nuclear power plant applications, and evaluation of candidate coating materials to prevent fouling of surfaces. By this approach, numerous metals and oxides have been identified as potential coating materials. Fouling studies revealed that magnetite does not deposit on tungsten and palladium surfaces, indicating the potential use of these metals for coating venturi surfaces used in nuclear power plants.

Jayaweera, P.; Hettiarachchi, S.; Pound, B.G. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

1992-10-01

39

Hardness potential derivatives and their relation to Fukui indices.  

PubMed

A simple as well as easy to compute formalism of hardness potential (originally defined by Parr and Gazquez, J. Phys. Chem., 1993, 97, 3939) is presented. Use of hardness potential formally resolves the N-dependence problem of local hardness. However, the hardness potential cannot describe the intra as well as intermolecular reactivity sequence satisfactorily of some chemical systems. The corresponding electrophilic [?(+)h(k)] and nucleophilic [?(-)h(k)] variants of the hardness potential are also developed, which measure the reactivity toward a nucleophilic (i.e., Nu(-)) and an electrophilic (i.e., El(+)) reagent, respectively. Interestingly, these two variants of the hardness potential lead to the right and left derivatives of Fukui potential. The proposed reactivity descriptors correctly predict the expected reactivity trends in the chosen systems. It has also been illustrated that the values of the variants of hardness potential (or Fukui potential) at the atomic nucleus have the ability to explain the intramolecular reactivity of biologically active indole derivatives. The future scope of applications as well as limitations of the proposed descriptors is also highlighted. PMID:23175426

Saha, Soumen; Bhattacharjee, Rituparna; Roy, Ram Kinkar

2013-03-30

40

Forecasting potential project risks through leading indicators to project outcome  

E-print Network

During project execution, the status of the project is periodically evaluated, using traditional methods or standard practices. However, these traditional methods or standard practices may not adequately identify certain issues, such as lack...

Choi, Ji Won

2007-09-17

41

Immunohistochemical analysis of RTKs expression identified HER3 as a prognostic indicator of gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Standard treatment in Japan for the 13th Japanese Gastric Cancer Association stage II/III advanced gastric cancer is postoperative adjuvant S-1 administration after curative surgery. High expression of receptor type tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has repeatedly represented poor prognosis for cancers. However it has not been demonstrated whether RTKs have prognostic relevance for stage II/III gastric cancer with standard treatment. Tumor tissues were obtained from 167 stage II/III advanced gastric cancer patients who underwent curative surgery and received postoperative S-1 chemotherapy from 2000 to 2010. Expression of the RTKs including EGFR, HER2, HER3, IGF-1R, and EphA2 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Analysis using a multivariate proportional hazard model identified the most significant RTKs that represented independent prognostic relevance. When tumor HER3 expression was classified into IHC 1+/2+ (n=98) and IHC 0 (n=69), the cumulative 5-year Relapse Free Survival (5y-RFS) was 56.5 and 82.9%, respectively (P=0.0034). Significant prognostic relevance was similarly confirmed for IGF-1R (P=0.014), and EGFR (P=0.030), but not for EphA2 or HER2 expression. Intriguingly, HER3 expression was closely correlated with IGF-1R (P<0.0001, R=0.41), and EphA2 (P<0.0001, R=0.34) expression. Multivariate proportional hazard model analysis identified HER3 (IHC 1+/2+) (HR; 1.53, 95% CI, 1.11-2.16, P=0.0078) as the sole RTK that was a poor prognostic factor independent of stage. Of the 53 patients who recurred, 40 patients (75.5%) were HER3-positive. Thus, of the RTKs studied, HER3 was the only RTK identified as an independent prognostic indicator of stage II/III advanced gastric cancer with standard treatment. PMID:25455899

Ema, Akira; Yamashita, Keishi; Ushiku, Hideki; Kojo, Ken; Minatani, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mariko; Mieno, Hiroaki; Moriya, Hiromitsu; Hosoda, Kei; Katada, Natsuya; Kikuchi, Shiro; Watanabe, Masahiko

2014-12-01

42

The Ghrelin Axis in Disease; Potential Therapeutic Indications  

PubMed Central

Ghrelin, the natural ligand for the growth hormone (GH)-secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is produced predominantly in the stomach. It is present in the circulation in two major forms, an acylated and an unacylated form, both of which have reported activities. Some of the best understood main effects of acylated ghrelin administration include anorexic effects, increased appetite and the stimulation of GH secretion. Ghrelin also seems to plays a role in glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and immune function. Based on its orexigenic and metabolic effects, ghrelin and ghrelin mimetics have potential benefit in antagonizing protein breakdown and weight loss in catabolic conditions such as cancer cachexia, renal, cardiac and pulmonary disease, and age-related frailty. Ghrelin also has potentially useful positive effects on cardiac function and gastric motility. Ghrelin antagonists may be of benefit to increase insulin sensitivity and potentiate weight loss. The following chapter presents some background on ghrelin and ghrelin assays and discusses some of the potential therapeutic approaches for the use of ghrelin, ghrelin mimetic compounds and ghrelin antagonists in clinical disease. PMID:21356273

Nass, Ralf; Gaylinn, Bruce D.; Thorner, Michael O.

2011-01-01

43

Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a wealth of published research on salinity tolerance of plants, neither the metabolic sites at which salt stress damages plants nor the adaptive mechanisms utilized by plants to survive under saline conditions are well understood. As a result, there are no well-defined indicators for salinity tolerance available to assist plant breeders in the improvement of salinity tolerance of important

M. Ashraf; P. J. C. Harris

2004-01-01

44

AN INDICATOR OF POTENTIAL STREAM WOOD CONTRIBUTION FOR RIPARIAN FORESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

In northwestern Oregon a key function of riparian forests is to provide wood to the stream network. This function is a prominent feature of Federal and State forest practices in the region. Thus, defining indicators which are associated with this function are important for desi...

45

Methods to identify the target population: implications for prescribing quality indicators  

E-print Network

Prescribing quality indicators of type 2 diabetes mellitusquality indicators of risk factor management in patients with type 2 diabetes.Diabetes 2005, 10. Min LC, Mehrotra R, Fung CH: Quality indicators

Martirosyan, Liana; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; Braspenning, Joz; Denig, Petra

2010-01-01

46

Identifying crater potential improves shallow gas kick control  

SciTech Connect

An understanding of sea floor crater mechanisms can help drillers determine whether to divert or shut in a shallow gas kick. Proper well planning that considers potential shallow gas sources can eliminate some of the more common failure situations with both diverting and shutting in of a well. Current well control practice for land and bottom-supported marine rigs usually calls for shutting in the well when a kick is detected, providing sufficient casing has been set to keep any flow underground. The casing and surface equipment must have an adequately high working pressure to ensure that formation fracture occurs before the equipment fails. Even for high shut-in pressures, an underground blowout is preferable to a surface blowout. An operator may choose to divert the flow if the surface casing is not set deep enough to keep the underground flow outside the casing from breaking through the sediments to the surface. Once the flow reaches the surface, a crater may form at the sea bed, possibly sinking or damaging the rig. Craters increase the difficulty and time required to kill a blowout. The paper describes shallow gas environments, the decision to divert or shut in the well, fluid migration, cement bond failure, hydraulic fracture, shear failure, the effect of fault planes, crater mechanisms, formation liquefaction, piping, caving, historical cases, and a deepwater crater.

Rocha, L.A. (Louisiana State Univ./Petrobras, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)); Bourgoyne, A.T. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States))

1993-12-27

47

Development and validation of potential structure indicators for evaluating antimicrobial stewardship programmes in European hospitals.  

PubMed

This study describes the development of structure indicators for hospital antimicrobial stewardship programmes and pilot validation across European hospitals. A multi-disciplinary panel from four European countries developed structure indicators in three steps: identification and listing of indicators, remote ranking of indicators using multi-criteria scoring, selection of indicators in a face-to-face consensus meeting. Additionally, the top-ten indicators were identified as a minimal set of key indicators. A survey was sent to the directors of antimicrobial stewardship programmes in European hospitals. The yes/no answers for the indicators were transformed into numbers in order to calculate the total scores. A list of 58 indicators was selected and categorised into the following topics: antimicrobial stewardship services (12 items), tools (16 items), human resources and mandate (6 items), health care personnel development (4 items), basic diagnostic capabilities (6 items), microbiological rapid tests (2 items), evaluation of microbiological drug resistance data (3 items), antibiotic consumption control (5 items) and drug use monitoring (4 items). The indicator scores, reported by 11 pilot hospitals from five European countries, ranged from 32 to 50 (maximum score?=?58) and from 5 to 10 points (maximum score?=?10) for, respectively, the complete and the top-ten list. An international panel selected 58 potential structure indicators, among which was a minimal set of ten key structure indicators, that could be useful for assessment of the comprehensiveness and resource-intensity of antimicrobial stewardship programmes. There was significant heterogeneity among participating centres with regard to their score for structural components of effective antimicrobial stewardship. PMID:23525773

Buyle, F M; Metz-Gercek, S; Mechtler, R; Kern, W V; Robays, H; Vogelaers, D; Struelens, M J

2013-09-01

48

Human brain potentials indicate morphological decomposition in visual word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem homographs are pairs of words with the same orthographic description of their stem but which are semantically and morphologically unrelated (e.g. in Spanish: rata\\/rato (rat\\/moment)). In priming tasks, stem homographs produce inhibition, unlike morphologically related words (loca\\/loco (madwoman\\/madman)) which produce facilitation. An event-related potentials study was conducted to compare morphological and stem homographic priming effects. The results show a

Horacio Barber; Alberto Dom??nguez; Manuel de Vega

2002-01-01

49

Geochemical Indicators and Diatoms Identify the Inundation Limit of the 2010 Maule Tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been known that tsunamis inundate further than the limit of the sand deposit they leave behind, and that relying on the extent of the sandy sedimentary evidence is likely to result in an under-estimation of event magnitude and risk. However, the question remains about how to identify the real limit of tsunami inundation, particularly several months or more after the event. Here we report on a study carried out at a site on the Pacific coast of Chile south of Constitucin in August 2010, nearly 6 months after the Mw 8.8 Maule tsunami. Eight pits were dug along a 480 m long shore-perpendicular transect, incorporating the area covered by tsunami sediment, a zone covered by a discontinuous and decomposing debris scatter up to the point of maximum inundation, and an area further landward from this point. The tsunami sand deposit extended from ~160 to 260 m inland and ranged in thickness from 22 to less than 1 cm at the limit of sediment deposition. It consisted of dark, generally well-sorted, coarse to medium sand. Logs, pumice and various organic debris were found up to a limit of tsunami inundation (380 m inland - confirmed by a local eye witness). New grass growth also covered the tsunami deposit and the field further inland. While the chemical composition of the tsunami deposit differed to that of the underlying soil, indicators of saltwater inundation were low in the sandy units, reflecting downward leaching and dilution by rainfall in the porous material in the 6 months since the tsunami. Concentrations of saltwater indicators (e.g. chloride, sulphate, bromide) were however elevated in the area covered by scattered debris up to the limit of tsunami inundation, suggesting preferential retention in organic-rich material. Marine and brackish-marine diatoms were found both in the sandy units and beyond, at the surface of the grass field, and occurred in higher concentrations than in the underlying soil. Both diatom assemblages and geochemical marine proxies are indicative of tsunami inundation well beyond the sediment limit. While sea spray and associated wind cannot be totally excluded as the source of soluble salts and wind-blown diatoms, chloride concentrations do not decrease landward within the area of tsunami inundation. A decrease in chloride would have been expected if it was solely due to sea spray. While further research is required to allow us to distinguish the effects of marine inundation from sea spray, the use of geochemical proxies and diatoms provides a means to identify the limit of tsunami inundation beyond the limit of sand deposition, and as previous studies have shown, even after debris marking it have decayed. This is of importance for tsunami risk assessment and mitigation.

Chague-Goff, C.; Goff, J. R.; Wong, H. K.; Cisternas, M.

2013-05-01

50

Characterization of potential mineralization in Afghanistan: four permissive areas identified using imaging spectroscopy data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan, four permissive areas for mineralization, Bamyan 1, Farah 1, Ghazni 1, and Ghazni 2, have been identified using imaging spectroscopy data. To support economic development, the areas of potential mineralization were selected on the occurrence of selected mineral assemblages mapped using the HyMap data (kaolinite, jarosite, hydrated silica, chlorite, epidote, iron-bearing carbonate, buddingtonite, dickite, and alunite) that may be indicative of past mineralization processes in areas with limited or no previous mineral resource studies. Approximately 30 sites were initially determined to be candidates for areas of potential mineralization. Additional criteria and material used to refine the selection and prioritization process included existing geologic maps, Landsat Thematic Mapper data, and published literature. The HyMapTM data were interpreted in the context of the regional geologic and tectonic setting and used the presence of alteration mineral assemblages to identify areas with the potential for undiscovered mineral resources. Further field-sampling, mapping, and supporting geochemical analyses are necessary to fully substantiate and verify the specific deposit types in the four areas of potential mineralization.

King, Trude V.V.; Berger, Byron R.; Johnson, Michaela R.

2014-01-01

51

A potential individual cell malignancy indicator: focal length  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The label-free technique of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) utilizes the optical transmission spectrum of a cell in a microfluidic Fabry-Prot (F-P) cavity to distinguish cells from cancerous cell lines and baseline normal blood cells. The classification between canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cancer cells and monocytes in canine normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) had been demonstrated with 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity. Now with a new optical model that treats the cell settled at the bottom of the cavity as a thin lens, the focal length of cells was extracted and used as an individual cell malignancy indicator.

Wang, Weina; Lear, Kevin L.

2011-03-01

52

Fragmentation patterns of evergreen oak woodlands in Southwestern Iberia: identifying key spatial indicators.  

PubMed

Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands (composed of Quercus suber L. and Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) are becoming increasingly fragmented in the human-modified landscapes of Southwestern Portugal and Spain. Previous studies have largely neglected to assess the spatial changes of oak woodlands in relation to their surrounding landscape matrix, and to characterize and quantify woodland boundaries and edges. The present study aims to fill this gap by analyzing fragmentation patterns of oak woodlands over a 50-year period (1958-2007) in three landscapes. Using archived aerial imagery from 1958, 1995 and 2007, for two consecutive periods (1958-1995 and 1995-2007), we calculated a set of landscape metrics to compare woodland fragmentation over time. Our results indicated a continuous woodland fragmentation characterized by their edge dynamics. From 1958 to 2007, the replacement of open farmland by shrubland and by new afforestation areas in the oak woodland landscape surrounding matrix, led to the highest values for edge contrast length trends of 5.0 and 12.3, respectively. Linear discriminant analysis was performed to delineate fragmented woodland structures and identify metric variables that characterize woodland spatial configuration. The edge contrast length with open farmland showed a strong correlation with F1 (correlations ranging between 0.55 and 0.98) and may be used as a proxy for oak woodland mixedness in landscape matrix. The edge dynamics of oak woodlands may result in different patterns of oak recruitment and therefore, its study may be helpful in highlighting future baselines for the sustainable management of oak woodlands. PMID:24355688

Costa, Augusta; Madeira, Manuel; Lima Santos, Jos; Plieninger, Tobias; Seixas, Jlia

2014-01-15

53

Utilization of intrinsic boron isotopes as co-migrating tracers for identifying potential nitrate contamination sources  

SciTech Connect

The stable isotopes of the conservative element boron, {sup 11}B and {sup 10}B, have been employed as co-migrating isotopic tracers to trace potential sources of nitrate observed in ground water pumped from a large capacity 0.167 m{sup 3}/s irrigation well in the Avra Valley of southeastern Arizona. The isotopic ratios provided an identifying signature for two nitrogen carrying source waters: municipal waste water and agricultural return flow. Additional chemical parameters were also examined to corroborate the isotopic indications. Boron isotopes provided a superior delineation of mixing processes in the system compared to the general inorganic chemical parameters. Findings of this investigation indicate that the water pumped by the study well at the beginning of the 1993 irrigation season was composed of a mixture of approximately 25% municipal waste water and 75% background ground water. As the irrigation season progressed, an increasing proportion of water was contributed by irrigation return flow from neighboring agricultural fields.

Leenhouts, J.M.; Bassett, R.L.; Maddock, T. III [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Hydrology and Water Resources

1998-03-01

54

Establishing and testing the "reuse potential" indicator for managing wastes as resources.  

PubMed

This study advances contemporary ideas promoting the importance of managing wastes as resources such as closed-loop or circular material economies, and sustainable materials management by reinforcing the notion of a resource-based paradigm rather than a waste-based one. It features the creation of a quantitative tool, the "reuse potential indicator" to specify how "resource-like" versus how "waste-like" specific materials are on a continuum. Even with increasing attention to waste reuse and resource conservation, constant changes in product composition and complexity have left material managers without adequate guidance to make decisions about what is technically feasible to recover from the discard stream even before markets can be considered. The reuse potential indicator is developed to aid management decision-making about waste based not on perception but more objectively on the technical ability of the materials to be reused in commerce. This new indicator is based on the extent of technological innovation and commercial application of actual reuse approaches identified and cataloged. Coal combustion by-products (CCBs) provide the test case for calculating the reuse potential indicator. While CCBs are often perceived as wastes and then isolated in landfills or surface impoundments, there is also a century-long history in the industry of developing technologies to reuse CCBs. The recent statistics show that most CCBs generated in Europe and Japan are reused (90-95%), but only 40-45% of CCBs are used in the United States. According to the reuse potential calculation, however, CCBs in the United States have high technical reusability. Of the four CCBs examined under three different regulatory schemes, reuse potential for boiler slag and flue-gas desulfurization gypsum maintains a value greater than 0.8 on a 0-1 scale, indicating they are at least 80% resource-like. Under current regulation in the United States, both fly ash and bottom ash are 80-90% resource-like. Very strict regulation would remove many reuse options decreasing potential for these two CCBs to 30% resource-like. A more holistic view of waste and broad application of the new indicator would make clear what technologies are available and assist public and private decision makers in setting quantitative material reuse targets from a new knowledge base that reinforces a resource-based paradigm. PMID:24594758

Park, Joo Young; Chertow, Marian R

2014-05-01

55

Methods to identify the target population: implications for prescribing quality indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Information on prescribing quality is increasingly used by policy makers, insurance companies and health care providers. For reliable assessment of prescribing quality it is important to correctly identify the patients eligible for recommended treatment. Often either diagnostic codes or clinical measurements are used to identify such patients. We compared these two approaches regarding the outcome of the prescribing quality

Liana Martirosyan; Onyebuchi A. Arah; Flora M. Haaijer-Ruskamp; Joz Braspenning; Petra Denig

2010-01-01

56

Identifying potential recommendation domains for conservation agriculture in ethiopia, kenya, and Malawi.  

PubMed

Conservation agriculture (CA) is being promoted as an option for reducing soil degradation,conserving water, enhancing crop productivity, and maintaining yield stability. However, CA is a knowledge- and technology-intensive practice, and may not be feasible or may not perform better than conventional agriculture under all conditions and farming systems. Using high resolution (?1km(2)) biophysical and socioeconomic geospatial data, this study identified potential recommendation domains (RDs) for CA in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Malawi. The biophysical variables used were soil texture, surface slope, and rainfall while the socioeconomic variables were market access and human and livestock population densities. Based on feasibility and comparative performance of CA over conventional agriculture, the biophysical and socioeconomic factors were first used to classify cultivated areas into three biophysical and three socioeconomic potential domains, respectively. Combinations of biophysical and socioeconomic domains were then used to develop potential RDs for CA based on adoption potential within the cultivated areas. About 39, 12, and 5% of the cultivated areas showed high biophysical and socioeconomic potential while 50, 39, and 21% of the cultivated areas showed high biophysical and medium socioeconomic potential for CA in Malawi, Kenya, and Ethiopia, respectively. The results indicate considerable acreages of land with high CA adoption potential in the mixed crop-livestock systems of the studied countries. However, there are large differences among countries depending on biophysical and socio-economic conditions. The information generated in this study could be used for targeting CA and prioritizing CA-related agricultural research and investment priorities in the three countries. PMID:25331642

Tesfaye, Kindie; Jaleta, Moti; Jena, Pradyot; Mutenje, Munyaradzi

2015-02-01

57

Research Questions to Identify Ecological Indicators Most Useful for Linking Ecosystems and Human Wellbeing  

EPA Science Inventory

Background/Question/Methods While the desirability of ecological indicators that foster social science interpretation and use as well as public comprehension is well established, guidelines for developing indicators that meet these needs are not as well developed. In the past f...

58

A methodological approach to identify external factors for indicator-based risk adjustment illustrated by a cataract surgery register  

PubMed Central

Background Risk adjustment is crucial for comparison of outcome in medical care. Knowledge of the external factors that impact measured outcome but that cannot be influenced by the physician is a prerequisite for this adjustment. To date, a universal and reproducible method for identification of the relevant external factors has not been published. The selection of external factors in current quality assurance programmes is mainly based on expert opinion. We propose and demonstrate a methodology for identification of external factors requiring risk adjustment of outcome indicators and we apply it to a cataract surgery register. Methods Defined test criteria to determine the relevance for risk adjustment are clinical relevance and statistical significance. Clinical relevance of the association is presumed when observed success rates of the indicator in the presence and absence of the external factor exceed a pre-specified range of 10%. Statistical significance of the association between the external factor and outcome indicators is assessed by univariate stratification and multivariate logistic regression adjustment. The cataract surgery register was set up as part of a German multi-centre register trial for out-patient cataract surgery in three high-volume surgical sites. A total of 14,924 patient follow-ups have been documented since 2005. Eight external factors potentially relevant for risk adjustment were related to the outcome indicators refractive accuracy and visual rehabilitation 25 weeks after surgery. Results The clinical relevance criterion confirmed 2 (refractive accuracy) and 5 (visual rehabilitation) external factors. The significance criterion was verified in two ways. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed almost identical external factors: 4 were related to refractive accuracy and 7 (6) to visual rehabilitation. Two (refractive accuracy) and 5 (visual rehabilitation) factors conformed to both criteria and were therefore relevant for risk adjustment. Conclusion In a practical application, the proposed method to identify relevant external factors for risk adjustment for comparison of outcome in healthcare proved to be feasible and comprehensive. The method can also be adapted to other quality assurance programmes. However, the cut-off score for clinical relevance needs to be individually assessed when applying the proposed method to other indications or indicators. PMID:24965949

2014-01-01

59

Michigan study finds new indicator may help identify patients with increased risk from throat cancer:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of Michigan Health System have found a new indicator that may predict which patients with a common type of throat cancer are most likely have the cancer spread to other parts of their bodies.

60

A Program Evaluation Model: Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Identify Outcome Indicators in Outcomes-Based Program Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outcomes-based program evaluation is a systematic approach to identifying outcome indicators and measuring results against those indicators. One dimension of program evaluation is assessing the level of learner acquisition to determine if learning objectives were achieved as intended. The purpose of the proposed model is to use Bloom's Taxonomy to

McNeil, Rita C.

2011-01-01

61

Minimizing invasive potential of Miscanthus 3 giganteus grown for bioenergy: identifying  

E-print Network

Minimizing invasive potential of Miscanthus 3 giganteus grown for bioenergy: identifying invasive potential. The grass Miscanthus 9 giganteus Greef et Deu ex Hodkinson et Renvoize is a candidate with invasiveness, necessitating a priori efforts by ecologists to identify species or cultivars with minimal

Sims, Gerald K.

62

Construction of an average indicator of potential noise exposure, and its sensitivity analysis in Marseilles city  

E-print Network

of uncertainties on PNEI indicator. 2 Construction of a potential road noise exposure indicator (PNEI) 2Construction of an average indicator of potential noise exposure, and its sensitivity analysis at the study of the links between road noise exposure and psychotropic drug consumption on a small-area level

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

Gangs in Our Schools: Identifying Gang Indicators in Our School Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although teachers used to teach in the communities where they resided, they now commute to schools in other districts. For teachers who teach in districts that are culturally or ethnically different than their own, it may be a new experience of which to become aware or identify issues such as dealing with gang behavior. For other teachers, there

Struyk, Ruth

2006-01-01

64

Identifying Important Career Indicators of Undergraduate Geoscience Students Upon Completion of Their Degree  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Geosciences Institute (AGI) decided to create the National Geoscience Student Exit Survey in order to identify the initial pathways into the workforce for these graduating students, as well as assess their preparedness for entering the workforce upon graduation. The creation of this survey stemmed from a combination of experiences with the AGI/AGU Survey of Doctorates and discussions at the following Science Education Research Center (SERC) workshops: "Developing Pathways to Strong Programs for the Future", "Strengthening Your Geoscience Program", and "Assessing Geoscience Programs". These events identified distinct gaps in understanding the experiences and perspectives of geoscience students during one of their most profound professional transitions. Therefore, the idea for the survey arose as a way to evaluate how the discipline is preparing and educating students, as well as identifying the students' desired career paths. The discussions at the workshops solidified the need for this survey and created the initial framework for the first pilot of the survey. The purpose of this assessment tool is to evaluate student preparedness for entering the geosciences workforce; identify student decision points for entering geosciences fields and remaining in the geosciences workforce; identify geosciences fields that students pursue in undergraduate and graduate school; collect information on students' expected career trajectories and geosciences professions; identify geosciences career sectors that are hiring new graduates; collect information about salary projections; overall effectiveness of geosciences departments regionally and nationally; demonstrate the value of geosciences degrees to future students, the institutions, and employers; and establish a benchmark to perform longitudinal studies of geosciences graduates to understand their career pathways and impacts of their educational experiences on these decisions. AGI's Student Exit Survey went through a second pilot testing with Spring 2012 graduates from 45 departments across the United States. These graduating students from undergraduate and graduate programs answered questions about their earth science education experiences at the high school, community college, and university levels; their quantitative skills; their research and internship experiences and their immediate plans after graduation. Out of the 294 complete responses to the survey, 233 were from undergraduate students. This presentation will focus on the responses of these undergraduate students. AGI hopes to fully deploy this survey broadly to geosciences departments across the country in Spring 2013. AGI will also begin longitudinally participants from the previous Exit Survey efforts in order to understand their progression through their chosen career paths.

Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C. M.; Houlton, H. R.

2012-12-01

65

Using a tree-based classification model to identify hydrometric proxy variables for faecal indicator bacteria during water works operation  

E-print Network

and suppliers. A preventive approach to protect raw water sources emphasizes the identification of potential to contaminated water (Macler and Merkle, 2000). To mitigate risks potentially compromising drinking- water indicator bacteria during water works operation Andrea Bichlera , Arnold Neumaierb , Thilo Hofmanna

Neumaier, Arnold

66

A Preliminary Examination to Identify the Presence of Quality Indicators in Single-Subject Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars in the field of special education put forth a series of papers that proposed quality indicators for specific research designs that must be present for a study to be considered of high quality, as well as standards for evaluating a body of research to determine whether a practice is evidence-based. The purpose of this article was to pilot

Tankersley, Melody; Cook, Bryan G.; Cook, Lysandra

2008-01-01

67

Stocking density effects on broiler welfare: identifying sensitive ranges for different indicators.  

PubMed

Although stocking density is perceived as a topic of major importance, no consensus has been reached on what density would allow for good welfare. In the present study, the welfare of 4 replicates of birds stocked at 8, 19, 29, 40, 45, 51, 61, and 72 broilers per pen (or 6, 15, 23, 33, 35, 41, 47, and 56 kg actually achieved BW/m(2)) was studied using 6 welfare indicators. Density did not affect bursa weight, mortality, or concentrations of corticosterone metabolites in droppings but did influence leg health (P = 0.015) and footpad and hock dermatitis (P < 0.001) and tended to influence fearfulness (P = 0.078). However, not every increase in density or group size, or both, led to poorer welfare for the affected indicators: leg health and fearfulness showed unexpected peaks at intermediate densities. Furthermore, the indicators were influenced at different densities: leg strength showed a steep decrease from 6 to 23 kg/m(2), hock dermatitis rose from 35 to 56 kg/m(2), and footpad dermatitis and fearfulness were only significantly higher at the highest density of 56 kg/m(2). No threshold stocking density above which all aspects of welfare were suddenly altered was found in this study. Instead, different aspects of welfare were influenced at different densities or group sizes, or both. Thus, evaluating the effects of stocking density on welfare as a whole would require either identification of acceptable levels for each separate indicator or a weighting of the indicators in an integrated welfare score. A tentative attempt to such an integration, made using equal weights for all parameters, showed a decrease in welfare as density increased (P < 0.001). The lowest 2 densities (6 and 15 kg/m(2)) scored better than most middle densities (23, 33, 35, and 47 kg/m(2)), whereas all densities scored better than the highest density (56 kg/m(2)). PMID:19590066

Buijs, S; Keeling, L; Rettenbacher, S; Van Poucke, E; Tuyttens, F A M

2009-08-01

68

Identifying Potential Areas for Siting Interim Nuclear Waste Facilities Using Map Algebra and Optimization Approaches  

SciTech Connect

The renewed interest in siting new nuclear power plants in the United States has brought to the center stage, the need to site interim facilities for long-term management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In this paper, a two-stage approach for identifying potential areas for siting interim SNF facilities is presented. In the first stage, the land area is discretized into grids of uniform size (e.g., 100m x 100m grids). For the continental United States, this process resulted in a data matrix of about 700 million cells. Each cell of the matrix is then characterized as a binary decision variable to indicate whether an exclusion criterion is satisfied or not. A binary data matrix is created for each of the 25 siting criteria considered in this study. Using map algebra approach, cells that satisfy all criteria are clustered and regarded as potential siting areas. In the second stage, an optimization problem is formulated as a p-median problem on a rail network such that the sum of the shortest distance between nuclear power plants with SNF and the potential storage sites from the first stage is minimized. The implications of obtained results for energy policies are presented and discussed.

Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit [ORNL; Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Tuttle, Mark A [ORNL

2013-01-01

69

EVOKED POTENTIALS AS INDICES OF ADAPTATION IN THE SOMATOSENSORY SYSTEM IN HUMANS: A REVIEW AND PROSPECTUS  

EPA Science Inventory

Population-level behavior of large neural aggregates can be efficiently monitored by corresponding population-level indices such as somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). The literature reviewed clearly indicates that SEPs undergo systematic and often marked changes under condit...

70

Researchers Identify Biological Markers that May Indicate Poor Breast Cancer Prognosis  

Cancer.gov

A team of researchers has found an association between breast cancer survival and two proteins that, when present in the blood in high levels, are indicators of inflammation. Using data from the Health, Eating, Activity and Lifestyle (HEAL) study sponsored by the NCI, the researchers found that breast cancer patients with elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) were approximately two to three times more likely to die sooner or have their cancer return than those patients who had lower levels of these proteins, regardless of the patient's age, tumor stage, race, body mass index, or history of previous cardiovascular issues.

71

Value of platelet indices in identifying complete resolution of thrombus in deep venous thrombosis patients.  

PubMed

We aimed to evaluate whether mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) are helpful to identify complete thrombus resolution (CTR) after acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Patients who had first-time episode of acute proximal DVT were included in this retrospective study. 100 patients with DVT were divided into two groups according to absence (group 1; n=68) or presence (group 2; n=32) of CTR on doppler ultrasonography at month 6. There were no significant difference in admission MPV and PDW levels between group 1 and group 2. MPV (p=0.03) and PDW (p<0.001) levels at month 6 were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2. CTR showed a moderate negative correlation with PDW at month 6 (?=-0.47) and a weak negative correlation with MPV at month 6 (?=-0.26). Logistic regression analysis showed that PDW (OR, 2.2; p=0.004) at month 6 was an independent risk factor for the presence of residual venous thrombosis in DVT patients. Receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed that a 8.4% decrease in admission MPV at month 6 provided 62% sensitivity and 62% specificity (AUC: 0.64) and a 15.4% decrease in admission PDW at month 6 provided 87% sensitivity and 94% specificity (AUC: 0.89) for prediction of CTR in DVT patients. Percent change in admission MPV and PDW levels at month 6 may be used to identify the patients with CTR after a first episode of acute proximal DVT. PMID:25548449

Sevuk, Utkan; Altindag, Rojhat; Bahadir, Mehmet Veysi; Ay, Nurettin; Demirtas, Ertan; Ayaz, F?rat

2015-03-01

72

HDL-replacement therapy: mechanism of action, types of agents and potential clinical indications  

PubMed Central

HDL-replacement therapy is a promising new treatment strategy involving the acute administration of HDL to rapidly stabilize patients at imminent risk for developing a myocardial infarction, such as those with acute coronary syndrome. This review will first focus on the anti-atherogenic mechanisms for HDL, such as the stimulation of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway, and then discuss the other potential beneficial biological effects of HDL on atherosclerosis. The various types of HDL-replacement therapies that are being investigated and developed will be reviewed and ongoing clinical trials and other possible clinical indications for HDL-replacement therapy besides the prevention of myocardial infarction will also be described. Finally, HDL-replacement therapy will be put into perspective by summarizing the current gaps in our knowledge of HDL metabolism and identifying challenges for future research in this area. PMID:18939908

Remaley, Alan T; Amar, Marcelo; Sviridov, Dmitri

2014-01-01

73

Identifying good group homes: qualitative indicators using a quality of life framework.  

PubMed

Abstract Despite change toward more individualized support, group homes are likely to remain for people with severe intellectual disability. As such, the search continues for ways to determine and maintain the quality of these settings. This article draws on in-depth qualitative analysis of participant observations conducted over 9-12 months in seven group homes for 21 people with a severe and profound level of intellectual disability. It explores the conceptualization of good outcomes and support for this group in terms of their quality of life and staff practices. The qualitative indicators of good outcomes for this group using quality of life domains can be used by auditors, community visitors, funders, advocates, or family members to guide observation and judgements about group homes. PMID:25247727

Bigby, Christine; Knox, Marie; Beadle-Brown, Julie; Bould, Emma

2014-10-01

74

A methodology for identifying potential locations for bus priority treatments in the London Network  

E-print Network

Bus priority strategies provide preferential treatment to buses operating in mixed traffic. This thesis aims at developing a methodology for identifying locations for potential bus priority implementation, referred to as ...

Machlab, Farah J. (Farah Jacinthe)

2014-01-01

75

Docking and virtual screening to identify PKC agonists: potentials in anticancer therapeutics.  

PubMed

Protein kinase C (PKC) is down-stream to most of the G-protein coupled receptor or tyrosine kinase receptors mediated signaling events from the cell surface. PKC C1 domain has a hydrophobic region with a polar groove to facilitate 1,2-diacyl-glycerol (DAG) binding or other agonist molecule for PKC activation. Post activation, a partial or complete blocking of hydrophilic groove makes the DAG binding site completely hydrophobic and facilitates easier penetration of the PKC into the membrane. Phorbol ester, a strong PKC agonist, uses this mechanism to induce tumor formation. A total of 300 heterocyclic compounds with 70% similarity to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were selected, and virtual docking was performed with PKC-? as target. An initial screening indicated that most of the molecules fit well into the C1 domain and had better binding energy than PMA. Further analysis in a PMA competition experiment identified five molecules, Zc 67913417, Zc 68601770, Zc 25726447, Zc 35376386 and Zc 49785214 as potent PKC agonists. In addition, as these compounds showed better binding than PMA, more interaction with PKC residues (hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic), and the top five hit molecules was potent enough to abolish carcinogenic effects of PMA. Searching the top heterocyclic compounds into the drug database gave a number of approved drugs. Testing two candidate drugs, nandrolone decanoate and budesonide, reduced cellular viability of HT1080 in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 values of 96.8 nM and 200nM respectively. An in silico toxicity analysis indicated that top hit molecules are non-toxic, non-mutagenic in cellular and bacterial system, and have no tumorigenic potentials in a single cell or animal model. Hence, a virtual screening, agonist competition assay, and in silico toxicity assessment allowed us to identify five new PKC agonist molecules for future drug discovery against cancer. PMID:24138399

Jain, Anish; Trivedi, Vishal

2014-03-01

76

Changes in the adhesion and migration ability of peripheral blood cells: potential biomarkers indicating exposure dose.  

PubMed

The expression of adhesion molecules and their related functions of adhesion and migration were investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to identify radiation-related changes and dose-dependency. The authors screened new biomarkers as radiation exposure dose indicators. Heparinized human peripheral blood was irradiated in vitro with different doses of ?-rays. The expression levels of the CD11a, CD11b, CD18, CD29, CD49d, and CD54 molecules on the surface of PBMC cells were determined by flow cytometry at different time points post-irradiation. The adhesion ability of human PBMCs was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay kit, and the migration ability of rat PBMCs was evaluated using a transwell chamber assay. Compared with the unirradiated control group, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in human CD11b/CD13 double-positive cells was detected 6 h post 6 Gy irradiation in vitro. These results indicated that the decrease in human CD29/CD13 double-positive cells in the 6 Gy exposure group at 6, 12, and 24 h post-irradiation was significant (p < 0.01). The adhesion ability of irradiated human PBMCs to IgG substrate increased significantly (p < 0.05) at 6 h after irradiation of 2, 4, or 6 Gy compared with non-irradiated controls. The migration ability of the rat PBMCs toward the MIP-1? chemokine significantly decreased (p < 0.05) with increasing irradiation doses. These results suggest that the protein expression of cell surface molecules and their associated cellular functions might be potential biomarkers for identifying radiation exposure doses in an emergency radiation accident. PMID:25068961

Li, Ming-juan; Cui, Feng-mei; Cheng, Ying; Sun, Din; Zhou, Ping-kun; Min, Rui

2014-09-01

77

A systems biology strategy to identify molecular mechanisms of action and protein indicators of traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

The multifactorial nature of traumatic brain injury (TBI), especially the complex secondary tissue injury involving intertwined networks of molecular pathways that mediate cellular behavior, has confounded attempts to elucidate the pathology underlying the progression of TBI. Here, systems biology strategies are exploited to identify novel molecular mechanisms and protein indicators of brain injury. To this end, we performed a meta-analysis of four distinct high-throughput gene expression studies involving different animal models of TBI. By using canonical pathways and a large human protein-interaction network as a scaffold, we separately overlaid the gene expression data from each study to identify molecular signatures that were conserved across the different studies. At 24 hr after injury, the significantly activated molecular signatures were nonspecific to TBI, whereas the significantly suppressed molecular signatures were specific to the nervous system. In particular, we identified a suppressed subnetwork consisting of 58 highly interacting, coregulated proteins associated with synaptic function. We selected three proteins from this subnetwork, postsynaptic density protein 95, nitric oxide synthase 1, and disrupted in schizophrenia 1, and hypothesized that their abundance would be significantly reduced after TBI. In a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury rat model of severe TBI, Western blot analysis confirmed our hypothesis. In addition, our analysis recovered 12 previously identified protein biomarkers of TBI. The results suggest that systems biology may provide an efficient, high-yield approach to generate testable hypotheses that can be experimentally validated to identify novel mechanisms of action and molecular indicators of TBI. PMID:25399920

Yu, Chenggang; Boutt, Angela; Yu, Xueping; Dutta, Bhaskar; Feala, Jacob D; Schmid, Kara; Dave, Jitendra; Tawa, Gregory J; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

2015-01-01

78

Land surface temperature as potential indicator of burn severity in forest Mediterranean ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are one of the most important causes of environmental alteration in Mediterranean countries. Discrimination of different degrees of burn severity is critical for improving management of fire-affected areas. This paper aims to evaluate the usefulness of land surface temperature (LST) as potential indicator of burn severity. We used a large convention-dominated wildfire, which occurred on 19-21 September, 2012 in Northwestern Spain. From this area, a 1-year series of six LST images were generated from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data using a single channel algorithm. Further, the Composite Burn Index (CBI) was measured in 111 field plots to identify the burn severity level (low, moderate, and high). Evaluation of the potential relationship between post-fire LST and ground measured CBI was performed by both correlation analysis and regression models. Correlation coefficients were higher in the immediate post-fire LST images, but decreased during the fall of 2012 and increased again with a second maximum value in summer, 2013. A linear regression model between post-fire LST and CBI allowed us to represent spatially predicted CBI (R-squaredadj > 85%). After performing an analysis of variance (ANOVA) between post-fire LST and CBI, a Fisher's least significant difference test determined that two burn severity levels (low-moderate and high) could be statistically distinguished. The identification of such burn severity levels is sufficient and useful to forest managers. We conclude that summer post-fire LST from moderate resolution satellite data may be considered as a valuable indicator of burn severity for large fires in Mediterranean forest ecosytems.

Quintano, C.; Fernndez-Manso, A.; Calvo, L.; Marcos, E.; Valbuena, L.

2015-04-01

79

Identifying the potential extracellular electron transfer pathways from a c-type cytochrome network.  

PubMed

Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is the key feature of some bacteria, such as Geobacter sulfurreducens and Shewanella oneidensis. Via EET processes, these bacteria can grow on electrode surfaces and make current output of microbial fuel cells. c-Type cytochromes can be used as carriers to transfer electrons, which play an important role in EET processes. Typically, from the inner (cytoplasmic) membrane through the periplasm to the outer membrane, they could form EET pathways. Recent studies suggest that a group of c-type cytochromes could form a network which extended the well-known EET pathways. We obtained the protein interaction information for all 41 c-type cytochromes in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, constructed a large-scale protein interaction network, and studied its structural characteristics and functional significance. Centrality analysis has identified the top 10 key proteins of the network, and 7 of them are associated with electricity production in the bacteria, which suggests that the ability of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to produce electricity might be derived from the unique structure of the c-type cytochrome network. By modularity analysis, we obtained 5 modules from the network. The subcellular localization study has shown that the proteins in these modules all have diversiform cellular compartments, which reflects their potential to form EET pathways. In particular, combination of protein subcellular localization and operon analysis, the well-known and new candidate EET pathways are obtained from the Mtr-like module, indicating that potential EET pathways could be obtained from such a c-type cytochrome network. PMID:25227320

Ding, De-Wu; Xu, Jun; Li, Ling; Xie, Jian-Ming; Sun, Xiao

2014-12-01

80

Hundreds of alterations and potential drug targets to starve tumors identified  

Cancer.gov

A massive study analyzing gene expression data from 22 tumor types has identified multiple metabolic expression changes associated with cancer. The analysis, conducted by researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (home of the Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center), also identified hundreds of potential drug targets that could cut off a tumors fuel supply or interfere with its ability to synthesize essential building blocks. The study was published in the online edition of Nature Biotechnology.

81

Calculation of a Toxic Potential Indicator Via Chinese-Language Material Safety Data Sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThis article presents an approach to evaluating the toxic potential for products or materials using Chinese-language material safety data sheets (MSDSs). The toxic potential indicator (TPI) is one of many simple methods used to evaluate the environmental impact of toxins in products and materials. According to actual application experience in Taiwan, difficulties and problems arise in the preliminary implementation of

Sheng-Bou Yen; Jahau Lewis Chen

2009-01-01

82

Evaluation of arsenic contamination potential using indicator kriging in the Yun-Lin aquifer (Taiwan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the quality of groundwater obtained from several multi-level monitoring wells indicated that arsenic (As) concentration far exceeds the drinking water supply standard in the coastal aquifer of the Yun-Lin, Taiwan. In this study, an estimated As probability risk was computed using indicator kriging to assess the As contamination potential of exceeding the drinking water supply standard in the

Chen-Wuing Liu; Cheng-Shin Jang; Chung-Min Liao

2004-01-01

83

Stem Water Potential is a Sensitive Indicator of Grapevine Water Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dawn leaf water potential (dawnC), leaf water potential (leafC) and stem water potential (stemC) were measured on mature leaves to determine non-irrigated vine water status in vineyards during the growing season. StemC was the most discriminating indicator for both moderate and severe water deficits. The dierence between stemC and leafC (DC) provided an indirect measurement of mean leaf transpiration which

XAVIER CHONE; CORNELIS VAN LEEUWEN; DENIS DUBOURDIEU

2001-01-01

84

A systems biology strategy to identify molecular mechanisms of action and protein indicators of traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

The multifactorial nature of traumatic brain injury (TBI), especially the complex secondary tissue injury involving intertwined networks of molecular pathways that mediate cellular behavior, has confounded attempts to elucidate the pathology underlying the progression of TBI. Here, systems biology strategies are exploited to identify novel molecular mechanisms and protein indicators of brain injury. To this end, we performed a meta-analysis of four distinct high-throughput gene expression studies involving different animal models of TBI. By using canonical pathways and a large human protein-interaction network as a scaffold, we separately overlaid the gene expression data from each study to identify molecular signatures that were conserved across the different studies. At 24 hr after injury, the significantly activated molecular signatures were nonspecific to TBI, whereas the significantly suppressed molecular signatures were specific to the nervous system. In particular, we identified a suppressed subnetwork consisting of 58 highly interacting, coregulated proteins associated with synaptic function. We selected three proteins from this subnetwork, postsynaptic density protein 95, nitric oxide synthase 1, and disrupted in schizophrenia 1, and hypothesized that their abundance would be significantly reduced after TBI. In a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury rat model of severe TBI, Western blot analysis confirmed our hypothesis. In addition, our analysis recovered 12 previously identified protein biomarkers of TBI. The results suggest that systems biology may provide an efficient, high-yield approach to generate testable hypotheses that can be experimentally validated to identify novel mechanisms of action and molecular indicators of TBI. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25399920

Yu, Chenggang; Boutt, Angela; Yu, Xueping; Dutta, Bhaskar; Feala, Jacob D; Schmid, Kara; Dave, Jitendra; Tawa, Gregory J; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

2015-02-01

85

Bivalves as indicators of environmental variation and potential anthropogenic impacts in the southern Barents Sea  

PubMed Central

Identifying patterns and drivers of natural variability in populations is necessary to gauge potential effects of climatic change and the expected increases in commercial activities in the Arctic on communities and ecosystems. We analyzed growth rates and shell geochemistry of the circumpolar Greenland smooth cockle, Serripes groenlandicus, from the southern Barents Sea over almost 70 years between 1882 and 1968. The datasets were calibrated via annually-deposited growth lines, and growth, stable isotope (?18O, ?13C), and trace elemental (Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn) patterns were linked to environmental variations on weekly to decadal scales. Standardized growth indices revealed an oscillatory growth pattern with a multi-year periodicity, which was inversely related to the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO), and positively related to local river discharge. Up to 60% of the annual variability in the Ba/Ca could be explained by variations in river discharge at the site closest to the rivers, but the relationship disappeared at a more distant location. Patterns of ?18O, ?13C, and Sr/Ca together provide evidence that bivalve growth ceases at elevated temperatures during the fall and recommences at the coldest temperatures in the early spring, with the implication that food, rather than temperature, is the primary driver of bivalve growth. The multi-proxy approach of combining the annually integrated information from the growth results and higher resolution geochemical results yielded a robust interpretation of biophysical coupling in the region over temporal and spatial scales. We thus demonstrate that sclerochronological proxies can be useful retrospective analytical tools for establishing a baseline of ecosystem variability in assessing potential combined impacts of climatic change and increasing commercial activities on Arctic communities. PMID:19394657

Carroll, Michael L.; Johnson, Beverly J.; Henkes, Gregory A.; McMahon, Kelton W.; Voronkov, Andrey; Ambrose, William G.; Denisenko, Stanislav G.

2009-01-01

86

Identifying pollutant sources in tidally mixed systems: case study of fecal indicator bacteria from marinas in Newport Bay, southern California.  

PubMed

This study investigates the contribution of several marinas to fecal indicator bacteria impairment in Newport Bay, a regionally important tidal embayment in southern California. Three different fecal indicator bacteria groups were assayed, including total coliform, Escherichia coli, and enterococci bacteria, all measured using the IDEXX Colilert and Enterolert system. To document temporal variability in the fecal indicator bacteria signal, water column samples (n = 4132) were collected from two marinas over time scales ranging from hours to months. To document spatial variability of the fecal indicator bacteria signal, water column and sediment samples were collected from a number of sites (n = 11 to 36, depending on the study) in and around the two marinas, over spatial scales ranging from meters to kilometers. To identify the dominant temporal and spatial patterns in these data a statistical approach--Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis--was utilized. Finally, to clarify the transport pathways responsible for the observed temporal and spatial patterns, fecal indicator bacteria data were compared to simultaneous measurements of tidal flow, temperature, and salinity. The results of this field effort collectively implicate runoff--both dry weather runoff at sampling sites located near some storm drains and wet weather runoff at all sites--as a primary source of fecal indicator bacteria in the water column and subtidal sediments. The results and analysis presented here reinforce the growing body of evidence that management of fecal indicator bacteria impairment in the coastal waters of southern California will require developing long-term strategies for treating nonpoint sources of both dry weather and stormwater runoff. PMID:16382928

Jeong, Youngsul; Grant, Stanley B; Ritter, Scott; Pednekar, Abhishek; Candelaria, Linda; Winant, Clinton

2005-12-01

87

ABSTRACT Genomics and bioinformatics have the vast potential to identify genes that cause disease by investigating  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Genomics and bioinformatics have the vast potential to identify genes that cause disease by investigating whole-genome databases. Comparison of an individual's geno- type with a genomic database these metabolic profiles with genomic, expression, and proteomic databases. Application of the knowledge of indi

Hammock, Bruce D.

88

City of Hope study identifies potential therapy targeting leukemia stem cells  

Cancer.gov

New research takes aim at stubborn cancer stem cells that are thought to be responsible for treatment resistance and relapse. The study, published by Cell Press in the February 14 issue of the journal Cancer Cell, provides insight into mechanisms associated with the survival of leukemia stem cells and identifies a potential therapeutic target that is specific for these dangerously persistent cells.

89

North West Hydro Resource Model Research to identify potential capacity and assist NW hydro power development  

E-print Network

North West Hydro Resource Model Research to identify potential capacity and assist NW hydro power University wide research, aims to develop a system to promote the exploitation of hydro power in North with regard to hydro schemes Reviewing and re-formulating ill defined requirements for environmental

Meju, Max

90

An Australasian Model License Reassessment Procedure for Identifying Potentially Unsafe Drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most licensing jurisdictions in Australia currently employ age-based assessment programs as a means to manage older driver safety, yet available evidence suggests that these programs have no safety benefits. This paper describes a community referral-based model license re assessment procedure for identifying and assessing potentially unsafe drivers. While the model was primarily developed for assessing older driver fitness to drive,

Brian N. Fildes; Judith Charlton; Nicola Pronk; Jim Langford; Jennie Oxley; Sjaanie Koppel

2008-01-01

91

A spatial modeling approach to identify potential butternut restoration sites in Mammoth Cave National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Incorporation of disease resistance is nearly complete for several important North American hardwood species threatened by exotic fungal diseases. The next important step toward species restoration would be to develop reliable tools to delineate ideal restoration sites on a landscape scale. We integrated spatial modeling and remote sensing techniques to delineate potential restoration sites for Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) trees, a hardwood species being decimated by an exotic fungus, in Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP), Kentucky. We first developed a multivariate habitat model to determine optimum Butternut habitats within MCNP. Habitat characteristics of 54 known Butternut locations were used in combination with eight topographic and land use data layers to calculate an index of habitat suitability based on Mahalanobis distance (D2). We used a bootstrapping technique to test the reliability of model predictions. Based on a threshold value for the D2 statistic, 75.9% of the Butternut locations were correctly classified, indicating that the habitat model performed well. Because Butternut seedlings require extensive amounts of sunlight to become established, we used canopy cover data to refine our delineation of favorable areas for Butternut restoration. Areas with the most favorable conditions to establish Butternut seedlings were limited to 291.6 ha. Our study provides a useful reference on the amount and location of favorable Butternut habitat in MCNP and can be used to identify priority areas for future Butternut restoration. Given the availability of relevant habitat layers and accurate location records, our approach can be applied to other tree species and areas. ?? 2006 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

Thompson, L.M.; Van Manen, F.T.; Schlarbaum, S.E.; DePoy, M.

2006-01-01

92

Comparison of Various Anthropometric and Body Fat Indices in Identifying Cardiometabolic Disturbances in Chinese Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Background Although many adiposity indices may be used to predict obesity-related health risks, uncertainty remains over which of them performs best. Objective This study compared the predictive capability of direct and indirect adiposity measures in identifying people at higher risk of metabolic abnormalities. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study recruited 2780 women and 1160 men. Body weight and height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) were measured and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. Body fat (and percentage of fat) over the whole body and the trunk were determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Blood pressure, fasting lipid profiles, and glucose and urine acid levels were assessed. Results In women, the ROC and the multivariate logistic regression analyses both showed that WHtR consistently had the best performance in identifying hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, diabetes/IFG, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). In men, the ROC analysis showed that WHtR was the best predictor of hypertension, WHtR and WC were equally good predictors of dyslipidemia and MetS, and WHtR was the second-best predictor of hyperuricemia and diabetes/IFG. The multivariate logistic regression also found WHtR to be superior in discriminating between MetS, diabetes/IFG, and dyslipidemia while BMI performed better in predicting hypertension and hyperuricemia in men. The BIA-derived indices were the second-worst predictors for all of the endpoints, and HC was the worst. Conclusion WHtR was the best predictor of various metabolic abnormalities. BMI may be used as an alternative measure of obesity for identifying hypertension in both sexes. PMID:23951031

Zhang, Zhe-qing; Deng, Juan; He, Li-ping; Ling, Wen-hua; Su, Yi-xiang; Chen, Yu-ming

2013-01-01

93

Riverine threat indices to assess watershed condition and identify primary management capacity of agriculture natural resource management agencies.  

PubMed

Managers can improve conservation of lotic systems over large geographies if they have tools to assess total watershed conditions for individual stream segments and can identify segments where conservation practices are most likely to be successful (i.e., primary management capacity). The goal of this research was to develop a suite of threat indices to help agriculture resource management agencies select and prioritize watersheds across Missouri River basin in which to implement agriculture conservation practices. We quantified watershed percentages or densities of 17 threat metrics that represent major sources of ecological stress to stream communities into five threat indices: agriculture, urban, point-source pollution, infrastructure, and all non-agriculture threats. We identified stream segments where agriculture management agencies had primary management capacity. Agriculture watershed condition differed by ecoregion and considerable local variation was observed among stream segments in ecoregions of high agriculture threats. Stream segments with high non-agriculture threats were most concentrated near urban areas, but showed high local variability. 60% of stream segments in the basin were classified as under U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) primary management capacity and most segments were in regions of high agricultural threats. NRCS primary management capacity was locally variable which highlights the importance of assessing total watershed condition for multiple threats. Our threat indices can be used by agriculture resource management agencies to prioritize conservation actions and investments based on: (a) relative severity of all threats, (b) relative severity of agricultural threats, and (c) and degree of primary management capacity. PMID:24390081

Fore, Jeffrey D; Sowa, Scott P; Galat, David L; Annis, Gust M; Diamond, David D; Rewa, Charles

2014-03-01

94

The rotifer fauna of Argentine Patagonia as a potential limnological indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plankton samples of rivers, lakes, pools and minor water bodies were taken in the Patagonian Argentine provinces of Ro Negro, Chubut, Neuqun and the Southern part of Buenos Aires. The relationship between physical and chemical characteristics of these waters and their rotifer fauna was analyzed. Sixty taxa were identified, and their value as indicators of temperature, pH, conductivity, total alkalinity

David Kuczynski; Ciencias Exactas

1987-01-01

95

Structured methods for identifying and correcting potential human errors in aviation operations  

SciTech Connect

Human errors have been identified as the source of approximately 60% of the incidents and accidents that occur in commercial aviation. It can be assumed that a very large number of human errors occur in aviation operations, even though in most cases the redundancies and diversities built into the design of aircraft systems prevent the errors from leading to serious consequences. In addition, when it is acknowledged that many system failures have their roots in human errors that occur in the design phase, it becomes apparent that the identification and elimination of potential human errors could significantly decrease the risks of aviation operations. This will become even more critical during the design of advanced automation-based aircraft systems as well as next-generation systems for air traffic management. Structured methods to identify and correct potential human errors in aviation operations have been developed and are currently undergoing testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL).

Nelson, W.R.

1997-10-01

96

MGH Cancer Center team identifies potential treatment target for KRAS-mutated colon cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cancer Center have identified a new potential strategy for treating colon tumors driven by mutations in the KRAS gene, which usually resist both conventional and targeted treatments. In a paper appearing in the Feb. 17 issue of Cell, the team reports that targeting a later step in the pathway leading from KRAS activation to tumor growth may be able to halt the process.

97

Ammonium accumulation during a silicate-limited diatom bloom indicates the potential for ammonia emission events  

E-print Network

Ammonium accumulation during a silicate-limited diatom bloom indicates the potential for ammonia imbalance in production and consumption processes. Calculations of air­sea ammonia (NH3) flux under assumed and direction of air­sea ammonia flux. If our results are generally applicable then the seasonal succession

Hansell, Dennis

98

Ammonium accumulation during a silicate-limited diatom bloom indicates the potential for ammonia emission events  

E-print Network

Ammonium accumulation during a silicate-limited diatom bloom indicates the potential for ammonia of air­sea ammonia (NH3) flux under assumed `normal' `peak bloom' and `post-diatom-bloom' conditions will lead to changes in the magnitude and direction of air­sea ammonia flux. If our results are generally

Hansell, Dennis

99

Automated system for identifying potential dosage problems at a large university hospital.  

PubMed

A hospital's experience with an automated system for screening drug orders for potential dosage problems is described. DoseChecker was developed by the hospital pharmacy department in collaboration with a local university. Pharmacy, laboratory, and patient demographic data are transferred nightly from the hospital's mainframe system to a database server; DoseChecker uses these data and user-defined rules to (1) identify patients receiving any of 35 targeted medications, (2) evaluate the appropriateness of current dosages, and (3) generate alerts for patients potentially needing dosage adjustments. The alert reports are distributed to satellite pharmacists, who evaluate each patient's condition and make recommendations to physicians as needed. One of the system's primary purposes is to calculate creatinine clearance and verify that dosages are properly adjusted for renal function. Between May and October 1995, the system electronically screened 28,528 drug orders and detected potential dosage problems in 2859 (10%). The system recommended a lower daily dose in 1992 cases (70%) and a higher daily dose in 867 (30%). Pharmacists contacted physicians concerning 1163 (41%) of the 2859 alerts; in 868 cases (75%), the physicians agreed to adjust the dosage. The most common dosage problem identified was failure to adjust dosages on the basis of declining renal function. An automated system provided an efficient method of identifying inappropriate dosages at a large university hospital. PMID:9066863

McMullin, S T; Reichley, R M; Kahn, M G; Dunagan, W C; Bailey, T C

1997-03-01

100

Potential ligand-binding residues in rat olfactory receptors identified by correlated mutation analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A family of G-protein-coupled receptors is believed to mediate the recognition of odor molecules. In order to identify potential ligand-binding residues, we have applied correlated mutation analysis to receptor sequences from the rat. This method identifies pairs of sequence positions where residues remain conserved or mutate in tandem, thereby suggesting structural or functional importance. The analysis supported molecular modeling studies in suggesting several residues in positions that were consistent with ligand-binding function. Two of these positions, dominated by histidine residues, may play important roles in ligand binding and could confer broad specificity to mammalian odor receptors. The presence of positive (overdominant) selection at some of the identified positions provides additional evidence for roles in ligand binding. Higher-order groups of correlated residues were also observed. Each group may interact with an individual ligand determinant, and combinations of these groups may provide a multi-dimensional mechanism for receptor diversity.

Singer, M. S.; Oliveira, L.; Vriend, G.; Shepherd, G. M.

1995-01-01

101

Indications and potential sources of change in sand transport in the Brazos River, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Changes in the capacity of the Brazos River to transport sand can be identified within the context of Lane?s relation through changes in channel geometry, changes in the characteristics of suspended loads, and changes in discharge. The Brazos River channel has been undergoing continual adjustment since the 1940s. For a discharge of 5,000 cubic feet per second, the water-surface altitude has decreased 2 to 4 feet at the Hempstead and Richmond streamflow-gaging stations between 1940 and 1995. The characteristics of suspended-sediment samples at the Richmond streamflow-gaging station have changed between the periods 1969?81 and 1982?95. The amount of sand-size sediment transported in suspension has decreased. The distribution of both daily and annual-peak discharges has changed. However, the computed annual loads of suspended sand indicate no statistically significant change in the median annual load. The transport of sand in the Brazos River depends on a complex set of factors, most of which are continually changing. Potential sources of change in sand transport in the Brazos River include the effects of reservoir construction, changes in land use, and instream sand and gravel mining. Extensive reservoir construction in the Brazos River Basin has reduced sand transport by trapping sediment and by reducing the magnitude of peak discharges. However, reductions in sand transport associated with reservoir construction apparently are compensated for by increases associated with tributary sediment inflow and localized bank erosion. The total area of harvested acres of non-hay crops in the lower Brazos River Basin during 1924?92 decreased more than 75 percent from about 32 percent to about 8 percent of the total area. Correspondingly, erosion potential has decreased substantially. Several sand and gravel mining sites are located on the Brazos River between Hempstead and Rosharon. The quantity of sediment extracted by instream sand and gravel mining operations could represent from 11 to 25 percent of the total sand transported by the Brazos River. The effects of mining on sand transport could not be quantified.

Dunn, David D.; Raines, Timothy H.

2001-01-01

102

A genomic strategy for the functional validation of colorectal cancer genes identifies potential therapeutic targets  

PubMed Central

Summary/Abstract Genes that are highly overexpressed in tumor cells can be required for tumor cell survival, and have the potential to be selective therapeutic targets. In an attempt to identify such targets, we combined a functional genomics and a systems biology approach to assess the consequences of RNAi-mediated silencing of overexpressed genes that were selected from 140 gene expression profiles from colorectal cancers (CRC) and matched normal mucosa. In order to identify credible models for in-depth functional analysis, we first confirmed the overexpression of these genes in 25 different CRC cell lines. We then identified five candidate genes that profoundly reduced the viability of CRC cell lines when silenced with either siRNAs or shRNAs, i.e., HMGA1, TACSTD2, RRM2, RPS2, and NOL5A. These genes were further studied by systematic analysis of comprehensive gene expression profiles generated following siRNA-mediated silencing. Exploration of these RNAi-specific gene expression signatures allowed the identification of the functional space in which the five genes operate, and showed enrichment for cancer specific signaling pathways, some known to be involved in CRC. By comparing the expression of the RNAi signature genes with their respective expression levels in an independent set of primary rectal carcinomas we could recapitulate these defined RNAi signatures, therefore establishing the biologically relevance of our observations. This strategy identified the signaling pathways that are affected by the prominent oncogenes HMGA1 and TACSTD2, established a yet unknown link between RRM2 and PLK1, and identified RPS2 and NOL5A as promising potential therapeutic targets in CRC. PMID:20473941

Grade, Marian; Hummon, Amanda B.; Camps, Jordi; Emons, Georg; Spitzner, Melanie; Gaedcke, Jochen; Hoermann, Patrick; Ebner, Reinhard; Becker, Heinz; Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Beissbarth, Tim; Caplen, Natasha J.; Ried, Thomas

2010-01-01

103

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Revisited: MDCT with Multiplanar Reconstructions for Identifying Indicators of Instability in the Pre- and Postoperative Patient.  

PubMed

Rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is commonly a fatal event. Multidetector computed tomographic (CT) signs of frank aortic rupture are usually readily apparent and widely understood. However, diagnosing an impending aortic rupture on the basis of imaging findings can prove more difficult. CT is the primary modality used for serial imaging in patients with aortic aneurysm and may show findings indicative of aortic instability. Therefore, it is critical that radiologists be familiar with the CT findings of aortic instability to avert the potential complications of hemorrhage, end organ or limb ischemia, and death. Various preoperative CT indicators have been previously described in both research investigations and review articles. A large baseline aneurysm size and a rapid increase in size over time are associated with a higher risk for rupture. The importance of obtaining accurate measurements with multiplanar reconstructions and the role of new semiautomated tools for obtaining accurate, reproducible measurements are discussed. Additional CT findings that reflect aortic aneurysm instability include luminal expansion with lysis of thrombus, intramural hemorrhage (ie, the crescent sign), periaortic hemorrhage, a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer, and contained rupture (ie, the draped aorta sign). After open or endovascular aneurysm repair, CT is routinely used to monitor for graft complications. In this setting, radiologists should understand that the presence of an endoluminal stent or surgical graft does not preclude aortic rupture. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ()RSNA, 2015. PMID:25590402

Wadgaonkar, Ajay D; Black, James H; Weihe, Elizabeth K; Zimmerman, Stefan L; Fishman, Elliot K; Johnson, Pamela T

2015-01-01

104

Potential for diamond in kimberlites from Michigan and Montana as indicated by garnet xenocryst compositions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Williams kimberlite in north-central Montana and the Lake Ellen kimberlite in northern Michigan contain diagnostic xenoliths and xenocrysts which indicate that diamonds may be present. To date, however, no diamonds have been reported from either locality. In this study, particular compositions of garnet xenocrysts which are associated with diamond elsewhere were sought as an indication of the potential for diamond in the Williams and Lake Ellen kimberlites. For this study, garnets were carefully selected for purple color in order to increase the chance of finding the subcalcic chrome-rich compositions that are associated with the presence of diamond. -Author

McGee, E.S.

1988-01-01

105

Slow negative potential shifts indicating verbal cognitive learning in a concept formation task.  

PubMed

It is well-known clinically that patients with left frontal lesions are impaired in their verbal-cognitive learning ability. Starting from such observations, it is of particular interest whether the event-related cerebral potential shifts recorded in healthy human subjects would indicate a left frontal lobe involvement in verbal-cognitive learning tasks. In a concept formation paradigm, subjects learned by trial and error to transform letters into Morse codes. This cognitive performance was accompanied by a slow negative potential shift (SP) that in frontal recordings was lateralized towards the left hemisphere. off results show in a later stage of learning, in which the experience of the preceding trial and error learning could be integrated, an increasing slow negativity over the frontal cortex. Ss also participated in a control task with already known letter/Morse code combinations. Again, a negative potential shift occurred within the stimulus-response interval, however, it was smaller in amplitude. PMID:3449487

Lang, M; Lang, W; Uhl, F; Kornhuber, A; Deecke, L; Kornhuber, H H

1987-01-01

106

Structured methods for identifying and correcting potential human errors in space operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human performance plays a significant role in the development and operation of any complex system, and human errors are significant contributors to degraded performance, incidents, and accidents for technologies as diverse as medical systems, commercial aircraft, offshore oil platforms, nuclear power plants, and space systems. To date, serious accidents attributed to human error have fortunately been rare in space operations. However, as flight rates go up and the duration of space missions increases, the accident rate could increase unless proactive action is taken to identify and correct potential human errors in space operations. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has developed and applied structured methods of human error analysis to identify potential human errors, assess their effects on system performance, and develop strategies to prevent the errors or mitigate their consequences. These methods are being applied in NASA-sponsored programs to the domain of commercial aviation, focusing on airplane maintenance and air traffic management. The application of human error analysis to space operations could contribute to minimize the risks associated with human error in the design and operation of future space systems.

Nelson, William R.; Haney, Lon N.; Ostrom, Lee T.; Richards, Robert E.

107

Using Market Research to Characterize College Students and Identify Potential Targets for Influencing Health Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Marketing campaigns, such as those developed by the tobacco industry, are based on market research, which defines segments of a population by assessing psychographic characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests). This study uses a similar approach to define market segments of college smokers, to examine differences in their health behaviors (smoking, drinking, binge drinking, exercise, diet), and to determine the validity of these segments. A total of 2,265 undergraduate students aged 1825 years completed a 108-item online survey in fall 2008 assessing demographic, psychographic (i.e., attitudes, interests), and health-related variables. Among the 753 students reporting past 30-day smoking, cluster analysis was conducted using 21 psychographic questions and identified three market segments Stoic Individualists, Responsible Traditionalists, and Thrill-Seeking Socializers. We found that segment membership was related to frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, and limiting dietary fat. We then developed three messages targeting each segment and conducted message testing to validate the segments on a subset of 73 smokers representing each segment in spring 2009. As hypothesized, each segment indicated greater relevance and salience for their respective message. These findings indicate that identifying qualitatively different subgroups of young adults through market research may inform the development of engaging interventions and health campaigns targeting college students. PMID:25264429

Berg, Carla J.; Ling, Pamela M.; Guo, Hongfei; Windle, Michael; Thomas, Janet L.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; An, Lawrence C.

2013-01-01

108

Using Market Research to Characterize College Students and Identify Potential Targets for Influencing Health Behaviors.  

PubMed

Marketing campaigns, such as those developed by the tobacco industry, are based on market research, which defines segments of a population by assessing psychographic characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests). This study uses a similar approach to define market segments of college smokers, to examine differences in their health behaviors (smoking, drinking, binge drinking, exercise, diet), and to determine the validity of these segments. A total of 2,265 undergraduate students aged 18-25 years completed a 108-item online survey in fall 2008 assessing demographic, psychographic (i.e., attitudes, interests), and health-related variables. Among the 753 students reporting past 30-day smoking, cluster analysis was conducted using 21 psychographic questions and identified three market segments - Stoic Individualists, Responsible Traditionalists, and Thrill-Seeking Socializers. We found that segment membership was related to frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, and limiting dietary fat. We then developed three messages targeting each segment and conducted message testing to validate the segments on a subset of 73 smokers representing each segment in spring 2009. As hypothesized, each segment indicated greater relevance and salience for their respective message. These findings indicate that identifying qualitatively different subgroups of young adults through market research may inform the development of engaging interventions and health campaigns targeting college students. PMID:25264429

Berg, Carla J; Ling, Pamela M; Guo, Hongfei; Windle, Michael; Thomas, Janet L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; An, Lawrence C

2010-12-01

109

Bacterial Targets as Potential Indicators of Diesel Fuel Toxicity in Subantarctic Soils  

PubMed Central

Appropriate remediation targets or universal guidelines for polar regions do not currently exist, and a comprehensive understanding of the effects of diesel fuel on the natural microbial populations in polar and subpolar soils is lacking. Our aim was to investigate the response of the bacterial community to diesel fuel and to evaluate if these responses have the potential to be used as indicators of soil toxicity thresholds. We set up short- and long-exposure tests across a soil organic carbon gradient. Utilizing broad and targeted community indices, as well as functional genes involved in the nitrogen cycle, we investigated the bacterial community structure and its potential functioning in response to special Antarctic blend (SAB) diesel fuel. We found the primary effect of diesel fuel toxicity was a reduction in species richness, evenness, and phylogenetic diversity, with the resulting community heavily dominated by a few species, principally Pseudomonas. The decline in richness and phylogenetic diversity was linked to disruption of the nitrogen cycle, with species and functional genes involved in nitrification significantly reduced. Of the 11 targets we evaluated, we found the bacterial amoA gene indicative of potential ammonium oxidation, the most suitable indicator of toxicity. Dose-response modeling for this target generated an average effective concentration responsible for 20% change (EC20) of 155 mg kg?1, which is consistent with previous Macquarie Island ecotoxicology assays. Unlike traditional single-species tolerance testing, bacterial targets allowed us to simultaneously evaluate more than 1,700 species from 39 phyla, inclusive of rare, sensitive, and functionally relevant portions of the community. PMID:24771028

van Dorst, Josie; Siciliano, Steven D.; Winsley, Tristrom; Snape, Ian

2014-01-01

110

Proteomic Analysis of Saliva Identifies Potential Biomarkers for Orthodontic Tooth Movement  

PubMed Central

Orthodontic treatment has been shown to induce inflammation, followed by bone remodelling in the periodontium. These processes trigger the secretion of various proteins and enzymes into the saliva. This study aims to identify salivary proteins that change in expression during orthodontic tooth movement. These differentially expressed proteins can potentially serve as protein biomarkers for the monitoring of orthodontic treatment and tooth movement. Whole saliva from three healthy female subjects were collected before force application using fixed appliance and at 14 days after 0.014?? Niti wire was applied. Salivary proteins were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) over a pH range of 310, and the resulting proteome profiles were compared. Differentially expressed protein spots were then identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Nine proteins were found to be differentially expressed; however, only eight were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Four of these proteinsProtein S100-A9, immunoglobulin J chain, Ig alpha-1 chain C region, and CRISP-3have known roles in inflammation and bone resorption. PMID:22919344

Ellias, Mohd Faiz; Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Abdul Rahman, Mariati; Senafi, Shahidan; Megat Abdul Wahab, Rohaya

2012-01-01

111

Leveraging Concept-based Approaches to Identify Potential Phyto-therapies  

PubMed Central

The potential of plant-based remedies has been documented in both traditional and contemporary biomedical literature. Such types of text sources may thus be sources from which one might identify potential plant-based therapies (phyto-therapies). Concept-based analytic approaches have been shown to uncover knowledge embedded within biomedical literature. However, to date there has been limited attention towards leveraging such techniques for the identification of potential phyto-therapies. This study presents concept-based analytic approaches for the retrieval and ranking of associations between plants and human diseases. Focusing on identification of phyto-therapies described in MEDLINE, both MeSH descriptors used for indexing and MetaMap inferred UMLS concepts are considered. Furthermore, the identification and ranking consider both direct (i.e., plant concepts directly correlated with disease concepts) and inferred (i.e., plant concepts associated with disease concepts based on shared signs and symptoms) relationships. Based on the two scoring methodologies used in this study, it was found that a vector space model approach outperformed probabilistic reliability based inferences. An evaluation of the approach is provided based on therapeutic interventions catalogued in both ClinicalTrials.gov and NDF-RT. The promising findings from this feasibility study highlight the challenges and applicability of concept-based analytic strategies for distilling phyto-therapeutic knowledge from text based knowledge sources like MEDLINE. PMID:23665360

Sharma, Vivekanand; Sarkar, Indra Neil

2013-01-01

112

ITIH4: A New Potential Biomarker of Toxin Syndrome in Coronary Heart Disease Patient Identified with Proteomic Method  

PubMed Central

Objective. This trial aims to look for the protein biomarker of toxin syndrome of CHD patients. Methods. We have performed two trials in this paper. The first trial was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the plasma proteome in unstable angina (UA) patients by Maldi-Tof Mass. The second trial was a nested case-control study in 1503 stable CHD patients with one-year followup for acute cardiovascular events (ACEs). Results. In the RCT study, 12 protein spots were found to be the differential protein for the significant differences between the difference of before and after treatment in group A and group B; 2 of them (3207.37?Da and 4279.95?Da) was considered to be unique to toxin syndrome for being differential proteins of group B but not group A. These 2 spots were identified as Isoform 1 of Fibrinogen alpha chain precursor (FGA, 3207.37?Da) and Isoform 2 of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4, 4279.95?Da), respectively. In the nested case-control study, the result of Western blot demonstrated that protein expression of ITIH4 in the group with followup ACEs was significantly lower than the matched group without followup ACEs (P = 0.027). Conclusion. ITIH4 might be a new potential biomarker of CHD toxin syndrome in TCM, indicating the potential role in early identifying high-risk CHD patients in stable period. PMID:24023573

Xu, Hao; Shang, Qinghua; Chen, Hao; Du, Jianpeng; Wen, Jianyan; Li, Geng; Shi, Dazhuo; Chen, Keji

2013-01-01

113

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jj of... - List of VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry  

...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJ of Part 63...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry CAS No. Chemical name EPA de minimis... 0.2 75092 Methylene chloride 4.0 79469 2-Nitropropane 1.0...

2014-07-01

114

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jj of... - List of VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJ of Part 63...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry CAS No. Chemical name EPA de minimis... 0.2 75092 Methylene chloride 4.0 79469 2-Nitropropane 1.0...

2011-07-01

115

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jj of... - List of VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJ of Part 63...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry CAS No. Chemical name EPA de minimis... 0.2 75092 Methylene chloride 4.0 79469 2-Nitropropane 1.0...

2013-07-01

116

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jj of... - List of VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJ of Part 63...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry CAS No. Chemical name EPA de minimis... 0.2 75092 Methylene chloride 4.0 79469 2-Nitropropane 1.0...

2010-07-01

117

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jj of... - List of VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJ of Part 63...VHAP of Potential Concern Identified by Industry CAS No. Chemical name EPA de minimis... 0.2 75092 Methylene chloride 4.0 79469 2-Nitropropane 1.0...

2012-07-01

118

Potential Coastal Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage Locations Identified using GIS-based Topographic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale electrical energy storage could accommodate variable, weather dependent energy resources such as wind and solar. Pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHS) and compressed energy storage area (CAES) have life cycle energy and financial costs that are an order of magnitude lower than conventional electrochemical storage technologies. However PHS and CAES storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Conventional PHS requires an upper and lower reservoir separated by at least 100 m of head, but no more than 10 km in horizontal distance. Conventional PHS also impacts fresh water supplies, riparian ecosystems, and hydrologic environments. A PHS facility that uses the ocean as the lower reservoir benefits from a smaller footprint, minimal freshwater impact, and the potential to be located near off shore wind resources and population centers. Although technologically nascent, today one coastal PHS facility exists. The storage potential for coastal PHS is unknown. Can coastal PHS play a significant role in augmenting future power grids with a high faction of renewable energy supply? In this study we employ GIS-based topographic analysis to quantify the coastal PHS potential of several geographic locations, including California, Chile and Peru. We developed automated techniques that seek local topographic minima in 90 m spatial resolution shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) digital elevation models (DEM) that satisfy the following criteria conducive to PHS: within 10 km from the sea; minimum elevation 150 m; maximum elevation 1000 m. Preliminary results suggest the global potential for coastal PHS could be very significant. For example, in northern Chile we have identified over 60 locations that satisfy the above criteria. Two of these locations could store over 10 million cubic meters of water or several GWh of energy. We plan to report a global database of candidate coastal PHS locations and to estimate their energy storage capacity.

Parsons, R.; Barnhart, C. J.; Benson, S. M.

2013-12-01

119

Event-related potential indices of workload in a single task paradigm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many previous studies of both behavioral and physiological correlates of cognitive workload have burdened subjects with a contrived secondary task in order to assess the workload of a primary task. The present study investigated event-related potential (ERP) indices of workload in a single task paradigm. Subjects monitored changing digital readouts for values that went 'out-of-bounds'. The amplitude of a long-latency positivity in the ERPs elicited by readout changes increased with the number of readouts being monitored. This effect of workload on ERPs is reported, along with plans for additional analyses to address theoretical implications.

Horst, R. L.; Munson, R. C.; Ruchkin, D. S.

1984-01-01

120

Identifying potential sources of Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits over its growth period.  

PubMed

Sudan dyes in spices are often assumed to arise from cross-contamination or malicious addition. Here, experiments were carried out to identify the potential source of Sudan I-IV in Capsicum fruits through investigation of their contents in native Capsicum tissues, soils and associated agronomic materials. Sudan II-IV was not detected in any of the tested samples. Sudan I was found in almost all samples except for the mulching film. Sudan I concentrations decreased from stems to leaves and then to fruits or roots. Sudan I levels in soils were significantly elevated by vegetation treatment. These results exclude the possibility of soil as the main source for Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits. Further study found out pesticide and fertilizer constitutes the major source of Sudan I contamination. This work represents a preliminary step for a detailed Sudan I assessment to support Capsicum management and protection in the studied region. PMID:25466000

Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Li, Fengfei; Han, Wenjie

2015-04-15

121

Identifying At-Risk Employees: Modeling Psychosocial Precursors of Potential Insider Threats  

SciTech Connect

In many insider crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they can be assessed. A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employee's behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. To test the model's agreement with human resources and management professionals, we conducted an experiment with positive results. If implemented in an operational setting, the model would be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment to identify employees who pose a greater insider threat.

Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Dalton, Angela C.; Hohimer, Ryan E.

2012-01-04

122

DNA adduct formation by mineral oils and their fractions as indicated by 32P-postlabelling: is adduct formation truly indicative of carcinogenic potential?  

PubMed

Oils of differing types, physical properties and carcinogenic activity were tested for ability to produce epidermal DNA adducts 24 h after application to the skin of mice, using the 32P-postlabelling method. Two studies were carried out, the first on three oils to identify the adduct-forming components, and the second on nine oils to investigate whether the nature of the oils affected their adduct-forming potential. In addition to the whole oils, fractions of the oils containing saturated hydrocarbons, 2-6-ring aromatic compounds and polar compounds were tested in both studies in proportion to their concentration in the original oil. In addition, a further examination of the aromatic fractions from two carcinogenic oils was carried out in the first study by testing 2-3-ring and 4-6-ring subfractions (the latter containing carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs)). Results from the first study indicated that carcinogenic oils do produce adducts and that the adduct-forming components were mainly in the aromatic fraction. When, however, subfractions of the aromatic fraction were examined, it was found that slightly higher adduct levels were produced by the 2-3-ring aromatic fraction than with the 4-6-ring PAC fraction. This was contrary to expectation from published work on the skin carcinogenicity of oils and suggested that some non-carcinogenic PACs may produce adducts. The second study indicated that although most carcinogenic oils produced adducts, some non-carcinogenic oils can also do so.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7594196

Ingram, A J; Phillips, J C; Lee, R

1995-01-01

123

The potential of trace fossils as tidal indicators in bays and estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ichnological datasets have been used to infer the presence of tidal processes primarily through the identification of trace-fossil assemblages characteristic of brackish-water settings. However, this limited means of (ichnologically) identifying tidal settings is unsatisfying and the establishment of ichnological-tidal relationships for the purpose of discerning tidal depositional processes is desirable. We suggest that several types of ichnological data can be used to identify tidal influence: (1) ichnological response to rhythmic sedimentation; (2) the presence of tubular tidalites (i.e. biogenic structures infilled by tidally derived sediments); (3) the identification of anisotropic resource exploitation associated with food-rich slack-tide laminations; (4) the identification of tidal-flat deposits through bioturbation intensity and ichnological composition; (5) the recognition of brackish-water trace fossils; and potentially (6) system-scale ichnological distributions (which are presently poorly understood). As with tidal sedimentary structures, the inference of tidal processes from biogenic sedimentary structures should depend on identifying as many of the above characteristics as possible.

Gingras, Murray K.; MacEachern, James A.; Dashtgard, Shahin E.

2012-11-01

124

A feasibility study on the influence of the geomorphological feature in identifying the potential landslide hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we focused on identifying geomorphological features that control the location of landslides. The representation of these features is based on a high resolution DEM (Digital Elevation Model) derived from airborne laser altimetry (LiDAR) and evaluated by statistical analysis of axial orientation data. The main principle of this analysis is generating eigenvalues from axial orientation data and comparing them. The Planarity, a ratio of eigenvalues, would tell the degree of roughness on ground surface based on their ratios. Results are compared to the recent landslide case in Korea in order to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methodology in identifying the potential landslide hazard. The preliminary landslide assessment based on the Planarity analysis well discriminates features between stable and unstable domain in the study area especially in the landslide initiation zones. Results also show it is beneficial to build the preliminary landslide hazard especially inventory mapping where none of information on historical records of landslides is existed. By combining other physical procedures such as geotechnical monitoring, the landslide hazard assessment using geomorphological features will promise a better understanding of landslides and their mechanisms, and provide an enhanced methodology to evaluate their hazards and appropriate actions.

Baek, M. H.; Kim, T. H.

2014-11-01

125

Exome Sequencing Identifies Potential Risk Variants for Mendelian Disorders at High Prevalence in Qatar  

PubMed Central

Exome sequencing of families of related individuals has been highly successful in identifying genetic polymorphisms responsible for Mendelian disorders. Here, we demonstrate the value of the reverse approach, where we use exome sequencing of a sample of unrelated individuals to analyze allele frequencies of known causal mutations for Mendelian diseases. We sequenced the exomes of 100 individuals representing the three major genetic subgroups of the Qatari population (Q1 Bedouin, Q2 Persian-South Asian, Q3 African) and identified 37 variants in 33 genes with effects on 36 clinically significant Mendelian diseases. These include variants not present in 1000 Genomes and variants at high frequency when compared to 1000 Genomes populations. Several of these Mendelian variants were only segregating in one Qatari subpopulation, where the observed subpopulation specificity trends were confirmed in an independent population of 386 Qataris. Pre-marital genetic screening in Qatar tests for only 4 out of the 37, such that this study provides a set of Mendelian disease variants with potential impact on the epidemiological profile of the population that could be incorporated into the testing program if further experimental and clinical characterization confirms high penetrance. PMID:24123366

Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L.; Fakhro, Khalid; Hackett, Neil R.; Salit, Jacqueline; Fuller, Jennifer; Agosto-Perez, Francisco; Gharbiah, Maey; Malek, Joel A.; Zirie, Mahmoud; Jayyousi, Amin; Badii, Ramin; Al-Marri, Ajayeb Al-Nabet; Chouchane, Lotfi; Stadler, Dora J.; Hunter-Zinck, Haley; Mezey, Jason G.; Crystal, Ronald G.

2013-01-01

126

Network Analysis Identifies SOD2 mRNA as a Potential Biomarker for Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence indicates that Parkinson's disease (PD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) share dysregulated molecular networks. We identified 84 genes shared between PD and T2DM from curated disease-gene databases. Nitric oxide biosynthesis, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, insulin secretion and inflammation were identified as common dysregulated pathways. A network prioritization approach was implemented to rank genes according to their distance to seed genes and their involvement in common biological pathways. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays revealed that a highly ranked gene, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), is upregulated in PD patients compared to healthy controls in 192 whole blood samples from two independent clinical trials, the Harvard Biomarker Study (HBS) and the Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers in Parkinson's disease (PROBE). The results from this study reinforce the idea that shared molecular networks between PD and T2DM provides an additional source of biologically meaningful biomarkers. Evaluation of this biomarker in de novo PD patients and in a larger prospective longitudinal study is warranted. PMID:25279756

Santiago, Jose A.; Scherzer, Clemens R.; Potashkin, Judith A.

2014-01-01

127

Clinical proteomics identifies potential biomarkers in Helicobacter pylori for gastrointestinal diseases  

PubMed Central

The development of gastrointestinal diseases has been found to be associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and various biochemical stresses in stomach and intestine. These stresses, such as oxidative, osmotic and acid stresses, may bring about bi-directional effects on both hosts and H. pylori, leading to changes of protein expression in their proteomes. Therefore, proteins differentially expressed in H. pylori under various stresses not only reflect gastrointestinal environment but also provide useful biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis. In this regard, proteomic technology is an ideal tool to identify potential biomarkers as it can systematically monitor proteins and protein variation on a large scale of cells translational landscape, permitting in-depth analyses of host and pathogen interactions. By performing two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by liquid chromatography-nanoESI-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS), we have successfully pinpointed alkylhydroperoxide reductase (AhpC), neutrophil-activating protein and non-heme iron-binding ferritin as three prospective biomarkers showing up-regulation in H. pylori under oxidative, osmotic and acid stresses, respectively. Further biochemical characterization reveals that various environmental stresses can induce protein structure change and functional conversion in the identified biomarkers. Especially salient is the antioxidant enzyme AhpC, an abundant antioxidant protein present in H. pylori. It switches from a peroxide reductase of low-molecular-weight (LMW) oligomers to a molecular chaperone of high-molecular-weight (HMW) complexes under oxidative stress. Different seropositivy responses against LMW or HMW AhpC in H. pylori-infected patients faithfully match the disease progression from disease-free healthy persons to patients with gastric ulcer and cancer. These results has established AhpC of H. pylori as a promising diagnostic marker for gastrointestinal maladies, and highlight the utility of clinical proteomics for identifying disease biomarkers that can be uniquely applied to disease-oriented translational medicine. PMID:24587628

Huang, Chun-Hao; Chiou, Shyh-Horng

2014-01-01

128

Omen: identifying potential spear-phishing targets before the email is sent.  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a two year project focused on a common social engineering attack method called %22spear phishing%22. In a spear phishing attack, the user receives an email with information specifically focused on the user. This email contains either a malware-laced attachment or a link to download the malware that has been disguised as a useful program. Spear phishing attacks have been one of the most effective avenues for attackers to gain initial entry into a target network. This project focused on a proactive approach to spear phishing. To create an effective, user-specific spear phishing email, the attacker must research the intended recipient. We believe that much of the information used by the attacker is provided by the target organization's own external website. Thus when researching potential targets, the attacker leaves signs of his research in the webserver's logs. We created tools and visualizations to improve cybersecurity analysts' abilities to quickly understand a visitor's visit patterns and interests. Given these suspicious visitors and log-parsing tools, analysts can more quickly identify truly suspicious visitors, search for potential spear-phishing targeted users, and improve security around those users before the spear phishing email is sent.

Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

2013-07-01

129

Structured methods for identifying and correcting potential human errors in space operations.  

PubMed

Human performance plays a significant role in the development and operation of any complex system, and human errors are significant contributors to degraded performance, incidents, and accidents for technologies as diverse as medical systems, commercial aircraft, offshore oil platforms, nuclear power plants, and space systems. To date, serious accidents attributed to human error have fortunately been rare in space operations. However, as flight rates go up and the duration of space missions increases, the accident rate could increase unless proactive action is taken to identity and correct potential human errors in space operations. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has developed and applied structured methods of human error analysis to identify potential human errors, assess their effects on system performance, and develop strategies to prevent the errors or mitigate their consequences. These methods are being applied in NASA-sponsored programs to the domain of commercial aviation, focusing on airplane maintenance and air traffic management. The application of human error analysis to space operations could contribute to minimize the risks associated with human error in the design and operation of future space systems. PMID:11541925

Nelson, W R; Haney, L N; Ostrom, L T; Richards, R E

1998-01-01

130

Research resource: A genome-wide study identifies potential new target genes for POU1F1.  

PubMed

The pituitary transcription factor POU1F1 is required for the differentiation of lactotrope, thyrotrope, and somatotrope cells. Its expression is maintained in the adult and is crucial for the expression of prolactin, GH, and TSH?-subunit. Different studies indicated that POU1F1 could also have other functions in these cells. The identification of new targets of this factor could be useful to obtain a better understanding of these functions. To address this question we combined data obtained from expression microarrays and from chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-chips. Gene expression microarray assays were used to detect genes that have their expression modified in somatolactotrope GH4C1 cells by the expression of a dominant-negative form of POU1F1, POU1F1(R271W), and led to the identification of 1346 such genes. ChIP-chip experiments were performed from mouse pituitaries and identified 1671 POU1F1-binding sites in gene-promoter regions. Intersecting the gene expression and the ChIP-chip data yielded 121 potential new direct targets. The initial set of 1346 genes identified using the microarrays, as well as the 121 potential new direct targets, were analyzed with DAVID bioinformatics resource for gene ontology term enrichment and cluster. This analysis revealed enrichment in different terms related to protein synthesis and transport, to apoptosis, and to cell division. The present study represents an integrative genome-wide approach to identify new target genes of POU1F1 and downstream networks controlled by this factor. PMID:22638072

Herman, Jean-Paul; Jullien, Nicolas; Guillen, Sverine; Enjalbert, Alain; Pellegrini, Isabelle; Franc, Jean-Louis

2012-08-01

131

In silico and microarray-based genomic approaches to identifying potential vaccine candidates against Leptospira interrogans  

PubMed Central

Background Currently available vaccines against leptospirosis are of low efficacy, have an unacceptable side-effect profile, do not induce long-term protection, and provide no cross-protection against the different serovars of pathogenic leptospira. The current major focus in leptospirosis research is to discover conserved protective antigens that may elicit longer-term protection against a broad range of Leptospira. There is a need to screen vaccine candidate genes in the genome of Leptospira interrogans. Results Bioinformatics, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis and transcriptional analysis were used to identify vaccine candidates in the genome of L. interrogans serovar Lai strain #56601. Of a total of 4727 open reading frames (ORFs), 616 genes were predicted to encode surface-exposed proteins by P-CLASSIFIER combined with signal peptide prediction, ?-helix transmembrane topology prediction, integral ?-barrel outer membrane protein and lipoprotein prediction, as well as by retaining the genes shared by the two sequenced L. interrogans genomes and by subtracting genes with human homologues. A DNA microarray of L. interrogans strain #56601 was constructed for CGH analysis and transcriptome analysis in vitro. Three hundred and seven differential genes were identified in ten pathogenic serovars by CGH; 1427 genes had high transcriptional levels (Cy3 signal ? 342 and Cy5 signal ? 363.5, respectively). There were 565 genes in the intersection between the set encoding surface-exposed proteins and the set of 307 differential genes. The number of genes in the intersection between this set of 565 and the set of 1427 highly transcriptionally active genes was 226. These 226 genes were thus identified as putative vaccine candidates. The proteins encoded by these genes are not only potentially surface-exposed in the bacterium, but also conserved in two sequenced L. interrogans. Moreover, these genes are conserved among ten epidemic serovars in China and have high transcriptional levels in vitro. Conclusion Of the 4727 ORFs in the genome of L. interrogans, 226 genes were identified as vaccine candidates by bioinformatics, CGH and transcriptional analysis on the basis of the theory of reverse vaccinology. The proteins encoded by these genes might be useful as vaccine candidates as well as for diagnosis of leptospirosis. PMID:17109759

Yang, Hong-Liang; Zhu, Yong-Zhang; Qin, Jin-Hong; He, Ping; Jiang, Xu-Cheng; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Guo, Xiao-Kui

2006-01-01

132

Potential for identifying abiotic chloroalkane degradation mechanisms using carbon isotopic fractionation.  

PubMed

Degradation of 1,1- and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA, 1,2-DCA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) on Zn0 was investigated using compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) to measure isotopic fractionation factors for chloroalkane degradation by hydrogenolysis, by alpha-elimination, and by beta-elimination. Significant differences in enrichment factors (epsilon) and associated apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIE) were measured for these different reaction pathways, suggesting that carbon isotope fractionation by beta-elimination is substantially larger than fractionation by hydrogenolysis or by alpha-elimination. Specifically, for 1,1-DCA, the isotopic composition of the reductive alpha-elimination product (ethane) and the hydrogenolysis product (chloroethane) were the same, indicating that cleavage of a single C-Cl bond was the rate-limiting step in both cases. In contrast, for 1,2-DCA, epsilon = epsilon(reactive position) = -29.7 +/- 1.5% per hundred, and the calculated AKIE (1.03) indicated that beta-elimination was likely concerted, possibly involving two C-Cl bonds simultaneously. Compared to 1,1-DCA hydrogenolysis, the AKIE of 1.01 for hydrogenolysis of CCl4 was much lower, indicating that, for this highly reactive organohalide, mass transfer to the surface was likely partially rate-limiting. These findings are a first step toward delineating the relative contribution of these competing pathways in other abiotic systems such as the degradation of chlorinated ethenes on zerovalent iron (ZVI), iron sulfide, pyrite, or magnetite, and, potentially, toward distinguishing between degradation of chlorinated ethenes by abiotic versus biotic processes. PMID:18350886

Vanstone, Nancy; Elsner, Martin; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Mabury, Scott; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood

2008-01-01

133

An indicator of probable semicircular canal dehiscence: ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to high frequencies.  

PubMed

The n10 component of the ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) to sound and vibration stimuli is a crossed response that has enhanced amplitude and decreased threshold in patients with CT-verified superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD). However, demonstrating enhanced VEMP amplitude and reduced VEMP thresholds requires multiple trials and can be very time consuming and tiring for patients, so a specific indicator of probable SCD that is fast and not tiring would be preferred. Here we report a 1-trial indicator: that the oVEMP n10 in response to a very high frequency stimulus (4000 Hz), either air-conducted sound (ACS) or bone conducted vibration (BCV), is such a fast indicator of probable SCD. In 22 healthy subjects, oVEMP n10 at 4000 Hz was not detectable; however, in all 22 CT-verified SSCD patients tested, oVEMP n10 responses were clearly present to 4000 Hz to either ACS or BCV stimuli. PMID:23674567

Manzari, Leonardo; Burgess, Ann M; McGarvie, Leigh A; Curthoys, Ian S

2013-07-01

134

Characterizing the successful student in general chemistry and physical science classes in terms of Jung's personality types as identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A student's success in a science class can depend upon previous experiences, motivation, and the level of interest in the subject. Since psychological type is intrinsic to a person's whole being, it can be influential upon the student's motivation and interests. Thus, a study of student psychological types versus the level of success in a class, as measured by a percentage, has potential to uncover certain personality characteristics which may be helpful to or which may hinder a student's learning environment. This study was initiated, using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, to evaluate any correlation between a student's personality type and his/her performance in a science class. A total of 1041 students from three classes: Chemistry 121/122, Chemistry 112, Physical Science 100, volunteered for the study. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the levels of significance among sixteen personality types' averages. The results reveal that for the Chemistry 1121/122 course, the average score of the INTJ personality type was 5.1 to 12.6 points higher than every other personality type. The ANOVA identifies 3 personality types with averages significantly below the INTJ at the p < 0.05 significance level. The ANOVA analysis for the Chemistry 112 course identified significances between student scores at p = 0.08. The significance level for the differences among scores for the Physical Science 100 course was determined at a level of p = 0.02. Significance levels for p < 0.05 and <0.01 were identified between several groups in this course. The data suggest, that although personality type may not predict a particular student's success in a science class, students with certain personality traits may be favored in a chemistry class due the structure of the instruction and the presentation of the subject matter.

Riley, Wayne David

1998-11-01

135

Dipole potentials indicate restructuring of the membrane interface induced by gadolinium and beryllium ions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dipole component of the membrane boundary potential, phi(d), is an integral parameter that may report on the conformational state of the lipid headgroups and their hydration. In this work, we describe an experimental approach to measurements of the dipole potential changes, Deltaphi(d), and apply it in studies of Be(2+) and Gd(3+) interactions with membranes composed of phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and their mixtures. Deltaphi(d) is determined as the difference between the changes of the total boundary potential, phi(b), measured by the IFC method in planar lipid membranes and the surface potential, phi(s), determined from the electrophoretic mobility of liposomes. The Gouy-Chapman-Stern formalism, combined with the condition of mass balance, well describes the ion equilibria for these high-affinity cations. For the adsorption of Be(2+) and Gd(3+) to PC membranes, and of Mg(2+) to PS membranes, the values of Deltaphi(b) and Deltaphi(s) are the same, indicative of no change of phi(d). Binding of Gd(3+) to PS-containing membranes induces changes of phi(d) of opposite signs depending on the density of ionized PS headgroups in the bilayer. At low density, the induced Deltaphi(d) is negative (-30 mV), consistent with the effect of dehydration of the surface. At maximal density (pure PS, neutral pH), adsorption of Be(2+) or Gd(3+) induces an increase of phi(d) of 35 or 140 mV, respectively. The onset of the strong positive dipole effect on PS membranes with Gd(3+) is observed near the zero charge point and correlates with a six-fold increase of membrane tension. The observed phenomena may reflect concerted reorientation of dipole moments of PS headgroups as a result of ion adsorption and lipid condensation. Their possible implications to in-vivo effects of these high-affinity ions are discussed.

Ermakov, Y. A.; Averbakh, A. Z.; Yusipovich, A. I.; Sukharev, S.

2001-01-01

136

Cheap and nasty? The potential perils of using management costs to identify global conservation priorities.  

PubMed

The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity. PMID:24260502

McCreless, Erin; Visconti, Piero; Carwardine, Josie; Wilcox, Chris; Smith, Robert J

2013-01-01

137

Cheap and Nasty? The Potential Perils of Using Management Costs to Identify Global Conservation Priorities  

PubMed Central

The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity. PMID:24260502

McCreless, Erin; Visconti, Piero; Carwardine, Josie; Wilcox, Chris; Smith, Robert J.

2013-01-01

138

Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value 0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at the beach, as indicated by an increase in the specific conductance of beach water. Understanding the dynamics of FIB sources (sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora) and transport mechanisms (dispersion and erosion from storm energy, and swash-zone groundwater discharge) is important for improving predictions of potential health risks from FIB in beach water.

Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

2013-01-01

139

Identifying Individual Changes in Performance with Composite Quality Indicators while Accounting for Regression-to-the-Mean  

PubMed Central

Almost a decade ago Morton & Torgerson (p. 1084) indicated that perceived medical benefits could be due to regression-to-the-mean. Despite this caution, the regression-to-the-mean effects on the identification of changes in institutional performance do not seem to have been considered previously in any depth. (Jones & Spiegelhalter, p. 1646). As a response, Jones & Spiegelhalter provide a methodology to adjust for regression-to-the-mean when modeling recent changes in institutional performance for one variable quality indicators (QIs). Therefore, in our view, Jones & Spiegelhalter provide a breakthrough methodology for performance measures. At the same time, in the interests of parsimony, it is useful to aggregate individual QIs into a composite score. Our question is: Can we develop and demonstrate a methodology that extends the regression-to-the-mean literature to allow for composite quality indicators? Using a latent variable modeling approach, we extend the methodology to the composite indicator case. We demonstrate the approach on four indicators collected by the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI). A simulation study further demonstrates its proof of concept. PMID:23035127

Gajewski, Byron J.; Dunton, Nancy

2012-01-01

140

Use of satellite-derived hyperspectral indices to identify stress symptoms in an Austrocedrus chilensis forest infested by the aphid Cinara cupressi  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the suitability of vegetation indices derived from satellite hyperspectral data for identifying stress symptoms induced by the invasion of cypress aphid (Cinara cupressi Buckton complex) in a Ciprs de La Cordillera (Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Pic.Serm. & M.P. Bizzarri) forest, located in the Andes mountain range of central Chile. A set of 11 indices related to leaf physiology

Marco A. Pea; Scott H. Altmann

2009-01-01

141

Conserved B-Cell Epitopes among Human Bocavirus Species Indicate Potential Diagnostic Targets  

PubMed Central

Background Human bocavirus species 14 (HBoV14) have been associated with respiratory and enteric infections in children. However, the immunological mechanisms in response to HBoV infections are not fully understood. Though previous studies have shown cross-reactivities between HBoV species, the epitopes responsible for this phenomenon remain unknown. In this study, we used genomic and immunologic approaches to identify the reactive epitopes conserved across multiple HBoV species and explored their potential as the basis of a novel diagnostic test for HBoVs. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated HBoV13 VP2 gene fragment phage display libraries (GFPDLs) and used these libraries to analyze mouse antisera against VP2 protein of HBoV1, 2, and 3, and human sera positive for HBoVs. Using this approach, we mapped four epitope clusters of HBoVs and identified two immunodominant peptidesP1 (1MSDTDIQDQQPDTVDAPQNT20), and P2 (162EHAYPNASHPWDEDVMPDL180)that are conserved among HBoV14. To confirm epitope immunogenicity, we immunized mice with the immunodominant P1 and P2 peptides identified in our screen and found that they elicited high titer antibodies in mice. These two antibodies could only recognize the VP2 of HBoV 14 in Western blot assays, rather than those of the two other parvoviruses human parvovirus B19 and human parvovirus 4 (PARV4). Based on our findings, we evaluated epitope-based peptide-IgM ELISAs as potential diagnostic tools for HBoVs IgM antibodies. We found that the P1+P2-IgM ELISA showed a higher sensitivity and specificity in HBoVs IgM detection than the assays using a single peptide. Conclusions/Significance The identification of the conserved B-cell epitopes among human bocavirus species contributes to our understanding of immunological cross-reactivities of HBoVs, and provides important insights for the development of HBoV diagnostic tools. PMID:24475201

Wang, Yaying; Zhou, Hongli; Wu, Chao; Paranhos-Baccal, Glucia; Vernet, Guy; Guo, Li; Wang, Jianwei

2014-01-01

142

On the use of the resting potential and level set methods for identifying ischemic heart disease: An inverse problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical activity in the heart is modeled by a complex, nonlinear, fully coupled system of differential equations. Several scientists have studied how this model, referred to as the bidomain model, can be modified to incorporate the effect of heart infarctions on simulated ECG (electrocardiogram) recordings. We are concerned with the associated inverse problem; how can we use ECG recordings and mathematical models to identify the position, size and shape of heart infarctions? Due to the extreme CPU efforts needed to solve the bidomain equations, this model, in its full complexity, is not well-suited for this kind of problems. In this paper we show how biological knowledge about the resting potential in the heart and level set techniques can be combined to derive a suitable stationary model, expressed in terms of an elliptic PDE, for such applications. This approach leads to a nonlinear ill-posed minimization problem, which we propose to regularize and solve with a simple iterative scheme. Finally, our theoretical findings are illuminated through a series of computer simulations for an experimental setup involving a realistic heart in torso geometry. More specifically, experiments with synthetic ECG recordings, produced by solving the bidomain model, indicate that our method manages to identify the physical characteristics of the ischemic region(s) in the heart. Furthermore, the ill-posed nature of this inverse problem is explored, i.e. several quantitative issues of our scheme are explored.

Nielsen, Bjrn Fredrik; Lysaker, Marius; Tveito, Aslak

2007-01-01

143

Identifying chemicals with potential therapy of HIV based on protein-protein and protein-chemical interaction network.  

PubMed

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a severe infectious disease that causes a large number of deaths every year. Traditional anti-AIDS drugs directly targeting the HIV-1 encoded enzymes including reverse transcriptase (RT), protease (PR) and integrase (IN) usually suffer from drug resistance after a period of treatment and serious side effects. In recent years, the emergence of numerous useful information of protein-protein interactions (PPI) in the HIV life cycle and related inhibitors makes PPI a new way for antiviral drug intervention. In this study, we identified 26 core human proteins involved in PPI between HIV-1 and host, that have great potential for HIV therapy. In addition, 280 chemicals that interact with three HIV drugs targeting human proteins can also interact with these 26 core proteins. All these indicate that our method as presented in this paper is quite promising. The method may become a useful tool, or at least plays a complementary role to the existing method, for identifying novel anti-HIV drugs. PMID:23762317

Li, Bi-Qing; Niu, Bing; Chen, Lei; Wei, Ze-Jun; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Min; Lu, Jing; Zheng, Ming-Yue; Kong, Xiang-Yin; Cai, Yu-Dong

2013-01-01

144

Identifying Chemicals with Potential Therapy of HIV Based on Protein-Protein and Protein-Chemical Interaction Network  

PubMed Central

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a severe infectious disease that causes a large number of deaths every year. Traditional anti-AIDS drugs directly targeting the HIV-1 encoded enzymes including reverse transcriptase (RT), protease (PR) and integrase (IN) usually suffer from drug resistance after a period of treatment and serious side effects. In recent years, the emergence of numerous useful information of protein-protein interactions (PPI) in the HIV life cycle and related inhibitors makes PPI a new way for antiviral drug intervention. In this study, we identified 26 core human proteins involved in PPI between HIV-1 and host, that have great potential for HIV therapy. In addition, 280 chemicals that interact with three HIV drugs targeting human proteins can also interact with these 26 core proteins. All these indicate that our method as presented in this paper is quite promising. The method may become a useful tool, or at least plays a complementary role to the existing method, for identifying novel anti-HIV drugs. PMID:23762317

Chen, Lei; Wei, Ze-Jun; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Min; Lu, Jing; Zheng, Ming-Yue; Kong, Xiang-Yin; Cai, Yu-Dong

2013-01-01

145

In silico analysis for identifying potential vaccine candidates against Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Purpose Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important causes of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The increasing incidence of multiple antibiotic-resistant S. aureus strains and the emergence of vancomycin resistant S. aureus strains have placed renewed interest on alternative means of prevention and control of infection. S. aureus produces a variety of virulence factors, so a multi-subunit vaccine will be more successful for preventing S. aureus infections than a mono-subunit vaccine. Materials and Methods We selected three important virulence factors of S. aureus, clumping factor A (ClfA), iron-regulated surface determinant (IsdB), and gamma hemolysin (Hlg) that are potential candidates for vaccine development. We designed synthetic genes encoding the clfA, isdB, and hlg and used bioinformatics tools to predict structure of the synthetic construct and its stabilities. VaxiJen analysis of the protein showed a high antigenicity. Linear and conformational B-cell epitopes were identified. Results The proteins encoded by these genes were useful as vaccine candidates against S. aureus infections. Conclusion In silico tools are highly suited to study, design, and evaluate vaccine strategies. PMID:25649548

Sedighian, Hamid

2015-01-01

146

Potential High-Temperature Shape-Memory Alloys Identified in the Ti(Ni,Pt) System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Shape memory" is a unique property of certain alloys that, when deformed (within certain strain limits) at low temperatures, will remember and recover to their original predeformed shape upon heating. It occurs when an alloy is deformed in the low-temperature martensitic phase and is then heated above its transformation temperature back to an austenitic state. As the material passes through this solid-state phase transformation on heating, it also recovers its original shape. This behavior is widely exploited, near room temperature, in commercially available NiTi alloys for connectors, couplings, valves, actuators, stents, and other medical and dental devices. In addition, there are limitless applications in the aerospace, automotive, chemical processing, and many other industries for materials that exhibit this type of shape-memory behavior at higher temperatures. But for high temperatures, there are currently no commercial shape-memory alloys. Although there are significant challenges to the development of high-temperature shape-memory alloys, at the NASA Glenn Research Center we have identified a series of alloy compositions in the Ti-Ni-Pt system that show great promise as potential high-temperature shape-memory materials.

Noebe, Ronald D.; Biles, Tiffany A.; Garg, Anita; Nathal, Michael V.

2004-01-01

147

RNAi phenotype profiling of kinases identifies potential therapeutic targets in Ewing's sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Background Ewing's sarcomas are aggressive musculoskeletal tumors occurring most frequently in the long and flat bones as a solitary lesion mostly during the teen-age years of life. With current treatments, significant number of patients relapse and survival is poor for those with metastatic disease. As part of novel target discovery in Ewing's sarcoma, we applied RNAi mediated phenotypic profiling to identify kinase targets involved in growth and survival of Ewing's sarcoma cells. Results Four Ewing's sarcoma cell lines TC-32, TC-71, SK-ES-1 and RD-ES were tested in high throughput-RNAi screens using a siRNA library targeting 572 kinases. Knockdown of 25 siRNAs reduced the growth of all four Ewing's sarcoma cell lines in replicate screens. Of these, 16 siRNA were specific and reduced proliferation of Ewing's sarcoma cells as compared to normal fibroblasts. Secondary validation and preliminary mechanistic studies highlighted the kinases STK10 and TNK2 as having important roles in growth and survival of Ewing's sarcoma cells. Furthermore, knockdown of STK10 and TNK2 by siRNA showed increased apoptosis. Conclusion In summary, RNAi-based phenotypic profiling proved to be a powerful gene target discovery strategy, leading to successful identification and validation of STK10 and TNK2 as two novel potential therapeutic targets for Ewing's sarcoma. PMID:20718987

2010-01-01

148

What data should we collect? A framework for identifying indicators of ecosystem contributions to human well being  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological data enable a range of policy relevant analyses; the right ecological data enable ecosystem analyses to be linked to human well being making them more relevant and useful. The challenge we address is how to identify the right data. Our approach, founded on the ?final e...

149

Comparative evaluation of potential indicators and temporal sampling protocols for monitoring genetic erosion  

PubMed Central

Genetic biodiversity contributes to individual fitness, species' evolutionary potential, and ecosystem stability. Temporal monitoring of the genetic status and trends of wild populations' genetic diversity can provide vital data to inform policy decisions and management actions. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding which genetic metrics, temporal sampling protocols, and genetic markers are sufficiently sensitive and robust, on conservation-relevant timescales. Here, we tested six genetic metrics and various sampling protocols (number and arrangement of temporal samples) for monitoring genetic erosion following demographic decline. To do so, we utilized individual-based simulations featuring an array of different initial population sizes, types and severity of demographic decline, and DNA markers [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites] as well as decline followed by recovery. Number of alleles markedly outperformed other indicators across all situations. The type and severity of demographic decline strongly affected power, while the number and arrangement of temporal samples had small effect. Sampling 50 individuals at as few as two time points with 20 microsatellites performed well (good power), and could detect genetic erosion while 8090% of diversity remained. This sampling and genotyping effort should often be affordable. Power increased substantially with more samples or markers, and we observe that power of 2500 SNPs was nearly equivalent to 250 microsatellites, a result of theoretical and practical interest. Our results suggest high potential for using historic collections in monitoring programs, and demonstrate the need to monitor genetic as well as other levels of biodiversity. PMID:25553062

Hoban, Sean; Arntzen, Jan A; Bruford, Michael W; Godoy, Jos A; Rus Hoelzel, A; Segelbacher, Gernot; Vil, Carles; Bertorelle, Giorgio

2014-01-01

150

Comparative evaluation of potential indicators and temporal sampling protocols for monitoring genetic erosion.  

PubMed

Genetic biodiversity contributes to individual fitness, species' evolutionary potential, and ecosystem stability. Temporal monitoring of the genetic status and trends of wild populations' genetic diversity can provide vital data to inform policy decisions and management actions. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding which genetic metrics, temporal sampling protocols, and genetic markers are sufficiently sensitive and robust, on conservation-relevant timescales. Here, we tested six genetic metrics and various sampling protocols (number and arrangement of temporal samples) for monitoring genetic erosion following demographic decline. To do so, we utilized individual-based simulations featuring an array of different initial population sizes, types and severity of demographic decline, and DNA markers [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites] as well as decline followed by recovery. Number of alleles markedly outperformed other indicators across all situations. The type and severity of demographic decline strongly affected power, while the number and arrangement of temporal samples had small effect. Sampling 50 individuals at as few as two time points with 20 microsatellites performed well (good power), and could detect genetic erosion while 80-90% of diversity remained. This sampling and genotyping effort should often be affordable. Power increased substantially with more samples or markers, and we observe that power of 2500 SNPs was nearly equivalent to 250 microsatellites, a result of theoretical and practical interest. Our results suggest high potential for using historic collections in monitoring programs, and demonstrate the need to monitor genetic as well as other levels of biodiversity. PMID:25553062

Hoban, Sean; Arntzen, Jan A; Bruford, Michael W; Godoy, Jos A; Rus Hoelzel, A; Segelbacher, Gernot; Vil, Carles; Bertorelle, Giorgio

2014-11-01

151

Phenology of Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on cranberry and blueberry indicates potential for gene flow.  

PubMed

Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a pest of cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon (Aiton) (Ericales: Ericaceae), and highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum (L.) (Ericales: Ericaceae), in North America. In British Columbia, Canada, D. oxycoccana was first found on highbush blueberry in 1991 and then on cranberry seven years later. Because many cranberry and highbush blueberry farms are adjacent to one another, we hypothesized that D. oxycoccana was moving from highbush blueberry onto cranberry. Cranberry and highbush blueberry differ in phenology, and adaptation to these different phenologies may result in host races or cryptic species on these two crops. We recognized the alternative hypothesis that D. oxycoccana had arrived as immature stages with cranberry vines imported from another region of North America. During spring and summer, we recorded the phenology of D. oxycoccana and the development of plant shoots from three cranberry and three highbush blueberry farms to determine whether the opportunity exists for successful movement of D. oxycoccana between the two crops. Our results show that D. oxycoccana from cranberry and highbush blueberry overlap in phenology for much of the season, indicating a high potential for movement and gene flow. However, differences were seen in number of larvae per shoot, location of pupae, and heat unit accumulation during larval development suggesting that instead there may be the potential for host race or cryptic species formation. PMID:22928299

Cook, Melissa A; Fitzpatrick, Sheila M; Roitberg, Bernard D

2012-08-01

152

Antioxidant potential of a polyherbal antimalarial as an indicator of its therapeutic value.  

PubMed

Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods and, in vivo, Nefang (100 and 500?mg?kg(-1)) activity was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation by the malondialdehyde and total proteins assays were carried out. P. guajava, M. indica leaf, and bark extracts had the highest antioxidant properties in all three assays, with no statistically significant difference. Rats treated with the carbon tetrachloride had a statistically significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (P < 0.05) and increase in malondialdehyde activity, total protein levels, and liver and renal function markers, whereas rats treated with Nefang showed increased levels in the former and dose-dependent decrease towards normal levels in the later. These results reveal the constituent plants of Nefang that contribute to its in vivo antioxidant potential. This activity is a good indication of the therapeutic potential of Nefang. PMID:24454347

Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Nwachiban Atchan, Achille Parfait; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Okalebo, Faith Apoelot; Guantai, Anastasia Nkatha; Agbor, Gabriel Agbor

2013-01-01

153

49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat identification...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

2012-10-01

154

49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat identification...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

2013-10-01

155

Potential New Genes for Resistance to Mycosphaerella Graminicola Identified in Triticum Aestivum x Lophopyrum Elongatum Disomic Substitution Lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lophopyrum species carry many desirable agronomic traits, including disease resistance, which can be transferred to wheat by interspecific hybridizations. To identify potentially new genes for disease and insect resistance carried by individual Lophopyrum chromosomes, 19 of 21 possible wheat cultiv...

156

Plasma Sphingolipids as Potential Indicators of Hepatic Necroinflammation in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase Level  

PubMed Central

Accurate estimation of hepatic necroinflammation caused by chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is crucial for prediction of prognosis and design of therapeutic strategy, which is particularly true for CHC patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Recent studies have shown that sphingolipids have a close relationship with hepatitis C virus infection. The present study aimed to identify plasma sphingolipids related to hepatic necroinflammation. We included 120 treatment-nave CHC patients and 64/120 had normal ALT levels (<40 U/L). CHC patients who underwent liver biopsies were subjected to Scheuer scoring analysis for scope of hepatic inflammation. Plasma sphingolipids were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed 44 plasma sphingolipids were detected altogether. Of all detected sphingolipids, hexosylceramide (HexCer) (d18?1/22?0) and HexCer (d18?1/24?0) showed a significant difference among G0/G1, G2, and G3/G4 (P<0.05). For identifying hepatic necroinflammation (G?2), after adjusting other factors, the odds ratio (OR) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) reached 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.001.02). Furthermore, the area under the curve (AUC) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was 0.7 (P?=?0.01) and approached that of ALT (AUC?=?0.78). However, in CHC patients with normal ALT, HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was an independent factor (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.011.03) to identify the hepatic necroinflammation (G?2). HexCer (d18?1/22?0) not only showed the largest AUC (0.78, P?=?0.001), but also exhibited the highest specificity of all indicators. These results indicate that plasma HexCer (d18?1/22?0) is a potential indicator to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation in CHC patients. For CHC with normal ALT, the ability of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation might be superior to conventional serum indicators. PMID:24736528

Ren, Jin-Yu; Wu, Hui-Li; Liu, Mei; Liu, Hui; Ren, Feng; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Duan, Zhong-Ping

2014-01-01

157

Use of Telephone-Administered Survey for Identifying Nutritional Risk Indicators Among Community-Living Older Adults in Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Elderly Nutrition Programs, especially in rural areas, to address increasing needs for disparate program services is linked to determining which older people are most likely to be at nutritional risk and what constitutes the potential risk. The purpose of this study is to characterize nutritional risk factors in a probability sample of rural elders (n = 152)

Joseph R. Sharkey; Pamela S. Haines

2002-01-01

158

Elevated osteopontin and thrombospondin expression identifies malignant human breast carcinoma but is not indicative of metastatic status  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundOur previous characterization of a human breast tumor metastasis model identified several candidate metastasis genes. The\\u000a expression of osteopontin (OPN) correlated with the metastatic phenotype, whereas thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and tyrosinase-related\\u000a protein-1 (TYRP-1) correlated with the nonmetastatic phenotype of independent MDA-MB-435 cell lines implanted orthotopically\\u000a into athymic mice. The aim of the present study was to examine the cellular distribution of

Jessica Wang-Rodriguez; Virginia Urquidi; Amber Rivard; Steve Goodison

2003-01-01

159

Multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning for identifying rockslide modifications: potentialities and problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heart of this research is to provide an efficient methodology for a reliable acquisition and interpretation of Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) data in the application field of landslide monitoring. In particular, rockslides, which are characterized by vertical walls of rock and by a complex morphology, are of great concern in the study. In these cases the airborne laser scanning is not able to provide useful and reliable description and the terrestrial laser scanning might be the only possible choice to obtain a good and reliable description of the geomorphology or to identify the changes occurred over time. The last purpose is still a challenging task when long distances are involved because the accurate and punctual identification of displacements is not possible due to the laser beam divergence. The final purpose of the research is a proposal of a methodology which is based on TLS technology for identifying displacements and extracting geomorphological changes. The approach is clearly based on a multi-temporal analysis which is computed on several repetitions of TLS surveys performed on the area of interest. To achieve best results and optimize the processing strategy, different methods about point clouds alignment have been tested together with algorithms both for filtering and post-processing. The case study is the Collagna Landslide that is located in the North Appennines (Reggio Emilia, Italy) on the right flank of Biola torrent. The large scale composite landslide area is made both by a wide rock slide sector and a more limited earth slide sector that, after high precipitation rates, disrupted the National Road 63 in December 2008. An integrated monitoring system is installed since 2009 and comprises both point-based technologies such as extensometers, total station and global positioning system, and also area-based technologies such as airborne laser scanner, long-range TLS and ground-based radar. This choice allows to couple the advantages of both approaches. The research focuses on TLS surveys for trying to detect displacements which might be responsible for instability. Four point clouds acquired in the last two years allow to monitor the spatial displacements of the whole slope, especially focusing on the rockslide sector. It is worth to underline an important aspect which contributes to highlight the significance of the work: the mean scanning distance is about 1.3 km. Few examples exist in literature about the use of very long-range TLS for displacements investigation. By sequentially analyzing TLS surfaces, displacement maps have been obtained for the rockslide area. Confirmation have been achieved by comparing results with movements of reflectors sited on the entire slope and continuously measured by total station. Such validation strengthens the idea that TLS has serious potentialities to be successfully used for analyzing instability. Comparing surfaces is not easy at all, thus a discussion about the encountered problems will be taken into account: any significant detail about potentialities and difficulties of the alignment strategy and the processing procedure will be given together with details about the specific algorithm implemented for filtering displacements by taking into account actual geomorphological conditions.

Castagnetti, Cristina; Bertacchini, Eleonora; Capra, Alessandro; Rivola, Riccardo

2013-04-01

160

Joint spatial modeling to identify shared patterns among chronic related potentially preventable hospitalizations  

PubMed Central

Background Rates of Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations (PPH) are used to evaluate access of territorially delimited populations to high quality ambulatory care. A common geographic pattern of several PPH would reflect the performance of healthcare providers. This study is aimed at modeling jointly the geographical variation in six chronic PPH conditions in one Spanish Autonomous Community for describing common and discrepant patterns, and to assess the relative weight of the common pattern on each condition. Methods Data on the 39,970 PPH hospital admissions for diabetes short term complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure, dehydration, angina admission and adult asthma, between 2007 and 2009 were extracted from the Hospital Discharge Administrative Databases and assigned to one of the 240 Basic Health Zones. Rates and Standardized Hospitalization Ratios per geographic unit were estimated. The spatial analysis was carried out jointly for PPH conditions using Shared Component Models (SCM). Results The component shared by the six PPH conditions explained about the 36% of the variability of each PPH condition, ranging from the 25.9 for dehydration to 58.7 for COPD. The geographical pattern found in the latent common component identifies territorial clusters with particularly high risk. The specific risk pattern that each isolated PPH does not share with the common pattern for all six conditions show many non-significant areas for most PPH, but with some exceptions. Conclusions The geographical distribution of the risk of the PPH conditions is captured in a 36% by a unique latent pattern. The SCM modeling may be useful to evaluate healthcare system performance. PMID:24899214

2014-01-01

161

Identifying populations potentially exposed to agricultural pesticides using remote sensing and a Geographic Information System.  

PubMed Central

Pesticides used in agriculture may cause adverse health effects among the population living near agricultural areas. However, identifying the populations most likely to be exposed is difficult. We conducted a feasibility study to determine whether satellite imagery could be used to reconstruct historical crop patterns. We used historical Farm Service Agency records as a source of ground reference data to classify a late summer 1984 satellite image into crop species in a three-county area in south central Nebraska. Residences from a population-based epidemiologic study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were located on the crop maps using a geographic information system (GIS). Corn, soybeans, sorghum, and alfalfa were the major crops grown in the study area. Eighty-five percent of residences could be located, and of these 22% had one of the four major crops within 500 m of the residence, an intermediate distance for the range of drift effects from pesticides applied in agriculture. We determined the proximity of residences to specific crop species and calculated crop-specific probabilities of pesticide use based on available data. This feasibility study demonstrated that remote sensing data and historical records on crop location can be used to create historical crop maps. The crop pesticides that were likely to have been applied can be estimated when information about crop-specific pesticide use is available. Using a GIS, zones of potential exposure to agricultural pesticides and proximity measures can be determined for residences in a study. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10622770

Ward, M H; Nuckols, J R; Weigel, S J; Maxwell, S K; Cantor, K P; Miller, R S

2000-01-01

162

Quantification of Impervious Surfaces Along the Wasatch Front, Utah: AN Object-Based Image Analysis Approach to Identifying AN Indicator for Wetland Stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Remote Sensing/GIS Laboratory at Utah State University, in cooperation with the United States Environmental Protection Agency, is quantifying impervious surfaces for three watershed sub-basins in Utah. The primary objective of developing watershed-scale quantifications of impervious surfaces is to provide an indicator of potential impacts to wetlands that occur within the Wasatch Front and along the Great Salt Lake. A geospatial layer of impervious surfaces can assist state agencies involved with Utah's Wetlands Program Plan (WPP) in understanding the impacts of impervious surfaces on wetlands, as well as support them in carrying out goals and actions identified in the WPP. The three watershed sub-basins, Lower Bear-Malad, Lower Weber, and Jordan, span the highly urbanized Wasatch Front and are consistent with focal areas in need of wetland monitoring and assessment as identified in Utah's WPP. Geospatial layers of impervious surface currently exist in the form of national and regional land cover datasets; however, these datasets are too coarse to be utilized in fine-scale analyses. In addition, the pixel-based image processing techniques used to develop these coarse datasets have proven insufficient in smaller scale or detailed studies, particularly when applied to high-resolution satellite imagery or aerial photography. Therefore, object-based image analysis techniques are being implemented to develop the geospatial layer of impervious surfaces. Object-based image analysis techniques employ a combination of both geospatial and image processing methods to extract meaningful information from high-resolution imagery. Spectral, spatial, textural, and contextual information is used to group pixels into image objects and then subsequently used to develop rule sets for image classification. eCognition, an object-based image analysis software program, is being utilized in conjunction with one-meter resolution National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) aerial photography from 2011.

Leydsman-McGinty, E. I.; Ramsey, R. D.; McGinty, C.

2013-12-01

163

Iodine speciation: a potential indicator to evaluate new production versus regenerated production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical profiles of iodide, iodate and total free iodine were determined monthly for one year (from July 1993 to June 1994) at the DYFAMED permanent station located in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Dissolved iodate and iodide were directly determined by differential pulse polarography and cathodic stripping square wave voltammetry, respectively. Iodate is the predominant species, ranging from 390 nM in surface waters to 485 nM in deep waters. Iodide is present in significant concentrations up to 80 nM in surface waters and from undetectable levels to several nanomolar (< 10 nM) in deep waters. Concentrations of total free iodine are slightly lower in surface waters (467-478 nM with an average of 472 nM) than in deep waters (475-486 nM with an average of 481 nM). Considerable variations in iodine speciation were observed. Iodide concentrations in surface waters were relatively low and stable from February to April (about 20 nM), increased up to 80 nM from May until November, and then decreased from December to February. Comparison between iodide abundance and primary production demonstrates that the transformation from iodate to iodide in surface waters is linked to the regenerated production. The stability of regenerated iodide in surface seawater makes iodide a potential indicator to evaluate new production vs regenerated production.

Tian, R. C.; Marty, J. C.; Nicolas, E.; Chiavrini, J.; Ruiz-Ping, D.; Pizay, M. D.

1996-05-01

164

Event-related potentials indicate context effect in reading ambiguous words.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was a comparison of lexical and contextual factors in understanding ambiguous words in German. First, a sample of native speakers selected 56 words having maximally strong differences between a dominant and a subordinate meaning. After this, another sample from the same population was visually presented with sentences that activated dominant or subordinate meanings of the words and were accompanied by probes associated with dominant or subordinate meanings. This resulted in a crossed design with two factors: sentence dominant vs. sentence subordinate and probe dominant vs. probe subordinate. An analysis of event-related brain potentials revealed a large, long-lasting and highly-significant N400 wave whenever the meaning of the probe was incongruent with the meaning of the sentence and the lack of this wave whenever the two meanings were congruent. In the typical N400 space and time, the effect was independent of whether the lexical word meaning was dominant or subordinate. At other sites and times, however (e.g., at lateral frontal electrodes F7/F8, and after 700ms), the congruence effect was significant after dominant sentences only. The data indicate that lexical factors have a rather limited influence on the activation of a particular meaning of ambiguous words. A strong context can virtually override even a very strong difference in the preference for different meanings. PMID:25463139

Kotchoubey, Boris; El-Khoury, Sylvain

2014-10-29

165

Potential regrowth and recolonization of salmonellae and indicators in biosolids and biosolid-amended soil.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the potential for conversion of Class B to Class A biosolids with respect to salmonellae and fecal coliforms during solar drying in concrete lined drying beds. Anaerobically (8% solids) and aerobically (2% solids) digested Class B biosolids were pumped into field-scale drying beds, and microbial populations and environmental conditions were monitored. Numbers of fecal coliforms and salmonellae decreased as temperature and rate of desiccation increased. After 3 to 4 weeks, Class A requirements were achieved in both biosolids for the pathogens and the indicators. However, following rainfall events, significant increase in numbers was observed for both fecal coliforms and salmonellae. In laboratory studies, regrowth of fecal coliforms was observed in both biosolids and biosolid-amended soil, but the regrowth of salmonellae observed in the concrete-lined drying beds did not occur. These laboratory studies demonstrated that pathogens decreased in numbers when soil was amended with biosolids. Based on serotyping, the increased numbers of salmonellae seen in the concrete lined drying beds following rainfall events was most likely due to recolonization due to contamination from fecal matter introduced by animals and not from regrowth of salmonellae indigenous to biosolids. Overall, we conclude that the use of concrete-lined beds created a situation in which moisture added as rainfall accumulated in the beds, promoting the growth of fecal coliforms and salmonellae added from external sources. PMID:16000779

Zaleski, Kathleen J; Josephson, Karen L; Gerba, Charles P; Pepper, Ian L

2005-07-01

166

Xylem transcription profiles indicate potential metabolic responses for economically relevant characteristics of Eucalyptus species  

PubMed Central

Background Eucalyptus is one of the most important sources of industrial cellulose. Three species of this botanical group are intensively used in breeding programs: E. globulus, E. grandis and E. urophylla. E. globulus is adapted to subtropical/temperate areas and is considered a source of high-quality cellulose; E. grandis grows rapidly and is adapted to tropical/subtropical climates; and E. urophylla, though less productive, is considered a source of genes related to robustness. Wood, or secondary xylem, results from cambium vascular differentiation and is mostly composed of cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses. In this study, the xylem transcriptomes of the three Eucalyptus species were investigated in order to provide insights on the particularities presented by each of these species. Results Data analysis showed that (1) most Eucalyptus genes are expressed in xylem; (2) most genes expressed in species-specific way constitutes genes with unknown functions and are interesting targets for future studies; (3) relevant differences were observed in the phenylpropanoid pathway: E. grandis xylem presents higher expression of genes involved in lignin formation whereas E. urophylla seems to deviates the pathway towards flavonoid formation; (4) stress-related genes are considerably more expressed in E. urophylla, suggesting that these genes may contribute to its robustness. Conclusions The comparison of these three transcriptomes indicates the molecular signatures underlying some of their distinct wood characteristics. This information may contribute to the understanding of xylogenesis, thus increasing the potential of genetic engineering approaches aiming at the improvement of Eucalyptus forest plantations productivity. PMID:23521840

2013-01-01

167

Development of a novel GLUT4 translocation assay for identifying potential novel therapeutic targets for insulin sensitization.  

PubMed

GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4) plays important roles in glucose homoeostasis in vivo. GLUT4 expression and function are diminished in diabetic human and animal subjects. The goal of the present study is to develop a cell-based assay for identifying negative regulators of GLUT4 translocation as potential targets for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Traditional GLUT4 translocation assays performed in differentiated myocytes or adipocytes are difficult to perform, particularly in HTS (high-throughput screening) mode. In the present study, we stably co-expressed c-Myc and eGFP [enhanced GFP (green fluorescent protein)] dual-tagged recombinant GLUT4 with recombinant IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate 1) in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney cells) (HEK-293.IRS1.GLUT4 cells). Insulin treatment stimulated both glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation in these cells. GLUT4 translocation is quantified by a TRF (time-resolved fluorescence) assay in a 96-well HTS format. TRF assays confirmed insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, which can be inhibited by PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) or Akt [also called PKB (protein kinase B)] inhibitors. Treatment with palmitate increased IRS1 serine phosphorylation and reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation, indicating insulin resistance. Knockdown of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) and PTP1B (protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B) gene expression by siRNA (small interfering RNA) treatment significantly increased GLUT4 translocation only in cells treated with palmitate but not in untreated cells. Similar results were obtained on treatment with siRNA of JNK1 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1), S6K1 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70 kDa, polypeptide 1) and PKC(theta) (protein kinase C theta). In summary, we have established and validated a novel GLUT4 translocation assay that is optimal for identifying negative regulators of GLUT4 translocation. In combination with more physiologically relevant secondary assays in myotubes and adipocytes, this assay system can be used to identify potential novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:19035854

Liu, Franklin; Dallas-Yang, Qing; Castriota, Gino; Fischer, Paul; Santini, Francesca; Ferrer, Marc; Li, Jing; Akiyama, Taro E; Berger, Joel P; Zhang, Bei B; Jiang, Guoqiang

2009-03-01

168

Deriving sorption indices for the prediction of potential phosphorus loss from calcareous soils.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop techniques to evaluate soil phosphorus (P) sorption capacity (PSC) and determine critical soil P levels to predict P loss potential for calcareous soils. Seventy-five soils mostly from Northern China were analyzed for soil P using four extraction methods (water, Pw; carbonate, POls; ammonium oxalate, Pox; and Mehlich 3, PM3) as well as PSC derived from single-point (PSC150) and multipoint sorption (S t) isotherms. Strong correlation was found between PSC150 and S t (r (2)=0.89, p<0.001). The sum of ?CaM3 and ?MgM3 as an index of PSC (PSC(CaM3 + MgM3)) was most closely related to the maximum amount of P sorbed (S max) as given by the sum of S t and soil initial P setting ?=0.039 and ?=0.462 (r (2)=0.80, p<0.001). The degree of P saturation (DPS) was thereafter calculated from PSC(CaM3 + MgM3) (DPS(CaM3 + MgM3)), to which Olsen P (POls) was significantly correlated (r (2)=0.82, p<0.001). In a split-line regression from Pw against DPS(CaM3 + MgM3) (r (2)=0.87, p<0.05), a change point was identified at 28.1% DPS(CaM3 + MgM3), which was equivalent to 49.2 mg kg(-1) POls and corresponded to a Pw concentration of 8.8 mg kg(-1). After the change point, a sharp increase in Pw was observed. Our results reveal a new approach to approximating DPS from CaM3 and MgM3 for calcareous soils without the need to generate a S max. We conclude that in the absence of an environmental soil test criteria for P, the DPS(CaM3 + MgM3) and POls could be used to predict P loss potential from calcareous soils. PMID:23943001

Xue, Qiaoyun; Lu, Lingli; Zhou, Yuanqing; Qi, Lingyu; Dai, Peibin; Liu, Xiaoxia; Sun, Chengliang; Lin, Xianyong

2014-01-01

169

Seasonal variation of Fatty acids and stable carbon isotopes in sponges as indicators for nutrition: biomarkers in sponges identified.  

PubMed

To get a better understanding of sponge feeding biology and efficiencies, the fatty acid (FA) composition and (13)C natural abundance of sponges and of suspended particulate matter (SPM) from surrounding seawater was studied in different seasons at three locations. Haliclona oculata and Haliclona xena from the Oosterschelde, the Netherlands, Halichondria panicea and H. xena from Lake Veere, the Netherlands, and Aplysina aerophoba and Dysidea avara from the Mediterranean, Spain, were studied. Several FA biomarkers for different algal groups, bacteria and sponge biomass were identified in all sponges. The FA concentration variation in sponges was related to changes in fatty acid concentration in SPM. Stable carbon isotopic ratios (?(13)C) in sponge specific FAs showed very limited seasonal variation at all sites. Algal FAs in sponges were mainly acquired from the SPM through active filtration in all seasons. At the two sites in the Netherlands only in May (spring), the sponge specific FAs had similar ?(13)C ratios as algal FAs, suggesting that sponges were mainly growing during spring and probably summer. During autumn and winter, they were still actively filtering, but the food collected during this period had little effect on sponge ?(13)C values suggesting limited incorporation of filtered material into the sponge body. The sponge A. aerophoba relied mostly on the symbiotic bacteria. In conclusion, fatty acid composition in combination with stable carbon isotope analysis can be used to analyze the food source of sponges. PMID:25107690

Koopmans, Marieke; van Rijswijk, Pieter; Boschker, Henricus T S; Marco, Houtekamer; Martens, Dirk; Wijffels, Rene H

2015-02-01

170

Central Sleep Apnea Indicates Autonomic Dysfunction in Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis: A Potential Marker of Cerebrovascular and Cardiovascular Risk  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Arteriosclerosis related stenosis in the carotid bulb causes autonomic imbalance, likely due to carotid chemoreceptor and baroreceptor dysfunction. The latter are associated with increased cerebrovascular and cardiovascular mortality. Chemoreceptor and baroreceptor dysfunction is also involved in the origin of central sleep apnea syndrome (CSA) in different clinical entities. We hypothesized that CSA is associated with stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA). The mechanism of this association is an autonomic imbalance induced by stenosis-mediated chemoreceptor and baroreceptor dysfunction. Design: Cross-sectional prospective study. Setting: University-based tertiary referral sleep clinic and research center. Patients: Fifty-nine patients with various degrees of asymptomatic extracranial ICA (eICA) (n = 49) and intracranial ICA (iICA) stenosis (n = 10) were investigated. Interventions: Polysomnography to detect CSA and analysis of spontaneous heart rate variability (HRV) to detect autonomic imbalance. Measurements and Results: CSA occurred in 39% of the patients with eICA stenosis but was absent in patients with iICA stenosis. CSA was present in patients with severe eICA stenosis of ? 70% on one side. Independent predictors for CSA were severity of stenosis, asymmetric distribution of stenosis between both eICA and autonomic imbalance, namely a decrease of parasympathetic tone. The specific constellation of HRV-parameters indicated increased chemoreceptor sensitivity and impaired baroreflex sensitivity. Conclusions: CSA indicates autonomic dysfunction in patients with asymptomatic eICA stenosis. Detection of CSA may help to identify asymptomatic patients with an increased risk of cerebrovascular or cardiovascular events who particularly benefit from carotid revascularization. Citation: Rupprecht S; Hoyer D; Hagemann G; Witte OW; Schwab M. Central sleep apnea indicates autonomic dysfunction in asymptomatic carotid stenosis: a potential marker of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular risk. SLEEP 2010;33(3):327-333. PMID:20337190

Rupprecht, Sven; Hoyer, Dirk; Hagemann, Georg; Witte, Otto W.; Schwab, Matthias

2010-01-01

171

Potential risk indicators of retained placenta and other diseases in multiparous cows.  

PubMed

Retained placenta (RP), defined as fetal membranes not being expelled within 24 h after calving, is a costly disease in multiparous dairy cows that has been linked to immune suppression, infections, elevated lipid mobilization, and depleted status of antioxidants including ?-tocopherol, and that increases the risk of other diseases (OD) in early lactation. Early detection of cows at increased risk of developing RP, OD, or both in early lactation could improve treatment success and result in improved milk production and reproductive performance. To identify risk indicators of RP, OD, or both, we used a nested case-control design and compared multiparous dairy cows that developed RP (n=32) with cows that remained healthy (H; n=32) or cows that developed OD (n=32) in early lactation. We compared peripartal body condition score (BCS) as well as serum concentrations of ?-tocopherol, metabolites [?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), cholesterol, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and urea N], haptoglobin, and macrominerals (i.e., calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) on d -21, -14, -7, -3, -1, 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 postpartum. In addition, average serum concentrations were calculated for each cow for the last 3 wk prepartum, for 3 and 2 wk prepartum combined, for the last week prepartum, and for the morning after calving and compared between groups. The RP cows had lower BCS than the H or OD cows until 2 wk postpartum. During the prepartal periods, RP and OD cows had lower ?-tocopherol concentrations (corrected or not for cholesterol concentration) and higher NEFA and BHBA concentrations than H cows. Thus, lower prepartal BCS could be an early predictor for RP risk, and lower ?-tocopherol concentrations and higher NEFA and BHBA concentrations could be early predictors for disease. PMID:24792789

Qu, Y; Fadden, A N; Traber, M G; Bobe, G

2014-07-01

172

Combined single channel and single molecule detection identifies subunit composition of STIM1-activated transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels.  

PubMed

Depletion of intracellular calcium ion stores initiates a rapid cascade of events culminating with the activation of the so-called Store-Operated Channels (SOC) at the plasma membrane. Calcium influx via SOC is essential in the initiation of calcium-dependent intracellular signaling and for the refilling of internal calcium stores, ensuring the regeneration of the signaling cascade. In spite of the significance of this evolutionary conserved mechanism, the molecular identity of SOC has been the center of a heated controversy spanning over the last 20 years. Initial studies positioned some members of the transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel superfamily of channels (with the more robust evidence pointing to TRPC1) as a putative SOC. Recent evidence indicates that Stromal Interacting Molecule 1 (STIM1) activates some members from the TRPC family of channels. However, the exact subunit composition of TRPC channels remains undetermined to this date. To identify the subunit composition of STIM1-activated TRPC channels, we developed novel method, which combines single channel electrophysiological measurements based on the patch clamp technique with single molecule fluorescence imaging. We termed this method Single ion Channel Single Molecule Detection technique (SC-SMD). Using SC-SMD method, we have obtained direct evidence of the subunit composition of TRPC channels activated by STIM1. Furthermore, our electrophysiological-imaging SC-SMD method provides evidence at the molecular level of the mechanism by which STIM1 and calmodulin antagonize to modulate TRPC channel activity. PMID:25465892

Asanov, Alexander; Sampieri, Alicia; Moreno, Claudia; Pacheco, Jonathan; Salgado, Alfonso; Sherry, Ryan; Vaca, Luis

2014-10-31

173

Cortical EEG oscillations and network connectivity as efficacy indices for assessing drugs with cognition enhancing potential.  

PubMed

Synchronization of electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations represents a core mechanism for cortical and subcortical networks, and disturbance in neural synchrony underlies cognitive processing deficits in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the effects of cognition enhancers (donepezil, rivastigmine, tacrine, galantamine and memantine), which are approved for symptomatic treatment of dementia, on EEG oscillations and network connectivity in conscious rats chronically instrumented with epidural electrodes in different cortical areas. Next, EEG network indices of cognitive impairments with the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine were modeled. Lastly, we examined the efficacy of cognition enhancers to normalize those aberrant oscillations. Cognition enhancers elicited systematic ("fingerprint") enhancement of cortical slow theta (4.5-6Hz) and gamma (30.5-50Hz) oscillations correlated with lower activity levels. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a compact cluster that corresponds to shared underlying mechanisms as compared to different drug classes. Functional network connectivity revealed consistent elevated coherent slow theta activity in parieto-occipital and between interhemispheric cortical areas. In rats instrumented with depth hippocampal CA1-CA3 electrodes, donepezil elicited similar oscillatory and coherent activities in cortico-hippocampal networks. When combined with scopolamine, the cognition enhancers attenuated the leftward shift in coherent slow delta activity. Such a consistent shift in EEG coherence into slow oscillations associated with altered slow theta and gamma oscillations may underlie cognitive deficits in scopolamine-treated animals, whereas enhanced coherent slow theta and gamma activity may be a relevant mechanism by which cognition enhancers exert their beneficial effect on plasticity and cognitive processes. The findings underscore that PCA and network connectivity are valuable tools to assess efficacy of novel therapeutic drugs with cognition enhancing potential. PMID:25181033

Ahnaou, A; Huysmans, H; Jacobs, T; Drinkenburg, W H I M

2014-11-01

174

Looking at Dauphin twins in vein quartz as a potential paleostress indicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleostress studies commonly call upon (1) a fault slip data inversion technique, (2) a calcite twin stress inversion technique, (3) recrystallized grain size piezometry for quartz, or (4) direct measurements of residual lattice strain. Recent advances in orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) have revealed that Dauphin twinning is very common in quartz in naturally deformed quartz-bearing rocks in a wide range of tectonometamorphic conditions. It has long been known that mechanical Dauphin twinning in quartz can be stress-induced. Based on the results of an extensive EBSD-OIM analysis on vein quartz, taken from well-studied early to late-orogenic veins in the High-Ardenne slate belt (Germany, Belgium), we explore the potential use of mechanical Dauphin twins as a paleostress indicator, possibly completing our toolbox for reconstructing paleostresses in the Earth's crust. The vein quartz studied precipitated in low-grade tectonometamorphic conditions (~200-400C), typical for the brittle-plastic transition zone at the base of the seismogenic crust (~7-15km). Quartz has only been weakly affected by low to moderate temperature (200 to 400C) crystal-plastic deformation. The samples show grains with a high concentration of Dauphin twin boundaries and others free of twin boundaries, thus being untwinned or completely twinned. This pattern depends on the crystallographic orientation. Twin boundaries are arrested by grain or subgrain boundaries, suggesting that Dauphin twinning occurred on a pre-existing fabric that resulted from crystal-plastic deformation. An analysis of the orientation distribution of the rhombs in the twinned variant domains of individual quartz (sub-)grains reveals a particular preferred orientation of the poles to rhombs. We will discuss the possible significance of these observations with respect to paleostresses that may have caused the mechanical Dauphin twinning.

Sintubin, Manuel; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

2013-04-01

175

Histidine Decarboxylase Is Identified as a Potential Biomarker of Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Patients with Acute Intestinal Obstruction  

PubMed Central

Various biomarkers currently used for the diagnosis of intestinal mucosal injury (IMI) in patients with acute intestinal obstruction have low sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, IMI, as indicated by the impaired expression of tight junction proteins, including zonula occludens-1, occludin and claudin-1, and inflammation were determined in colonic tissues of patients with 45 strangulated intestinal obstruction (STR-IO) and the adjacent normal colonic tissues of 35 patients with colon cancers by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR), Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and histological examination, respectively. Then, two-dimensional fluorescent difference gel electrophoresis coupled with linear trap quadrupole mass spectrometry was used to screen for potential biomarkers of IMI in the serum samples of 10 STR-IO, 10 simple intestinal obstruction (SIM-IO) and 10 normal healthy controls. A total of 35 protein spots were differentially expressed among the serum samples, and six of the proteins were identified as potential biomarkers. Among the six proteins, histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and ceruloplasmin (CP) were elevated significantly in patients with STR-IO, compared with patients with SIM-IO and healthy controls. Thus, HDC and CP were further validated by QRT-PCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, in colonic tissues, serum and urine samples. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic curves were used to show the area under the curves of HDC, CP and several established biomarkers, followed by the determination of the appropriate cutoff values and their sensitivities and specificities. It was shown that for serum and urine, HDC levels achieved sensitivities and specificities compatible to or even greater than those of established biomarkers for the diagnosis of IMI in patients with acute intestinal obstruction, although further validation in a larger cohort is required. PMID:21915437

Yang, Jian-Jun; Ma, Yan-Lei; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Hong-Qi; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Qin, Huan-Long

2011-01-01

176

Identifying soils with potential of expanding sulfate mineral formation using electromagnetic induction  

E-print Network

quantifying sulfate in soils that may be potentially used in highway construction using electromagnetic induction. The objectives are to: 1) document electrical conductivity (EC) variability within selected sites that contain sulfate-bearing materials, and 2...

Fox, Miranda Lynn

2004-11-15

177

Identifying putative drug targets and potential drug leads: starting points for virtual screening and docking.  

PubMed

The availability of 3D models of both drug leads (small molecule ligands) and drug targets (proteins) is essential to molecular docking and computational drug discovery. This chapter describes a simple approach that can be used to identify both drug leads and drug targets using two popular Web-accessible databases: (1) DrugBank and (2) The Human Metabolome Database. First, it is illustrated how putative drug targets and drug leads for exogenous diseases (i.e., infectious diseases) can be readily identified and their 3D structures selected using only the genomic sequences from pathogenic bacteria or viruses as input. The second part illustrates how putative drug targets and drug leads for endogenous diseases (i.e., noninfectious diseases or chronic conditions) can be identified using similar databases and similar sequence input. This chapter is intended to illustrate how bioinformatics and cheminformatics can work synergistically to help provide the necessary inputs for computer-aided drug design. PMID:25330974

Wishart, David S

2015-01-01

178

Identifying chemical carcinogens and assessing potential risk in short-term bioassays using transgenic mouse models.  

PubMed

Cancer is a worldwide public health concern. Identifying carcinogens and limiting their exposure is one approach to the problem of reducing risk. Currently, epidemiology and rodent bioassays are the means by which putative human carcinogens are identified. Both methods have intrinsic limitations: they are slow and expensive processes with many uncertainties. The development of methods to modify specific genes in the mammalian genome has provided promising new tools for identifying carcinogens and characterizing risk. Transgenic mice may provide advantages in shortening the time required for bioassays and improving the accuracy of carcinogen identification; transgenic mice might now be included in the testing armamentarium without abandoning the two-year bioassay, the current standard. We show that mutagenic carcinogens can be identified with increased sensitivity and specificity using hemizygous p53 mice in which one allele of the p53 gene has been inactivated. Furthermore, the TG.AC transgenic model, carrying a v-Ha-ras construct, has developed papillomas and malignant tumors in response to a number of mutagenic and nonmutagenic carcinogens and tumor promoters, but not to noncarcinogens. We present a decision-tree approach that permits, at modest extra cost, the testing of more chemicals with improved ability to extrapolate from rodents to humans. PMID:8529591

Tennant, R W; French, J E; Spalding, J W

1995-10-01

179

Identifying Carcinogenic Potentials of Drinking Water Disinfection Byproducts using Normal Human Colonocyte Cultures  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of disinfected surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Approximately 600 byproducts (DBPs) have been identified for the major disinfectants currently in use and represent less than half of the total organic car...

180

Development of Normal Human Colonocyte Cultures to Identify a Carcinogenic Potential for Priority Disinfection Byproducts  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of disinfected surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Of the approximately >600 disinfection byproducts (DBPs) identified, the US EPA regulates 11 DBPS for an increased risk of cancer. An in-depth mechanism-ba...

181

Firing Patterns and Synaptic Potentials of Identified Giant Aspiny Interneurons in the Rat Neostriatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracellular recordings were made in viwo from 9 giant as- piny neurons in the neostriatum of urethane-anesthetized rats. The cells were identified by intracellular staining with HRP or biocytin. The neurons exhibited morphological fea- tures typical of neostriatal cholinergic interneurons. Six of the cells were obtained from intact animals, while 3 were recorded from rats with ipsilateral hemidecortications. Giant aspiny

C. J. Wilson; H. T. Chang; S. T. Kitai

1990-01-01

182

Courting male garter snakes ( Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis ) use multiple cues to identify potential mates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating aggregations of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) in Manitoba provide a unique opportunity to identify the cues that attract a male snake and induce him to court. The snakes are abundant, tolerate human presence, and males direct courtship to a subset of other males (\\

R. Shine; R. T. Mason

2001-01-01

183

Identifying Leadership Potential: The Process of Principals within a Charter School Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of strong educational leadership for American K-12 schools cannot be overstated. As such, school districts need to actively recruit and develop leaders. One way to do so is for school officials to become more strategic in leadership identification and development. If contemporary leaders are strategic about whom they identify and

Waidelich, Lynn A.

2012-01-01

184

Exploiting Literature-derived Knowledge and Semantics to Identify Potential Prostate Cancer Drugs  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report on the performance of an automated approach to discovery of potential prostate cancer drugs from the biomedical literature. We used the semantic relationships in SemMedDB, a database of structured knowledge extracted from all MEDLINE citations using SemRep, to extract potential relationships using knowledge of cancer drugs pathways. Two cancer drugs pathway schemas were constructed using these relationships extracted from SemMedDB. Through both pathway schemas, we found drugs already used for prostate cancer therapy and drugs not currently listed as the prostate cancer medications. Our study demonstrates that the appropriate linking of relevant structured semantic relationships stored in SemMedDB can support the discovery of potential prostate cancer drugs. PMID:25392688

Zhang, Rui; Cairelli, Michael J; Fiszman, Marcelo; Kilicoglu, Halil; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Melton, Genevieve B

2014-01-01

185

Dipole Potentials Indicate Restructuring of the Membrane Interface Induced by Gadolinium and Beryllium Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dipole component of the membrane boundary potential, ?d, is an integral parameter that may report on the conformational state of the lipid headgroups and their hydration. In this work, we describe an experimental approach to measurements of the dipole potential changes, ??d, and apply it in studies of Be2+ and Gd3+ interactions with membranes composed of phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylcholine

Yuri A. Ermakov; Alexander Z. Averbakh; Alexander I. Yusipovich; Sergei Sukharev

2001-01-01

186

Identifying potential environmental impacts of large-scale deployment of dedicated bioenergy crops in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is momentum, globally, to increase the use of plant biomass for the production of heat, power and liquid transport fuels. This review assesses the evidence base for potential impacts of large-scale bioenergy crop deployment principally within the UK context, but with wider implications for Europe, the USA and elsewhere. We focus on second generation, dedicated lignocellulosic crops, but where

Rebecca L. Rowe; Gail Taylor

2009-01-01

187

Cooperative Development of the Digital Library: Identifying and Working with Potential Partners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a university environment, the library can benefit from interest in the digital future on the part of other concerned groups. Computer science departments are natural partners in the development of digital libraries. Professional societies, for-profit companies, and foundations are also potential sources of support. Cornell University Library

Poland, Jean

188

Diagnostics of subsynchronous vibrations in rotating machinery - methodologies to identify potential instability  

E-print Network

of this thesis is to explore means of diagnosing whether subsynchronous vibrations are benign or have the potential to become unstable. Several methods will be detailed to draw lines of demarcation between the two. Considerable focus of the research has been...

Kar, Rahul

2005-11-01

189

Identifying potential environmental impacts of large-scale deployment of dedicated bioenergy crops in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract There is momentum, globally, to increase the use of plant biomass for the production of heat, power and liquid transport fuels. This review assesses the evidence base for potential impacts of large-scale bioenergy crop deployment principally within the UK context, but with wider implications for Europe, the USA and elsewhere. We focus on second generation, dedicated lignocellulosic crops, but

Rebecca L. Rowe; Gail Taylor

2007-01-01

190

NYU researchers identify new potential therapeutic target for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from the NYU Cancer Institute, an NCI-designated cancer center at NYU Langone Medical Center, have discovered a new potential therapeutic target for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), the most aggressive and common type of lymphoma in adults. The new study, published in the November 23 issue of Nature, reveals the underlying molecular mechanism contributing to the development of lymphomagenesis.

191

A Comparison between Survey and Verbal Choice Methods of Identifying Potential Reinforcers among Employees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two methods of assessing preference for stimuli (i.e., potential reinforcers) were compared for adult administrative assistant employees. During Phase 1, a survey method and a verbal choice method of assessing preference for 6 stimuli were administered. During Phase 2, a coupon system was used to determine which categories of stimuli actually

Wilder, David A; Therrien, Kelly; Wine, Byron

2006-01-01

192

Identifying the potential roles of design-based failures on human errors in shipboard operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the various developments in maritime society, human errors have been continued to be one of the primarily causes of marine accidents. The outcomes of detailed investigations on the root causes of human errors can provide valuable support on execution process of required precautions on board merchant ships. This paper examines the potential role of the design-based failures in shipboard

M. Celik; I. D. Er

193

Potentially important variables identified by transvaginal ultrasound-guided embryo transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

endometrial myometrial contraction leading to endometrial and a soft 2 French transfer catheter, both of which are readily visible movement was observed. Results indicate that tactile assess- by transvaginal ultrasonography. A bivalve Graves speculum was ment of embryo transfer catheter placement is unreliable: in placed into the vagina and the cervix visualized. Any excess cervical mucus was removed by wiping

Robert Woolcott; Jim Stanger

194

PRO OR CONS LOCAL VS. GLOBAL IMAGERY INFORMATION FOR IDENTIFYING CELL MIGRATORY POTENTIAL  

E-print Network

-adhesion. It is also a reliable indicator of the outcome of cancer. Can a migratory cell behavior be reliably with image analyzis. In this work, microscopy images is much use to characterize the morphology of cells] and could be implicated in the induction of the observed amoeboid movement of cancer cells. The pro

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

Gene expression profiling and real-time PCR analyses identify novel potential cancer-testis antigens in multiple myeloma1  

E-print Network

1 Gene expression profiling and real-time PCR analyses identify novel potential cancer. Real-time RT-PCR was performed for 34 genes in 12 NT, 5 MMC samples and one sample of 5 pooled testes collected bone marrow samples and clinical data. VP performed microarray hybridization. GR performed qPCR

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

196

Video Games and Mathematics Education: Studying Commercial Sports Video Games to Identify the Potential for Learning and Thinking About  

E-print Network

Video Games and Mathematics Education: Studying Commercial Sports Video Games to Identify What happens when commercial sports video games, designed for entertainment, are used in an effort is an attempt to examine the potential for connecting digital media (sports video games) to learning various

Spagnolo, Filippo

197

Identifying Potential Land Use-derived Solute Sources to Stream Baseflow Using Ground Water Models and GIS  

E-print Network

Boutt 1 Identifying Potential Land Use-derived Solute Sources to Stream Baseflow Using Ground Water surface water quality using regional ground water and solute transport models linked to GIS. We demonstrate this approach by estimating the chloride fluxes from road salt through ground water into surface

198

Drug screening in Scn1a zebrafish mutant identifies clemizole as a potential Dravet Syndrome treatment  

PubMed Central

Dravet syndrome (DS) is a catastrophic pediatric epilepsy with severe intellectual disability, impaired social development and persistent drug-resistant seizures. One of its primary monogenic causes are mutations in Nav1.1 (SCN1A), a voltage-gated sodium channel. Here we characterise zebrafish Nav1.1 (scn1Lab) mutants originally identified in a chemical mutagenesis screen. Mutants exhibit spontaneous abnormal electrographic activity, hyperactivity and convulsive behaviors. Although scn1Lab expression is reduced, microarray analysis is remarkable for the small fraction of differentially expressed genes (~3%) and lack of compensatory expression changes in other scn subunits. Ketogenic diet, diazepam, valproate, potassium bromide and stiripentol attenuate mutant seizure activity; seven other antiepileptic drugs have no effect. A phenotype-based screen of 320 compounds identifies a US Food and Drug Administration-approved compound (clemizole) that inhibits convulsive behaviors and electrographic seizures. This approach represents a new direction in modeling pediatric epilepsy and could be used to identify novel therapeutics for any monogenic epilepsy disorder. PMID:24002024

Baraban, Scott C.; Dinday, Matthew T.; Hortopan, Gabriela A.

2013-01-01

199

Comparative Genomics Identifies a Potential Marker of Human-Virulent Anaplasma phagocytophilum  

PubMed Central

We have previously described a comparative genome analysis of nine strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum that showed similarity between strains infecting humans and U.S. dogs and a more distant relationship with horse and ruminant strains. This suggested that it may be possible to distinguish human-infective strains using simple DNA sequence-based diagnostic tests. This would be of epidemiologic significance in identifying and tracking the presence of virulent strains in tick vector populations. Further analysis identified a gene that was present in several strains, including U.S. Ap-variant 1 (ruminant), MRK (horse), and European sheep, but was deleted in strains infecting U.S. humans and dogs, suggesting that it could be a useful marker of human virulence. A simple PCR test was developed to identify the presence/absence of this gene. The PCR test discriminated A. phagocytophilum strains from clinically affected humans and U.S. dogs from the strains more distantly related in genome sequence. This warrants further testing of globally diverse A. phagocytophilum strains to examine world-wide conservation of this gene. PMID:25437606

Al-Khedery, Basima; Barbet, Anthony F.

2014-01-01

200

Identifying potential engaging leaders within medical education: The role of positive influence on peers.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Previous research has paid little to no attention towards exploring methods of identifying existing medical student leaders. Aim: Focusing on the role of influence and employing the tenets of the engaging leadership model, this study examines demographic and academic performance-related differences of positive influencers and if students who have been peer-identified as positive influencers also demonstrate high levels of genuine concern for others. Methods: Three separate fourth-year classes were asked to designate classmates that had significant positive influences on their professional and personal development. The top 10% of those students receiving positive influence nominations were compared with the other students on demographics, academic performance, and genuine concern for others. Results: Besides age, no demographic differences were found between positive influencers and other students. High positive influencers were not found to have higher standardized exam scores but did receive significantly higher clinical clerkship ratings. High positive influencers were found to possess a higher degree of genuine concern for others. Conclusion: The findings lend support to (a) utilizing the engaging model to explore leaders and leadership within medical education, (b) this particular method of identifying existing medical student leaders, and (c) return the focus of leadership research to the power of influence. PMID:25155553

Michalec, Barret; Veloski, J Jon; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Tykocinski, Mark L

2014-08-26

201

VFA and ammonia from residential food waste as indicators of odor potential.  

PubMed

Research was conducted to determine suitable chemical parameters as indicators of odor from decomposing food wastes. Prepared food scraps were stored in 18 l plastic buckets (2 kg wet weight each) at 20 C and 8 C to reproduce high and low temperature conditions. After 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of storage, the odor from the buckets were marked to an intensity scale of 0 (no odor) to 5 (intense) and the corresponding leachate analyzed for volatile fatty acids, ammonia and total organic carbon. A linear relationship between odor intensity and the measured parameter indicates a suitable odor indicator. Odor intensified with longer storage period and warmer surroundings. The study found ammonia and isovaleric acid to be promising odor indicators. For this food waste mixture, offensive odors were emitted if the ammonia and isovaleric acid contents exceeded 360 mg/l and 940 mg/l, respectively. PMID:22819598

Qamaruz-Zaman, N; Milke, M W

2012-12-01

202

Vibrational stark effects to identify ion pairing and determine reduction potentials in electrolyte-free environments.  

PubMed

A recently developed instrument for time-resolved infrared detection following pulse radiolysis has been used to measure the ?(C?N) IR band of the radical anion of a CN-substituted fluorene in tetrahydrofuran. Specific vibrational frequencies can exhibit distinct frequency shifts due to ion pairing, which can be explained in the framework of the vibrational Stark effect. Measurements of the ratio of free ions and ion pairs in different electrolyte concentrations allowed us to obtain an association constant and free energy change for ion pairing. This new method has the potential to probe the geometry of ion pairing and allows the reduction potentials of molecules to be determined in the absence of electrolyte in an environment of low dielectric constant. PMID:25554821

Mani, Tomoyasu; Grills, David C; Miller, John R

2015-01-28

203

Proteomic profiling of mammary carcinomas identifies C7orf24, a gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase, as a potential cancer biomarker.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women today and is the most common cancer (excluding skin cancers) among women in the Western world. Although cancers detected by screening mammography are significantly smaller than nonscreening ones, noninvasive biomarkers for detection of breast cancer as early as possible are an urgent need as the risk of recurrence and subsequent death is closely related to the stage of the disease at the time of primary surgery. A set of 123 primary breast tumors and matched normal tissue was analyzed by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, and a novel protein, C7orf24, was identified as being upregulated in cancer cells. Protein expression levels of C7orf24 were evaluated by immunohistochemical assays to qualify deregulation of this protein. Analysis of C7orf24 expression showed up-regulation in 36.4 and 23.4% of cases present in the discovery sample set (123 samples) and in an independent large TMA validation data set (2197 samples) of clinically annotated breast cancer specimens, respectively. Survival analysis showed that C7orf24 overexpression defines a subgroup of breast tumors with poor clinical outcome. Up-regulation of C7orf24 was also found in other cancer types. Four of these were investigated in greater detail, and we found that a proportion of tumors (58% in cervical, 38% in lung, 72% in colon, and 46% in breast cancer) expressed C7orf24 at levels exceeding those seen in normal samples. The observed overexpression of this protein in different types of cancer suggests deregulation of C7orf24 to be a general event in epithelial carcinogenesis, indicating that this protein may play an important role in cancer cell biology and thus constitute a novel therapeutic target. Furthermore, as C7orf24 is externalized to the tissue extracellular fluid and can be detected in serum, this protein also represents a potential serological marker. PMID:20527979

Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Friis, Esbern; Timmermans-Wielenga, Vera; Rank, Fritz; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Moreira, Jos M A

2010-08-01

204

Gremlin 1 identifies a skeletal stem cell with bone, cartilage, and reticular stromal potential.  

PubMed

The stem cells that maintain and repair the postnatal skeleton remain undefined. One model suggests that perisinusoidal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) give rise to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, marrow stromal cells, and adipocytes, although the existence of these cells has not been proven through fate-mapping experiments. We demonstrate here that expression of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist gremlin 1 defines a population of osteochondroreticular (OCR) stem cells in the bone marrow. OCR stem cells self-renew and generate osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and reticular marrow stromal cells, but not adipocytes. OCR stem cells are concentrated within the metaphysis of long bones not in the perisinusoidal space and are needed for bone development, bone remodeling, and fracture repair. Grem1 expression also identifies intestinal reticular stem cells (iRSCs) that are cells of origin for the periepithelial intestinal mesenchymal sheath. Grem1 expression identifies distinct connective tissue stem cells in both the bone (OCR stem cells) and the intestine (iRSCs). PMID:25594183

Worthley, Daniel L; Churchill, Michael; Compton, Jocelyn T; Tailor, Yagnesh; Rao, Meenakshi; Si, Yiling; Levin, Daniel; Schwartz, Matthew G; Uygur, Aysu; Hayakawa, Yoku; Gross, Stefanie; Renz, Bernhard W; Setlik, Wanda; Martinez, Ashley N; Chen, Xiaowei; Nizami, Saqib; Lee, Heon Goo; Kang, H Paco; Caldwell, Jon-Michael; Asfaha, Samuel; Westphalen, C Benedikt; Graham, Trevor; Jin, Guangchun; Nagar, Karan; Wang, Hongshan; Kheirbek, Mazen A; Kolhe, Alka; Carpenter, Jared; Glaire, Mark; Nair, Abhinav; Renders, Simon; Manieri, Nicholas; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Fox, James G; Reichert, Maximilian; Giraud, Andrew S; Schwabe, Robert F; Pradere, Jean-Phillipe; Walton, Katherine; Prakash, Ajay; Gumucio, Deborah; Rustgi, Anil K; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Friedman, Richard A; Gershon, Michael D; Sims, Peter; Grikscheit, Tracy; Lee, Francis Y; Karsenty, Gerard; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Wang, Timothy C

2015-01-15

205

Potential of infrared spectroscopy in combination with extended canonical variate analysis for identifying different paper types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing use of secondary fiber in papermaking has led to the production of paper containing a wide range of contaminants. Wastepaper mills need to develop quality control methods for evaluating the incoming wastepaper stock as well as testing the specifications of the final product. The goal of this work is to present a fast and successful methodology for identifying different paper types. In this way, undesirable paper types can be refused, thus improving the runnability of the paper machine and the quality of the paper manufactured. In this work we examine various types of paper using information obtained by an appropriate chemometric treatment of infrared spectral data. For this purpose, we studied a large number of paper sheets of three different types (namely coated, offset and cast-coated) supplied by several paper manufacturers. We recorded Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra with the aid of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) module and near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra by means of fiber optics. Both techniques proved expeditious and required no sample pretreatment. The primary objective of this work was to develop a methodology for the accurate identification of samples of different paper types. For this purpose, we used the chemometric discrimination technique extended canonical variate analysis (ECVA) in combination with the k nearest neighbor (kNN) method to classify samples in the prediction set. Use of the NIR and FTIR techniques under these conditions allowed paper types to be identified with 100% success in prediction samples.

Riba, Jordi-Roger; Canals, Trini; Cantero, Rosa; Iturriaga, Hortensia

2011-02-01

206

Derivation of regional crop sequences as an indicator for potential GMO dispersal on large spatial scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodological approach is presented which aims to visualise the constraints for crop sequence planning in agriculture in a regional, large-scale context. In particular, the relationship between the scope of oilseed rape cultivation and the overall regional cropping structure, the share of particular farm types and the interactions between single crops have been analysed. The identified constraints have been applied

Michael Glemnitz; Angelika Wurbs; Reinhold Roth

2011-01-01

207

Molecular markers and imaging tools to identify malignant potential in Barrett's esophagus  

PubMed Central

Due to its rapidly rising incidence and high mortality, esophageal adenocarcinoma is a major public health concern, particularly in Western countries. The steps involved in the progression from its predisposing condition, gastroesophageal reflux disease, to its premalignant disorder, Barretts esophagus, and to cancer, are incompletely understood. Current screening and surveillance methods are limited by the lack of population-wide utility, incomplete sampling of standard biopsies, and subjectivity of evaluation. Advances in endoscopic ablation have raised the hope of effective therapy for eradication of high-risk Barretts lesions, but improvements are needed in determining when to apply this treatment and how to follow patients clinically. Researchers have evaluated numerous potential molecular biomarkers with the goal of detecting dysplasia, with varying degrees of success. The combination of biomarker panels with epidemiologic risk factors to yield clinical risk scoring systems is promising. New approaches to sample tissue may also be combined with these biomarkers for less invasive screening and surveillance. The development of novel endoscopic imaging tools in recent years has the potential to markedly improve detection of small foci of dysplasia in vivo. Current and future efforts will aim to determine the combination of markers and imaging modalities that will most effectively improve the rate of early detection of high-risk lesions in Barretts esophagus. PMID:25400987

Bennett, Michael; Mashimo, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

208

Thermo- and Mesostabilizing Protein Interactions Identified by Temperature-Dependent Statistical Potentials  

PubMed Central

Abstract The goal of controlling protein thermostability is tackled here through establishing, by insilico analyses, the relative weight of residue-residue interactions in proteins as a function of temperature. We have designed for that purpose a (melting-) temperature-dependent, statistical distance potential, where the interresidue distances are computed between the side-chain geometric centers or their functional centers. Their separate derivation from proteins of either high or low thermal resistance reveals the interactions that contribute most to stability in different temperature ranges. Thermostabilizing interactions include salt bridges and cation-? interactions (especially those involving arginine), aromatic interactions, and H-bonds between negatively charged and some aromatic residues. In contrast, H-bonds between two polar noncharged residues or between a polar noncharged residue and a negatively charged residue are relatively less stabilizing at high temperatures. An important observation is that it is necessary to consider both repulsive and attractive interactions in overall thermostabilization, as the degree of repulsion may also vary with temperature. These temperature-dependent potentials are not only useful for the identification of meso- and thermostabilizing pair interactions, but also exhibit predictive power, as illustrated by their ability to predict the melting temperature of a protein based on the melting temperature of homologous proteins. PMID:20159163

Folch, Benjamin; Dehouck, Yves; Rooman, Marianne

2010-01-01

209

Potential tumor biomarkers identified in ovarian cyst fluid by quantitative proteomic analysis, iTRAQ  

PubMed Central

Background Epithelial-derived ovarian adenocarcinoma (EOC) is the most deadly gynecologic tumor, and the principle cause of the poor survival rate is diagnosis at a late stage. Screening and diagnostic biomarkers with acceptable specificity and sensitivity are lacking. Ovarian cyst fluid should harbor early ovarian cancer biomarkers because of its closeness to the tumor. We investigated ovarian cyst fluid as a source for discovering biomarkers for use in the diagnosis of EOC. Results Using quantitative mass spectrometry, iTRAQ MS, we identified 837 proteins in cyst fluid from benign, EOC stage I, and EOC stage III. Only patients of serous histology were included in the study. Comparing the benign (n?=?5) with the malignant (n?=?10) group, 87 of the proteins were significantly (p?identified 87 differentially expressed proteins and validated two candidates to verify the iTRAQ method. However several of the proteins are of interest for validation in a larger setting. PMID:23557354

2013-01-01

210

MACROCLIMATIC INDICES TO DEFINE POTENTIAL SOIL ORGANIC CARBON STORAGE WITH NO TILLAGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

No tillage has become an accepted cropping practice throughout the USA. Potential climate change has prompted great interest in conservation tillage as a practice to help sequester CO2 from the atmosphere into the soil. Numerous reports published in recent years about the effect of no tillage compar...

211

Gravity wave kinetic, potential, and vertical fluctuation energies as indicators of different frequency gravity waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advantage of examining atmospheric gravity waves using high vertical-resolution radiosonde data over other measurement techniques is that horizontal wind, temperature, and vertical ascent rate can be measured directly. This allows the kinetic, potential, and vertical velocity fluctuation energies to be derived independently. Each of these gravity wave energies is shown to have sensitivity to different gravity wave frequencies. Observed

Marvin A. Geller; Jie Gong

2010-01-01

212

Electrophysiological (Event-Related Potentials) Indices of Cognitive Processing in Autistic Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Event-related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded to both auditory and visual stimuli from the scalps of nine autistic males and nine normal controls (all Ss between 12 and 22 years of age) to examine the differences in information processing strategies. Ss were tested on three different tasks: an auditory missing stimulus paradigm, a visual color

Shibley, Ralph, Jr.; And Others

213

Event-Related Potential Indicators of Text Integration across Sentence Boundaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An event-related potentials (ERPs) study examined word-to-text integration processes across sentence boundaries. In a two-sentence passage, the accessibility of a referent for the first content word of the second sentence (the target word) was varied by the wording of the first sentence in one of the following ways: lexically (explicitly using

Yang, Chin Lung; Perfetti, Charles A.; Schmalhofer, Franz

2007-01-01

214

Follicular apoptosis in the mussel (Mytella strigata) as potential indicator of environmental stress in coastal ecosystems.  

PubMed

Follicular apoptosis in the tropical mussel Mytella strigata was assessed in three coastal lagoons located in the southern Gulf of California, Mexico. Mussels were collected from three coastal lagoons associated with different scenarios of anthropogenic stress during one year. The gonad of each mussel was dissected, weighed, and sampled for histology and apoptosis analysis by TUNEL labeling. Two apoptotic indices were used: the apoptotic index of cells (AIC) based on the number of follicular cells in apoptosis in one thousand cells counted per gonad, and the apoptotic index of follicles (AIF) based on the number of follicular cells per follicle per gonad. Both indices showed high association with each other for all developmental stages, although AIF seemed to better discriminate among sites. Higher AIF and AIC were observed at the Urias Estuary (1.6 and 1.5 respectively) ranked as highly polluted, followed by Ensenada del Pabellon (0.82 and 0.95 respectively), ranked as moderately polluted, and the Teacapan Estuary (0.57 and 0.76 respectively) ranked as slightly polluted. Our data indicate that the apoptotic index in tropical mussels could be a useful indicator of environmental stress in coastal ecosystems; however, the ecological relevance of follicular apoptosis in polluted environments needs further investigation. PMID:20390842

Garcia-Gasca, Alejandra; Leal-Tarin, Beatriz; Rios-Sicairos, Julian; Hernandez-Cornejo, Rubi; Aguilar-Zarate, Gabriela; Betancourt-Lozano, Miguel

2010-01-01

215

Rapid Indices of Potential Nitrogen Mineralization for Intensively Managed Hardwood Plantations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short?rotation hardwood plantations generally require repeated applications of nitrogen (N) fertilizer to maintain desired growth and are being installed on two previous land uses: agricultural fields and cutover forest lands. Because the soil organic matter chemistry is different between agricultural field and cutover soils, indices of N availability developed for one land use or the other may not work well

D. Andrew Scott; Alixanna McLearen Norris; James A. Burger

2005-01-01

216

Assessing indices for predicting potential N mineralization in pedogenically distinct soils under different tillage management systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A reliable laboratory index of nitrogen availability would be useful for making N recommendations but no single approach has received broad acceptance across a wide range of soils. We compared several indices over a range of soil conditions to test the possibility of determining the best combination...

217

Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC) Brain Potential Changes  

PubMed Central

Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes). This study investigated brain direct current (DC) potential shiftswhich are discussed to represent different states of cortical activationof tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggestbesides some limitationsthat noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested attention shift. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed. PMID:25264675

Trimmel, Karin; Schtzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

2014-01-01

218

Acoustic noise alters selective attention processes as indicated by direct current (DC) brain potential changes.  

PubMed

Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes). This study investigated brain direct current (DC) potential shifts-which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation-of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest-besides some limitations-that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested "attention shift". Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed. PMID:25264675

Trimmel, Karin; Schtzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

2014-01-01

219

Inducible In Vivo Silencing of Brd4 Identifies Potential Toxicities of Sustained BET Protein Inhibition  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY BET family proteins are novel therapeutic targets for cancer and inflammation and represent the first chromatin readers against which small-molecule inhibitors have been developed. First-generation BET inhibitors have shown therapeutic efficacy in preclinical models, but the consequences of sustained BET protein inhibition in normal tissues remain poorly characterized. Using an inducible and reversible transgenic RNAi mouse model, we show that strong suppression of the BET protein Brd4 in adult animals has dramatic effects in multiple tissues. Brd4-depleted mice display reversible epidermal hyperplasia, alopecia, and decreased cellular diversity and stem cell depletion in the small intestine. Furthermore, Brd4-suppressed intestines are sensitive to organ stress and show impaired regeneration following irradiation, suggesting that concurrent Brd4 suppression and certain cytotoxic therapies may induce undesirable synergistic effects. These findings provide important insight into Brd4 function in normal tissues and, importantly, predict several potential outcomes associated with potent and sustained BET protein inhibition. PMID:25242322

Bolden, Jessica E.; Tasdemir, Nilgun; Dow, Lukas E.; van Es, Johan H.; Wilkinson, John E.; Zhao, Zhen; Clevers, Hans; Lowe, Scott W.

2014-01-01

220

Web-based Tool Identifies and Quantifies Potential Cost Savings Measures at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The Technical Improvement system is an approachable web-based tool that is available to Hanford DOE staff, site contractors, and general support service contractors as part of the baseline optimization effort underway at the Hanford Site. Finding and implementing technical improvements are a large part of DOEs cost savings efforts. The Technical Improvement dashboard is a key tool for brainstorming and monitoring the progress of submitted baseline optimization and potential cost/schedule efficiencies. The dashboard is accessible to users over the Hanford Local Area Network (HLAN) and provides a highly visual and straightforward status to management on the ideas provided, alleviating the need for resource intensive weekly and monthly reviews.

Renevitz, Marisa J. [Mission Support Alliance, Richland, WA (United States); Peschong, Jon C. [USDOE Richland Operations Office, Richland, WA (United States); Charboneau, Briant L. [USDOE Richland Operations Office, Richland, WA (United States); Simpson, Brett C. [Mission Support Alliance, Richland, WA (United States)

2014-01-09

221

Predatory online behavior: modus operandi of convicted sex offenders in identifying potential victims and contacting minors over the internet.  

PubMed

Sex offenders have used the Internet to identify and contact minors for sexual exploitation (Armagh, 1998; Hernandez, 2000; Lamb, 1998; Lanning, 1998). Yet little is known about how these individuals select their online victims. In order to gain a better understanding of this behavior, the online activity of 31 men who perpetrated or attempted to perpetrate contact sex offenses against minors they communicated with via the Internet, was examined. Three-fourths of the participants monitored chat room dialogue and almost one-half reviewed online profiles of minors in an attempt to identify potential victims. Recommendations to increase the online safety of children and adolescents are discussed. PMID:17895230

Malesky, L Alvin

2007-01-01

222

RNAi screening identifies HAT1 as a potential drug target in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is one of the most fatal carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract. Aberrant activity of histone acetyltransferases (HATs)/deacetylases (HDACs) play a critical role in carcinogenesis through the regulation of the genes involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. However, cellular functions of HATs/HDACs in esophageal cancer and its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. An RNAi screen was used in this study to identify the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs) that could be critical for the survival of EC cells. We demonstrated that HAT1 (histone acetyltransferase 1) was an important determinant to regulate the proliferation of human EC Eca-109 cells. Furthermore, we showed that the knockdown of HAT1 induced a G2/M cell cycle arrest, which was associated with the disruption of cell cycle-related events, including the decrease of cyclinD1 as well as alteration in cyclinB1 expression. The expression of HAT1 was validated to be higher in the primary tumors and adjacent tissue as compared to that of the normal esophageal tissue. Furthermore, we found that HAT1 expression was directly correlated with the poor tumor differentiation of EC tissue, which suggested that HAT1 played an important role in esophageal carcinoma and that it could be a novel EC therapeutic target. PMID:25120766

Xue, Liang; Hou, Jun; Wang, Qun; Yao, Liqing; Xu, Songtao; Ge, Di

2014-01-01

223

The induction of alkoxyresorufin metabolism: A potential indicator of environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of biochemical monitoring of individual animals for exposure to environmental contaminants are of great potential use. The hepatic metabolism of various alkoxyresorufins, which are highly specific substrates for certain forms of cytochrome(s) P450, is highly induced by a variety of environmental contaminants. Thus, theO-deal-kylation of pentoxy- or benzyloxyresorufin was induced greater than 20-fold in the rat bya-hexachlorocyclohexane, 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl, DDT

Ronald A. Lubet; F. Peter Guengerich; Raymond W. Nims

1990-01-01

224

Heavy metal indicator potential of the Asiatic clam ( Corbicula fluminea ) in artificial stream systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea, as a bioindicator of cadmium, copper, and zinc was studied during 28-day exposures in field artificial streams receiving river water on a once-through basis. Copper, at aquatic concentrations of 0.016 and 0.057 mg l-1, showed the greatest degree of tissue uptake and had bioconcentration factors (BCF) of 22 571 and 17 720,

Robert L. Graney; Donald S. Cherry; John Cairns

1983-01-01

225

Event-related brain potentials as indices of mental workload and attentional allocation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past decade considerable strides were made in explicating the antecedant conditions necessary for the elicitation, and the modulation of the amplitude and latency, of a number of components of the event-related brain potential (ERP). The focus of this report is on P300. The degree to which the psychophysiological measures contribute to issues in two real-world domains (communication devices for the motor impaired and the assessment of mental workload of aircraft pilots) are examined.

Kramer, Arthur F.; Donchin, Emanuel; Wickens, Christopher D.

1988-01-01

226

Abnormal subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials indicate high cervical myelopathy in achondroplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with achondroplasia may have high cervical myelopathy due to stenosis of the cranio-cervical junction resulting\\u000a in neurological disability and an increased rate of sudden death. To detect myelopathy we recorded somatosensory evoked potentials\\u000a (SEPs) after median nerve stimulation in 30 patients with achondroplasia aged 13 months to 18 years (mean 6 years). In addition\\u000a to the conventional technique of

R. Boor; G. Fricke; K. Brhl; J. Spranger

1999-01-01

227

Functional bacteria as potential indicators of water quality in Three Gorges Reservoir, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributions of culturable bacteria and functional bacteria associated with nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) in the backwater\\u000a areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were investigated. Results from seven locations in the TGR indicated that the abundance\\u000a of total bacteria was high, with 8.12 106, 2.70 107, and 6.73 1010colony-forming units per milliliter or per gram

Hongyuan Wang; Zhenyao Shen; Junfeng Niu; Ya He; Qian Hong; Ying Wang

2010-01-01

228

Risk-based surveillance of antimicrobial residues in pigs--identification of potential risk indicators.  

PubMed

Around 20,000 samples are analysed each year for the presence of antibacterial residues in Danish finisher pigs, and between zero and five samples are detected positive above the maximum residue level (MRL). The intention was to develop a risk-based surveillance programme involving fewer samples while ensuring equal sensitivity. Therefore, risk indicators were searched for. Data were obtained from the Danish slaughterhouse database covering the period from July 2010 to December 2012. Residues were found or suspected in 17 incidents. In nine of these, the farmer had called in to prevent the pigs from being slaughtered. Hence, eight suspect cases were found through the surveillance programme, and two of these were above MRL. For these eight case herds, the number of pigs slaughtered and the number in which each of the following lesions were found were included in a statistical analysis: chronic pleuritis, tail bite, chronic pericarditis, chronic pneumonia, chronic peritonitis, osteomyelitis, abscess in hindquarters, abscess in leg/toe and abscess in forequarters. Only chronic pleuritis was associated with the presence of residues. Next, data from all herds delivering pigs for slaughter to the same abattoir were included covering a 3-month period prior to the residue finding. The prevalence of chronic pleuritis was on average 1.7 times higher in the eight case herds compared to all other herds. In two herds, the prevalence was significantly higher (P?0.05), and in one herd substantially higher, but only borderline significant (P=0.1). In the remaining herds, the prevalence did not differ from the other herds delivering pigs to the abattoir. This indicates that chronic pleuritis might be considered as a risk indicator for use in surveillance. Other risk indicators/factors - reported in the cases where the farmers called in - were inadequate marking of treated animals and incorrect use of medication dispensers. These factors are not suited for use in surveillance and should be dealt with otherwise. PMID:24582122

Alban, Lis; Pacheco, Goncalo; Petersen, Jesper Valentin

2014-05-01

229

PUPAL AND ADULT PARAMETERS AS POTENTIAL INDICATORS OF COTTONWOOD LEAF BEETLE (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE) FECUNDITY AND LONGEVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta, pupae from a laboratory colony were weighed and monitored through adult emergence, oviposition, and mortality to determine if correlations existed between various pupal or adult parameters and fecundity or longevity. Forty-three female cottonwood leaf beetles were monitored. Pupal weight was not a good indicator of fecun- dity, total oviposition events, number of eggs\\/beetle\\/d ay, or

David R. Coyle; Joel D. McMillin; Elwood R. HarW

230

Mud volcanoes as potential indicators of regional stress and pressurized layer depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the use of magmatic volcanoes as indicators of tectonic stress is established, the application of the same principles to mud volcanoes has been overlooked. Here we analyse the onshore Azerbaijan mud volcano province, in the foreland of the Greater Caucasus, and we present the first use of the statistical regional-scale distribution of active mud volcanoes to obtain information about (1) contemporary regional tectonic stress, and (2) the average depth of pressurized source layers. Self-similar clustering suggests that mud is mobilized from a ca. 5 km deep mud-prone layer, and mud volcano strain indicators allow the estimation of a robust present-day direction of regional maximum horizontal stress SH striking ca. 30E. These results are in excellent agreement with geophysical information about upper crustal structure in the region, and stress data and deformation vectors. We conclude that, besides other fold-and-thrust belts, mud volcano features could be used as a proxy for active stress orientation and source layer determination in inaccessible settings, such as underwater or even the surface of planets where mud volcanoes are considered to be indicators of mobilized fluids.

Bonini, Marco; Mazzarini, Francesco

2010-10-01

231

Docking based virtual screening and molecular dynamics study to identify potential monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is one of the key enzymes of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). It hydrolyzes one of the major endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), an endogenous full agonist at G protein coupled cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Numerous studies showed that MGL inhibitors are potentially useful for the treatment of pain, inflammation, cancer and CNS disorders. These provocative findings suggested that pharmacological inhibition of MAGL function may confer significant therapeutic benefits. In this study, we presented hybrid ligand and structure-based approaches to obtain a novel set of virtual leads as MAGL inhibitors. The constraints used in this study, were Glide score, binding free energy estimates and ADME properties to screen the ZINC database, containing approximately 21 million compounds. A total of seven virtual hits were obtained, which showed significant binding affinity towards MAGL protein. Ligand, ZINC24092691 was employed in complex form with the protein MAGL, for molecular dynamics simulation study, because of its excellent glide score, binding free energy and ADME properties. The RMSD of ZINC24092691 was observed to stay at 0.1 nm (1 ) in most of the trajectories, which further confirmed its ability to inhibit the protein MAGL. The hits were then evaluated for their ability to inhibit human MAGL. The compound ZINC24092691 displayed the noteworthy inhibitory activity reducing MAGL activity to 21.15% at 100 nM concentration, with an IC50 value of 10 nM. PMID:25011912

Afzal, Obaid; Kumar, Suresh; Kumar, Rajiv; Firoz, Ahmad; Jaggi, Manu; Bawa, Sandhya

2014-08-15

232

Identifying potential clinical syndromes of hepatocellular carcinoma using PSO-based hierarchical feature selection algorithm.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. Clinical symptoms attributable to HCC are usually absent, thus often miss the best therapeutic opportunities. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plays an active role in diagnosis and treatment of HCC. In this paper, we proposed a particle swarm optimization-based hierarchical feature selection (PSOHFS) model to infer potential syndromes for diagnosis of HCC. Firstly, the hierarchical feature representation is developed by a three-layer tree. The clinical symptoms and positive score of patient are leaf nodes and root in the tree, respectively, while each syndrome feature on the middle layer is extracted from a group of symptoms. Secondly, an improved PSO-based algorithm is applied in a new reduced feature space to search an optimal syndrome subset. Based on the result of feature selection, the causal relationships of symptoms and syndromes are inferred via Bayesian networks. In our experiment, 147 symptoms were aggregated into 27 groups and 27 syndrome features were extracted. The proposed approach discovered 24 syndromes which obviously improved the diagnosis accuracy. Finally, the Bayesian approach was applied to represent the causal relationships both at symptom and syndrome levels. The results show that our computational model can facilitate the clinical diagnosis of HCC. PMID:24745007

Ji, Zhiwei; Wang, Bing

2014-01-01

233

A screen of the NIH Clinical Collection small molecule library identifies potential anti-coronavirus drugs.  

PubMed

With the recent emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus in humans and the outbreak of devastating porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus in swine, therapeutic intervention is urgently needed. However, anti-coronavirus drugs currently are not available. In an effort to assist rapid development of anti-coronavirus drugs, here we screened the NIH Clinical Collection in cell culture using a luciferase reporter-expressing recombinant murine coronavirus. Of the 727 compounds screened, 84 were found to have a significant anti-coronavirus effect. Further experiments revealed that 51 compounds blocked virus entry while 19 others inhibited viral replication. Additional validation studies with the top 3 inhibitors (hexachlorophene, nitazoxanide and homoharringtonine) demonstrated robust anti-coronavirus activities (a reduction of 6 to 8log10 in virus titer) with an IC50 ranging from 11nM to 1.2?M. Furthermore, homoharringtonine and hexachlorophene exhibited broad antiviral activity against diverse species of human and animal coronaviruses. Since the NIH Clinical Collection consists of compounds that have already been through clinical trials, these small molecule inhibitors have a great potential for rapid development as anti-coronavirus drugs. PMID:25451075

Cao, Jianzhong; Forrest, J Craig; Zhang, Xuming

2015-02-01

234

Identifying the Potential for Robotics to Assist Older Adults in Different Living Environments.  

PubMed

As the older adult population grows and becomes more diverse, so will their needs and preferences for living environments. Many adults over 65 years of age require some assistance [1, 2]; yet it is important for their feelings of well-being that the assistance not restrict their autonomy [3]. Not only is autonomy correlated with quality of life [4], autonomy enhancement may improve functionality [2, 5]. The goal of this paper is to provide guidance for the development of technology to enhance autonomy and quality of life for older adults. We explore the potential for robotics to meet these needs. We evaluated older adults' diverse living situations and the predictors of residential moves to higher levels of care in the United States. We also examined older adults' needs for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and medical conditions when living independently or in a long-term care residence. By providing support for older adults, mobile manipulator robots may reduce need-driven, undesired moves from residences with lower levels of care (i.e., private homes, assisted living) to those with higher levels of care (i.e., skilled nursing). PMID:24729800

Mitzner, Tracy L; Chen, Tiffany L; Kemp, Charles C; Rogers, Wendy A

2014-04-01

235

GAS6 expression identifies high-risk adult AML patients: potential implications for therapy  

PubMed Central

Emerging data demonstrate important roles for the TYRO3/AXL/MERTK receptor tyrosine kinase (TAM RTK) family in diverse cancers. We investigated the prognostic relevance of GAS6 expression, encoding the common TAM RTK ligand, in 270 adults (n=71 aged <60 years; n=199 aged ?60 years) with de novo cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). Patients expressing GAS6 (GAS6+), especially those aged ?60 years, more often failed to achieve a complete remission (CR). In all patients, GAS6+ patients had shorter disease-free (DFS) and overall (OS) survival than patients without GAS6 expression (GAS6?). After adjusting for other prognostic markers, GAS6+ predicted CR failure (P=0.02), shorter DFS (P=0.004) and OS (P=0.04). To gain further biologic insights, we derived a GAS6-associated gene-expression signature (P<0.001) that in GAS6+ patients included overexpressed BAALC and MN1, known to confer adverse prognosis in CN-AML, and overexpressed CXCL12, encoding stromal cell-derived factor, and its receptor genes, CXCR4 and CXCR7. This study reports for the first time that GAS6 expression is an adverse prognostic marker in CN-AML. Although GAS6 decoy receptors are not yet available in the clinic for GAS6+ CN-AML therapy, potential alternative therapies targeting GAS6+-associated pathways, e.g., CXCR4 antagonists may be considered for GAS6+ patients to sensitize them to chemotherapy. PMID:24326683

Whitman, Susan P.; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Maharry, Kati; Volinia, Stefano; Mrzek, Krzysztof; Nicolet, Deedra; Schwind, Sebastian; Becker, Heiko; Metzeler, Klaus H.; Mendler, Jason H.; Eisfeld, Ann-Kathrin; Carroll, Andrew J.; Powell, Bayard L.; Carter, Thomas H.; Baer, Maria R.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Park, Il-Kyoo; Stone, Richard M.

2014-01-01

236

Identifying Potential Clinical Syndromes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using PSO-Based Hierarchical Feature Selection Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. Clinical symptoms attributable to HCC are usually absent, thus often miss the best therapeutic opportunities. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plays an active role in diagnosis and treatment of HCC. In this paper, we proposed a particle swarm optimization-based hierarchical feature selection (PSOHFS) model to infer potential syndromes for diagnosis of HCC. Firstly, the hierarchical feature representation is developed by a three-layer tree. The clinical symptoms and positive score of patient are leaf nodes and root in the tree, respectively, while each syndrome feature on the middle layer is extracted from a group of symptoms. Secondly, an improved PSO-based algorithm is applied in a new reduced feature space to search an optimal syndrome subset. Based on the result of feature selection, the causal relationships of symptoms and syndromes are inferred via Bayesian networks. In our experiment, 147 symptoms were aggregated into 27 groups and 27 syndrome features were extracted. The proposed approach discovered 24 syndromes which obviously improved the diagnosis accuracy. Finally, the Bayesian approach was applied to represent the causal relationships both at symptom and syndrome levels. The results show that our computational model can facilitate the clinical diagnosis of HCC. PMID:24745007

Ji, Zhiwei; Wang, Bing

2014-01-01

237

Identifying at-risk employees: A behavioral model for predicting potential insider threats  

SciTech Connect

A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employees behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. In many of these crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they could be assessed by a person experienced in psychosocial evaluations. We have developed a model using a Bayesian belief network with the help of human resources staff, experienced in evaluating behaviors in staff. We conducted an experiment to assess its agreement with human resources and management professionals, with positive results. If implemented in an operational setting, the model would be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment that can raise an alarm about employees who pose higher insider threat risks. In separate work, we combine this psychosocial models assessment with computer workstation behavior to raise the efficacy of recognizing an insider crime in the making.

Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Dalton, Angela C.

2010-09-01

238

Altered Transmission of HOX and Apoptotic SNPs Identify a Potential Common Pathway for Clubfoot  

PubMed Central

Clubfoot is a common birth defect that affects 135,000 newborns each year worldwide. It is characterized by equinus deformity of one or both feet and hypoplastic calf muscles. Despite numerous study approaches, the cause(s) remains poorly understood although a multifactorial etiology is generally accepted. We considered the HOXA and HOXD gene clusters and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) as candidate genes because of their important roles in limb and muscle morphogenesis. Twenty SNPs from the HOXA and HOXD gene clusters and 12 SNPs in IGFBP3 were genotyped in a sample composed of nonHispanic white and Hispanic multiplex and simplex families (discovery samples) and a second sample of nonHispanic white simplex trios (validation sample). Four SNPs (rs6668, rs2428431, rs3801776 and rs3779456) in the HOXA cluster demonstrated altered transmission in the discovery sample, but only rs3801776, located in the HOXA basal promoter region, showed altered transmission in both the discovery and validation samples (p=0.004 and p=0.028). Interestingly, HOXA9 is expressed in muscle during development. A SNP in IGFBP3, rs13223993, also showed altered transmission (p=0.003) in the discovery sample. Gene-gene interactions were identified between variants in HOXA, HOXD and IGFBP3 and with previously associated SNPs in mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic genes. The most significant interactions were found between CASP3 SNPS and variants in HOXA, HOXD and IGFBP3. These results suggest a biologic model for clubfoot in which perturbation of HOX and apoptotic genes together affect muscle and limb development, which may cause the downstream failure of limb rotation into a plantar grade position. PMID:19938081

Ester, Audrey R.; Weymouth, Katelyn S.; Burt, Amber; Wise, Carol; Scott, Allison; Gurnett, Christina A; Dobbs, Matthew B.; Blanton, Susan H.; Hecht, Jacqueline T.

2009-01-01

239

Identifying potential predictors of painrelated disability in Turkish patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder pain  

PubMed Central

Background The aims of this study were to examine whether patients psychosocial profiles influence the location of pain, and to identify the clinical and psychosocial predictors of high levels of pain-related disability in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients with chronic pain at least 6?months in duration. Methods The Research Diagnostic Criteria of TMD (RDC/TMD) data for Axis I and II were obtained for 104 consecutive patients seeking treatment. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, MannWhitney U-test, chi-square test, One-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, and binary multiple logistic regression tests. Patients were classified into two groups according to Graded Chronic Pain Scale scores: Grade III and IV were scored for patients with high levels of pain-related disability, whereas Grade I and II were scored for patients with low disability. Results Muscle and joint pain were found in 64.9% and 31.8% of the patients, respectively, and 27.3% of the patients suffered from both muscle and joint pain. Psychosocial disability was found in 26% of patients. There were no statistically significant differences among the diagnostic subgroups with regards to the demographic, behavioral, psychological, and psychosocial characteristics. Patients with high levels of pain-related disability had significantly higher depression, somatization, pain intensity and jaw disability scores than those with low levels of pain-related disability. Patients with high levels of pain-related disability were more likely to have higher pain intensity, to report higher somatization symptoms and functional impairment, and were less likely to have joint pain than those with low levels of pain related disability. Conclusion In conclusion, the Turkish version RDC/TMD, based on a dual axis system, may be used to screen chronic TMD patients at high-risk for pain-related disability who need comprehensive care treatment program. PMID:23565825

2013-01-01

240

Quantification of potential impurities by a stability indicating UVHPLC method in niacinamide active pharmaceutical ingredient  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive, stability indicating reverse phase UVHPLC method has been developed for the quantitative determination of potential impurities of niacinamide active pharmaceutical ingredient. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on C18 stationary phase in isocratic mode using simple mobile phase. Forced degradation study confirmed that the newly developed method was specific and selective to the degradation products. Major degradation of the

Saji Thomas; Amber Bharati; Kalsang Tharpa; Ashutosh Agarwal

241

Gene Expression Profiling in a Mouse Model Identifies Fetal Liver and Placenta-Derived Potential Biomarkers for Down Syndrome Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAs a first step to identify novel potential biomarkers for prenatal Down Syndrome screening, we analyzed gene expression in embryos of wild type mice and the Down Syndrome model Ts1Cje. Since current Down Syndrome screening markers are derived from placenta and fetal liver, these tissues were chosen as target.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsPlacenta and fetal liver at 15.5 days gestation were analyzed by

Jeroen L. A. Pennings; Wendy Rodenburg; Sandra Imholz; Maria P. H. Koster; Conny T. M. van Oostrom; Timo M. Breit; Peter C. J. I. Schielen; Annemieke de Vries; Gisela Nogales-Gadea

2011-01-01

242

The utility of stream habitat and biota for identifying potential conflicting forest land uses: Montane riparian areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rinne, J.N., 1990. The utility of stream habitat and biota for identifying potential conflicting forest land uses: Montane riparian areas. For. Ecol. Manage., 33\\/34: 363-383. Investigations since 1960 on the effects of land-management practices on riparian-stream systems often have produced contradictory results. Inconsistencies have occurred, in part, because of efforts that have not been totally comprehensive and, in part, because

John N. Rinne

1990-01-01

243

Urban liveability: emerging lessons from Australia for exploring the potential for indicators to measure the social determinants of health.  

PubMed

It has long been recognised that urban form impacts on health outcomes and their determinants. There is growing interest in creating indicators of liveability to measure progress towards achieving a wide range of policy outcomes, including enhanced health and wellbeing, and reduced inequalities. This review aimed to: 1) bring together the concepts of urban 'liveability' and social determinants of health; 2) synthesise the various liveability indicators developed to date; and 3) assess their quality using a health and wellbeing lens. Between 2011 and 2013, the research team reviewed 114 international academic and policy documents, as well as reports related to urban liveability. Overall, 233 indicators were found. Of these, 61 indicators were regarded as promising, 57 indicators needed further development, and 115 indicators were not useful for our purposes. Eleven domains of liveability were identified that likely contribute to health and wellbeing through the social determinants of health. These were: crime and safety; education; employment and income; health and social services; housing; leisure and culture; local food and other goods; natural environment; public open space; transport; and social cohesion and local democracy. Many of the indicators came from Australian sources; however most remain relevant from a 'global north' perspective. Although many indicators were identified, there was inconsistency in how these domains were measured. Few have been validated to assess their association with health and wellbeing outcomes, and little information was provided for how they should be applied to guide urban policy and practice. There is a substantial opportunity to further develop these measures to create a series of robust and evidence-based liveability indices, which could be linked with existing health and wellbeing data to better inform urban planning policies within Australia and beyond. PMID:24762261

Badland, Hannah; Whitzman, Carolyn; Lowe, Melanie; Davern, Melanie; Aye, Lu; Butterworth, Iain; Hes, Dominique; Giles-Corti, Billie

2014-06-01

244

GAS6 expression identifies high-risk adult AML patients: potential implications for therapy.  

PubMed

Emerging data demonstrate important roles for the TYRO3/AXL/MERTK receptor tyrosine kinase (TAM RTK) family in diverse cancers. We investigated the prognostic relevance of GAS6 expression, encoding the common TAM RTK ligand, in 270 adults (n=71 aged<60 years; n=199 aged ?60 years) with de novo cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). Patients expressing GAS6 (GAS6+), especially those aged ?60 years, more often failed to achieve a complete remission (CR). In all patients, GAS6+ patients had shorter disease-free (DFS) and overall (OS) survival than patients without GAS6 expression (GAS6-). After adjusting for other prognostic markers, GAS6+ predicted CR failure (P=0.02), shorter DFS (P=0.004) and OS (P=0.04). To gain further biological insights, we derived a GAS6-associated gene-expression signature (P<0.001) that in GAS6+ patients included overexpressed BAALC and MN1, known to confer adverse prognosis in CN-AML, and overexpressed CXCL12, encoding stromal cell-derived factor, and its receptor genes, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) and CXCR7. This study reports for the first time that GAS6 expression is an adverse prognostic marker in CN-AML. Although GAS6 decoy receptors are not yet available in the clinic for GAS6+ CN-AML therapy, potential alternative therapies targeting GAS6+-associated pathways, for example, CXCR4 antagonists, may be considered for GAS6+ patients to sensitize them to chemotherapy. PMID:24326683

Whitman, S P; Kohlschmidt, J; Maharry, K; Volinia, S; Mrzek, K; Nicolet, D; Schwind, S; Becker, H; Metzeler, K H; Mendler, J H; Eisfeld, A-K; Carroll, A J; Powell, B L; Carter, T H; Baer, M R; Kolitz, J E; Park, I-K; Stone, R M; Caligiuri, M A; Marcucci, G; Bloomfield, C D

2014-06-01

245

COSMO-SkyMed potentiality to identify crop-specific behavior and monitor phenological parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aims at investigating the capability of COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) constellation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system to monitor the Leaf Area Index (LAI) of different crops. The experiment was conducted in the Marchfeld Region, an agricultural Austrian area, and focused on five crop species: sugar beet, soybean, potato, pea and corn. A linear regression analysis was carried out to assess the sensitivity of CSK backscattering coefficients to crops changes base on LAI values. CSK backscattering coefficients were averaged at a field scale () and were compared to the DEIMOS-1 derived values of estimated LAI. LAI were as well averaged over the corresponding fields (). CSK data acquired at three polarizations (HH, VV and VH), four incidence angles (23, 33, 40 and 57) and at different pixel spacings (2.5 m and 10 m) were tested to assess whether spatial resolution may influence results at a field scale and to find the best combination of polarizations and CSK acquisition beams which indicate the highest sensitivity to crop LAI values. The preliminary results show that sugar beet can be well monitored (r = 0.72 - 0.80) by CSK by using any of the polarization acquisition modes, at moderate to shallow incidence angles (33 - 57). Slightly weaker correlations were found, at VH polarization only, between CSK < ?dB> and for potato (r = 0.65), pea (r = 0.65) and soybean (r = -0.83). Shallower view incidence angles seem to be preferable to steep ones in most cases. CSK backscattering coefficients were no sensitive at all to LAI changes for already developed corn fields.

Guarini, Rocchina; Segalini, Federica; Mastronardi, Giovanni; Notarnicola, Claudia; Vuolo, Francesco; Dini, Luigi

2014-10-01

246

DNA Microarray Analysis Identifies CKS2 and LEPR as Potential Markers of Meningioma Recurrence  

PubMed Central

Meningiomas are the most frequent intracranial tumors. Surgery can be curative, but recurrences are possible. We performed gene expression analyses and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies looking for new markers predicting the recurrence risk. We analyzed expression profiles of 23 meningiomas (10 grade I, 10 grade II, and 3 grade III) and validated the data using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We performed LOH analysis on 40 meningiomas, investigating chromosomal regions on 1p, 9p, 10q, 14q, and 22q. We found 233 and 268 probe sets to be significantly down- and upregulated, respectively, in grade II or III meningiomas. Genes downregulated in high-grade meningiomas were overrepresented on chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10, and 14. Based on functional enrichment analysis, we selected LIM domain and actin binding 1 (LIMA1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3), cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 2 (CKS2), leptin receptor (LEPR), and baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing 5 (BIRC5) for validation using qPCR and confirmed their differential expression in the two groups of tumors. We calculated ?Ct values of CKS2 and LEPR and found that their differential expression (C-L index) was significantly higher in grade I than in grade II or III meningiomas (p < .0001). Interestingly, the C-L index of nine grade I meningiomas from patients who relapsed in <5 years was significantly lower than in grade I meningiomas from patients who did not relapse. These findings indicate that the C-L index may be relevant to define the progression risk in meningioma patients, helping guide their clinical management. A prospective analysis on a larger number of cases is warranted. PMID:21948653

Menghi, Francesca; Orzan, Francesca N.; Eoli, Marica; Farinotti, Mariangela; Maderna, Emanuela; Pisati, Federica; Bianchessi, Donatella; Valletta, Lorella; Lodrini, Sandro; Galli, Giuseppe; Anghileri, Elena; Pellegatta, Serena; Pollo, Bianca

2011-01-01

247

A protocol for a scoping and qualitative study to identify and evaluate indications for damage control surgery and damage control interventions in civilian trauma patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Initial abbreviated surgery with planned reoperation (damage control surgery) is frequently used for major trauma patients to rapidly control haemorrhage while limiting surgical stress. Although damage control surgery may decrease mortality risk among the severely injured, it may also be associated with several complications when inappropriately applied. We seek to scope the literature on trauma damage control surgery, identify its proposed indications, map and clarify their definitions, and examine the content and evidence on which they are based. We also seek to generate a comprehensive list of unique indications to inform an appropriateness rating process. Methods and analysis We will search 11 electronic bibliographic databases, included article bibliographies and grey literature sources for citations involving civilian trauma patients that proposed one or more indications for damage control surgery or a damage control intervention. Indications will be classified into a predefined conceptual framework and categorised and described using qualitative content analysis. Constant comparative methodology will be used to create, modify and test codes describing principal findings or injuries (eg, bilobar liver injury) and associated decision variables (eg, coagulopathy) that comprise the reported indications. After a unique list of codes have been developed, we will use the organisational system recommended by the RAND/University of California, Los Angeles (RAND-UCLA) Appropriateness Rating Method to group principal findings or injuries into chapters (subdivided by associated decision variables) according to broader clinical findings encountered during surgical practice (eg, major liver injury). Ethics and dissemination This study will constitute the first step in a multistep research programme aimed at developing appropriate, evidence-informed indications for damage control in civilian trauma patients. With use of an integrated knowledge translation intervention that includes collaboration with surgical practice leaders, this research may allow for development of indications that are more likely to be relevant to and used by surgeons. Ethics approval is not required for this study. PMID:25001397

Roberts, Derek J; Zygun, David A; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Ball, Chad G; Faris, Peter D; Bobrovitz, Niklas; Robertson, Helen Lee; Stelfox, H Thomas

2014-01-01

248

On the Design of Broad Based Screening Assays to Identify Potential Pharmacological Chaperones of Protein Misfolding Diseases  

PubMed Central

Correcting aberrant folds that develop during protein folding disease states is now an active research endeavor that is attracting increasing attention from both academic and industrial circles. One particular approach focuses on developing or identifying small molecule correctors or pharmacological chaperones that specifically stabilize the native fold. Unfortunately, the limited screening platforms available to rapidly identify or validate potential drug candidates are usually inadequate or slow because the folding disease proteins in question are often transiently folded and/or aggregation-prone, complicating and/or interfering with the assay outcomes. In this review, we outline and discuss the numerous platform options currently being employed to identify small molecule therapeutics for folding diseases. Finally, we describe a new stability screening approach that is broad based and is easily applicable toward a very large number of both common and rare protein folding diseases. The label free screening method described herein couples the promiscuity of the GroEL binding to transient aggregation-prone hydrophobic folds with surface plasmon resonance enabling one to rapidly identify potential small molecule pharmacological chaperones. PMID:23339304

Naik, Subhashchandra; Zhang, Na; Gao, Phillip; Fisher, Mark T.

2013-01-01

249

Potential of a sequence-based antigenic distance measure to indicate equine influenza vaccine strain efficacy.  

PubMed

The calculation of p(epitope) values, a sequence-based measure of antigenic distance between strains, was developed for human influenza. The potential to apply the p(epitope) value to equine influenza vaccine strain selection was assessed. There was a negative correlation between p(epitope) value and vaccine efficacy for pairs of vaccine and challenge strains used in cross-protection studies in ponies that just reached statistical significance (p=0.046) only if one pair of viruses was excluded from the analysis. Thus the p(epitope) value has potential to provide additional data to consider in the decision-making process for updating equine influenza vaccine strains. However, further work is required to define the epitopes of the equine H3N8 haemagglutinin protein recognised by equine antibodies, which could lead to refinement of the p(epitope) value calculation. Furthermore, other factors such as vaccine potency and virulence of circulating strains may also influence vaccine efficacy. PMID:23831320

Daly, Janet M; Elton, Debra

2013-12-01

250

Personality traits of endodontic residents indicate potential for becoming endodontic faculty.  

PubMed

Dental schools across America are challenged by the shortage of qualified faculty to fill vacant positions. This project, conducted through survey methodology, focused on obtaining a basic understanding of the personality types that seek out and maintain positions as full-time endodontic educators and compared those educators with endodontic residents to define similarities and differences that could lead to strategies to recruit those residents into academic endodontic education to assist in alleviating the faculty shortage in dentistry. All full-time endodontic faculty and residents were invited to participate. The Myers Briggs type indicator form M was administered electronically to faculty and postgraduates/residents. A 38.8% faculty and 21.3% resident response rate was achieved. Survey results were analyzed by using description statistics and chi-square tests. Results of the study indicate that there are parallel personality preferences of residents and faculty resulting in recommendations of early identification of academic interest, structured mentoring, faculty development of residents, and the implementation of debt-reduction strategies to ease entry into academic dentistry. PMID:17368332

O'Neill, Paula N; Svec, Timothy A; Ludington, John R; Suchina, John A

2007-04-01

251

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the biliary system: Potential uses and indications  

PubMed Central

Conventional ultrasound (US) is the first-line imaging investigation for biliary diseases. However, it is lack of the ability to depict the microcirculation of some lesions which may lead to failure in diagnosis for some biliary diseases. The use of contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) has reached the field of bile duct disease in recent years and promising results have been achieved. In this review, the methodology, image interpretation, enhancement pattern, clinical usefulness, and indications for CEUS in the biliary system are summarized. CEUS may be indicated in the biliary system under the following circumstances: (1) Where there is a need to make a characterization of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC); (2) For differentiation diagnosis between ICC and other tumors (i.e. hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastasis) or infectious diseases; (3) For differentiation diagnosis between biliary cystadenoma and biliary cystadenocarcinoma; (4) To detect malignant change in Carolis disease; (5) To depict the extent of Klatskins tumor with greater clarity; (6) To make a distinction between gallbladder cholesterol polyp, adenoma and polypoid cancer; (7) To make a distinction between chronic cholecystitis with thickened wall and gallbladder cancer; (8) For differentiation diagnosis between motionless sludge and gallbladder cancer; (9) For differentiation diagnosis between common bile duct cancer and sludge or stone without acoustic shadowing; and (10) In patients who are suspected of having a drop of their percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage tube, US contrast agent can be administered to through the tube detect the site of the tube. PMID:21160719

Xu, Hui-Xiong

2009-01-01

252

Sedimentary ladderane core lipids as potential indicators of hypoxia in the East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) is an important process in many suboxic to anoxic marine environments for converting fixed nitrogen to N2, and has a major impact on the marine nitrogen cycle. Ladderane core lipids have been utilized as an indicator of the contribution of anammox to the marine nitrogen cycles. However, such studies have not been reported for the China seas and little is known about the importance of anammox within the nitrogen cycle of these marginal seas. In the research reported here, the ladderane core lipid contents of 17 surface sediment samples from the East China Sea are reported, and their spatial distribution is investigated. C18 -[5]-ladderane FAME, C20-[5]-ladderane FAME and C20-[3]-ladderane FAME have all been detected, suggesting that the anammox bacteria are widely present within the study area. The total contents of the three ladderane lipids (?FAMEs) range from 24-355 ng/g (weight of dry sediments), with higher contents occurring in the Minzhe Mud Zone and broadly coincident with the spatial distribution of hypoxia. It is suggested that the sedimentary ladderane core lipids are mainly produced in the water column and their sedimentary contents can be used as indicators of water column hypoxia.

Zhao, Zongshan; Cao, Yali; Li, Li; Song, Guodong; Yang, Hongmei; Liu, Sumei; Zhao, Meixun

2013-01-01

253

Can inbound and domestic medical tourism improve your bottom line? Identifying the potential of a U.S. tourism market.  

PubMed

In large part due to current economic conditions and the political uncertainties of healthcare reform legislation, hospitals need to identify new sources of revenue. Two potentially untapped sources are inbound (international) and domestic (within the United States) medical tourists. This case study uses data from a large, urban healthcare system in the southeastern United States to quantify its potential market opportunities for medical tourism. The data were mined from electronic health records, and descriptive frequency analysis was used to provide a preliminary market assessment. This approach permits healthcare systems to move beyond anecdotal information and assess the relative market potential of their particular geographic area and the diagnostic services they offer for attracting inbound and domestic medical tourists. Implications for healthcare executives and guidance on how they can focus marketing efforts are discussed. PMID:24611426

Fottler, Myron D; Malvey, Donna; Asi, Yara; Kirchner, Sarah; Warren, Natalia A

2014-01-01

254

RARE EARTH ELEMENTS IN FLY ASHES AS POTENTIAL INDICATORS OF ANTHROPOGENIC SOIL CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect

Studies of rare earth element (REE) content of disposed fly ashes and their potential mobility were neglected for decades because these elements were believed to be environmentally benign. A number of recent studies have now shown that REE may pose a long-term risk to the biosphere. Therefore, there is a critical need to study the REE concentrations in fly ash and their potential mobilization and dispersal upon disposal in the environment. We analyzed the REE content of bulk, size fractionated, and density separated fractions of three fly ash samples derived from combustion of sub bituminous coals from the western United States and found that the concentrations of these elements in bulk ashes were within the range typical of fly ashes derived from coals from the North American continent. The concentrations of light rare earth elements (LREE) such as La, Ce, and Nd, however, tended towards the higher end of the concentration range whereas, the concentrations of middle rare earth elements (MREE) (Sm and Eu) and heavy rare earth elements (HREE) (Lu) were closer to the lower end of the observed range for North American fly ashes. The concentrations of REE did not show any significant enrichment with decreasing particle size, this is typical of nonvolatile lithophilic element behavior during the combustion process. The lithophilic nature of REE was also confirmed by their concentrations in heavy density fractions of these fly ashes being on average about two times more enriched than the concentrations in the light density fractions. Shale normalized average of REE concentrations of fly ashes and coals revealed significant positive anomalies for Eu and Dy. Because of these distinctive positive anomalies of Eu and Dy, we believe that fly ash contamination of soils can be fingerprinted and distinguished from other sources of anthropogenic REE inputs in to the environment.

Mattigod, Shas V.

2003-08-01

255

Menopausal Symptoms among Breast Cancer Patients: A Potential Indicator of Favorable Prognosis  

PubMed Central

Menopausal symptoms have been suggested to be an indicator of better prognosis among patients treated for breast cancer, because women who experience these symptoms usually have a lower level of estrogen. We tested this hypothesis in a population-based, prospective cohort study involving 4,842 women with stage 0 to III primary breast cancer who were enrolled in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study between March 2002 and April 2006, were aged 20 to 75 years, and were recruited 6 months post-diagnosis. They were followed-up by in-person surveys and record linkages with the vital statistics registry. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of menopausal symptoms at baseline with breast cancer recurrence. Approximately 56% of patients experienced at least one menopausal symptom, including hot flashes, night sweats, and/or vaginal dryness at baseline. During a median follow-up period of 5.3 years, 720 women had a recurrence. Experiencing hot flashes or having ?2 menopausal symptoms was associated with lower risk of recurrence among premenopausal women (hazard ratio [HR]=0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.96 for hot flashes; 0.73, 0.56-0.96 for ?2 menopausal symptoms). Lower recurrence risk in relation to hot flashes was also observed among women who were not overweight/obese (HR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.64-0.99), those with relatively low waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (HR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.97), and those who used tamoxifen (HR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). Consistently experiencing multiple menopausal symptoms was associated with lower recurrence risk among women with low WHR or who used tamoxifen. This large, population-based cohort study of women with breast cancer confirms that experiencing menopausal symptoms is an indicator of favorable breast cancer prognosis. PMID:24098745

Chen, Yong; Dorjgochoo, Tsogzolmaa; Bao, Ping-Ping; Zheng, Ying; Cai, Hui; Lu, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

2013-01-01

256

Potential use of indices of disease severity in the evaluation and design of medical technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been argued that technology is a major driver of health care costs. However, it is possible that the inappropriate use of technology accounts for some of this rise in costs. Thus, the development of tools for assessing the outcomes of patient care in many dimensions could lead to a more appropriate use of technology with attendant cost savings. However, the determination of outcomes is dependent on controlling for the severity of patients' primary and comorbid diseases. Recently, a variety of instruments have been developed and validated for the assessment of disease severity. These instruments, coupled with data regarding definitive and surrogate outcomes, provide a means for analyzing and perfecting the use of technology. Moreover, when these techniques are coupled with economic analysis it appears possible to model the health care interaction for any given disease condition and to identify figures of merit for technologies which, if developed, would provide cost savings while maintaining or improving the quality of care. Thus, the development of appropriate measures of outcomes and disease severity offer the opportunity to more properly and efficiently employ the technology of today, while pointing the way to technology which, if developed, would provide a greater cost savings tomorrow.

Re, Richard N.; Krousel-Wood, M. A.

1995-10-01

257

New indications for the potential involvement of C F-bonds in hydrogen bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid state structures of a selection of 2-fluoro-2-phenylcyclopropane derivatives were examined by X-ray crystallography in order to identify short intermolecular contacts of C-F groups to H-X moieties (X=C, N). Particularly, several cis-configured fluorinated phenylcyclopropane derivatives showed extremely close intermolecular contacts. The shortest of such C-H⋯F-C-distances (2.17 , C-F-H angle 162) was found in (1 S,2 R)-(2-fluoro-2-phenylcyclopropyl)methyl N-(4-bromophenyl)carbamate ( 8) and the closest N-H⋯F-C-interaction (2.01 , C-F-H angle 167) was found in ()- cis-2-fluoro-2-phenylcyclopropyl carboxamide ( 4). Comparison of the structures of several of the fluorinated cyclopropanes with those of the non-fluorinated counterparts revealed that close intermolecular contacts of fluorine substituents to hydrogen atoms are not solely due to crystal packing effects, but are also caused by weak X-H⋯F-C hydrogen bridges.

Frhlich, Roland; Rosen, Thomas C.; Meyer, Oliver G. J.; Rissanen, Kari; Haufe, Gnter

2006-04-01

258

Local field potentials indicate network state and account for neuronal response variability  

PubMed Central

Multineuronal recordings have revealed that neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) exhibit coordinated fluctuations of spiking activity in the absence and in the presence of visual stimulation. From the perspective of understanding a single cells spiking activity relative to a behavior or stimulus, these network flutuations are typically considered to be noise. We show that these events are highly correlated with another commonly recorded signal, the local field potential (LFP), and are also likely related to global network state phenomena which have been observed in a number of neural systems. Moreover, we show that attributing a component of cell firing to these network fluctuations via explicit modeling of the LFP improves the recovery of cell properties. This suggests that the impact of network fluctuations may be estimated using the LFP, and that a portion of this network activity is unrelated to the stimulus and instead reflects ongoing cortical activity. Thus, the LFP acts as an easily accessible bridge between the network state and the spiking activity. PMID:20094906

Kelly, Ryan C.; Smith, Matthew A.; Kass, Robert E.; Lee, Tai Sing

2013-01-01

259

Complex forest dynamics indicate potential for slowing carbon accumulation in the southeastern United States  

PubMed Central

Over the past century forest regrowth in Europe and North America expanded forest carbon (C) sinks and offset C emissions but future C accumulation is uncertain. Policy makers need insights into forest C dynamics as they anticipate emissions futures and goals. We used land use and forest inventory data to estimate how forest C dynamics have changed in the southeastern United States and attribute changes to land use, management, and disturbance causes. From 2007-2012, forests yielded a net sink of C because of net land use change (+6.48?Tg C yr?1) and net biomass accumulation (+75.4?Tg C yr?1). Forests disturbed by weather, insect/disease, and fire show dampened yet positive forest C changes (+1.56, +1.4, +5.48?Tg C yr?1, respectively). Forest cutting caused net decreases in C (?76.7?Tg C yr?1) but was offset by forest growth (+143.77?Tg C yr?1). Forest growth rates depend on age or stage of development and projected C stock changes indicate a gradual slowing of carbon accumulation with anticipated forest aging (a reduction of 9.5% over the next five years). Additionally, small shifts in land use transitions consistent with economic futures resulted in a 40.6% decrease in C accumulation. PMID:25614123

Coulston, John W.; Wear, David N.; Vose, James M.

2015-01-01

260

Complex forest dynamics indicate potential for slowing carbon accumulation in the southeastern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past century forest regrowth in Europe and North America expanded forest carbon (C) sinks and offset C emissions but future C accumulation is uncertain. Policy makers need insights into forest C dynamics as they anticipate emissions futures and goals. We used land use and forest inventory data to estimate how forest C dynamics have changed in the southeastern United States and attribute changes to land use, management, and disturbance causes. From 2007-2012, forests yielded a net sink of C because of net land use change (+6.48 Tg C yr-1) and net biomass accumulation (+75.4 Tg C yr-1). Forests disturbed by weather, insect/disease, and fire show dampened yet positive forest C changes (+1.56, +1.4, +5.48 Tg C yr-1, respectively). Forest cutting caused net decreases in C (-76.7 Tg C yr-1) but was offset by forest growth (+143.77 Tg C yr-1). Forest growth rates depend on age or stage of development and projected C stock changes indicate a gradual slowing of carbon accumulation with anticipated forest aging (a reduction of 9.5% over the next five years). Additionally, small shifts in land use transitions consistent with economic futures resulted in a 40.6% decrease in C accumulation.

Coulston, John W.; Wear, David N.; Vose, James M.

2015-01-01

261

Complex forest dynamics indicate potential for slowing carbon accumulation in the southeastern United States.  

PubMed

Over the past century forest regrowth in Europe and North America expanded forest carbon (C) sinks and offset C emissions but future C accumulation is uncertain. Policy makers need insights into forest C dynamics as they anticipate emissions futures and goals. We used land use and forest inventory data to estimate how forest C dynamics have changed in the southeastern United States and attribute changes to land use, management, and disturbance causes. From 2007-2012, forests yielded a net sink of C because of net land use change (+6.48?Tg C yr(-1)) and net biomass accumulation (+75.4?Tg C yr(-1)). Forests disturbed by weather, insect/disease, and fire show dampened yet positive forest C changes (+1.56, +1.4, +5.48?Tg C yr(-1), respectively). Forest cutting caused net decreases in C (-76.7?Tg C yr(-1)) but was offset by forest growth (+143.77?Tg C yr(-1)). Forest growth rates depend on age or stage of development and projected C stock changes indicate a gradual slowing of carbon accumulation with anticipated forest aging (a reduction of 9.5% over the next five years). Additionally, small shifts in land use transitions consistent with economic futures resulted in a 40.6% decrease in C accumulation. PMID:25614123

Coulston, John W; Wear, David N; Vose, James M

2015-01-01

262

Parasites of the grouper fish Epinephelus coioides (Serranidae) as potential environmental indicators in Indonesian coastal ecosystems.  

PubMed

A total of 195 Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) were studied for fish parasites from Javanese (Segara Anakan lagoon) and Balinese waters. Up to 25 different parasite species belonging to the following taxa: one Ciliata, one Microsporea, five Digenea, one Monogenea, four Cestoda, four Nematoda, one Acanthocephala, one Hirudinea and seven Crustacea were identified with four new host and locality records. The dominant parasites included the monogenean Pseudorhabdosynochus lantauensis (53.3-97.1%), the nematode Spirophilometra endangae (23.3-42.9%), the digenean Didymodiclinus sp. (2.9-40.0%), the nematodes Philometra sp. (22.6-34.3%) and Raphidascaris sp. (2.9-28.6%), and the isopod Alcirona sp. (6.7-31.4%). Regional differences for E. coioides were found in terms of endoparasite diversity, total diversity according to Shannon-Wiener, Simpson index and Evenness. A comparison with published data from Sumatera revealed highest endoparasite diversity (Shannon-Wiener: 1.86/1.67-2.04) and lowest ectoparasite/endoparasite ratio (0.73/0.57-0.88) off the Balinese coast, followed by Lampung Bay, Sumatera (1.84; 0.67), off the coast of Segara Anakan lagoon (1.71; 0.71), and in the lagoon (0.30/0.19-0.66; 0.85/0.67-1.00). The presented data demonstrate the natural range of these parameters and parasite prevalences according to habitat and region, allowing adjustment of the scale that has been used in the visual integration of the parasite parameters into a star graph. The parasite fauna of E. coioides in Segara Anakan lagoon 'improved' from 2004 until 2008/09, possibly related to earlier oil spill events in 2002 and 2004. The use of grouper fish parasites as an early warning system for environmental change in Indonesian coastal ecosystems is discussed. PMID:24018181

Kleinertz, S; Palm, H W

2013-09-10

263

Adult Fanniidae associated to pig carcasses during the winter season in a semiarid environment: initial examination of their potential as complementary PMI indicators.  

PubMed

Besides the dominant necrophagous dipteran of the families Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae usually used for post mortem interval (PMI) estimations, species of other families such as Fanniidae have frequently been reported in forensic studies. Though less abundant, these species are prevalent in decomposing carcasses with most reports being anecdotal. In this study we identified adults of the fly family Fanniidae associated to pig carcasses located under different local environmental conditions (sun and shade) in a semiarid area at Mendoza, Argentina during the winter season. We examined the potential of species of this family as indicators of PMI by measuring abundance, time of occurrence and residency time at the carcasses. We identified six species of Fanniidae: Euryomma peregrinum Meigen, Fannia albitarsis Stein, Fannia femoralis Stein, Fannia fusconotata Rondani, Fannia heydenii Wiedemann and Fannia sanihue Domnguez and Aballay. Overall, fly abundance was higher at the sunlit than at the shaded carcass. The most abundant species at the sun was F. fusconotata while at the shaded carcass F. femoralis was the most abundant species. Based on their residency time, however, species with higher potential as PMI indicators seem to be F. heydenii and F. sanihue as their residency time at the carcass was restricted to a short period of the decomposition process. Other species were present throughout most of the decomposition process or in such a low abundance (E. peregrinum) that they were not useful as indicators. These preliminary results indicate that adults of some species of Fanniidae could act as a good complementary indicator species during the winter season. In particular, F. heydenii and F. sanihue should be the focus of further studies which should also expand to other seasons. PMID:22188639

Aballay, Fernando H; Domnguez, M Cecilia; Fernndez Campn, Florencia

2012-06-10

264

Potential non homologous protein targets of mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv identified from protein-protein interaction network.  

PubMed

Bacillus mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causative agent of tuberculosis and H37Rv is the most studied strain. Identification of new drug targets for Mtb is among one of the priorities since it is still a major global health problem by being a cause of morbidity and mortality for millions of people each year. We used centrality measures to identify the most central proteins from protein-protein interaction network of mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv which was retrieved from STRING database by hypothesizing these proteins would be important to alter the function of the network. We then refined the result by using a dataset obtained from Drug Target Protein Database to identify non-human homologous proteins since in host-parasite diseases like tuberculosis; non-homologous proteins (enzymes) as drug target are the primary choices. We also tried to compare our proposed potential non-human homologous protein target lists against previously reported targets. Moreover, the structural coverage of the proposed target list has been identified. The analysis shows that 807 proteins in mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were found at the center of gravity of the functional network of which 390 were non-human homologous, which are thought to be potential drug targets. 119 (30.51%) of the 390 proteins were reported as drug targets and only 33 (8.46%) of the non-human homologous proposed target lists have solved structure. PMID:25106794

Melak, Tilahun; Gakkhar, Sunita

2014-11-21

265

Dissolved Organic Carbon and Optical Properties as Indicators of Trihalomethane Formation Potential in an Agricultural Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta waters may result in the formation of high levels of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts such as trihalomethane during drinking water treatment. The importance of Central Valley agricultural lands as sources of DOC and THM- precursors upstream of the Delta is presently unknown. We are quantifying contributions of DOC and THM- precursors from the Willow Slough watershed, a 425 km2 agriculturally-dominated catchment. During 2006, water samples were collected weekly at the mouth of the watershed and analyzed for DOC concentrations, optical properties (UV absorbance and fluorescence), and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). Additional synoptic samples were collected seasonally (winter, spring, summer) from 16 watershed locations and analyzed for optical properties, DOC concentrations, and THMFP. DOC concentrations generally ranged from approximately 2 to 4 mg/L at the watershed outlet during winter and spring, but increased weekly to 8 mg/L following the onset of irrigation. The THMFP at the mouth of the water was correlated with DOC concentration (r2 = 0.87), with higher concentrations during high discharge events and lower concentrations during summer and prolonged rain-free periods. In addition, the species of THM varied between high and low-flow periods, with THM formation dominated by brominated species during low- flow periods and chlorinated species during rainfall-runoff events. Optical characterization of DOC via UV absorbance and fluorescence suggests changes in DOC composition between high- and low-flow periods, likely reflective of changing sources and flowpaths of runoff.

Pellerin, B. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Spencer, R. G.

2006-12-01

266

The Environmental ``Risky'' Region: Identifying Land Degradation Processes Through Integration of Socio-Economic and Ecological Indicators in a Multivariate Regionalization Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although several studies have assessed Land Degradation (LD) states in the Mediterranean basin through the use of composite indices, relatively few have evaluated the impact of specific LD drivers at the local scale. In this work, a computational strategy is introduced to define homogeneous areas at risk and the main factors acting as determinants of LD. The procedure consists of three steps and is applied to a set of ten environmental indicators available at the municipality scale in Latium, central Italy. A principal component analysis extracting latent patterns and simplifying data complexity was carried out on the original data matrix. Subsequently, a k-means cluster analysis was applied on a restricted number of meaningful, latent factors extracted by PCA in order to produce a classification of the study area into homogeneous regions. Finally, a stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to determine which indicators contributed the most to the definition of homogeneous regions. Three classes of risky regions were identified according to the main drivers of LD acting at the local scale. These include: (i) soil sealing (coupled with landscape fragmentation, fire risk, and related processes), (ii) soil salinization due to agricultural intensification, and (iii) soil erosion due to farmland depopulation and land abandonment in sloping areas. Areas at risk for LD covered 56 and 63% of the investigated areas in 1970 and 2000, respectively.

Salvati, Luca; Zitti, Marco

2009-11-01

267

The environmental "risky" region: identifying land degradation processes through integration of socio-economic and ecological indicators in a multivariate regionalization model.  

PubMed

Although several studies have assessed Land Degradation (LD) states in the Mediterranean basin through the use of composite indices, relatively few have evaluated the impact of specific LD drivers at the local scale. In this work, a computational strategy is introduced to define homogeneous areas at risk and the main factors acting as determinants of LD. The procedure consists of three steps and is applied to a set of ten environmental indicators available at the municipality scale in Latium, central Italy. A principal component analysis extracting latent patterns and simplifying data complexity was carried out on the original data matrix. Subsequently, a k-means cluster analysis was applied on a restricted number of meaningful, latent factors extracted by PCA in order to produce a classification of the study area into homogeneous regions. Finally, a stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to determine which indicators contributed the most to the definition of homogeneous regions. Three classes of "risky" regions were identified according to the main drivers of LD acting at the local scale. These include: (i) soil sealing (coupled with landscape fragmentation, fire risk, and related processes), (ii) soil salinization due to agricultural intensification, and (iii) soil erosion due to farmland depopulation and land abandonment in sloping areas. Areas at risk for LD covered 56 and 63% of the investigated areas in 1970 and 2000, respectively. PMID:19787396

Salvati, Luca; Zitti, Marco

2009-11-01

268

Exome Sequencing Identifies DLG1 as a Novel Gene for Potential Susceptibility to Crohn's Disease in a Chinese Family Study  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic variants make some contributions to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohns disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). More than 100 susceptibility loci were identified in Western IBD studies, but susceptibility gene has not been found in Chinese IBD patients till now. Sequencing of individuals with an IBD family history is a powerful approach toward our understanding of the genetics and pathogenesis of IBD. The aim of this study, which focuses on a Han Chinese CD family, is to identify high-risk variants and potentially novel loci using whole exome sequencing technique. Methods Exome sequence data from 4 individuals belonging to a same family were analyzed using bioinformatics methods to narrow down the variants associated with CD. The potential risk genes were further analyzed by genotyping and Sanger sequencing in family members, additional 401 healthy controls (HC), 278 sporadic CD patients, 123 UC cases, a pair of monozygotic CD twins and another Chinese CD family. Results From the CD family in which the father and daughter were affected, we identified a novel single nucleotide variant (SNV) c.374T>C (p.I125T) in exon 4 of discs large homolog 1 (DLG1), a gene has been reported to play mutiple roles in cell proliferation, T cell polarity and T cell receptor signaling. After genotyping among case and controls, a PLINK analysis showed the variant was of significance (P<0.05). 4 CD patients of the other Chinese family bore another non-synonymous variant c.833G>A (p.R278Q) in exon 9 of DLG1. Conclusions We have discovered novel genetic variants in the coding regions of DLG1 gene, the results support that DLG1 is a novel potential susceptibility gene for CD in Chinese patients. PMID:24937328

Song, Lu; NG, Siew Chien; Wang, Xiaobing; Chen, Liping; Yi, Fengming; Ran, Zhihua; Zhou, Rui; Xia, Bing

2014-01-01

269

Indicators and optical configuration for simultaneous high-resolution recording of membrane potential and intracellular calcium using laser scanning microscopy.  

PubMed

The instrumental design and experimental conditions for high-speed, simultaneous optical recording of membrane potential and intracellular Ca2+ with subcellular resolution are presented. This method employs an extended version of a high-speed, random-access, laser-scanning fluorescence microscope designed to record fast physiological signals from small neuronal structures with high spatiotemporal resolution (Bullen, Patel, Saggau, Biophys J 73:477-491, 1997). With this instrument, imaging and optical recording functions are conducted separately allowing frame rates up to 3 kHz. Individual scanning points are selected interactively from a reference image collected with differential interference contrast (DIC) optics. At each recording site, fluorescence from two indicators is measured simultaneously by independent photodetectors. To optimize signal strength, spectral separation and the achievable signal-to-noise ratio, several combinations of voltage-sensitive dye, Ca2+ indicator and optical elements (dichroic mirrors, filters, etc.) were considered. The best results were achieved from the combination of the intracellular voltage-sensitive dye Di-2-ANEPEQ and the Ca2+ indicator Calcium Green-1. These indicators have overlapping absorption spectra allowing simultaneous excitation with a single laser line (488 nm). Spectral separation of the fluorescence from these two indicators was accomplished using a secondary dichroic mirror (DCLP580) and emission filters (535/45 and OG590). Representative records obtained with this instrument and this combination of indicators demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous high fidelity measurements of membrane potential and intracellular Ca2+ from the same point at high spatial (2 micrometer) and temporal (

Bullen, A; Saggau, P

1998-10-01

270

Zebrafish: an emerging technology for in vivo pharmacological assessment to identify potential safety liabilities in early drug discovery.  

PubMed

The zebrafish is a well-established model organism used in developmental biology. In the last decade, this technology has been extended to the generation of high-value knowledge on safety risks of novel drugs. Indeed, the larval zebrafish appear to combine advantages of whole organism phenotypic assays and those (rapid production of results with minimal resource engagement) of in vitro high-throughput screening techniques. Thus, if appropriately evaluated, it can offer undeniable advantages in drug discovery for identification of target and off-target effects. Here, we review some applications of zebrafish to identify potential safety liabilities, particularly before lead/candidate selection. For instance, zebrafish cardiovascular system can be used to reveal decreases in heart rate and atrial-ventricular dissociation, which may signal human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel blockade. Another main area of interest is the CNS, where zebrafish behavioural assays have been and are further being developed into screening platforms for assessment of locomotor activity, convulsant and proconvulsant liability, cognitive impairment, drug dependence potential and impaired visual and auditory functions. Zebrafish also offer interesting possibilities for evaluating effects on bone density and gastrointestinal function. Furthermore, available knowledge of the renal system in larval zebrafish can allow identification of potential safety issues of drug candidates on this often neglected area in early development platforms. Although additional validation is certainly needed, the zebrafish is emerging as a versatile in vivo animal model to identify off-target effects that need investigation and further clarification early in the drug discovery process to reduce the current, high degree of attrition in development. PMID:18552866

Barros, T P; Alderton, W K; Reynolds, H M; Roach, A G; Berghmans, S

2008-08-01

271

Integration of photomosaics and stratigraphy in the Western Appalachian Basin as an aid to identify potential hydrocarbon reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Paleozoic stratigraphy of the southern Lake Erie region is commonly interpreted as being dominated by flat-lying sedimentary rocks. Recent surface stratigraphic studies in New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio have revealed the widespread presence of NW- and NE-trending folds and faults exposed along stream beds, and in bluffs along the southern Lake Erie shoreline. A black shale unit, previously unknown in northwestern Pennsylvania, was also discovered and its lateral continuity mapped. The shale forms a disconformable contact with the overlying Northeast Shale. Ship-based photomosaics were made of bluffs along Lake Erie, and integrated with land-based stratigraphic sections to map the continuity of units, identify displacement zones, and identify low amplitude folds. The black shale unit aided identification of offset and folding. Faults observed at the surface off-set Devonian and Mississippian rocks, and unconsolidated Quaternary sediments. Subsurface wrench faults, apparently extending into Precambrian rocks, have been identified by others. These wrench faults are generally perpendicular to the strike of the Appalachian Mountains, and are known as cross-strike discontinuities (CSDs). Principle zones of displacement associated with the CSDs can be recognized at the surface by numerous fractures having little offset, aligned drainage systems, and zones of increased hydrocarbon productivity and fluid migration. Increased hydrocarbons production occurs where reservoirs are cross-cut by the faults. The faults offset various reservoirs in Pennsylvania and Ohio in the subsurface. Identifying the location of these faults at the surface may provide information that leads top the discovery of new potential reservoirs.

Wegweiser, M.D. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-09-01

272

Clinical Proteomics Identifies Urinary CD14 as a Potential Biomarker for Diagnosis of Stable Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

Inflammation plays a key role in coronary artery disease (CAD) and other manifestations of atherosclerosis. Recently, urinary proteins were found to be useful markers for reflecting inflammation status of different organs. To identify potential biomarker for diagnosis of CAD, we performed one-dimensional SDS-gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Among the proteins differentially expressed in urine samples, monocyte antigen CD14 was found to be consistently expressed in higher amounts in the CAD patients as compared to normal controls. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to analyze the concentrations of CD14 in urine and serum, we confirmed that urinary CD14 levels were significantly higher in patients (n = 73) with multi-vessel and single vessel CAD than in normal control (n = 35) (P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis further showed that urinary CD14 concentration level is associated with severity or number of diseased vessels and SYNTAX score after adjustment for potential confounders. Concomitantly, the proportion of CD14+ monocytes was significantly increased in CAD patients (59.7 3.6%) as compared with healthy controls (14.9 2.1%) (P < 0.001), implicating that a high level of urinary CD14 may be potentially involved in mechanism(s) leading to CAD pathogenesis. By performing shotgun proteomics, we further revealed that CD14-associated inflammatory response networks may play an essential role in CAD. In conclusion, the current study has demonstrated that release of CD14 in urine coupled with more CD14+ monocytes in CAD patients is significantly correlated with severity of CAD, pointing to the potential application of urinary CD14 as a novel noninvasive biomarker for large-scale diagnostic screening of susceptible CAD patients. PMID:25668619

Lee, Min-Yi; Huang, Chun-Hao; Kuo, Chao-Jen; Lin, Chen-Lung Steve; Lai, Wen-Ter; Chiou, Shyh-Horng

2015-01-01

273

Profiling of the Tox21 Chemical Collection for Mitochondrial Function to Identify Compounds that Acutely Decrease Mitochondrial Membrane Potential  

PubMed Central

Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Understanding whether different environmental chemicals and druglike molecules impact mitochondrial function represents an initial step in predicting exposure-related toxicity and defining a possible role for such compounds in the onset of various diseases. Objectives: We sought to identify individual chemicals and general structural features associated with changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Methods: We used a multiplexed [two end points in one screen; MMP and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content] quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) approach combined with informatics tools to screen the Tox21 library of 10,000 compounds (~ 8,300 unique chemicals) at 15 concentrations each in triplicate to identify chemicals and structural features that are associated with changes in MMP in HepG2 cells. Results: Approximately 11% of the compounds (913 unique compounds) decreased MMP after 1 hr of treatment without affecting cell viability (ATP content). In addition, 309 compounds decreased MMP over a concentration range that also produced measurable cytotoxicity [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) in MMP assay/IC50 in viability assay ? 3; p < 0.05]. More than 11% of the structural clusters that constitute the Tox21 library (76 of 651 clusters) were significantly enriched for compounds that decreased the MMP. Conclusions: Our multiplexed qHTS approach allowed us to generate a robust and reliable data set to evaluate the ability of thousands of drugs and environmental compounds to decrease MMP. The use of structure-based clustering analysis allowed us to identify molecular features that are likely responsible for the observed activity. Citation: Attene-Ramos MS, Huang R, Michael S, Witt KL, Richard A, Tice RR, Simeonov A, Austin CP, Xia M. 2015. Profiling of the Tox21 chemical collection for mitochondrial function to identify compounds that acutely decrease mitochondrial membrane potential. Environ Health Perspect 123:4956;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408642 PMID:25302578

Attene-Ramos, Matias S.; Huang, Ruili; Michael, Sam; Witt, Kristine L.; Richard, Ann; Tice, Raymond R.; Simeonov, Anton; Austin, Christopher P.

2014-01-01

274

Ecology of testate amoebae and their potential use as palaeohydrologic indicators from peatland in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Testate amoebae are sensitive indicators of substrate moisture in peatlands. Over the last decades, they have been studied to reconstruct hydrological changes since the Holocene. However, these studies have been geographically restricted to North America and Europe. We conducted the first investigation of testate amoebae on the largest continental fresh water wetland in the Sanjiang Plain, China. The objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the ecology of testate amoebae in the peatlands of Northeast China and to assess the potential of using them as environmental indicators in this ecosystem. We examined modern testate amoeba assemblages and species-environmental relationships at 46 microsites within 5 waterlogged depressions. The environmental parameters measured included: depth to water table, pH, and loss on ignition. The results showed that the dominant species were Trinema complanatum type, Euglypha rotunda type, Euglypha strigosa type, and Centropyxis cassis type. Redundancy analysis demonstrates that water table depth has the most important effect on testate amoeba assemblages, explaining 16.7% ( p = 0.002) of the total variance. pH was not a statistically significant factor for testate amoeba assemblages. Weighted averaging and weighted averaging partial least squares models were used to build transfer functions for depth to water table. The best performing transfer function was generated by the weighted averaging partial least squares model with an r 2 LOSO of 0.62 and RMSEPLOSO of 6.96 cm. Results indicate that testate amoebae in waterlogged depression peatland have the potential to be used as indicators for hydrological changes and for palaeohydrologic reconstructions in the Sanjiang Plain.

Song, Lihong; Li, Hongkai; Wang, Kehong; Wu, Donghui; Wu, Haitao

2014-12-01

275

A cell-based fascin bioassay identifies compounds with potential anti-metastasis or cognition-enhancing functions  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The actin-bundling protein fascin is a key mediator of tumor invasion and metastasis and its activity drives filopodia formation, cell-shape changes and cell migration. Small-molecule inhibitors of fascin block tumor metastasis in animal models. Conversely, fascin deficiency might underlie the pathogenesis of some developmental brain disorders. To identify fascin-pathway modulators we devised a cell-based assay for fascin function and used it in a bidirectional drug screen. The screen utilized cultured fascin-deficient mutant Drosophila neurons, whose neurite arbors manifest the filagree phenotype. Taking a repurposing approach, we screened a library of 1040 known compounds, many of them FDA-approved drugs, for filagree modifiers. Based on scaffold distribution, molecular-fingerprint similarities, and chemical-space distribution, this library has high structural diversity, supporting its utility as a screening tool. We identified 34 fascin-pathway blockers (with potential anti-metastasis activity) and 48 fascin-pathway enhancers (with potential cognitive-enhancer activity). The structural diversity of the active compounds suggests multiple molecular targets. Comparisons of active and inactive compounds provided preliminary structure-activity relationship information. The screen also revealed diverse neurotoxic effects of other drugs, notably the beads-on-a-string defect, which is induced solely by statins. Statin-induced neurotoxicity is enhanced by fascin deficiency. In summary, we provide evidence that primary neuron culture using a genetic model organism can be valuable for early-stage drug discovery and developmental neurotoxicity testing. Furthermore, we propose that, given an appropriate assay for target-pathway function, bidirectional screening for brain-development disorders and invasive cancers represents an efficient, multipurpose strategy for drug discovery. PMID:22917928

Kraft, Robert; Kahn, Allon; Medina-Franco, Jos L.; Orlowski, Mikayla L.; Baynes, Cayla; Lpez-Vallejo, Fabian; Barnard, Kobus; Maggiora, Gerald M.; Restifo, Linda L.

2013-01-01

276

Cross-comparison of the genome sequences from human, chimpanzee, Neanderthal and a Denisovan hominin identifies novel potentially compensated mutations  

PubMed Central

The recent publication of the draft genome sequences of the Neanderthal and a ~50,000-year-old archaic hominin from Denisova Cave in southern Siberia has ushered in a new age in molecular archaeology. We previously cross-compared the human, chimpanzee and Neanderthal genome sequences with respect to a set of disease-causing/disease-associated missense and regulatory mutations (Human Gene Mutation Database) and succeeded in identifying genetic variants which, although apparently pathogenic in humans, may represent a 'compensated' wild-type state in at least one of the other two species. Here, in an attempt to identify further 'potentially compensated mutations' (PCMs) of interest, we have compared our dataset of disease-causing/disease-associated mutations with their corresponding nucleotide positions in the Denisovan hominin, Neanderthal and chimpanzee genomes. Of the 15 human putatively disease-causing mutations that were found to be compensated in chimpanzee, Denisovan or Neanderthal, only a solitary F5 variant (Val1736Met) was specific to the Denisovan. In humans, this missense mutation is associated with activated protein C resistance and an increased risk of thromboembolism and recurrent miscarriage. It is unclear at this juncture whether this variant was indeed a PCM in the Denisovan or whether it could instead have been associated with disease in this ancient hominin. PMID:21807602

2011-01-01

277

Phosphotyrosine profiling identifies ephrin receptor A2 as a potential therapeutic target in esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common malignancies in Asia. Currently, surgical resection of early-stage tumor is the best available treatment. However, most patients present late when surgery is not an option. Data suggest that chemotherapy regimens are inadequate for clinical management of advanced cancer. Targeted therapy has emerged as one of the most promising approaches to treat several malignancies. A prerequisite for developing targeted therapy is prior knowledge of proteins and pathways that drive proliferation in malignancies. We carried out phosphotyrosine profiling across four different ESCC cell lines and compared it to non-neoplastic Het-1A cell line to identify activated tyrosine kinase signaling pathways in ESCC. A total of 278 unique phosphopeptides were identified across these cell lines. This included several tyrosine kinases and their substrates that were hyperphosphorylated in ESCC. Ephrin receptor A2 (EPHA2), a receptor tyrosine kinase, was hyperphosphorylated in all the ESCC cell lines used in the study. EPHA2 is reported to be oncogenic in several cancers and is also known to promote metastasis. Immunohistochemistry-based studies have revealed EPHA2 is overexpressed in nearly 50% of ESCC. We demonstrated EPHA2 as a potential therapeutic target in ESCC by carrying out siRNA-based knockdown studies. Knockdown of EPHA2 in ESCC cell line TE8 resulted in significant decrease in cell proliferation and invasion, suggesting it is a promising therapeutic target in ESCC that warrants further evaluation. PMID:25366905

Syed, Nazia; Barbhuiya, Mustafa A; Pinto, Sneha M; Nirujogi, Raja Sekhar; Renuse, Santosh; Datta, Keshava K; Khan, Aafaque Ahmad; Srikumar, Kotteazeth; Prasad, T S Keshava; Kumar, M Vijaya; Kumar, Rekha Vijay; Chatterjee, Aditi; Pandey, Akhilesh; Gowda, Harsha

2015-01-01

278

In Silico Repositioning-Chemogenomics Strategy Identifies New Drugs with Potential Activity against Multiple Life Stages of Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Morbidity and mortality caused by schistosomiasis are serious public health problems in developing countries. Because praziquantel is the only drug in therapeutic use, the risk of drug resistance is a concern. In the search for new schistosomicidal drugs, we performed a target-based chemogenomics screen of a dataset of 2,114 proteins to identify drugs that are approved for clinical use in humans that may be active against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target, and its amino acid sequence was used to interrogate three databases: Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), DrugBank and STITCH. Predicted drug-target interactions were refined using a combination of approaches, including pairwise alignment, conservation state of functional regions and chemical space analysis. To validate our strategy, several drugs previously shown to be active against Schistosoma species were correctly predicted, such as clonazepam, auranofin, nifedipine, and artesunate. We were also able to identify 115 drugs that have not yet been experimentally tested against schistosomes and that require further assessment. Some examples are aprindine, gentamicin, clotrimazole, tetrabenazine, griseofulvin, and cinnarizine. In conclusion, we have developed a systematic and focused computer-aided approach to propose approved drugs that may warrant testing and/or serve as lead compounds for the design of new drugs against schistosomes. PMID:25569258

Neves, Bruno J.; Braga, Rodolpho C.; Bezerra, Jos C. B.; Cravo, Pedro V. L.; Andrade, Carolina H.

2015-01-01

279

Phosphotyrosine profiling identifies ephrin receptor A2 as a potential therapeutic target in esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common malignancies in Asia. Currently, surgical resection of early-stage tumor is the best available treatment. However, most patients present late when surgery is not an option. Data suggest that chemotherapy regimens are inadequate for clinical management of advanced cancer. Targeted therapy has emerged as one of the most promising approaches to treat several malignancies. A prerequisite for developing targeted therapy is prior knowledge of proteins and pathways that drive proliferation in malignancies. We carried out phosphotyrosine profiling across four different ESCC cell lines and compared it to non-neoplastic Het-1A cell line to identify activated tyrosine kinase signaling pathways in ESCC. A total of 278 unique phosphopeptides were identified across these cell lines. This included several tyrosine kinases and their substrates that were hyperphosphorylated in ESCC. Ephrin receptor A2 (EPHA2), a receptor tyrosine kinase, was hyperphosphorylated in all the ESCC cell lines used in the study. EPHA2 is reported to be oncogenic in several cancers and is also known to promote metastasis. Immunohistochemistry-based studies have revealed EPHA2 is overexpressed in nearly 50% of ESCC. We demonstrated EPHA2 as a potential therapeutic target in ESCC by carrying out siRNA-based knockdown studies. Knockdown of EPHA2 in ESCC cell line TE8 resulted in significant decrease in cell proliferation and invasion, suggesting it is a promising therapeutic target in ESCC that warrants further evaluation. PMID:25366905

Syed, Nazia; Barbhuiya, Mustafa A; Pinto, Sneha M; Nirujogi, Raja Sekhar; Renuse, Santosh; Datta, Keshava K; Khan, Aafaque Ahmad; Srikumar, Kotteazeth; Prasad, T S Keshava; Kumar, M Vijaya; Kumar, Rekha Vijay; Chatterjee, Aditi; Pandey, Akhilesh; Gowda, Harsha

2015-01-01

280

Genetic Analysis of Fin Development in Zebrafish Identifies Furin and Hemicentin1 as Potential Novel Fraser Syndrome Disease Genes  

PubMed Central

Using forward genetics, we have identified the genes mutated in two classes of zebrafish fin mutants. The mutants of the first class are characterized by defects in embryonic fin morphogenesis, which are due to mutations in a Laminin subunit or an Integrin alpha receptor, respectively. The mutants of the second class display characteristic blistering underneath the basement membrane of the fin epidermis. Three of them are due to mutations in zebrafish orthologues of FRAS1, FREM1, or FREM2, large basement membrane protein encoding genes that are mutated in mouse bleb mutants and in human patients suffering from Fraser Syndrome, a rare congenital condition characterized by syndactyly and cryptophthalmos. Fin blistering in a fourth group of zebrafish mutants is caused by mutations in Hemicentin1 (Hmcn1), another large extracellular matrix protein the function of which in vertebrates was hitherto unknown. Our mutant and dose-dependent interaction data suggest a potential involvement of Hmcn1 in Fraser complex-dependent basement membrane anchorage. Furthermore, we present biochemical and genetic data suggesting a role for the proprotein convertase FurinA in zebrafish fin development and cell surface shedding of Fras1 and Frem2, thereby allowing proper localization of the proteins within the basement membrane of forming fins. Finally, we identify the extracellular matrix protein Fibrillin2 as an indispensable interaction partner of Hmcn1. Thus we have defined a series of zebrafish mutants modelling Fraser Syndrome and have identified several implicated novel genes that might help to further elucidate the mechanisms of basement membrane anchorage and of the disease's aetiology. In addition, the novel genes might prove helpful to unravel the molecular nature of thus far unresolved cases of the human disease. PMID:20419147

Carney, Thomas J.; Feitosa, Natlia Martins; Sonntag, Carmen; Slanchev, Krasimir; Kluger, Johannes; Kiyozumi, Daiji; Gebauer, Jan M.; Coffin Talbot, Jared; Kimmel, Charles B.; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Wagener, Raimund; Schwarz, Heinz; Ingham, Phillip W.; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

2010-01-01

281

Experimental antibiotic treatment identifies potential pathogens of white band disease in the endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis  

PubMed Central

Coral diseases have been increasingly reported over the past few decades and are a major contributor to coral decline worldwide. The Caribbean, in particular, has been noted as a hotspot for coral disease, and the aptly named white syndromes have caused the decline of the dominant reef building corals throughout their range. White band disease (WBD) has been implicated in the dramatic loss of Acropora cervicornis and Acropora palmata since the 1970s, resulting in both species being listed as critically endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red list. The causal agent of WBD remains unknown, although recent studies based on challenge experiments with filtrate from infected hosts concluded that the disease is probably caused by bacteria. Here, we report an experiment using four different antibiotic treatments, targeting different members of the disease-associated microbial community. Two antibiotics, ampicillin and paromomycin, arrested the disease completely, and by comparing with community shifts brought about by treatments that did not arrest the disease, we have identified the likely candidate causal agent or agents of WBD. Our interpretation of the experimental treatments is that one or a combination of up to three specific bacterial types, detected consistently in diseased corals but not detectable in healthy corals, are likely causal agents of WBD. In addition, a histophagous ciliate (Philaster lucinda) identical to that found consistently in association with white syndrome in Indo-Pacific acroporas was also consistently detected in all WBD samples and absent in healthy coral. Treatment with metronidazole reduced it to below detection limits, but did not arrest the disease. However, the microscopic disease signs changed, suggesting a secondary role in disease causation for this ciliate. In future studies to identify a causal agent of WBD via tests of HenleKoch's postulates, it will be vital to experimentally control for populations of the other potential pathogens identified in this study. PMID:24943374

Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

2014-01-01

282

Heterologous Expression Studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Reveal Two Distinct Trypanosomatid CaaX Protease Activities and Identify Their Potential Targets?  

PubMed Central

The CaaX tetrapeptide motif typically directs three sequential posttranslational modifications, namely, isoprenylation, proteolysis, and carboxyl methylation. In all eukaryotic systems evaluated to date, two CaaX proteases (Rce1 and Ste24/Afc1) have been identified. Although the Trypanosoma brucei genome also encodes two putative CaaX proteases, the lack of detectable T. brucei Ste24 activity in trypanosome cell extracts has suggested that CaaX proteolytic activity within this organism is solely attributed to T. brucei Rce1 (J. R. Gillespie et al., Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 153:115-124. 2007). In this study, we demonstrate that both T. brucei Rce1 and T. brucei Ste24 are enzymatically active when heterologously expressed in yeast. Using a-factor and GTPase reporters, we demonstrate that T. brucei Rce1 and T. brucei Ste24 possess partially overlapping specificities much like, but not identical to, their fungal and human counterparts. Of interest, a CaaX motif found on a trypanosomal Hsp40 protein was not cleaved by either T. brucei CaaX protease when examined in the context of the yeast a-factor reporter but was cleaved by both in the context of the Hsp40 protein itself when evaluated using an in vitro radiolabeling assay. We further demonstrate that T. brucei Rce1 is sensitive to small molecules previously identified as inhibitors of the yeast and human CaaX proteases and that a subset of these compounds disrupt T. brucei Rce1-dependent localization of our GTPase reporter in yeast. Together, our results suggest the conserved presence of two CaaX proteases in trypanosomatids, identify an Hsp40 protein as a substrate of both T. brucei CaaX proteases, support the potential use of small molecule CaaX protease inhibitors as tools for cell biological studies on the trafficking of CaaX proteins, and provide evidence that protein context influences T. brucei CaaX protease specificity. PMID:19820121

Mokry, David Z.; Manandhar, Surya P.; Chicola, Kristen A.; Santangelo, George M.; Schmidt, Walter K.

2009-01-01

283

A systems biology approach to identify intelligence quotient score-related genomic regions, and pathways relevant to potential therapeutic treatments  

PubMed Central

Although the intelligence quotient (IQ) is the most popular intelligence test in the world, little is known about the underlying biological mechanisms that lead to the differences in human. To improve our understanding of cognitive processes and identify potential biomarkers, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of 158 IQ-related genes selected from the literature. A genomic distribution analysis demonstrated that IQ-related genes were enriched in seven regions of chromosome 7 and the X chromosome. In addition, these genes were enriched in target lists of seven transcription factors and sixteen microRNAs. Using a network-based approach, we further reconstructed an IQ-related pathway from known human pathway interaction data. Based on this reconstructed pathway, we incorporated enriched drugs and described the importance of dopamine and norepinephrine systems in IQ-related biological process. These findings not only reveal several testable genes and processes related to IQ scores, but also have potential therapeutic implications for IQ-related mental disorders. PMID:24566931

Zhao, Min; Kong, Lei; Qu, Hong

2014-01-01

284

Recycled water: potential health risks from volatile organic compounds and use of 1,4-dichlorobenzene as treatment performance indicator.  

PubMed

Characterisation of the concentrations and potential health risks of chemicals in recycled water is important if this source of water is to be safely used to supplement drinking water sources. This research was conducted to: (i) determine the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in secondary treated effluent (STE) and, post-reverse osmosis (RO) treatment and to; (ii) assess the health risk associated with VOCs for indirect potable reuse (IPR). Samples were examined pre and post-RO in one full-scale and one pilot plant in Perth, Western Australia. Risk quotients (RQ) were estimated by expressing the maximum and median concentration as a function of the health value. Of 61 VOCs analysed over a period of three years, twenty one (21) were detected in STE, with 1,4-dichlorobenzene (94%); tetrachloroethene (88%); carbon disulfide (81%) and; chloromethane (58%) most commonly detected. Median concentrations for these compounds in STE ranged from 0.81 ?g/L for 1,4-dichlorobenzene to 0.02 ?g/L for carbon disulphide. After RO, twenty six (26) VOCs were detected, of which 1,4-dichlorobenzene (89%); acrylonitrile (83%) chloromethane (63%) and carbon disulfide (40%) were the more frequently detected. RQ(max) were all below health values in the STE and after RO. Median removal efficiency for RO was variable, ranging from -77% (dichlorodifluoromethane) to 91.2% (tetrachloroethene). The results indicate that despite the detection of VOCs in STE and after RO, their human health impact in IPR is negligible due to the low concentrations detected. The results indicate that 1,4-dichlorobenzene is a potential treatment chemical indicator for assessment of VOCs in IPR using RO treatment. PMID:22078226

Rodriguez, Clemencia; Linge, Kathryn; Blair, Palenque; Busetti, Francesco; Devine, Brian; Van Buynder, Paul; Weinstein, Philip; Cook, Angus

2012-01-01

285

Leaching of Zinc Sulfide by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Experiments with a Controlled Redox Potential Indicate No Direct Bacterial Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The role of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in bacterial leaching of mineral sulfides is controversial. Much of the controversy is due to the fact that the solution conditions, especially the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions, change during experiments. The role of the bacteria would be more easily discernible if the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions were maintained at set values throughout the experimental period. In this paper we report results obtained by using the constant redox potential apparatus described previously (P. I. Harvey and F. K. Crundwell, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:25862592, 1997). This apparatus is designed to control the redox potential in the leaching compartment of an electrolytic cell by reduction or oxidation of dissolved iron. By controlling the redox potential the apparatus maintains the concentrations of ferrous and ferric ions at their initial values. Experiments were conducted in the presence of T. ferrooxidans and under sterile conditions. Analysis of the conversion of zinc sulfide in the absence of the bacteria and analysis of the conversion of zinc sulfate in the presence of the bacteria produced the same results. This indicates that the only role of the bacteria under the conditions used is regeneration of ferric ions in solution. In this work we found no evidence that there is a direct mechanism for bacterial leaching. PMID:9758769

Fowler, T. A.; Crundwell, F. K.

1998-01-01

286

Indicators of hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological integrity for estimating potential loss of ecosystem services from wetlands on domesticated landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands are being lost at an alarming rate in the prairie pothole landscape of North America. The full consequence of this loss is not fully understood or recognized due to (1) inadequate or incomplete wetland inventories (with mapping emphasizing permanent and not ephemeral wetlands, and only capturing "easy to observe" wetland area defined by open water and not the true dynamic wetland extent defined by saturated soils), and (2) lack of appropriate theoretical frameworks to assess the functions and benefits of these wetlands. We present a theoretical framework that integrates indicators to estimate functions and benefits of wetland integrity in central Alberta. We establish indicators using the principles that are representative of the dominant processes operating on the landscape, are simple and are scalable. While some of these indicators may be widely recognized, their implementation is often not comprehensive or complete. First, we develop an automated method for fine scale mapping of permanent and ephemeral wetlands from a fusion of high-resolution elevation data and aerial photography. Second, we estimate historic wetland loss over the past 50 years during which intensive domestication of the landscape occurred by modeling the distribution of wetlands in an undisturbed landscape using area-frequency power functions and calculating the difference in the actual wetland inventory. Third, we define relative wetland assessment units using cluster analysis of hydrological and ecological variables, including climate, geology, topography, soils and land use/land covers. Fourth, for each assessment unit we define indicators of functions and benefits of aquatic ecosystem services including water storage (surface and subsurface), phosphorus retention, nitrate removal, sediment retention, ecological health/biodiversity and human use, and then use practical strategies rooted in the fusion of digital terrain analysis and remote sensing techniques to measure and monitor these indicators over the past years. For a time series of wetlands loss we derive these indicators of functions and benefits to estimate changes in the provision of specific aquatic ecosystem services on the landscape. Last, we develop formulae for integrating these indicators to determine whether a specific wetland or wetland complex should be prioritized for conservation, exemplifying potential trade-offs among ecosystem services in setting conservation targets on this wetland dominated landscapes. The proposed theoretical framework evolved from close collaboration between scientists and resource managers, and will inform those engaged in developing wetland policies for a broad range of jurisdictions.

Creed, I. F.; Aldred, D.; Spargo, A.; Bayley, S.

2012-12-01

287

What's down below? Current and potential future applications of geophysical techniques to identify subsurface permafrost conditions (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For infrastructure design, operations, and maintenance requirements in the North the ability to accurately and efficiently detect the presence (or absence) of ground ice in permafrost terrains is a serious challenge. Ground ice features including ice wedges, thermokarst cave-ice, and segregation ice are present in a variety of spatial scales and patterns. Currently, most engineering applications use borehole logging and sampling to extrapolate conditions at the point scale. However, there is high risk of over or under estimating the presence of frozen or unfrozen features when relying on borehole information alone. In addition, boreholes are costly, especially for planning linear structures like roads or runways. Predicted climate warming will provide further challenges for infrastructure development and transportation operations where permafrost degradation occurs. Accurately identifying the subsurface character in permafrost terrains will allow engineers and planners to cost effectively create novel infrastructure designs to withstand the changing environment. There is thus a great need for a low cost rapidly deployable, spatially extensive means of 'measuring' subsurface conditions. Geophysical measurements, both terrestrial and airborne, have strong potential to revolutionize our way of mapping subsurface conditions. Many studies in continuous and discontinuous permafrost have used geophysical measurements to identify discrete features and repeatable patterns in the subsurface. The most common measurements include galvanic and capacitive coupled resistivity, ground penetrating radar, and multi frequency electromagnetic induction techniques. Each of these measurements has strengths, weaknesses, and limitations. By combining horizontal geophysical measurements, downhole geophysics, multispectral remote sensing images, LiDAR measurements, and soil and vegetation mapping we can start to assemble a holistic view of how surface conditions and standoff measurements can be used to delineate subsurface permafrost geomorphology. This presentation will include examples of projects in Alaska and Greenland where a combination of geophysical and other measurement techniques have been used to identify subsurface conditions. These include projects at multiple locations around Interior Alaska where a variety of ground based and standoff measurements are being used to identify subsurface conditions, and infrastructure projects at Thule, Greenland, where geophysical measurements are being used to cut costs for new construction and maintenance. The expansion of the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratories' Fox Permafrost Tunnel is to provide a three dimensional test bed for geophysical measurements, and construction is aided by geophysical measurements. The array of geophysical research tools used to interrogate the subsurface in permafrost terrains can likely provide worthwhile information in non-frozen ground terrains to support sensor development and geomorphological interpretation.

Douglas, T. A.; Bjella, K.; Campbell, S. W.

2013-12-01

288

Subtractive phage display selection from canine visceral leishmaniasis identifies novel epitopes that mimic Leishmania infantum antigens with potential serodiagnosis applications.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease that is endemic to Brazil, where dogs are the main domestic parasite reservoirs, and the percentages of infected dogs living in regions where canine VL (CVL) is endemic have ranged from 10% to 62%. Despite technological advances, some problems have been reported with CVL serodiagnosis. The present study describes a sequential subtractive selection through phage display technology from polyclonal antibodies of negative and positive sera that resulted in the identification of potential bacteriophage-fused peptides that were highly sensitive and specific to antibodies of CVL. A negative selection was performed in which phage clones were adhered to purified IgGs from healthy and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs to eliminate cross-reactive phages. The remaining supernatant nonadhered phages were submitted to positive selection against IgG from the blood serum of dogs that were infected with Leishmania infantum. Phage clones that adhered to purified IgGs from the CVL-infected serum samples were selected. Eighteen clones were identified and their reactivities tested by a phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (phage-ELISA) against the serum samples from infected dogs (n = 31) compared to those from vaccinated dogs (n = 21), experimentally infected dogs with cross-reactive parasites (n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 17). Eight clones presented sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 100%, and they showed no cross-reactivity with T. cruzi- or Ehrlichia canis-infected dogs or with dogs vaccinated with two different commercial CVL vaccines in Brazil. Our study identified eight mimotopes of L. infantum antigens with 100% accuracy for CVL serodiagnosis. The use of these mimotopes by phage-ELISA proved to be an excellent assay that was reproducible, simple, fast, and inexpensive, and it can be applied in CVL-monitoring programs. PMID:24256622

Costa, Lourena E; Lima, Mayara I S; Chvez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Martins, Vivian T; Duarte, Mariana C; Lage, Paula S; Lopes, Eliane G P; Lage, Daniela P; Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Andrade, Pedro H R; de Magalhes-Soares, Danielle F; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A P; Goulart, Luiz R; Coelho, Eduardo A F

2014-01-01

289

Use of Phage Display To Identify Potential Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gene Products Relevant to Early Cystic Fibrosis Airway Infections  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. Treatment of established infections is difficult, even with microbiologically active agents. Thus, prevention of infection is an important goal of management. Isolates from cystic fibrosis patients appear to originate from the environment but adapt to the milieu of the airway of the cystic fibrosis patient and evolve toward a common phenotype. Identification of the antigens expressed early in infection may lead to novel targets for vaccine development. Immunogenic peptides were identified in a J404 random nonapeptide phage display library with serum from cystic fibrosis patients obtained within the first year of P. aeruginosa infection. One hundred sixty-five reactive clones were verified by plaque lift assays, and their inserts were sequenced. The sequenced nonapeptides were compared with the published sequence of strain PAO1, identifying homologies to 76 genes encoding outer membrane and secreted proteins. The majority of these were proteins involved in small-molecule transport, membrane structural proteins, and secreted factors. An in silico analysis was performed that suggested that the occurrence of multiple matches to predominantly outer membrane and secreted proteins was not attributable to random chance. Finally, gene expression array data from early isolates of P. aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients was compared with the results from phage display analysis. Eleven outer membrane and secreted proteins were common between the two data sets. These included genes involved in iron acquisition, antibiotic efflux, fimbrial biogenesis, and pyocin synthesis. These results demonstrate the feasibility and validity of this novel approach and suggest potential targets for future development. PMID:15618183

Beckmann, Christiane; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Ernst, Robert; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Miller, Samuel I.; Burns, Jane L.

2005-01-01

290

Angiopoietin-2 and Angiopoietin-2/Angiopoietin-1 Ratio as Indicators of Potential Severity of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Patients with Thrombocytopenia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Angiogenic factors such as angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2) are biomarkers produced during activation and dysfunction of the vascular endothelium in several infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the serum levels of Ang-1 and Ang-2 and to establish their relationship with the main indicators of worst-case prognosis in patients with P. vivax malaria. Methods This is a retrospective case-control study nested within a cohort of symptomatic malaria patients. A potentially severe case was defined as a patient that presented at least one of the main indicators of the worst-case prognosis for falciparum malaria, as established by the World Health Organization. Ang-2 and Ang-1 and the Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio were used to analyze the role of angiopoietins as biomarkers in signaling potentially severe vivax malaria. ROC curves were generated to identify a cut-off point discriminating between the angiopoietin concentrations that were most strongly associated with potential infection severity. Results The serum levels of Ang-2 and the Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio were higher in the case group. In contrast, the serum levels of Ang-1 were lower in the cases than in the control patients. The blood count for platelets showed a positive correlation with Ang-1 and a negative correlation with Ang-2 and with the Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for serum angiopoietins, as an indicator of worst-case prognosis in a potentially severe P. vivax malarial infection, was larger in the subgroup of patients with platelet counts <75,000/L. Conclusion This study showed that patients with predictors of worst-case prognoses for P. vivax malaria have lower Ang-1 and higher Ang-2 serum levels (and higher values for the Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio) than controls. Elevated serum levels of Ang-2 and high values for the Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio may potentially be used as predictors of worst-case prognoses for P. vivax malaria, especially in patients with thrombocytopenia. PMID:25275496

Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Alves-Junior, Eduardo Rodrigues; Rodrigues-Jesus, Clebson; Nery, Andreia Ferreira; Gasquez-Martin, Thamires Oliveira; Fontes, Cor Jesus

2014-01-01

291

Assessing the Connection Between Health and Education: Identifying Potential Leverage Points for Public Health to Improve School Attendance  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined multiple variables influencing school truancy to identify potential leverage points to improve school attendance. Methods A cross-sectional observational design was used to analyze inner-city data collected in Los Angeles County, California, during 2010 to 2011. We constructed an ordinal logistic regression model with cluster robust standard errors to examine the association between truancy and various covariates. Results The sample was predominantly Hispanic (84.3%). Multivariable analysis revealed greater truancy among students (1) with mild (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 2.01) and severe (AOR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.13) depression (referent: no depression), (2) whose parents were neglectful (AOR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.21, 4.03) or indulgent (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.82; referent: authoritative parents), (3) who perceived less support from classes, teachers, and other students regarding college preparation (AOR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.81, 0.95), (4) who had low grade point averages (AOR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.49, 4.38), and (5) who reported using alcohol (AOR = 3.47; 95% CI = 2.34, 5.14) or marijuana (AOR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.38) during the past month. Conclusions Study findings suggest depression, substance use, and parental engagement as potential leverage points for public health to intervene to improve school attendance. PMID:25033134

Gase, Lauren N.; Kuo, Tony; Coller, Karen; Guerrero, Lourdes R.; Wong, Mitchell D.

2014-01-01

292

Identifying Conservation Successes, Failures and Future Opportunities; Assessing Recovery Potential of Wild Ungulates and Tigers in Eastern Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Conservation investment, particularly for charismatic and wide-ranging large mammal species, needs to be evidence-based. Despite the prevalence of this theme within the literature, examples of robust data being generated to guide conservation policy and funding decisions are rare. We present the first published case-study of tiger conservation in Indochina, from a site where an evidence-based approach has been implemented for this iconic predator and its prey. Despite the persistence of extensive areas of habitat, Indochina's tiger and ungulate prey populations are widely supposed to have precipitously declined in recent decades. The Seima Protection Forest (SPF), and broader Eastern Plains Landscape, was identified in 2000 as representing Cambodia's best hope for tiger recovery; reflected in its designation as a Global Priority Tiger Conservation Landscape. Since 2005 distance sampling, camera-trapping and detection-dog surveys have been employed to assess the recovery potential of ungulate and tiger populations in SPF. Our results show that while conservation efforts have ensured that small but regionally significant populations of larger ungulates persist, and density trends in smaller ungulates are stable, overall ungulate populations remain well below theoretical carrying capacity. Extensive field surveys failed to yield any evidence of tiger, and we contend that there is no longer a resident population within the SPF. This local extirpation is believed to be primarily attributable to two decades of intensive hunting; but importantly, prey densities are also currently below the level necessary to support a viable tiger population. Based on these results and similar findings from neighbouring sites, Eastern Cambodia does not currently constitute a Tiger Source Site nor meet the criteria of a Global Priority Tiger Landscape. However, SPF retains global importance for many other elements of biodiversity. It retains high regional importance for ungulate populations and potentially in the future for Indochinese tigers, given adequate prey and protection. PMID:23077476

O'Kelly, Hannah J.; Evans, Tom D.; Stokes, Emma J.; Clements, Tom J.; Dara, An; Gately, Mark; Menghor, Nut; Pollard, Edward H. B.; Soriyun, Men; Walston, Joe

2012-01-01

293

Looking at Dauphin twins in vein quartz from the High-Ardenne slate belt as a potential paleostress indicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleostress studies commonly call upon (1) a fault slip data inversion technique, (2) a calcite twin stress inversion technique, (3) recrystallized grain size piezometry for quartz, or (4) direct measurements of residual lattice strain. Recent advances in orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) have revealed that Dauphin twinning is very common in quartz in naturally deformed quartz-bearing rocks, in particular in low-grade tectonometamorphic conditions (~250-450C) typical for the brittle-plastic transition zone at the base of the seismogenic crust (~7-15km). It has long been known that mechanical Dauphin twinning in quartz can be stress-induced and thus potentially could be used as a (paleo-)stress indicator. To address this question, we performed an extensive EBSD-OIM analysis on well-studied quartz veins in the High-Ardenne slate belt (Belgium, Germany), which precipitated and deformed in low-grade metamorphic conditions during different stages of the orogeny. The vein quartz studied has only been weakly affected by low to moderate temperature (200 to 400C) crystal-plastic deformation. The samples show grains with a high concentration of Dauphin twin boundaries and others free of twin boundaries, thus being untwinned or completely twinned. This pattern depends on the crystallographic orientation. Twin boundaries are arrested by grain or subgrain boundaries, suggesting that Dauphin twinning occurred on a pre-existing fabric that resulted from crystal-plastic deformation. An analysis of the orientation distribution of the rhombs in the twinned variant domains of individual quartz (sub-)grains reveals a particular preferred orientation of the poles to rhombs. Based on these results we will discuss the potential use of Dauphin twins in vein quartz as a paleostress indicator, possibly completing our toolbox for reconstructing paleostresses in the deep crust.

Sintubin, M.; Wenk, H.

2012-12-01

294

Potential groundwater age tracer found: Halon-1301 (CF3Br), as previously identified as CFC-13 (CF3Cl)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

dating using anthropogenic and natural tracer substances is a powerful tool for understanding groundwater dynamics for improved management of groundwater resources. Due to limitations in individual dating methods, often multiple tracers are used to reduce ambiguities. It is commonly accepted that there is a need for further complementary age tracers, in addition to current ones (e.g., tritium, SF6, and CFCs). We propose a potential new groundwater age tracer, Halon-1301 (CF3Br), which can easily be determined using gas chromatography with an attached electron capture detector (GC/ECD) developed by Busenberg and Plummer (2008). Its peak was noted by Busenberg and Plummer (2008), but they believed it to be CFC-13 (CF3Cl) at that time. We performed rigorous tests on gases containing or excluding Halon-1301 and CFC-13 and modern water samples and concluded that the two compounds have extremely similar retention times. Additionally, we found that the ECD response of CFC-13 is far too low to be detected in groundwater or air using standard volumes and sampling techniques. However, the peak areas and concentrations Busenberg and Plummer (2008) reported are in line with what would be expected for Halon-1301. Thus, we are confident that the peak formerly identified as CFC-13 is actually Halon-1301. Busenberg agrees with our findings. We further suggest that Halon-1301 has potential as a (complementary) age tracer, due to its established atmospheric history, and could hypothetically be used to date groundwater recharged in the 1970s or onward. We discuss known relevant properties, such as solubility and stability of Halon-1301 in the context of how these effect its potential application as a groundwater age tracer. Some open questions remain concerning how conservative Halon-1301 isis it subject to degradation, retardation, and/or local contamination in groundwater. We are confident that Halon-1301 possesses important tracer relevant properties, but further work is required to fully assess its applicability and reliability as a groundwater age tracer in different groundwater environments.

Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna

2014-09-01

295

Tissue phosphoproteomics with PolyMAC identifies potential therapeutic targets in a transgenic mouse model of HER2 positive breast cancer.  

PubMed

Altered protein phosphorylation is a feature of many human cancers that can be targeted therapeutically. Phosphopeptide enrichment is a critical step for maximizing the depth of phosphoproteome coverage by MS, but remains challenging for tissue specimens because of their high complexity. We describe the first analysis of a tissue phosphoproteome using polymer-based metal ion affinity capture (PolyMAC), a nanopolymer that has excellent yield and specificity for phosphopeptide enrichment, on a transgenic mouse model of HER2-driven breast cancer. By combining phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitation with PolyMAC, 411 unique peptides with 139 phosphotyrosine, 45 phosphoserine, and 29 phosphothreonine sites were identified from five LC-MS/MS runs. Combining reverse phase liquid chromatography fractionation at pH 8.0 with PolyMAC identified 1571 unique peptides with 1279 phosphoserine, 213 phosphothreonine, and 21 phosphotyrosine sites from eight LC-MS/MS runs. Linear motif analysis indicated that many of the phosphosites correspond to well-known phosphorylation motifs. Analysis of the tyrosine phosphoproteome with the Drug Gene Interaction database uncovered a network of potential therapeutic targets centered on Src family kinases with inhibitors that are either FDA-approved or in clinical development. These results demonstrate that PolyMAC is well suited for phosphoproteomic analysis of tissue specimens. PMID:24723360

Searleman, Adam C; Iliuk, Anton B; Collier, Timothy S; Chodosh, Lewis A; Tao, W Andy; Bose, Ron

2014-12-01

296

Tissue phosphoproteomics with PolyMAC identifies potential therapeutic targets in a transgenic mouse model of HER2 positive breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Altered protein phosphorylation is a feature of many human cancers that can be targeted therapeutically. Phosphopeptide enrichment is a critical step for maximizing the depth of phosphoproteome coverage by MS, but remains challenging for tissue specimens because of their high complexity. We describe the first analysis of a tissue phosphoproteome using polymer-based metal ion affinity capture (PolyMAC), a nanopolymer that has excellent yield and specificity for phosphopeptide enrichment, on a transgenic mouse model of HER2-driven breast cancer. By combining phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitation with PolyMAC, 411 unique peptides with 139 phosphotyrosine, 45 phosphoserine, and 29 phosphothreonine sites were identified from five LC-MS/MS runs. Combining reverse phase liquid chromatography fractionation at pH 8.0 with PolyMAC identified 1571 unique peptides with 1279 phosphoserine, 213 phosphothreonine, and 21 phosphotyrosine sites from eight LC-MS/MS runs. Linear motif analysis indicated that many of the phosphosites correspond to well-known phosphorylation motifs. Analysis of the tyrosine phosphoproteome with the Drug Gene Interaction database uncovered a network of potential therapeutic targets centered on Src family kinases with inhibitors that are either FDA-approved or in clinical development. These results demonstrate that PolyMAC is well suited for phosphoproteomic analysis of tissue specimens. PMID:24723360

Searleman, Adam C.; Iliuk, Anton B.; Collier, Timothy S.; Chodosh, Lewis A.; Tao, W. Andy; Bose, Ron

2014-01-01

297

Spatial prediction of habitat overlap of introduced and native thistles to identify potential areas of nontarget activity of biological control agents.  

PubMed

Nontarget feeding of Rhinocyllus conicus Frelich and Trichosirocalus horridus (Panzer) on native North American thistles in the genus Cirsium has been documented. Some species of these native thistles have shown greater infestation levels of R. conicus in populations that are in close proximity to the target plant species, Carduus nutans L. In 2005 a study was initiated to identify areas of potential nontarget feeding by R. conicus and T. horridus on thistle species by predicting habitats of two known introduced hosts [C. nutans and Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore] and two native species [Cirsium carolinianum (Walter) Fernald and Schubert and C. discolor (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Sprengel] using Mahalanobis distance (D(2)). Cumulative frequency graphs showed that the D(2) models for all four plant species effectively identified site conditions that contribute to the presence of the respective species. Poisson regression showed an association between D(2) values and plant counts at field-test sites for C. nutans and C. carolinianum. However, negative binomial regression detected no association between D(2) values and plant counts for C. discolor or C. vulgare. Chi-square analysis indicated associations between both weevil species and sites where C. vulgare and Carduus nutans were found, but not between the weevil and native thistle species. Habitats of C. nutans and Cirsium carolinianum overlapped in ?12% of the study area. Data-based habitat models may provide a powerful tool for land managers and scientists to monitor native plant populations for nontarget feeding by introduced biological control agents. PMID:22182552

Wiggins, G J; Grant, J F; Lambdin, P L; Ranney, Jack W; Wilkerson, J B; van Manen, F T

2010-12-01

298

Relative abundance and treatment reduction of viruses during wastewater treatment processes--identification of potential viral indicators.  

PubMed

Waterborne pathogenic viruses discharged from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) pose potential public health risks. In the present study, we investigated the relative abundance, occurrence, and reduction of eleven different viruses at two WWTPs in southern Arizona over a 12-month period, from August 2011 to July 2012. Influent and effluent samples from the two WWTPs were collected monthly. Viruses were concentrated using an electronegative filter method and quantified using TaqMan-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for each of the virus types (i.e., genogroup I, II and IV noroviruses, sapovirus, enterovirus, group A rotavirus, Aichi virus, pepper mild mottle virus, adenovirus, and JC and BK polyomaviruses), with murine norovirus internal control for the monitoring of extraction-RT-qPCR efficiencies. The pepper mild mottle virus, a plant virus, was found to be the most prevalent virus in both influent and effluent wastewater (annual mean concentration of 3.7-4.410(6) copies/L and 4.6-6.310(5) copies/L in influent and effluent wastewater, respectively), showing a low reduction by the treatment processes (0.76-0.99 annual mean log10 reduction), and no significant seasonal change in concentration. Aichi virus, a human enteric virus, was also found in greater abundance, and showed lower reduction during wastewater treatment than other human enteric viruses. Our results suggest that these viruses could be used as potential indicators of wastewater reclamation system performance, with respect to virus occurrence and removal. PMID:24836386

Kitajima, Masaaki; Iker, Brandon C; Pepper, Ian L; Gerba, Charles P

2014-08-01

299

Temperature Dependence of Magnetic Susceptibility as a Potential indicator of fine-scale oxyexsolution in igneous rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rock magnetic characterization is an essential prerequisite for paleomagnetic research. David Dunlop's contributions in rock magnetism have provided a better understanding of the fundamental physical processes related to natural remanent magnetizations, greatly facilitating the application of such magnetizations to geological and geophysical questions. Here we report an apparent conflict between scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and magnetic analyses of mafic dikes cutting the ~3.2 Ga Kaap Valley Pluton (South Africa). At face value, the SEM data suggest that the magnetic remanence carrier is homogeneous titanomagnetite of intermediate composition (x ~ 0.4-0.5). Such a carrier should have Curie temperatures of ~350-400 degrees C. In contrast, the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility (k) reveals the presence of a magnetic phase with a Curie temperature close to 585 C, consistent with pure magnetite. A characteristic peak observed at -153 C, associated with the Verwey transition, further indicates high magnetite stoichiometry. Irreversibility of k(T) curves was observed upon heating and cooling in argon. On heating, the samples show a gradual increase of k with a pronounced Hopkinson peak, followed by a sharp decrease to the Curie temperature. However, on cooling, the Hopkinson peak disappears and the k(T) values trace a curve lower than the heating curve, with a broad maximum at 350-450 C. We interpret the observed k(T) behavior as reflecting the presence of very fine magnetite-ilmenite intergrowths produced by oxyexsolution. We speculate that the k(T) irreversibility may be caused by partial homogenization of the intergrowths upon heating. We suggest that the intergrowths were not identified using conventional SEM analysis because of their very small (<50 nm) size. This interpretation is supported by analyses using a high-resolution field-emission gun scanning electron microscope. Because of the characteristic changes with heating, we further propose that k(T) data may be a sensitive indicator of fine-scale oxyexsolution in some igneous rocks.

Smirnov, A. V.; Bauch, D. G.; Tarduno, J. A.

2005-12-01

300

Investigation of topical application of procyanidin B-2 from apple to identify its potential use as a hair growing agent.  

PubMed

Procyanidin B-2 is a polyphenol compound we have identified in apple which acts as a hair-growing factor in the murine model both in vitro and in vivo. This report describes our investigation of the effects of 1% procyanidin B-2 tonic on human hair growth after sequential use for 6 months. A double-blind clinical test involving a total of 29 subjects was performed. Nineteen men in the procyanidin B-2 group and 10 men in the placebo control group were subjected to analyses. No adverse side effects were observed in either group. The hair-growing effect was evaluated using a macrophotography technique combined with measurements of the hair diameter of clipped hairs. The increase in number of total hairs in the designated scalp area (0.5 cm square = 0.25 cm2 area) of procyanidin B-2 group subjects after the 6-month trial was significantly greater than that of the placebo control group subjects (procyanidin B-2, 6.68 +/- 5.53 (mean +/- SD)/0.25 cm2; placebo, 0.08 +/- 4.56 (mean +/- SD)/0.25 cm2; P < 0.005, two-sample t test). The increase in number of terminal hairs, which are defined as hairs more than 60 microm in diameter, in the designated area (0.5 cm square = 0.25 cm2 area) of the procyanidin B-2 group subjects after the 6-month trial was significantly greater than that of the placebo control group subjects (procyanidin B-2, 1.99 +/- 2.58 (mean +/- SD)/0.25 cm2; placebo, -0.82 +/- 3.40 (mean +/- SD)/0.25 cm2; P < 0.02, two-sample t test). Procyanidin B-2 therapy shows potential as a safe and promising cure for male pattern baldness. PMID:11194183

Kamimura, A; Takahashi, T; Watanabe, Y

2000-12-01

301

Potential and Limitations of Satellite Data to Identify Deaths of Individual Trees in a Central American Tropical Rain Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logistical constraints on sample size and spatial scale limit individual-based field research on tropical trees. With remote sensing data, we may escape these limitations if fates of individuals can be tracked rigorously. We assessed the potential of readily available, commercial satellite data (QuickBird, 0.7 m pixels) obtained in 2003, to track the fate of individual crowns (> 40 m height) in tropical rain forest at La Selva, Costa Rica. The positions and shapes of these crowns in 1997 had been established using small-footprint LiDAR data with field verification. We focused first on a subset (n=180) of trees monitored in the field over the period 1997-2003. For the 60% of those trees whose crown positions and shapes could be tracked with confidence in the satellite image, we correctly recorded all 3 actual deaths. But we also incorrectly assigned 4 additional deaths to living individuals, due to the abundance of dark pixels in their crown areas. For the 40% of field-monitored trees for which our tracking in the satellite data was less confident (due to lack of image clarity), we correctly identified the one real death event, but incorrectly assigned 6 additional deaths to living trees. Thus, for the field-monitored trees, we grossly overestimated mortality in the satellite image (by 350%). Although currently available high resolution satellite imagery was not adequate for reliable monitoring of individuals, even for the largest forest trees, time series satellite data, rather than time series LiDAR to satellite data, might provide unbiased estimates of overall tree mortality rates if errors compensate. Satellite data may be also be useful as a labor and time saving complement to fieldwork on individual forest trees.

Thomas, R. Q.; Kellner, J. R.; Peart, D. R.

2005-12-01

302

Potential hazards to embryo implantation: A human endometrial in vitro model to identify unwanted antigestagenic actions of chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Embryo implantation is a crucial step in human reproduction and depends on the timely development of a receptive endometrium. The human endometrium is unique among adult tissues due to its dynamic alterations during each menstrual cycle. It hosts the implantation process which is governed by progesterone, whereas 17?-estradiol regulates the preceding proliferation of the endometrium. The receptors for both steroids are targets for drugs and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Chemicals with unwanted antigestagenic actions are potentially hazardous to embryo implantation since many pharmaceutical antiprogestins adversely affect endometrial receptivity. This risk can be addressed by human tissue-specific in vitro assays. As working basis we compiled data on chemicals interacting with the PR. In our experimental work, we developed a flexible in vitro model based on human endometrial Ishikawa cells. Effects of antiprogestin compounds on pre-selected target genes were characterized by sigmoidal concentrationresponse curves obtained by RT-qPCR. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) was identified as the most responsive target gene by microarray analysis. The agonistic effect of progesterone on SULT1E1 mRNA was concentration-dependently antagonized by RU486 (mifepristone) and ZK137316 and, with lower potency, by 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin. The negative control methyl acetoacetate showed no effect. The effects of progesterone and RU486 were confirmed on the protein level by Western blotting. We demonstrated proof of principle that our Ishikawa model is suitable to study quantitatively effects of antiprogestin-like chemicals on endometrial target genes in comparison to pharmaceutical reference compounds. This test is useful for hazard identification and may contribute to reduce animal studies. -- Highlights: ? We compare progesterone receptor-mediated endometrial effects of chemicals and drugs. ? 4-Nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin exert weak antigestagenic activity. ? SULT1E1 is a significant marker for endometrial antiprogestin effects. ? Ishikawa cells are a tissue-specific approach for characterization of SPRMs. ? Chemicals acting as progesterone receptor antagonists may exert antifertility effects.

Fischer, L.; Deppert, W.R. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Pfeifer, D. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)] [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Stanzel, S.; Weimer, M. [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)] [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Hanjalic-Beck, A.; Stein, A.; Straer, M.; Zahradnik, H.P. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Schaefer, W.R., E-mail: wolfgang.schaefer@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)

2012-05-01

303

Potential of Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit to identify precipitating systems and associated upper-level features in the Mediterranean region: Case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) observations to identify and characterize precipitating systems in the Mediterranean region is explored. Single channels or combination channels from AMSU-A are used to detect and locate upper level potential vorticity anomalies that are often associated with intensification of surface low systems and occurrence of extreme events, while AMSU-B data is used

B. M. Funatsu; C. Claud; J.-P. Chaboureau

2007-01-01

304

Identifying potentially active volcanoes in the Andes: Radiometric evidence for late Pleistocene-early Holocene eruptions at Volcn Imbabura, Ecuador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent eruptions from volcanoes with no previously known historical activity in Chile and Indonesia have raised the importance of the early identification of potentially active centers for the purpose of hazard assessment. Here we bring radiometric evidence ( 14 C, 39Ar- 40Ar) of previously unrecognized but significant magmatic activity at partly eroded Imbabura volcano (Ecuador) in late Pleistocene to early Holocene times, on whose perimeter live more than 300,000 persons. Following an effusive stage from 50 to 30 ka with the emplacement of andesitic lava flows on different flanks of its edifice, the activity became explosive with the generation of andesitic block-and-ash flows on its eastern side, beginning at ~ 35 ka cal BP. Subsequently a flank collapse associated with a volcanic blast occurred on the volcano's SW flank at ~ 30 ka cal BP. The resulting debris avalanche and blast breccias cover an area now heavily populated around San Pablo Lake and its source was later concealed by successive dome building episodes at Huarmi which produced ~ 2.8 km 3 of silicic andesite. Renewed dome activity at the edifice's Taita summit occurred at ~ 17 ka cal BP and continued intermittently into early Holocene times, as indicated by pyroclastic flow deposits overlying a palaeosoil dated at ~ 9 ka cal BP. In summary, this study reveals an eruptive behavior characterized by a low recurrence rate but with quite large eruptions, a pattern which is also observed at other silicic volcanoes of Ecuador's Western Cordillera. It is now imperative to reconsider the origin and source of the many tephra layers catalogued in Holocene lacustrine sediments in the Imbabura area. Tephra and lava volume estimates for Imbabura volcano converted to Dense Rock Equivalent values yield a minimum magmatic output rate of 0.13 km 3/ka in the past 35,000 years, which argues for sustained magma production for this volcano in recent geological times. The Imbabura example thus raises the question of how to improve population preparedness for volcanoes with infrequent eruptions, and how to guide authorities' decisions concerning the development of urban areas and infrastructures near presently inactive but potentially highly dangerous volcanoes.

Le Pennec, J. L.; Ruiz, A. G.; Eissen, J. P.; Hall, M. L.; Fornari, M.

2011-09-01

305

Bioavailability and soil-to-plant transfer factors as indicators of potentially toxic element contamination in agricultural soils.  

PubMed

Soil pollution in agricultural lands poses a serious threat to food safety, and suggests the need for consolidated methods providing advisory indications for soil management and crop production. In this work, the three-step extraction procedure developed by the EU Measurement and Testing Programme and two soil-to-plant transfer factors (relative to total and bioavailable concentration of elements in soil) were applied on polluted agricultural soils from southern Italy to obtain information on the retention mechanisms of metals in soils and on their level of translocation to edible vegetables. The study was carried out in the Sarno river plain of Campania, an area affected by severe environmental degradation potentially impacting the health of those consuming locally produced vegetables. Soil samples were collected in 36 locations along the two main rivers flowing into the plain. In 11 sites, lettuce plants were collected at the normal stage of consumption. According to Italian environmental law governing residential soils, and on the basis of soil background reference values for the study area, we found diffuse pollution by Be, Sn and Tl, of geogenic origin, Cr and Cu from anthropogenic sources such as tanneries and intensive agriculture, and more limited pollution by Pb, Zn and V. It was found that metals polluting soils as a result of human activities were mainly associated to residual, oxidizable and reducible phases, relatively immobile and only potentially bioavailable to plants. By contrast, the essential elements Zn and Cu showed a tendency to become more readily mobile and bioavailable as their total content in soil increased and were more easily transported to the edible parts of lettuce than other pollutants. According to our results, current soil pollution in the studied area does not affect the proportion of metals taken up by lettuce plants and there is a limited health risk incurred. PMID:25217740

Adamo, Paola; Iavazzo, Pietro; Albanese, Stefano; Agrelli, Diana; De Vivo, Benedetto; Lima, Annamaria

2014-12-01

306

The relationship between small learning communities and student performance as identified by the Academic Excellence Indicator System at Robert E. Lee High School in North East Independent School District, San Antonio, Texas  

E-print Network

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SMALL LEARNING COMMUNITIES AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE AS IDENTIFIED BY THE ACADEMIC EXCELLENCE INDICATOR SYSTEM AT ROBERT E. LEE HIGH SCHOOL IN NORTH EAST INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICT, SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS A Record... THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SMALL LEARNING COMMUNITIES AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE AS IDENTIFIED BY THE ACADEMIC EXCELLENCE INDICATOR SYSTEM AT ROBERT E. LEE HIGH SCHOOL IN NORTH EAST INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICT, SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS A Record of Study by BOBBIE JO...

Turnbo, Bobbie Jo

2008-10-10

307

Early event-related potentials indicate context-specific target processing for eye and hand motor systems?  

PubMed Central

Concurrent eye and hand movements toward a common visual target require different motor programs based on identical visual input. We used event-related brain potentials (ERP) to determine if and when the processing of the visual target differs for the two motor systems. The N2, an index for target evaluation, was more negative for the target of a hand than of an eye movement in two experiments. A possible interpretation for this finding is different visual target processing. Targets for hand movements require a different weighting of visual information, for example concerning features such as surface structure which are important for hand but not for eye movements. In experiment 2, the early C1-component, which had an average maximum at 67 ms following target onset, was significantly more negative when subjects pointed at the stimuli. Traditionally, the C1 has been regarded as a sensory component, but recent studies have linked it to higher order processing, such as attention and expectations. Thus, the present data indicate that target processing for eye or hand movements is already context-specific during early visual information processing. We suggest that differences in a targets relevance for upcoming movements modify target processing as well as sensory expectations. PMID:23968690

Wehrspaun, Claudia C.; Pfabigan, Daniela M.; Sailer, Uta

2013-01-01

308

Marsh soils as potential sinks for Bacteroides fecal indicator bacteria, Waccamaw National Wildlife Refuge, Georgetown, SC, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A soil core collected in a tidal freshwater marsh in the Waccamaw National Wildlife Refuge (Georgetown, SC) exuded a particularly strong odor of cow manure upon extrusion. In order to test for manure and determine its provenance, we carried out microbial source tracking using DNA markers for Bacteroides, a noncoliform, anaerobic bacterial group that represents a broad group of the fecal population. Three core sections from 0-3 cm, 9-12 cm and 30-33 were analyzed for the presence of Bacteroides. The ages of core sediments were estimated using 210Pb and 137Cs dating. All three core sections tested positive for Bacteroides DNA markers related to cow or deer feces. Because cow manure is stockpiled, used as fertilizer, and a source of direct contamination in the Great Pee Dee River/Winyah Bay watershed, it is very likely the source of the Bacteroides that was deposited on the marsh. The mid-points of the core sections were dated as follows: 0-3 cm: 2009; 9-12 cm: 1999, and 30-33 cm: 1961. The presence of Bacteroides at different depths/ages in the soil profile indicates that soils in tidal freshwater marshes are, at the least, capable of being short-term sinks for Bacteroides and, may have the potential to be long-term sinks of stable, naturalized populations.

Drexler, Judith; Johnson, Heather E.; Duris, Joseph W.; Krauss, Ken W.

2014-01-01

309

Laparoscopic surgical skills training: an investigation of the potential of using surgeons' visual search behaviour as a performance indicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laparoscopic surgery is a difficult perceptual-motor task and effective and efficient training in the technique is important. Viewing previously recorded laparoscopic operations is a possible available training technique for surgeons to increase their knowledge of such minimal access surgery (MAS). It is not well known whether this is a useful technique, how effective it is or what effect it has on the surgeon watching the recorded video. As part of an on-going series of studies into laparoscopic surgery, an experiment was conducted to examine whether surgical skill level has an effect on the visual search behaviour of individuals of different surgical experience when they examine such imagery. Medically naive observers, medical students, junior surgeons and experienced surgeons viewed a laparoscopic recording of a recent operation. Initial examination of the recorded eye movement data indicated commonalities between all observers, largely irrespective of surgical experience. This, it is argued, is due to visual search in this situation largely being driven by the dynamic nature of the images. The data were then examined in terms of surgical steps and also in terms of interventions when differences were found related to surgical experience. Consequently, it is argued that monitoring the eye movements of trainee surgeons whilst they watch pre-recorded operations is a potential useful adjunct to existing training regimes.

Chen, Yan; Dong, Leng; Gale, Alastair G.; Rees, Benjamin; Maxwell-Armstrong, Charles

2014-03-01

310

Selection of a water-extractable phosphorus test for manures and biosolids as an indicator of runoff loss potential.  

PubMed

The correlation of runoff phosphorus (P) with water-extractable phosphorus (WEP) in land-applied manures and biosolids has spurred wide use of WEP as a water quality indicator. Land managers, planners, and researchers need a common WEP protocol to consistently use WEP in nutrient management. Our objectives were to (i) identify a common WEP protocol with sufficient accuracy and precision to be adopted by commercial testing laboratories and (ii) confirm that the common protocol is a reliable index of runoff P. Ten laboratories across North America evaluated alternative protocols with an array of manure and biosolids samples. A single laboratory analyzed all samples and conducted a separate runoff study with the manures and biosolids. Extraction ratio (solution:solids) was the most important factor affecting WEP, with WEP increasing from 10:1 to 100:1 and increasing from 100:1 to 200:1. When WEP was measured by a single laboratory, correlations with runoff P from packed soil boxes amended with manure and biosolids ranged from 0.79 to 0.92 across all protocol combinations (extraction ratio, filtration method, and P determination method). Correlations with P in runoff were slightly lower but significant when WEP was measured by the 10 labs (r=0.56-0.86). Based on laboratory repeatability and water quality evaluation criteria, we recommend the following common protocol: 100:1 extraction ratio; 1-h shaking and centrifuge 10 min at 1500xg (filter with Whatman #1 paper if necessary); and determining P by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry or colorimetric methods. PMID:17636298

Kleinman, Peter; Sullivan, Dan; Wolf, Ann; Brandt, Robin; Dou, Zhengxia; Elliott, Herschel; Kovar, John; Leytem, April; Maguire, Rory; Moore, Philip; Saporito, Lou; Sharpley, Andrew; Shober, Amy; Sims, Tom; Toth, John; Toor, Gurpal; Zhang, Hailin; Zhang, Tiequan

2007-01-01

311

Differential transcript regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana and the halotolerant Lobularia maritima indicates genes with potential function in plant salt adaptation.  

PubMed

Salt stress is an environmental factor that severely impairs plant growth and productivity. Salinity-induced transcript accumulation was monitored in the salt-sensitive Arabidopsis thaliana and the related salt-tolerant Lobularia maritima using cDNA-arrays with expressed sequence tags derived from a cDNA subtraction library of salt-stressed L. maritima. The expression profiles revealed differences of the steady state transcript regulation in A. thaliana and L. maritima in response to salt stress. The differentially expressed transcripts include those involved in the control of gene expression as a transcription factor II homologue as well as signal transduction elements such as a serine/threonine protein kinase, a SNF1-related protein kinase AKIN10 homologue, and protein phosphatase 2C. Other ESTs with differential regulation patterns included transcripts encoding proteins with function in general stress responses and defense and included a peroxidase, dehydrins, enzymes of lipid and nitrogen metabolism, and functionally unclassified proteins. In a more detailed analysis the basic leucine zipper transcription factor AtbZIP24 showed differential transcript abundance in A. thaliana and L. maritima in response to salt stress. Transgenic AtbZIP24-RNAi lines showed improved growth and development under salt stress that was correlated with changed Cl(-) accumulation. The data indicate that AtbZIP24 functions as a transcriptional repressor in salt-stressed A. thaliana that negatively regulates growth and development under salinity in context of controlling Cl(-) homeostasis. Monitoring the differential and tissue specific global regulation of gene expression during adaptation to salinity in salt-sensitive and halotolerant plants is a promising and powerful approach to identify novel elements of plant salt stress adaptation. PMID:18703123

Popova, Olga V; Yang, Oksoon; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Golldack, Dortje

2008-11-01

312

Different methanotrophic potentials in stratified polar fjord waters (Storfjorden, Spitsbergen) identified by using a combination of methane oxidation techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bacterially mediated aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) is a key mechanism in controlling methane (CH4) emissions from the world's oceans to the atmosphere. In this study, we investigated MOx in the Arctic fjord Storfjorden (Spitsbergen) by applying a combination of radio-tracer based incubation assays (3H-CH4 and 14H-CH4), stable C-CH4 isotope measurements, and molecular tools (16S rRNA DGGE-fingerprinting, pmoA- and mxaF gene analyses). Strofjorden is stratified in the summertime with melt water (MW) in the upper 60 m of the water column, Arctic water (ArW) between 60-100 m and brine-enriched shelf water (BSW) down to 140 m. CH4 concentrations were supersaturated with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium (∼3 nM) throughout the water column, increasing from ∼20 nM at the surface to a maximum of 72 nM at 60 m and decreasing below. MOx rate measurements at near in situ CH4 concentrations (here measured with 3H-CH4 raising the ambient CH4 pool by <2 nM) showed a similar trend: low rates at the sea surface increasing to a maximum of ∼2.3 nM d-1 at 60 m followed by a decrease in the deeper ArW/BSW. In contrast, rate measurements with 14H-CH4 at elevated CH4 concentrations (incubations were spiked with ∼450 nM of 14H-CH4, providing an estimate of the CH4 oxidation potential) showed comparably low turnover rates (<1 nMd-1) at 60 m, but peaked in ArW/BSW at ∼100 m water depth, concomitant with increasing 14C-values in the residual CH4 pool. Our results indicate that the MOx community in the surface MW is adapted to relatively low CH4 concentrations. In contrast, the activity of the deep water MOx community is relatively low at the ambient, summertime CH4 concentrations but has the potential to increase rapidly in response to CH4 availability. A similar distinction between surface and deep water MOx is also suggested by our molecular analyses. Although, we found pmoA and maxF gene sequences throughout the water column attesting the ubiquitous presence of MOx communities in Storfjorden, deep water amplicons of pmoA and maxF were unusually long. Also a DGGE band related to the known Type I MOx Mehtylosphera was observed in deep BWS, but absent in surface MW. Apparently, different MOx communities have developed in the stratified water masses in Storfjorden, which is possibly related to the spatiotemporal variability in CH4 supply to the distinct water masses.

Mau, S.; Blees, J.; Helmke, E.; Niemann, H.; Damm, E.

2013-04-01

313

Geochemical indicators of depositional environment and soruce-rock potential for the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa Group, Illinois basin  

SciTech Connect

Two depositional cycles are recognized within the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa Group of the Illinois basin in a core from the New Jersey Zinc 1 Parrish well of Fulton County, Illinois. Organic carbon (C[sub org]), total sulfur, [sup 13]C content of the organic carbon ([delta][sup 13]C[sub org]), hydrogen and oxygen indices (HI and OI) from Rock-Eval pyrolysis and yields of extractable organic matter (EOM) vary through the cycles. Dark-brown to black, laminated shales are present in the lower portion of each cycle and have high values of C[sub org] (1.0-3.0%), HI (500-1000 mg hydrocarbon [HC]/g total organic carbon[TOC]), and EOM (500-2500 ppm), and more negative [delta][sup 13]C[sub org] values ([delta][sup 13]C[sub org] = -30 to -30.5%). Gray to greenish-gray, bioturbated shales are present in the upper portion of each cycle and have low values of C[sub org] (<1.0%), HI (<500 mg HC/g TOC), and EOM (<500 ppm), and more positive [delta][sup 13]C[sub org] values (-28.5 to 29.5%) compared to the laminated shales. Although thermally immature or marginally mature in this core, the laminated shales represent potential source rock s for petroleum because they contain good to excellent quantities of oil-prone organic matter and are more deeply buried in other areas of the basin. Kerogen elemental data and Rock-Eval data suggest that the source of organic matter in the Maquoketa was uniform, with the notable exception of graptolite-rich layers. Distributions of saturated hydrocarbons for Maquoketa samples resemble those derived from amorphous organic matter. Variations in bulk geochemical data and carbon isotopic compositions within the Maquoketa Group indicate substantial reworking and degradation of organic matter associated with bioturbation and oxygenated depositional conditions. 64 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Guthrie, J.M.; Pratt, L.M. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States))

1994-05-01

314

Transport of chemical and microbial compounds from known wastewater discharges: Potential for use as indicators of human fecal contamination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently (2005) determined using indicator bacteria. However, the culture tests used to analyze forthese bacteria require a long time to complete and do not discriminate between human and animal fecal material sources. One complementary approach is to use chemicals found in human wastewater, which would have the advantages of (1) potentially shorter analysis times than the bacterial culture tests and (2) being selected for human-source specificity. At 10 locations, water samples were collected upstream and at two successive points downstream from a wastewaster treatment plant (WWTP); a treated effluent sample was also collected at each WWTP. This sampling plan was used to determine the persistence of a chemically diverse suite of emerging contaminants in streams. Samples were also collected at two reference locations assumed to have minimal human impacts. Of the 110 chemical analytes investigated in this project, 78 were detected at least once. The number of compounds in a given sample ranged from 3 at a reference location to 50 in a WWTP effluent sample. The total analyte load at each location varied from 0.018 ??g/L at the reference location to 97.7 ??g/L in a separate WWTP effluent sample. Although most of the compound concentrations were in the range of 0.01-1.0 ??g/L, in some samples, individual concentrations were in the range of 5-38 ??g/L The concentrations of the majority of the chemicals present in the samples generally followed the expected trend: they were either nonexistent or at trace levels in the upstream samples, had their maximum concentrations in the WWTP effluent samples, and then declined in the two downstream samples. This research suggests that selected chemicals are useful as tracers of human wastewater discharge. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

Glassmeyer, S.T.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Cahill, J.D.; Zaugg, S.D.; Werner, S.L.; Meyer, M.T.; Kryak, D.D.

2005-01-01

315

Identifying Potential Mediators and Moderators of the Association between Child Maltreatment and Bullying Perpetration and Victimization in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of literature is demonstrating associations between childhood maltreatment and bullying involvement at school. In this literature review, four potential mediators (explanatory) and three potential moderators (mitigates or exacerbates) of the association between childhood maltreatment and school bullying are proposed. Mediators

Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Allen-Meares, Paula

2012-01-01

316

Identifying potential areas for biofuel production and evaluating the environmental effects: a case study of the James River Basin in the Midwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biofuels are now an important resource in the United States because of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Both increased corn growth for ethanol production and perennial dedicated energy crop growth for cellulosic feedstocks are potential sources to meet the rising demand for biofuels. However, these measures may cause adverse environmental consequences that are not yet fully understood. This study 1) evaluates the long-term impacts of increased frequency of corn in the crop rotation system on water quantity and quality as well as soil fertility in the James River Basin and 2) identifies potential grasslands for cultivating bioenergy crops (e.g. switchgrass), estimating the water quality impacts. We selected the soil and water assessment tool, a physically based multidisciplinary model, as the modeling approach to simulate a series of biofuel production scenarios involving crop rotation and land cover changes. The model simulations with different crop rotation scenarios indicate that decreases in water yield and soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration along with an increase in NO3-N load to stream water could justify serious concerns regarding increased corn rotations in this basin. Simulations with land cover change scenarios helped us spatially classify the grasslands in terms of biomass productivity and nitrogen loads, and we further derived the relationship of biomass production targets and the resulting nitrogen loads against switchgrass planting acreages. The suggested economically efficient (planting acreage) and environmentally friendly (water quality) planting locations and acreages can be a valuable guide for cultivating switchgrass in this basin. This information, along with the projected environmental costs (i.e. reduced water yield and increased nitrogen load), can contribute to decision support tools for land managers to seek the sustainability of biofuel development in this region.

Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Zhengpeng

2012-01-01

317

Bacterial Indicator Occurrence and the Use of an F + Specific RNA Coliphage Assay to Identify Fecal Sources in Homosassa Springs, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microbiological water quality study of Homosassa Springs State Wildlife Park (HSSWP) and surrounding areas was undertaken.\\u000a Samples were collected in November of 1997 (seven sites) and again in November of 1998 (nine sites). Fecal bacterial concentrations\\u000a (total and fecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens, and enterococci) were measured as relative indicators of fecal contamination. F+-specific coliphage genotyping was performed to determine

D. W. Griffin; R. Stokes; J. B. Rose; J. H. Paul III

2000-01-01

318

Analyzing indicator microorganisms, antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, and regrowth potential of foodborne pathogens in various organic fertilizers.  

PubMed

This study analyzed various organic fertilizers for indicator microorganisms, pathogens, and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli, and evaluated the growth potential of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in fertilizers. A microbiological survey was conducted on 103 organic fertilizers from across the United States. Moisture content ranged from approximately 1% to 86.4%, and the average pH was 7.77. The total aerobic mesophiles ranged from approximately 3 to 9 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g. Enterobacteriaceae populations were in the range of <1 to approximately 7 log CFU/g, while coliform levels varied from <1 to approximately 6 log CFU/g. Thirty samples (29%) were positive for E. coli, with levels reaching approximately 6 log CFU/g. There were no confirmed positives for E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, or Listeria monocytogenes. The majority of E. coli isolates (n=73), confirmed by glutamate decarboxylase (gad) PCR, were from group B1 (48%) and group A (32%). Resistance to 16 antibiotics was examined for 73 E. coli isolates, with 11 isolates having resistance to at least one antibiotic, 5 isolates to ? 2 antibiotics, and 2 isolates to ? 10 antibiotics. In the presence of high levels of background aerobic mesophiles, Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 grew approximately 1 log CFU/g within 1 day of incubation in plant-based compost and fish emulsion-based compost, respectively. With low levels of background aerobic mesophiles, Salmonella grew approximately 2.6, 3.0, 3.0, and 3.2 log CFU/g in blood, bone, and feather meals and the mixed-source fertilizer, respectively, whereas E. coli O157:H7 grew approximately 4.6, 4.0, 4.0, and 4.8 log CFU/g, respectively. Our results revealed that the microbiological quality of organic fertilizers varies greatly, with some fertilizers containing antibiotic resistant E. coli and a few supporting the growth of foodborne pathogens after reintroduction into the fertilizer. PMID:23614803

Miller, Cortney; Heringa, Spencer; Kim, Jinkyung; Jiang, Xiuping

2013-06-01

319

Myosin light chain 1 release from myofibrillar fraction during postmortem aging is a potential indicator of proteolysis and tenderness of beef.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify proteins in bovine longissimus dorsi muscle that are related to tenderness. Two dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was used to compare the sarcoplasmic fractions from steaks that differed in star probe values at 14 days postmortem. The intensity of myosin light chain 1 (MLC1) was greater in the sarcoplasmic fraction prepared from steaks that had lower star probe values. It was hypothesized that ?-calpain catalyzes the release MLC1 into the sarcoplasmic fraction. Myofibrils from beef longissimus dorsi were purified and incubated with ?-calpain and the appropriate buffer controls. ?-Calpain was added at 1.23 ?g (0.0875 U) of pure ?-calpain/mg myofibrillar protein. Incubations of one and 120 min had a greater abundance of MLC1 in the supernatants than the control incubations. As a consequence of ?-calpain proteolysis, MLC1 is rapidly released from the myofibril and is a potential indicator of proteolysis and improvement in beef tenderness. PMID:21889269

Anderson, M J; Lonergan, S M; Huff-Lonergan, E

2012-02-01

320

A novel cell-cycle-indicator, mVenus-p27K?, identifies quiescent cells and visualizes G0G1 transition  

PubMed Central

The quiescent (G0) phase of the cell cycle is the reversible phase from which the cells exit from the cell cycle. Due to the difficulty of defining the G0 phase, quiescent cells have not been well characterized. In this study, a fusion protein consisting of mVenus and a defective mutant of CDK inhibitor, p27 (p27K?) was shown to be able to identify and isolate a population of quiescent cells and to effectively visualize the G0 to G1 transition. By comparing the expression profiles of the G0 and G1 cells defined by mVenus-p27K?, we have identified molecular features of quiescent cells. Quiescence is also an important feature of many types of stem cells, and mVenus-p27K?-transgenic mice enabled the detection of the quiescent cells with muscle stem cell markers in muscle in vivo. The mVenus-p27K? probe could be useful in investigating stem cells as well as quiescent cells. PMID:24500246

Oki, Toshihiko; Nishimura, Koutarou; Kitaura, Jiro; Togami, Katsuhiro; Maehara, Akie; Izawa, Kumi; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Niida, Atsushi; Miyano, Satoru; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kitamura, Toshio

2014-01-01

321

Predatory Online Behavior: Modus Operandi of Convicted Sex Offenders in Identifying Potential Victims and Contacting Minors over the Internet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sex offenders have used the Internet to identify and contact minors for sexual exploitation (Armagh, 1998; Hernandez, 2000; Lamb, 1998; Lanning, 1998). Yet little is known about how these individuals select their online victims. In order to gain a better understanding of this behavior, the online activity of 31 men who perpetrated or attempted to

Malesky, L. Alvin, Jr.

2007-01-01

322

Development of Normal Human Colonocyte Cultures to Identify the Carcinogenic Potential of Priorty Disinfection By-products  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of disinfected surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Of the approximately >600 disinfection byproducts (DBPs) identified, the US EPA regulates 11 DBPs for an increased risk of cancer. An in-depth mechanism-...

323

Genome wide screens in yeast to identify potential binding sites and target genes of DNA-binding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of all binding sites for transcriptional activators and repressors is essential for compu- tationally aided identification of transcriptional networks. The techniques developed for defining the binding sites of transcription factors tend to be cumbersome and not adaptable to high throughput. We refined a versatile yeast strategy to rapidly and efficiently identify genomic targets of DNA-binding proteins. Yeast expressing a

Jue Zeng; Jizhou Yan; Ting Wang; Deborah Mosbrook-Davis; Kyle T. Dolan; Ryan Christenensen; Gary D. Stormo; David Haussler; Richard H. Lathrop; Rainer K. Brachmann; Shawn M. Burgess

2008-01-01

324

RECOVERY POTENTIAL AS A MEANS OF PRIORITIZING RESTORATION OF WATERS IDENTIFIED AS IMPAIRED UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT  

EPA Science Inventory

The sheer number of waterbodies identified as impaired under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act presents states with challenging decisions on which sites to address, in what order, and with what fraction of limited restoration resources. Our goal was to demonstrate a systemat...

325

Education in Universal Values in Technical Education at Identifying the purpose of human being so that unrealized potential of  

E-print Network

Education in Universal Values in Technical Education at NIT Raipur Purpose: Identifying the purpose with such abilities is value- based education. The rapid progress in science and technology has been accompanied the above role of technical education in country, National Resource Centre for Value Education

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

326

A vulnerability driven approach to identify adverse climate and land use change combinations for critical hydrologic indicator thresholds: Application to a watershed in Pennsylvania, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

uncertainties in streamflow projections derived from downscaled climate projections of precipitation and temperature can render such simulations of limited value for decision making in the context of water resources management. New approaches are being sought to provide decision makers with robust information in the face of such large uncertainties. We present an alternative approach that starts with the stakeholder's definition of vulnerable ranges for relevant hydrologic indicators. Then the modeled system is analyzed to assess under what conditions these thresholds are exceeded. The space of possible climates and land use combinations for a watershed is explored to isolate subspaces that lead to vulnerability, while considering model parameter uncertainty in the analysis. We implement this concept using classification and regression trees (CART) that separate the input space of climate and land use change into those combinations that lead to vulnerability and those that do not. We test our method in a Pennsylvania watershed for nine ecological and water resources related streamflow indicators for which an increase in temperature between 3C and 6C and change in precipitation between -17% and 19% is projected. Our approach provides several new insights, for example, we show that even small decreases in precipitation (5%) combined with temperature increases greater than 2.5C can push the mean annual runoff into a slightly vulnerable regime. Using this impact and stakeholder driven strategy, we explore the decision-relevant space more fully and provide information to the decision maker even if climate change projections are ambiguous.

Singh, R.; Wagener, T.; Crane, R.; Mann, M. E.; Ning, L.

2014-04-01

327

Minimizing invasive potential of Miscanthus giganteus grown for bioenergy: identifying demographic thresholds for population growth and spread  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Production of herbaceous perennial bioenergy crops in the north central region of the USA is being targeted primarily at marginal lands to avoid conflicts between food and fuel. A fundamental challenge for biofeedstock development is to evaluate and minimize the potential of such crops to escape cul...

328

Identifying Student Use of Ball-and-Stick Images versus Electrostatic Potential Map Images via Eye Tracking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study examined students' use of ball-and-stick images versus electrostatic potential maps when asked questions about electron density, positive charge, proton attack, and hydroxide attack with six different molecules (two alcohols, two carboxylic acids, and two hydroxycarboxylic acids). Students' viewing of these dual images

Williamson, Vickie M.; Hegarty, Mary; Deslongchamps, Ghislain; Williamson, Kenneth C., III

2013-01-01

329

A Comparison of Canopy Evapotranspiration for Maize and Two Perennial Grass Species Identified as Potential Bioenergy Crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Perennial rhizomatous grasses (PRGs) that utilize the C4 photosynthetic pathway are considered one of the most promising vegetation types to accommodate a cellulosic feedstock for renewable energy production. The potential widespread use of biomass crops for renewable energy production has sparked n...

330

Global Health Education: a cross-sectional study among German medical students to identify needs, deficits and potential benefits (Part 2 of 2: Knowledge gaps and potential benefits)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Germany, educational deficits or potential benefits involved in global health education have not been analysed till now. OBJECTIVE: We assess the importance medical students place on learning about social determinants of health (SDH) and assess their knowledge of global health topics in relation to (i) mobility patterns, their education in (ii) tropical medicine or (iii) global health. METHODS:

Kayvan Bozorgmehr; Johannes Menzel-Severing; Kirsten Schubert; Peter Tinnemann

2010-01-01

331

Microarray Analyses of Genes Regulated by Isoflurane Anesthesia In Vivo: A Novel Approach to Identifying Potential Preconditioning Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Background While general anesthetics are recognized for their potential to render patients unconscious during surgery, exposure can also lead to long-term outcomes of both cellular damage and protection. As regards the latter, delayed anesthetic preconditioning is an evolutionarily conserved physiological response that has the potential for protecting against ischemic injury in a number of tissues. While it is known that delayed preconditioning requires de novo protein synthesis, knowledge of anesthetic-regulated genes is incomplete. In this study we used the conserved nature of preconditioning to analyze differentially regulated genes in three different rat tissues. We hypothesized that by selecting those genes regulated in multiple tissues, we could develop a focused list of gene candidates potentially involved in delayed anesthetic preconditioning. Methods Young adult male Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized with a 2% isoflurane/98% air mixture for 90 min. Immediately after anesthetic exposure, animals were killed and liver, kidney and heart were removed and total RNA was isolated. Differential gene expression was determined using rat oligonucleotide gene arrays. Array data were analyzed to select for genes that were significantly regulated in multiple tissues. Results All three tissues showed differentially regulated genes in response to a clinically relevant exposure to isoflurane. Analysis of coordinately regulated genes yielded a focused list of 34 potential gene candidates with a range of ontologies including regulation of inflammation, modulation of apoptosis, regulation of ion gradients and maintenance of energy pathways. Conclusions We conclude that, through using an analysis approach focusing on coordinately regulated genes, we were able to generate a focused list of interesting gene candidates with potential to enable future preconditioning studies. PMID:23400992

Edmands, Scott D; Hall, Adam C.; LaDow, Eva

2012-01-01

332

Potential Usefulness of Multiple-Mammographic Views in Computer-Aided Diagnosis Scheme for Identifying Histological Classification of Clustered Microcalcification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of multiple-view mammograms in the computerized scheme for identifying\\u000a histological classifications. Our database consisted of mediolateral oblique (MLO) and craniocaudal (CC) magnification mammograms\\u000a obtained from 77 patients, which included 14 invasive carcinomas, 17 noninvasive carcinomas of comedo type, 17 noninvasive\\u000a carcinomas of noncomedo type, 14 mastopathies, and 15 fibroadenomas. Five

Ryohei Nakayama; Ryoji Watanabe; Kiyoshi Namba; Koji Yamamoto; Kan Takeda; Shigehiko Katsuragawa; Kunio Doi

2006-01-01

333

Diatom Communities and Metrics as Indicators of Urbanization Effects on Streams and Potential Moderation by Landscape Green Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

Diatoms are very useful and important indicators of anthropogenic impacts on streams because they are the foundation of primary production and are responsive to nutrients, conductivity, and habitat conditions. We characterized relationships of diatom assemblages with water chemis...

334

ISD97, a computer program to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity  

SciTech Connect

A computer program, ISD97, was developed to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity. The ISD97 code operates using a two-step process. A deconvolution of the data is carried out using the maximum entropy method, and a map of activity on the ground that fits the data within experimental error is generated. This maximum entropy map is then analyzed to determine the locations and magnitudes of potential areas of elevated activity that are consistent with the data. New deconvolutions are then carried out for each potential area of elevated activity identified by the code. Properties of the algorithm are demonstrated using data from actual field measurements.

Reginatto, M.; Shebell, P.; Miller, K.M.

1997-10-01

335

Potential and Limitations of Satellite Data to Identify Deaths of Individual Trees in a Central American Tropical Rain Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Logistical constraints on sample size and spatial scale limit individual-based field research on tropical trees. With remote sensing data, we may escape these limitations if fates of individuals can be tracked rigorously. We assessed the potential of readily available, commercial satellite data (QuickBird, 0.7 m pixels) obtained in 2003, to track the fate of individual crowns (> 40 m height)

R. Q. Thomas; J. R. Kellner; D. R. Peart

2005-01-01

336

The useful potential of using existing data to uniquely identify predictable wind events and regimes, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Correlations between standard meteorological data and wind power generation potential were developed. Combined with appropriate wind forecasts, these correlations can be useful to load dispatchers to supplement conventional energy sources. Hourly wind data were analyzed for four sites, each exhibiting a unique physiography. These sites are Amarillo, Texas; Ludington, Michigan; Montauk Point, New York; and San Gorgonio, California. Synoptic weather maps and tables are presented to illustrate various wind 'regimes' at these sites.

Trettel, D. W.; Aquino, J. T.; Piazza, T. R.; Taylor, L. E.; Trask, D. C.

1982-01-01

337

Using Simplified English to identify potential problems for non-native speakers in the language of engineering examination papers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing sensitivity to the challenges posed by the language of examination papers and of instruction in scientific subjects, especially for non-native speakers of English. It has been observed that in addition to technical subject-specific vocabulary, non-technical words such as instructional verbs have been sources of difficulty, and there are indications that other ordinary English words cause problems.

Sandra Harrison; Roger Morgan

2012-01-01

338

Big data in chemical toxicity research: the use of high-throughput screening assays to identify potential toxicants.  

PubMed

High-throughput screening (HTS) assays that measure the in vitro toxicity of environmental compounds have been widely applied as an alternative to in vivo animal tests of chemical toxicity. Current HTS studies provide the community with rich toxicology information that has the potential to be integrated into toxicity research. The available in vitro toxicity data is updated daily in structured formats (e.g., deposited into PubChem and other data-sharing web portals) or in an unstructured way (papers, laboratory reports, toxicity Web site updates, etc.). The information derived from the current toxicity data is so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using available database management tools or traditional data processing applications. For this reason, it is necessary to develop a big data approach when conducting modern chemical toxicity research. In vitro data for a compound, obtained from meaningful bioassays, can be viewed as a response profile that gives detailed information about the compound's ability to affect relevant biological proteins/receptors. This information is critical for the evaluation of complex bioactivities (e.g., animal toxicities) and grows rapidly as big data in toxicology communities. This review focuses mainly on the existing structured in vitro data (e.g., PubChem data sets) as response profiles for compounds of environmental interest (e.g., potential human/animal toxicants). Potential modeling and mining tools to use the current big data pool in chemical toxicity research are also described. PMID:25195622

Zhu, Hao; Zhang, Jun; Kim, Marlene T; Boison, Abena; Sedykh, Alexander; Moran, Kimberlee

2014-10-20

339

Periostin identified as a potential biomarker of prostate cancer by iTRAQ-proteomics analysis of prostate biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundProteomics may help us better understand the changes of multiple proteins involved in oncogenesis and progression of prostate\\u000a cancer(PCa) and identify more diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. The aim of this study was to screen biomarkers of PCa\\u000a by the proteomics analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification(iTRAQ).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsThe patients undergoing prostate biopsies were classified into 3 groups according

Chuanyu Sun; Chao Song; Zhicheng Ma; Ke Xu; Yang Zhang; Hong Jin; Shijun Tong; Weihong Ding; Guowei Xia; Qiang Ding

2011-01-01

340

Lightning potential forecast over Nanjing with denoised sounding-derived indices based on SSA and CS-BP neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of using the back propagation neural network improved by cuckoo search algorithm (hereafter CS-BP neural network) to forecast lightning occurrence from sounding-derived indices over Nanjing is presented. The general distribution features of lightning activities over Nanjing area are summarized and analyzed first. The sounding data of 156 thunderstorm days and 164 fair-weather days during the years 2007-2012 are used to calculate the values of sounding-derived indices. The indices are pre-filtered using singular spectrum analysis (hereafter SSA) as preprocessing technique and 4 most pertinent indices (namely CAPE, K, JI and SWEAT) are determined as inputs of CS-BP network by a linear bivariate analysis and selection algorithm. The cases of 2007-2010 are used to train CS-BP network and the cases of 2011-2012 are used as an independent sample to test the forecast performance. Some statistical skill score parameters (namely POD, SAR, CSI, et.al.) indicate that the CS-BP model excels in lightning forecasting and has a better performance compared with the traditional BP neural network and linear multiregression method.

Wang, Jun; Sheng, Zheng; Zhou, Bihua; Zhou, Shudao

2014-02-01

341

Identifying potential RNAi targets in grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) based on transcriptome profiling of its alimentary canal after feeding on wheat plants  

PubMed Central

Background The grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) is a major agricultural pest which causes significant yield losses of wheat in China, Europe and North America annually. Transcriptome profiling of the grain aphid alimentary canal after feeding on wheat plants could provide comprehensive gene expression information involved in feeding, ingestion and digestion. Furthermore, selection of aphid-specific RNAi target genes would be essential for utilizing a plant-mediated RNAi strategy to control aphids via a non-toxic mode of action. However, due to the tiny size of the alimentary canal and lack of genomic information on grain aphid as a whole, selection of the RNAi targets is a challenging task that as far as we are aware, has never been documented previously. Results In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and gene expression analyses of the alimentary canals of grain aphids before and after feeding on wheat plants using Illumina RNA sequencing. The transcriptome profiling generated 30,427 unigenes with an average length of 664bp. Furthermore, comparison of the transcriptomes of alimentary canals of pre- and post feeding grain aphids indicated that 5490 unigenes were differentially expressed, among which, diverse genes and/or pathways were identified and annotated. Based on the RPKM values of these unigenes, 16 of them that were significantly up or down-regulated upon feeding were selected for dsRNA artificial feeding assay. Of these, 5 unigenes led to higher mortality and developmental stunting in an artificial feeding assay due to the down-regulation of the target gene expression. Finally, by adding fluorescently labelled dsRNA into the artificial diet, the spread of fluorescence signal in the whole body tissues of grain aphid was observed. Conclusions Comparison of the transcriptome profiles of the alimentary canals of pre- and post-feeding grain aphids on wheat plants provided comprehensive gene expression information that could facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying feeding, ingestion and digestion. Furthermore, five novel and effective potential RNAi target genes were identified in grain aphid for the first time. This finding would provide a fundamental basis for aphid control in wheat through plant mediated RNAi strategy. PMID:23957588

2013-01-01

342

Rapid, potentially automatable, method extract biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to detect and identify BW agents  

SciTech Connect

The program proposes to concentrate on the rapid recovery of signature biomarkers based on automated high-pressure, high-temperature solvent extraction (ASE) and/or supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to produce lipids, nucleic acids and proteins sequentially concentrated and purified in minutes with yields especially from microeukaryotes, Gram-positive bacteria and spores. Lipids are extracted in higher proportions greater than classical one-phase, room temperature solvent extraction without major changes in lipid composition. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with or without derivatization, electrospray ionization (ESI) and highly specific detection by mass spectrometry (MS) particularly with (MS){sup n} provides the detection, identification and because the signature lipid biomarkers are both phenotypic as well as genotypic biomarkers, insights into potential infectivity of BW agents. Feasibility has been demonstrated with detection, identification, and determination of infectious potential of Cryptosporidium parvum at the sensitivity of a single oocyst (which is unculturable in vitro) and accurate identification and prediction, pathogenicity, and drug-resistance of Mycobacteria spp.

White, D.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Science Div.; Burkhalter, R.S.; Smith, C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology; Whitaker, K.W. [Microbial Insights, Inc., Rockford, TN (United States)

1997-12-31

343

TRANSPORT OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS FROM KNOWN WSTEWATER DISCHARGES: POTENTIAL CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently ascertained using indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci. However, the tests to analyze for these bacteria require 24 to 48 hours to complete, and do not discriminate between human and animal...

344

Cell-Based Small-Molecule Compound Screen Identifies Fenretinide as Potential Therapeutic for Translocation-Positive Rhabdomyosarcoma  

PubMed Central

A subset of paediatric sarcomas are characterized by chromosomal translocations encoding specific oncogenic transcription factors. Such fusion proteins represent tumor specific therapeutic targets although so far it has not been possible to directly inhibit their activity by small-molecule compounds. In this study, we hypothesized that screening a small-molecule library might identify already existing drugs that are able to modulate the transcriptional activity of PAX3/FOXO1, the fusion protein specifically found in the pediatric tumor alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS). Towards this end, we established a reporter cell line based on the well characterized PAX3/FOXO1 target gene AP2. A library enriched in mostly FDA approved drugs was screened using specific luciferase activity as read-out and normalized for cell viability. The most effective inhibitor identified from this screen was Fenretinide. Treatment with this compound resulted in down-regulation of PAX3/FOXO1 mRNA and protein levels as well as in reduced expression of several of its direct target genes, but not of wild-type FOXO1, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, fenretinide induced reactive oxygen species and apoptosis as shown by caspase 9 and PARP cleavage and upregulated miR-9. Importantly, it demonstrated a significant anti-tumor effect in vivo. These results are similar to earlier reports for two other pediatric tumors, namely neuroblastoma and Ewing sarcoma, where fenretinide is under clinical development. Our results suggest that fenretinide might represent a novel treatment option also for translocation-positive rhabdomyosarcoma. PMID:23372815

Herrero Martn, David; Boro, Aleksandar; Schfer, Beat W.

2013-01-01

345

The useful potential of using existing data to uniquely identify predictable wind events and regimes, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind data from four sites were stratified and found to naturally fit into a few unique groups. These were compared with synoptic weather patterns using the Booz-Allen classification system. Strong relationships became evident between a particular synoptic type and wind events for each site. Statistics indicate certain patterns which result in strong winds and some that result in weak winds. For each site there is a preferred wind direction associated with the strongest speed. Important relationships were also found comparing 850-mb and surface wind. Additionally, comparisons between pressure gradient and wind speed for a given gradient direction show some significant relationships. It can be stated that the overall results show what by using existing data for any site, the winds can be characterized and correlated with synoptic weather patterns. As a result, reliable wind forecasts can be made for utility companies for the purpose of power generation.

Notis, C.

1982-01-01

346

Identifying potential receptors and routes of contaminant exposure in the traditional territory of the Ouje-Bougoumou Cree: land use and a geographical information system.  

PubMed

Great concern has been raised with respect to the 13 traplines that constitute the traditional territory of the Ouje-Bougoumou Cree located in the James Bay region of northern Quebec, Canada, with respect to mine wastes originating from three local mines. As a result, an "Integrative Risk Assessment" was initiated consisting of three interrelated components: a comprehensive human health study, an assessment of the existing ecological/environmental database, and a land use/potential sites of concern study. In this paper, we document past and present land use in the traditional territory of the Ouje-Bougoumou Cree for 72 heads of households, including 13 tallymen, and use a Geographic Information System (GIS) to layer harvest/hunting and gathering/collecting data over known mining areas and potential sites of concern. In this way, potential receptors of contamination and routes of human exposure were identified. Areas of overlap with respect to land use activity and mining operations were relatively extensive for certain harvesting activities (e.g., beaver, Castor canadensis and various species of game birds), less so for fish harvesting (all species) and water collection, and relatively restrictive for large mammal harvesting and collection of fire wood (and other collection activities). Potential receptors of contaminants associated with mining activity (e.g., fish and small mammals) and potential routes of exposure (e.g., ingestion of contaminated game and drinking of contaminated water) were identified. PMID:16897501

Tsuji, Leonard J S; Manson, Harry; Wainman, Bruce C; Vanspronsen, Eric P; Shecapio-Blacksmith, Joseph; Rabbitskin, Tommy

2007-04-01

347

Heavy metal and arsenic accumulating fern species as potential ecological indicators in As-contaminated abandoned mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferns are good ecological indicators of arsenic accumulation in contaminated abandoned mines. The rhizomes of ferns were analyzed for arsenic and other heavy metals using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In addition, we examined the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) gene isolated from the indigenous species of ferns at the pithead, tailings and soil sites in the vicinity of the Myoungbong abandoned mine,

Jin-Soo Chang; In-Ho Yoon; Kyoung-Woong Kim

2009-01-01

348

Global transcriptomic profiling of aspen trees under elevated [CO2] to identify potential molecular mechanisms responsible for enhanced radial growth.  

PubMed

Aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees growing under elevated [CO(2)] at a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) site produced significantly more biomass than control trees. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed increase in biomass by producing transcriptomic profiles of the vascular cambium zone (VCZ) and leaves, and then performed a comparative study to identify significantly changed genes and pathways after 12 years exposure to elevated [CO(2)]. In leaves, elevated [CO(2)] enhanced expression of genes related to Calvin cycle activity and linked pathways. In the VCZ, the pathways involved in cell growth, cell division, hormone metabolism, and secondary cell wall formation were altered while auxin conjugation, ABA synthesis, and cytokinin glucosylation and degradation were inhibited. Similarly, the genes involved in hemicellulose and pectin biosynthesis were enhanced, but some genes that catalyze important steps in lignin biosynthesis pathway were inhibited. Evidence from systemic analysis supported the functioning of multiple molecular mechanisms that underpin the enhanced radial growth in response to elevated [CO(2)]. PMID:23065025

Wei, Hairong; Gou, Jiqing; Yordanov, Yordan; Zhang, Huaxin; Thakur, Ramesh; Jones, Wendy; Burton, Andrew

2013-03-01

349

Global biochemical profiling identifies beta-hydroxypyruvate as a potential mediator of type 2 diabetes in mice and humans.  

PubMed

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like pepide-1 (GLP-1) are incretins secreted by respective K and L enteroendocrine cells after eating and amplify glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). This amplification has been coined the "incretin response". To determine the role(s) of K cells for the incretin response and T2DM, "DT" mice lacking GIP-producing cells were backcrossed 5 to 8 times onto the diabetogenic NONcNZO10/Ltj background. Like humans with T2DM, DT mice lacked an incretin response although GLP-1 release was maintained. With high fat (HF) feeding, DT mice remained lean but developed T2DM whereas WT mice developed obesity but not diabetes. Metabolomics identified biochemicals reflecting impaired glucose handling, insulin resistance, and diabetic complications in pre-diabetic DT/HF mice. Beta-hydroxypyruvate and benzoate levels were increased and decreased, respectively, suggesting beta-hydroxypyruvate production from D-serine. In vitro, beta-hydroxypyruvate altered excitatory properties of myenteric neurons and reduced islet insulin content but not GSIS. Beta-hydroxypyruvate/D-serine ratios were lower in humans with impaired glucose tolerance compared to normal glucose tolerance and T2DM. Earlier human studies unmasked a neural relay that amplifies GIP-mediated insulin secretion in a pattern reciprocal to beta-hydroxypyruvate/D-serine ratios in all groups. Thus, K cells may maintain long-term function of neurons and beta cells by regulating beta-hydroxypyruvate levels. PMID:25368100

Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Songyan; Puhl, Matthew D; Jiang, Xuntian; Hyrc, Krzysztof L; Laciny, Erin; Wallendorf, Michael J; Pappan, Kirk L; Coyle, Joseph T; Wice, Burton M

2014-11-01

350

High-throughput screen identifies disulfiram as a potential therapeutic for triple-negative breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents an aggressive subtype, for which radiation and chemotherapy are the only options. Here we describe the identification of disulfiram, an FDA-approved drug used to treat alcoholism, as well as the related compound thiram, as the most potent growth inhibitors following high-throughput screens of 3185 compounds against multiple TNBC cell lines. The average IC50 for disulfiram was ~300 nM. Drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) analysis identified IQ motif-containing factors IQGAP1 and MYH9 as direct binding targets of disulfiram. Indeed, knockdown of these factors reduced, though did not completely abolish, cell growth. Combination treatment with 4 different drugs commonly used to treat TNBC revealed that disulfiram synergizes most effectively with doxorubicin to inhibit cell growth of TNBC cells. Disulfiram and doxorubicin cooperated to induce cell death as well as cellular senescence, and targeted the ESA+/CD24-/low/CD44+ cancer stem cell population. Our results suggest that disulfiram may be repurposed to treat TNBC in combination with doxorubicin. PMID:23974104

Robinson, Tyler JW; Pai, Melody; Liu, Jeff C; Vizeacoumar, Frederick; Sun, Thomas; Egan, Sean E; Datti, Alessandro; Huang, Jing; Zacksenhaus, Eldad

2013-01-01

351

Potential Psychosocial Risk Factors for Chronic TMD: Descriptive Data and Empirically Identified Domains from the OPPERA Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Case-control studies have consistently associated psychosocial factors with chronic pain in general, and with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) specifically. Moreover, a handful of prospective studies suggest that pre-existing psychosocial characteristics represent risk factors for new onset TMD. The current study presents psychosocial findings from the baseline case-control study of the Orofacial Pain Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) cooperative agreement. For this study, 1,633 TMD-free controls and 185 TMD cases completed a battery of psychosocial instruments assessing general psychosocial adjustment and personality, affective distress, psychosocial stress, somatic awareness, and pain coping and catastrophizing. In bivariate and demographically-adjusted analyses, odds of TMD were associated with higher levels of psychosocial symptoms, affective distress, somatic awareness, and pain catastrophizing. Among controls, significant gender and ethnic group differences in psychosocial measures were observed, consistent with previous findings. Principal component analysis was undertaken to identify latent constructs revealing four components: stress and negative affectivity, global psychosocial symptoms, passive pain coping, and active pain coping. These findings provide further evidence of associations between psychosocial factors and TMD. Future prospective analyses in the OPPERA cohort will determine if the premorbid presence of these psychosocial factors predicts increased risk for developing new-onset TMD. PMID:22074752

Fillingim, Roger B.; Ohrbach, Richard; Greenspan, Joel D.; Knott, Charles; Dubner, Ronald; Bair, Eric; Baraian, Cristina; Slade, Gary D.; Maixner, William

2011-01-01

352

Identifying potential synergies and trade-offs for meeting food security and climate change objectives in sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Potential interactions between food production and climate mitigation are explored for two situations in sub-Saharan Africa, where deforestation and land degradation overlap with hunger and poverty. Three agriculture intensification scenarios for supplying nitrogen to increase crop production (mineral fertilizer, herbaceous legume cover cropsgreen manuresand agroforestrylegume improved tree fallows) are compared to baseline food production, land requirements to meet basic caloric requirements, and greenhouse gas emissions. At low population densities and high land availability, food security and climate mitigation goals are met with all intensification scenarios, resulting in surplus crop area for reforestation. In contrast, for high population density and small farm sizes, attaining food security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions require mineral fertilizers to make land available for reforestation; green manure or improved tree fallows do not provide sufficient increases in yields to permit reforestation. Tree fallows sequester significant carbon on cropland, but green manures result in net carbon dioxide equivalent emissions because of nitrogen additions. Although these results are encouraging, agricultural intensification in sub-Saharan Africa with mineral fertilizers, green manures, or improved tree fallows will remain low without policies that address access, costs, and lack of incentives. Carbon financing for small-holder agriculture could increase the likelihood of success of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries programs and climate change mitigation but also promote food security in the region. PMID:20453198

Palm, Cheryl A.; Smukler, Sean M.; Sullivan, Clare C.; Mutuo, Patrick K.; Nyadzi, Gerson I.; Walsh, Markus G.

2010-01-01

353

A thermal profile method to identify potential ground-water discharge areas and preferred salmonid habitats for long river reaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The thermal regime of riverine systems is a major control on aquatic ecosystems. Ground water discharge is an important abiotic driver of the aquatic ecosystem because it provides preferred thermal structure and habitat for different types of fish at different times in their life history. In large diverse river basins with an extensive riverine system, documenting the thermal regime and ground-water discharge is difficult and problematic. A method was developed to thermally profile long (5-25 kilometers) river reaches by towing in a Lagrangian framework one or two probes that measure temperature, depth, and conductivity. One probe is towed near the streambed and, if used, a second probe is towed near the surface. The probes continuously record data at 1-3-second intervals while a Global Positioning System logs spatial coordinates. The thermal profile provides valuable information about spatial and temporal variations in habitat, and, notably, indicates ground-water discharge areas. This method was developed and tested in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, in summer 2001 during low flows in an extreme drought year. The temperature profile comprehensively documents the longitudinal distribution of a river's temperature regime that cannot be captured by fixed station data. The example profile presented exhibits intra-reach diversity that reflects the many factors controlling the temperature of a parcel of water as it moves downstream. Thermal profiles provide a new perspective on riverine system temperature regimes that represent part of the aquatic habitat template for lotic community patterns.

Vaccaro, J.J.; Maloy, K.J.

2006-01-01

354

"Humanized" HLA transgenic NOD mice to identify pancreatic beta cell autoantigens of potential clinical relevance to type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

The mechanistic basis by which the H2(g7) major histocompatibility complex (MHC) provides the primary risk factor for the development of T cell-mediated autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice involves contributions not only from the unusual A(g7) class II molecule, but also from the more common K(d) and/or D(b) class I variants it encodes. Similarly, transgenic studies in NOD mice have confirmed the possibility first suggested in association studies that in the proper genetic context the common human HLA-A2.1 class I variant can mediate diabetogenic CD8 T cell responses. T1D continues to develop in a further refined NOD stock that expresses human HLA-A2.1, but no murine class I molecules (designated NOD.beta2m-.HHD). Islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP) is an important antigenic target of diabetogenic CD8 cells in standard NOD mice. Three IGRP-derived peptides have also been identified that are presented by human HLA-A2.1 molecules to diabetogenic CD8 T cells in NOD.beta2m-.HHD mice. At least one of these IGRP peptides (265-273) can also be the target of autoreactive CD8 T cells in HLA-A2.1-expressing human T1D patients. Studies are currently under way to determine whether HLA-A2.1-restricted IGRP peptides can be used in a tolerance-inducing protocol that inhibits T1D development in NOD. beta2m-.HHD mice. If so, this knowledge could ultimately lead to the development of a similar T1D prevention protocol in humans. PMID:17376821

Serreze, David V; Marron, Michele P; Dilorenzo, Teresa P

2007-04-01

355

Sentinel birds in wild-bird resting sites as potential indicators for West Nile virus infections in Germany.  

PubMed

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus with wild birds as its natural hosts. Ravens, falcons and jays are highly susceptible for WNV and develop deadly encephalitis, while other bird species undergo only subclinical infections. Migratory birds are efficient vectors for geographic spreading of WNV. Until now, WNV infections have not been diagnosed in Germany, but infections in humans and horses have occurred recently in Austria, Hungary and Italy. To investigate potential WNV introduction by infected wild birds, we have monitored the serological status of ducks in three national sentinel stations. No WNV-positive reactions were found, whereas sera from coots from northern Iran were positive. PMID:20437062

Ziegler, Ute; Seidowski, Diana; Globig, Anja; Fereidouni, Sasan R; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H

2010-06-01

356

Transcriptional profiling and co-expression network analysis identifies potential biomarkers to differentiate chronic hepatitis B and the caused cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Liver cirrhosis is one of the most common non-neoplastic causes of mortality worldwide. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in China. To find biomarkers for the diagnosis of CHB caused cirrhosis (HBC), we examined the transcriptional profiling of CHB and HBC. The leukocyte samples of CHB (n = 5) and HBC (n = 5) were analyzed by microarray. The results showed that 2128 mapped genes were differentially expressed between CHB and HBC (fold change ? 2.0, p < 0.05). Gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated that these 2128 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were enriched for immune response and cell formation functions mostly. Moreover, co-expression networks using the k-core algorithm were established to determine the core genes, which may play important roles in the progression of CHB to HBC. There were markedly different gene co-expression patterns in CHB and HBC. We validated the five core genes, CASP1, TGFBI, IFI30, HLA-DMA and PAG1 in CHB (n = 60) and HBC (n = 60) by quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of the five genes were consistent with microarray, and there were statistically significant co-expression patterns of TGF?1, PAG1 and HLA-DMA mRNA (Pearson correlation coefficient >0.6). Furthermore, we constructed an mRNA panel of TGFBI, IFI30, HLA-DMA and PAG1 (TIPH HBCtest) by means of a logistic regression model, and evaluated the TIPH HBCtest for HBC diagnosis by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis, which showed a higher accuracy (AUC = 0.903). This study suggested that there are particular transcriptional profiles, gene co-expression patterns and core genes in CHB and HBC. The TIPH HBC test may be useful in the diagnosis of HBC from CHB. PMID:24599568

Lu, Yi-Yu; Chen, Qi-Long; Guan, Yan; Guo, Zhi-Zhong; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Yi-Yang; Su, Shi-Bing

2014-05-01

357

Molecular docking and molecular dynamics study on SmHDAC1 to identify potential lead compounds against Schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by helminth parasites of genus Schistosoma. Its treatment intensively depends on single drug, praziquantel which increases the risk of development of drug-resistant parasite. Inhibitors of human HDAC are profoundly reported as novel anti-cancer drugs and used as new anit-parasitic agents. Schistosoma monsoni class I HDACs are expressed in all stagesoflifecycle and indicating that this enzyme is most likely a major target for the designing specific inhibitors. In order to find novel target for the treatment of Schistosomiasis, three dimensional structure of SmHDAC1 was generated, using homology modelling. Features of the generated structure, was then deduced with respect to conformation of peptide backbone, local compatibility of the generated structure in terms of energy and molecular dynamics study. Considering these features of the generated structure, we selected all the class 1 inhibitors reported so far, which showed interactions with HDACs. Virtual screening was done using reported inhibitors (70) and using SmHDAC1 and HsHDAC1 as the targets. On the basis of binding affinity and IC50 value, 24th ligand was selected for the molecular docking purpose. In this study, out of all the reported inhibitors, 24th inhibitor (N,8-dihydroxy-8-(naphthalen-2-yl) octanamide zinc id- ZINC13474421) showed better binding with SmHDAC1 (-8.1kcal/mol) as compared to HsHDAC1 (-6.4kcal/mol) in terms of binding energy and supported by IC50 value. This paper throws light on the reliable model for further structure based drug designing, concerning SmHDAC1 of S. mansoni. Molecular docking studies highlighted advantages of comparative in silico interaction studies of SmHDAC1 and HsHDAC1. N,8-dihydroxy-8-(naphthalen-2-yl) octanamide can further use for the clinical trial. PMID:25663090

Singh, Raghvendra; Pandey, Paras Nath

2015-03-01

358

Integrin ?6?4 Identifies Human Distal Lung Epithelial Progenitor Cells with Potential as a Cell-Based Therapy for Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease  

PubMed Central

To develop stem/progenitor cell-based therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease, it is first necessary to identify markers of human lung epithelial progenitor/stem cells and to better understand the potential for differentiation into distinct lineages. Here we investigated integrin ?6?4 as an epithelial progenitor cell marker in the human distal lung. We identified a subpopulation of ?6?4+ cells that localized in distal small airways and alveolar walls and were devoid of pro-surfactant protein C expression. The ?6?4+ epithelial cells demonstrated key properties of stem cells ex vivo as compared to ?6?4- epithelial cells, including higher colony forming efficiency, expression of stem cell-specific transcription factor Nanog, and the potential to differentiate into multiple distinct lineages including basal and Clara cells. Co-culture of ?6?4+ epithelial cells with endothelial cells enhanced proliferation. We identified a subset of adeno-associated virus (AAVs) serotypes, AAV2 and AAV8, capable of transducing ?6?4+ cells. In addition, reconstitution of bronchi epithelial cells from CF patients with only 5% normal ?6?4+ epithelial cells significantly rescued defects in Cl- transport. Therefore, targeting the ?6?4+ epithelial population via either gene delivery or progenitor cell-based reconstitution represents a potential new strategy to treat CF lung disease. PMID:24349537

Li, Xiaopeng; Rossen, Nathan; Sinn, Patrick L.; Hornick, Andrew L.; Steines, Benjamin R.; Karp, Philip H.; Ernst, Sarah E.; Adam, Ryan J.; Moninger, Thomas O.; Levasseur, Dana N.; Zabner, Joseph

2013-01-01

359

Fluctuation of probe beam in thermolens schematics as potential indicator of cell metabolism, apoptosis, necrosis and laser impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently we discovered that in developed integrated flow cytometry using combination high resolution transmission and two beam (pump-probe) of photothermal microscopy with flow module the temporal fluctuation of probe beam even without pump laser pulse are very sensitive to functional states of single cells (e.g. with 2-3 differences in average fluctuation amplitude for live and dead cells). In this paper we are focusing on theoretical and experimental studies of these new phenomena using thermolens schematics with highly stabilized continuous-wave He-Ne laser and photodiode/photomultiplier with pinhole. This scheme allows to study both random and laser-induced thermolens effects in passive and active mode including short and long term monitoring of scattered light fluctuation in trans-illumination mode at single cellular and even sub-cellular levels in vitro, and in vivo. We demonstrate these schematics has some potential to monitor intracellular dynamics including change in cell metabolism, and necrosis, especially, under pump laser impacts in vitro in stationary condition. Besides, we present some relevant data obtained with other similar schematics, including evaluation of bacterial motility by dynamic light scattering. We discuss further potential developing this approach for flow cytometry with fast speed photodetector and digital camera and the multi- wavelength statistical and correlation analysis of speckle-related signals in applications to analysis of complex motions and functional properties of cells in bioflows including the evaluation of the rotational and translational components of the motion of individual live and dead cells.

Zharov, Vladimir P.; Menyaev, Yulian A.; Shashkov, Evgeny V.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Scheludko, Andrei V.; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A.; Tuchin, Valery V.

2006-02-01

360

Kinase Inhibitor Screening Identifies Cyclin-Dependent Kinases and Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 as Potential Modulators of TDP-43 Cytosolic Accumulation during Cell Stress  

PubMed Central

Abnormal processing of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a major factor in neuronal degeneration during amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). It is unclear how changes to TDP-43, including nuclear to cytosolic translocation and subsequent accumulation, are controlled in these diseases. TDP-43 is a member of the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) RNA binding protein family and is known to associate with cytosolic RNA stress granule proteins in ALS and FTLD. hnRNP trafficking and accumulation is controlled by the action of specific kinases including members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. However, little is known about how kinase pathways control TDP-43 movement and accumulation. In this study, we used an in vitro model of TDP-43-positve stress granule formation to screen for the effect of kinase inhibitors on TDP-43 accumulation. We found that while a number of kinase inhibitors, particularly of the MAPK pathways modulated both TDP-43 and the global stress granule marker, human antigen R (HuR), multiple inhibitors were more specific to TDP-43 accumulation, including inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Close correlation was observed between effects of these inhibitors on TDP-43, hnRNP K and TIAR, but often with different effects on HuR accumulation. This may indicate a potential interaction between TDP-43, hnRNP K and TIAR. CDK inhibitors were also found to reverse pre-formed TDP-43-positive stress granules and both CDK and GSK3 inhibitors abrogated the accumulation of C-terminal TDP-43 (219414) in transfected cells. Further studies are required to confirm the specific kinases involved and whether their action is through phosphorylation of the TDP-43 binding partner hnRNP K. This knowledge provides a valuable insight into the mechanisms controlling abnormal cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulation and may herald new opportunities for kinase modulation-based therapeutic intervention in ALS and FTLD. PMID:23840699

Moujalled, Diane; James, Janine L.; Parker, Sarah J.; Lidgerwood, Grace E.; Duncan, Clare; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Nonaka, Takashi; Hasegawa, Masato; Kanninen, Katja M.; Grubman, Alexandra; Liddell, Jeffrey R.; Crouch, Peter J.; White, Anthony R.

2013-01-01

361

A qualitative analysis of the congruency of Jungian psychological preferences identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the human resource development role of instructor\\/facilitator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this ethnographic study was to describe and explain the congruency of psychological preferences identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the human resource development (HRD) role of instructor\\/facilitator. This investigation was conducted with 23 HRD professionals who worked in the Miami, Florida area as instructors\\/facilitators with adult learners in job-related contexts.^ The study was conducted using

Rafael Martinez

1996-01-01

362

The Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) List of Near-Earth Asteroids: Identifying Potential Targets for Future Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: Much attention has recently been focused on human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Detailed planning for deep space exploration and identification of potential NEA targets for human space flight requires selecting objects from the growing list of known NEAs. NASA therefore initiated the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Target Study (NHATS), which uses dynamical trajectory performance constraints to identify potentially accessible NEAs. Accessibility Criteria: Future NASA human space flight capability is being defined while the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Space Launch System are under development. Velocity change and mission duration are two of the most critical factors in any human spaceflight endeavor, so the most accessible NEAs tend to be those with orbits similar to Earths. To be classified as NHATS-compliant, a NEA must offer at least one round-trip trajectory solution satisfying purposely inclusive constraints, including total mission change in velocity ? 12 km/s, mission duration ? 450 days (with at least 8 days at the NEA), Earth departure between Jan 1, 2015 and Dec 31, 2040, Earth departure C3 ? 60 km2/s2, and Earth return atmospheric entry speed ? 12 km/s. Monitoring and Updates: The NHATS list of potentially accessible targets is continuously updated as NEAs are discovered and orbit solutions for known NEAs are improved. The current list of accessible NEAs identified as potentially viable for future human exploration under the NHATS criteria is available to the international community via a website maintained by NASAs NEO Program Office (http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/nhats/). This website also lists predicted optical and radar observing opportunities for each NHATS-compliant NEA to facilitate acquisition of follow-up observations. Conclusions: This list of NEAs will be useful for analyzing robotic mission opportunities, identifying optimal round trip human space flight trajectories, and highlighting attractive objects of interest for future ground-based observation opportunities.

Abell, Paul; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Adamo, D. R.; Alberding, C. M.; Mazanek, D. D.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Chodas, P. W.; Chamberlin, A. B.; Benner, L. A. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

2012-10-01

363

The Alaris auditory evoked potential monitor as an indicator of seizure inducibility and duration during electroconvulsive therapy: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Precise control of anesthetic depth during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is crucial because most intravenous anesthetics have anticonvulsant effects. In this study, we investigated the association between anesthetic depth measured by the Alaris auditory evoked potential index (AAI) and seizure inducibility and seizure duration during ECT. Methods Sixty-four ECTs were evaluated in 12 consecutive patients. General anesthesia was performed with a thiopental-based method. The relationship between the pre-ictal AAI, seizure activity and seizure duration was analyzed, and a possible threshold pre-ictal AAI to induce a seizure duration of at least 25seconds was calculated. Results Forty-one of the 64 ECT stimuli successfully induced seizure activity that lasted longer than 25seconds. Pre-ictal AAI was significantly correlated to seizure duration (r?=?0.54, p?

2014-01-01

364

Description and evaluation of imposex in Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Strombidae): a potential bio-indicator of tributyltin pollution.  

PubMed

Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is an important gastropod species within the study area and was traditionally collected for food by the locals. The objective of the present study is to assess the incidence of imposex and its severity in this species. Adult conchs were sampled during their main reproductive period, from October 2005 to January 2006, at Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor Straits, Malaysia. A total of 32.81% of adult females showed imposex characteristics, with varying degrees of severity though. The relative penis size (RPS) index ranged from 1.74 to 33.29 (mean = 13.40 2.27, n = 21), while the relative penis length (RPL) index ranged from 6.28 to 55.19 (mean = 25.83 3.33, n = 21). The use of vas deferens sequence (VDS) index was however cannot be applied as the presence of egg groove obscured any vas deferens development in affected females. Sequence of imposex (male penis) development in female conch, from merely a small stump to an advance male penis homologous was therefore carefully analyzed and described, and an alternative imposex classification scheme was proposed. S. canarium can be a good indicator for monitoring of organotin pollution within the study area. However, more studies are needed in order to further develop and test its validity and application, such as its correlation with levels of pollutant within the tissues and the environment, as well as its application on other Strombus species. PMID:20824325

Cob, Zaidi Che; Arshad, Aziz; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Abd Ghaffar, Mazlan

2011-07-01

365

Please cite this article in press as: M. Schiavon, et al., Transcriptome profiling of genes differentially modulated by sulfur and chromium identifies potential targets for phytoremediation and reveals a complex SCr interplay on sulfate transport regulati  

E-print Network

differentially modulated by sulfur and chromium identifies potential targets for phytoremediation and reveals differentially modulated by sulfur and chromium identifies potential targets for phytoremediation and reveals in the short-time response of plants to Cr exposure. I Potential gene targets for Cr phytoremediation have been

366

Sediment geochemistry as potential sea-level indicators to assess coseismic vertical displacements above the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly the entire 4000-km-long Alaska-Aleutian megathrust has ruptured in large or great (Mw ?8) earthquakes in the past 100 years, yet paleoseismic records of earlier events are only documented east of Kodiak Is. in the region of the 1964 Alaska earthquake. The Mw 9.2 1964 earthquake dropped the coast along Cook Inlet and Turnagain Arm by ?1.8 m and raised shore platforms around Prince William Sound by ?3 m. Evidence of sudden (coseismic) vertical displacements during megathrust earthquakes are archived in coastal sediments as sharp stratigraphic contacts that record rapid relative sea-level (RSL) changes. We use geochemical analyses of coastal sediments to detect sudden RSL changes at 2 sites above the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust. One site on Knik Arm near Anchorage subsided ~0.6 m during the 1964 earthquake. The other site overlies the Shumagin Islands segment of the megathrust, without rupture since before 1903. Relative to terrestrial sources of sediment, marine sources should be enriched in ?13C, ?15N, and have higher C:N, and Cl- concentrations. Our analyses will test whether these geochemical proxies can provide evidence for sudden RSL change across stratigraphic contacts that record coseismic uplift or subsidence. Coseismic subsidence should be represented by contacts that place sediment with enriched ?13C, ?15N signatures, elevated C:N and Cl- concentrations over sediment with lower values of these geochemical proxies and the reverse for coseismic uplift. A 1-2 m tall, ~0.5-km-long bluff along Knik Arm exposes three buried wetland soils overlain by gray mud. The soils become faint and pinch out to the northeast near a large tidal channel. Other studies of similar buried soils at adjacent sites suggest the youngest soil at Knik Arm subsided in 1964. 14C analyses of plant fossils in two older soils will provide age estimates for earlier events. We will apply the proposed geochemical methods to 20 samples collected along a forested upland to tidal mud flat transect to distinguish terrestrial from marine sediment. On Simeonof Is., stratigraphy beneath a peat bog adjacent to a tidal lagoon consists of basal marine sand overlain by ~0.6-1.5 m of peat. The presence of Arachnoidiscus japonicas, benthic marine diatom, implies a marine sand source. Sphagnum spp. and absence of marine foraminifera indicate freshwater peat. We analyzed ?13C, ?15N, and C:N from bulk sediment, and Cl- from water soluble fraction of sediment in a 1.3-m bog core. Freshwater peat at depths of 0.0-26.0, and 33.0-78.5 cm have ?13C ranging from -25.02 to -27.35 , ?15N from 3.30-9.93, C:N of 10.16-17.89, and Cl- concentrations of 0.9-25.9 mg/L. Sand dominated intervals at 26.0-33.0, and 78.5-130 cm have ?13C ranging from -17.24 to -26.50, ?15N from 8.30-11.11 , C:N of 0.30-29.6 and Cl- concentrations of 0.7-19.3 mg/L. The data also indicate that average ?13C and ?15N values are enriched in marine sand relative to freshwater peat, respectively by 3.27 and 3.10. Also C:N ratios and Cl- concentrations are lower in marine sand, respectively by 23.1 and 0.1 mg/L. Hence, ?13C and ?15N show promise as geochemical proxies to distinguish terrestrial from marine sediment for future Alaska-Aleutian paleoseismic studies west of Kodiak Is.

Bender, A. M.; Witter, R. C.; Munk, L. A.

2012-12-01

367

Salsalate, an Old, Inexpensive Drug with Potential New Indications: A Review of the Evidence from 3 Recent Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes is a well-known growing epidemic, but prediabetes is increasing at an even greater rate. Lifestyle changes are effective tools to prevent the progression of prediabetes to diabetes, yet many people are unable to follow such changes. Salsalate has been suggested as a possible treatment for diabetes as early as 1876 and as recently as in a 2013 study. Objective To review the recently published evidence about the potential therapeutic benefits of the old drug salsalate for individuals who meet the criteria of having prediabetes. Discussion With the rising incidence of obesity and prediabetes, it has become prudent to look for more therapeutic options. Salsalate belongs to the salicylate drug class, which has been shown to inhibit I-?B kinase, thereby inhibiting the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) cascade and decreasing the production of inflammatory cytokines, as well as decreasing insulin resistance. Recent short-term clinical trials have shown that 3 g to 4.5 g of salicylate therapy daily has the ability to lower insulin resistance and to reduce the levels of glucose, triglycerides, and free fatty acid concentrations through regulation of the I-?B kinase beta/NF-?B pathway, with few if any side effects. However, the effectiveness of salsalate as a treatment option for prediabetes is largely unrecognized. This article summarizes the current evidence from 3 studies of salsalate therapy in the setting of the prediabetic population and presents the case for its use in this population. Conclusion As shown in this review, salsalate therapy at the dose of 3 g to 4.5 g daily can lower insulin resistance and reduce the levels of glucose, triglycerides, and free fatty acid concentrations with minimal side effects. This inexpensive medication could be a useful option in the treatment of prediabetes. Larger clinical trials are needed, but the data are encouraging and should lay the foundation for further investigation and grant funding. PMID:25126374

Anderson, Kenneth; Wherle, Lance; Park, Min; Nelson, Kenneth; Nguyen, Loida

2014-01-01

368

The Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) List of Near-Earth Asteroids: Identifying Potential Targets for Future Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs [1, 2], and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system [3]. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010 [4]. Detailed planning for such deep space exploration missions and identifying potential NEAs as targets for human spaceflight requires selecting objects from the ever growing list of newly discovered NEAs. Hence NASA developed and implemented the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Target Study (NHATS), which identifies potential candidate objects on the basis of defined dynamical trajectory performance constraints.

Abell, Paul A.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Alberding, C. M.; Adamo, D. R.; Mazanek, D. D.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Chodas, P. W.; Chamberlin, A. B.; Benner, L. A. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

2012-01-01

369

An assessment of the relationship between potential chemical indices of nitrogen saturation and nitrogen deposition in hardwood forests in southern Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Ontario receives the highest levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition in Canada and there are concerns that\\u000a forests in the region may be approaching a state of N saturation. In order to evaluate whether potential chemical indices\\u000a provide evidence of N saturation, 23 hardwood plots were sampled along a modeled N-deposition gradient ranging from 9.3 to\\u000a 12.8kg\\/ha\\/year. All plots

Shaun A. Watmough

2010-01-01

370

Development and validation of a stability indicating HPLC method for simultaneous determination of four novel fluoroquinolone dimers as potential antibacterial agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of novel 6-fluoro1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-3-quinoline carboxylic acid dimers were synthesized as potential antibacterial agents from commercially available substituted fluorobenzoic acids. A stability indicating HPLC method was developed to determine these novel fluoroquinolone dimers using a systematic method development approach. Samples were subjected to stress conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation; and analyzed to demonstrate the specificity and stability

Muzaffar Khan; C. Naveen Kumar Reddy; G. Ravindra; K. V. S. R. Krishna Reddy; P. K. Dubey

371

Application of congener based multi-matrix profiling techniques to identify potential PCDD/F sources in environmental samples from the Burrishoole Catchment in the West of Ireland.  

PubMed

Homologue and congener profiles of PCDD/Fs in eels, passive sampler and sediment extracts from the Burrishoole, a rural upland catchment on the western Irish seaboard were compared with potential PCDD sources. ?PCDD/F levels in eels ranged from 2.9 to 25.9pgg(-1) wet weight, which are elevated compared to other Irish locations. The OCDD congener dominated the pattern of ?PCDD/Fs in all matrices from Burrishoole. Passive samplers were successfully deployed to identify for the first time the presence in the water column of PCDD/Fs and dimethoxylated octachlorodiphenyl ether (diMeOoctaCDE), impurities found in pentachlorophenol (PCP) production. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified similarities between PCDD/F profiles in technical PCP mixtures and environmental samples from the Burrishoole region. Results strongly suggest residual PCDD contamination associated with historic local use of a dioxin contaminated product in the catchment area, with pentachlorophenol a strong candidate. PMID:24121420

White, P; McHugh, B; Poole, R; McGovern, E; White, J; Behan, P; Foley, B; Covaci, A

2014-01-01

372

Modeling the potential spread of the recently identified non-native panther grouper (Chromileptes altivelis) in the Atlantic using a cellular automaton approach.  

PubMed

The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli) is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles), which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, the panther grouper is not yet thought to have an established breeding population in the Atlantic. Using a proven modeling technique developed to track the lionfish invasion, presented is the first known estimation of the potential spread of panther grouper in the Atlantic. The employed cellular automaton-based computer model examines the life history of the subject species including fecundity, mortality, and reproductive potential and combines this with habitat preferences and physical oceanic parameters to forecast the distribution and periodicity of spread of this potential new invasive species. Simulations were examined for origination points within one degree of capture locations of panther grouper from the United States Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database to eliminate introduction location bias, and two detailed case studies were scrutinized. The model indicates three primary locations where settlement is likely given the inputs and limits of the model; Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach, the Cape Hatteras Tropical Limit/Myrtle Beach South Carolina, and Florida Keys/Ten Thousand Islands locations. Of these locations, Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach has the highest settlement rate in the model and is indicated as the area in which the panther grouper is most likely to become established. This insight is valuable if attempts are to be made to halt this potential marine invasive species. PMID:24009726

Johnston, Matthew W; Purkis, Sam J

2013-01-01

373

Serum miRNA Profiling Identifies miR-150/30a as Potential Biomarker for Workers with Damaged Nerve Fibers from Carbon Disulfide.  

PubMed

As crucial small regulatory molecules, serum microRNAs (miRNAs) have been widely identified as potential noninvasive biomarkers. To survey and identify serum miRNAs associated with workers who had experienced injury to their nerve system from carbon disulfide (CS2), we profiled abnormally expressed miRNAs using the microarray technique and further performed qRT-PCR validation in case and control samples (n=20). Microarray profiling in pooled RNA samples showed that many miRNAs in workers exposed to CS2 were aberrantly expressed. Based on control samples exposed to CS2, a great amount of abnormal miRNAs, including some miRNA gene clusters and families, were obtained from microarray datasets. Most of deregulated miRNAs were up-regulated, and almost all miRNAs showed consistent expression patterns between workers with different numbers of damaged nerve fibers. Functional enrichment analysis suggested that these abnormal miRNAs showed versatile roles by contributing to multiple biological processes. Some aberrantly expressed miRNAs were characterized as miRNA gene clusters or families, and they always showed consistent expression patterns. miR-150 and miR-30a were selected to be further validated by qRT-PCR as up-regulated species, and they could discern case samples from control samples. miR-150 and miR-30a may be potential noninvasive biomarkers for a damaged nervous system. PMID:25224332

Guo, Li; Luo, Chen; Fan, Jingjing; Hou, Zhiguo; Ji, Xiaoming; Chen, Feng; Zhu, Baoli; Ni, Chunhui

2014-09-13

374

Serum miRNA profiling identifies miR-150/30a as potential biomarker for workers with damaged nerve fibers from carbon disulfide  

PubMed Central

As crucial small regulatory molecules, serum microRNAs (miRNAs) have been widely identified as potential noninvasive biomarkers. To survey and identify serum miRNAs associated with workers who had experienced injury to their nerve system from carbon disulfide (CS2), we profiled abnormally expressed miRNAs using the microarray technique and further performed qRT-PCR validation in case and control samples (n=20). Microarray profiling in pooled RNA samples showed that many miRNAs in workers exposed to CS2 were aberrantly expressed. Based on control samples exposed to CS2, a great amount of abnormal miRNAs, including some miRNA gene clusters and families, were obtained from microarray datasets. Most of deregulated miRNAs were up-regulated, and almost all miRNAs showed consistent expression patterns between workers with different numbers of damaged nerve fibers. Functional enrichment analysis suggested that these abnormal miRNAs showed versatile roles by contributing to multiple biological processes. Some aberrantly expressed miRNAs were characterized as miRNA gene clusters or families, and they always showed consistent expression patterns. miR-150 and miR-30a were selected to be further validated by qRT-PCR as up-regulated species, and they could discern case samples from control samples. miR-150 and miR-30a may be potential noninvasive biomarkers for a damaged nervous system.

GUO, Li; LUO, Chen; FAN, Jingjing; HOU, Zhiguo; JI, Xiaoming; CHEN, Feng; ZHU, Baoli; NI, Chunhui

2014-01-01

375

Indices of potential lead hazard.  

PubMed Central

This review is concerned with the concentrations of lead in human whole blood, erythrocytes, plasma, serum, soft tissues, bone, and urine. The extent to which redistribution of some of the bound lead occurs is outlines. The effects of lead on enzyme activities and on the accumulation of metabolic intermediates in the blood and urine are described. A brief section deals with the range of signs and symptoms that can occur and differences seen between symptomatic children and adults. PMID:332498

Posner, H S

1977-01-01

376

Structure-guided lead optimization of triazolopyrimidine-ring substituents identifies potent Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors with clinical candidate potential  

PubMed Central

Drug therapy is the mainstay of antimalarial therapy, yet current drugs are threatened by the development of resistance. In an effort to identify new potential anti-malarials we have undertaken a lead optimization program around our previously identified triazolopyrimidine-based series of Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) inhibitors. The X-ray structure of PfDHODH was used to inform the medicinal chemistry program allowing the identification of a potent and selective inhibitor (DSM265) that acts through DHODH inhibition to kill both sensitive and drug resistant strains of the parasite. This compound has similar potency to chloroquine in the humanized SCID mouse P. falciparum model, can be synthesized by a simple route, and rodent pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated it has excellent oral bioavailability, a long half-life and low clearance. These studies have identified the first candidate in the triazolopyrimidine series to meet previously established progression criteria for efficacy and ADME properties, justifying further development of this compound towards clinical candidate status. PMID:21696174

Coteron, Jose M.; Marco, Mara; Esquivias, Jorge; Deng, Xiaoyi; White, Karen L.; White, John; Koltun, Maria; Mazouni, Farah El; Kokkonda, Sreekanth; Katneni, Kasiram; Bhamidipati, Ravi; Shackleford, David M.; Barturen, Iigo Angulo; Ferrer, Santiago B.; Jimnez-Daz, Mara Beln; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Charman, William N.; Bathurst, Ian; Floyd, David; Matthews, David; Burrows, Jeremy N.; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.; Charman, Susan A.; Phillips, Margaret A.

2011-01-01

377

Procyanidin B-3, isolated from barley and identified as a hair-growth stimulant, has the potential to counteract inhibitory regulation by TGF-beta1.  

PubMed

With the aim of identifying natural products, which possess hair-growing activity, we examined more than 1000 plant extracts with respect to their growth-promoting effects on hair epithelial cells. We discovered intensive growth-promoting activity, about 140% relative to controls, in barley extract. Our strategy for identifying active compounds in barley extract involved subjecting it to column chromatography using HP-20 resin columns, an LH-20 resin column, and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an ODS column. The 60% (v/v) aqueous methanol eluted fraction from the HP-20 column and the 75% (v/v) aqueous methanol eluted fraction from the subsequent LH-20 column showed high hair-growing activity in vivo. We isolated two major substances from the LH-20 active fraction using preparative HPLC. By means of mass spectrometry, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR analyses, one substance was revealed to be procyanidin B-3 and the other substance was identified as (+)-catechin. Purified procyanidin B-3 showed high hair-growing activity in the form of in vitro hair epithelial cell growth-promoting activity and in vivo anagen-inducing activity; however (+)-catechin showed no hair-growing activity. For the purpose of examining the hair-growing mechanisms of procyanidin B-3, we examined its relationship to the TGF-beta signal pathway, which is known to be a regulator of catagen induction. Addition of TGF-beta1 to hair epithelial cell cultures dose-dependently decreased the cell growth, and addition of procyanidin B-3 to the culture neutralized the growth-inhibiting effect of TGF-beta1. From these results, it is concluded that procyanidin B-3 can directly promote hair epithelial cell growth in vitro, has the potential to counteract the growth-inhibiting effect caused by TGF-beta1 in vitro, and has potential to stimulate anagen induction in vivo. PMID:12473061

Kamimura, Ayako; Takahashi, Tomoya

2002-12-01

378

Proteomic analysis of serum proteins in triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice: implications for identifying biomarkers for use to screen potential candidate therapeutic drugs for early Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting the elderly worldwide. There is an urgent need to identify novel biomarkers of early AD. This study aims to search for potential early protein biomarkers in serum from a triple transgenic (PS1M146V/APPSwe/TauP301L) mouse model. Proteomic analysis via two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis was performed on serum samples from wild-type (WT) and triple transgenic mice that were treated with or without coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) (800 mg/kg body weight/day), a powerful endogenous antioxidant displaying therapeutic benefits against AD pathology and cognitive impairment in multiple AD mouse models, for a period of three months beginning at two months of age. A total of 15 differentially expressed serum proteins were identified between the WT and AD transgenic mice. The administration of CoQ10 was found to alter the changes in the differentially expressed serum proteins by upregulating 10 proteins and down-regulating 10 proteins. Among the proteins modulated by CoQ10, clusterin and ?-2-macroglobulin were validated via ELISA assay. These findings revealed significant changes in serum proteins in the AD mouse model at an early pathological stage and demonstrated that administration of CoQ10 could modulate these changes in serum proteins. Our study suggested that these differentially expressed serum proteins could serve as potential protein biomarkers of early AD and that screening for potential candidate AD therapeutic drugs and monitoring of therapeutic effects could be performed via measurement of the changes in these differentially expressed serum proteins. PMID:24496070

Sui, Xiaojing; Ren, Xiaohu; Huang, Peiwu; Li, Shuiming; Ma, Quan; Ying, Ming; Ni, Jiazuan; Liu, Jianjun; Yang, Xifei

2014-01-01

379

Genome-Wide Association Mapping Combined with Reverse Genetics Identifies New Effectors of Low Water Potential-Induced Proline Accumulation in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) exhibits natural genetic variation in drought response, including varying levels of proline (Pro) accumulation under low water potential. As Pro accumulation is potentially important for stress tolerance and cellular redox control, we conducted a genome-wide association (GWAS) study of low water potential-induced Pro accumulation using a panel of natural accessions and publicly available single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data sets. Candidate genomic regions were prioritized for subsequent study using metrics considering both the strength and spatial clustering of the association signal. These analyses found many candidate regions likely containing gene(s) influencing Pro accumulation. Reverse genetic analysis of several candidates identified new Pro effector genes, including thioredoxins and several genes encoding Universal Stress Protein A domain proteins. These new Pro effector genes further link Pro accumulation to cellular redox and energy status. Additional new Pro effector genes found include the mitochondrial protease LON1, ribosomal protein RPL24A, protein phosphatase 2A subunit A3, a MADS box protein, and a nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase. Several of these new Pro effector genes were from regions with multiple SNPs, each having moderate association with Pro accumulation. This pattern supports the use of summary approaches that incorporate clusters of SNP associations in addition to consideration of individual SNP probability values. Further GWAS-guided reverse genetics promises to find additional effectors of Pro accumulation. The combination of GWAS and reverse genetics to efficiently identify new effector genes may be especially applicable for traits difficult to analyze by other genetic screening methods. PMID:24218491

Verslues, Paul E.; Lasky, Jesse R.; Juenger, Thomas E.; Liu, Tzu-Wen; Kumar, M. Nagaraj

2014-01-01

380

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction to identify and determine the toxigenicity of Corynebacterium spp with zoonotic potential and an overview of human and animal infections.  

PubMed

Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium ulcerans and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis constitute a group of potentially toxigenic microorganisms that are related to different infectious processes in animal and human hosts. Currently, there is a lack of information on the prevalence of disease caused by these pathogens, which is partially due to a reduction in the frequency of routine laboratory testing. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay that can simultaneously identify and determine the toxigenicity of these corynebacterial species with zoonotic potential was developed. This assay uses five primer pairs targeting the following genes: rpoB (Corynebacterium spp), 16S rRNA (C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis), pld (C. pseudotuberculosis), dtxR (C. diphtheriae) and tox [diphtheria toxin (DT) ]. In addition to describing this assay, we review the literature regarding the diseases caused by these pathogens. Of the 213 coryneform strains tested, the mPCR results for all toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains of C . diphtheriae, C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis were in 100% agreement with the results of standard biochemical tests and PCR-DT. As an alternative to conventional methods, due to its advantages of specificity and speed, the mPCR assay used in this study may successfully be applied for the diagnosis of human and/or animal diseases caused by potentially toxigenic corynebacterial species. PMID:23778659

Torres, Luciene de Ftima Costa; Ribeiro, Dayana; Hirata Jr, Raphael; Pacheco, Luis Gustavo Carvalho; Souza, Monica Cristina; dos Santos, Louisy Sanches; dos Santos, Cntia Silva; Salah, Mohammad; Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi da; Ribeiro, Marcio Garcia; Selim, Salah A; Azevedo, Vasco Ariston de Carvalho; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza

2013-05-01

381

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction to identify and determine the toxigenicity of Corynebacterium spp with zoonotic potential and an overview of human and animal infections  

PubMed Central

Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium ulcerans and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis constitute a group of potentially toxigenic microorganisms that are related to different infectious processes in animal and human hosts. Currently, there is a lack of information on the prevalence of disease caused by these pathogens, which is partially due to a reduction in the frequency of routine laboratory testing. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay that can simultaneously identify and determine the toxigenicity of these corynebacterial species with zoonotic potential was developed. This assay uses five primer pairs targeting the following genes: rpoB (Corynebacterium spp), 16S rRNA (C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis), pld (C. pseudotuberculosis), dtxR (C. diphtheriae) and tox [diphtheria toxin (DT) ]. In addition to describing this assay, we review the literature regarding the diseases caused by these pathogens. Of the 213 coryneform strains tested, the mPCR results for all toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains of C . diphtheriae, C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis were in 100% agreement with the results of standard biochemical tests and PCR-DT. As an alternative to conventional methods, due to its advantages of specificity and speed, the mPCR assay used in this study may successfully be applied for the diagnosis of human and/or animal diseases caused by potentially toxigenic corynebacterial species. PMID:23778659

Torres, Luciene de Ftima Costa; Ribeiro, Dayana; Hirata, Raphael; Pacheco, Luis Gustavo Carvalho; Souza, Monica Cristina; dos Santos, Louisy Sanches; dos Santos, Cntia Silva; Salah, Mohammad; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Ribeiro, Marcio Garcia; Selim, Salah A; Azevedo, Vasco Ariston de Carvalho; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza

2013-01-01

382

A possible link between North Atlantic cooling and dry events in the core SW monsoon region identified from Lonar Lake in central India: Indication of a connection between solar output and monsoon variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Former comparison of climate sensitive proxies from natural archives of the northern monsoon domain with proxy data from mid and high latitude archives have proven a correlation between the proxies of both regions. But still some ambiguities concerning the mechanisms that drive this correlation exist. During our investigation of a sediment core from Lonar Lake in central India, which covers the complete Holocene sedimentation history of the lake, we could identify several phases of centennial scale climate alteration on the basis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios, mineralogy, and amino acid derived degradation proxies. These phases correlate with climate sensitive proxies from the North Atlantic region as well as with 14C nuclide production rate, which indicates changes in solar output. The results from this first continuous, high resolution record of Holocene climate history from central India indicate sensitivity of monsoon climate to solar forcing. Additionally, a connection between North Atlantic climate and the climate of a region that is not affected by the Westerlies or shifts of the summer ITCZ to a position south of the investigation site could be identified.

Menzel, P.; Gaye, B.; Prasad, S.; Plessen, B.; Stebich, M.; Anoop, A.; Riedel, N.; Basavaiah, N.

2013-12-01

383

Isolation and characterization of potential indicator bacteria to be used for validation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 reduction in beef slaughter plant critical control points  

E-print Network

or non-acid adapted conditions, before and after heating during 20 min at 55?C and recovered on TSA and TSAN by spread plate method???????..44 5 Population of E. coli O157:H7 under acid adapted or non-acid adapted conditions..., before and after heating during 20 min at 65?C and recovered on TSA and TSAN by spread plate method.?????..49 6 Population of E. coli O157:H7 isolates (C1, C2, and C3) and potential indicators (C4, C5, C6, C7, and C8...

Magana Yepez, Maria Belem

2005-11-01

384

A Label-free Selected Reaction Monitoring Workflow Identifies a Subset of Pregnancy Specific Glycoproteins as Potential Predictive Markers of Early-onset Pre-eclampsia*  

PubMed Central

Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a serious complication of pregnancy with potentially life threatening consequences for both mother and baby. Presently there is no test with the required performance to predict which healthy first-time mothers will go on to develop PE. The high specificity, sensitivity, and multiplexed nature of selected reaction monitoring holds great potential as a tool for the verification and validation of putative candidate biomarkersfor disease states. Realization of this potential involves establishing a high throughput, cost effective, reproducible sample preparation workflow. We have developed a semi-automated HPLC-based sample preparation workflow before a label-free selected reaction monitoring approach. This workflow has been applied to the search for novel predictive biomarkers for PE. To discover novel candidate biomarkers for PE, we used isobaric tagging to identify several potential biomarker proteins in plasma obtained at 15 weeks gestation from nulliparous women who later developed PE compared with pregnant women who remained healthy. Such a study generates a number of candidate biomarkers that require further testing in larger patient cohorts. As proof-of-principle, two of these proteins were taken forward for verification in a 100 women (58 PE, 42 controls) using label-free SRM. We obtained reproducible protein quantitation across the 100 samples and demonstrated significant changes in protein levels, even with as little as 20% change in protein concentration. The SRM data correlated with a commercial ELISA, suggesting that this is a robust workflow suitable for rapid, affordable, label-free verification of which candidate biomarkers should be taken forward for thorough investigation. A subset of pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) had value as novel predictive markers for PE. PMID:23897580

Blankley, Richard T.; Fisher, Christal; Westwood, Melissa; North, Robyn; Baker, Philip N.; Walker, Michael J.; Williamson, Andrew; Whetton, Anthony D.; Lin, Wanchang; McCowan, Lesley; Roberts, Claire T.; Cooper, Garth J. S.; Unwin, Richard D.; Myers, Jenny E.

2013-01-01

385

Sequential strategy to identify a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia: Report of potential linkage on chromosome 22q12-q13.1: Part 1  

SciTech Connect

To identify genes responsible for the susceptibility for schizophrenia, and to test the hypothesis that schizophrenia is etiologically heterogeneous, we have studied 39 multiplex families from a systematic sample of schizophrenic patients. Using a complex autosomal dominant model, which considers only those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder as affected, a random search of the genome for detection of linkage was undertaken. Pairwise linkage analyses suggest a potential linkage (LRH = 34.7 or maximum lod score = 1.54) for one region (22q12-q13.1). Reanalyses, varying parameters in the dominant model, maximized the LRH at 660.7 (maximum lod score 2.82). This finding is of sufficient interest to warrant further investigation through collaborative studies. 72 refs., 5 tabs.

Pulver, A.E.; Wolyniec, P.S.; Lasseter, V.K. [The John Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

1994-03-15

386

ECOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

EMAP has traditionally relied on indicators of ecological condition to report on the extent to which coastal waters are impaired. Correlations between biological indicators and physical or chemical indicators may generate hypotheses about potential causes of impairment but are n...

387

A genome-wide association study identifies a region at chromosome 12 as a potential susceptibility locus for restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become an effective therapy to treat obstructive coronary artery diseases (CAD). However, one of the major drawbacks of PCI is the occurrence of restenosis in 525% of all initially treated patients. Restenosis is defined as the re-narrowing of the lumen of the blood vessel, resulting in renewed symptoms and the need for repeated intervention. To identify genetic variants that are associated with restenosis, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted in 295 patients who developed restenosis (cases) and 571 who did not (controls) from the GENetic Determinants of Restenosis (GENDER) study. Analysis of ?550 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GENDER was followed by a replication phase in three independent casecontrol populations (533 cases and 3067 controls). A potential susceptibility locus for restenosis at chromosome 12, including rs10861032 (Pcombined = 1.11 10?7) and rs9804922 (Pcombined = 1.45 10?6), was identified in the GWAS and replication phase. In addition, both SNPs were also associated with coronary events (rs10861032, Padditive = 0.005; rs9804922, Padditive = 0.023) in a trial based cohort set of elderly patients with (enhanced risk of) CAD (PROSPER) and all-cause mortality in PROSPER (rs10861032, Padditive = 0.007; rs9804922, Padditive = 0.013) and GENDER (rs10861032, Padditive = 0.005; rs9804922, Padditive = 0.023). Further analysis suggests that this locus could be involved in regulatory functions. PMID:21878436

Sampietro, M. Lourdes; Trompet, Stella; Verschuren, Jeffrey J.W.; Talens, Rudolf P.; Deelen, Joris; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Tio, Rene A.; Doevendans, Pieter A.F.M.; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Nabel, Elizabeth G.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Franke, Lude; van den Akker, Erik B.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Kastrati, Adnan; Koch, Werner; Slagboom, P.Eline; de Knijff, Peter; Jukema, J. Wouter

2011-01-01

388

The use of conditional probability functions and potential source contribution functions to identify source regions and advection pathways of hydrocarbon emissions in Houston, Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we demonstrate the utility of conditional probability functions (CPFs), potential source contribution functions (PSCFs), and hierarchical clustering analysis (HAC) to identify the source region and transport pathways of hydrocarbons measured at five photochemical assessment monitoring stations (PAMS) near the Houston Ship Channel from June to October 2003. In contrast to scatter plots, which only show the pair-wise correlation of species, commonality in CPF figures shows both correlation and information on the source region of the species in question. In this study, we use over 50 hourly volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations and surface wind observations to show that VOCs with similar CPF patterns likely have common transport pathways. This was established with the multivariate technique, which uses the hierarchical clustering analysis to define clusters of VOCs having similar CPF patterns. This method revealed that alkenes, and in particular those with geometric isomers such as cis-/ trans-2-butene and cis-/ trans-2-pentene, have similar CPF patterns and hence, a common area of origin. The alkane isomers often show CPF patterns among themselves, and similarly, aromatic compounds often show similar patterns. We also show how calculated trajectory information can be used in the PSCF analysis to produce a graphic picture that identifies specific geographic areas associated with a given VOC (or other pollutant). The use of these techniques in the chemically and meteorologically complex environment of Houston, Texas, suggests its further utility in other areas with relatively simpler conditions.

Xie, Yulong; Berkowitz, Carl M.

389

The Exploration of Indicators of Imagination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although early studies in the fields of education and psychology appreciated the value of imagination, little work has been done pertaining to indicators of imagination. This study synthesized early works on imagination done between 1900 and 2011 to clarify its meaning and identify potential indicators. Then, two groups of samples were collected

Liang, Chaoyun; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Chang, Yuhsuan; Lin, Li-Jhong

2012-01-01

390

A Molecular Approach to Identifying the Natural Prey of the African Creeping Water Bug Naucoris, A Potential Reservoir of Mycobacterium ulcerans  

PubMed Central

The extra-oral digestion of creeping water bugs (Naucoridae: Hemiptera) hinders the study of their diet using the standard method of identifying prey body parts in the gut. Genetic methods are available, but rely on PCR tests or similar diagnostics to confirm suspected prey. Where the potential prey is unknown and a broad search for all possible prey is desirable, methods that can potentially capture any prey item are required. Naucoris sp. is known to harbor Mycobacterium ulcerans (Actinomycetales: Mycobacteriaceae), the causative bacterium of Buruli ulcer. Outbreaks of Buruli ulcer have been associated with disturbed freshwater habitats, but the mode of transmission to humans remains unclear. Here we examine the diet of Naucoris sp., a dominant aquatic predator in water bodies in Ghana where the prevalence of Buruli ulcer is high. We cloned and sequenced 576 PCR products (mtDNA rrnL, cox1) isolated from the gut of 60 Naucoris sp. individuals to determining diet composition as broadly as possible. Using phylogenetic analysis of newly sequenced clones and 6 potential prey taxa collected from the site, sequences isolated from Naucoris sp. guts matched locally collected Coleoptera (Hydrophilidae). Blastn queries to GenBank of other clone sequences produced matches to (Anura) (n = 1), Rotifera (n = 5), and fungi (n = 4) as additional components of the diet. Our results suggest that sp. in this Buruli ulcer-endemic area feeds on a wide range of prey and body sizes, and that the approach could be successfully applied to studies of aquatic food webs where morphological identification of prey is impossible and where little or no a priori knowledge is available. PMID:22934669

Gamboa, Maribet; Kimbirauskas, Ryan K.; Merritt, Richard W.; Monaghan, Michael T.

2012-01-01

391

High-Throughput Transcriptomic and RNAi Analysis Identifies AIM1, ERGIC1, TMED3 and TPX2 as Potential Drug Targets in Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases and there is a need for more efficient and targeted methods of treatment. In this study, the potential of gene expression data and RNA interference technique were combined to advance future personalized prostate cancer therapeutics. To distinguish the most promising in vivo prevalidated prostate cancer drug targets, a bioinformatic analysis was carried out using genome-wide gene expression data from 9873 human tissue samples. In total, 295 genes were selected for further functional studies in cultured prostate cancer cells due to their high mRNA expression in prostate, prostate cancer or in metastatic prostate cancer samples. Second, RNAi based cell viability assay was performed in VCaP and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Based on the siRNA results, gene expression patterns in human tissues and novelty, endoplasmic reticulum function associated targets AIM1, ERGIC1 and TMED3, as well as mitosis regulating TPX2 were selected for further validation. AIM1, ERGIC1, and TPX2 were shown to be highly expressed especially in prostate cancer tissues, and high mRNA expression of ERGIC1 and TMED3 associated with AR and ERG oncogene expression. ERGIC1 silencing specifically regulated the proliferation of ERG oncogene positive prostate cancer cells and inhibited ERG mRNA expression in these cells, indicating that it is a potent drug target in ERG positive subgroup of prostate cancers. TPX2 expression associated with PSA failure and TPX2 silencing reduced PSA expression, indicating that TPX2 regulates androgen receptor mediated signaling. In conclusion, the combinatorial usage of microarray and RNAi techniques yielded in a large number of potential novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets, for future development of targeted and personalized approaches for prostate cancer management. PMID:22761906

Vainio, Paula; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Kohonen, Pekka; Fey, Vidal; Mirtti, Tuomas; Alanen, Kalle A.; Perl, Merja; Kallioniemi, Olli; Iljin, Kristiina

2012-01-01

392

A novel approach to pharmaco-EEG for investigating analgesics: assessment of spectral indices in single-sweep evoked brain potentials  

PubMed Central

Aims To compare results from analysis of averaged and single-sweep evoked brain potentials (EPs) by visual inspection and spectral analysis in order to identify an objective measure for the analgesic effect of buprenorphine and fentanyl. Methods Twenty-two healthy males were included in a randomized study to assess the changes in EPs after 110 sweeps of painful electrical stimulation to the median nerve following treatment with buprenorphine, fentanyl or placebo patches. Bone pressure, cutaneous heat and electrical pain ratings were assessed. EPs and pain assessments were obtained before drug administration, 24, 48, 72 and 144 h after beginning of treatment. Features from EPs were extracted by three different approaches: (i) visual inspection of amplitude and latency of the main peaks in the average EPs, (ii) spectral distribution of the average EPs and (iii) spectral distribution of the EPs from single-sweeps. Results Visual inspection revealed no difference between active treatments and placebo (all P > 0.05). Spectral distribution of the averaged potentials showed a decrease in the beta (1232 Hz) band for fentanyl (P = 0.036), which however did not correlate with pain ratings. Spectral distribution in the single-sweep EPs revealed significant increases in the theta, alpha and beta bands for buprenorphine (all P < 0.05) as well as theta band increase for fentanyl (P = 0.05). For buprenorphine, beta band activity correlated with bone pressure and cutaneous heat pain (both P = 0.04, r = 0.90). Conclusion In conclusion single-sweep spectral band analysis increases the information on the response of the brain to opioids and may be used to identify the response to analgesics. PMID:23521205

Gram, Mikkel; Graversen, Carina; Nielsen, Anders K; Arendt-Nielsen, Thomas; Mrch, Carsten D; Andresen, Trine; Drewes, Asbjrn M

2013-01-01

393

The Yeast Three-Hybrid System as an Experimental Platform to Identify Proteins Interacting with Small Signaling Molecules in Plant Cells: Potential and Limitations  

PubMed Central

Chemical genetics is a powerful scientific strategy that utilizes small bioactive molecules as experimental tools to unravel biological processes. Bioactive compounds occurring in nature represent an enormous diversity of structures that can be used to dissect functions of biological systems. Once the bioactivity