Science.gov

Sample records for identify promising practices

  1. A Grounded Theory for Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: Promising Practices for Assessment, Intervention, and Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Dori

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative grounded theory study examined how practicing professionals involved in the ED identification process reconstructed the category of "emotional disturbance" as it applied to students in an alternative educational setting. A grounded theory integrates six emergent themes and essentially reframes the existing ED criteria in contemporary…

  2. Educating Homeless Students: Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H., Ed.; Reed-Victor, Evelyn, Ed.

    This book is for educators who serve homeless students or students temporarily sharing houses with other families. It describes many promising strategies for working with these students. The chapters are: (1) "Educating Homeless Children and Youth: An Introduction" (James H. Stronge); (2) "Meeting the Developmental and Educational Needs of…

  3. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libretto, Salvatore; Nemes, Susanna; Namur, Jenny; Garrett, Gerald; Hess, Lauren; Kaplan, Linda

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three countries in Southeast Asia--Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand--were examined to identify promising practices and to…

  4. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Skinstad, Anne Helene; Garrett, Gerald; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in four European countries-Poland, Spain, Slovenia, and Italy-were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

  5. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Garrett, Gerald; Johansson, Anna Carin; Hess, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three Latin American countries--Brazil, Peru and Argentina--were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

  6. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: An Overview of Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Gerald; Nemes, Susanna; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Libretto, Salvatore; Skinstadt, Anne Helene; Hess, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a research project sponsored and funded by the State Department's Bureau of International Narcotics and Affairs (INL) on substance abuse and treatment in ten countries. The purpose of the study was to identify promising practices in drug treatment in Europe, Latin America, and Southeast Asia. The steps taken to complete this…

  7. Energy options: the practical and the promising

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    A review of renewable energy sources (solar, wind, biomass, hydroelectric, geothermal, and ocean thermal gradients); advanced technologies for fuel cells, cogeneration, breeder reactors, and nuclear fusion; and synthetic fuels from coal gasification or liquefaction shale oil, and tar sands explores US options for supplanting fossil fuels and developing the electric power necessary for economic growth. The DOE projects that renewables will contribute only 3% of power generated by the year 2000, while the advanced technologies will only make a significant contribution in the 21st century. Coal and nuclear energy are the major energy sources for the interim until promising alternatives prove to be practical. 17 references.

  8. Using Multimedia to Introduce Your Promising Practice. Supported Education: A Promising Practice. Evidence-Based Practices KIT (Knowledge Informing Transformation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Karen V.

    2011-01-01

    Supported Education is a promising practice that helps people with mental illnesses who are interested in education and training return to school. Current research shows that Supported Education has demonstrated results. While more research is needed, Supported Education services show promise of becoming an evidence-based practice. Education…

  9. Promising Practices: Vocational Education Resource Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.

    Developed to assist community college administrators and faculty in enhancing vocational educational programs and services, this Vocational Education Resource Package profiles four vocational education programs at California community colleges that show promise in serving special population students. First, the Applied Mathematics for Electronics…

  10. What If? Promising Practices for Improving Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Rita, Ed.; Griggs, Shirley A., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Today, there is little deviation from the standard, business-as-usual practices in the world of education. This book challenges these stale practices and asks the important questions that can improve schools beyond the current state of mediocrity. Written for administrators, supervisors, teachers, parents--even politicians and corporate…

  11. Occupational sleep medicine: practice and promise.

    PubMed

    Belenky, Gregory; Wu, Lora J; Jackson, Melinda L

    2011-01-01

    Occupational sleep medicine is a new field within sleep medicine. Occupational sleep medicine applies (1) the science of sleep, frequently as instantiated into mathematical modeling; (2) the tactics, techniques, and procedures of sleep and performance measurement in the operational environment; and (3) the clinical practice of sleep medicine to reduce the risks of poor performance, lost productivity, and error, incident, and accident in the workplace. As envisioned here, occupational sleep medicine will play a crucial role in fatigue risk management to, in the short term, improve performance, productivity, and safety and in the longer term improve worker health and well-being. PMID:21531253

  12. Promising Practices: A Teacher Resource (Grades K-3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provenzano, Johanna Z., Ed.

    A collection of promising instructional practices for teachers of limited-English-speaking primary grade students is organized as a series of lessons on planning, classroom management, teaching procedures, and evaluation in a variety of content areas. Examples of basic learning activities intended to serve as a framework for teacher…

  13. Reducing Aggressive Male Behavior in Elementary School: Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Barbara; Gibson, Jamel; Morrison-Danner, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Student aggression and violent behavior, especially among males, is pervasive and problematic in the classroom. When incorporated in the lesson design, promising practices (music, movement, and visual stimulation) are evidence-based strategies that may reduce male aggression in the classroom.

  14. Contexts for Promise: Noteworthy Practices and Innovations in the Identification of Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Carolyn M., Ed.; And Others

    This monograph contains 11 papers describing model projects that address the identification of gifted students. An introduction by Carolyn M. Callahan and Carol A. Tomlinson identifies commonalities and themes in the promising practices highlighted in the papers. The papers include: (1) "Project STREAM: Support, Training and Resources for…

  15. The Recipe for Promising Practices in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, John S.; Cox, Elizabeth M.; Cerven, Christine; Haberler, Zachary

    2010-01-01

    This study identifies and examines the key practices of California community college programs that have demonstrated success in improving (or that have shown significant potential to improve) the achievement of underrepresented groups whose educational attainment often lags behind the attainment of relatively well-off White students. Unlike many…

  16. Identifying Best Practices in Hydraulic Fracturing Using

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Identifying Best Practices in Hydraulic Fracturing Using Virtual Intelligence Techniques SPE 72385 Results & Discussion Conclusion #12;SPE 72385 OBJECTIVE To identify Best Practices in Hydraulic Fracturing, are fractured upon completion to provide economic amounts of gas. #12;SPE 72385 BACKGROUND A dataset

  17. Implementing Career Academies Schoolwide: 2001-2002 Developments, Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, David; Dayton, Charles; Lenz, Robert; Tidyman, Susan

    This document, which is based on the findings of case studies of how four high schools from across the country have successfully implemented the schoolwide career academy model, presents recent developments and best practices in schoolwide career academies. The document consists of a brief introduction describing the case studies and one chapter…

  18. Development of a Contextualized ESL Bridge Curriculum. Promising Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Community College Research and Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Black Hawk College (BHC) is a comprehensive community college serving all or part of nine counties and a population of approximately 224,510 residents in a mostly rural area of north-west Illinois. This practice was fully developed and implemented for the Shifting Gears (SG) initiative during the 2007-08 academic years. Heeding BHC's strategic…

  19. A Community College and Employer Partnership. Promising Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Community College Research and Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As a pilot site selected to participate in Illinois' Shifting Gears (SG) initiative in 2007, Oakton Community College (OCC) partnered with Presbyterian Homes to develop a bridge course to prepare a cadre of their employed Certified Nurse Assistants (CNAs) to enter college-credit level prerequisite courses to a Practical Nursing program. Oakton…

  20. Anatomy of Professional Practice: Promising Research Perspectives on Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick W.

    2007-01-01

    This is the first book to bring into focus the full scope of professional practice in educational leadership. This book probes the limitations of traditional research in fully comprehending the true nature of leadership, and points out how future research must be expanded to deal with understanding the complexity of educational leadership…

  1. Engaging Women in Computer Science and Engineering: Promising Practices for Promoting Gender Equity in Undergraduate Research Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Karen A.; Fann, Amy J.; Misa-Escalante, Kimberly O.

    2011-01-01

    Building on research that identifies and addresses issues of women's underrepresentation in computing, this article describes promising practices in undergraduate research experiences that promote women's long-term interest in computer science and engineering. Specifically, this article explores whether and how REU programs include programmatic…

  2. Translating Genomic Research into Clinical Practice: Promise and Pitfalls

    E-print Network

    Kenny, Paraic

    .g., epigenetic, microRNA) and protein expression--the ultimate readout of the genetic code. Although NGS hasRNAs that are translated into proteins and various other RNAs (e.g., transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, micro RNA, noncoding RNA provided new insights on the classification of breast cancer and identified potential predictive biomarkers

  3. Identifying performance indicators for family practice

    PubMed Central

    Barnsley, Jan; Berta, Whitney; Cockerill, Rhonda; MacPhail, Judith; Vayda, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify performance indicators for family practice that focus on organizational structures and clinical processes of care, to review evidence linking indicators to patient outcomes, to have providers select indicators they consider important for performance assessment, and to obtain provider views on challenges to developing a performance assessment system. DESIGN Review of published and unpublished literature and contact with international experts resulted in a list of 131 structure and process indicators and associated evidence. This information was used in a two-round modified Delphi consensus process, which was followed by interviews with each of the 12 consensus panel members. SETTING Ontario family practices. PARTICIPANTS Eleven family physicians and one nurse practitioner from Ontario. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Survey package with 131 indicators and associated evidence was mailed to panel members who rated each of the indicators on a Likert scale from 1 (not at all important for performance assessment) to 9 (essential for performance assessment). Interviews were conducted with panel members to discuss indicator feasibility and data sources. Consensus score and median importance score for each indicator were main outcome measures; interviews identified barriers to performance assessment. RESULTS Fifty-one indicators achieved high consensus, 19 moderate consensus, and 38 low consensus. Clinical indicators that reached a high level of consensus were generally supported by grade A or B recommendations and level I to III evidence. Clinical indicators that achieved moderate consensus often had fair support in the literature. Low consensus was mainly associated with fair or equivocal evidence. During follow-up interviews, consensus panel members voiced frustration with inconsistencies in the evidence and practice guidelines upon which indicators are often based, and with poor transfer of patient information between health care providers. Lack of detail in patient care documentation and inconsistent documentation were mentioned frequently as threats to data quality. CONCLUSION Despite challenges to performance measurement noted by the panel, study results support the continued development, refinement, and testing of primary care performance indicators. PMID:16926927

  4. 77 FR 4550 - Promising and Practical Strategies to Increase Postsecondary Success

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Promising and Practical Strategies to Increase Postsecondary Success AGENCY: Department of Education. ACTION.... SUMMARY: The Secretary of Education (Secretary) invites institutions of higher education (IHEs),...

  5. Ultrasequencing of the meiofaunal biosphere: practice, pitfalls and promises.

    PubMed

    Creer, S; Fonseca, V G; Porazinska, D L; Giblin-Davis, R M; Sung, W; Power, D M; Packer, M; Carvalho, G R; Blaxter, M L; Lambshead, P J D; Thomas, W K

    2010-03-01

    Biodiversity assessment is the key to understanding the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, but there is a well-acknowledged biodiversity identification gap related to eukaryotic meiofaunal organisms. Meiofaunal identification is confounded by the small size of taxa, morphological convergence and intraspecific variation. However, the most important restricting factor in meiofaunal ecological research is the mismatch between diversity and the number of taxonomists that are able to simultaneously identify and catalogue meiofaunal diversity. Accordingly, a molecular operational taxonomic unit (MOTU)-based approach has been advocated for en mass meiofaunal biodiversity assessment, but it has been restricted by the lack of throughput afforded by chain termination sequencing. Contemporary pyrosequencing offers a solution to this problem in the form of environmental metagenetic analyses, but this represents a novel field of biodiversity assessment. Here, we provide an overview of meiofaunal metagenetic analyses, ranging from sample preservation and DNA extraction to PCR, sequencing and the bioinformatic interrogation of multiple, independent samples using 454 Roche sequencing platforms. We report two examples of environmental metagenetic nuclear small subunit 18S (nSSU) analyses of marine and tropical rainforest habitats and provide critical appraisals of the level of putative recombinant DNA molecules (chimeras) in metagenetic data sets. Following stringent quality control measures, environmental metagenetic analyses achieve MOTU formation across the eukaryote domain of life at a fraction of the time and cost of traditional approaches. The effectiveness of Roche 454 sequencing brings substantial advantages to studies aiming to elucidate the molecular genetic richness of not only meiofaunal, but also all complex eukaryotic communities. PMID:20331766

  6. Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piland, William E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines selected programs and methodologies in multicultural education designed to foster greater understanding of diverse cultures and lessen racial, class, and gender biases. Highlighted programs include a doctoral program in multicultural education and a staff development program for dealing with workplace diversity. Guidelines for eliminating…

  7. Blending Learning: The Evolution of Online and Face-to-Face Education from 2008-2015. Promising Practices in Blended and Online Learning Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Allison; Watson, John; Staley, Patrick; Patrick, Susan; Horn, Michael; Fetzer, Leslie; Hibbard, Laura; Oglesby, Jonathan; Verma, Sue

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) produced a series of papers documenting promising practices identified throughout the field of K-12 online learning. Since then, we have witnessed a tremendous acceleration of transformative policy and practice driving personalized learning in the K-12 education space. State,…

  8. Educating Emotionally Disturbed Children--Promising Practices. Journal within a Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Robert, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Seven articles by educators with a variety of perspectives examine promising educational practices for use with children having emotional disturbances. Lee Bell offers strategies for using group activities in "All Together Now: Group Techniques for Teaching Students with Emotional Disturbances." Lyn Sarda and Rik Flynn discuss benefits and…

  9. Promising Practices in Professional Growth & Support: "Case Study of Achievement First"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Four organizations with promising practices in teacher Professional Growth & Support have significantly raised outcomes for low-income students. The charter management networks, Achievement First and Aspire Public Schools, and the two reform organizations, Teach Plus and Agile Mind, have successfully increased student achievement with a…

  10. Promising Practices in Professional Growth & Support: "Case Study of Aspire Public Schools"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Four organizations with promising practices in teacher Professional Growth & Support have significantly raised outcomes for low-income students. The charter management networks, Achievement First and Aspire Public Schools, and the two reform organizations, Teach Plus and Agile Mind, have successfully increased student achievement with a…

  11. Promising Practices in Professional Growth & Support: "Case Study of Teach Plus"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Four organizations with promising practices in teacher Professional Growth & Support have significantly raised outcomes for low-income students. The charter management networks, Achievement First and Aspire Public Schools, and the two reform organizations, Teach Plus and Agile Mind, have successfully increased student achievement with a…

  12. The IGERT Program Evaluation: A Survey of Promising Interdisciplinary Practices in the Classroom

    E-print Network

    Daume III, Hal

    1 The IGERT Program Evaluation: A Survey of Promising Interdisciplinary Practices in the Classroom that could be refined to enhance IGERT's impact. The ongoing program evaluation is led by the Director. Methods Program evaluators formed the research team responsible for the questionnaire development, data

  13. Summary Xylem vulnerability to cavitation is a promising criterion for identifying trees with high drought tolerance, but

    E-print Network

    Mencuccini, Maurizio

    Summary Xylem vulnerability to cavitation is a promising criterion for identifying trees with high cavitation resistance and aboveground biomass production, indicating a possible trade- off between xylem safety and growth potential. Keywords: drought resistance, embolism, genotypic variabil- ity, xylem

  14. Childhood executive function inventory (CHEXI): a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD?

    PubMed

    Thorell, Lisa B; Eninger, Lilianne; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI) can discriminate between young children fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normally developing children. Unlike other executive function rating instruments, the CHEXI focuses specifically on inhibitory control and working memory, without including items that overlap with the diagnostic criteria of ADHD. The CHEXI was found to discriminate very well between children fulfilling the criteria for ADHD and normally developing children, also when controlling for the effect of IQ and socioeconomic status (SES). Both sensitivity and specificity of the two CHEXI subscales were shown to be high using either parent or teacher ratings. The highest overall classification rate was found for parent ratings on the inhibition subscale, with sensitivity and specificity reaching 93.3. To summarize, the CHEXI should be considered a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD, although it is for future research to determine whether the CHEXI can be successfully used to also discriminate between different psychopathological groups. PMID:19381995

  15. Approach to Identify Internal Best Practices in a Software Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose A., Calvo-Manzano; Gonzalo, Cuevas; Jezreel, Mejia; Mirna, Muñoz; Tomás, San Feliu; Ángel, Sánchez; Álvaro, Rocha

    Current approaches to software process improvements (SPI) in software organizations is based on identifying gaps by comparing the way organizations work with respect to practices contained in the reference models. Later, these gaps will be targeted for establishing software process improvements. This paper presents an approach for identifying best practices within the organization. This is considered a key element in order to compare the way software organizations work with the reference models. After that, these practices will be complemented with practices contained in these models depending on the organization's business goals.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENHANCING THE CONSERVATION AND SEQUESTRATION OF ATMOSPHERIC CARBON AND THEIR COSTS AT SITE LEVEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: ) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequesteri...

  17. Examination of Leadership Practices of Principals Identified as Servant Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tim; Martin, Barbara N.; Hutchinson, Sandy; Jinks, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the leadership practices of principals identified as servant leaders. The conceptual framework used to access the leadership behaviours was the leadership practices advocated by Kouzes and Posner. Statistical analysis included a multivariate test to determine if the demographic variables were significantly…

  18. Identifying, Documenting, Evaluating, and Sharing Innovative Classroom Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippitt, Ronald O.; Fox, Robert S.

    A survey of teaching practices and a face-to-face sharing institute were designed for an experiment to identify innovative practices, to legitimize the sharing of them, and to develop criteria for evaluating the relevance and importance of particular inventions. This experiment was part of a project involving a state organization of teachers and…

  19. Assessment of promising forest-management practices and technologies for enhancing the conservation and sequestration of atmospheric carbon and their costs at the site level

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.K.; Schroeder, P.E.; Winjum, J.K.

    1991-10-01

    The objectives of the report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: (1) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequestering and conserving carbon; (2) Assess available data on costs at the site level for promising forest and agroforestry management practices; and (3) Evaluate estimates of land technically suitable in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets and the proposed Global Forest Agreement goals.

  20. Gene prioritization aims to identify the most promising genes (or proteins) among a larger pool of candidates

    E-print Network

    Gene prioritization aims to identify the most promising genes (or proteins) among a larger pool for prioritization are useful at several stages of any gene-hunting process. These bioinformatics tools were on a few of the most likely candidate genes1­3 . For instance, a linkage analysis on patients

  1. Fostering Resilience among Urban Youth Exposed to Violence: A Promising Area for Interdisciplinary Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison K.

    2013-01-01

    Most studies to date have examined negative effects of exposure to community violence, in line with the deficit-based perspective. However, given that most youth exposed to community violence demonstrate positive adaptation or resilience over time, we suggest a shift in perspective, practices, and policies across systems toward identifying and…

  2. Understanding Evidence-Based Information for the Early Childhood Field: Tips from RAND's Promising Practices Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattox, Teryn; Kilburn, M. Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    With the growing and diverse use of the term "evidence-based practice" it can be difficult for policymakers, funders, program officers, and other professionals to separate the good evidence from the flawed. Furthermore, once good evidence has been identified, it can be difficult to know how to use it. This article discusses key issues to consider…

  3. Method for Identifying Combination Therapies to Combat Treatment Resistance Shows Promise

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers from the Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center in Boston have reported on a method for studying treatment resistance that may identify combinations of targeted therapies that can help to combat resistance in some patients.

  4. VLSI Technology: Impact and Promise. Identifying Emerging Issues and Trends in Technology for Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayoumi, Magdy

    As part of a 3-year study to identify emerging issues and trends in technology for special education, this paper addresses the implications of very large scale integrated (VLSI) technology. The first section reviews the development of educational technology, particularly microelectronics technology, from the 1950s to the present. The implications…

  5. The Promise of Virtual Teams: Identifying Key Factors in Effectiveness and Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Frank M.; Bravington, Desmond; Silvis, Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the investigation is to identify enabling and disenabling factors in the development and operation of virtual teams; to evaluate the importance of factors such as team development, cross-cultural variables, leadership, communication and social cohesion as contributors to virtual team effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach:…

  6. Interdisciplinary promises versus practices in medicine: the decoupled experiences of social sciences and humanities scholars.

    PubMed

    Albert, Mathieu; Paradis, Elise; Kuper, Ayelet

    2015-02-01

    This paper explores social scientists' and humanities (SSH) scholars' integration within the academic medical research environment. Three questions guided our investigation: Do SSH scholars adapt to the medical research environment? How do they navigate their career within a culture that may be inconsistent with their own? What strategies do they use to gain legitimacy? The study builds on three concepts: decoupling, doxa, and epistemic habitus. Twenty-nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with SSH scholars working in 11 faculties of medicine across Canada. Participants were selected through purposeful and snowball sampling. The data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. For most of our participants, moving into medicine has been a challenging experience, as their research practices and views of academic excellence collided with those of medicine. In order to achieve some level of legitimacy more than half of our participants altered their research practices. This resulted in a dissonance between their internalized appreciation of academic excellence and their new, altered, research practices. Only six participants experienced no form of challenge or dissonance after moving into medicine, while three decided to break with their social science and humanities past and make the medical research community their new home. We conclude that the work environment for SSH scholars in faculties of medicine does not deliver on the promise of inclusiveness made by calls for interdisciplinarity in Canadian health research. PMID:25500163

  7. Enacting the ‘neuro’ in practice: Translational research, adhesion and the promise of porosity

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This article attends to the processes through which neuroscience and the neuro are enacted in a specific context: a translational neuroscience research group that was the setting of an ethnographic study. The article therefore provides a close-up perspective on the intersection of neuroscience and translational research. In the scientific setting we studied, the neuro was multiple and irreducible to any particular entity or set of practices across a laboratory and clinical divide. Despite this multiplicity, the group’s work was held together through the ‘promise of porosity’ – that one day there would be translation of lab findings into clinically effective intervention. This promise was embodied in the figure of the Group Leader whose expertise spanned clinical and basic neurosciences. This is theorized in terms of a contrast between cohesion and adhesion in interdisciplinary groupings. We end by speculating on the role of ‘vivification’ – in our case mediated by the Group Leader – in rendering ‘alive’ the expectations of interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:25362829

  8. Transit Systems Project Title: Identifying Best Practices for

    E-print Network

    Transit Systems Project Title: Identifying Best Practices for Managing Operating Costs for Rural Public Transit Systems By: Suzie Edrington Jonathan Brooks Linda Cherrington Paul Hamilton Todd Hansen Operating Costs for Rural and Small Urban Public Transit Systems iii Table of Contents LIST OF FIGURES

  9. Mining pesticide use data to identify best management practices

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Minghua

    Mining pesticide use data to identify best management practices Emily Oakley1, *, Minghua Zhang1, CA 95616, USA. 2 California Department of Pesticide Regulation, Sacramento, CA 95814, USA. 3 growers using the California Pesticide Use Reports (PUR) database. Analysis was performed for prunes

  10. Australian Nurse Educators Identify Gaps in Expert Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Dianne; Duffield, Christine; Adams, Anne; Nagy, Sue; Crisp, Jackie; Mitten-Lewis, Suzanne

    2000-01-01

    A Delphi panel of 28 Australian nurse educators and 42 clinicians identified 58 practice items in which reality was far from ideal. In particular, for 16 items related to patient empowerment, nursing research, and technology policy, clinical behavior was rated below the median. (SK)

  11. Structural and practical identifiability analysis of S-system.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Choujun; Li, Benjamin Yee Shing; Yeung, Lam Fat

    2015-12-01

    In the field of systems biology, biological reaction networks are usually modelled by ordinary differential equations. A sub-class, the S-systems representation, is a widely used form of modelling. Existing S-systems identification techniques assume that the system itself is always structurally identifiable. However, due to practical limitations, biological reaction networks are often only partially measured. In addition, the captured data only covers a limited trajectory, therefore data can only be considered as a local snapshot of the system responses with respect to the complete set of state trajectories over the entire state space. Hence the estimated model can only reflect partial system dynamics and may not be unique. To improve the identification quality, the structural and practical identifiablility of S-system are studied. The S-system is shown to be identifiable under a set of assumptions. Then, an application on yeast fermentation pathway was conducted. Two case studies were chosen; where the first case is based on a larger state trajectories and the second case is based on a smaller one. By expanding the dataset which span a relatively larger state space, the uncertainty of the estimated system can be reduced. The results indicated that initial concentration is related to the practical identifiablity. PMID:26577163

  12. The Promise of Technology for College Instruction: From Drill and Practice to Avatars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlenschmidt, Sally; Kacer, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Technology and its uses have undergone significant change in the past several decades. Although the technology of 2010 has changed in ways unimaginable in 1960, the promise of technology today is similar to the promise of technology then. The achievement of student learning seems more likely to lie in the minds of the people who use the technology…

  13. Playing Hopscotch in Inclusive Education Reform: Examining Promises and Limitations of Policy and Practice in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waitoller, Federico R.; Thorius, Kathleen King

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we provide commentary on the "state of play" of inclusive education in the United States. We focus on the promises and limitations of inter-related accountability- and market-driven policies and Response to Intervention (RTI) (Vaughn and Fuchs, 2003). We argue that these policies and practice have "hopscotched"…

  14. Identifying Promising Practices in Teaching Ethnically Diverse Children in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Edith W.; Milan, Marjorie

    A study was made of techniques used by teachers of children from widely diverse ethnic backgrounds. Thirty-two classrooms with children from ages four to eight years were observed and the teachers were interviewed. Most of the children were non-English speaking Vietnamese, Hmong (Laos), and Mexican Americans. Observers assessed the broad areas of…

  15. Mini-ISES identifies promising carbafructopyranose-based salens for asymmetric catalysis: Tuning ligand shape via the anomeric effect

    PubMed Central

    Karukurichi, Kannan R.; Fei, Xiang; Swyka, Robert A.; Broussy, Sylvain; Shen, Weijun; Dey, Sangeeta; Roy, Sandip K.; Berkowitz, David B.

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces new methods of screening for and tuning chiral space and in so doing identifies a promising set of chiral ligands for asymmetric synthesis. The carbafructopyranosyl-1,2-diamine(s) and salens constructed therefrom are particularly compelling. It is shown that by removing the native anomeric effect in this ligand family, one can tune chiral ligand shape and improve chiral bias. This concept is demonstrated by a combination of (i) x-ray crystallographic structure determination, (ii) assessment of catalytic performance, and (iii) consideration of the anomeric effect and its underlying dipolar basis. The title ligands were identified by a new mini version of the in situ enzymatic screening (ISES) procedure through which catalyst-ligand combinations are screened in parallel, and information on relative rate and enantioselectivity is obtained in real time, without the need to quench reactions or draw aliquots. Mini-ISES brings the technique into the nanomole regime (200 to 350 nmol catalyst/20 ?l organic volume) commensurate with emerging trends in reaction development/process chemistry. The best-performing ?-d-carbafructopyranosyl-1,2-diamine–derived salen ligand discovered here outperforms the best known organometallic and enzymatic catalysts for the hydrolytic kinetic resolution of 3-phenylpropylene oxide, one of several substrates examined for which the ligand is “matched.” This ligand scaffold defines a new swath of chiral space, and anomeric effect tunability defines a new concept in shaping that chiral space. Both this ligand set and the anomeric shape-tuning concept are expected to find broad application, given the value of chiral 1,2-diamines and salens constructed from these in asymmetric catalysis. PMID:26501130

  16. Pursuing Promise Neighborhoods: With or without the Grant Program. A Center Policy & Practice Brief. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The federal "Promise Neighborhoods" program underscores the importance of all children and youth having "access to great schools and strong systems of family and community support that will prepare them to attain an excellent education and successfully transition to college and a career." From this perspective, this brief stresses the importance…

  17. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Lessons Learned from Manufacturing and Automotive Career Pathway Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from automotive and…

  18. Technological Advances in the Treatment of Trauma: A Review of Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Lisa A.; Hassija, Christina M.; Clapp, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    Given the availability of empirically supported practices for addressing posttraumatic stress disorder and other forms of trauma-related distress, the development and implementation of new technology to deliver these treatments is exciting. Technological innovations in this literature aim to expand availability of empirically based intervention,…

  19. GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The assessment produced productivity and cost data for forest and agroforestry management practices in 94 nations. hat is, out of a total of 140 nations in the world with forest resources, about two-thirds are represented in the database at present. he total forest and woodland a...

  20. Promising Homework Practices: Teachers' Perspectives on Making Homework Work for Newcomer Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Hee Jin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the homework practices of eight teachers working in a high school designed to serve newcomer immigrant students. Individual structured interviews were conducted in which teachers working in an innovative setting explained their purposes of assigning homework, their beliefs about factors affecting their students' homework…

  1. Innovative Contextualized Curriculum for a CNA to LPN Bridge Course. Promising Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Community College Research and Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As a pilot site selected to participate in Illinois' Shifting Gears (SG) initiative in 2007, Oakton Community College (OCC) partnered with Presbyterian Homes to develop a bridge course to prepare a cadre of their employed Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) to enter college-credit prerequisite courses to a Practical Nursing program. Oakton…

  2. Research-Practice Interactions as Reported in Recent Design Studies: Still Promising, Still Hazy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Bart J. B.; Pareja Roblin, Natalie N.; McKenney, Susan E.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    This study portrays recent research-practice connections found in 18 design research reports focusing on the creation of instructional solutions. Solutions in different stages of development varied greatly in duration, ranging from one lesson to a whole year curriculum, spanned all levels of education, many subjects (science, math, language,…

  3. Promising Practices for Community College Developmental Education: A Discussion Resource for the Connecticut Community College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy; Jenkins, Davis

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes key findings from the literature on effective developmental education practice. It is designed to promote discussion among community college educators and state agency staff in Connecticut as they consider how to improve outcomes for their many students who are academically unprepared to succeed in college. One common theme…

  4. The Promise and Practice of Pragmatism-Based Music Education in Democratic Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, J. Scott

    2013-01-01

    In his book, "What's So Important about Music Education?" (2010), Goble J. Scott argues from a foundation of C. S. Peirce's pragmatist philosophy that school music education that enables students to understand and engage with the musical practices (or "praxes") of different cultural communities in terms of their…

  5. Keeping Promises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Gregory A.

    2005-01-01

    Commitments are between people, not schedules. Project management as practiced today creates a "commitment-free zone," because it assumes that people will commit to centrally managed schedules without providing a mechanism to ensure their work can be done. So they give it their best, but something always seems to come up ..."I tried, but you know how it is." This form of project management does not provide a mechanism to ensure that what should be done, can in fact be done at the required moment. Too often, promises reliable promise. made in coordination meetings are conditional and unreliable. It has been my experience that at times trust can be low and hard to build in this environment. The absence of reliable promises explains why on well-run projects, people are often only completing 30-50 percent of the deliverables they d promised for the week. We all know what a promise is; we have plenty of experience making them and receiving them from others. So what s the problem? The sad fact is that the project environment-like many other work environments- is often so filled with systemic dishonesty, that we don t expect promises that are reliable. Project managers excel when they manage their projects as networks of commitments and help their people learn to elicit and make reliable promises.

  6. Practical and Theoretical Aspects of Adjoint Parameter Estimation and Identifiability

    E-print Network

    ? A brief survey of other approaches for solving the problem of optimal parameter estimation in meteorology; Abstract The present paper has two aims. One is to survey briefly the state of the art of parameter techniques to inverse parameter estimation problems, which bear promise of serious positive impact

  7. Identifying and Extinguishing Dysfunctional and Deadly Organizational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawhinney, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    It is possible to define an organization's culture in terms of its dominant behavioral practices and their molar consequences, from the shop floor to the executive suite (Redmon & Mason, 2001). Dysfunctional and potentially deadly practices (for the organization as a whole) can be "latent." They often go undetected until their dramatic…

  8. The Promise of Response to Intervention: Evaluating Current Science and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Todd A., Ed.; Vaughn, Sharon, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    As response to intervention (RTI) is adopted by increasing numbers of schools and districts, knowledge about "what works" continues to grow. This much-needed book analyzes the key components of RTI service delivery and identifies the characteristics of successful implementation. Critically reviewing the available research, leading authorities…

  9. Identifying internal best practices and propagating standard work

    E-print Network

    Gracewski, Travis E

    2010-01-01

    Standard work is commonly used in manufacturing and assembly operations to minimize process variation by providing detailed instruction to operators. Internal best practices are processes within the firm that achieve a ...

  10. Promising clinical practices of metformin in women with PCOS and early-stage endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Ruijin; Li, Xin; Billig, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a high risk of developing endometrial cancer (EC). There is an urgent need for non-surgical prevention and treatment strategies for these patients who fail to respond to progesterone treatment and wish to preserve their fertility. Recently, we have reported that the combined treatment with metformin and progesterone-based oral contraceptives has successfully reversed the early-stage EC into normal endometria in addition to improvement of insulin resistance in women with PCOS. More importantly, one of these treated women has successfully delivered a healthy newborn baby. However, before such treatment can be recommended to the clinical practice, the molecular basis of metformin in the endometrium under physiological and pathological conditions must be elucidated.

  11. Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice.

    PubMed

    Guerry, Anne D; Polasky, Stephen; Lubchenco, Jane; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Daily, Gretchen C; Griffin, Robert; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Bateman, Ian J; Duraiappah, Anantha; Elmqvist, Thomas; Feldman, Marcus W; Folke, Carl; Hoekstra, Jon; Kareiva, Peter M; Keeler, Bonnie L; Li, Shuzhuo; McKenzie, Emily; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Reyers, Belinda; Ricketts, Taylor H; Rockström, Johan; Tallis, Heather; Vira, Bhaskar

    2015-06-16

    The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides into decision-making. We explore progress and crucial gaps at this frontier, reflecting upon the 10 y since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We focus on three key dimensions of progress and ongoing challenges: raising awareness of the interdependence of ecosystems and human well-being, advancing the fundamental interdisciplinary science of ecosystem services, and implementing this science in decisions to restore natural capital and use it sustainably. Awareness of human dependence on nature is at an all-time high, the science of ecosystem services is rapidly advancing, and talk of natural capital is now common from governments to corporate boardrooms. However, successful implementation is still in early stages. We explore why ecosystem service information has yet to fundamentally change decision-making and suggest a path forward that emphasizes: (i) developing solid evidence linking decisions to impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services, and then to human well-being; (ii) working closely with leaders in government, business, and civil society to develop the knowledge, tools, and practices necessary to integrate natural capital and ecosystem services into everyday decision-making; and (iii) reforming institutions to change policy and practices to better align private short-term goals with societal long-term goals. PMID:26082539

  12. Promise and dismay: The state of strategic environmental assessment systems and practices in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, Bram F.

    2009-01-15

    Has strategic environmental assessment (SEA) finally reached a point of maturity in Canada? Or, is it still stumbling to find its place in the impact assessment family? Strategic environmental assessment has been ongoing in Canada for a number of years, both formally and informally, and under a variety of labels and institutional models. The result is a system of SEA that is diverse, founded on a range of principles and frameworks, and not well understood. This paper provides a critical review of Canadian SEA systems and practices. To accomplish this objective, a manageable and diverse set of past and recent SEA and SEA-like frameworks and applications are described and critically analyzed based on a set of input, process, and output evaluation criteria. Results suggest considerable variability in SEA experience and value added. This is due in large part to the institutional and methodological pluralism of SEA, the boundaries of which are not well defined. Under the federal system, since the formalization of SEA, many applications have been disappointing in light of broader SEA good-practice principles and criteria. Indeed, some of the better examples of SEA have neither carried the SEA name tag nor occurred under formal SEA requirements. Further, many of the same challenges to project-based impact assessment also plague the development and value added of SEA. Of particular concern is the systematic separation of SEA from downstream decision inputs and assessment activities. As Canada commences review of its federal SEA Directive in preparation for the next generation of SEA, this paper reflects on what it has achieved in the prior.

  13. Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice

    PubMed Central

    Guerry, Anne D.; Polasky, Stephen; Lubchenco, Jane; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Daily, Gretchen C.; Griffin, Robert; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Bateman, Ian J.; Duraiappah, Anantha; Elmqvist, Thomas; Feldman, Marcus W.; Folke, Carl; Hoekstra, Jon; Kareiva, Peter M.; Keeler, Bonnie L.; Li, Shuzhuo; McKenzie, Emily; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Reyers, Belinda; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Rockström, Johan; Tallis, Heather; Vira, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides into decision-making. We explore progress and crucial gaps at this frontier, reflecting upon the 10 y since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We focus on three key dimensions of progress and ongoing challenges: raising awareness of the interdependence of ecosystems and human well-being, advancing the fundamental interdisciplinary science of ecosystem services, and implementing this science in decisions to restore natural capital and use it sustainably. Awareness of human dependence on nature is at an all-time high, the science of ecosystem services is rapidly advancing, and talk of natural capital is now common from governments to corporate boardrooms. However, successful implementation is still in early stages. We explore why ecosystem service information has yet to fundamentally change decision-making and suggest a path forward that emphasizes: (i) developing solid evidence linking decisions to impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services, and then to human well-being; (ii) working closely with leaders in government, business, and civil society to develop the knowledge, tools, and practices necessary to integrate natural capital and ecosystem services into everyday decision-making; and (iii) reforming institutions to change policy and practices to better align private short-term goals with societal long-term goals. PMID:26082539

  14. From promise to practice: pairing non-invasive sampling with genomics in conservation

    PubMed Central

    Waterhouse, Matthew D.; Etter, Paul D.; Johnson, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation genomics has become an increasingly popular term, yet it remains unclear whether the non-invasive sampling that is essential for many conservation-related studies is compatible with the minimum requirements for harnessing next-generation sequencing technologies. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of using genotyping-by-sequencing of non-invasively collected hair samples to simultaneously identify and genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a climate-sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). We identified and genotyped 3,803 high-confidence SNPs across eight sites distributed along two elevational transects using starting DNA amounts as low as 1 ng. Fifty-five outlier loci were detected as candidate gene regions under divergent selection, constituting potential targets for future validation. Genome-wide estimates of gene diversity significantly and positively correlated with elevation across both transects, with all low elevation sites exhibiting significant heterozygote deficit likely due to inbreeding. More broadly, our results highlight a range of issues that must be considered when pairing genomic data collection with non-invasive sampling, particularly related to field sampling protocols for minimizing exogenous DNA, data collection strategies and quality control steps for enhancing target organism yield, and analytical approaches for maximizing cost-effectiveness and information content of recovered genomic data. PMID:26244114

  15. Registry to Referral: A Promising Means for Identifying and Referring Infants and Toddlers for Early Intervention Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farel, Anita M.; Meyer, Robert E.; Hicken, Margaret; Edmonds, Larry

    2003-01-01

    This article proposes use of birth defects registries in facilitating early intervention. It reports results of a survey to identify state programs that are using, or planning to use, birth defects surveillance systems to identify and refer children and families for services. It provides four case examples and recommended steps to encourage use of…

  16. Promising Practices in CTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Standards Branch.

    This document contains 85 articles taken from previously published issues of the "CTS Communication Network Update," a publication about the career and technology studies (CTS) program of career education designed for Alberta, Canada, high school juniors and seniors. Following an introductory section and a section on general CTS, the document…

  17. Addressing language barriers in client-centered health promotion: lessons learned and promising practices from Texas WIC.

    PubMed

    Seth, Jennifer Greenberg; Isbell, Matthew G; Atwood, Robin Dochen; Ray, Tara C

    2015-05-01

    The growing population of nonnative English speakers in the United States challenges program planners to offer services that will effectively reach limited English proficiency (LEP) audiences. This article presents findings from evaluation research conducted with the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) to identify best practices and areas of concern for working with LEP clients. Data were collected through online surveys of 338 WIC teaching staff in 2010 and 65 WIC local agency directors in 2011 as part of an implementation evaluation of client-centered nutrition education. Data identified current practices, facilitating factors, and challenges in working with LEP clients. Facilitating factors included cultural competency, material and translation resources, linguistic competency, professional development opportunities, and rapport with clients. Challenges cited included linguistic challenges, lack of cultural competencies, issues related to the client-staff interaction, and insufficient time, materials, and staffing. Best practices inferred from the data relate to developing linguistic standards for bilingual staff, considerations for translating written materials, interpretation services, cultural competency, and staff training. Findings may help inform the development of this and other linguistically and culturally appropriate health promotion programs. PMID:25445982

  18. Genome Wide Association Study Identifies 20 Novel Promising Genes Associated with Milk Fatty Acid Traits in Chinese Holstein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin; Li, Yanhua; Qiao, Lv

    2014-01-01

    Detecting genes associated with milk fat composition could provide valuable insights into the complex genetic networks of genes underling variation in fatty acids synthesis and point towards opportunities for changing milk fat composition via selective breeding. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 22 milk fatty acids in 784 Chinese Holstein cows with the PLINK software. Genotypes were obtained with the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead chip and a total of 40,604 informative, high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used. Totally, 83 genome-wide significant SNPs and 314 suggestive significant SNPs associated with 18 milk fatty acid traits were detected. Chromosome regions that affect milk fatty acid traits were mainly observed on BTA1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26 and 27. Of these, 146 SNPs were associated with more than one milk fatty acid trait; most of studied fatty acid traits were significant associated with multiple SNPs, especially C18:0 (105 SNPs), C18 index (93 SNPs), and C14 index (84 SNPs); Several SNPs are close to or within the DGAT1, SCD1 and FASN genes which are well-known to affect milk composition traits of dairy cattle. Combined with the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions of the genes, 20 novel promising candidates for C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C14 index, C18:0, C18:1n9c, C18 index, SFA, UFA and SFA/UFA were found, which composed of HTR1B, CPM, PRKG1, MINPP1, LIPJ, LIPK, EHHADH, MOGAT1, ECHS1, STAT1, SORBS1, NFKB2, AGPAT3, CHUK, OSBPL8, PRLR, IGF1R, ACSL3, GHR and OXCT1. Our findings provide a groundwork for unraveling the key genes and causal mutations affecting milk fatty acid traits in dairy cattle. PMID:24858810

  19. Holding children and young people: identifying a theory-practice gap.

    PubMed

    Page, Andrea; McDonnell, Andrew A

    Holding practices are employed to help a child or young person stay still during the administration of treatments, prevent treatment interference or to undertake an examination, which can sometimes be invasive. The aim of this study was to explore assumptions and practices of holding to develop theories about teaching practices following Grounded Theory methodology for undergraduate nursing students, university lecturers and clinical mentors. The practice of therapeutic holding is often covert and not considered to be part of the treatment per se, which has led to concealment and a reticence to discuss practices openly. This study identified that there is variance in the experiences and practices. Prominent themes that emerged were a lack of clarity and lack of training. It appears that therapeutic holding practices have moved from being viewed as 'uncontested' (practice is not disputed) to 'indifferent' (where there is denial about this practice). These findings have serious implications for current practice and future training. PMID:25904450

  20. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices.

    PubMed

    Luthringer, Corey L; Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-09-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of underfortified products and enforcement of applicable fortification standards. Only by taking concrete steps to improve the entire regulatory system that is built on a cooperative working relationship between regulatory agencies and food producers will a nutrition strategy that uses fortification see its intended health effects. PMID:26374804

  1. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of underfortified products and enforcement of applicable fortification standards. Only by taking concrete steps to improve the entire regulatory system that is built on a cooperative working relationship between regulatory agencies and food producers will a nutrition strategy that uses fortification see its intended health effects. PMID:26374804

  2. Global tyrosine kinome profiling of human thyroid tumors identifies Src as a promising target for invasive cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Nancy L.; Lin, Chi-Iou; Du, Jinyan; Whang, Edward E.; Ito, Hiromichi; Moore, Francis D.; Ruan, Daniel T.

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinome profiling is a novel technique for identifying activated kinases in human cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Src activity is increased in invasive thyroid cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of Src activity decreased proliferation and invasion in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Further investigation of Src targeted therapies in thyroid cancer is warranted. -- Abstract: Background: Novel therapies are needed for the treatment of invasive thyroid cancers. Aberrant activation of tyrosine kinases plays an important role in thyroid oncogenesis. Because current targeted therapies are biased toward a small subset of tyrosine kinases, we conducted a study to reveal novel therapeutic targets for thyroid cancer using a bead-based, high-throughput system. Methods: Thyroid tumors and matched normal tissues were harvested from twenty-six patients in the operating room. Protein lysates were analyzed using the Luminex immunosandwich, a bead-based kinase phosphorylation assay. Data was analyzed using GenePattern 3.0 software and clustered according to histology, demographic factors, and tumor status regarding capsular invasion, size, lymphovascular invasion, and extrathyroidal extension. Survival and invasion assays were performed to determine the effect of Src inhibition in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) cells. Results: Tyrosine kinome profiling demonstrated upregulation of nine tyrosine kinases in tumors relative to matched normal thyroid tissue: EGFR, PTK6, BTK, HCK, ABL1, TNK1, GRB2, ERK, and SRC. Supervised clustering of well-differentiated tumors by histology, gender, age, or size did not reveal significant differences in tyrosine kinase activity. However, supervised clustering by the presence of invasive disease showed increased Src activity in invasive tumors relative to non-invasive tumors (60% v. 0%, p < 0.05). In vitro, we found that Src inhibition in PTC cells decreased cell invasion and proliferation. Conclusion: Global kinome analysis enables the discovery of novel targets for thyroid cancer therapy. Further investigation of Src targeted therapy for advanced thyroid cancer is warranted.

  3. Promising Perceptions, Divergent Practices and Barriers to Integrated Malaria Prevention in Wakiso District, Uganda: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Musoke, David; Miiro, George; Karani, George; Morris, Keith; Kasasa, Simon; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Guwatudde, David; Musoke, Miph Boses

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization recommends use of multiple approaches to control malaria. The integrated approach to malaria prevention advocates the use of several malaria prevention methods in a holistic manner. This study assessed perceptions and practices on integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda. Methods A clustered cross-sectional survey was conducted among 727 households from 29 villages using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Assessment was done on awareness of various malaria prevention methods, potential for use of the methods in a holistic manner, and reasons for dislike of certain methods. Households were classified as using integrated malaria prevention if they used at least two methods. Logistic regression was used to test for factors associated with the use of integrated malaria prevention while adjusting for clustering within villages. Results Participants knew of the various malaria prevention methods in the integrated approach including use of insecticide treated nets (97.5%), removing mosquito breeding sites (89.1%), clearing overgrown vegetation near houses (97.9%), and closing windows and doors early in the evenings (96.4%). If trained, most participants (68.6%) would use all the suggested malaria prevention methods of the integrated approach. Among those who would not use all methods, the main reasons given were there being too many (70.2%) and cost (32.0%). Only 33.0% households were using the integrated approach to prevent malaria. Use of integrated malaria prevention by households was associated with reading newspapers (AOR 0.34; 95% CI 0.22 –0.53) and ownership of a motorcycle/car (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.03 – 2.98). Conclusion Although knowledge of malaria prevention methods was high and perceptions on the integrated approach promising, practices on integrated malaria prevention was relatively low. The use of the integrated approach can be improved by promoting use of multiple malaria prevention methods through various communication channels such as mass media. PMID:25837978

  4. Eliminating tobacco-related disparities among Pacific Islanders through leadership and capacity building - Promising practices and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    David, Annette M.; Lew, Rod; Lyman, Annabel K.; Otto, Caleb; Robles, Rebecca; Cruz, George

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco remains a major risk factor for premature death and ill health among Pacific Islanders, and tobacco-related disparities persist. Eliminating these disparities requires a comprehensive approach to transform community norms about tobacco use through policy change, as contained in the World Health Organization (WHO) international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Three of the six US-affiliated Pacific Islands – the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Palau and the Marshall Islands – are Parties to the FCTC; the remaining three territories – American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) and Guam – are excluded from the treaty by virtue of US non-ratification. Capacity building and leadership development are essential in achieving policy change and health equity within Pacific Islander communities. We describe promising practices from American Samoa, CNMI, FSM, Guam and Palau and highlight some of the key lessons learned in supporting and sustaining the reduction in tobacco use among Pacific Islanders as a first step towards eliminating tobacco-related disparities in these populations. PMID:23690256

  5. Identifying Student Competencies in Macro Practice: Articulating the Practice Wisdom of Field Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regehr, Cheryl; Bogo, Marion; Donovan, Kirsten; Lim, April; Anstice, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Although a growing literature examines competencies in clinical practice, competencies of students in macro social work practice have received comparatively little attention. A grounded-theory methodology was used to elicit field instructor views of student competencies in community, organization, and policy contexts. Competencies described by…

  6. Can surveying practitioners about their practices help identify priority clinical practice guideline topics?

    PubMed Central

    Brouwers, Melissa C; Chambers, Alexandra; Perry, James

    2003-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines are systematically developed statements designed to assist in patient and physician clinical decision making for specific clinical circumstances. In order to establish which guideline topics are priorities, practitioners were surveyed regarding their current practice. Methods One hundred ninety-seven practitioners in Ontario, Canada were mailed a survey exploring their current practice or opinion regarding the prophylactic use of anticonvulsant drugs in patients with malignant glioma who had never had a seizure. The survey consisted of seven questions regarding the relevance of a guideline on the subject to the practitioner's practice, the proportion of clinical cases involving anticonvulsant use, knowledge of existing guidelines on this topic, interest in reviewing a completed practice guideline and three clinical scenarios. Results There were 122 respondents who returned the survey (62% rate of return). Eighty percent of the practitioners who responded indicated that less than 25% of their clinical cases involved the use of anticonvulsants; however, only 16% of respondents indicated that a practice guideline would be irrelevant to their practice. Eighty percent of respondents volunteered to review a draft version of a practice guideline on the use of anticonvulsants. The survey presented the practitioners with three scenarios where anticonvulsants in patients with brain tumours may be appropriate: peri-operatively in patients without seizures, postoperatively in patients currently using anticonvulsants, and thirdly in patients not currently using anticonvulsants or undergoing surgery. In contrast to the third situation, the first two situations yielded considerable variation in practitioner response. Conclusion The survey established that there is some variation present in the current practice of anticonvulsant use in the patients with brain tumours. Whether there is an optimal treatment practice has yet to be determined. Practitioners do seem to feel that a guideline on anticonvulsant use in warranted, and most practitioners would be interested in being part of the guideline development process. PMID:14687426

  7. School Leaders' Use of Data-Driven Decision-Making for School Improvement: A Study of Promising Practices in Two California Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Guadalupe H.

    2011-01-01

    The current interest in using data-driven decision-making in schools has focused on how best to use student achievement data to meet the demands of current accountability requirements. The purpose of this study was to investigate promising practices specific to school leaders' use of data-driven decision-making for school improvement at two…

  8. Eggplant and related species are promising genetic resources to dissect the plant immune response to Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and to identify new resistance determinants.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Christopher R; Hayes, Byron W; Runde, Brendan J; Wicker, Emmanuel; Vinatzer, Boris A

    2014-10-01

    The apparent lack of durability of many resistance (R) genes highlights the need for the constant identification of new genetic sources of resistance for the breeding of new disease-resistant crop cultivars. To this end, we screened a collection of accessions of eggplant and close relatives for resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) and Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xeu), foliar plant pathogens of many solanaceous crops. Both pathogens caused substantial disease on most genotypes of eggplant and its relatives. Promisingly, however, some of the genotypes were fully or partially resistant to either of the pathogens, suggesting the presence of effective resistance determinants in these genotypes. Segregation of resistance to the growth of Xeu following infiltration in F2 progeny from a cross of a resistant and susceptible genotype suggests that resistance to Xeu is inherited as a multigenic trait. With regard to Pto, a mutant strain lacking all 28 functional type III secreted effectors, and a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain expressing a P.?syringae type III secretion system (T3SS), both elicit a strong cell death response on most eggplant lines. Several genotypes thus appear to harbour a mechanism for the direct recognition of a component of the T3SS. Therefore, eggplant and its close relatives are promising resources to unravel novel aspects of plant immunity and to identify new candidate R genes that could be employed in other Solanaceae in which Xeu and Pto cause agriculturally relevant diseases. PMID:24684604

  9. The Promise and Reality of Formative Assessment Practice in a Continuous Assessment Scheme: The Case of Trinidad and Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lisle, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Continuous Assessment (CA) systems are externally directed, curriculum-based assessment schemes used for both summative and formative purposes within classrooms. CA has been implemented as national policy in several postcolonial developing countries and is believed to hold great promise for improving education outcomes. This theory-driven…

  10. Promising Partnership Practices, 2002: The 5th Annual Collection from Members of the National Network of Partnership Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansorn, Natalie Rodriguez, Ed.; Salinas, Karen Clark, Ed.

    This publication highlights 93 exemplary practices of school, family, and community partnerships selected from members of the National Network of Partnerships Schools at Johns Hopkins University, Maryland. Network member sites represent 18 states and 2 Canadian provinces. The publication highlights six types of practices: parenting (e.g., parent…

  11. "Use of Current Best Evidence": Promises and Illusions, Limitations and Contradictions in the Triangle of Research, Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassnigg, Lorenz

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the methodological and epistemological implications of the relationships between R&D, policy and practice. The proposals towards "evidence-based policy and practice" are analysed with respect to this triangle from three angles: (1) meaning; (2) production; and (3) use of evidence. A comprehensive model of the research cycle,…

  12. Identifying Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education through High Quality Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedt, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if meta-analysis can be used to enhance efforts to identify evidence-based practices (EBPs). In this study, the quality of included studies acted as the moderating variable. I used the quality indicators for experimental and quasi-experimental research developed by Gersten, Fuchs, Coyne, Greenwood, and…

  13. Identifying best management practices to minimize P loss in a tile drained landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses from agriculture have been identified as a primary contributor to harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie. The objectives of this presentation will be to provide estimates of cropping systems management and other conservation practices that can be used to minimize P losses from this land...

  14. Identifying Effective Classroom Practices Using Student Achievement Data. NBER Working Paper No. 15803

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Taylor, Eric S.; Tyler, John H.; Wooten, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has confirmed both the importance of teachers in producing student achievement growth and in the variability across teachers in the ability to do that. Such findings raise the stakes on our ability to identify effective teachers and teaching practices. This paper combines information from classroom-based observations and measures…

  15. Identifying low-value clinical practices in critical care medicine: protocol for a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Niven, Daniel J; McCormick, T Jared; Straus, Sharon E; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Jeffs, Lianne P; Stelfox, Henry T

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Reducing unnecessary, low-value clinical practice (ie, de-adoption) is key to improving value for money in healthcare, especially among patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) where resource consumption exceeds other medical and surgical populations. Research suggests that low-value clinical practices are common in medicine, however systematically and objectively identifying them is a widely cited barrier to de-adoption. We will conduct a scoping review to identify low-value clinical practices in adult critical care medicine that are candidates for de-adoption. Methods and analysis We will systematically search the literature to identify all randomised controlled trials or systematic reviews that focus on diagnostic or therapeutic interventions in adult patients admitted to medical, surgical or specialty ICUs, and are published in 3 general medical journals with the highest impact factor (New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association). 2 investigators will independently screen abstracts and full-text articles against inclusion criteria, and extract data from included citations. Included citations will be classified according to whether or not they represent a repeat examination of the given research question (ie, replication research), and whether the results are similar or contradictory to the original study. Studies with contradictory results will determine clinical practices that are candidates for de-adoption. Ethics and dissemination Our scoping review will use robust methodology to systematically identify a list of clinical practices in adult critical care medicine with evidence supporting their de-adoption. In addition to adding to advancing the study of de-adoption, this review may also serve as the launching point for clinicians and researchers in critical care to begin reducing the number of low-value clinical practices. Dissemination of these results to relevant stakeholders will include tailored presentations at local, national and international meetings, and publication of a manuscript. Ethical approval is not required for this study. PMID:26510726

  16. Promising Practices in the State of Florida for Dropout Prevention and Transition for Students with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Laura J.; And Others

    Project RETAIN (Retention in Education Technical Assistance and Information Network) is a Florida project that assists school districts through identification and dissemination of effective practices that keep students with mild disabilities in school. One part of the project examined dropout rates from Florida's 67 school districts and their…

  17. Using the Primary Care Behavioral Health Provider Adherence Questionnaire (PPAQ) to identify practice patterns.

    PubMed

    Beehler, Gregory P; Funderburk, Jennifer S; King, Paul R; Wade, Michael; Possemato, Kyle

    2015-12-01

    Primary care-mental health integration (PC-MHI) is growing in popularity. To determine program success, it is essential to know if PC-MHI services are being delivered as intended. The investigation examines responses to the Primary Care Behavioral Health Provider Adherence Questionnaire (PPAQ) to explore PC-MHI provider practice patterns. Latent class analysis was used to identify clusters of PC-MHI providers based on their self-report of adherence on the PPAQ. Analysis revealed five provider clusters with varying levels of adherence to PC-MHI model components. Across clusters, adherence was typically lowest in relation to collaboration with other primary care staff. Clusters also differed significantly in regard to provider educational background and psychotherapy approach, level of clinic integration, and previous PC-MHI training. The PPAQ can be used to identify PC-MHI provider practice patterns that have relevance for future clinical effectiveness studies, development of provider training, and quality improvement initiatives. PMID:26622911

  18. Barcode Identifiers as a Practical Tool for Reliable Species Assignment of Medically Important Black Yeast Species

    PubMed Central

    Heinrichs, Guido; de Hoog, G. Sybren

    2012-01-01

    Herpotrichiellaceous black yeasts and relatives comprise severe pathogens flanked by nonpathogenic environmental siblings. Reliable identification by conventional methods is notoriously difficult. Molecular identification is hampered by the sequence variability in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain caused by difficult-to-sequence homopolymeric regions and by poor taxonomic attribution of sequences deposited in GenBank. Here, we present a potential solution using short barcode identifiers (27 to 50 bp) based on ITS2 ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which allows unambiguous definition of species-specific fragments. Starting from proven sequences of ex-type and authentic strains, we were able to describe 103 identifiers. Multiple BLAST searches of these proposed barcode identifiers in GenBank revealed uniqueness for 100 taxonomic entities, whereas the three remaining identifiers each matched with two entities, but the species of these identifiers could easily be discriminated by differences in the remaining ITS regions. Using the proposed barcode identifiers, a 4.1-fold increase of 100% matches in GenBank was achieved in comparison to the classical approach using the complete ITS sequences. The proposed barcode identifiers will be made accessible for the diagnostic laboratory in a permanently updated online database, thereby providing a highly practical, reliable, and cost-effective tool for identification of clinically important black yeasts and relatives. PMID:22785187

  19. Blood transfusion at the time of the First World War--practice and promise at the birth of transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Boulton, F; Roberts, D J

    2014-12-01

    The centenary of the start of the First World War has stirred considerable interest in the political, social, military and human factors of the time and how they interacted to produce and sustain the material and human destruction in the 4 years of the war and beyond. Medical practice may appear distant and static and perhaps seems to have been somewhat ineffectual in the face of so much trauma and in the light of the enormous advances in medicine and surgery over the last century. However, this is an illusion of time and of course medical, surgical and psychiatric knowledge and procedures were developing rapidly at the time and the war years accelerated implementation of many important advances. Transfusion practice lay at the heart of resuscitation, and although direct transfusion from donor to recipient was still used, Geoffrey Keynes from Britain, Oswald Robertson from America and his namesake Lawrence Bruce Robertson from Canada, developed methods for indirect transfusion from donor to recipient by storing blood in bottles and also blood-banking that laid the foundation of modern transfusion medicine. This review explores the historical setting behind the development of blood transfusion up to the start of the First World War and on how they progressed during the war and afterwards. A fresh look may renew interest in how a novel medical speciality responded to the needs of war and of post-war society. PMID:25586955

  20. Tailored interventions to overcome identified barriers to change: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard; Camosso-Stefinovic, Janette; Gillies, Clare; Shaw, Elizabeth J; Cheater, Francine; Flottorp, Signe; Robertson, Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Background In the previous version of this review, the effectiveness of interventions tailored to barriers to change was found to be uncertain. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change on professional practice or patient outcomes. Search methods For this update, in addition to the EPOC Register and pending files, we searched the following databases without language restrictions, from inception until August 2007: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, BNI and HMIC. We searched the National Research Register to November 2007. We undertook further searches to October 2009 to identify potentially eligible published or ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions tailored to address prospectively identified barriers to change that reported objectively measured professional practice or healthcare outcomes in which at least one group received an intervention designed to address prospectively identified barriers to change. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently assessed quality and extracted data. We undertook quantitative and qualitative analyses. The quantitative analyses had two elements. We carried out a meta-regression to compare interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change with either no interventions or an intervention(s) not tailored to the barriers.We carried out heterogeneity analyses to investigate sources of differences in the effectiveness of interventions. These included the effects of: risk of bias, concealment of allocation, rigour of barrier analysis, use of theory, complexity of interventions, and the reported presence of administrative constraints. Main results We included 26 studies comparing an intervention tailored to address identified barriers to change to no intervention or an intervention(s) not tailored to the barriers. The effect sizes of these studies varied both across and within studies. Twelve studies provided enough data to be included in the quantitative analysis. A meta-regression model was fitted adjusting for baseline odds by fitting it as a covariate, to obtain the pooled odds ratio of 1.54 (95% CI, 1.16 to 2.01) from Bayesian analysis and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.27 to 1.82, P < 0.001) from classical analysis. The heterogeneity analyses found that no study attributes investigated were significantly associated with effectiveness of the interventions. Authors’ conclusions Interventions tailored to prospectively identified barriers are more likely to improve professional practice than no intervention or dissemination of guidelines. However, the methods used to identify barriers and tailor interventions to address them need further development. Research is required to determine the effectiveness of tailored interventions in comparison with other interventions. PMID:20238340

  1. The Role of Social Work in Advancing the Practice of Indigenous Education: Obstacles and Promises in Empowerment-Oriented Social Work Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yellow Bird, Michael J.; Chenault, Venida

    The mission of social work is to help people meet their basic needs and enhance their well-being. Through a strong empowerment orientation, the profession can aid people vulnerable to oppression as a result of racism, discrimination, and poverty. Social work can be a powerful force in advancing the practice of Indigenous education. Social workers…

  2. Nanocuration workflows: Establishing best practices for identifying, inputting, and sharing data to inform decisions on nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Christina M; Mills, Karmann A; Morris, Stephanie A; Klaessig, Fred; Gaheen, Sharon; Lewinski, Nastassja

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is a critical opportunity in the field of nanoscience to compare and integrate information across diverse fields of study through informatics (i.e., nanoinformatics). This paper is one in a series of articles on the data curation process in nanoinformatics (nanocuration). Other articles in this series discuss key aspects of nanocuration (temporal metadata, data completeness, database integration), while the focus of this article is on the nanocuration workflow, or the process of identifying, inputting, and reviewing nanomaterial data in a data repository. In particular, the article discusses: 1) the rationale and importance of a defined workflow in nanocuration, 2) the influence of organizational goals or purpose on the workflow, 3) established workflow practices in other fields, 4) current workflow practices in nanocuration, 5) key challenges for workflows in emerging fields like nanomaterials, 6) examples to make these challenges more tangible, and 7) recommendations to address the identified challenges. Throughout the article, there is an emphasis on illustrating key concepts and current practices in the field. Data on current practices in the field are from a group of stakeholders active in nanocuration. In general, the development of workflows for nanocuration is nascent, with few individuals formally trained in data curation or utilizing available nanocuration resources (e.g., ISA-TAB-Nano). Additional emphasis on the potential benefits of cultivating nanomaterial data via nanocuration processes (e.g., capability to analyze data from across research groups) and providing nanocuration resources (e.g., training) will likely prove crucial for the wider application of nanocuration workflows in the scientific community. PMID:26425437

  3. Nanocuration workflows: Establishing best practices for identifying, inputting, and sharing data to inform decisions on nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Powers, Christina M; Mills, Karmann A; Morris, Stephanie A; Klaessig, Fred; Gaheen, Sharon; Lewinski, Nastassja; Ogilvie Hendren, Christine

    2015-01-01

    There is a critical opportunity in the field of nanoscience to compare and integrate information across diverse fields of study through informatics (i.e., nanoinformatics). This paper is one in a series of articles on the data curation process in nanoinformatics (nanocuration). Other articles in this series discuss key aspects of nanocuration (temporal metadata, data completeness, database integration), while the focus of this article is on the nanocuration workflow, or the process of identifying, inputting, and reviewing nanomaterial data in a data repository. In particular, the article discusses: 1) the rationale and importance of a defined workflow in nanocuration, 2) the influence of organizational goals or purpose on the workflow, 3) established workflow practices in other fields, 4) current workflow practices in nanocuration, 5) key challenges for workflows in emerging fields like nanomaterials, 6) examples to make these challenges more tangible, and 7) recommendations to address the identified challenges. Throughout the article, there is an emphasis on illustrating key concepts and current practices in the field. Data on current practices in the field are from a group of stakeholders active in nanocuration. In general, the development of workflows for nanocuration is nascent, with few individuals formally trained in data curation or utilizing available nanocuration resources (e.g., ISA-TAB-Nano). Additional emphasis on the potential benefits of cultivating nanomaterial data via nanocuration processes (e.g., capability to analyze data from across research groups) and providing nanocuration resources (e.g., training) will likely prove crucial for the wider application of nanocuration workflows in the scientific community. PMID:26425437

  4. Bringing a Network-Oriented Approach to Domestic Violence Services: A Focus Group Exploration of Promising Practices.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Lisa A; Banyard, Victoria; Woulfe, Julie; Ash, Sarah; Mattern, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Despite powerful evidence that informal social support contributes to survivors' safety and well-being, mainstream domestic violence (DV) programs have not developed comprehensive models for helping isolated survivors reengage with these networks. Although many advocates use network-oriented strategies informally, they often do so without resources, funding, or training. This qualitative focus group study explored advocates' use and perceptions of network-oriented strategies. Advocates working in a range of DV programs across one state described the importance of network-oriented work and articulated its five dimensions, including helping survivors build their capacity to form healthy relationships, identify helpful and harmful network members, reengage with existing networks, develop new relationships, and respond more effectively to network members. PMID:26270387

  5. An information-theoretic approach to assess practical identifiability of parametric dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Pant, Sanjay; Lombardi, Damiano

    2015-10-01

    A new approach for assessing parameter identifiability of dynamical systems in a Bayesian setting is presented. The concept of Shannon entropy is employed to measure the inherent uncertainty in the parameters. The expected reduction in this uncertainty is seen as the amount of information one expects to gain about the parameters due to the availability of noisy measurements of the dynamical system. Such expected information gain is interpreted in terms of the variance of a hypothetical measurement device that can measure the parameters directly, and is related to practical identifiability of the parameters. If the individual parameters are unidentifiable, correlation between parameter combinations is assessed through conditional mutual information to determine which sets of parameters can be identified together. The information theoretic quantities of entropy and information are evaluated numerically through a combination of Monte Carlo and k-nearest neighbour methods in a non-parametric fashion. Unlike many methods to evaluate identifiability proposed in the literature, the proposed approach takes the measurement-noise into account and is not restricted to any particular noise-structure. Whilst computationally intensive for large dynamical systems, it is easily parallelisable and is non-intrusive as it does not necessitate re-writing of the numerical solvers of the dynamical system. The application of such an approach is presented for a variety of dynamical systems--ranging from systems governed by ordinary differential equations to partial differential equations--and, where possible, validated against results previously published in the literature. PMID:26292167

  6. Cost calculator methods for estimating casework time in child welfare services: A promising approach for use in implementation of evidence-based practices and other service innovations

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Lisa; Landsverk, John; Ward, Harriet; Rolls-Reutz, Jennifer; Saldana, Lisa; Wulczyn, Fred; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Estimating costs in child welfare services is critical as new service models are incorporated into routine practice. This paper describes a unit costing estimation system developed in England (cost calculator) together with a pilot test of its utility in the United States where unit costs are routinely available for health services but not for child welfare services. The cost calculator approach uses a unified conceptual model that focuses on eight core child welfare processes. Comparison of these core processes in England and in four counties in the United States suggests that the underlying child welfare processes generated from England were perceived as very similar by child welfare staff in California county systems with some exceptions in the review and legal processes. Overall, the adaptation of the cost calculator for use in the United States child welfare systems appears promising. The paper also compares the cost calculator approach to the workload approach widely used in the United States and concludes that there are distinct differences between the two approaches with some possible advantages to the use of the cost calculator approach, especially in the use of this method for estimating child welfare costs in relation to the incorporation of evidence-based interventions into routine practice. PMID:26412917

  7. ENHANCING RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT IN THE APPALACHIAN BASIN BY IDENTIFYING TECHNICAL BARRIER AND PREFERRED PRACTICES

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald R. McDowell; Khashayar Aminian; Katharine L. Avary; John M. Bocan; Michael Ed. Hohn; Douglas G. Patchen

    2003-09-01

    The Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) project, a two-year study sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), had three primary objectives: (1) the identification of problems, problematic issues, potential solutions and preferred practices related to oil production; (2) the creation of an Appalachian Regional Council to oversee and continue this investigation beyond the end of the project; and (3) the dissemination of investigative results to the widest possible audience, primarily by means of an interactive website. Investigation and identification of oil production problems and preferred management practices began with a Problem Identification Workshop in January of 2002. Three general issues were selected by participants for discussion: Data Management; Reservoir Engineering; and Drilling Practices. At the same meeting, the concept of the creation of an oversight organization to evaluate and disseminated preferred management practices (PMP's) after the end of the project was put forth and volunteers were solicited. In-depth interviews were arranged with oil producers to gain more insight into problems and potential solutions. Project members encountered considerable reticence on the part of interviewees when it came to revealing company-specific production problems or company-specific solutions. This was the case even though interviewees were assured that all responses would be held in confidence. Nevertheless, the following production issues were identified and ranked in order of decreasing importance: Water production including brine disposal; Management of production and business data; Oil field power costs; Paraffin accumulation; Production practices including cementing. An number of secondary issues were also noted: Problems associated with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Waterflooding; Reservoir characterization; Employee availability, training, and safety; and Sale and Purchase problems. One item was mentioned both in interviews and in the Workshop, as, perhaps, the key issue related to oil production in the Appalachian region - the price of a barrel of oil. Project members sought solutions to production problems from a number of sources. In general, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) website, both regional and national, proved to be a fertile source of information. Technical issues included water production, paraffin accumulation, production practices, EOR and waterflooding were addressed in a number of SPE papers. Articles on reservoir characterization were found in both the AAPG Bulletin and in SPE papers. Project members extracted topical and keyword information from pertinent articles and websites and combined them in a database that was placed on the PUMP website. Because of difficulties finding potential members with the qualifications, interests, and flexibility of schedule to allow a long-term commitment, it was decided to implement the PMP Regional Council as a subcommittee of the Producer Advisory Group (PAG) sponsored by Appalachian Region PTTC. The advantages of this decision are that the PAG is in already in existence as a volunteer group interested in problem identification and implementation of solutions and that PAG members are unpaid, so no outside funds will be required to sustain the group. The PUMP website became active in October of 2002. The site is designed to evolve; as new information becomes available, it can be readily added to the site or the site can be modified to accommodate it. The site is interactive allowing users to search within the PUMP site, within the Appalachian Region PTTC site, or within the whole internet through the input of user-supplied key words for information on oil production problems and solutions. Since its inception in the Fall of 2002, the PUMP site has experienced a growing number of users of increasingly diverse nature and from an increasing geographic area. This indicates that the site is reaching its target audience in the Appalachian region and beyond. Following up on a commitment to technology transfer, a tota

  8. Identifying Educational Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A Guide to the Selection of Evidence-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Resource Center Program, 2014

    2014-01-01

    One component of the recently required State Systemic Improvement Plan (SSIP) for State Departments of Education calls for the selection and implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). This report provides six steps to guide the process of selecting evidence based practices (EBP): (1) Begin with the End in Mind--Determine Targeted Outcomes;…

  9. An algorithm to identify rheumatoid arthritis in primary care: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink study

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Sara; Hider, Samantha L; Raza, Karim; Stack, Rebecca J; Hayward, Richard A; Mallen, Christian D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multisystem, inflammatory disorder associated with increased levels of morbidity and mortality. While much research into the condition is conducted in the secondary care setting, routinely collected primary care databases provide an important source of research data. This study aimed to update an algorithm to define RA that was previously developed and validated in the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Methods The original algorithm consisted of two criteria. Individuals meeting at least one were considered to have RA. Criterion 1: ?1 RA Read code and a disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) without an alternative indication. Criterion 2: ?2 RA Read codes, with at least one ‘strong’ code and no alternative diagnoses. Lists of codes for consultations and prescriptions were obtained from the authors of the original algorithm where these were available, or compiled based on the original description and clinical knowledge. 4161 people with a first Read code for RA between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012 were selected from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD, successor to the GPRD), and the criteria applied. Results Code lists were updated for the introduction of new Read codes and biological DMARDs. 3577/4161 (86%) of people met the updated algorithm for RA, compared to 61% in the original development study. 62.8% of people fulfilled both Criterion 1 and Criterion 2. Conclusions Those wishing to define RA in the CPRD, should consider using this updated algorithm, rather than a single RA code, if they wish to identify only those who are most likely to have RA. PMID:26700281

  10. A High-Throughput In Vitro Drug Screen in a Genetically Engineered Mouse Model of Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma Identifies BMS-754807 as a Promising Therapeutic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Halvorson, Kyle G.; Barton, Kelly L.; Schroeder, Kristin; Misuraca, Katherine L.; Hoeman, Christine; Chung, Alex; Crabtree, Donna M.; Cordero, Francisco J.; Singh, Raj; Spasojevic, Ivan; Berlow, Noah; Pal, Ranadip; Becher, Oren J.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) represent a particularly lethal type of pediatric brain cancer with no effective therapeutic options. Our laboratory has previously reported the development of genetically engineered DIPG mouse models using the RCAS/tv-a system, including a model driven by PDGF-B, H3.3K27M, and p53 loss. These models can serve as a platform in which to test novel therapeutics prior to the initiation of human clinical trials. In this study, an in vitro high-throughput drug screen as part of the DIPG preclinical consortium using cell-lines derived from our DIPG models identified BMS-754807 as a drug of interest in DIPG. BMS-754807 is a potent and reversible small molecule multi-kinase inhibitor with many targets including IGF-1R, IR, MET, TRKA, TRKB, AURKA, AURKB. In vitro evaluation showed significant cytotoxic effects with an IC50 of 0.13 ?M, significant inhibition of proliferation at a concentration of 1.5 ?M, as well as inhibition of AKT activation. Interestingly, IGF-1R signaling was absent in serum-free cultures from the PDGF-B; H3.3K27M; p53 deficient model suggesting that the antitumor activity of BMS-754807 in this model is independent of IGF-1R. In vivo, systemic administration of BMS-754807 to DIPG-bearing mice did not prolong survival. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated that tumor tissue drug concentrations of BMS-754807 were well below the identified IC50, suggesting that inadequate drug delivery may limit in vivo efficacy. In summary, an unbiased in vitro drug screen identified BMS-754807 as a potential therapeutic agent in DIPG, but BMS-754807 treatment in vivo by systemic delivery did not significantly prolong survival of DIPG-bearing mice. PMID:25748921

  11. From theory to practice: identifying authentic opinion leaders to improve care.

    PubMed

    Collins, B A; Hawks, J W; Davis, R

    2000-07-01

    Diffusion of Innovations and Opinion Leader theories can be translated into practical applications to improve health care delivery and financial performance by applying them to influence referral patterns and decrease variations in care. Health care organizations can rapidly spread "better practices" to their practicing physicians by understanding the social and communication networks that are naturally developed by those practitioners. Physicians view this diffusion process as promoting autonomy, and as a legitimate approach to adoption of information needed in daily practice. PMID:18540342

  12. Identifying practical solutions to meet America's fiber needs: proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Amy R; Jones, Julie Miller; Rodriguez, Judith; Slavin, Joanne; Zelman, Kathleen M

    2014-07-01

    Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the "Food & Fiber Summit," which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber's role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap. PMID:25006857

  13. Identifying Key Factors in Homeowner's Adoption of Water Quality Best Management Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehm, Joan M.; Pasko, Danielle K.; Eisenhauer, Brian W.

    2013-07-01

    The recognition of the significance of the residential environment in contributing to non-point source (NPS) pollution and the inherently dispersed nature of NPS pollution itself that presents significant challenges to effective regulation has led to the creation and dissemination of best management practices (BMPs) that can reduce the impacts of NPS pollution (Environmental Protection Agency US, Protecting water quality from urban runoff, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_urban-facts_final.pdf, 2003). However, very few studies have examined the factors that influence the adoption of BMPs by residential homeowners, despite the fact that residential environments have been identified as one of the most significant contributors to NPS pollution. Given this need, the purpose of this project was to explore how demographic and knowledge-based factors predict adoption of residential BMPs in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Illinois using statistical analyses of survey data collected as part of a watershed planning process. The findings indicate that broad knowledge of BMPs is the strongest predictor of use for a specific BMP. Knowledge of BMPs is strongly correlated with their use, which reinforces the need for educational programs, even among those assumed to be knowledgeable about BMPs.

  14. Identifying key factors in homeowner's adoption of water quality best management practices.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Joan M; Pasko, Danielle K; Eisenhauer, Brian W

    2013-07-01

    The recognition of the significance of the residential environment in contributing to non-point source (NPS) pollution and the inherently dispersed nature of NPS pollution itself that presents significant challenges to effective regulation has led to the creation and dissemination of best management practices (BMPs) that can reduce the impacts of NPS pollution (Environmental Protection Agency US, Protecting water quality from urban runoff, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_urban-facts_final.pdf , 2003). However, very few studies have examined the factors that influence the adoption of BMPs by residential homeowners, despite the fact that residential environments have been identified as one of the most significant contributors to NPS pollution. Given this need, the purpose of this project was to explore how demographic and knowledge-based factors predict adoption of residential BMPs in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Illinois using statistical analyses of survey data collected as part of a watershed planning process. The findings indicate that broad knowledge of BMPs is the strongest predictor of use for a specific BMP. Knowledge of BMPs is strongly correlated with their use, which reinforces the need for educational programs, even among those assumed to be knowledgeable about BMPs. PMID:23609309

  15. Identifying Practical Solutions to Meet America’s Fiber Needs: Proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, Amy R.; Jones, Julie Miller; Rodriguez, Judith; Slavin, Joanne; Zelman, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the “Food & Fiber Summit,” which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber’s role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap. PMID:25006857

  16. Stories of Change: Narrative Perspectives on Elementary Teachers' Identifying and Implementation of New Mathematics Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslund, Joy Ann

    2009-01-01

    Recent mathematics education reforms (NCTM, 2000) have resulted in increased opportunities for teachers to learn new teaching practices. However, the relationship between teacher professional development and the actual implementation of new practices is unclear. I posit that a teachers' decision to implement newly learned practices is strongly…

  17. Identify practice gaps in medication education through surveys to patients and physicians

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Zhan-Miao; Zhi, Xiao-Jie; Yang, Ling; Sun, Shu-Sen; Zhang, Zhuo; Sun, Zhi-Ming; Zhai, Suo-Di

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective communication and education formats between health care providers and patients about medication use are associated with patients’ satisfaction, recall of information, and eventually their health status. Limited research exists on physician-delivered education interventions, as well as on whether the current content of medication education and delivery formats satisfies the needs of both patients and physicians. Our objective was to identify the practice gaps regarding medication education content and delivery. Methods Separate surveys were obtained from ambulatory care patients presenting to the outpatient pharmacy for medication pickups, and physicians working at the hospital clinics. Results A total of 108 patients completed the patient survey, and 116 hospital clinic physicians completed the physician survey. Female patients had a higher degree of concern regarding medication information compared with male patients (4.04±0.65 versus 3.58±0.66, P=0.001). Physicians were less likely to educate patients regarding their medications’ on drug–drug interactions (24.3%), drug–food interactions (24.3%), and what to do about their prescriptions if an adverse reaction is experienced (24.3%) during physician–patient encounters. Patients’ most desired education format was physician counseling (82.4%) and the second most desired education format was pharmacist counseling (50.9%). Medication device demonstration (7.0%) was the least used educational format delivered to patients by physicians, and patients would like to see an increased education delivery format through medication device demonstration (Method desired [MD] – Method received [MR] =12.0%). Patients would like to see expanded roles of patient focused handout (MD-MR=22.2%), telephone consultation (21.2%), pharmacist counseling (12.9%), the use of medication database embedded within the hospital information system (12.2%) and device demonstration (12.0%). Conclusion This study illustrates that there are practice gaps in current medication education both in terms of content and delivery format. The study provided valuable information in designing and implementing future education activities that are drivers of good medication use and adherence. PMID:26557752

  18. The Promises and Pitfalls of Modernity: An Ethnography of Young Catholic Women’s Media Practices for Claiming Cultural Citizenship in Urban India 

    E-print Network

    Doshi, Marissa J

    2014-12-15

    This dissertation is an ethnography of the media practices of young Catholic women in Mumbai, India. Media practices are conceptualized as cultural practices via which the participants in this study claimed cultural citizenship in order to challenge...

  19. Are Online Sources for Identifying Evidence-Based Practices Trustworthy? An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Test, David W.; Kemp-Inman, Amy; Diegelmann, Karen; Hitt, Sara Beth; Bethune, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The use of evidence-based practices has become a focus in education since the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act reauthorization of 2004 required using practices based on scientific research to improve student outcomes. Although many teachers may not have the time or expertise to evaluate the…

  20. Identifying Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Culturally Competent Practice for School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, Martell; Gourdine, Ruby; Canfield, James

    2010-01-01

    This study presents descriptive findings from self-reported qualitative and quantitative data on barriers and facilitators to culturally competent school social work practice. The study highlights the need for the development of evaluative methods for the purpose of examining how elements within the practice environment affect school social work…

  1. Identifying a Core Set of Science Teaching Practices: A Delphi Expert Panel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloser, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The "Framework for K-12 Science Education" details ambitious goals for students' learning of science content and practices. However, this document provides science teachers little guidance about instructional practices that are central to helping students achieve these goals. Research indicates that a teacher's instructional…

  2. The Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program: Learning To Succeed. Executive Summary. Volume I: Reducing Barriers for Homeless Children and Youth for Access and Achievement. Volume II: Educating Homeless Children and Youth: A Resource Guide for Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Planning and Evaluation Service.

    This document, which summarizes the study, "Reducing Barriers for Homeless Children and Youth for Access and Achievement," and the guide, "Educating Homeless Children and Youth: A Resource Guide for Promising Practices," provides evidence that state education agencies and local educational agencies have made significant progress in revising laws,…

  3. Noteworthy practices as identified by the US Department of Energy environmental, safety, and health first 31 Tiger Team assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Noteworthy Practices are exceptional ways of accomplishing a performance objective or some aspect of it. Other DOE facilities are encouraged to adopt these practices when they are applicable to their operation. Noteworthy Practices included in this report have been drawn from the first 31 Tiger Team Assessments at DOE sites. This report includes all noteworthy practices listed in an earlier tabulation (June 1990) which the Secretary of the US Department of Energy distributed for information on July 31, 1990. This earlier tabulation included noteworthy practices from the first thirteen Tiger Team Assessments. A brief key-word title has been assigned to each Noteworthy Practice. This title provides a brief description of each Noteworthy Practice. The reader may peruse these titles in the table of contents to identify Noteworthy Practices that may be applicable to their site, facility, or operations. A flexible-disk copy of this compilation is also available in ASCII format on personal-computer, DOS-formatted disks from the Office of Special Projects in the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health at the Headquarters of the US Department of Energy. The ASCII file may be used in combination with word processing software for more detailed word and text-string searches.

  4. The development of a short instrument to identify common unmet needs in older people in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Iliffe, Steve; Lenihan, Penny; Orrell, Martin; Walters, Kate; Drennan, Vari; See Tai, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Background: No structured needs assessment tool exists that is appropriate for older people and also suitable for use in routine consultations in general practice. Aims: To engage older people in the development of a brief, valid, practical, and acceptable instrument to help identify common unmet needs suitable for use in routine clinical practice in primary care. Design of study: User involvement in a multi-stages approach to heuristic development. Setting: General practices, voluntary groups, and community organisations in north and central London. Method: Subjects included patients aged 65 years and over in purposively selected practices, voluntary organisations for older people in the same localities, community organisations involving older people, general practitioners and community nurses. Data were collected through mixed methodology interviews using a structured assessment tool (Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly), a postal questionnaire, and focus groups. Synthesis and interpretation of results was done through a consensus conference followed by a Delphi process involving primary care professionals. Results: Five domains of unmet need were identified as priority areas by all three data collection methods, the consensus conference, and the Delphi process: senses (vision and hearing), physical ability (mobility and falls), incontinence, cognition, and emotional distress (depression and anxiety) (SPICE). Conclusions: Public involvement in the design of clinical tools allowed the development of a brief assessment instrument that could potentially identify common, important, and tractable unmet needs in older people. PMID:15588536

  5. A Universal Checklist for Identifying Infants and Toddlers Eligible for Early Intervention. TRACE Practice Guide, Volume 2, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Hill, Glinda

    2007-01-01

    This practice guide includes a description of the development and use of a universal checklist for identifying infants and toddlers that may be eligible for early intervention. The checklist was specifically developed to facilitate and streamline the identification of potentially eligible children without the need to administer screening or…

  6. Identifying Changes in Teaching Practice: Innovative Curricular Objectives in Classical Languages and the Taught Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Pim; Verloop, Nico

    2002-01-01

    To what degree is a Dutch curriculum reform in classics incorporated into teaching practice? This study included two data sources: questionnaires that asked teachers about their beliefs concerning curricular innovations and an analysis of authentic assessment material, i.e. school examinations constructed by teachers. The findings suggest that the…

  7. Identifying and Clarifying Values and Reason Statements that Promote Effective Food Parenting Practices, Using Intensive Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Alicia; Hingle, Melanie D.; Knesek, Jessica; O'Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Generate and test parents' understanding of values and associated reason statements to encourage effective food parenting practices. Methods: This study was cross-sectional. Sixteen parents from different ethnic groups (African American, white, and Hispanic) living with their 3- to 5-year-old child were recruited. Interested parents…

  8. The Use of Single-Subject Research to Identify Evidence-Based Practice in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Robert H.; Carr, Edward G.; Halle, James; McGee, Gail; Odom, Samuel; Wolery, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Single-subject research plays an important role in the development of evidence-based practice in special education. The defining features of single-subject research are presented, the contributions of single-subject research for special education are reviewed, and a specific proposal is offered for using single-subject research to document…

  9. Statistical learning algorithms for identifying contrasting tillage practices with landsat thematic mapper data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage management practices have direct impact on water holding capacity, evaporation, carbon sequestration, and water quality. This study examines the feasibility of two statistical learning algorithms, such as Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), for cla...

  10. Identifying Best Practices for Multicultural Education in a Psychology Graduate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt, Adrienne D.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to examine teaching practices at Fuller Theological Seminary's graduate psychology program, using secondary analysis of existing data. Lee, Shields, and Oh (2008) collected data from approximately 300 students who evaluated the helpfulness of 18 different instructional methodologies used at Fuller, and answered questions…

  11. Reaching for Rigor: Identifying Practices of Effective High Schools. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannata, Marisa; Haynes, Katherine Taylor; Smith, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    What distinguishes high schools that "beat the odds" for students from traditionally lower-performing groups from schools that struggle to improve the achievement and graduation rates of these student populations? What types of programs, practices, and processes support better than expected outcomes for students at risk of failure? How…

  12. Identifying g: A Review of Current Factor Analytic Practices in the Science of Mental Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Blacksmith, Nikki

    2009-01-01

    Factor analysis is arguably one of the most important tools in the science of mental abilities. While many studies have been conducted to make recommendations regarding "best practices" concerning its use, it is unknown the degree to which contemporary ability researchers abide by those standards. The current study sought to evaluate the typical…

  13. Food Safety Knowledge and Practices among Older Adults: Identifying Causes and Solutions for Risky Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cates, Sheryl C; Kosa, Katherine M; Karns, Shawn; Godwin, Sandria L; Speller-Henderson, Leslie; Harrison, Robert; Ann Draughon, F

    2009-04-01

    Adults aged 60 years and older are more likely than younger adults to experience complications, hospitalization, and death because of food-borne infections. Recognizing this risk, we conducted a nationally representative survey (n = 1,140) to characterize older adults' food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices as well as the demographic characteristics of older adults with risky food handling practices. The survey was conducted using a Web-enabled panel. We found that although older adults consider themselves to be knowledgeable about food safety, many are not following recommended food safety practices. Areas for improvement include the following: reheating deli meats to steaming hot, not eating store-bought deli salads, cooking eggs properly, monitoring refrigerator temperature using a thermometer, using a food thermometer to check doneness of meat/poultry/egg dishes, and storing leftovers properly. The survey results also suggest that food safety education targeting older adults is needed and that such initiatives should emphasize practices to prevent listeriosis, a potentially fatal illness among older adults. Our findings suggest that, in particular, men, individuals with higher incomes, and college-educated individuals would benefit from food safety education. PMID:21184361

  14. Fostering Self-Determination in Higher Education: Identifying Evidence-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getzel, Elizabeth Evans

    2014-01-01

    Research on the transition of students with disabilities and their post-school outcomes continues to move the field of special education in the direction of evidence-based practices. As special education professionals work to better recognize the impact of instructional and environmental characteristics to prepare youth for their transition, so…

  15. Identifying and Promoting Best Practices in Residency Application and Selection in a Complex Academic Health Network.

    PubMed

    Bandiera, Glen; Abrahams, Caroline; Ruetalo, Mariela; Hanson, Mark D; Nickell, Leslie; Spadafora, Salvatore

    2015-12-01

    Medical education institutions have a social mandate to produce a diverse physician workforce that meets the public's needs. Recent reports have framed the admission process outcome of undergraduate and postgraduate medical education (UGME and PGME) programs as a key determinant of the collective contributions graduating cohorts will make to society, creating a sense of urgency around the issue of who gets accepted. The need for evidence-informed residency application and selection processes is growing because of the increasing size and diversity of the applicant pool and the need for equity, fairness, social accountability, and health human resource planning. The selection literature, however, is dominated by a UGME focus and emphasizes determination of desirable qualities of future physicians and selection instrument reliability and validity. Gaps remain regarding PGME selection, particularly the creation of specialty-specific selection criteria, suitable outcome measures, and reliable selection systems.In this Perspective, the authors describe the University of Toronto's centralized approach to defining system-level best practices for residency application and selection. Over the 2012-2013 academic year, the Best Practices in Application and Selection working group reviewed relevant literature and reports, consulted content experts, surveyed local practices, and conducted iterative stakeholder consultations on draft recommendations. Strong agreement arose around the resulting 13 principles and 24 best practices, which had either empirical support or face validity. These recommendations, which are shared in this article, have been adopted by the university's PGME advisory committee and will inform a national initiative to improve trainees' transition from UGME to PGME in Canada. PMID:26488571

  16. Undiagnosed diabetes from cross-sectional GP practice data: an approach to identify communities with high likelihood of undiagnosed diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Nasser; McRae, Ian; Konings, Paul; Butler, Danielle; Douglas, Kirsty; Del Fante, Peter; Adams, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate undiagnosed diabetes prevalence from general practitioner (GP) practice data and identify areas with high levels of undiagnosed and diagnosed diabetes. Design Data from the North-West Adelaide Health Survey (NWAHS) were used to develop a model which predicts total diabetes at a small area. This model was then applied to cross-sectional data from general practices to predict the total level of expected diabetes. The difference between total expected and already diagnosed diabetes was defined as undiagnosed diabetes prevalence and was estimated for each small area. The patterns of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes were mapped to highlight the areas of high prevalence. Setting North-West Adelaide, Australia. Participants This study used two population samples—one from the de-identified GP practice data (n=9327 active patients, aged 18?years and over) and another from NWAHS (n=4056, aged 18?years and over). Main outcome measures Total diabetes prevalence, diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes prevalence at GP practice and Statistical Area Level 1. Results Overall, it was estimated that there was one case of undiagnosed diabetes for every 3–4 diagnosed cases among the 9327 active patients analysed. The highest prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was seen in areas of lower socioeconomic status. However, the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was substantially higher in the least disadvantaged areas. Conclusions The method can be used to estimate population prevalence of diabetes from general practices wherever these data are available. This approach both flags the possibility that undiagnosed diabetes may be a problem of less disadvantaged social groups, and provides a tool to identify areas with high levels of unmet need for diabetes care which would enable policy makers to apply geographic targeting of effective interventions. PMID:25056976

  17. Identifiers Identifiers

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    , July 1998. . Tim Berners­Lee: Cool URIs don't change. [http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI] . Uniform://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url­primer.html] . T. Berners­Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC Names. RFC 1737, December 1994, 7 pages. . T. Berners­Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill: Uniform Resource

  18. Identifiers Identifiers

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    , July 1998. . Tim Berners­Lee: Cool URIs don't change. [http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI] Stefan://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url­primer.html] . T. Berners­Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC Names. RFC 1737, December 1994, 7 pages. . T. Berners­Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill: Uniform Resource

  19. Practices to identify and preclude adverse Aircraft-and-Rotorcraft-Pilot Couplings - A design perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Marilena D.; Masarati, Pierangelo; Gennaretti, Massimo; Jump, Michael; Zaichik, Larisa; Dang-Vu, Binh; Lu, Linghai; Yilmaz, Deniz; Quaranta, Giuseppe; Ionita, Achim; Serafini, Jacopo

    2015-07-01

    Understanding, predicting and supressing the inadvertent aircraft oscillations caused by Aircraft/Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings (A/RPC) is a challenging problem for designers. These are potential instabilities that arise from the effort of controlling aircraft with high response actuation systems. The present paper reviews, updates and discusses desirable practices to be used during the design process for unmasking A/RPC phenomena. These practices are stemming from the European Commission project ARISTOTEL Aircraft and Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings - Tools and Techniques for Alleviation and Detection (2010-2013) and are mainly related to aerodynamic and structural modelling of the aircraft/rotorcraft, pilot modelling and A/RPC prediction criteria. The paper proposes new methodologies for precluding adverse A/RPCs events taking into account the aeroelasticity of the structure and pilot biodynamic interaction. It is demonstrated that high-frequency accelerations due to structural elasticity cause negative effects on pilot control, since they lead to involuntary body and limb-manipulator system displacements and interfere with pilot's deliberate control activity (biodynamic interaction) and, finally, worsen handling quality ratings.

  20. Short communication: Practical issues in implementing volatile metabolite analysis for identifying mastitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hettinga, Kasper A; de Bok, Frank A M; Lam, Theo J G M

    2015-11-01

    Several parameters for improving volatile metabolite analysis using headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of volatile metabolites were evaluated in the framework of identification of mastitis-causing pathogens. Previous research showed that the results of such volatile metabolites analysis were comparable with those based on bacteriological culturing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of several method changes on the applicability and potential implementation of this method in practice. The use of a relatively polar column is advantageous, resulting in a faster and less complex chromatographic setup with a higher resolving power yielding higher-quality data. Before volatile metabolite analysis is applied, a minimum incubation of 8h is advised, as reducing incubation time leads to less reliable pathogen identification. Application of GC-MS remained favorable compared with regular gas chromatography. The complexity and cost of a GC-MS system are such that this limits the application of the method in practice for identification of mastitis-causing pathogens. PMID:26342985

  1. Practical method to identify orbital anomaly as spacecraft breakup in the geostationary region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uetsuhara, Masahiko; Hanada, Toshiya

    2013-09-01

    Identifying spacecraft breakup events is an essential issue for better understanding of the current orbital debris environment. This paper proposes an observation planning approach to identify an orbital anomaly, which appears as a significant discontinuity in archived orbital history, as a spacecraft breakup. The proposed approach is applicable to orbital anomalies in the geostationary region. The proposed approach selects a spacecraft that experienced an orbital anomaly, and then predicts trajectories of possible fragments of the spacecraft at an observation epoch. This paper theoretically demonstrates that observation planning for the possible fragments can be conducted. To do this, long-term behaviors of the possible fragments are evaluated. It is concluded that intersections of their trajectories will converge into several corresponding regions in the celestial sphere even if the breakup epoch is not specified and it has uncertainty of the order of several weeks.

  2. Identifying Depression in South Asian Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: Considerations for Practice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shivani; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Chilcot, Joseph; Wellsted, David; Farrington, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent burden for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and one that is under-recognized and consequently under-treated. Although several studies have explored the association between depression symptoms, treatment adherence and outcomes in Euro-American patient groups, quantitative and qualitative exploration of these issues in patients from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds has been lacking. This review discusses the methodological issues associated with measuring depression in patients of South Asian origin who have a 3- to 5-fold greater risk of developing ESRD. There is a need to advance research into the development of accurate screening practices for this patient group, with an emphasis on studies utilizing rigorous approaches to evaluating the use of both emic (culture-specific) and etic (universal or culture-general) screening instruments. PMID:22470400

  3. Mesoscale Biotransformations of Uranium: Identifying Sites and Strategies where Reductive Immobilization is Practical

    SciTech Connect

    Tetsu K. Tokunaga; Jiamin Wan; Terry C. Hazen; Mary K. Firestone; Eoin Brodie; Yongman Kim; Rebecca Daly

    2006-06-01

    Bioreduction of U in contaminated sediments is an attractive strategy because of its low cost, and because of short-term studies supporting its feasibility. However, any in-situ immobilization approach for U will require assurance of either permanent fixation, or of very low release rates into the biosphere. Our previous long-term (2 years) laboratory experiments have shown that organic carbon (OC) based U(VI) bioreduction to UO2 can be transient even under sustained reducing (methanogenic) conditions. The biogeochemical processes underlying this finding urgently need to be understood. The current research is designed to identify mechanisms responsible for anaerobic U oxidation, and identify conditions that will support long-term stability of bioreduced U. We are investigating: (1) effects of OC concentration and supply rate on remobilization of bioreduced U, (2) the roles of Fe- and Mn-oxides as potential U oxidants in sediments, and (3) the role of microorganisms in U reoxidation, and (4) influences of pH on U(IV)/U(VI) redox equilibrium.

  4. Identifying specific language impairment in deaf children acquiring British Sign Language: implications for theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Mason, Kathryn; Rowley, Katherine; Marshall, Chloe R; Atkinson, Joanna R; Herman, Rosalind; Woll, Bencie; Morgan, Gary

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents the first ever group study of specific language impairment (SLI) in users of sign language. A group of 50 children were referred to the study by teachers and speech and language therapists. Individuals who fitted pre-determined criteria for SLI were then systematically assessed. Here, we describe in detail the performance of 13 signing deaf children aged 5-14 years on normed tests of British Sign Language (BSL) sentence comprehension, repetition of nonsense signs, expressive grammar and narrative skills, alongside tests of non-verbal intelligence and fine motor control. Results show these children to have a significant language delay compared to their peers matched for age and language experience. This impaired development cannot be explained by poor exposure to BSL, or by lower general cognitive, social, or motor abilities. As is the case for SLI in spoken languages, we find heterogeneity within the group in terms of which aspects of language are affected and the severity of the impairment. We discuss the implications of the existence of language impairments in a sign language for theories of SLI and clinical practice. PMID:20306624

  5. Defense Programs benchmarking in Chicago, April 1994: Identifying best practices in the pollution prevention programs of selected private industries

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP) was the first US Department of Energy (DOE) Cognizant Secretarial Office (CSO) to attempt to benchmark private industries for best-in-class practices in the field of pollution prevention. Defense Programs` intent in this effort is to identify and bring to DOE field offices strategic and technological tools that have helped private companies minimize waste and prevent pollution. Defense Programs` premier benchmarking study focused on business practices and process improvements used to implement exceptional pollution prevention programs in four privately owned companies. The current interest in implementing partnerships information exchange, and technology transfer with the private sector prompted DP to continue to seek best practices in the area of pollution prevention through a second benchmarking endeavor in May 1994. This report presents the results of that effort. The decision was made to select host facilities that own processes similar to those at DOE plants and laboratories, that have programs that have been recognized on a local or national level, that have an interest in partnering with the Department on an information-sharing basis, and that are located in proximity to each other. The DP benchmarking team assessed the pollution prevention programs of five companies in the Chicago area--GE Plastics, Navistar, Northrop Corporation, Sundstrand and Caterpillar. At all facilities visited, Ozone Depleting Compounds (ODCs), hazardous wastes, releases under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), waste water and non-hazardous wastes are being eliminated, replaced, reduced, recycled and reused whenever practicable.

  6. Persistent Identifiers in the Publication and Citation of Scientific Data - Theory and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Brase, J.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.; Hildenbrand, B.; Hoeck, H.; Lautenschlager, M.; Sens, I.

    2008-12-01

    In the last decade data driven research has become a third pillar of scientific work alongside with theoretical reasoning and experiment. Greatly increased computing power and storage, together with web services and other electronic resources have facilitated a quantum leap in new research based on the analysis of great amounts of data. However, traditional scientific communication only slowly changes to new media other than an emulation of paper. This leaves many data inaccessible and, in the long run exposes valuable data to the risk of loss. To improve access to data and to create incentives for scientists to make their data accessible, a group of German data centres initiated the project "Publication and Citation of Scientific Data" (STD-DOI) which was funded by the German Science Foundation DFG for the periods 2003-2005 and 2006-2008. In this project the German National Library for Science and Technology (TIB Hannover), together with the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ Potsdam), Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) Bremerhaven, University of Bremen, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, and the DLR German Remote Sensing Data Center set up the first system to assign DOIs to data sets and for their publication. A prerequisite for data to be made available is a proper citation. This means that all fields mandatory for a bibliographic citation are included. In addition, a mechanism is needed that ensures that the location of the referenced data on the internet can be resolved at any time. In the past, this was a problematic issue because URLs are short-lived, many becoming invalid after only a few months. Data publication on the internet therefore needs a system of reliable pointers to a web publication to make these publications citeable. To achieve this persistence of identifiers for their conventional publications many scientific publishers use Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). The identifier is resolved through the handle system to the valid location (URL) where the dataset can be found. This approach meets one of the prerequisites for citeability of scientific data published online. In addition, the valid bibliographic citation can be included in the catalogues of German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB). The data publications themselves are held at discipline specific data centres, for instance ICSU World Data Centers. The data providers take on the role of publication agents and are responsible for the long-term availability of the data. The discipline specific publication agents are also responsible for the quality of the published data. Syntactic and semantic quality checks are used to secure data quality. Data may come as data supplements to scientific papers, or as time series from environmental monitoring systems, or as novel form of publication in a data journal. The latter requires a peer-review process, analogous to conventional science publications.

  7. Practical implementation of the corrected force analysis technique to identify the structural parameter and load distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclère, Quentin; Ablitzer, Frédéric; Pézerat, Charles

    2015-09-01

    The paper aims to combine two objectives of the Force Analysis Technique (FAT): vibration source identification and material characterization from the same set of measurement. Initially, the FAT was developed for external load location and identification. It consists in injecting measured vibration displacements in the discretized equation of motion. Two developments exist: FAT and CFAT (Corrected Force Analysis Technique) where two finite difference schemes are used. Recently, the FAT was adapted for the identification of elastic and damping properties in a structure. The principal interests are that the identification is local and allows mapping of material characteristics, the identification can be made at all frequencies, especially in medium and high frequency domains. The paper recalls the development of FAT and CFAT on beams and plates and how it can be possible to extract material characteristics in areas where no external loads are applied. Experimental validations are shown on an aluminum plate with arbitrary boundary conditions, excited by a point force and where a piece of foam is glued on a sub-surface of the plate. Contactless measurements were made using a scanning laser vibrometer. The results of FAT and CFAT are compared and discussed for material property identifications in the regions with and without foam. The excitation force identification is finally made by using the identified material properties. CFAT gives excellent results comparable to a direct measurement obtained by a piezoelectric sensor. The relevance of the corrected scheme is then underlined for both source identification and material characterization from the same measurements.

  8. Identifying critical success factors for designing selection processes into postgraduate specialty training: the case of UK general practice.

    PubMed

    Plint, Simon; Patterson, Fiona

    2010-06-01

    The UK national recruitment process into general practice training has been developed over several years, with incremental introduction of stages which have been piloted and validated. Previously independent processes, which encouraged multiple applications and produced inconsistent outcomes, have been replaced by a robust national process which has high reliability and predictive validity, and is perceived to be fair by candidates and allocates applicants equitably across the country. Best selection practice involves a job analysis which identifies required competencies, then designs reliable assessment methods to measure them, and over the long term ensures that the process has predictive validity against future performance. The general practitioner recruitment process introduced machine markable short listing assessments for the first time in the UK postgraduate recruitment context, and also adopted selection centre workplace simulations. The key success factors have been identified as corporate commitment to the goal of a national process, with gradual convergence maintaining locus of control rather than the imposition of change without perceived legitimate authority. PMID:20547597

  9. Using the Delphi Approach to Identify Priority Areas for Health Visiting Practice in an Area of Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Bryar, Rosamund; Anto-Awuakye, Sandra; Christie, Janice; Davis, Claire; Plumb, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Families with children living in areas of high deprivation face multiple health and social challenges, and this high level of need has impacts on the work of health practitioners working in such areas. All families in the UK with children under five years have access to health visiting services, and health visitors have a key role in mitigating the effects of deprivation by addressing health needs through evidence based practice. This paper reports the first stage of a project in Tower Hamlets, London, an area of significant deprivation, which aims to develop an evidence-based toolkit to support health visitors in their practice with families. The first stage used a modified Delphi process to identify the priority health needs of families in the area between June and July 2012. The three-stage Delphi process involved 25 people: four health visitors, four other members of the health visiting service, and 17 representatives of other services working with families. A focus group event was followed by a second event where individuals completed a questionnaire ranking the 27 priorities identified in the first event. The consultation process concluded with participants completing a second questionnaire, by email, confirming or changing their prioritisation of the topics. PMID:24151552

  10. Developing clinical practice guidelines: target audiences, identifying topics for guidelines, guideline group composition and functioning and conflicts of interest

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this first paper we discuss: the target audience(s) for guidelines and their use of guidelines; identifying topics for guidelines; guideline group composition (including consumer involvement) and the processes by which guideline groups function and the important procedural issue of managing conflicts of interest in guideline development. PMID:22762776

  11. Developing Mathematically Promising Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Linda Jensen, Ed.

    This book, written on the recommendation of the Task Force on Mathematically Promising Students, investigates issues involving the development of promising mathematics students. Recommendations are made concerning topics such as the definition of promising students; the identification of such students; appropriate curriculum, instruction, and…

  12. Use of Rasch Rating Scale Modeling to Develop and Validate a Measure of District-Level Characteristics and Practices Identified to Improve Instruction and Increase Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Paul J., III

    2012-01-01

    Increasing qualitative evidence in the literature supports specific characteristics and practices, presented from a distributed leadership perspective, to be prevalent in school districts that demonstrate significant increases in student achievement. Quantitative evidence linking these identified district-level characteristics and practices to…

  13. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  14. Identifying Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Practices Among Primary Care Providers of Minority, Low-Income and Immigrant Patient Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Denise M.; Wilson, Tracey E.; Gany, Francesca; Aragones, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Objective Minority populations in the United States are disproportionally affected by Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-related cancer. We sought to understand physician practices, knowledge and beliefs that affect utilization of the HPV vaccine in primary care settings serving large minority populations in areas with increased rates of HPV-related cancer. Study Design Cross-sectional survey of randomly selected primary care providers, including pediatricians, family practice physicians and internists, serving large minority populations in Brooklyn, N.Y. and in areas with higher than average cervical cancer rates. Results Of 156 physicians randomly selected, 121 eligible providers responded to the survey; 64% were pediatricians, 19% were internists and 17% were family practitioners. Thirty-four percent of respondents reported that they routinely offered HPV vaccine to their eligible patients. Seventy percent of physicians reported that the lack of preventive care visits for patients in the eligible age group limited their ability to recommend the HPV vaccine and 70% of those who reported this barrier do not routinely recommend HPV vaccine. The lack of time to educate parents about the HPV vaccine and cost of the vaccine to their patients were two commonly reported barriers that affected whether providers offered the vaccine. Conclusions Our study found that the majority of providers serving the highest risk populations for HPV infection and HPV-related cancers are not routinely recommending the HPV vaccine to their patients. Reasons for providers' failure to recommend the HPV vaccine routinely are identified and possible areas for targeted interventions to increase HPV vaccination rates are discussed. PMID:24886959

  15. The sensitivity and specificity of four questions (HARK) to identify intimate partner violence: a diagnostic accuracy study in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Sohal, Hardip; Eldridge, Sandra; Feder, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) including physical, sexual and emotional violence, causes short and long term ill-health. Brief questions that reliably identify women experiencing IPV who present in clinical settings are a pre-requisite for an appropriate response from health services to this substantial public health problem. We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of four questions (HARK) developed from the Abuse Assessment screen, compared to a 30-item abuse questionnaire, the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS). Methods We administered the four HARK questions and the CAS to women approached by two researchers in general practice waiting rooms in Newham, east London. Inclusions: women aged more than 17 years waiting to see a doctor or nurse, who had been in an intimate relationship in the last year. Exclusions: women who were accompanied by children over four years of age or another adult, too unwell to complete the questionnaires, unable to understand English or unable to give informed consent. Results Two hundred and thirty two women were recruited. The response rate was 54%. The prevalence of current intimate partner violence, within the last 12 months, using the CAS cut off score of ?3, was 23% (95% C.I. 17% to 28%) with pre-test odds of 0.3 (95% C.I. 0.2 to 0.4). The receiver operator characteristic curve demonstrated that a HARK cut off score of ?1 maximises the true positives whilst minimising the false positives. The sensitivity of the optimal HARK cut-off score of ?1 was 81% (95% C.I. 69% to 90%), specificity 95% (95% C.I. 91% to 98%), positive predictive value 83% (95% C.I. 70% to 91%), negative predictive value 94% (95% C.I. 90% to 97%), likelihood ratio 16 (95% C.I. 8 to 31) and post-test odds 5. Conclusion The four HARK questions accurately identify women experiencing IPV in the past year and may help women disclose abuse in general practice. The HARK questions could be incorporated into the electronic medical record in primary care to prompt clinicians to ask about recent partner violence and to encourage disclosure by patients. Future research should test the effectiveness of HARK in clinical consultations. PMID:17727730

  16. Of birds, carbon and water: integrating multiple ecosystem service impacts to identify locations for agricultural conservation practice adoption

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human use of the landscape for crop production can degrade ecosystem services. A number of agricultural conservation practices are touted as mitigating these impacts. Many of these practices are encouraged by incentive programs such as the Conservation Reserve Program administere...

  17. Identifying clinical and support-service resources and network practices for cancer patients and survivors in southern Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Eida M.; Jiménez, Julio C.; Quinn, Gwendolyn; García, Myra; Colón, Yesenia; Ramos, Axel; Brandon, Thomas; Simmons, Vani; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Nazario, Cruz María

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to identify cancer-related health care services and to explore the presence of inter-organizational interactions among clinical and support oncology services in southern Puerto Rico. Methods From January through July of 2010, a survey was completed by 54 health care organizations offering clinical, supportive, or both services to cancer patients/survivors (CPS) in southern PR. Survey data were compiled and descriptive analyses performed using the software Statistical Package for a Social Science (SPSS), version 18.0. Results The distribution of the primary services provided by the participating organizations was the following: 26 had clinical services, 16 had support services, and 12 offered a combination of clinical and support services. Only 24% of the surveyed organizations offered their services exclusively to patients diagnosed with cancer. In terms of referral practices, 61% of the responses were for medical specialists, 43% were for mental health services, and 37% were referrals for primary care services. The most common reason for interacting (n = 27) was to provide a given patient both an referral and information. Conclusion Findings suggest gaps in both the availability of oncology services and the delivery of integrated health care. Lack of communication among clinical and support organizations (for cancer patients, specifically) could negatively impact the quality of the services that they offer. Further network analysis studies are needed to confirm these gaps. Until systemic, structural changes occur, more efforts are needed to facilitate communication and collaboration among these kinds of organization. PMID:25249352

  18. Symmetric tensor networks and practical simulation algorithms to sharply identify classes of quantum phases distinguishable by short-range physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shenghan; Ran, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Phases of matter are sharply defined in the thermodynamic limit. One major challenge of accurately simulating quantum phase diagrams of interacting quantum systems is due to the fact that numerical simulations usually deal with the energy density, a local property of quantum wave functions, while identifying different quantum phases generally relies on long-range physics. In this paper, we construct generic fully symmetric quantum wave functions under certain assumptions using a type of tensor networks (projected entangled pair states), and provide practical simulation algorithms based on them. We find that quantum phases can be organized into crude classes distinguished by short-range physics, which is related to the fractionalization of both onsite symmetries and space-group symmetries. Consequently, our simulation algorithms, which are useful to study long-range physics as well, are expected to be able to sharply determine crude classes in interacting quantum systems efficiently. Examples of these crude classes are demonstrated in half-integer quantum spin systems on the kagome lattice. Limitations and generalizations of our results are discussed.

  19. The Kalamazoo Promise Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Lachowska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    This study takes advantage of the unexpected announcement of the Kalamazoo Promise to study its effects on student achievement and behavior in high school. The Kalamazoo Promise provides college scholarships to graduates of Kalamazoo Public Schools (KPS), a midsized urban school district in Michigan that is racially and economically diverse.…

  20. Multicultural Science Education: Theory, Practice, and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, S. Maxwell, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    As a relatively new area of investigation, the study of multicultural education as it relates to science teaching and learning has spawned numerous interpretations by researchers and authors worldwide. The contributors of this international volume--among them are science teacher educators, science teachers, scientists, researchers, program…

  1. The Flat Stanley Project. Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubert, Dale

    2003-01-01

    Students make paper "Flat Stanleys" and send them with blank journals to classes in other states or countries. Recipients treat Stanley as a guest, record the things they do with him, and return him with the completed journals to the senders. Flat Stanley has sparked teacher and student creativity and motivation in 2,500 classes in 18 countries.…

  2. Examining the Culture of Poverty: Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Stapleton, Joy; Ledford, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Spurred by preservice teachers' perceptions that diversity issues such as poverty would not affect their teaching, professors in 1 southeastern U.S. elementary teacher-preparation program took action, which resulted in this examination of the culture of poverty and the identification of strategies to best serve children living in poverty. The…

  3. Promising Practices for Home/School Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, Anne; Fink, Mary

    This report contains profiles of 18 innovative and successful parent involvement programs for migrant families. The programs were selected based on recommendations from State Directors of Migrant Education and migrant educators and on a search of the ERIC database. Each profile includes sponsoring institution or agency, program format, program…

  4. Adolescent Literacy Instruction: Policies and Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jill, Ed.; Moorman, Gary, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive resource explores how adolescence and academic achievement are defined within today's political context, examines the in-school potential of teens' out-of-school immersion in digital technologies and popular culture, and shows teachers how to embed comprehension strategies into classroom instruction. The book contains innovative…

  5. Best and Promising Practices in Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Alan, Ed.; Ringlaben, Ravic, Ed.

    Twenty-six papers on the education of students with developmental disabilities are divided into 7 sections on: (1) definition and placement; (2) assessment and curriculum; (3) instructional strategies; (4) individual needs; (5) systematic and data-based instruction and management; (6) family involvement and community attitudes; and (7) appropriate…

  6. Restructuring Schools: Promising Practices and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinan, Maureen T., Ed.

    Chapters in this book focus on a wide array of educational issues that command attention at the end of the 20th century. Various aspects of contemporary schooling are explored, and models of school organization and functioning are proposed in the following chapters: (1) "Achievement-Oriented School Design" (James S. Coleman); (2) "Lost in…

  7. Teacher Evaluation: Perspectives, Practices, and Promises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Ken; Kauchak, Don

    This report highlights major issues, techniques, and directions in the evaluation of public school teachers. The paper begins by setting a perspective on the process of, and needs for, evaluation. The main body of the report is devoted to a summary and critique of various teacher evaluation methods. A discussion is given of the efficacy of, and…

  8. Service-Learning: Promise and Possibility in Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalles, Susan; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Herein we identify and address promising practices, essential theories, and related cautions within service-learning. The argument that service-learning is an organized community service which is connected to curriculum in an effort to deepen learning around content was scrutinized and endorsed. We envisioned service-learning as more than a joint…

  9. Promising More Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    When NASA needed a real-time, online database system capable of tracking documentation changes in its propulsion test facilities, engineers at Stennis Space Center joined with ECT International, of Brookfield, Wisconsin, to create a solution. Through NASA's Dual-Use Program, ECT developed Exdata, a software program that works within the company's existing Promise software. Exdata not only satisfied NASA s requirements, but also expanded ECT s commercial product line. Promise, ECT s primary product, is an intelligent software program with specialized functions for designing and documenting electrical control systems. An addon to AutoCAD software, Promis e generates control system schematics, panel layouts, bills of material, wire lists, and terminal plans. The drawing functions include symbol libraries, macros, and automatic line breaking. Primary Promise customers include manufacturing companies, utilities, and other organizations with complex processes to control.

  10. Off-label prescriptions: how to identify them, frame them, announce them and monitor them in practice?

    PubMed

    Le Jeunne, Claire; Billon, Nathalie; Dandon, Anne; Berdaï, Driss; Adgibi, Yolande; Bergmann, Jean-François; Bordet, Régis; Carpentier, Anne; Cohn, Emmanuelle; Courcier, Soizic; Girault, Danièle; Goni, Sylvia; Jolliet, Pascale; Liard, François; Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Simon, Tabassome; Vernotte, Christine; Westerloppe, Jérémie

    2013-01-01

    Following the Mediator crisis and the passage of the Health and Safety Law of December 2011, off-label prescriptions are a real concern shared by all those involved in healthcare system. Off-label, in the strictest sense of the term, is defined as all prescriptions that do not correspond to the summary of product characteristics (SPC), particularly those that fail to comply with the indications and dosage regimens defined by the marketing authorization (MA) for clear safety reasons. There are various rasons for off-label prescriptions, both conscious and unconscious. They are intended to respond to unmet medical needs, the needs of poorly studied populations or not studied at all in trials, but in relation to whom it is reasonable to extrapolate that MA would be given (common-sense prescriptions) and, additionally, to urgent public health needs (such as baclofen, pregnant women, and HIV drugs). All these prescriptions would deserve to be studied for a potential MA. However, there are off-label prescriptions that need to be restricted or even penalized in the case of compassionate prescriptions or unjustified prescriptions or prescriptions not based on any scientific grounds. Off-label prescriptions are not easy to track down because if the prescriber has to write "off-label" on his prescription, then clearly, in practice, he will only do so in exceptional cases. Neither the pharmacists who dispense the drug nor the Social Security that reimburses it, have access to the diagnosis (or targeted indication). Thus, in order to identify the off-label prescription, we must be able to cross reference the available databases (such as pharmacovigilance database, medicalized information system program [programme de médicalisation des systèmes d'information, PMSI], hospital drug formularies, general sample of beneficiaries [échantillon généraliste de bénéficiaires, EGB] or national inter-regional Health Insurance Information System [système national d'informations inter-régions d'Assurance maladie, SNIIRAM], sales data, and data from market surveys). The shared computerized patient file may resolve this problem. The temporary use recommendation (TUR) proposed by the Drug Safety Law will only partially deal with this problem for recently marketed molecules. This temporary and exceptional mechanism will authorize a recognized off-label prescription, which may be reimbursed and monitored for 3 years. These TURs will only concern a small portion of "off-label" drugs having yet a positive risk/benefit ratio (conditional MA) but this is far from matching with majority of off-label prescriptions. As such, and in order to improve the use of drugs, it is important to propose a control system for all "off-label" prescriptions with a dedicated committee: the "off-label" committee which would determine the frame of the "off-label" prescriptions. PMID:23981260

  11. Shifting the Focus to Student Learning: Characteristics of Effective Teaching Practice as Identified by Experienced Pre-Service Faculty Advisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, Nancy; Hatt, Blaine E.

    2012-01-01

    Cochrane-Smith and Power identify trends in teacher education programs with some relating to heightened teacher accountability for students' learning. In this paper we provide a model that identifies characteristics believed to be critical elements related to a teacher's conceptual focus shifting from an emphasis on their teaching to their…

  12. Professional Development for Information Communication Technology Integration: Identifying and Supporting a Community of Practice through Design-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests effective classroom ICT integration occurs through needs-based, collaborative professional development (Chandra-Handa, 2001; Cuttance, 2001; Figg, 2000; Gibson, Oberg, & Pelz, 1999; Gross, 2000; Haughey, 2002). A community of practice (CoP) (Wenger, 1998; Wenger, McDermott, & Snyder, 2002) can be an effective mode of such…

  13. Using Conversion and Design Social R & D Principles to Identify Some Practice Implications for the Training of Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapides, Jerry

    This literature review examines 12 current works dealing with converting basic research on adult learning, adult development, adult education, instructional methods, and learning theory to practical application in the training of trainers. Focus of the review is on translating principles from scientific language to language more suitable to…

  14. Gaia: Status and Promises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzetti, A.

    2015-10-01

    The power of micro-arcsecond (µas) astrometry is about to be unleashed. ESA's Gaia mission, now entering its second year of routine science operations, will soon fulfil its promise for revolutionary science in the countless aspects of Galactic astronomy and astrophysics. I will briefly review the Gaia mission status of operations, and the scenario for intermediate data releases. Iwill then illustrate the potential of µas astrometry for detection and improved characterization of planetary systems in the neighborhood of the Sun.

  15. Use of technology assessment databases to identify the issues associated with adoption of structural health monitoring practices.

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Smith, Bryce; Neidigk, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    The goal is to create a systematic method and structure to compile, organize, and summarize SHM related data to identify the level of maturity and rate of evolution and have a quick and ongoing evaluation of the current state of SHM among research institutions and industry. Hundreds of technical publication and conference proceedings were read and analyzed to compile the database. Microsoft Excel was used to create a useable interface that could be filtered to compare any of the entered data fields.

  16. Aquaculture: Challenges and promise

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is the culture of aquatic organisms, which includes fish, mollusks, crustaceans, algae and plants. People have been involved in different forms of aquaculture for thousands of years, with early documented evidence dating back as far as 500 BC in China (Ling 1977). Today, the practice of ...

  17. Credible threats and promises.

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2002-01-01

    We consider various implications of information about the other player in two-player evolutionary games. A simple model of desertion shows that information about the partner's behaviour can be disadvantageous, and highlights the idea of credible threats. We then discuss the general issue of whether the partner can convince the focal player that it will behave in a specific way, i.e. whether the focal player can make credible threats or promises. We show that when desertion decisions depend on reserves, a player can manipulate its reserves so as to create a credible threat of desertion. We then extend previous work on the evolution of trust and commitment, discussing conditions under which it is advantageous to assume that a partner will behave in a certain way even though it is not in its best interest. PMID:12495517

  18. Managing the Risk of Triggered Seismicity: Can We Identify (and Avoid) Potentially Active Faults? - A Practical Case Study in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, M. D.; Alt, R. C., II; Walsh, F. R.; Walters, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that throughout the central and eastern U.S. there has been a marked increase in seismicity since 2009, at least some of which appears to increased wastewater injection. No area has seen a greater increase in seismicity than Oklahoma. In this paper, we utilize newly available information on in situ stress orientation and relative magnitudes, the distribution of high volume injection wells and knowledge of the intervals used for waste water disposal to identify the factors potentially contributing to the occurrence of triggered seismicity. While there are a number of sites where in situ stress data has been successfully used to identify potentially active faults, we are investigating whether this methodology can be implemented throughout a state utilizing the types of information frequently available in areas of oil and gas development. As an initial test of this concept, we have been compiling stress orientation data from wells throughout Oklahoma provided by private industry. Over fifty new high quality data points, principally drilling-induced tensile fractures observed in image logs, result in a greatly improved understanding of the stress field in much of the state. A relatively uniform ENE direction of maximum compressive stress is observed, although stress orientations (and possibly relative stress magnitudes) differ in the southern and southwestern parts of the state. The proposed methodology can be tested in the area of the NE-trending fault that produced the M 5+ earthquakes in the Prague, OK sequence in 2011, and the Meers fault in southwestern OK, that produced a M~7 reverse faulting earthquake about 1100 years ago. This methodology can also be used to essentially rule out slip on other major faults in the area, such as the ~N-S trending Nemaha fault system. Additional factors leading to the occurrence of relatively large triggered earthquakes in Oklahoma are 1) the overall increase in injection volumes throughout the state in recent years (especially in some particular areas) 2) the injection of waste water in a geologic formation laying directly above crystalline basement rocks and 3) the widespread distribution of injection wells.

  19. [Promising networks, fruitful inquiry].

    PubMed

    Frenk, Silvestre

    2014-01-01

    This supplement of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social includes 10 original contributions, and also six current themes, all of them related to childhood obesity. It is the result of an institutional program that it has been identified as Redes de Investigación Institucional, and it has been promoted and developed by the Coordinación de Investigación of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. PMID:24866301

  20. The promise of proteomics in animal science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics hold significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy. The ability of proteomics to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins is unparalleled. In this review, we will...

  1. Importance sampling : promises and limitations.

    SciTech Connect

    West, Nicholas J.; Swiler, Laura Painton

    2010-04-01

    Importance sampling is an unbiased sampling method used to sample random variables from different densities than originally defined. These importance sampling densities are constructed to pick 'important' values of input random variables to improve the estimation of a statistical response of interest, such as a mean or probability of failure. Conceptually, importance sampling is very attractive: for example one wants to generate more samples in a failure region when estimating failure probabilities. In practice, however, importance sampling can be challenging to implement efficiently, especially in a general framework that will allow solutions for many classes of problems. We are interested in the promises and limitations of importance sampling as applied to computationally expensive finite element simulations which are treated as 'black-box' codes. In this paper, we present a customized importance sampler that is meant to be used after an initial set of Latin Hypercube samples has been taken, to help refine a failure probability estimate. The importance sampling densities are constructed based on kernel density estimators. We examine importance sampling with respect to two main questions: is importance sampling efficient and accurate for situations where we can only afford small numbers of samples? And does importance sampling require the use of surrogate methods to generate a sufficient number of samples so that the importance sampling process does increase the accuracy of the failure probability estimate? We present various case studies to address these questions.

  2. Identifying strategies to maximise recruitment and retention of practices and patients in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of an intervention to optimise secondary prevention for coronary heart disease in primary care. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Identifying strategies to maximise recruitment and retention of practices and patients in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of an intervention to optimise secondary prevention for coronary heart disease in primary care.

  3. The Use of a Prescription Drug Monitoring Program to Develop Algorithms to Identify Providers With Unusual Prescribing Practices for Controlled Substances.

    PubMed

    Ringwalt, Christopher; Schiro, Sharon; Shanahan, Meghan; Proescholdbell, Scott; Meder, Harold; Austin, Anna; Sachdeva, Nidhi

    2015-10-01

    The misuse, abuse and diversion of controlled substances have reached epidemic proportion in the United States. Contributing to this problem are providers who over-prescribe these substances. Using one state's prescription drug monitoring program, we describe a series of metrics we developed to identify providers manifesting unusual and uncustomary prescribing practices. We then present the results of a preliminary effort to assess the concurrent validity of these algorithms, using death records from the state's vital records database pertaining to providers who wrote prescriptions to patients who then died of a medication or drug overdose within 30 days. Metrics manifesting the strongest concurrent validity with providers identified from these records related to those who co-prescribed benzodiazepines (e.g., valium) and high levels of opioid analgesics (e.g., oxycodone), as well as those who wrote temporally overlapping prescriptions. We conclude with a discussion of a variety of uses to which these metrics may be put, as well as problems and opportunities related to their use. PMID:26143508

  4. Integrated Implementation of Programs Targeting Neglected Tropical Diseases through Preventive Chemotherapy: Identifying Best Practices to Roll Out Programs at National Scale

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Christy; Weaver, Angela; Zoerhoff, Kathryn L.; Kabore, Achille; Linehan, Mary; Doherty, Amy; Engels, Dirk; Savioli, Lorenzo; Ottesen, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2006 the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) established the Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Control Program to support national governments in developing successful, cost-efficient NTD programs that integrate disease-specific programs into coordinated national initiatives, in accord with the World Health Organization recommendations. A 3-stage “roll-out package” has been developed for effectively integrating and scaling up such programs to full-national scale. Stage-1 lays the groundwork—identifying NTD leadership within the Ministry of Health, conducting a national Situation Analysis, formulating a multiyear Plan of Action, and undertaking a funding gap analysis. Stage-2 focuses on scaling up the integrated NTD program—convening national stakeholder meetings, developing annual work plans, carrying out disease mapping, and establishing monitoring and evaluation activities. Stage-3 aims at ensuring effective management—identifying clear roles and responsibilities for partners, and creating a central coordinating mechanism. Assessment and reassessment of these complex NTD programs that target literally billions of people are essential to establish “best practice” strategies for long-term public health success. PMID:22403327

  5. Wind energy offers considerable promise

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    Wind energy offers considerable promise: the wind itself is free, wind power is clean, we must develop new sources of energy. One of these sources, wind energy, offers considerable promise: the wind itself is free, wind power is clean, and it is inexhaustible. In recent years, research on wind

  6. Wind energy offers considerable promise

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    Wind energy offers considerable promise: the wind itself is free, wind power is clean sources of energy. One of these sources, wind energy, offers considerable promise: the wind itself is free, wind power is clean, and it is inexhaustible. In recent years, research on wind energy has accelerated

  7. Under the radar: a cross-sectional study of the challenge of identifying at-risk alcohol consumption in the general practice setting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary care providers are an important source of information regarding appropriate alcohol consumption. As early presentation to a provider for alcohol-related concerns is unlikely, it is important that providers are able to identify at-risk patients in order to provide appropriate advice. This study aimed to report the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of General Practitioner (GP) assessment of alcohol consumption compared to patient self-report, and explore characteristics associated with GP non-detection of at-risk status. Method GP practices were selected from metropolitan and regional locations in Australia. Eligible patients were adults presenting for general practice care who were able to understand English and provide informed consent. Patients completed a modified AUDIT-C by touchscreen computer as part of an omnibus health survey while waiting for their appointment. GPs completed a checklist for each patient, including whether the patient met current Australian guidelines for at-risk alcohol consumption. Patient self-report and GP assessments were compared for each patient. Results GPs completed the checklist for 1720 patients, yielding 1565 comparisons regarding alcohol consumption. The sensitivity of GPs’ detection of at-risk alcohol consumption was 26.5%, with specificity of 96.1%. Higher patient education was associated with GP non-detection of at-risk status. Conclusions GP awareness of which patients might benefit from advice regarding at-risk alcohol consumption appears low. Given the complexities associated with establishing whether alcohol consumption is ‘at-risk’, computer-based approaches to routine screening of patients are worthy of exploration as a method for prompting the provision of advice in primary care. PMID:24766913

  8. A Bold and Promising Model with a Few Loose Ends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    Without a doubt the authors' proposal of viewing gifted education in systemic terms is a promising one. In fact, it is most refreshing to read something eclectic like this with an aim to synthesize a field of research and practice which for too long has lacked consensus in both practice and theory. The author agrees with them that a mechanistic…

  9. Nanotechnology: Its Promise and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Vicki Colvin

    2009-05-14

    Vicki Colvin of Rice University talks about how nanotechnology-enabled systems, with dimensions on the scale of a billionth of a meter, offer great promise for solving difficult social problems and creating enormous possibilities.

  10. Theorizing Practice and Practicing Theory

    E-print Network

    Feldman, Martha S.

    his paper describes the emerging field of practice theory as it is practiced in relation to organizational phenomena. We identify three approaches—empirical, theoretical, and philosophical—that relate to the what, the how, ...

  11. America: No Promise Without Agony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert McAfee

    We may discover signs of promise in the midst of agony if we make some shifts of perspective. (1) "Our fear of overt violence must be countered by our acknowledgement of covert violence." Covert violence is subtle and more destructive than physical violence because it is the "denial of personhood"--the insinuation by an act or by neglect that a…

  12. The Promise of Quantum Simulation.

    PubMed

    Muller, Richard P; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2015-08-25

    Quantum simulations promise to be one of the primary applications of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history of quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and co-workers, demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH(+) molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggest that quantum simulations of quantum chemistry have a bright future. PMID:26197037

  13. Making the Invisible of Learning Visible: Pre-Service Teachers Identify Connections between the Use of Literacy Strategies and Their Content Area Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitton-Kukner, Jennifer; Orr, Anne Murray

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe four ways secondary pre-service teachers appeared to be developing assessment practices during field experience, after taking a content area literacy course. This paper arises from a multi-year study exploring pre-service and beginning content area teachers' use of literacy strategies in teaching mathematics, science, and…

  14. Identifying Key Elements of Community-Based ESD: ESD-J's Projects to Collect ESD in Practice in Japan and Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguchi, Fumiko

    2010-01-01

    Since its establishment in 2003, the Japan Council on the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD-J) has paid close attention to informal learning processes in community-based efforts to promote local sustainable development. ESD-J carried out two projects to collect information on and visualise community-based ESD practice: the…

  15. University versus Practice: A Pilot Study to Identify Skills Shortages That Exist in First-Year Trainee Accountants in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Romburgh, Henriëtte; van der Merwe, Nico

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the skills shortages in first-year trainee accountants entering practice in South Africa and to recommend ways to address and overcome those shortages. Questionnaires were administered to registered audit firms in Gauteng Province to gather the perceptions of senior trainees, managers and partners on the skills…

  16. Testing of a Nitrogen Index to Assess N Management Practices With GIS To Identify High-Risk Cropping System/Landscape Combinations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shaffer and Delgado (2002) reported that there is the need for quick nutrient management tools capable of quickly assessing the effects of management practices on nitrogen losses. Tier-one tools were defined as tools capable of conducting quick assessments of the effects of management on N losses us...

  17. Programs, Practices and Promises: HIV Prevention Peer Education in Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Narra Smith

    1999-01-01

    Describes Wisconsin's HIV-prevention peer-education programs, examining written survey responses from advisors of 27 established programs. Results found similarities in program objectives and variations in program implementation. Few programs were designed to specifically reach youth at highest risk for HIV transmission. Advisors were extremely…

  18. Improving Community College Student Persistence: An Investigation of Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mary Beth McJunkin

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, community colleges have garnered national attention in terms of their potential to produce graduates and assist in the revitalization of the national economy. This has resulted in an increased need for both community college researchers and practitioners to understand more fully the factors that influence student persistence. The…

  19. Systematic review of health branding: growth of a promising practice.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Vallone, Donna; Post, Samantha; Nielsen, Wendy

    2015-03-01

    Brands are marketing tools that create mental representations in the minds of consumers about products, services, and organizations. Brands create schema that help consumers decide whether to initiate or continue use of a product or service. Health branding determines behavioral choice by building consumer relationships and identification with health behaviors and their benefits. Health branding can be measured by the associations individuals form with health behaviors. In 2008, Evans and colleagues systematically reviewed the literature on health brands, reported on branded health messages and campaigns worldwide, and examined specific branding strategies in multiple subject areas. This paper extends that review. We replicated the comprehensive online literature search strategy from 2008. We screened a total of 311 articles and included 130 for full-text review. This included both articles from the 2008 review and new articles. After excluding those new articles that did not meet full-text inclusion criteria, we reviewed 69 in total. Of these, 32 were new articles since the 2008 review. Branded health campaigns cover most major domains of public health and appear worldwide. Since 2008, we observed improvement in evaluation, application of theory, and description of campaign strategies in published work. We recommend enhanced education of public health practitioners and researchers on the use and evaluation of branding. PMID:25729450

  20. Promising Practices in Positive Youth Development with Immigrants and Refugees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morland, Lyn

    2007-01-01

    Children of immigrants are an important and growing part of American society, and they have an increasingly vital role to play in the future of this country. Those arriving in the U.S. as immigrants or refugees, as well as those born here to at least one immigrant parent, currently make up more than 20% of all children and youth in this country.…

  1. MEASURING RISKS IN HUMANS: THE PROMISE AND PRACTICE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory


    Epidemiology has been considered the fundamental science of public health policy. The use of epidemiologic data in environmental health policy has been limited particularly in the environmental regulatory arena. Epidemiologic risk assessment (ERA) is different from risk ass...

  2. Implementing Promising Practices to Prepare Quality Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    The United States does more than just talk; it invests a lot of money in public education. While students are the major focus of concern, teachers are a mainstay in the enterprise. In 2002, the U.S. invested $192 billion in teacher pay and benefits. More than 50% of all dollars allocated by the government for education is paid in salaries for…

  3. Illinois Adult Education Bridges: Promising Practices. Transition Highlights. Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra; Oertle, Kathleen Marie; Kim, Sujung; Kirby, Catherine; Taylor, Jason; Harmon, Tim; Liss, Loralea

    2011-01-01

    To enhance state-level adult education and employment policy, in 2007 the Joyce Foundation began the Shifting Gears (SG) initiative to assist six states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin) to integrate adult education, workforce development and postsecondary education policies and improve job opportunities for low-skilled…

  4. Developmental Mathematics: Challenges, Promising Practices, and Recent Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonham, Barbara S.; Boylan, Hunter R.

    2012-01-01

    Developmental education has increasingly become part of the national debate in higher education. This is particularly true for developmental mathematics courses which, in general, have the highest rates of failure and non-completion of any developmental subject area. This manuscript describes the current state of the art in developmental…

  5. Developmental Mathematics: Challenges, Promising Practices, and Recent Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonham, Barbara S.; Boylan, Hunter R.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental education has increasingly become part of the national debate in higher education. This is particularly true for developmental mathematics courses which, in general, have the highest rates of failure and noncompletion of any developmental subject area. This manuscript describes the current state of the art in developmental…

  6. Global Reach and Local Practice: The Promise of MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Robert Goodwin-Jones opens his discussion with the thought "If you want to attract attention to a new online course, the foolproof strategy today is to label it a MOOC, a massive open online course." The hype surrounding MOOCs has resulted in substantial interest--from the general public to university presidents--in online learning, as…

  7. Kaleidoscope 2; A Descriptive Collection of Promising Educational Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAdam, Phyllis A.; Fuller, Elisabeth

    This issue of Kaleidoscope, which focuses on projects involving innovative educational change funded under ESEA Title III, describes 60 programs in both elementary and secondary schools in Massachusetts. The projects cover a wide range of educational interests including: curriculum development, environmental education, individualized instruction,…

  8. Catalog of Promising Educational Programs and Practices 1972-1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Jarvis S.; Chappelle, William D.

    The abstracts in this collection describe selected programs operating in public schools during 1972-73. Locally devised and implemented, these programs for grades kindergarten through twelve were selected for their probable general interest and use. The subject areas included are administrative services, art, business, language arts, general…

  9. Natural capital informing decisions: from promise to practice

    E-print Network

    Guerry, Anne D.; Polasky, Stephen; Lubchenco, Jane; Rebecca Chaplin-,Kramer; Daily, Gretchen C.; Griffin, Robert; Ruckelshaus, Mary H.; Bateman, Ian J.; Duraiappah, Anantha; Elmqvist, Thomas; Feldman, Marcus W.; Folke, Carl; Hoekstra, Jon; Kareiva, Peter; Keeler, Bonnie; Li, Shuzhuo; McKenzie, Emily; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Reyers, Belinda; Ricketts, Taylor; Rockström, Johan; Tallis, Heather; Vira, Bhaskar

    2015-06-15

    to conserve or regenerate forest for the provision of watershed services, biodiversity, and carbon sequestration (85). Since implementation, Costa Rica has transitioned from being the country with the highest tropical deforestation rate in the world to one...

  10. Promising Practices, and Program Adaptations & Successes. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dianda, Marcella; Flaherty, John

    Through its Metropolitan Educational Trends and Research Outcomes (METRO) Center, the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) helps school districts implement research-based programs for educationally disadvantaged students. The most prominent of these is Success for All, a nationally recognized school restructuring program. In 1992, SWRL made a…

  11. Promising Practices in Serving Academically Talented Youth in Urban Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    In 1982, the UC Berkeley Gifted Program took in its first cohort. The initial group consisted of 282 middle and high school students. As was the case with many programs for gifted youths, admission to the program was based on students' SAT scores, and urban students were underrepresented. In this article, the author discusses how the program has…

  12. Promising Practices in Career and Technology Studies (CTS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Learning and Teaching Resources Branch.

    This document contains profiles of 130 successful programs and partnerships in Career and Technology Studies (CTS) in Alberta, Canada. Following an introduction to the CTS program and its implementation, the profiles are organized into 23 sections that follow the strands of the program. The sections cover the following topics: CTS general;…

  13. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  14. International Collaboration: Promises and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, R. Jay; Widmer, Jocelyn M.; Lerman, Amir

    2015-01-01

    We currently face a myriad of grand global challenges in fields such as poverty, the environment, education, science, and medicine. However, our current means of dealing with such challenges has fallen short, and ingenious solutions are required to overcome the inherent resistance to progress toward ameliorating such difficulties. Here, we highlight the promises and challenges of international collaboration in achieving success toward these trials. We note prior successes in fields such as education, medicine, science, and environmental issues made to date, yet at the same time we do note deficiencies and shortcomings in these efforts. Hence, the notion of international collaboration should be strengthened and encouraged by governments, non-profit organizations, and others moving forward using creative means to bring talented teams together to tackle these challenges across the globe. PMID:25973264

  15. International collaboration: promises and challenges.

    PubMed

    Widmer, R Jay; Widmer, Jocelyn M; Lerman, Amir

    2015-04-01

    We currently face a myriad of grand global challenges in fields such as poverty, the environment, education, science, and medicine. However, our current means of dealing with such challenges has fallen short, and ingenious solutions are required to overcome the inherent resistance to progress toward ameliorating such difficulties. Here, we highlight the promises and challenges of international collaboration in achieving success toward these trials. We note prior successes in fields such as education, medicine, science, and environmental issues made to date, yet at the same time we do note deficiencies and shortcomings in these efforts. Hence, the notion of international collaboration should be strengthened and encouraged by governments, non-profit organizations, and others moving forward using creative means to bring talented teams together to tackle these challenges across the globe. PMID:25973264

  16. Promising therapeutic targets in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Matthay, Katherine K.; George, Rani E.; Yu, Alice L.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extra- cranial solid tumor in children, is derived from neural crest cells. Nearly half of patients present with metastatic disease, and have 5-year EFS of less than 50%. New approaches with targeted therapy may improve efficacy without increased toxicity. The current review will evaluate three promising targeted therapies, including 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a radiopharmaceutical taken up by the human norepinephrine transporter expressed in 90% of neuroblastomas, immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies targeting the GD2 ganglioside, expressed on 98% of neuroblastoma cells, and inhibitors of ALK, a tyrosine kinase which is mutated or amplified in approximately 10% of neuroblastoma and expressed on the surface of most neuroblastoma cells. Early phase trials have confirmed the activity of 131I-MIBG in relapsed neuroblastoma, with response rates of about 30%, but the technical aspects of administration of large amounts of radioactivity in young children and the limited access have hindered incorporation into treatment of newly diagnosed patients. Anti-GD2 antibodies have also demonstrated activity in relapsed disease, and a recent phase III randomized trial showed a significant improvement in event-free survival for patients receiving chimeric anti-GD2 (ch14.18) combined with cytokines and isotretinoin after myeloablative consolidation therapy. A recently approved small molecule inhibitor of ALK has promising pre-clinical activity for neuroblastoma, and is currently in phase I and II trials. This is the first agent directed to a specific mutation in neuroblastoma, and marks a new step toward personalized therapy for neuroblastoma. Further clinical development of targeted treatments offers new hope for children with neuroblastoma. PMID:22589483

  17. Promising Practices in Early Childhood Mental Health. Systems of Care: Promising Practices in Children's Mental Health, 2001 Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer S.; Jivanjee, Pauline; Koroloff, Nancy; Doerfler, Andrea; Garcia, Maria

    Part of a series designed to provide guidance for communities interested in building systems of care for children with emotional disturbances, this volume addresses mental health services for very young children and their families. A literature review was conducted, and four Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program…

  18. A promising new thermoelectric material - Ruthenium silicide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vining, Cronin B.; Mccormack, Joseph A.; Zoltan, Andrew; Zoltan, Leslie D.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical efforts directed toward increasing thermoelectric figure of merit values by a factor of 2 or 3 have been encouraging in several respects. An accurate and detailed theoretical model developed for n-type silicon-germanium (SiGe) indicates that ZT values several times higher than currently available are expected under certain conditions. These new, high ZT materials are expected to be significantly different from SiGe, but not unreasonably so. Several promising candidate materials have been identified which may meet the conditions required by theory. One such candidate, ruthenium silicide, currently under development at JPL, has been estimated to have the potential to exhibit figure of merit values 4 times higher than conventional SiGe materials. Recent results are summarized.

  19. The Challenge and Promise of Glycomics

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Richard D.; Pierce, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Glycomics is a broad and emerging scientific discipline focused on defining the structures and functional roles of glycans in biological systems. The staggering complexity of the glycome, minimally defined as the repertoire of glycans expressed in a cell or organism, has resulted in many challenges that must be overcome; these are being addressed by new advances in mass spectrometry, as well as expansion of genetic and cell biology studies. Conversely, identifying the specific glycan recognition determinants of glycan-binding proteins by employing the new technology of glycan microarrays is providing insights into how glycans function in recognition and signaling within an organism and with microbes and pathogens. The promises of a more complete knowledge of glycomes are immense in that glycan modifications of intracellular and extracellular proteins have critical functions in almost all biological pathways. PMID:24439204

  20. A Practice/Research Collaborative: An Innovative Approach to Identifying and Responding to Psychosocial Functioning Problems and Recidivism Risk among Juvenile Arrestees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Walters, Wansley; Meyers, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Effectively identifying and responding to the psychosocial problems and recidivism risk of arrested youths remain critical needs in the field. Centralized intake facilities, such as juvenile assessment centers (JACs), can play a key role in this process. As part of a U.S. National Demonstration Project, the Miami-Dade JAC, serving a…

  1. The promise of reverse vaccinology.

    PubMed

    Heinson, Ashley I; Woelk, Christopher H; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2015-03-01

    Reverse vaccinology (RV) is a computational approach that aims to identify putative vaccine candidates in the protein coding genome (proteome) of pathogens. RV has primarily been applied to bacterial pathogens to identify proteins that can be formulated into subunit vaccines, which consist of one or more protein antigens. An RV approach based on a filtering method has already been used to construct a subunit vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B that is now registered in several countries (Bexsero). Recently, machine learning methods have been used to improve the ability of RV approaches to identify vaccine candidates. Further improvements related to the incorporation of epitope-binding annotation and gene expression data are discussed. In the future, it is envisaged that RV approaches will facilitate rapid vaccine design with less reliance on conventional animal testing and clinical trials in order to curb the threat of antibiotic resistance or newly emerged outbreaks of bacterial origin. PMID:25733557

  2. Rearing practices identified as risk factors for ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) infection in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas spat.

    PubMed

    Normand, Julien; Blin, Jean-Louis; Jouaux, Aude

    2014-08-11

    Early detection of Pacific oyster spat infected with ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) could prevent introduction of OsHV-1-infected individuals into farming areas or onshore rearing facilities, thus reducing the risk of infection of naïve oysters in such production systems. Experiments were conducted on several hundred oyster spat provided by producers in order to examine whether early rearing practices could be considered as potential risk factors for (1) OsHV-1 infection as detected by molecular methods and (2) spat mortality experimentally induced through thermal challenge. Spat groups collected on oyster beds and hatchery spat reared in growout areas during summer exhibited higher viral DNA contamination and mortalities during the trial than spat kept in onshore rearing facilities. Quantification of viral DNA before and during the trial showed that infection prevalence and intensity changed over time and revealed latent infection initially unsuspected in 3 of 10 groups. Thermal challenge induced a clear increase in the probability of detecting infected individuals, particularly for groups exhibiting significant prevalence of OsHV-1-contaminated spat prior to the challenge. The use of detection methods are discussed in relation to early rearing practices and disease control strategies. PMID:25114044

  3. Corporate Forecasting: Promise and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelwright, Steven C.; Clarke, Darral G.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses a survey of forecast preparers and users in 127 major companies in an attempt to assess underlying problems and identify areas for improvement. Concludes that forecasting responsibilities and tasks must be better defined and that forecast preparers and users must become better informed about one another's roles. (Author/JG)

  4. Organ printing: promises and challenges.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Vladimir; Kasyanov, Vladimir; Drake, Christopher; Markwald, Roger R

    2008-01-01

    Organ printing or biomedical application of rapid prototyping, also defined as additive layer-by-layer biomanufacturing, is an emerging transforming technology that has potential for surpassing traditional solid scaffold-based tissue engineering. Organ printing has certain advantages: it is an automated approach that offers a pathway for scalable reproducible mass production of tissue engineered products; it allows a precised simultaneous 3D positioning of several cell types; it enables creation tissue with a high level of cell density; it can solve the problem of vascularization in thick tissue constructs; finally, organ printing can be done in situ. The ultimate goal of organ-printing technology is to fabricate 3D vascularized functional living human organs suitable for clinical implantation. The main practical outcomes of organ-printing technology are industrial scalable robotic biofabrication of complex human tissues and organs, automated tissue-based in vitro assays for clinical diagnostics, drug discovery and drug toxicity, and complex in vitro models of human diseases. This article describes conceptual framework and recent developments in organ-printing technology, outlines main technological barriers and challenges, and presents potential future practical applications. PMID:18154465

  5. Telepsychiatry: Promise, potential, and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence and potentially disabling consequences of mental disorders, specialized mental health services are extremely deficient, leading to the so-called ‘Mental Health Gap’. Moreover, the services are concentrated in the urban areas, further worsening the rural-urban and tertiary primary care divide. Strengthening of and expanding the existing human resources and infrastructure, and integrating mental health into primary care appear to be the two major solutions. However, both the strategies are riddled with logistic difficulties and have a long gestation period. In such a scenario, telepsychiatry or e-mental health, defined as the use of information and communication technology to provide or support psychiatric services across distances, appears to be a promising answer. Due to its enormous potential, a review of the existing literature becomes imperative. An extensive search of literature was carried out and has been presented to delineate the modes of communication, acceptability and satisfaction, reliability, outcomes, cost-effectiveness, and legal and ethical challenges related to telepsychiatry. Telepsychiatry has been applied for direct patient care (diagnosis and management), consultation, and training, education, and research purposes. Both real-time, live interaction (synchronous) and store–forward (asynchronous) types of technologies have been used for these purposes. A growing amount of literature shows that training, supervision, and consultation by specialists to primary care physicians through telepsychiatry has several advantages. In this background, we have further focused on the models of telepsychiatry best suited for India, considering that mental health care can be integrated into primary care and taken to the doorstep of patients in the community. PMID:23441027

  6. Utility, Limitations, and Promise of Proteomics in Animal Science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in veterinary/animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing veterinary/animal science research. E...

  7. The Utility, Limitations, and Promise of Proteomics in Animal Science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. Examples of...

  8. Risk factors of falls in inpatients and their practical use in identifying high-risk persons at admission: Fukushima Medical University Hospital cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Takehito; Hashimoto, Shigeatsu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hirano, Noriko; Kurihara, Yumi; Kawashima, Takako; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To clarify the risk factors for falls in hospital settings and to propose the use of such factors to identify high-risk persons at admission. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Fukushima Medical University Hospital, Japan, from August 2008 and September 2009. Participants 9957 adult consecutive inpatients admitted to our hospital. Methods Information was collected at admission from clinical records obtained from a structured questionnaire conducted in face-to-face interviews with subjects by nurses and doctors and fall events were collected from clinical records. Results The proportion of patients who fell during follow-up was 2.5% and the incidence of falls was 3.28 per 100 person-days. There were significant differences in age, history of falling, cognitive dysfunction, planned surgery, wheelchair use, need for help to move, use of a remote caring system, rehabilitation, use of laxative, hypnotic or psychotropic medications and need for help with activities of daily living (ADL) between patients who did and did not fall. Multivariable adjusted ORs for falls showed that age, history of falls and need for help with ADL were common risk factors in both men and women. Using psychotropic medication also increased the risk of falling in men while cognitive dysfunction and use of hypnotic medication increased the risk of falling in women. Planned surgery was associated with a low risk of falls in women. Conclusions To prevent falls in inpatients it is important to identify high-risk persons. Age, history of falling and the need for help with ADL are the most important pieces of information to be obtained at admission. Care plans for patients including fall prevention should be clear and considered. PMID:25232563

  9. Multiple sclerosis: Prospects and promise.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Stephen L; Chan, Jonah R; Oksenberg, Jorge R

    2013-09-01

    We have entered a golden era in multiple sclerosis (MS) research. Two decades ago, our understanding of the disease was largely descriptive and there were no approved therapies to modify the natural history of MS. Today, delineation of immune pathways relevant to MS have been clarified; a comprehensive map of genes that influence risk compiled; clues to environmental triggers identified; noninvasive in vivo monitoring of the MS disease process has been revolutionized by high-field MRI; and many effective therapies for the early, relapsing, component of MS now exist. However, major challenges remain. We still have no useful treatment for progressive MS (the holy grail of MS research), no means to repair injured axons or protect neurons, and extremely limited evidence to guide treatment decisions. Recent advances have set in place a foundation for development of increasingly selective immunotherapy for patients; application of genetic and genomic discoveries to improve therapeutic options; development of remyelination or neuroprotection therapies for progressive MS; and integrating clinical, imaging and genomic data for personalized medicine. MS has now advanced from the backwaters of autoimmune disease research to the front-line, and definitive answers, including cures, are now realistic goals for the next decade. Many of the breakthrough discoveries in MS have also resulted from meaningful interactions across disciplines, and especially from translational and basic scientists working closely with clinicians, highlighting that the clinical value of discoveries are most often revealed when ideas developed in the laboratory are tested at the bedside. PMID:23955638

  10. Identifying and Managing Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Janice M.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and…

  11. Cancer chemoprevention by nuts: evidence and promises.

    PubMed

    Falasca, Marco; Casari, Ilaria

    2012-01-01

    Chemoprevention is the use of chemical compounds to interfere with the early precancerous stages of carcinogenesis and thereby reverse tumor formation. Many chemopreventive agents, either natural or synthetic, have been identified. Some of the most promising compounds are found in vegetables and fruits. There are numerous mechanisms of action by which these components can intervene in the prevention of cancer, although they have not been fully elucidated. It is worth to note that some foods contain different bioactive compounds. Therefore the possibility exists that combinations of compounds, naturally occurring in those foods, may have a cumulative or even synergistic effect. Nuts are very rich in different bioactive compounds whose anti-cancer properties have already been described. Epidemiologic studies have already suggested that nuts consumption may be potentially beneficial in the incidence of other diseases, such as coronary heart disease and diabetes. Although the results are not conclusive, recent studies show possible cancer protective effects of nuts. This review will focus on the laboratory and clinical evidence of nuts chemopreventive and therapeutic properties. PMID:22202046

  12. Promise-based management: the essence of execution.

    PubMed

    Sull, Donald N; Spinosa, Charles

    2007-04-01

    Critical initiatives stall for a variety of reasons--employee disengagement, a lack of coordination between functions, complex organizational structures that obscure accountability, and so on. To overcome such obstacles, managers must fundamentally rethink how work gets done. Most of the challenges stem from broken or poorly crafted commitments. That's because every company is, at its heart, a dynamic network of promises made between employees and colleagues, customers, outsourcing partners, or other stakeholders. Executives can overcome many problems in the short-term and foster productive, reliable workforces for the long-term by practicing what the authors call "promise-based management," which involves cultivating and coordinating commitments in a systematic way. Good promises share five qualities: They are public, active, voluntary, explicit, and mission based. To develop and execute an effective promise, the "provider" and the "customer" in the deal should go through three phases of conversation. The first, achieving a meeting of minds, entails exploring the fundamental questions of coordinated effort: What do you mean? Do you understand what I mean? What should I do? What will you do? Who else should we talk to? In the next phase, making it happen, the provider executes on the promise. In the final phase, closing the loop, the customer publicly declares that the provider has either delivered the goods or failed to do so. Leaders must weave and manage their webs of promises with great care-encouraging iterative conversation and making sure commitments are fulfilled reliably. If they do, they can enhance coordination and cooperation among colleagues, build the organizational agility required to seize new business opportunities, and tap employees' entrepreneurial energies. PMID:17432155

  13. Identifying Gifted Students: A Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnsen, S., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This user-friendly guide offers advice and insight on developing defensible identification procedures and services for gifted and talented students. Special attention is given to the use of multiple methods including qualitative and quantitative assessments such as standardized measures (e.g. intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests),…

  14. Parkinson's Drug Shows Promise Against Macular Degeneration

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155695.html Parkinson's Drug Shows Promise Against Macular Degeneration But more ... THURSDAY, Nov. 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A common Parkinson's disease medication might hold potential for preventing or ...

  15. Implementing Evidence-Based Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Edward J.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, social work has been influenced by new forms of practice that hold promise for bringing practice and research together to strengthen the scientific knowledge base supporting social work intervention. The most recent new practice framework is evidence-based practice. However, although evidence-based practice has many qualities that might…

  16. Order promising/fulfillment and customer/channel collaboration in supply chain management

    E-print Network

    An, Yimin, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    This research investigates the order promising and fulfillment and customer and channel collaboration functions of a company. In addition to presenting more precise definitions, we identify and analyze current and emerging ...

  17. Identifying Common Sweet Corn Caterpillars

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Identifying Common Sweet Corn Caterpillars Education Center and Info Line practical solutions to everyday questions Toll free Info Line 1-877-398-4769 M-F · 9 AM - 2 PM Corn earworm, Fall armyworm, and European corn borer caterpillars can all infest the ears of sweet corn. The most reliable way to identify

  18. Teen Risk-Taking: Promising Prevention Programs and Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Marvin; Pallitto, Christina; Bradner, Carolyn; Bolshun, Natalya

    This guidebook explores some of the practical issues associated with finding, choosing, and starting potentially effective prevention programs for at-risk preteens and teens. The guidebook is based on a study of 51 intervention programs that identified elements and delivery mechanisms that were associated with their effectiveness. A closer look at…

  19. Epigenetic Epidemiology: Promises for Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Bakulski, Kelly M.; Fallin, M. Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic changes underlie developmental and age related biology. Promising epidemiologic research implicates epigenetics in disease risk and progression, and suggests epigenetic status depends on environmental risks as well as genetic predisposition. Epigenetics may represent a mechanistic link between environmental exposures, or genetics, and many common diseases, or may simply provide a quantitative biomarker for exposure or disease for areas of epidemiology currently lacking such measures. This great promise is balanced by issues related to study design, measurement tools, statistical methods, and biological interpretation that must be given careful consideration in an epidemiologic setting. This article describes the promises and challenges for epigenetic epidemiology, and suggests directions to advance this emerging area of molecular epidemiology. PMID:24449392

  20. Malaria and the Promise of Microbial Genomics

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Malaria and the Promise of Microbial Genomics By Ben Robinson #12;Malaria Incidence Malaria is one of the most widespread infectious diseases 41% of the world's population live in areas where malaria is transmitted An estimated 500 million infections of malaria occur each year resulting in nearly 3 million

  1. The Promises of Moral Foundations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musschenga, Bert

    2013-01-01

    In this article I examine whether Moral Foundations Theory can fulfil the promises that Haidt claims for the theory: that it will help in developing new approaches to moral education and to the moral conflicts that divide our diverse society. I argue that, first, the model that Haidt suggests for understanding the plurality of moralities--a shared…

  2. 75 FR 36066 - Promise Neighborhoods Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... application deadline. SUMMARY: On May 5, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 10492) a notice inviting applications for new awards for FY 2010 for the Promise Neighborhoods Program (May 5 notice). The May 5 notice established a deadline of June 25, 2010, for the submission of applications under...

  3. 76 FR 13152 - Promise Neighborhoods Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Promise Neighborhoods have access to great schools and strong systems of family and community support that... applicant will link the longitudinal data system to school-based, LEA, and State data systems; make the data... early learning and development standards, program quality standards, comprehensive assessment...

  4. Alcohol Research: Promise for the Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordis, Enoch

    Over the past 20 years, alcohol researchers have made intensive efforts to understand alcohol use and its outcomes. To date, researchers have made much progress toward understanding the causes and consequences of alcoholism and its related problems. This publication attempts to convey the great spirit and promise of alcohol research. Established…

  5. Ideological Repositioning: Race, Social Justice, and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I engage in discourse centrally located in the ideology of race in the United States of America juxtaposed to social justice with promise for tomorrow in higher education and beyond. I assert that social justice in kinesiology requires that once hired, retaining, securing tenured status, and promoting faculty of color means having…

  6. The Promise of Zoomable User Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bederson, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    Zoomable user interfaces (ZUIs) have received a significant amount of attention in the 18 years since they were introduced. They have enjoyed some success, and elements of ZUIs are widely used in computers today, although the grand vision of a zoomable desktop has not materialised. This paper describes the premise and promise of ZUIs along with…

  7. The Promise of Standardized Data Collection: School Health Variables Identified by States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kathleen H.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Westbrook, Linda Oakes

    2012-01-01

    A gap in data prevents measurement of the needs of school-age children and the influence of school nursing interventions on student health and education outcomes. Its remedy is in the data collected in school health rooms. A national clinical database describing school health will allow education and health leaders to build evidence-based programs…

  8. Promising Aedes aegypti Repellent Chemotypes Identified through Integrated QSAR, Virtual Screening, Synthesis, and Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Oliferenko, Polina V.; Oliferenko, Alexander A.; Poda, Gennadiy I.; Osolodkin, Dmitry I.; Pillai, Girinath G.; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Tsikolia, Maia; Agramonte, Natasha M.; Clark, Gary G.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Katritzky, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular field topology analysis, scaffold hopping, and molecular docking were used as complementary computational tools for the design of repellents for Aedes aegypti, the insect vector for yellow fever, chikungunya, and dengue fever. A large number of analogues were evaluated by virtual screening with Glide molecular docking software. This produced several dozen hits that were either synthesized or procured from commercial sources. Analysis of these compounds by a repellent bioassay resulted in a few highly active chemicals (in terms of minimum effective dosage) as viable candidates for further hit-to-lead and lead optimization effort. PMID:24039693

  9. Promising Aedes aegypti repellent chemotypes identified through integrated QSAE, virtual screening, synthesis, and bioassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular field topology analysis, scaffold hopping, and molecular docking were used as complementary computational tools for the design of repellents for Aedes aegypti, the insect vector for yellow fever, West Nile fever, and dengue fever. A large number of analogues were evaluated by virtual scree...

  10. Promise and Pitfalls of Using Grain Size Analysis to Identify Glacial Sediments in Alpine Lake Cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Lakes fed by glacier outwash should have a clastic particle-size record distinct from non-glacial lakes in the same area, but do they? The unique turquoise color of alpine glacial lakes reflects the flux of suspended clastic glacial rock flour to those lakes; conversely, lakes not fed by outwash are generally clear with sediments dominated by organics or slope-wash from nearby hillslopes. This contrast in sediment types and sources should produce a distinct and measureable different in grain sizes between the two settings. Results from a variety of lakes suggest the actual situation is often more subtle and complex. I compare grain size results to other proxies to assess the value of grain size analysis for paleoglacier studies. Over the past 10 years, my colleagues and I have collected and analyzed sediment cores from a wide variety of lakes below small alpine glaciers in an attempt to constrain the timing and magnitude of alpine glaciation in those basins. The basic concept is that these lakes act as continuous catchments for any rock flour produced upstream by glacier abrasion; as a glacier grows, the flux of rock flour to the lake will also increase. If the glacier disappears entirely, rock flour deposition will also cease in short order. We have focused our research in basins with simple sedimentologic settings: mostly small, high-altitude, stripped granitic or metamorphic cirques in which the cirque glaciers are the primary source of clastic sediments. In most cases, the lakes are fed by meltwater from a modern glacier, but were ice free during the earlier Holocene. In such cases, the lake cores should record formation of and changes in activity of the glacier upstream. We used a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 laser particle size analyzer for our grain size analyses, as well as recording magnetic susceptibility, color, and organics for the same cores. The results indicate that although lakes often experience increases in silt and clay-size (<0.63 mm) clastic particles when a glacier is present upstream, the signal can be highly variable and complex, most likely the result of stochastic processes in the basin. Our analyses indicate that although particle size reflects glacier activity upstream, it is rarely the best record of glacier change and is most useful in combination with other proxies, most notably MS, color, and organic content.

  11. Developing Talent in the Arts: Identifying and Serving Youths with Artistic Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolloff, Penny Britton

    1994-01-01

    This article provides examples of ways to implement an arts program consistent with a model of talent development for diverse groups of students. The process-oriented approach emphasizes role modeling and the necessity for teachers who can function as artists themselves. Tips for class structure, curriculum, and scheduling are also provided. (PB)

  12. 76 FR 55889 - Reopening Notice: Promise Neighborhoods Program-Implementation Grant Competition; Promise...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ...Neighborhoods Program--Implementation Grant Competition; Promise Neighborhoods Program--Planning Grant Competition AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement...Education (Department) reopens the competition for transmittal of applications...

  13. The Promise and Perils of Stem Cell Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Daley, George Q.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are the seeds of tissue repair and regeneration and a promising source for novel therapies. However, apart from hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation for hematologic disease, essentially all other stem cell treatments remain experimental. High hopes have inspired numerous clinical trials, but it has been difficult to obtain unequivocal evidence for robust clinical benefit, likely owing to our primitive state of knowledge about therapeutic mechanisms. Outside the standard clinical trial network unproven therapies are being widely practiced in an open market, which threatens the cause of legitimate clinical investigation of the safety and efficacy of stem cell interventions. Here is one practitioner's perspective on the challenges and technical barriers that must be overcome for novel stem cell therapies to achieve meaningful clinical impact. PMID:22704514

  14. Intranasal glucagon: a promising approach for treatment of severe hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Pontiroli, Antonio E

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of diabetic complications is mainly obtained through optimal control of blood glucose levels. With hypoglycemic drugs like beta-cell stimulating drugs and especially insulin, the limit to treatment is represented by hypoglycemia, a life-threatening occurrence that is dangerous itself and can induce fear of other episodes. Glucagon, injected subcutaneously (SC) or intramuscularly (IM), is the treatment of choice for severe hypoglycemia outside of the hospital setting. However, due to practical aspects such as preparation of solutions for administration and injection by untrained persons, there are obstacles to its routine use. This review focuses on the current status of alternative routes of administration of peptide hormones, and in particular the intranasal (IN) route of glucagon, as a promising approach for the treatment of severe hypoglycemia. PMID:25385946

  15. Turning Ideas into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee

    2011-01-01

    This article features five schools (John P. Oldham Elementary, Norwood, Massachusetts; R. J. Richey Elementary, Burnet, Texas; Pittsburgh Carmalt Science and Technology Academy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; John D. Shaw Elementary, Wasilla, Alaska; and Springville K-8, Portland Oregon) that offer five promising practices. From fourth graders learning…

  16. Identifying Adverse Drug Events

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ashish K.; Kuperman, Gilad J.; Teich, Jonathan M.; Leape, Lucian; Shea, Brian; Rittenberg, Eve; Burdick, Elisabeth; Seger, Diane Lew; Vliet, Martha Vander; Bates, David W.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Background: Adverse drug events (ADEs) are both common and costly. Most hospitals identify ADEs using spontaneous reporting, but this approach lacks sensitivity; chart review identifies more events but is expensive. Computer-based approaches to ADE identification appear promising, but they have not been directly compared with chart review and they are not widely used. Objectives: To develop a computer-based ADE monitor, and to compare the rate and type of ADEs found with the monitor with those discovered by chart review and by stimulated voluntary report. Design: Prospective cohort study in one tertiary-care hospital. Participants: All patients admitted to nine medical and surgical units in a tertiary-care hospital over an eight-month period. Main Outcome Measure: Adverse drug events identified by the computer-based monitor, by chart review, and by stimulated voluntary report. Methods: A computer-based monitoring program identified alerts, which were situations suggesting that an ADE might be present (e.g., an order for an antidote such as naloxone). A trained reviewer then examined patients' hospital records to determine whether an ADE had occurred. The results of the computer-based monitoring strategy were compared with two other ADE detection strategies: intensive chart review and stimulated voluntary report by nurses and pharmacists. The monitor and the chart review strategies were independent, and the reviewers were blinded. Results: The computer monitoring strategy identified 2,620 alerts, of which 275 were determined to be ADEs. The chart review found 398 ADEs, whereas voluntary report detected 23. Of the 617 ADEs detected by at least one method, 76 ADEs were detected by both computer monitor and chart review. The computer monitor identified 45 percent; chart review, 65 percent; and voluntary report, 4 percent. The ADEs identified by computer monitor were more likely to be classified as “severe” than were those identified by chart review (51 versus 42 percent, p =.04). The positive predictive value of computer-generated alerts was 16 percent during the first eight weeks of the study; rule modifications increased this to 23 percent in the final eight weeks. The computer strategy required 11 person-hours per week to execute, whereas chart review required 55 person-hours per week and voluntary report strategy required 5. Conclusions: The computer-based monitor identified fewer ADEs than did chart review but many more ADEs than did stimulated voluntary report. The overlap among the ADEs identified using different methods was small, suggesting that the incidence of ADEs may be higher than previously reported and that different detection methods capture different events. The computer-based monitoring system represents an efficient approach for measuring ADE frequency and gauging the effectiveness of ADE prevention programs. PMID:9609500

  17. Aerodynamics of a promising vortex furnace design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anufriev, I. S.; Strizhak, P. A.; Chernetskii, M. Yu.; Shadrin, E. Yu.; Sharypov, O. V.

    2015-08-01

    The aerodynamics of a promising vortex furnace design with secondary top blasting has been studied. Flow velocity fields have been measured in an isothermal laboratory model of the furnace using a digital tracer imaging (particle image velocimetry) technique. Three-dimensional diagnostics of flow structure in the combustion chamber has been carried out by the method of laser Doppler anemometry. Processing of the obtained data using the criterion of "minimum total pressure" has been used to visualize the spatial structure of the vortex core.

  18. Strategies for Success: Promising Ideas in Adult College Completion. Policy Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This publication is the first of a series focusing on promising new ideas and innovative practices developed through the Adult College Completion Network. The brief addresses five topics of importance to those working to improve adult college completion: (1) Data availability particular to the returning adult population; (2) Partnerships between…

  19. The Impact of Advanced Curriculum on the Achievement of Mathematically Promising Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, M. Katherine; Casa, Tutita M.; Adelson, Jill L.; Carroll, Susan R.; Sheffield, Linda Jensen

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of Project M[superscript 3]: Mentoring Mathematical Minds was to develop and field test advanced units for mathematically promising elementary students based on exemplary practices in gifted and mathematics education. This article describes the development of the units and reports on mathematics achievement results for students in…

  20. Nanotechnology: Promises and challenges for tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    ROMIG JR.,ALTON D.; MICHAEL,JOSEPH R.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.

    2000-02-29

    Nanotechnology is based on the ability to create and utilize materials, devices and systems through control of the matter at the nanometer scale. If successful, nanotechnology is expected to lead to broad new technological developments. The efficiency of energy conversion can be increased through the use of nanostructured materials with enhanced magnetic, light emission or wear resistant properties. Energy generation using nanostructured photovoltaics or nanocluster driven photocatalysis could fundamentally change the economic viability of renewable energy sources. In addition, the ability to imitate molecular processes found in living organisms may be key to developing highly sensitive and discriminating chemical and biological sensors. Such sensors could greatly expand the range of medical home testing as well as provide new technologies to counter the spread of chemical and biological weapons. Even the production of chemicals and materials could be revolutionized through the development of molecular reactors that can promote low energy chemical pathways for materials synthesis. Although nanotechnologies hold great promise, significant scientific challenges must be addressed before they can convert that promise into a reality. A key challenge in nanoscience is to understand how nano-scale tailoring of materials can lead to novel and enhanced functions. The authors' laboratory, for example, is currently making broad contributions in this area by synthesizing and exploring nanomaterials ranging from layered structures for electronics/photonics to novel nanocrystalline catalysts. They are even adapting functions from biological molecules to synthesize new forms of nanostructured materials.

  1. Promising strategies for the prevention of dementia.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Laura E; Yaffe, Kristine

    2009-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of dementia are expected to increase several-fold in the coming decades. Given that the current pharmaceutical treatment of dementia can only modestly improve symptoms, risk factor modification remains the cornerstone for dementia prevention. Some of the most promising strategies for the prevention of dementia include vascular risk factor control, cognitive activity, physical activity, social engagement, diet, and recognition of depression. In observational studies, vascular risk factors-including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity-are fairly consistently associated with increased risk of dementia. In addition, people with depression are at high risk for cognitive impairment. Population studies have reported that intake of antioxidants or polyunsaturated fatty acids may be associated with a reduced incidence of dementia, and it has been reported that people who are cognitively, socially, and physically active have a reduced risk of cognitive impairment. However, results from randomized trials of risk factor modification have been mixed. Most promising, interventions of cognitive and physical activity improve cognitive performance and slow cognitive decline. Future studies should continue to examine the implication of risk factor modification in controlled trials, with particular focus on whether several simultaneous interventions may have additive or multiplicative effects. PMID:19822776

  2. PEPNet Effective Practices Criteria Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Kate, Ed.

    Designed for youth programs, funders, policymakers, and researchers, this workbook is a tool and a resource on effective practices for youth employment and development. It is a product of the Promising and Effective Practices Network (PEPNet), which offers a knowledge base of effective strategies and approaches, opportunities for professional…

  3. Promises and Pitfalls of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurmi, Sami; Jaakkola, Tomi

    2006-01-01

    Learning objects (LOs), generally understood as digital learning resources shared through the Internet and reused in multiple learning contexts, have aroused worldwide enthusiasm in the field of educational technology during the last years. Although LOs and LO systems offer tremendous possibilities to improve educational practices, there are many…

  4. "Geriatricizing" Hospitalists: Identifying Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Susan M.; Gillespie, Suzanne M.; Medina-Walpole, Annette M.; Caprio, Thomas V.; Karuza, Jurgis; McCann, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify differences between geriatricians and hospitalists in caring for hospitalized older adults, so as to inform faculty development programs that have the goal of improving older patient care. Eleven hospitalists and 13 geriatricians were surveyed regarding knowledge, confidence, and practice patterns in…

  5. Systematic evaluation of satellite remote sensing for identifying uranium mines and mills.

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, Dianna Sue; Stork, Christopher Lyle; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Smith, Jody Lynn

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we systematically evaluate the ability of current-generation, satellite-based spectroscopic sensors to distinguish uranium mines and mills from other mineral mining and milling operations. We perform this systematic evaluation by (1) outlining the remote, spectroscopic signal generation process, (2) documenting the capabilities of current commercial satellite systems, (3) systematically comparing the uranium mining and milling process to other mineral mining and milling operations, and (4) identifying the most promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling that can be identified using satellite remote sensing. The Ranger uranium mine and mill in Australia serves as a case study where we apply and test the techniques developed in this systematic analysis. Based on literature research of mineral mining and milling practices, we develop a decision tree which utilizes the information contained in one or more observables to determine whether uranium is possibly being mined and/or milled at a given site. Promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling at the Ranger site included in the decision tree are uranium ore, sulfur, the uranium pregnant leach liquor, ammonia, and uranyl compounds and sulfate ion disposed of in the tailings pond. Based on the size, concentration, and spectral characteristics of these promising observables, we then determine whether these observables can be identified using current commercial satellite systems, namely Hyperion, ASTER, and Quickbird. We conclude that the only promising observables at Ranger that can be uniquely identified using a current commercial satellite system (notably Hyperion) are magnesium chlorite in the open pit mine and the sulfur stockpile. Based on the identified magnesium chlorite and sulfur observables, the decision tree narrows the possible mineral candidates at Ranger to uranium, copper, zinc, manganese, vanadium, the rare earths, and phosphorus, all of which are milled using sulfuric acid leaching.

  6. The "Promise" of Comparative Effectiveness Research

    E-print Network

    Mullins, Dyche

    the development, expansion, and use of a variety of data sources and methods. Federal Coordinating Council identified by the Medicare, Medicaid, and State Children Health Insurance Programs and to improving

  7. Diabetic macular edema: New promising therapies

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi, Hanan N Al; Masaud, Jluwi S; Ghazi, Nicola G

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of diabetic macular edema is rapidly evolving. The era of laser therapy is being quickly replaced by an era of pharmacotherapy. Several pharmacotherapies have been recently developed for the treatment of retinal vascular diseases such as diabetic macular edema. Several intravitreal injections or sustained delivery devices have undergone phase 3 testing while others are currently being evaluated. The results of clinical trials have shown the superiority of some of these agents to laser therapy. However, with the availability of several of these newer agents, it may be difficult to individualize treatment options especially those patients respond differently to various therapies. As such, more effort is still needed in order to determine the best treatment regimen for a given patient. In this article, we briefly summarize the major new therapeutic additions for the treatment of diabetic macular edema and allude to some future promising therapies. PMID:24379924

  8. The promise of Lean in health care.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, John S; Berry, Leonard L

    2013-01-01

    An urgent need in American health care is improving quality and efficiency while controlling costs. One promising management approach implemented by some leading health care institutions is Lean, a quality improvement philosophy and set of principles originated by the Toyota Motor Company. Health care cases reveal that Lean is as applicable in complex knowledge work as it is in assembly-line manufacturing. When well executed, Lean transforms how an organization works and creates an insatiable quest for improvement. In this article, we define Lean and present 6 principles that constitute the essential dynamic of Lean management: attitude of continuous improvement, value creation, unity of purpose, respect for front-line workers, visual tracking, and flexible regimentation. Health care case studies illustrate each principle. The goal of this article is to provide a template for health care leaders to use in considering the implementation of the Lean management system or in assessing the current state of implementation in their organizations. PMID:23274021

  9. The promise and pitfalls of community resilience.

    PubMed

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Chandra, Anita; Acosta, Joie

    2013-12-01

    An important shift in terminology has occurred in emergency preparedness, and the concept of community resilience has become ubiquitous. Although enhancing community resilience is broader than preparedness, and emphasizes a distinct set of activities and participants, the terms are often used interchangeably. The implications of this shift have not been fully explored. This commentary describes the potential promise and pitfalls of the concept of community resilience and recommends strategies to overcome its limitations. We believe that resilience has the power to dramatically change this field in immense, positive ways, but some important challenges such as confusion about definitions and lack of accountability must first be overcome. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;7:603-606). PMID:24345588

  10. Vaccination against infectious diseases: what is promising?

    PubMed

    Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Berger, Annemarie

    2014-12-01

    Vaccination has proven to be one of the best weapons protecting the mankind against infectious diseases. Along with the huge progress in microbiology, numerous highly efficacious and safe vaccines have been produced by conventional technology (cultivation), by the use of molecular biology (genetic modification), or by synthetic chemistry. Sterilising prevention is achieved by the stimulation of antibody production, while the stimulation of cell-mediated immune responses may prevent the outbreak of disease in consequence of an acute or reactivated infection. From several examples, two rules are deduced to evaluate the perspectives of future vaccine developments: They are promising, if (1) the natural infectious disease induces immunity or (2) passive immunisation (transfer of antibodies, adoptive transfer of lymphocytes) is successful in preventing infection. PMID:25064610

  11. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: promise or peril?

    PubMed Central

    Mengle-Gaw, Laurel J; Schwartz, Benjamin D

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of two isoforms of the cyclooxygenase enzyme, COX-1 and COX-2, and the development of COX-2-specific inhibitors as anti-inflammatories and analgesics have offered great promise that the therapeutic benefits of NSAIDs could be optimized through inhibition of COX-2, while minimizing their adverse side effect profile associated with inhibition of COX-1. While COX-2 specific inhibitors have proven to be efficacious in a variety of inflammatory conditions, exposure of large numbers of patients to these drugs in postmarketing studies have uncovered potential safety concerns that raise questions about the benefit/risk ratio of COX-2-specific NSAIDs compared to conventional NSAIDs. This article reviews the efficacy and safety profiles of COX-2-specific inhibitors, comparing them with conventional NSDAIDs. PMID:12467519

  12. The Promise of Preventive Cancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lollini, Pier-Luigi; Cavallo, Federica; Nanni, Patrizia; Quaglino, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Years of unsuccessful attempts at fighting established tumors with vaccines have taught us all that they are only able to truly impact patient survival when used in a preventive setting, as would normally be the case for traditional vaccines against infectious diseases. While true primary cancer prevention is still but a long-term goal, secondary and tertiary prevention are already in the clinic and providing encouraging results. A combination of immunopreventive cancer strategies and recently approved checkpoint inhibitors is a further promise of forthcoming successful cancer disease control, but prevention will require a considerable reduction of currently reported toxicities. These considerations summed with the increased understanding of tumor antigens allow space for an optimistic view of the future. PMID:26343198

  13. Who Will Deliver on the Promise?

    PubMed Central

    Healton, Cheryl G.

    2012-01-01

    The Doctor of Public Health (DrPH) Core Competency Model aspires to rigorously train future leaders of public health practice to direct and advance societal efforts that address socially rooted causes of health and illness. Although there is no proven formula for success, 3 principles derived from practice may guide the way forward: (1) institutionalize mutual learning and reciprocity between schools of public health and public health agencies and organizations, (2) capitalize on the full resources of the larger university to enrich the educational experiences of DrPH candidates and public health leaders, and (3) globalize the search for model DrPH programs that may be adapted for US schools. Schools of public health must ensure that DrPH programs gain the status and resources needed to fulfill their societal mandate. PMID:22095349

  14. BMI-1, a promising therapeutic target for human cancer

    PubMed Central

    WANG, MIN-CONG; LI, CHUN-LI; CUI, JIE; JIAO, MIN; WU, TAO; JING, LI; NAN, KE-JUN

    2015-01-01

    BMI-1 oncogene is a member of the polycomb-group gene family and a transcriptional repressor. Overexpression of BMI-1 has been identified in various human cancer tissues and is known to be involved in cancer cell proliferation, cell invasion, distant metastasis, chemosensitivity and patient survival. Accumulating evidence has revealed that BMI-1 is also involved in the regulation of self-renewal, differentiation and tumor initiation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these biological processes remain unclear. The present review summarized the function of BMI-1 in different human cancer types and CSCs, and discussed the signaling pathways in which BMI-1 is potentially involved. In conclusion, BMI-1 may represent a promising target for the prevention and therapy of various cancer types. PMID:26622537

  15. The Promise of Neuroprotective Agents in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Stacey E.; Potashkin, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. Since there are limited treatment options for PD, neuroprotective agents are currently being tested as a means to slow disease progression. Agents targeting oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation are prime candidates for neuroprotection. This review identifies Rasagiline, Minocycline, and creatine, as the most promising neuroprotective agents for PD, and they are all currently in phase III trials. Other agents possessing protective characteristics in delaying PD include stimulants, vitamins, supplements, and other drugs. Additionally, combination therapies also show benefits in slowing PD progression. The identification of neuroprotective agents for PD provides us with therapeutic opportunities for modifying the course of disease progression and, perhaps, reducing the risk of onset when preclinical biomarkers become available. PMID:22125548

  16. The promise of advanced technology for future air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in all weather 4-D navigation and wake vortex attenuation research is discussed and the concept of time based metering of aircraft is recommended for increased emphasis. The far term advances in aircraft efficiency were shown to be skin friction reduction and advanced configuration types. The promise of very large aircraft, possibly all wing aircraft is discussed, as is an advanced concept for an aerial relay transportation system. Very significant technological developments were identified that can improve supersonic transport performance and reduce noise. The hypersonic transport was proposed as the ultimate step in air transportation in the atmosphere. Progress in the key technology areas of propulsion and structures was reviewed. Finally, the impact of alternate fuels on future air transports was considered and shown not to be a growth constraint.

  17. Realizing the promise of social psychology in improving public health.

    PubMed

    Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve. PMID:24981514

  18. Promise Neighborhoods: The Promise and Politics of Community Capacity Building as Urban School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass; Sampson, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry is to consider how the U.S. Department of Education's Promise Neighborhoods (PNs) program can improve persistently low-achieving urban schools by making their "neighborhoods whole again" through community capacity building for education reform. As the "first federal initiative to put education at the…

  19. Flight-deck automation: Promises and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, E. L.; Curry, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The state of the art in human factors in flight-deck automation is presented. A number of critical problem areas are identified and broad design guidelines are offered. Automation-related aircraft accidents and incidents are discussed as examples of human factors problems in automated flight.

  20. Panspermia: A promising field of research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Rampelotto, Pabulo

    Although Panspermia -the hypothesis that life migrates naturally through space -has been raised many times along the human history, due to lack of any validation it remained merely speculative until few decades ago. It is only with the recent discoveries and advances from different fields of research that Panspermia has been given serious scientific consideration. The natural movement of material from planetary surface to planetary surface has been explored and the mechanisms are well established. A variety of studies demonstrate that microorganisms can survive under extreme conditions such as ultracentrifugation, hypervelocity, shock pressure, high temperature variations, vacuum and different ultraviolet and ionizing radiation intensities, which simulate the conditions experienced by microbes during the ejection from one planet, the journey through space as well as the impact in another planet. The discovery of potential habitable environments such as the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn expands the possibility of transfer of life within the Solar System. Consequently, studies of natural transfer of biological material occurring between satellites have been developed. Furthermore, the probability of interplanetary transfer of life out the Solar System has been explored. Therefore, in the last few decades, most of the major barriers against the acceptance of this hypothesis have been demolished and Panspermia reemerges as a promising field of research.

  1. Interferon-?: Promising therapeutic target in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Joe WE; Ramji, Dipak P

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the vasculature and is the primary cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is currently the world’s leading cause of death and the numbers are predicted to rise further because of a global increase in risk factors such as diabetes and obesity. Current therapies such as statins have had a major impact in reducing mortality from CVD. However, there is a marked residual CVD risk in patients on statin therapy. It is therefore important to understand the molecular basis of this disease in detail and to develop alternative novel therapeutics. Interferon-? (IFN-?) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is often regarded as a master regulator of atherosclerosis development. IFN-? is able to influence several key steps during atherosclerosis development, including pro-inflammatory gene expression, the recruitment of monocytes from the blood to the activated arterial endothelium and plaque stability. This central role of IFN-? makes it a promising therapeutic target. The purpose of this editorial is to describe the key role IFN-? plays during atherosclerosis development, as well as discuss potential strategies to target it therapeutically. PMID:26309816

  2. Alcoholism research: delivering on the promise.

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, F K

    1988-01-01

    Prospects for research advances in alcoholism are very promising, because of the explosion in the neurosciences and advances in epidemiology and typology of the disorder. For example, the field is now ready for molecular genetics studies of the early onset form of alcoholism that is transmitted from father to son with high penetrance. Leading neuroscientists are being recruited into alcoholism research. Paradoxically, this time of new hope coincides with challenges to the scientific enterprise, such as the animal rights movement and impatience with the scientific process in the face of the public health emergencies represented by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and drug abuse. The emergence of genetically based subtypes of alcoholism suggests that at least two discrete illness processes are involved. Mounting evidence from spinal fluid studies has rekindled interest in a key role for serotonin in the early onset form of alcoholism. One hypothesis now being explored is that genetically low brain serotonin function may be part of the predisposition to this form of alcoholism. It is known that acute alcohol intake transiently increases brain serotonin turnover. Thus, drinking might be viewed as an attempt to correct a deficit, only to produce further serotonin depletion as the drug's effect wears off, setting up a vicious cycle of repeated attempts to self-medicate. Impulsive, violent, and suicidal behavior as well as alcohol abuse are associated with the low brain serotonin activity. Persons with these problems suffer from circadian rhythm and glucose metabolism disturbances that may also be mediated by serotonin. New pharmacological probes are now available to tease out the mechanisms of altered serotonin function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2847208

  3. Phenanthroindolizidines and Phenanthroquinolizidines: Promising Alkaloids for Anti-Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chemler, Sherry R.

    2009-01-01

    The phenanthroindolizidine and phenanthroquinolizidine alkaloids, typified by tylophorine and cryptopleurine, are a family of plant-derived small molecules with significant therapeutic potential. The plant extracts have been used in herbal medicine and the isolated compounds have displayed a range of promising therapeutic activity such as anti-ameobicidal, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Despite their therapeutic protential, no compounds in this class have fully passed clinical trials. Drawbacks include low in vivo anti-cancer activity, central nervous system toxicity and low natural availability. A number of biological effects of these compounds, such as protein and nucleic acid synthesis suppression, have been identified, but the specific biomolecular targets have not yet been identified. Significant effort has been expended in the synthesis and structure-activity-relationship (SAR) studies of these compounds with the hope that a new drug will emerge. This review will highlight important contributions to the isolation, synthesis, SAR and mechanism of action of the phenanthroindolizidine and pheanthroquinolizidine alkaloids. PMID:20160962

  4. Materializing research promises: opportunities, priorities and conflicts in translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, John PA

    2004-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that the translation rate of major basic science promises to clinical applications has been inefficient and disappointing. The deficiencies of translational science have often been proposed as an explanation for this failure. An alternative explanation is that until recently basic science advances have made oversimplified assumptions that have not matched the true etiological complexity of most common diseases; while clinical science has suffered from poor research practices, overt biases and conflicts of interest. The advent of molecular medicine and the recasting of clinical science along the principles of evidence-based medicine provide a better environment where translational research may now materialize its goals. At the same time, priority issues need to be addressed in order to exploit the new opportunities. Translational research should focus on diseases with global impact, if true progress is to be made against human suffering. The health outcomes of interest for translational efforts need to be carefully defined and a balance must be struck between the subjective needs of healthcare consumers and objective health outcomes. Development of more simple, practical and safer interventions may be as important a target for translational research as the development of cures for diseases where no effective interventions are available at all. Moreover, while the role of the industry is catalytic in translating research advances to licensed interventions, academic independence needs to be sustained and strengthened at a global level. Conflicts of interest may stifle translational research efforts internationally. The profit motive is unlikely to be sufficient alone to advance biomedical research towards genuine progress. PMID:14754464

  5. Ecology in the age of DNA barcoding: the resource, the promise and the challenges ahead

    E-print Network

    Joly, Simon

    was initially suggested as a tool to identify species, millions of barcode sequences from more than 1100 speciesOPINION Ecology in the age of DNA barcoding: the resource, the promise and the challenges ahead Campus, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada H9X 3V9 Abstract Ten years after DNA barcoding

  6. Sustaining the Commitment and Realising the Potential of Highly Promising Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Marie; Lovett, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The Teachers of Promise study has followed the work histories of 57 primary and secondary teachers who had been identified at the beginning of their third year of teaching as having the potential to make a significant contribution to the profession. Using data from surveys and interviews, this paper reports on what sustained or inhibited their…

  7. Identifying key odorants from animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odor emissions from animal agriculutre negatively impact air qualitly in surrounding communities. Current analytical practices are biased against agriculutral odorants and thus inadequate for odor quantification. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two different techniques ability to identify ...

  8. Current Practices and Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Natour, Mayada; AlKhamra, Hatem; Al-Smadi, Yahya

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the assessment practices used by resource room teachers in Jordan to determine eligibility for learning disability, and to identify assessment obstacles. The study also investigated whether assessment practices and obstacles of assessment differ among resource room teachers as a function of gender and academic…

  9. Identity Management Systems in Healthcare: The Issue of Patient Identifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soenens, Els

    According to a recent recommendation of the European Commission, now is the time for Europe to enhance interoperability in eHealth. Although interoperability of patient identifiers seems promising for matters of patient mobility, patient empowerment and effective access to care, we see that today there is indeed a considerable lack of interoperability in the field of patient identification. Looking from a socio-technical rather than a merely technical point of view, one can understand the fact that the development and implementation of an identity management system in a specific healthcare context is influenced by particular social practices, affected by socio-economical history and the political climate and regulated by specific data protection legislations. Consequently, the process of making patient identification in Europe more interoperable is a development beyond semantic and syntactic levels. In this paper, we gives some examples of today’s patient identifier systems in Europe, discuss the issue of interoperability of (unique) patient identifiers from a socio-technical point of view and try not to ignore the ‘privacy side’ of the story.

  10. The promise--and peril--of integrated cost systems.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R; Kaplan, R S

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in managerial accounting have helped executives get the information they need to make good strategic decisions. But today's enterprise resource planning systems promise even greater benefits--the chance to integrate activity-based costing, operational-control, and financial reporting systems. But managers need to approach integration very thoughtfully, or they could end up with a system that drives decision making in the wrong direction. Operational-control and ABC systems have fundamentally different purposes. Their requirements for accuracy, timeliness, and aggregation are so different that no single, fully integrated approach can be adequate for both purposes. If an integrated system used real-time cost data instead of standard rates in its ABC subsystem, for example, the result would be dangerously distorted messages about individual product profitability--and that's precisely the problem ABC systems were originally designed to address. Proper linkage and feedback between the two systems is possible, however. Through activity-based budgeting, the ABC system is linked directly to operations control: managers can determine the supply and practical capacity of resources in forthcoming periods. Linking operational control to ABC is also possible. The activity-based portion of an operational control system collects information that, while it mustn't be fed directly into the activity-based strategic cost system, can be extremely useful once it's been properly analyzed. Finally, ABC and operational control can be linked to financial reporting to generate cost of goods sold and inventory valuations--but again, with precautions. PMID:10181585

  11. Neuroimaging in Psychiatric Pharmacogenetics Research: The Promise and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Mary; Smith, Ryan M; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Kumar Bhattacharjee, Abesh; Kelsoe, John R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Lerman, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    The integration of research on neuroimaging and pharmacogenetics holds promise for improving treatment for neuropsychiatric conditions. Neuroimaging may provide a more sensitive early measure of treatment response in genetically defined patient groups, and could facilitate development of novel therapies based on an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying pharmacogenetic associations. This review summarizes progress in efforts to incorporate neuroimaging into genetics and treatment research on major psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and addiction. Methodological challenges include: performing genetic analyses in small study populations used in imaging studies; inclusion of patients with psychiatric comorbidities; and the extensive variability across studies in neuroimaging protocols, neurobehavioral task probes, and analytic strategies. Moreover, few studies use pharmacogenetic designs that permit testing of genotype × drug effects. As a result of these limitations, few findings have been fully replicated. Future studies that pre-screen participants for genetic variants selected a priori based on drug metabolism and targets have the greatest potential to advance the science and practice of psychiatric treatment. PMID:23793356

  12. Ginseng: a promising neuroprotective strategy in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Vaibhav; Santiago-Moreno, Juan; Doré, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines in the world. It has been used in the treatment of various ailments and to boost immunity for centuries; especially in Asian countries. The most common ginseng variant in traditional herbal medicine is ginseng, which is made from the peeled and dried root of Panax Ginseng. Ginseng has been suggested as an effective treatment for a vast array of neurological disorders, including stroke and other acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Ginseng’s neuroprotective effects are focused on the maintenance of homeostasis. This review involves a comprehensive literature search that highlights aspects of ginseng’s putative neuroprotective effectiveness, focusing on stroke. Attenuation of inflammation through inhibition of various proinflammatory mediators, along with suppression of oxidative stress by various mechanisms, including activation of the cytoprotective transcriptional factor Nrf2, which results in decrease in reactive oxygen species, could account for its neuroprotective efficacy. It can also prevent neuronal death as a result of stroke, thus decreasing anatomical and functional stroke damage. Although there are diverse studies that have investigated the mechanisms involved in the efficacy of ginseng in treating disorders, there is still much that needs to be clarified. Both in vitro and in vivo studies including randomized controlled clinical trials are necessary to develop in-depth knowledge of ginseng and its practical applications. PMID:25653588

  13. Homogeneous Immunoassays: Historical Perspective and Future Promise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, Edwin F.

    1999-06-01

    The founding and growth of Syva Company is examined in the context of its leadership role in the development of homogeneous immunoassays. The simple mix and read protocols of these methods offer advantages in routine analytical and clinical applications. Early homogeneous methods were based on insensitive detection of immunoprecipitation during antigen/antibody binding. The advent of reporter groups in biology provided a means of quantitating immunochemical binding by labeling antibody or antigen and physically separating label incorporated into immune complexes from free label. Although high sensitivity was achieved, quantitative separations were experimentally demanding. Only when it became apparent that reporter groups could provide information, not only about the location of a molecule but also about its microscopic environment, was it possible to design practical non-separation methods. The evolution of early homogenous immunoassays was driven largely by the development of improved detection strategies. The first commercial spin immunoassays, developed by Syva for drug abuse testing during the Vietnam war, were followed by increasingly powerful methods such as immunochemical modulation of enzyme activity, fluorescence, and photo-induced chemiluminescence. Homogeneous methods that quantify analytes at femtomolar concentrations within a few minutes now offer important new opportunities in clinical diagnostics, nucleic acid detection and drug discovery.

  14. Biomarkers for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: Current tests and future promise

    PubMed Central

    Darwiche, Fadi; Parekh, Dipen J.; Gonzalgo, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    The search continues for optimal markers that can be utilized to improve bladder cancer detection and to predict disease recurrence. Although no single marker has yet replaced the need to perform cystoscopy and urine cytology, many tests have been evaluated and are being developed. In the future, these promising markers may be incorporated into standard practice to address the challenge of screening in addition to long-term surveillance of patients who have or are at risk for developing bladder cancer. PMID:26604437

  15. Utility of remotely sensed data for identification of soil conservation practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, R. E.; Griffin, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Discussed are a variety of remotely sensed data sources that may have utility in the identification of conservation practices and related linear features. Test sites were evaluated in Alabama, Kansas, Mississippi, and Oklahoma using one or more of a variety of remotely sensed data sources, including color infrared photography (CIR), LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data, and aircraft-acquired Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data. Both visual examination and computer-implemented enhancement procedures were used to identify conservation practices and other linear features. For the Kansas, Mississippi, and Oklahoma test sites, photo interpretations of CIR identified up to 24 of the 109 conservation practices from a matrix derived from the SCS National Handbook of Conservation Practices. The conservation practice matrix was modified to predict the possibility of identifying the 109 practices at various photographic scales based on the observed results as well as photo interpreter experience. Some practices were successfully identified in TM data through visual identification, but a number of existing practices were of such size and shape that the resolution of the TM could not detect them accurately. A series of computer-automated decorrelation and filtering procedures served to enhance the conservation practices in TM data with only fair success. However, features such as field boundaries, roads, water bodies, and the Urban/Ag interface were easily differentiated. Similar enhancement techniques applied to 5 and 10 meter TIMS data proved much more useful in delineating terraces, grass waterways, and drainage ditches as well as the features mentioned above, due partly to improved resolution and partly to thermally influenced moisture conditions. Spatially oriented data such as those derived from remotely sensed data offer some promise in the inventory and monitoring of conservation practices as well as in supplying parameter data for a variety of computer-implemented agricultural models.

  16. Multipotent stem cells of the heart-do they have therapeutic promise?

    PubMed

    Leite, Camila F; Almeida, Thalles R; Lopes, Carolina S; Dias da Silva, Valdo J

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has brought a comprehensive change in our view of cardiac remodeling processes under both physiological and pathological conditions, and cardiac stem cells have become important new players in the general mainframe of cardiac homeostasis. Different types of cardiac stem cells show different capacities for differentiation into the three major cardiac lineages: myocytes, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Physiologically, cardiac stem cells contribute to cardiac homeostasis through continual cellular turnover. Pathologically, these cells exhibit a high level of proliferative activity in an apparent attempt to repair acute cardiac injury, indicating that these cells possess (albeit limited) regenerative potential. In addition to cardiac stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells represent another multipotent cell population in the heart; these cells are located in regions near pericytes and exhibit regenerative, angiogenic, antiapoptotic, and immunosuppressive properties. The discovery of these resident cardiac stem cells was followed by a number of experimental studies in animal models of cardiomyopathies, in which cardiac stem cells were tested as a therapeutic option to overcome the limited transdifferentiating potential of hematopoietic or mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow. The promising results of these studies prompted clinical studies of the role of these cells, which have demonstrated the safety and practicability of cellular therapies for the treatment of heart disease. However, questions remain regarding this new therapeutic approach. Thus, the aim of the present review was to discuss the multitude of different cardiac stem cells that have been identified, their possible functional roles in the cardiac regenerative process, and their potential therapeutic uses in treating cardiac diseases. PMID:26005421

  17. Multipotent stem cells of the heart—do they have therapeutic promise?

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Camila F.; Almeida, Thalles R.; Lopes, Carolina S.; Dias da Silva, Valdo J.

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has brought a comprehensive change in our view of cardiac remodeling processes under both physiological and pathological conditions, and cardiac stem cells have become important new players in the general mainframe of cardiac homeostasis. Different types of cardiac stem cells show different capacities for differentiation into the three major cardiac lineages: myocytes, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Physiologically, cardiac stem cells contribute to cardiac homeostasis through continual cellular turnover. Pathologically, these cells exhibit a high level of proliferative activity in an apparent attempt to repair acute cardiac injury, indicating that these cells possess (albeit limited) regenerative potential. In addition to cardiac stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells represent another multipotent cell population in the heart; these cells are located in regions near pericytes and exhibit regenerative, angiogenic, antiapoptotic, and immunosuppressive properties. The discovery of these resident cardiac stem cells was followed by a number of experimental studies in animal models of cardiomyopathies, in which cardiac stem cells were tested as a therapeutic option to overcome the limited transdifferentiating potential of hematopoietic or mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow. The promising results of these studies prompted clinical studies of the role of these cells, which have demonstrated the safety and practicability of cellular therapies for the treatment of heart disease. However, questions remain regarding this new therapeutic approach. Thus, the aim of the present review was to discuss the multitude of different cardiac stem cells that have been identified, their possible functional roles in the cardiac regenerative process, and their potential therapeutic uses in treating cardiac diseases. PMID:26005421

  18. Lean in healthcare: the unfilled promise?

    PubMed

    Radnor, Zoe J; Holweg, Matthias; Waring, Justin

    2012-02-01

    In an effort to improve operational efficiency, healthcare services around the world have adopted process improvement methodologies from the manufacturing sector, such as Lean Production. In this paper we report on four multi-level case studies of the implementation of Lean in the English NHS. Our results show that this generally involves the application of specific Lean 'tools', such as 'kaizen blitz' and 'rapid improvement events', which tend to produce small-scale and localised productivity gains. Although this suggests that Lean might not currently deliver the efficiency improvements desired in policy, the evolution of Lean in the manufacturing sector also reveals this initial focus on the 'tool level'. In moving to a more system-wide approach, however, we identify significant contextual differences between healthcare and manufacturing that result in two critical breaches of the assumptions behind Lean. First, the customer and commissioner in the private sector are the one and the same, which is essential in determining 'customer value' that drives process improvement activities. Second, healthcare is predominantly designed to be capacity-led, and hence there is limited ability to influence demand or make full use of freed-up resources. What is different about this research is that these breaches can be regarded as not being primarily 'professional' in origin but actually more 'organisational' and 'managerial' and, if not addressed could severely constrain Lean's impact on healthcare productivity at the systems level. PMID:21414703

  19. Metabolomics: Applications and Promise in Mycobacterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Banoei, Mohammad Mehdi; Winston, Brent W; Schraufnagel, Dean E

    2015-09-01

    Until recently, the study of mycobacterial diseases was trapped in culture-based technology that is more than a century old. The use of nucleic acid amplification is changing this, and powerful new technologies are on the horizon. Metabolomics, which is the study of sets of metabolites of both the bacteria and host, is being used to clarify mechanisms of disease, and can identify changes leading to better diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication of mycobacterial diseases. Metabolomic profiles are arrays of biochemical products of genes in their environment. These complex patterns are biomarkers that can allow a more complete understanding of cell function, dysfunction, and perturbation than genomics or proteomics. Metabolomics could herald sweeping advances in personalized medicine and clinical trial design, but the challenges in metabolomics are also great. Measured metabolite concentrations vary with the timing within a condition, the intrinsic biology, the instruments, and the sample preparation. Metabolism profoundly changes with age, sex, variations in gut microbial flora, and lifestyle. Validation of biomarkers is complicated by measurement accuracy, selectivity, linearity, reproducibility, robustness, and limits of detection. The statistical challenges include analysis, interpretation, and description of the vast amount of data generated. Despite these drawbacks, metabolomics provides great opportunity and the potential to understand and manage mycobacterial diseases. PMID:26196272

  20. Flight deck automation: Promises and realities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Susan D. (editor); Orlady, Harry W. (editor)

    1989-01-01

    Issues of flight deck automation are multifaceted and complex. The rapid introduction of advanced computer-based technology onto the flight deck of transport category aircraft has had considerable impact both on aircraft operations and on the flight crew. As part of NASA's responsibility to facilitate an active exchange of ideas and information among members of the aviation community, a NASA/FAA/Industry workshop devoted to flight deck automation, organized by the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division of NASA Ames Research Center. Participants were invited from industry and from government organizations responsible for design, certification, operation, and accident investigation of transport category, automated aircraft. The goal of the workshop was to clarify the implications of automation, both positive and negative. Workshop panels and working groups identified issues regarding the design, training, and procedural aspects of flight deck automation, as well as the crew's ability to interact and perform effectively with the new technology. The proceedings include the invited papers and the panel and working group reports, as well as the summary and conclusions of the conference.

  1. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base. PMID:23615061

  2. A promising "TRAIL" of tanshinones for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tsing-Fen; Chang, Chia-Che

    2015-11-01

    An ideal cancer therapy specifically targets cancer cells while sparing normal tissues. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) elicits apoptosis by engaging its cognate death receptors (DRs-namely, DR4 and DR5. The cancer cell-selective proapoptotic action of TRAIL is highly attractive for cancer therapy, but clinical application of TRAIL is rather limited due to tumors' inherent or acquired TRAIL resistance. Combining TRAIL with agents that reverse resistance to it has proved promising in the sensitization of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Noteworthy, natural compounds have already been validated as potential resources for TRAIL sensitizers. In this review, we focus on the recently identified TRAILsensitizing effect of tanshinones, the anticancer ingredients of the medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen in Chinese). Research from our laboratories and others have revealed the synergy of a tanshinones-TRAIL combination in diverse types of cancer cells through up-regulation of DR5 and/or down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins such as survivin. Thus, in addition to their anticancer mechanisms, tanshinones as TRAIL sensitizers hold great potential to be translated to TRAIL-based therapeutic modalities for combatting cancer. PMID:26621311

  3. Polymer Electrolytes:. Problems, Prospects, and Promises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasubramanian, G.; Doughty, D. H.

    2002-12-01

    In 1975 P. V. Wright observed ionic conduction at elevated temperatures in polyethylene oxide (PEO) thin film electrolyte containing sodium salt. This seminal research generated wide spread interest in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. Armand took the cue from this observation and demonstrated the use of PEO/salt complex as electrolyte in lithium batteries. Soon after this a number of researchers have followed suit and studied the physical, electrical and transport properties of thin film PEO electrolyte. These studies have clearly identified the limitations of the PEO electrolyte. Chief among the limitations are a low cation transport number (t+), high glass transition temperature (Tg), and segmental motion of the polymer chain, which carries the cation through the bulk electrolyte. While low t+ leads to cell polarization and increase in cell resistance high Tg reduces conductivity at and around room temperature. For example, the conductivity of PEO electrolyte containing lithium salt is ~10-8 S/cm at room temperature. Attempts have been made to reduce Tg of PEO polymer by attaching PEO macromolecules to polyphosphazene (N=P) inorganic backbone, which is very flexible. Another material that has been investigated as a backbone material consists of Si-O chain. These two polymers exhibit a lower Tg and higher room temperature conductivity than the unmodified PEO. For example, the room temperature conductivity of the two polymers is around 10-5 S/cm - a 3 orders of magnitude increase in conductivity compared to unmodified PEO at around room temperature. Although this approach has yielded polymers with lower Tg, the t+ is still very low - ~0.25 - for lithium ion. Nano-ceramic particles of Al2O3, TiO2 etc. mechanically mixed with PEO electrolyte seem to increase t+. This approach also has inherent limitations regarding phase separation. The latest approach appears to involve integrating nano domains of inorganic moieties such as Si-O as part of the polymer chain. This approach not only has yielded an organic-inorganic polymer electrolyte with higher conductivity but appears to increase the t+ as well. An overview of the evolution of the all-solid-state polymer electrolyte in the last 25 years will be presented. This article addresses mainly the electrical and electrochemical properties and doesn't discuss the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of dry polymer electrolytes.

  4. The Place and Promise of Theory in Rehabilitation Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Dana S.; Elliott, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Although rehabilitation psychology is more focused on empirical evidence and clinical application than theory development, we argue for the primacy of theory, and explain why theories are needed in and useful for rehabilitation psychology. Impediments to theory development are discussed, including the difficulties of applying psychological theories in multidisciplinary enterprises, and the difficulties in developing a theory-driven research program. We offer suggestions by reviewing research settings, knowledge gained through controlled studies, grantsmanship, and then identify topical areas where new theories are needed. We remind researcher-practitioners that rehabilitation psychology benefits from a judicious mix of scientific rigor and real-world vigor. Conclusions We close by advocating for theory-driven research programs that embrace a methodological pluralism, which will in turn advance new theory, produce meaningful research programs that inform practice, and realize the goals of this special issue of Rehabilitation Psychology—advances in research and methodology. PMID:19649146

  5. Nanotechnology Medical Applications Breakthroughs in nanotechnology promise to revolutionize drug

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    Nanotechnology Medical Applications Breakthroughs in nanotechnology promise to revolutionize drug's Nanotechnology Center are creating novel tools and developing new methods for crucial research areas of drug

  6. Exploring the promises of intersectionality for advancing women's health research.

    PubMed

    Hankivsky, Olena; Reid, Colleen; Cormier, Renee; Varcoe, Colleen; Clark, Natalie; Benoit, Cecilia; Brotman, Shari

    2010-01-01

    Women's health research strives to make change. It seeks to produce knowledge that promotes action on the variety of factors that affect women's lives and their health. As part of this general movement, important strides have been made to raise awareness of the health effects of sex and gender. The resultant base of knowledge has been used to inform health research, policy, and practice. Increasingly, however, the need to pay better attention to the inequities among women that are caused by racism, colonialism, ethnocentrism, heterosexism, and able-bodism, is confronting feminist health researchers and activists. Researchers are seeking new conceptual frameworks that can transform the design of research to produce knowledge that captures how systems of discrimination or subordination overlap and "articulate" with one another. An emerging paradigm for women's health research is intersectionality. Intersectionality places an explicit focus on differences among groups and seeks to illuminate various interacting social factors that affect human lives, including social locations, health status, and quality of life. This paper will draw on recently emerging intersectionality research in the Canadian women's health context in order to explore the promises and practical challenges of the processes involved in applying an intersectionality paradigm. We begin with a brief overview of why the need for an intersectionality approach has emerged within the context of women's health research and introduce current thinking about how intersectionality can inform and transform health research more broadly. We then highlight novel Canadian research that is grappling with the challenges in addressing issues of difference and diversity. In the analysis of these examples, we focus on a largely uninvestigated aspect of intersectionality research - the challenges involved in the process of initiating and developing such projects and, in particular, the meaning and significance of social locations for researchers and participants who utilize an intersectionality approach. The examples highlighted in the paper represent important shifts in the health field, demonstrating the potential of intersectionality for examining the social context of women's lives, as well as developing methods which elucidate power, create new knowledge, and have the potential to inform appropriate action to bring about positive social change. PMID:20181225

  7. Health Practices of School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petch-Levine, Deborah; Cureton, Virginia Young; Canham, Daryl; Murray, Meg

    2003-01-01

    The health practices of school nurses affect our role as advocates and educators to promote the health of youth. This study describes the health practices of a convenience sample of 388 school nurses who attended the business meeting at an annual school nurse conference. A self-administered, 40-item questionnaire identified health practices of…

  8. Practical Quantum Metrology

    E-print Network

    Jonathan C. F. Matthews; Xiao-Qi Zhou; Hugo Cable; Peter J. Shadbolt; Dylan J. Saunders; Gabriel A. Durkin; Geoff J. Pryde; Jeremy L. O'Brien

    2013-07-18

    Quantum metrology research promises approaches to build new sensors that achieve the ultimate level of precision measurement and perform fundamentally better than modern sensors. Practical schemes that tolerate realistic fabrication imperfections and environmental noise are required in order to realise quantum-enhanced sensors and to enable their real-world application. We have demonstrated the key enabling principles of a practical, loss-tolerant approach to photonic quantum metrology designed to harness all multi-photon components in spontaneous parametric downconversion---a method for generating multiple photons that we show requires no further fundamental state engineering for use in practical quantum metrology. We observe a quantum advantage of 28% in precision measurement of optical phase using the four-photon detection component of this scheme, despite 83% system loss. This opens the way to new quantum sensors based on current quantum-optical capabilities.

  9. Exemplary Practices in Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birtwhistle, Amy; Lefkovitz, Bina; Meehan, Dorothy; Needham, Heather; Paul, Andy

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, Sierra Health Foundation's Board of Directors selected school-aged youth as the target for its next focused grantmaking effort. As part of the program research and development phase, staff and consultants examined evidenced-based practices that appear promising in positively affecting adolescent health and development for young people…

  10. The Promise of Brown: Has It Been Fulfilled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald

    On April 10, 1994, The Metropolitan Center for Urban Education at New York University's School of Education sponsored its third conference on the impact of the famous "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka" decision. Fourteen discussion groups analyzed the following questions: What was the promise of "Brown," and has that promise been fulfilled?…

  11. The Effects of the Kalamazoo Promise on College Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Rodney J.; DesJardins, Stephen; Ranchhod, Vimal

    2010-01-01

    On November 10, 2005, then Superintendent of the Kalamazoo Public School System, Janice Brown announced--to the surprise of Kalamazoo's residents--the beginning of the Kalamazoo Promise. Fully funded by a set of anonymous donors, the Kalamazoo Promise is an urban revitalization program that offers up to four years of free tuition to any public…

  12. The Struggle between Conflicting Beliefs: On the Promise of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Ylva

    2006-01-01

    Education is thought to provide a certain outcome--a "promise". I argue that a promise that education will counteract cultural and social disintegration involves a risk of engendering narrow social and cultural incorporation. On what reasonable basis could education contribute to civic life, when contemporary Western society is represented by a…

  13. Beyond pure parasystole: promises and problems in modeling complex arrhythmias

    E-print Network

    Glass, Leon

    Beyond pure parasystole: promises and problems in modeling complex arrhythmias MARC COURTEMANCHE parasystole: promises and problems in modeling complex arrhythmias. Am. J. Physiol. 257 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 26): H693-H706, 1989.- The dynamics of pure parasystole, a cardiac arrhythmia in which two competing

  14. The Premise and Promise of Inquiry Based Mathematics in Pre-Service Teacher Education: A Poststructuralist Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Many teacher educators have recently implemented inquiry based instructional practices into their programs (Crawford & Deer, 1993 ; Foss & Kleinsasser, 1996 ; Klein, 1996 , 1997 , 1998 , 2001 ; Schuck, 1996 ; Tillema & Knol, 1997). In mathematics education the promise has been that pre-service teachers' socialization into new interactive…

  15. The dreaded promise of Christmas and the New Year.

    PubMed

    Shengold, Leonard

    2007-10-01

    For many patients, mixed feelings of promise and dread that can accompany the holiday season appear in consciousness faintly and fleetingly, usually in the form of bad expectations. But the "dreaded promise" (an oxymoron) of change can come to full life and is always potentially present, especially at separations, and is usually perceptible by the analyst. The dread can be accompanied by expectations full of wonderful promise. The promise of Christmas is followed by the promise of New Year's Day--a time for new beginnings and resolutions aimed at changes for the better. But, for some, happy expectations evoking change have in the past been succeeded by bad ones, and the revival of predominant dread can be cruel and repetitive. PMID:18085014

  16. Evaluating patient and stakeholder engagement in research: moving from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Esmail, Laura; Moore, Emily; Rein, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing demand for research that engages stakeholders, there is limited evidence in the literature to demonstrate its value - or return on investment. This gap indicates a general lack of evaluation of engagement activities. To adequately inform engagement activities, we need to further investigate the dividends of engaged research, and how to evaluate these effects. This paper synthesizes the literature on hypothesized impacts of engagement, shares what has been evaluated and identifies steps needed to reduce the gap between engagement's promises and the underlying evidence supporting its practice. This assessment provides explicit guidance for better alignment of engagement's promised benefits with evaluation efforts and identifies specific areas for development of evaluative measures and better reporting processes. PMID:25825842

  17. Identifying Savings Opportunities 

    E-print Network

    Chari, S.

    1993-01-01

    process to identify any opportunity through change of process. Such opportunities to change end-use processes in the auto parts manufacturing facility were not identified. Change the Entire System Of all the DSM measures, this is the hardest one...

  18. Establishing Conceptual Boundaries: What Is an Adult Education Project, Promise and Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, David S.

    2014-01-01

    In a movement toward workforce development as an academic entity, the identity of adult education as projects for inquiry is troubled. In some academic programs, adult education has been termed adult learning in the service of promoting teaching and learning for the workplace. However, adult education's inquiry, its projects, might be more…

  19. Inside Urban Charter Schools: Promising Practices and Strategies in Five High-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merseth, Katherine K.

    2009-01-01

    "Inside Urban Charter Schools" offers an unprecedentedly intimate glimpse into the world of charter schools by profiling five high-performing urban charter schools serving predominantly low-income, minority youth in Massachusetts. Interviews, focus groups, and classroom observations conducted over the course of two years flesh out rich and…

  20. Management and Operations of Online Programs: Ensuring Quality and Accountability. Promising Practices in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, John; Gemin, Butch

    2009-01-01

    Online learning is growing rapidly as states and districts are creating new online schools, and existing programs are adding new courses and students. The growth reflects the spreading understanding that online courses and programs can serve a wide variety of students and needs. These include: (1) Creating opportunities for small and rural school…

  1. With Great Challenges Come Great Opportunities: Promising Practices of Texas Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Jennifer; Shook, Melissa; Fletcher, Carla; Smith, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Enrollment at Texas community colleges has increased substantially in recent years. Texas community colleges have a multitude of diverse missions, from academic degrees to technical certifications, remedial education, recreational self-fulfillment courses, and more. This diversity of student and community needs poses significant challenges to a…

  2. Taking a Deeper Dive into Afterschool: Positive Outcomes and Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, knowledge of the afterschool field has grown substantially. A large body of evidence exists that confirms quality afterschool programs help children become more engaged in school, reduce their likelihood of taking part in at-risk behaviors or acting out in school, and help raise their academic performance. A greater…

  3. Wraparound: Stories from the Field. Systems of Care: Promising Practices in Children's Mental Health, 2001 Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendziora, Kimberly; Bruns, Eric; Osher, David; Pacchiano, Debra; Mejia, Brenda

    This document is part of a series designed to provide guidance for communities and caregivers interested in building exemplary systems of care and to give systems builders the latest available information about how best to help and serve and support children who live with serious emotional disturbances at home and in their communities. The…

  4. Integrating ICT into Teaching-Learning Practices: Promise, Challenges and Future Directions of Higher Educational Institutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Birhanu Moges

    2015-01-01

    Education is a very socially oriented activity and quality education has traditionally been associated with strong teachers having high degrees of personal contact with students and technologies. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have become commonplace entities in all aspects of life. The use of ICT has fundamentally changed the…

  5. Education for Adult English Language Learners in the United States: Trends, Research, and Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaetzel, Kirsten; Young, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Adult English language learners comprise a substantial proportion of the adult education population in the United States. In program year 2006-2007, 46% of participants enrolled in state-administered adult education programs were in English as a second language (ESL) classes. This percentage does not include English language learners enrolled in…

  6. Promising Practices in Afterschool Program and School Partnerships. After School Issues. Volume 3, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute on Out-of-School Time, Wellesley College, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The National Institute on Out-of-School-Time (NIOST) investigated partnership strategies between community-based organizations conducting afterschool programs and the schools they serve. NIOST used in-depth phone interviews and site visits to collect information on several community-based organization afterschool programs and their affiliated…

  7. Beyond the Yellow Bus: Promising Practices for Maximizing Access to Opportunity through Innovations in Student Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jeffrey M.; Makarewicz, Carrie; Miller, Ruth; Ehrman, Julia; McKoy, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    Access to safe, affordable, and convenient transportation shapes the 'geography of opportunity' for many children and youth. This study looks at how ?localities acrossthe country are implementing new and innovative alternative approaches to student transportation that expand regionaltransportation access for K-12 students, improve…

  8. Transforming K-12 Rural Education through Blended Learning: Barriers and Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werth, Eric; Werth, Lori; Kellerer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the implementation of blended learning programs in Idaho, and three key takeaways are apparent: (1) Blended learning has a positive impact on teachers; (2) Self-pacing enables students to take ownership and achieve mastery; and (3) Teachers must prepare with comprehensive teacher training. The authors emphasize the need for…

  9. The Changing Faculty and Student Success: Non-Tenure-Track Faculty Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Maxey, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The nature of the American academic workforce has fundamentally shifted over the past several decades. Whereas full-time tenured and tenure-track faculty were once the norm, more than two-thirds of the professoriate in non-profit postsecondary education is now comprised of non-tenure-track faculty. New hires across all institutional types are now…

  10. Perils and Promises: University Instructors Integration of Technology in Classroom-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Jennifer M.; Galloway, Chad

    2007-01-01

    Modern technologies such as the Internet present new opportunities for teaching and learning at all educational levels. Today, many universities strive to integrate appropriate technologies into campus classrooms. Despite sizeable investments in hardware, software and supporting infrastructures, little is known about implementation. The purpose of…

  11. Culturally Responsive Pedagogy for African American Students: Promising Programs and Practices for Enhanced Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Tyrone; Terry, Clarence L., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The academic outcomes for African American students continue to lag behind their White, Latino, and Asian American counterparts. Culturally responsive pedagogy has been purported to be an intervention that may help to reverse the persistent under performance for African American students. This article highlights findings from a three-year study of…

  12. Promising Practices for Providing Alternative Media to Postsecondary Students with Print Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Gerri L.; Lee, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    For postsecondary students with disabilities influencing reading performance, printed class materials pose a substantial barrier and have a negative impact on academic achievement. Digital technologies offer alternative ways of accessing print materials for students with print-related disabilities. Alternative media is a broad term that…

  13. 77 FR 56194 - Promising and Practical Strategies to Increase Postsecondary Success; Request for Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... postsecondary success, transfer, and graduation (77 FR 4550). In order for a response to be considered in the... Resources Paid Internships Part-Time Students Pay-for-Performance Persistence Personalized...

  14. PROMISING PRACTICES IN SUMMER SCHOOLS SERVING THE CHILDREN OF SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS, 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEFFERNAN, HELEN; AND OTHERS

    SPECIAL FEATURES OF FIVE SUMMER SCHOOL PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN OF MIGRANT WORKERS WERE PRESENTED. THE CERES ELEMENTARY SCHOOL DISTRICT GAVE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL WOODWORKING CLASSES TO FIFTH- AND SIXTH-GRADE GIRLS. INSTRUCTION IN COOKING AND SEWING WAS ENTHUSIASTICALLY RECEIVED BY THIRD- AND FOURTH-GRADE GIRLS BUT DID NOT APPEAL TO OLDER GIRLS. A…

  15. 77 FR 56194 - Promising and Practical Strategies to Increase Postsecondary Success; Request for Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ...situations similar to those described in the submissions. We also believe that this information will be useful during future deliberations, possibly including discussions concerning improvements to the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA),...

  16. 77 FR 4550 - Promising and Practical Strategies to Increase Postsecondary Success

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ...information will be of interest to others in situations similar to those described in the submissions, and useful during future deliberations, possibly including discussions concerning improvements to the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA),...

  17. Promising Practices in E-Supervision: Exploring Graduate Speech-Language Pathology Interns’ Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Carlin, Charles H.; Milam, Jennifer L.; Carlin, Emily L.; Owen, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    E-supervision has a potential role in addressing speech-language personnel shortages in rural and difficult to staff school districts. The purposes of this article are twofold: to determine how e-supervision might support graduate speech-language pathologist (SLP) interns placed in rural, remote, and difficult to staff public school districts; and, to investigate interns’ perceptions of in-person supervision compared to e-supervision. The study used a mixed methodology approach and collected data from surveys, supervision documents and records, and interviews. The results showed the use of e-supervision allowed graduate SLP interns to be adequately supervised across a variety of clients and professional activities in a manner that was similar to in-person supervision. Further, e-supervision was perceived as a more convenient and less stressful supervision format when compared to in-person supervision. Other findings are discussed and implications and limitations provided. PMID:25945201

  18. Policy and Funding Frameworks for Online Learning. Promising Practices in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, John; Gemin, Butch

    2009-01-01

    In at least 44 states across the country, students are logging in to learn at all times of the day and night--accessing courses they might otherwise be unable to take, interacting with students they might otherwise never know, and working with highly qualified teachers they otherwise could not access. In these and countless other ways, online…

  19. Promising Practices Supporting Low-Income, First-Generation Students at DeVry University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Abby; Taylor Smith, Chandra; Nichols, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a comprehensive description of the academic and social support systems for low-income, first-generation students attending a major four-year, for-profit, multi-campus university. College retention and success research has determined that effective support services succeed in retaining and graduating low-income, first-generation…

  20. Lean Premixed Combustion Stabilized by Low Swirl a Promising Concept for Practical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, R. K.

    1999-01-01

    Since its inception, the low-swirl burner (LSB) has shown to be a useful laboratory apparatus for fundamental studies of premixed turbulent flames. The LSB operates under wide ranges of equivalence ratios, flow rates, and turbulence intensities. Its flame is lifted and detached from the burner and allows easy access for laser diagnostics. The flame brush is axisymmetric and propagates normal to the incident reactants. Therefore, the LSB is well suited for investigating detailed flame structures and empirical coefficients such as flame speed, turbulence transport, and flame generated turbulence. Due to its capability to stabilize ultra-lean premixed turbulent flames (phi approx. = 0.55), the LSB has generated interest from the gas appliance industry for use as an economical low-NO(x) burner. Lean premixed combustion emits low levels of NO(x), due primarily to the low flame temperature. Therefore, it is a very effective NO(x) prevention method without involving selective catalytic reduction (SCR), fuel-air staging, or flue gas recirculation (FGR). En the gas turbine industry, substantial research efforts have already been undertaken and engines with lean premixed combustors are already in use. For commercial and residential applications, premixed pulsed combustors and premixed ceramic matrix burners are commercially available. These lean premixed combustion technologies, however, tend to be elaborate but have relatively limited operational flexibility, and higher capital, operating and maintenance costs. Consequently, these industries are continuing the development of lean premixed combustion technologies as well as exploring new concepts. This paper summarizes the research effects we have undertaken in the past few years to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the low-swirl flame stabilization method for a wide range of heating and power generation systems. The principle of flame stabilization by low-swirl is counter to the conventional high-swirl methods that rely on a recirculation zone to anchor the flame. In LSBS, flow recirculation is not promoted to allow the premixed turbulent flames to propagate freely. A LSB with an air-jet swirler is essentially an open tube with the swirler at its mid section. The small air-jets generate swirling motion only in the annular region and leaving the central core of the flow undisturbed, When this flow exits the burner tube, the angular momentum generates radial mean pressure gradient to diverge the non-swirling reactants stream. Consequently, the mean flow velocity decreases linearly. Propagating against this decelerating flow, the flame self-sustains at the position where the local flow velocity equals the flame speed, S(sub f). The LSB operates with a swirl number, S, between 0.02 to 0.1. This is much lower than the minimum S of 0.6 required for the high-swirl burners. We found that the swirl number needed for flame stabilization varies only slightly with fuel type, flow velocity, turbulent conditions and burner dimensions (i.e. throat diameter and swirl injection angle).

  1. Partnerships for Learning: Promising Practices in Integrating School and Out-of-School Time Program Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Family Research Project, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Across the country many schools and communities are trying to create and support efforts to institutionalize partnerships for learning, including those that rethink the use of time across the school day and year, and across the developmental continuum. Referred to by different terms--integrated, expanded, or complementary learning--the concept has…

  2. Translational Peptide-associated Nanosystems: Promising Role as Cancer Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Zupancic, Eva; Peres, Carina; Matos, Ana I; Lopes, Joao; Moreira, Joao N; Gaspar, Rogerio S; Florindo, Helena F

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a heterogeneous disease that results from a multi-step process, being characterized by uncontrolled proliferation, invasion and metastasis. The understanding that tumor cells can be recognized by host immune cells has highlighted the potential advantages of using vaccination purposes to eliminate cancer cells, while avoiding severe side effects associated to conventional cancer treatments. Interesting outcomes have been obtained with the new identified tumor associated antigens (TAAs), including recombinant proteins and peptides. However, these molecules are weakly immunogenic, demanding the concomitant use of adjuvants to boost and achieve a strong tumor-specific immune response. Different classes of nanosystems have been used to protect and deliver several vaccine components. In vitro and preclinical studies have emphasized their promising role to attain a prolonged eradication of cancer cells, including metastasis. However, some studies support the co-entrapment of multiple adjuvants and TAAs within a single particulate carrier, while others indicate that stronger immune responses were obtained using a mixture of nanocarriers entrapping different combinations of TAAs and adjuvants. These apparently contradictory results may be related to nanocarrier physicochemical properties, which have a profound impact on their interaction with targeted cells and consequent biological effects. This review discusses the application of nanoscale systems as cancer vaccines, highlighting the particular characteristics of tumor biology and immunology that have been used to guide the design of these nanodelivery tools. We also aim to explore the major weaknesses that have prevented their wide application in the clinic to overcome the delivery, efficacy and safety issues associated to biological entities. PMID:26126909

  3. Pthlh, a promising cancer modifier gene in rat tongue carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Hirohiko; Hirano, Masato; Kawarada, Kouji; Nagayama, Motohiko; Ehara, Michiko; Muraki, Tomonari; Shisa, Hayase; Sugiyama, Aiko; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Hiai, Hiroshi; Kitano, Motoo; Tanuma, Jun-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibly to the induction of rat tongue cancer (TC) by oral 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) exposure is a polygenic trait. Among several quantitative trait loci identified by crosses between TC-susceptible Dark Agouti (DA) rats and TC-resistant Wistar-Furth (WF) rats, we focused on tongue cancer susceptibility locus (Tcas3) of chromosome 4. We examined tongue carcinogenesis in the reciprocal congenic strains DA.WF-Tcas3 and WF.DA-Tcas3 and in their parental strains. The Tcas3DA allele, and not the Tcas3WF allele, significantly favored tumor latency, incidence and TC number/size. In genomic DNA of TCs induced in (DA x WF) F1 rats, the resistant Tcas3WF allele was frequently and selectively lost, particularly in larger tumors. Thus, we searched the possible candidate genes in the Tcas3 region using microarray analysis of TCs in F1 rats and revealed significant upregulation of 2 cancer-related genes, parathyroid hormone-like hormone (Pthlh) and Kras2. The relevance of the WF allele of Pthlh as a cancer modifier was indicated by 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms specific to this strain. In contrast, no consistent strain-specific variations were found in Kras2. Moreover, the plasma Ca2+ level was consistently higher in DA rats when compared to the level in WF rats bearing TCs; moreover, the Pthlh-mRNA expression level was >30-fold higher in TCs when compared to this level in the normal tongue mucosa. Immunostaining experiments showed strong PTHrP protein expression in TCs of DA rats, and the signal was intensified in larger TCs. Kras2 was also upregulated in TCs, but to a lesser degree than PTHrP. Thus, Pthlh is a promising candidate modifier gene in the development and progression of rat TCs. PMID:24253735

  4. Classroom Practices in Teaching English, 1968-1969: A Sixth Report of the NCTE Committee on Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, Champaign, IL.

    Twenty-five articles describing techniques for teaching English are organized under four headings: language, literature, composition, and miscellany. Included in the language section are discussions of an oral language program for 3- to 5-year-old disadvantaged children, of language development through creative dramatics, of a junior high school…

  5. CDS, UX, and System Redesign – Promising Techniques and Tools to Bridge the Evidence Gap

    PubMed Central

    McGinn, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this special issue of eGEMs, we explore the struggles related to bringing evidence into day-to-day practice, what I define as the “evidence gap.” We are all aware of high quality evidence in the form of guidelines, randomized clinical trials for treatments and diagnostic tests, and clinical prediction rules, which are all readily available online. We also know that electronic health records (EHRs) are now ubiquitous in health care and in most practices across the country. How we marry this high quality evidence and the practice of medicine through effective decision support is a major challenge. About the Issue: All of the articles in this issue explore, in some fashion, CDS systems and how we can best bring providers and their work environment to the evidence. We are at the very early stages of the science of usability. Much more research and funding is needed in this area if we hope to improve the dissemination and implementation of evidence in practice. While the featured examples, techniques, and tools in the special issue are a promising start to improving usability and CDS, many of the papers highlight current gaps in knowledge and a great need for generalizable approaches. The great promise is for “learning” approaches to generate new evidence and to integrate this evidence in reliable, patient-centered ways at scale using new technology. Closing the evidence gap is a real possibility, but only if the community works together to innovate and invest in research on the best ways to disseminate, communicate, and implement evidence in practice. PMID:26290894

  6. Health Literacy Practices and Educational Competencies for Health Professionals: A Consensus Study

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Clifford A.; Hudson, Stan; Maine, Lucinda L.

    2013-01-01

    Health care professionals often lack adequate knowledge about health literacy and the skills needed to address low health literacy among patients and their caregivers. Many promising practices for mitigating the effects of low health literacy are not used consistently. Improving health literacy training for health care professionals has received increasing emphasis in recent years. The development and evaluation of curricula for health professionals has been limited by the lack of agreed-upon educational competencies in this area. This study aimed to identify a set of health literacy educational competencies and target behaviors, or practices, relevant to the training of all health care professionals. The authors conducted a thorough literature review to identify a comprehensive list of potential health literacy competencies and practices, which they categorized into 1 or more educational domains (i.e., knowledge, skills, attitudes) or a practice domain. The authors stated each item in operationalized language following Bloom's Taxonomy. The authors then used a modified Delphi method to identify consensus among a group of 23 health professions education experts representing 11 fields in the health professions. Participants rated their level of agreement as to whether a competency or practice was both appropriate and important for all health professions students. A predetermined threshold of 70% agreement was used to define consensus. After 4 rounds of ratings and modifications, consensus agreement was reached on 62 out of 64 potential educational competencies (24 knowledge items, 27 skill items, and 11 attitude items), and 32 out of 33 potential practices. This study is the first known attempt to develop consensus on a list of health literacy practices and to translate recommended health literacy practices into an agreed-upon set of measurable educational competencies for health professionals. Further work is needed to prioritize the competencies and practices in terms of relative importance. PMID:24093348

  7. Practically Saline

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Jonathan; O’Neal, Catherine; Jagneaux, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In December 2014, the Food and Drug Administration issued a recall of all Wallcur simulation products due to reports of their use in clinical practice. We present a case of septic shock and multiorgan failure after the accidental intravenous infusion of a nonsterile Wallcur simulation product. Case. The patient presented with symptoms of rigors and dyspnea occurring immediately after infusion of Wallcur Practi-0.9% saline. Initial laboratory evidence was consistent with severe septic shock and multiorgan dysfunction. His initial lactic acid level was 9 mmol/L (reference range = 0.5-2.2), and he had evidence of acute kidney injury and markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation. All 4 blood culture bottles isolated multidrug-resistant Empedobacter brevis. The patient recovered from his illness and was discharged with ciprofloxacin therapy per susceptibilities. Discussion. This patient represents the first described case of severe septic shock associated with the infusion of a Wallcur simulation product. Intravenous inoculation of a nonsterile fluid is rare and exposes the patient to unusual environmental organisms, toxins, or unsafe fluid characteristics such as tonicity. During course of treatment, we identified the possible culprit to be a multidrug-resistant isolate of Empedobacter brevis. We also discuss the systemic failures that led to this outbreak. PMID:26668812

  8. Practically Saline.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Jonathan; O'Neal, Catherine; Jagneaux, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In December 2014, the Food and Drug Administration issued a recall of all Wallcur simulation products due to reports of their use in clinical practice. We present a case of septic shock and multiorgan failure after the accidental intravenous infusion of a nonsterile Wallcur simulation product. Case. The patient presented with symptoms of rigors and dyspnea occurring immediately after infusion of Wallcur Practi-0.9% saline. Initial laboratory evidence was consistent with severe septic shock and multiorgan dysfunction. His initial lactic acid level was 9 mmol/L (reference range = 0.5-2.2), and he had evidence of acute kidney injury and markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation. All 4 blood culture bottles isolated multidrug-resistant Empedobacter brevis. The patient recovered from his illness and was discharged with ciprofloxacin therapy per susceptibilities. Discussion. This patient represents the first described case of severe septic shock associated with the infusion of a Wallcur simulation product. Intravenous inoculation of a nonsterile fluid is rare and exposes the patient to unusual environmental organisms, toxins, or unsafe fluid characteristics such as tonicity. During course of treatment, we identified the possible culprit to be a multidrug-resistant isolate of Empedobacter brevis. We also discuss the systemic failures that led to this outbreak. PMID:26668812

  9. Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - Mar 20 2014 A simple outpatient procedure that involves ... gifts are tax deductible. Donate Now Source Date: Mar 20 2014 About PDF About PDF PDF People ...

  10. Vaccine for Deadly Respiratory Virus Shows Promise in Early Trial

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155524.html Vaccine for Deadly Respiratory Virus Shows Promise in Early Trial Researcher hopes to see routine RSV immunization within a decade To use the sharing features ...

  11. New Treatment for Type 1 Diabetes Shows Early Promise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155915.html New Treatment for Type 1 Diabetes Shows Early Promise ... 2015 WEDNESDAY, Nov. 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A new form of treatment for type 1 diabetes that's ...

  12. [Promises and limits of genomics and its applications].

    PubMed

    Gros, François

    2015-01-01

    This text traces the extraordinary advances made in genomics for 40 years: recombinant DNA, transgenesis or genetic sequencing. In recent years, the model "all genetics" was questioned and post-genomics emerged in the molecular landscape. The promises of medical advances are many and the ethical issues that accompany them are challenges. Advances in synthetic biology are a relevant illustration of these promises and challenges. PMID:26238766

  13. The Promise of Novel Molecular Markers in Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miremami, Jahan; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the US and is associated with the highest cost per patient. A high likelihood of recurrence, mandating stringent surveillance protocols, has made the development of urinary markers a focus of intense pursuit with the hope of decreasing the burden this disease places on patients and the healthcare system. To date, routine use of markers is not recommended for screening or diagnosis. Interests include the development of a single urinary marker that can be used in place of or as an adjunct to current screening and surveillance techniques, as well identifying a molecular signature for an individual’s disease that can help predict progression, prognosis, and potential therapeutic response. Markers have shown potential value in improving diagnostic accuracy when used as an adjunct to current modalities, risk-stratification of patients that could aid the clinician in determining aggressiveness of surveillance, and allowing for a decrease in invasive surveillance procedures. This review discusses the current understanding of emerging biomarkers, including miRNAs, gene signatures and detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood, and their potential clinical value in bladder cancer diagnosis, as prognostic indicators, and surveillance tools, as well as limitations to their incorporation into medical practice. PMID:25535079

  14. The promise of novel molecular markers in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Miremami, Jahan; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the US and is associated with the highest cost per patient. A high likelihood of recurrence, mandating stringent surveillance protocols, has made the development of urinary markers a focus of intense pursuit with the hope of decreasing the burden this disease places on patients and the healthcare system. To date, routine use of markers is not recommended for screening or diagnosis. Interests include the development of a single urinary marker that can be used in place of or as an adjunct to current screening and surveillance techniques, as well identifying a molecular signature for an individual's disease that can help predict progression, prognosis, and potential therapeutic response. Markers have shown potential value in improving diagnostic accuracy when used as an adjunct to current modalities, risk-stratification of patients that could aid the clinician in determining aggressiveness of surveillance, and allowing for a decrease in invasive surveillance procedures. This review discusses the current understanding of emerging biomarkers, including miRNAs, gene signatures and detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood, and their potential clinical value in bladder cancer diagnosis, as prognostic indicators, and surveillance tools, as well as limitations to their incorporation into medical practice. PMID:25535079

  15. Transcranial magnetic stimulation for geriatric depression: Promises and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Sabesan, Priyadharshini; Lankappa, Sudheer; Khalifa, Najat; Krishnan, Vasudevan; Gandhi, Rahul; Palaniyappan, Lena

    2015-01-01

    As the global population gets older, depression in the elderly is emerging as an important health issue. A major challenge in treating geriatric depression is the lack of robust efficacy for many treatments that are of significant benefit to depressed working age adults. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a novel physical treatment approach used mostly in working age adults with depression. Many TMS trials and clinics continue to exclude the elderly from treatment citing lack of evidence in this age group. In this review, we appraise the evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of rTMS in the elderly. A consistent observation supporting a high degree of tolerability and safety among the elderly patients emerged across the Randomised Controlled Trials and the uncontrolled trials. Further, there is no reliable evidence negating the utility of rTMS in the elderly with depression. We also identified several factors other than age that moderate the observed variations in the efficacy of rTMS in the elderly. These factors include but not limited to: (1) brain atrophy; (2) intensity and number of pulses (dose-response relationship); and (3) clinical profile of patients. On the basis of the current evidence, the practice of excluding elderly patients from TMS clinics and trials cannot be supported. PMID:26110119

  16. Transcranial magnetic stimulation for geriatric depression: Promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Sabesan, Priyadharshini; Lankappa, Sudheer; Khalifa, Najat; Krishnan, Vasudevan; Gandhi, Rahul; Palaniyappan, Lena

    2015-06-22

    As the global population gets older, depression in the elderly is emerging as an important health issue. A major challenge in treating geriatric depression is the lack of robust efficacy for many treatments that are of significant benefit to depressed working age adults. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a novel physical treatment approach used mostly in working age adults with depression. Many TMS trials and clinics continue to exclude the elderly from treatment citing lack of evidence in this age group. In this review, we appraise the evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of rTMS in the elderly. A consistent observation supporting a high degree of tolerability and safety among the elderly patients emerged across the Randomised Controlled Trials and the uncontrolled trials. Further, there is no reliable evidence negating the utility of rTMS in the elderly with depression. We also identified several factors other than age that moderate the observed variations in the efficacy of rTMS in the elderly. These factors include but not limited to: (1) brain atrophy; (2) intensity and number of pulses (dose-response relationship); and (3) clinical profile of patients. On the basis of the current evidence, the practice of excluding elderly patients from TMS clinics and trials cannot be supported. PMID:26110119

  17. Promising Loci and Genes for Yolk and Ovary Weight in Chickens Revealed by a Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Guoqiang; Yuan, Jingwei; Duan, Zhongyi; Qu, Lujiang; Xu, Guiyun; Wang, Kehua; Yang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Because it serves as the cytoplasm of the oocyte and provides a large amount of reserves, the egg yolk has biological significance for developing embryos. The ovary and its hierarchy of follicles are the main reproductive organs responsible for yolk deposition in chickens. However, the genetic architecture underlying the yolk and ovarian follicle weights remains elusive. Here, we measured the yolk weight (YW) at 11 age points from onset of egg laying to 72 weeks of age and measured the follicle weight (FW) and ovary weight (OW) at 73 weeks as part of a comprehensive genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1,534 F2 hens derived from reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn (WL) and Dongxiang chickens (DX). For all ages, YWs exhibited moderate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability estimates (0.25–0.38), while the estimates for FW (0.16) and OW (0.20) were relatively low. Independent univariate genome-wide screens for each trait identified 12, 3, and 31 novel significant associations with YW, FW, and OW, respectively. A list of candidate genes such as ZAR1, STARD13, ACER1b, ACSBG2, and DHRS12 were identified for having a plausible function in yolk and follicle development. These genes are important to the initiation of embryogenesis, lipid transport, lipoprotein synthesis, lipid droplet promotion, and steroid hormone metabolism, respectively. Our study provides for the first time a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis for follicle and ovary weight. Identification of the promising loci as well as potential candidate genes will greatly advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying dynamic yolk weight and ovarian follicle development and has practical significance in breeding programs for the alteration of yolk weight at different age points. PMID:26332579

  18. Promoting Evidence-Based Practice Through a Research Training Program for Point-of-Care Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Black, Agnes T.; Balneaves, Lynda G.; Garossino, Candy; Puyat, Joseph H.; Qian, Hong

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a research training program on clinicians’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to research and evidence-based practice (EBP). BACKGROUND: EBP has been shown to improve patient care and outcomes. Innovative approaches are needed to overcome individual and organizational barriers to EBP. METHODS: Mixed-methods design was used to evaluate a research training intervention with point-of-care clinicians in a Canadian urban health organization. Participants completed the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Survey over 3 timepoints. Focus groups and interviews were also conducted. RESULTS: Statistically significant improvement in research knowledge and ability was demonstrated. Participants and administrators identified benefits of the training program, including the impact on EBP. CONCLUSIONS: Providing research training opportunities to point-of-care clinicians is a promising strategy for healthcare organizations seeking to promote EBP, empower clinicians, and showcase excellence in clinical research. PMID:25390076

  19. Encouraging SME Participation in Training: Identifying Practical Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Karen; Loader, Kim

    2003-01-01

    A case study of training for small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) at a university found that the following factors influenced SME participation: preliminary consultation with SMEs on design and delivery, free half-day workshops in repeated cycles, individual pacing of learning, and business focus. (Contains 14 references.) (JOW)

  20. Identifying standard practices in research library book conservation

    E-print Network

    Baker, Whitney; Dube, Liz

    2010-01-26

    The field of research library conservation has emerged as a distinct discipline and undergone major refinements over the past fifty years: professional organizations and training programs have been established, new treatment ...

  1. Practical Identifiability of Finite Mixtures of Multivariate Bernoulli Distributions 

    E-print Network

    Carreira-Perpinan, Miguel A; Renals, Steve

    The class of finite mixtures of multivariate Bernoulli distributions is known to be nonidentifiable; that is, different values of the mixture parameters can correspond to exactly the same probability distribution. In principle, this would mean...

  2. Meeting report: Identifying practical applications of ontologies for biodiversity informatics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the outcomes of a recent workshop, building on a series of workshops from the last three years with the goal if integrating genomics and biodiversity research, with a more specific goal here to express terms in Darwin Core and Audubon Core, where class constructs have been historically underspecified, into a Biological Collections Ontology (BCO) framework. For the purposes of this workshop, the BCO provided the context for fully defining classes as well as object and data properties, including domain and range information, for both the Darwin Core and Audubon Core. In addition, the workshop participants reviewed technical specifications and approaches for annotating instance data with BCO terms. Finally, we laid out proposed activities for the next 3 to 18 months to continue this work.

  3. High-Quality Traineeships: Identifying What Works. Good Practice Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Traineeships were introduced alongside apprenticeships to increase the reach of contracted training to a wider range of occupations and industries and to a broader range of learners (particularly women) and to improve the labour market prospects of young people. Traineeships have given hundreds of thousands of Australians access to nationally…

  4. Educational Researchers and Practicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Velzen, Joke H.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, an attempt to identify further directions in research designs that researchers can use to contribute to the relevance of educational research findings, by including teachers' practicality issues, is presented. Sixty experienced teachers in secondary education read the reporting of modified experimental research findings about…

  5. Best Program Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Literacy Network, Saskatoon.

    This document, which is intended for use by adult literacy programs in Saskatchewan, Canada, consists of three questionnaires. The questionnaires were developed under the guidance of Saskatchewan's 11-member Good Practice Task Force to give adult literacy programs an opportunity to reflect on their current initiatives, identify their strengths,…

  6. Moving research knowledge into dental hygiene practice.

    PubMed

    Cobban, Sandra J; Edgington, Eunice M; Clovis, Joanne B

    2008-01-01

    Dental hygiene, as an emerging profession, needs to increase the number of intervention studies that identify improvements in oral health outcomes for clients. Historically, dental hygiene studies have typically been atheoretical, but the use of theoretical frameworks to guide these studies will increase their meaningfulness. Rogers' theory of diffusion of innovations has been used to study research utilization across many disciplines, and may offer insights to the study of research use in dental hygiene. Research use is an important component of evidence-based practice (EBP), and diffusion of research knowledge is an important process in implementing EBP. The purpose of this paper is to use diffusion of innovations theory to examine knowledge movement in dental hygiene, specifically through the example of the preventive practice of oral cancer screening by dental hygienists, considered as an innovation. Diffusion is considered to be the process by which an innovation moves through communication channels over time among a social network. We suggest diffusion theory holds promise for the study of knowledge movement in dental hygiene, but there are limitations including access to and understanding research studies as innovations. Nevertheless, using a theoretical framework such as Rogers' diffusion of innovations will strengthen the quality of intervention research in dental hygiene, and subsequently, health outcomes for clients. PMID:18416990

  7. How might contact with nature promote human health? Promising mechanisms and a possible central pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    How might contact with nature promote human health? Myriad studies have linked the two; at this time the task of identifying the mechanisms underlying this link is paramount. This article offers: (1) a compilation of plausible pathways between nature and health; (2) criteria for identifying a possible central pathway; and (3) one promising candidate for a central pathway. The 21 pathways identified here include environmental factors, physiological and psychological states, and behaviors or conditions, each of which has been empirically tied to nature and has implications for specific physical and mental health outcomes. While each is likely to contribute to nature’s impacts on health to some degree and under some circumstances, this paper explores the possibility of a central pathway by proposing criteria for identifying such a pathway and illustrating their use. A particular pathway is more likely to be central if it can account for the size of nature’s impacts on health, account for nature’s specific health outcomes, and subsume other pathways. By these criteria, enhanced immune functioning emerges as one promising candidate for a central pathway between nature and health. There may be others. PMID:26379564

  8. From boots to buoys: promises and challenges of dielectric elastomer energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornbluh, Roy D.; Pelrine, Ron; Prahlad, Harsha; Wong-Foy, Annjoe; McCoy, Brian; Kim, Susan; Eckerle, Joseph; Low, Tom

    2011-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers offer the promise of energy harvesting with few moving parts. Power can be produced simply by stretching and contracting a relatively low-cost rubbery material. This simplicity, combined with demonstrated high energy density and high efficiency, suggests that dielectric elastomers are promising for a wide range of energy harvesting applications. Indeed, dielectric elastomers have been demonstrated to harvest energy from human walking, ocean waves, flowing water, blowing wind, and pushing buttons. While the technology is promising, there are challenges that must be addressed if dielectric elastomers are to be a successful and economically viable energy harvesting technology. These challenges include developing materials and packaging that sustains long lifetime over a range of environmental conditions, design of the devices that stretch the elastomer material, as well as system issues such as practical and efficient energy harvesting circuits. Progress has been made in many of these areas. We have demonstrated energy harvesting transducers that have operated over 5 million cycles. We have also shown the ability of dielectric elastomer material to survive for months underwater while undergoing voltage cycling. We have shown circuits capable of 78% energy harvesting efficiency. While the possibility of long lifetime has been demonstrated at the watt level, reliably scaling up to the power levels required for providing renewable energy to the power grid or for local use will likely require further development from the material through to the systems level.

  9. Identifying Extreme Exposure Values

    Cancer.gov

    There are various perspectives on whether to exclude potentially unlikely exposure values. If the researcher chooses to do so, several approaches exist for identifying extreme values. We examined the plausibility of the reported frequencies for each food item in the NHANES 2009-10 DSQ and chose to exclude extreme values using a method that identifies them based on the actual distribution of the sample, but also minimizes the number of values excluded.

  10. Practice management.

    PubMed

    Althausen, Peter L; Mead, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    The practicing orthopaedic traumatologist must have a sound knowledge of business fundamentals to be successful in the changing healthcare environment. Practice management encompasses multiple topics including governance, the financial aspects of billing and coding, physician extender management, ancillary service development, information technology, transcription utilization, and marketing. Some of these are universal, but several of these areas may be most applicable to the private practice of medicine. Attention to each component is vital to develop an understanding of the intricacies of practice management. PMID:24918826

  11. Practice Makes Perfect?: Effective Practice Instruction in Large Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Helping young musicians learn how to practice effectively is a challenge faced by all music educators. This article presents a system of individual music practice instruction that can be seamlessly integrated within large-ensemble rehearsals. Using a step-by-step approach, large-ensemble conductors can teach students to identify and isolate…

  12. Formaldehyde: catalytic oxidation as a promising soft way of elimination.

    PubMed

    Quiroz Torres, Jhon; Royer, Sébastien; Bellat, Jean-Pierre; Giraudon, Jean-Marc; Lamonier, Jean-François

    2013-04-01

    Compared to other molecules such as benzene, toluene, xylene, and chlorinated compounds, the catalytic oxidation of formaldehyde has been studied rarely. However, standards for the emission level of this pollutant will become more restrictive because of its extreme toxicity even at very low concentrations in air. As a consequence, the development of a highly efficient process for its selective elimination is needed. Complete catalytic oxidation of formaldehyde into CO2 and H2 O using noble-metal-based catalysts is a promising method to convert this pollutant at room temperature, making this process energetically attractive from an industrial point of view. However, the development of a less expensive active phase is required for a large-scale industrial development. Nanomaterials based on oxides of manganese are described as the most promising catalysts. The objective of this Minireview is to present promising recent studies on the removal of formaldehyde through heterogeneous catalysis to stimulate future research in this topic. PMID:23456881

  13. Promising Behavior Change Techniques in a Multicomponent Intervention to Reduce Concerns about Falls in Old Age: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vestjens, Lotte; Kempen, Gertrudis I. J. M.; Crutzen, Rik; Kok, Gerjo; Zijlstra, G. A. Rixt

    2015-01-01

    Complex behavior change interventions need evidence regarding the effectiveness of individual components to understand how these interventions work. The objective of this study was to identify the least and most promising behavior change techniques (BCTs) within the Dutch intervention "A Matter of Balance" (AMB-NL) aimed at concerns…

  14. Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't, What's Promising. Research in Brief. National Institute of Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lawrence W.; Gottfredson, Denise C.; MacKenzie, Doris L.; Eck, John; Reuter, Peter; Bushway, Shawn D.

    This Research in Brief describes the scientific methodologies used to perform a review of crime prevention programs and then discusses what research has shown to work, what it has shown not to work, and what approaches seem promising for crime prevention. The first step was to identify and review reports evaluating the effectiveness of crime…

  15. Distinguished Practices of Distinguished Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for American Private Education, Germantown, MD.

    The Blue Ribbon Schools (BRS) program was designed in 1982 with three purposes in mind: to identify and recognize outstanding schools; to provide schools a tool and criteria for self-assessment and improvement; and to facilitate the sharing of best practices among schools. This book presents profiles and best practices of 12 elementary, 2 middle,…

  16. Research Supporting Middle Grades Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, David L., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Exemplary Middle Grades Research: Evidence-Based Studies Linking Theory to Practice features research published throughout 2009 in MGRJ that has been identified by the Information Age Publishing's review board as the most useful in terms of assisting educators with making practical applications from evidence-based studies to classroom and school…

  17. Predictors of Rural Practice Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel-Flom, Penelope

    1977-01-01

    Attitudes toward the urban environment and place of origin were found to be the best predictors of an optometrist's practice location. Findings of this study imply that optometry students most likely to enter rural practice can be objectively identified early in their training and that the predictive equation presented may be useful in the…

  18. Changing Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Chris, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This serial issue contains nine articles all on the subject of "changing practice," i.e., innovative practices of rural English teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network. "Byte-ing into Medieval Literature" (John Fyler) describes an online conference on medieval literature for rural high school students. "Literacy in Cattle Country" (Dan…

  19. A Priori Identifiability Analysis of Cardiovascular Models

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Jonathan A.; Saccomani, Maria P.; Shroff, Sanjeev G.

    2013-01-01

    Model parameters, estimated from experimentally measured data, can provide insight into biological processes that are not experimentally measurable. Whether this optimized parameter set is a physiologically relevant complement to the experimentally measured data, however, depends on the optimized parameter set being unique, a model property known as a priori global identifiability. However, a priori identifiability analysis is not common practice in the biological world, due to the lack of easy-to-use tools. Here we present a program, Differential Algebra for Identifiability of Systems (DAISY), that facilitates identifiability analysis. We applied DAISY to several cardiovascular models: systemic arterial circulation (Windkessel, T-Tube) and cardiac muscle contraction (complex stiffness, crossbridge cycling-based). All models were globally identifiable except the T-Tube model. In this instance, DAISY was able to provide insight into making the model identifiable. We applied numerical parameter optimization techniques to estimate unknown parameters in a model DAISY found globally identifiable. While all the parameters could be accurately estimated, a sensitivity analysis was first necessary to identify the required experimental data. Global identifiability is a prerequisite for numerical parameter optimization, and in a variety of cardiovascular models, DAISY provided a reliable, fast, and simple platform to provide this identifiability analysis.

  20. Metal alloy identifier

    DOEpatents

    Riley, William D. (Avondale, MD); Brown, Jr., Robert D. (Avondale, MD)

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  1. Assessing the Impact of Lesson Study on the Teaching Practice of Middle School Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Michael C.

    Despite wave after wave of educational reform in the United States our students continue to lag behind their peers in other industrialized countries on virtually all measures of academic achievement. Effective professional development (PD) is seen as a key to improving instructional practice and therefore student learning, but traditional forms of PD have been wholly unsuccessful in changing teaching practice. Over the last two decades an emerging body of research has identified some key features of effective PD that seem to create meaningful change and improvement in instructional practice. Some of this research highlights the promise of adapting Japanese lesson study (LS) to the American context as a means of incrementally improving instruction. Much of the existing research around LS is descriptive in nature and offers little insight into if and how participation in LS impacts subsequent instructional practice. This study utilized case study methodology to examine the instructional practice of one group of four middle school science teachers before, during, and after participation in LS. The study attempted to identify specific learning outcomes of a LS process, to identify influences on teacher learning during LS, and to identify subsequent changes in the instructional practice of participants resulting from participation in LS. Key findings from the study include significant teacher learning derived from the LS process, the identification of influences that enhanced or inhibited teacher learning, and clear evidence that participants successfully integrated learning from the LS into subsequent instructional practice. Learning outcomes included deepening of subject matter knowledge, increased understanding of student thinking and abilities, clarity of expectations for student performance, recognition of the ineffectiveness of past instructional practice, specific instructional strategies, shared student learning goals, and an increased commitment to future development of student learning. Influences supporting teacher learning were trust and honest dialogue among participants, focused collaboration, examination of student work, and the opportunity to watch other teachers deliver instruction. Influences inhibiting teacher learning related to failure to adhere to key features of the LS protocol. The study offers initial evidence confirming the promise of LS as a model of effective PD.

  2. Passport to College: Promise Scholarship Program Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Passport to College Promise Scholarship program was created by the 2007 Washington State Legislature (House Bill 1131) to help former foster youth prepare for and succeed in college. This status report addresses four areas: (1) proposed scholarship and student support approaches; (2) estimates of the number of students who will receive…

  3. Capitol Capsule. The Voc-Ed Regulations: A Broken Promise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochhar, Carol A.

    1993-01-01

    Many vocational educators, special populations advocates, and legal experts are convinced that, without some very specific changes, the Perkins Act vocational education regulations threaten to destroy the promise of the act for special population students. Practitioners should monitor the situation to ensure services for this population.…

  4. Doubts Rise Over the Great Nuclear Promise Julio Godoy

    E-print Network

    processes as putting the energy of the stars in a box," says Sébastien Balibar, professor of nuclear physicsFRANCE: Doubts Rise Over the Great Nuclear Promise Julio Godoy PARIS, Jul 12 (IPS) - The euphoria to introduce new nuclear technology. It will seek a nuclear fusion of two hydrogen isotopes (deuterium which

  5. Diversity's Promise for Higher Education: Making It Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daryl G.

    2009-01-01

    Daryl G. Smith's career has been devoted to studying and fostering diversity in higher education. She has witnessed and encouraged the evolution of diversity from an issue addressed sporadically on college campuses to an imperative if institutions want to succeed. In "Diversity's Promise for Higher Education", she analyzes how diversity is…

  6. Keeping the Promise? The Debate over Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    "Keeping the Promise?" examines one of the most complex reforms in education: charter schools. This wide-ranging and thought-provoking collection of essays examines the charter school movement's founding visions, on-the-ground realities, and untapped potential-within the context of an unswerving commitment to democratic, equitable public schools.…

  7. Carbon Nanotube Correlation: Promising Opportunity for CNFET Circuit Yield Enhancement

    E-print Network

    De Micheli, Giovanni

    Carbon Nanotube Correlation: Promising Opportunity for CNFET Circuit Yield Enhancement Jie Zhang1 Mitra1 1 Stanford University, Stanford, CA, U.S.A 2 LSI-EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland Abstract Carbon are very difficult to control. As a result, "small-width" Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors (CNFETs

  8. Meet the Promise of Content Standards: Investing in Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen; Hirsh, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    New standards alone will not prepare all students for college and careers. The success of the Common Core State Standards depends on educators' capacity to make the instructional shifts the standards require. Meeting the promise of content standards cannot be achieved merely by agreeing on and publishing the new standards. Effective teaching of…

  9. Race to Top Promises Come Home to Roost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Grant recipients risk losing millions of dollars in Race to the Top money if they fail to live up to their promises, federal education officials make clear. By threatening to revoke Hawaii's $75 million Race to the Top award for failing to make "adequate progress" on key milestones of its education reform plan, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne…

  10. The Challenge and Promise of a Catholic University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesburgh, Theodore M., Ed.

    This book offers 30 papers on the continuing discussion of the nature of a Catholic university. The papers are: "Introduction: The Challenge and Promise of a Catholic University" (Theodore M. Hesburgh); "Reflections on the Mission of a Catholic University" (Harold W. Attridge); "The Difference of a Catholic University" (Otto Bird); "A Catholic…

  11. Fulfilling the Promise: Do MOOCS Reach the Educationally Underserved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Lorrie; Manturuk, Kim; Simpkins, Ian; Goldwasser, Molly; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    When massive open online courses (MOOCs) began, they held the promise of bringing high-quality, college-level courses from leading academic institutions to people who otherwise would not have access to that type of content. In the ensuing years, it has become clear that the majority of MOOC students are not underserved in terms of educational…

  12. Every Child Every Promise Workforce Readiness. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The third "Every Child, Every Promise" research brief focuses on the large percentage of the children and youth who will enter the workforce over the next two decades are lacking enough of the "soft" or applied skills--such as teamwork, decision-making, and communication--that will help them become effective employees and managers. The report…

  13. The Promise of Global Networks. 1999 Annual Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Information Studies, Queenstown, MD.

    This collection of commissioned papers provides a variety of perspectives on the impact of global information networks. The following articles are included: "The Promise of Global Networks: An Introduction" (Jorge Reina Schement); "Architecture and Expectations: Networks of the World--Unite!" (Marjory S. Blumenthal); "The Regulation of Global…

  14. Gender Bias in Academic Medicine: Pitfalls, Promise and Progress

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Gender Bias in Academic Medicine: Pitfalls, Promise and Progress University of Pittsburgh April 28 of the issues · Introduce some key constructs from social psychology that account for the tenacity of gender the application of gender bias #12;What we believed... · That the lack of women leaders in any field would fix

  15. Fusing Tissue Engineering and Systems Biology Toward Fulfilling Their Promise

    E-print Network

    Fusing Tissue Engineering and Systems Biology Toward Fulfilling Their Promise BENJAMIN D. COSGROVE 2008; published online 11 March 2008) Abstract--Tissue engineering has progressed to enable devel- opment of engineered 3D in vitro tissue models that can recapitulate in vivo cellular physiologies

  16. Tarryn Miller: Fueling biofuel's promise August 27, 2013

    E-print Network

    - 1 - Tarryn Miller: Fueling biofuel's promise August 27, 2013 » Return to homepage Student intern and technology. At Los Alamos, mentored by David Fox and his algal biofuels team, Miller is focused adds. "They are great candidates for biofuel and bio-product production, and they produce a carbon

  17. Parent Trigger Laws and the Promise of Parental Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William C.; Rowland, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Parent trigger laws have gained momentum nationally under the premise that they will increase local authority by amplifying parental voice in the decision to turn around "failing" schools. Using Hirschman's exit, voice, and loyalty framework we create two conceptual models of voice and evaluate the promise of voice in California,…

  18. Promising New Teacher Support Strategies and Their Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dianda, Marcella R.; Quartz, Karen Hunter

    1995-01-01

    Describes several promising new teacher support strategies implemented by California universities and their district partners as part of the California New Teacher Project, noting resources expended to implement each strategy. The strategies are framed according to their programmatic and economic dimensions. Strategies that make the most sense…

  19. The Plague Doctor: A Promising Cure for the Window Plague

    E-print Network

    Lanza, Michele

    The Plague Doctor: A Promising Cure for the Window Plague Roberto Minelli, Andrea Mocci, Michele Development Environments (IDEs) are often affected by the "window plague", an overly crowded workspace have shown that it is possible to mitigate the window plague by exploiting the data obtained

  20. Advancing Knowledge-Building Discourse through Judgments of Promising Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Bodong; Scardamalia, Marlene; Bereiter, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating promisingness of ideas is an important but underdeveloped aspect of knowledge building. The goal of this research was to examine the extent to which Grade 3 students could make promisingness judgments to facilitate knowledge-building discourse. A Promising Ideas Tool was added to Knowledge Forum software to better support…

  1. Identifying Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture Technology by ab initio Thermodynamic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yuhua

    2014-03-01

    Since the current technologies for capturing CO2 are still too energy intensive, to develop new materials that can capture CO2 reversibly with acceptable energy costs are needed. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO2 sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials have been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO2 adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO2 capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to identify only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. At a given CO2 pressure, the turnover temperature (Tt) of an individual solid capture CO2 reaction is fixed. Such Tt may be outside the operating temperature range (?To) for a particularly capture technology. In order to adjust Tt to fit the practical ?To, in this study, we demonstrate that by mixing different types of solids it's possible to shift Tt to the a range of practical operating temperature conditions.

  2. Identifying Technical Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Teresa Mihwa; Nation, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This study compared four different approaches to identifying technical words in an anatomy text. The first approach used a four step rating scale, and was used as the comparison for evaluating the other three approaches. It had a high degree of reliability. The least successful approach was that using clues provided by the writer such as labels in…

  3. Educational Leadership at 2050: Conjectures, Challenges, and Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papa, Rosemary; Mullen, Carol A.; English, Fenwick W.; Creighton, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    This is a practical, bold, no-holds barred look at challenges facing educational leaders and the university programs that prepare them through mid-century. It examines key continuities and discontinuities of current times for school, education, and society. Both practice and preparation occur in contested social space, the implications of which…

  4. IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.

    2011-05-20

    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r {approx} 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

  5. The Practical Turn in Teacher Education: Designing a Preparation Sequence for Core Practice Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Fred; Westbroek, Hanna; Doyle, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Amid calls for more practice-based teacher education, this article presents a concrete illustration of a practice-based bridging strategy for preparing high school biology teachers to enact open-inquiry labs. Open-inquiry labs were considered a core practice frame that served as a context for identifying core practices and for giving coherence to…

  6. Can hospital audit teams identify case management problems, analyse their causes, identify and implement improvements? A cross-sectional process evaluation of obstetric near-miss case reviews in Benin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obstetric near-miss case reviews are being promoted as a quality assurance intervention suitable for hospitals in low income countries. We introduced such reviews in five district, regional and national hospitals in Benin, West Africa. In a cross-sectional study we analysed the extent to which the hospital audit teams were able to identify case management problems (CMPs), analyse their causes, agree on solutions and put these solutions into practice. Methods We analysed case summaries, women’s interview transcripts and audit minutes produced by the audit teams for 67 meetings concerning one woman with near-miss complications each. We compared the proportion of CMPs identified by an external assessment team to the number found by the audit teams. For the latter, we described the CMP causes identified, solutions proposed and implemented by the audit teams. Results Audit meetings were conducted regularly and were well attended. Audit teams identified half of the 714 CMPs; they were more likely to find managerial ones (71%) than the ones relating to treatment (30%). Most identified CMPs were valid. Almost all causes of CMPs were plausible, but often too superficial to be of great value for directing remedial action. Audit teams suggested solutions, most of them promising ones, for 38% of the CMPs they had identified, but recorded their implementation only for a minority (8.5%). Conclusions The importance of following-up and documenting the implementation of solutions should be stressed in future audit interventions. Tools facilitating the follow-up should be made available. Near-miss case reviews hold promise, but their effectiveness to improve the quality of care sustainably and on a large scale still needs to be established. PMID:23057707

  7. A Broken Promise: Examining the Merit-Aid Policy and Implementation Gap in the Michigan Promise Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun-Barnet, Nathan; Hermsen, Albert; Vedder, Lori; Mabry, Beth

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, Michigan changed their traditional merit award to a credit contingent program based upon successful completion of 60 college credits. The Michigan Promise Scholarship was crafted by state policymakers without input from the financial aid community. This case study suggests that the change in policy resulted in two unintended consequences:…

  8. Votive Practices

    E-print Network

    Pinch, Geraldine; Waraksa, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    a requirement of Egyptian religion, but there is plentifulEgyptian art and appear to belong to the sphere of folk religion (Egyptian letters of the New Kingdom as evidence for religious practice. Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions

  9. Maltose, a promising osmotic agent in peritoneal dialysis solution.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zhan-Jun; Peng, You-Ming; Sun, Lin; Xiao, Li; Liu, Ying-hong; Li, Jun; Ling, Guang-hui; Tang, Wen-bin; Halmurat, Upur; Liu, Fu-you

    2010-12-01

    Peritoneal dialysis has undergone considerable development from a technological point of view, and osmotic agent has played the essential role in peritoneal dialysis fluid. Because the most commonly used osmotic agent is glucose and icodextrin, there are some disadvantages related to the use of glucose-based solutions and icodextrin. So it is urgent to develop a new peritoneal dialysis osmotic agent. According to these characteristics of glucose and icodextrin, it is promising to explore a better osmotic agent of peritoneal dialysis solution which is able to allow maintenance of the maximum ultrafiltration gradient, and prevent toxicity or accumulation of unwanted substances in the blood, being non-toxic or less-toxic, furthermore the metabolite should not cause significant metabolic disturbance. Maltose may be one of promising osmotic agent and may put an important influence on development of peritoneal dialysis. PMID:20801582

  10. Experimental Lung Cancer Drug Shows Early Promise | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer A first-of-its-kind drug is showing early promise in attacking certain lung cancers that are hard to treat because they build up resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The drug, CO-1686, performed well in a preclinical study involving xenograft and transgenic mice, as reported in the journal Cancer Discovery. It is now being evaluated for safety and efficacy in Phase I and II clinical trials.

  11. The Emerging Role and Promise of Biomarkers in Penile Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vuichoud, Camille; Klap, Julia; Loughlin, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    Penile cancer is a rare malignancy, which can be a source of devastating psychosexual distress because of its implication on sexual function and self-image. Current penile staging relies on invasive techniques and is often inaccurate. The authors review the promising biomarkers currently under investigation and their application to the staging and prognosis of penile cancer. Further development of such biomarkers provides the potential of improved clinical management of this disease. PMID:26614036

  12. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Therapeutic Delivery: Trials, Tribulations and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Tonga, Gulen Yesilbag; Moyano, Daniel F.; Kim, Chang Soo; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic nanomaterials have a wide array of physical and structural properties that make them attractive candidates for imaging and therapeutic delivery. Nanoparticle platforms have been intensely studied for these applications, and examples are starting to enter the clinic. This review looks at why inorganic particles provide promising platforms for biomedicine, and what issues need to be addressed for them to reach their potential. PMID:24955019

  13. Siltuximab (CNTO 328): a promising option for human malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Runzhe; Chen, Baoan

    2015-01-01

    Siltuximab (CNTO 328) is a promising antibody-drug conjugate targeting cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). It is highly binding to IL-6 and thus neutralizing IL-6 bioactivity and promoting death of tumor cell. In this review, we mainly focus on the mechanisms, clinical studies, and adverse effect of siltuximab in the treatment of human malignancies. We also provide our recommendations for siltuximab treatment in the future. PMID:26170629

  14. Toward cardiovascular MRI at 7 T: clinical needs, technical solutions and research promises

    PubMed Central

    Sodickson, Daniel K.; Krombach, Gabriele A.; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Objective To consider potential clinical needs, technical solutions and research promises of ultrahigh-field strength cardiovascular MR (CMR). Methods A literature review is given, surveying advantages and disadvantages of CMR at ultrahigh fields (UHF). Key concepts, emerging technologies, practical considerations and applications of UHF CMR are provided. Examples of UHF CMR imaging strategies and their added value are demonstrated, including the numerous unsolved problems. A concluding section explores future directions in UHF CMR. Results UHF CMR can be regarded as one of the most challenging MRI applications. Image quality achievable at UHF is not always exclusively defined by signal-to-noise considerations. Some of the inherent advantages of UHF MRI are offset by practical challenges. But UHF CMR can boast advantages over its kindred lower field counterparts by trading the traits of high magnetic fields for increased temporal and/or spatial resolution. Conclusions CMR at ultrahigh-field strengths is a powerful motivator, since speed and signal may be invested to overcome the fundamental constraints that continue to hamper traditional CMR. If practical challenges can be overcome, UHF CMR will help to open the door to new approaches for basic science and clinical research. PMID:20676653

  15. On identified predictive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    Self-tuning control algorithms are potential successors to manually tuned PID controllers traditionally used in process control applications. A very attractive design method for self-tuning controllers, which has been developed over recent years, is the long-range predictive control (LRPC). The success of LRPC is due to its effectiveness with plants of unknown order and dead-time which may be simultaneously nonminimum phase and unstable or have multiple lightly damped poles (as in the case of flexible structures or flexible robot arms). LRPC is a receding horizon strategy and can be, in general terms, summarized as follows. Using assumed long-range (or multi-step) cost function the optimal control law is found in terms of unknown parameters of the predictor model of the process, current input-output sequence, and future reference signal sequence. The common approach is to assume that the input-output process model is known or separately identified and then to find the parameters of the predictor model. Once these are known, the optimal control law determines control signal at the current time t which is applied at the process input and the whole procedure is repeated at the next time instant. Most of the recent research in this field is apparently centered around the LRPC formulation developed by Clarke et al., known as generalized predictive control (GPC). GPC uses ARIMAX/CARIMA model of the process in its input-output formulation. In this paper, the GPC formulation is used but the process predictor model is derived from the state space formulation of the ARIMAX model and is directly identified over the receding horizon, i.e., using current input-output sequence. The underlying technique in the design of identified predictive control (IPC) algorithm is the identification algorithm of observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters developed by Juang et al. at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully applied to identification of flexible structures.

  16. Identifying and Evaluating Change Patterns and Change Support Features in

    E-print Network

    Ulm, Universität

    Identifying and Evaluating Change Patterns and Change Support Features in Process-Aware Information of process-aware information systems (PAIS) must not freeze existing busi- ness processes. Instead PAIS busi- ness processes in a controlled manner over time. Many software ven- dors promise flexible system

  17. Practical Semantic Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew; Gray, N.; Burke, D.

    2010-01-01

    Many activities in the era of data-intensive astronomy are predicated upon some transference of domain knowledge and expertise from human to machine. The semantic infrastructure required to support this is no longer a pipe dream of computer science but a set of practical engineering challenges, more concerned with deployment and performance details than AI abstractions. The application of such ideas promises to help in such areas as contextual data access, exploiting distributed annotation and heterogeneous sources, and intelligent data dissemination and discovery. In this talk, we will review the status and use of semantic technologies in astronomy, particularly to address current problems in astroinformatics, with such projects as SKUA and AstroCollation.

  18. Predicting sudden cardiac death from T wave alternans of the surface electrocardiogram: promise and pitfalls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, D. S.; Albrecht, P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death remains a preeminent public health problem. Despite advances in preventative treatment for patients known to be at risk, to date we have been able to identify, and thus treat, only a small minority of these patients. Therefore, there is a major need to develop noninvasive diagnostic technologies to identify patients at risk. Recent studies have demonstrated that measurement of microvolt-level T wave alternans is a promising technique for the accurate identification of patients at risk for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. In this article, we review the clinical data establishing the relationship between microvolt T wave alternans and susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. We also review the methods and technology that have been developed to measure microvolt levels of T wave alternans noninvasively in broad populations of ambulatory patients. In particular, we examine techniques that permit the accurate measurement of T wave alternans during exercise stress testing.

  19. Identifying Distant AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouille, Laura; Barger, Amy; Tremonti, Christy

    2014-07-01

    The Baldwin, Phillips, and Terlevich emission-line ratio diagnostic ([OIII]/H? versus [NII]/H?, hereafter BPT diagram) efficiently separates galaxies whose signal is dominated by star formation (BPT-SF) from those dominated by AGN activity (BPT-AGN). Yet the BPT diagram is limited to z<0.5, the redshift at which [NII]?6584 leaves the optical spectral window. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we construct a new diagnostic, or TBT diagram, that is based on rest-frame g-z color, [NeIII]?3869, and [OII]??3726+3729 and can be used for galaxies out to z<1.4. The TBT diagram identifies 98.7% of the SDSS BPT-AGN as TBT-AGN and 97% of the SDSS BPT-SF as TBT-SF. Furthermore, it identifies 97% of the OPTX Chandra X-ray selected AGNs as TBT-AGN. This is in contrast to the BPT diagram, which misidentifies 20% of X-ray selected AGNs as BPT-SF.

  20. Electron attachment identifies carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-17

    The rate of electron attachment to a compound dissolved in a nonpolar solvent identifies carcinogens and noncarcinogens with sensitivity and specificity comparable to the Ames Salmonella bioassay, according to George Bakale, a professor in the radiology department, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland. Bakale described a pulse conductivity technique for measuring the rate of electron attachment to compounds and the results of studies of known carcinogens and noncarcinogens dissolved in isooctane or cyclohexane. A positive response occurs when that rate is equal to the diffusion-controlled rate of electron attachment, indicating that the chemical can interact efficiently with electron-rich molecules such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the molecule generally considered to be the target for the initiation of chemical carcinogenesis. Using that criterion, the technique correctly identifies 55 of 65 known carcinogens and 48 of 55 noncarcinogens. That translates to a sensitivity (correct identification of carcinogens) of 85%. The pulse conductivity technique is a relative of pulse radiolysis. The researchers irradiate the solution under study with a short pulse of 1-MeV electrons, which creates a homogeneous distribution of electrons and ions. The solution is between parallel plates across which an electric potential is applied. The electrons in solution move in the electric field setting up a current. The decay of the current follows pseudo-first-order kinetics allowing a simple calculation of the rate of electron attachment from the half-life of the electrons in solution.

  1. Identifying Well-Evaluated Activities in Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jack A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Identifies information about evaluated outcomes of local school career education activities representing the best of current career education programs and practices. Seven activities were ultimately approved by the HEW Education Division's Joint Dissemination Review Panel for nationwide distribution. (Author)

  2. Cognitive Rehabilitation for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Promises and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Tajik-Parvinchi, Diana; Wright, Leah; Schachar, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive training entails the repeated exercise of a specific cognitive process over a period of time to improve performance on the trained task as well as on tasks that were not specifically trained (transfer effect). Cognitive training shows promise in remediating deficits in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – a disorder believed to stem from deficient cognitive processes – where the focus has been primarily on training working memory and attention. We discuss evidence from studies that have produced broad, limited, or no transfer effects with the goal of identifying factors that may be responsible for this heterogeneity. Results: There are several implicit assumptions that appear to drive researchers’ decisions regarding both the selection of cognitive abilities to train as well as the training tasks chosen to target those abilities. We identify these implicit assumptions and their weaknesses. We also draw attention to design limitations that may be contributing to lack of transfer. Conclusion: Although the overall pattern of findings from these studies is promising, the methodological and theoretical limitations associated with the literature limit conclusions about the efficacy of cognitive training as a rehabilitation method for ADHD. We hypothesize several suggestions that may improve training effects and summarize the evidence which led to our hypotheses. PMID:25320614

  3. Advanced practice nursing and conceptual models of nursing.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Jacqueline; Newman, Diana M L; McAllister, Margaret

    2004-04-01

    This column focuses on advanced practice nursing. A definition and central competency of advanced practice are given and four roles assumed by advanced practice nurses are identified. Questions related primarily to the advanced practice role of nurse practitioner are raised. Two nurse scholars who teach and practice discuss their experiences as advanced practice nurses, with an emphasis on the importance of using a conceptual model of nursing as a guide for their practice. PMID:15090089

  4. Research Making Its Way into Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter; Goatley, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Identifying researchers whose work has influenced classroom practice, raises questions about the nature of research and its relationship with practice, and the means through which knowledge is distributed. We argue that normally, influence arises through lines of research more than individuals, that knowing-in-practice distribution systems should…

  5. Youth Mentoring: Program and Mentor Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasia, Trena T.; Skinner, Rebecca L.; Mundhenk, Samantha E.

    2012-01-01

    Youth mentoring programs have been on the rise for the past few decades, yet little has been done to synthesize best practices, as identified in existing research, for programs or mentors to follow. In a review of the literature on mentoring, eight different types of mentoring relationships were identified along with four program best practices

  6. Synthesis with Identifiers , Rudiger Ehlers1,2,3

    E-print Network

    Seshia, Sanjit A.

    of such identifiers. However, in practice, we might not want to restrict the number of clients of an arbiter evaluation based on a prototype implementation that shows the practical applica- bility of our algorithm. 1 to specification debugging, which improves system designer productivity and helps to find incorrect assumptions

  7. Identifying the Educationally Influential Physician: A Systematic Review of Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronberger, Matthew P.; Bakken, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Previous studies have indicated that educationally influential physicians' (EIPs) interactions with peers can lead to practice changes and improved patient outcomes. However, multiple approaches have been used to identify and investigate EIPs' informal or formal influence on practice, which creates study outcomes that are difficult…

  8. Health Literacy Research and Practice: A Needed Paradigm Shift.

    PubMed

    Pleasant, Andrew; Cabe, Jennifer; Patel, Kavita; Cosenza, Jennifer; Carmona, Richard

    2015-12-01

    As a field of research, a viable approach to improving health outcomes, and an important area of policy, health literacy has experienced significant growth and considerable evolution since its broad introduction in the 1990s. Despite that history, far too many practitioners, researchers, and policymakers focusing on clinical medicine, health systems, public health, and health policy remain unaware of and unaffected by the best practices of health literacy. While the inherent promise of health literacy is improved health and well-being, the bulk of research has focused on identifying the negative effects of a lack of health literacy. This strategy is a hindrance to further identifying the utility and increasing the uptake of lessons learned about health literacy in government, business, health care systems, and society. The field needs to reverse direction away from that deficit model of health literacy and focus collective efforts on a positive model of how health literacy can and should be prioritized and utilized to improve health at lower costs. This shift from framing health literacy as a problem to proving the viability and strength of health literacy as a solution will present to policymakers a clear choice to either adopt and promote the best practices of health literacy or suffer the consequences of being the leader who ignored a proven, viable solution to the currently unsustainable health care expenditures and ever-increasing burden of preventable disease, disability, and early death. PMID:26372030

  9. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  10. Brain Matters: Practicing Religion, Forming the Faithful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Religious practices have long drawn on the social sciences to broaden our understanding of how human beings develop, learn, relate, and are formed. While the religion and science conversations have not always been friendly, a growing number of theologians and scientists are engaged in promising dialogues where the interests of both parties…

  11. [Practice is learned by practice].

    PubMed

    Schei, E; Gulbrandsen, A; Skjerven, T

    1998-08-20

    Efficient continuing education for experienced physicians should build upon and reflect doctors' concrete everyday experiences and self-defined learning needs. Reciprocal practice visits among general practitioners, afford excellent opportunities for colleagues to see and be seen, to reflect, discuss, learn from each other and develop networks, using commonly experienced consultations as a starting point. Practice visits have been credited within the Norwegian continuing medical education system since 1989, but very few practitioners have made use of the method. We have developed a course where groups of 10-12 experienced general practitioners conduct four whole day practice visits over a 2-month period. Group sessions, totalling 20 hours, are used to develop cohesion and trust among colleagues through discussions and exercises. In the later stages, plenary sessions are used to present and discuss experiences from all of the practice visits, and participants are encouraged to develop ideas and strategies concerning their professional future. The participants in the three courses arranged so far (n = 31) were general practitioners with, on average, ten years of experience. Evaluations were positive, and emphasized the value of the course as an opportunity to break the relative isolation of general practice, and share experiences, insights, frustrations and ideas with colleagues. PMID:9748838

  12. Investigation of new superhard carbon allotropes with promising electronic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kvashnina, Yulia A.; Kvashnin, Alexander G.; Sorokin, Pavel B.

    2013-11-14

    During the systematic search for a new superhard carbon allotrope, we predicted three structures with promising physical properties. Our electronic structure calculations show that these materials have a semiconducting band gap and a high carrier mobility comparable with diamond. The simulated x-ray diffraction patterns of the proposed materials are in a good agreement with the experimental X-ray spectra. Evaluated phase transition pressures from graphite to the new proposed carbon phases are smaller than 25?GPa and close to the experimental values.

  13. The microeconomics of personalized medicine: today's challenge and tomorrow's promise.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jerel C; Furstenthal, Laura; Desai, Amar A; Norris, Troy; Sutaria, Saumya; Fleming, Edd; Ma, Philip

    2009-04-01

    'Personalized medicine' promises to increase the quality of clinical care and, in some cases, decrease health-care costs. Despite this, only a handful of diagnostic tests have made it to market, with mixed success. Historically, the challenges in this field were scientific. However, as discussed in this article, with the maturation of the '-omics' sciences, it now seems that the major barriers are increasingly related to economics. Overcoming the poor microeconomic alignment of incentives among key stakeholders is therefore crucial to catalysing the further development and adoption of personalized medicine, and we propose several actions that could help achieve this goal. PMID:19300459

  14. NREL Designs Promising New Oxides for Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    High-efficiency, thin-film solar cells require electrical contacts with high electrical conductivity, and the top contact must also have high optical transparency. This need is currently met by transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), which conduct electricity but are 90% transparent to visible light. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have derived three key design principles for selecting promising materials for TCO contacts. NREL's application of these design principles has resulted in a 10,000-fold improvement in conductivity for one TCO material.

  15. The promise of air cargo: System aspects and vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The current operation of the air cargo system is reviewed. An assessment of the future of air cargo is provided by: (1) analyzing statistics and trends, (2) by noting system problems and inefficiencies, (3) by analyzing characteristics of 'air eligible' commodities, and (4) by showing the promise of new technology for future cargo aircraft with significant improvements in costs and efficiency. The following topics are discussed: (1) air cargo demand forecasts; (2) economics of air cargo transport; (3) the integrated air cargo system; (4) evolution of airfreighter design; and (5) the span distributed load concept.

  16. IPSCs, a Promising Tool to Restore Muscle Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Emanuele, Enzo; Gallardo, María Esther; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising tool for regenerative medicine in chronic conditions associated with muscle atrophy since iPSCs are easier to obtain, pose less ethical limitations and can better capture human genetic diversity compared with human embryonic stem cells. We highlight the potentiality of iPSCs for treating muscle-affecting conditions for which no effective cure is yet available, notably aging sarcopenia and inherited neurometabolic conditions. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 259-260, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26224204

  17. Practicing Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.; Hall, Rogers P.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the process of learning to construct and interpret representations from a social practice perspective. If students need to construct tables and graphs to complete a project report in mathematics or science, they can learn to consider whether these forms are effective at communicating important information. If students merely complete…

  18. The Road to Nowhere: The Illusion and Broken Promises of Special Education in the Baltimore City and Other Public School Systems. The Abell Report. Volume 17, No.4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettleman, Kalman R.

    2004-01-01

    Students with disabilities across the nation, including Baltimore City, are failing to achieve their academic potential. Inadequate instruction and other inappropriate or unlawful practices cause and conceal the dysfunction of special education. At long last, the illusion and broken promises of special education have been publicly exposed. Under…

  19. Future trends in health and health care: implications for social work practice in an aging society.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, William J; Davidson, Kay W

    2013-01-01

    Major economic, political, demographic, social, and operational system factors are prompting evolutionary changes in health care delivery. Of particular significance, the "graying of America" promises new challenges and opportunities for health care social work. At the same time, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, evolution of Accountable Care Organizations, and an emphasis on integrated, transdisciplinary, person-centered care represent fundamental shifts in service delivery with implications for social work practice and education. This article identifies the aging shift in American demography, its impact on health policy legislation, factors influencing fundamentally new service delivery paradigms, and opportunities of the profession to address the health disparities and care needs of an aging population. It underscores the importance of social work inclusion in integrated health care delivery and offers recommendations for practice education. PMID:24255978

  20. Promises and Pitfalls of Anchoring Vignettes in Health Survey Research.

    PubMed

    Grol-Prokopczyk, Hanna; Verdes-Tennant, Emese; McEniry, Mary; Ispány, Márton

    2015-10-01

    Data harmonization is a topic of growing importance to demographers, who increasingly conduct domestic or international comparative research. Many self-reported survey items cannot be directly compared across demographic groups or countries because these groups differ in how they use subjective response categories. Anchoring vignettes, already appearing in numerous surveys worldwide, promise to overcome this problem. However, many anchoring vignettes have not been formally evaluated for adherence to the key measurement assumptions of vignette equivalence and response consistency. This article tests these assumptions in some of the most widely fielded anchoring vignettes in the world: the health vignettes in the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) and World Health Survey (WHS) (representing 10 countries; n = 52,388), as well as similar vignettes in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (n = 4,528). Findings are encouraging regarding adherence to response consistency, but reveal substantial violations of vignette equivalence both cross-nationally and across socioeconomic groups. That is, members of different sociocultural groups appear to interpret vignettes as depicting fundamentally different levels of health. The evaluated anchoring vignettes do not fulfill their promise of providing interpersonally comparable measures of health. Recommendations for improving future implementations of vignettes are discussed. PMID:26335547

  1. Public health's promise for the future: 1989 Presidential address

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, I.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Public health's promise for the future is inextricably related to efforts which maximize human potential and which realize the world's interdependence. Public health challenges are not only constant and complex but frequently surrounded by political activities. In this environment, the public health enterprise has been enhanced by the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences' report on The Future of Public Health and the assessment framework it provides. Risk reduction through preventive and health promotion activities is the primary focus of public health, but facilitation is often dependent upon society's understanding and willingness-to-pay for such services. The effectiveness of public health is related to an ability to coordinate public and private efforts at national, state, and local levels. Also in this environment, public health is empowered through its multidisciplinary approach. However, epidemiology provides a unifying framework for the collective public health effort. Based on the use of epidemiology, public health is empowered to make the argument for a national health program and to support the concept of health as a determinant of life options. Public health's promise for the future can be fulfilled by continuing to increase its scientific base for decision-making, by self-examination and correction, by advocating and promoting self-examination and correction, by advocating and promoting social justice and by promoting firm partnerships with the public.

  2. The Promise of Dynamic Contrast Enhance Imaging in Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yue

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are emerging as valuable tools to quantitatively map the spatial distribution of vascular parameters such as perfusion, vascular permeability, blood volume, and mean transit time in tumors and normal organs. DCE MRI/CT have shown prognostic and predictive value for response of certain cancers to chemo and radiation therapy. DCE MRI/CT offer the promise of early assessment of tumor response to radiation therapy, opening a window for adaptively optimizing radiation therapy based upon functional alterations that occur earlier than morphological changes. DCE MRI/CT have also shown the potential of mapping dose-responses in normal organs and tissue for evaluation of individual sensitivity to radiation, providing additional opportunities to minimize risks of radiation injury. The evidence for potentially applying DCE MRI and CT for selection and delineation of radiation boost targets is growing. The clinical use of DCE MRI and CT as a biomarker or even a surrogate endpoint for radiation therapy assessment of tumor and normal organs must consider technical validation issues, including standardization, reproducibility, accuracy and robustness, as well as clinical validation of the sensitivity and specificity for each specific problem of interest. Although holding great promise, to date DCE MRI and CT have not been qualified as a surrogate endpoint for radiation therapy assessment or for treatment modification in any prospective phase III clinical trial for any tumor site. PMID:21356482

  3. Rose garden promises of intelligent tutoring systems: Blossom or thorn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shute, Valerie J.

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) have been in existence for over a decade. However, few controlled evaluation studies have been conducted comparing the effectiveness of these systems to more traditional instruction methods. Two main promises of ITSs are examined: (1) Engender more effective and efficient learning in relation to traditional formats; and (2) Reduce the range of learning outcome measures where a majority of individuals are elevated to high performance levels. Bloom (1984) has referred to these as the two sigma problem; to achieve two standard deviation improvements with tutoring over traditional instruction methods. Four ITSs are discussed in relation to the two promises. These tutors have undergone systematic, controlled evaluations: (1) The LISP tutor (Anderson Farrell and Sauers, 1984); (2) Smithtown (Shute and Glaser, in press); (3) Sherlock (Lesgold, Lajoie, Bunzo and Eggan, 1990); and (4) The Pascal ITS (Bonar, Cunningham, Beatty and Well, 1988). Results show that these four tutors do accelerate learning with no degradation in final outcome. Suggestions for improvements to the design and evaluation of ITSs are discussed.

  4. Re-exploring promising ?-glucosidase inhibitors for potential development into oral anti-diabetic drugs: Finding needle in the haystack.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Usman

    2015-10-20

    Treatment of diabetes mellitus by oral ?-glucosidase inhibitors is currently confined to acarbose, miglitol and voglibose marred by efficacy problems and unwanted side effects. Since the discovery of the drugs more than three decades ago, no significant progress has been made in the drug development area of anti-diabetic ?-glucosidase inhibitors. Despite existence of a wide chemical diversity of ?-glucosidase inhibitors identified to date, majority of them are simply piled up in publications and reports thus creating a haystack destined to be forgotten in the scientific literature without given consideration for further development into drugs. This review finds those "needles" in that haystack and lays groundwork for highlighting promising ?-glucosidase inhibitors from the literature that may potentially become suitable candidates for pre-clinical or clinical trials while drawing attention of the drug development community to consider and take already-identified promising ?-glucosidase inhibitors into the next stage of drug development. PMID:26344912

  5. Fifty Years after "Brown": Tarnished Gold, Broken Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantz, Julie

    2004-01-01

    May 17, 2004 marked the fifty years that have passed since the United States Supreme Court handed down one of its most famous, compelling and iconic decisions, "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas." Certainly the decision itself, labeling the practice of "separate but equal" as unconstitutional, deserves the fanfare and celebration of a…

  6. Review of "Charter School Autonomy: A Half-Broken Promise"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulosino, Charisse

    2010-01-01

    This report concludes that autonomy is a prerequisite for innovative and effective charter schools to emerge. Especially important is freedom from external bureaucratic control. Yet there is nothing in this report that addresses levels of autonomy in relationship to financial performance, resource allocation practices, academic results, and other…

  7. Reducing the Risk, Increasing the Promise: Strategies for Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergmann, Sherrel; Brough, Judith Allen

    2012-01-01

    In their new book, Bergmann and Brough provide a clear path to follow for helping your at-risk students achieve success in and out of the classroom. Packed with classroom-tested, practical strategies and lesson plans for teaching respect, responsibility, resilience, reading, and other essential skills to at-risk students, this is a must-have book…

  8. The Promise of the Maker Movement for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The Maker Movement is a community of hobbyists, tinkerers, engineers, hackers, and artists who creatively design and build projects for both playful and useful ends. There is growing interest among educators in bringing making into K-12 education to enhance opportunities to engage in the practices of engineering, specifically, and STEM more…

  9. Decentralization and School Improvement: Can We Fulfill the Promise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannaway, Jane, Ed.; Carnoy, Martin, Ed.

    In this book, eight contributors examine issues related to the likely effects of the decentralization of school governance on educational practice. Two major themes emerge in the book. The first (chapters 1 through 4) is that governance reforms in education may have little to do with what actually happens in schools, but have much to do with…

  10. Substance Abuse and Child Welfare: Clear Linkages and Promising Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semidei, Joseph; Radel, Laura Feig; Nolan, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Examines the prevalence of substance abuse among families involved with the child welfare system and the impact of substance abuse on child welfare practice. Discusses how both the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 and welfare reform legislation intensify the need to address parental substance abuse effectively. Considers strategies for…

  11. Coaching Literacy Teachers as They Design Critical Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Literacy specialists and coaches are called upon for literacy leadership in schools and often wrestle with the tensions of implementing top-down reforms and making room for teacher- and student-led practices, such as critical literacy. Critical literacy education holds the promise of engaging learners to use literacy practices in ways that matter…

  12. Immersion Education: Practices, Policies, Possibilities. Bilingual Education & Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedick, Diane J.; Christian, Donna; Fortune, Tara Williams

    2011-01-01

    This volume builds on Fortune and Tedick's 2008 Pathways to Multilingualism: Evolving Perspectives on Immersion Education and showcases the practice and promise of immersion education through in-depth investigations of program design, implementation practices, and policies in one-way, two-way and indigenous programs. Contributors present new…

  13. Time to Talk: 5 Things to Know about Complementary Health Practices for Cognitive Function, Dementia, and Alzheimer's ...

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as several mind and body practices such as music therapy and mental imagery, which have shown promise ... of some mind and body practices such as music therapy suggest they may be helpful for some ...

  14. Capturing the Imagination: The Promise of the Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.; Livio, M.; Eisenhammer, B.; Kakadelis, S.; Villard, R.; Stiavelli, M.; Stockman, P.

    2010-08-01

    The Webb Space Telescope will take us on a journey back to the beginning, enabling us to see the first galaxies, the birth of stars, the creation of planets, and the origins of galactic structure. News, education, and outreach activities led by the Space Telescope Science Institute Office of Public Outreach use the promise of Webb's scientific return and technical prowess to capture the imagination—inspiring and educating youth and adults about key science, technology, engineering, and mathematics concepts and the process of science itself. We highlight activities designed to introduce cutting-edge Webb science and technology to established audiences cultivated through a decade of Hubble-based Amazing Space, ViewSpace, HubbleSite, and NewsCenter products and services. Critical underlying components include a commitment to evaluation of audience needs and partnerships between scientists and educators.

  15. Two promising shame and guilt scales: a construct validity comparison.

    PubMed

    Harder, D H; Zalma, A

    1990-01-01

    This study compared the validity of two promising measures of shame and guilt proneness: revisions of the Harder Personal Feelings Questionnaire (PFQ2; Harder & Lewis, 1987) and the Hoblitzelle Adapted Shame and Guilt Scale (ASGS; Hoblitzelle, 1982). Internal consistency, test-retest stability, factor structure, and construct validity with convergent and discriminant personality dimensions were examined for both scales. In addition to the shame and guilt measures, 63 (37 male, 26 female) mostly freshman college students completed a randomly ordered battery of personality scales theoretically relevant to shame and guilt proneness. Results support the reliability and shame/guilt factor structure of each scale. ASGS Shame correlations appeared marginally more valid with 11 external construct variables than PFQ2 Shame, whereas PFQ2 Guilt was clearly more valid than its corresponding ASGS subscale. New, potentially improved scales were constructed from the factor analyses and from item analyses. However, the resulting scales did not show improved validity. PMID:2280336

  16. Genetic Tools for the Industrially Promising Methanotroph Methylomicrobium buryatense

    SciTech Connect

    Puri, AW; Owen, S; Chu, F; Chavkin, T; Beck, DAC; Kalyuzhnaya, MG; Lidstrom, ME

    2015-02-10

    Aerobic methanotrophs oxidize methane at ambient temperatures and pressures and are therefore attractive systems for methane-based bioconversions. In this work, we developed and validated genetic tools for Methylomicrobium buryatense, a haloalkaliphilic gammaproteobacterial (type I) methanotroph. M. buryatense was isolated directly on natural gas and grows robustly in pure culture with a 3-h doubling time, enabling rapid genetic manipulation compared to many other methanotrophic species. As a proof of concept, we used a sucrose counterselection system to eliminate glycogen production in M. buryatense by constructing unmarked deletions in two redundant glycogen synthase genes. We also selected for a more genetically tractable variant strain that can be conjugated with small incompatibility group P (IncP)-based broad-host-range vectors and determined that this capability is due to loss of the native plasmid. These tools make M. buryatense a promising model system for studying aerobic methanotroph physiology and enable metabolic engineering in this bacterium for industrial biocatalysis of methane.

  17. Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

    1993-11-01

    Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

  18. TRAIL and targeting cancer cells: between promises and obstacles.

    PubMed

    Limami, Y; Pinon, A; Riaz, A; Simon, A

    2015-01-01

    Targeting cancer cells is one of the challenges of current treatment strategies. TRAIL represents a promising therapeutic approach and over the past decades there was an increased interest in targeting TRAIL signaling to treat cancer. Indeed, TRAIL can specifically target cancer cells and exhibits very low cytotoxicity towards normal cells. However, rapidly accumulating experimental evidence has started to shed light on multiple factors which induce resistance against TRAIL in cancer cells. This resistance consists of various mechanisms including downregulation of death receptors and caspase—8 and overexpression of decoy receptors as well as antiapoptotic factors such as members of Bcl—2 family. Even if several studies focused on elucidating those resistance mechanisms, there still remain gray areas that need to be fully elucidated. Thus, therapeutic approaches could consist of targeting both resistance signaling pathways and TRAIL signaling to enhance TRAIL therapy efficiency. PMID:26518894

  19. NOTCH INHIBITION AS A PROMISING NEW APPROACH TO CANCER THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Purow, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The Notch pathway powerfully influences stem cell maintenance, development and cell fate and is increasingly recognized for the key roles it plays in cancer. Notch promotes cell survival, angiogenesis and treatment resistance in numerous cancers, making it a promising target for cancer therapy. It also crosstalks with other critical oncogenes, providing a means to affect numerous signaling pathways with one intervention. While the gamma-secretaase inhibitors are the only form of Notch inhibitors in clinical trials, other forms of Notch inhibition have been developed or are theoretically feasible. In this chapter we review the rationales for Notch inhibition in cancer and then discuss in detail the various modalities for Notch inhibition, both current and speculative. PMID:22399357

  20. 3,3?-Diindolylmethane: A Promising Sensitizer of ?-Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenjing; Lv, Maomin; Huangfu, Chaoji; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jingang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment modality in the clinical treatment of breast cancer. The present work investigated the effect of 3,3?-diindolylmethane (DIM) on ?-irradiation sensitizing human breast carcinoma. Methods. Cell survival, intracellular ROS levels, cell cycle distribution, cell apoptosis, and expression of proteins related to apoptosis were measured with MTT assays, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis, respectively. Results. In vitro DIM plus ?-irradiation arrested the activity of G2/M phase cell cycle, increased intracellular ROS level, significantly suppressed PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase), and enhanced ?-irradiation-induced apoptosis, thereby inhibiting the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Conclusion. These data provide a rationale for the use of DIM as a promising sensitizer of ?-irradiation. PMID:26579534

  1. Prevention of peritoneal adhesions: A promising role for gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Atta, Hussein M

    2011-01-01

    Adhesions are the most frequent complication of abdominopelvic surgery, yet the extent of the problem, and its serious consequences, has not been adequately recognized. Adhesions evolved as a life-saving mechanism to limit the spread of intraperitoneal inflammatory conditions. Three different pathophysiological mechanisms can independently trigger adhesion formation. Mesothelial cell injury and loss during operations, tissue hypoxia and inflammation each promotes adhesion formation separately, and potentiate the effect of each other. Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that interruption of a single pathway does not completely prevent adhesion formation. This review summarizes the pathogenesis of adhesion formation and the results of single gene therapy interventions. It explores the promising role of combinatorial gene therapy and vector modifications for the prevention of adhesion formation in order to stimulate new ideas and encourage rapid advancements in this field. PMID:22171139

  2. Molecular detection of pancreatic neoplasia: Current status and future promise

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Shounak; Chari, Suresh T; Ahlquist, David A

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage and curative resection is feasible in only a small minority of patients at the time of diagnosis. Diagnosis at an early stage is unequivocally associated with better long-term survival. Several candidate molecular markers for early detection are currently under investigation in different phases of discovery and validation. Recent advances in the technology for whole genome, methylome, ribonucleome, and proteome interrogation has enabled rapid advancements in the field of biomarker discovery. In this review we discuss the current status of molecular markers for detection of pancreatic cancer in blood, pancreatic cyst fluid, pancreatic juice and stool and briefly highlight some promising preliminary results of new approaches that have the potential of advancing this field in the near future. PMID:26526068

  3. Expedited remedial action -- A promising opportunity at your doorstep

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, E.R.

    1996-12-31

    The Expedited Remedial Action Program or ERAP carries great promise and is limited to no more than 30 sites, there are a number of slots now available, and the legislature will soon be considering a reauthorization of the full state Superfund program, which expires in June 1998, to reportedly be based to a great extent on the ERAP model. The ERAP provides for: (1) The early identification of fair and equitable shares of liability, including an orphan share, where appropriate, to be paid by the state; (2) The elimination of all joint and several liability; (3) Cleanup levels and remedies based on the foreseeable planned use of the site; (4) Site specific risk assessments based on the latest risk assessment protocols; (5) Use of an arbitrator to quickly resolve all significant liability and technical disputes; and (6) Broad and timely releases from future liability upon completion of cleanup.

  4. Outlook promising for renewed exploration in N. Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Morrell, G.R. )

    1995-02-20

    The geographic region known as the Mackenzie plain lies in the relatively accessible mid-section of the Mackenzie Valley just south of the Arctic Circle. The area has attracted exploration for oil and gas over several decades following the discovery of Norman Wells oil field in the first quarter of this century. Norman Wells is now one of the largest fields in North America in terms of remaining reserves. In late 1994 and for the first time in many years, the Canadian government called for industry to nominate exploration parcels in this general area. The industry responded positively with several nominations, and the outlook for renewed exploration is promising. The paper discusses exploration history, geologic setting, stratigraphy, reservoirs, geologic structures, traps, seals, source rocks, and potential.

  5. Targeting Cyclooxygenase-2 in Hematological Malignancies: Rationale and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, M. P.; Bancos, S.; Sime, P. J.; Phipps, R. P.

    2009-01-01

    There is much interest in the potential use of Cox-2 selective inhibitors in combination with other cancer therapeutics. Malignancies of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic origin often have increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), a key modulator of inflammation. For example, hematological malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma often highly express Cox-2, which correlates with poor patient prognosis. Expression of Cox-2 enhances survival and proliferation of malignant cells, while negatively influencing anti-tumor immunity. Hematological malignancies expressing elevated levels of Cox-2 potentially avoid immune responses by producing factors that enhance angiogenesis and metastases. Cellular immune responses regulated by natural killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and T regulatory cells are also influenced by Cox-2 expression. Therefore, Cox-2 selective inhibitors have promising therapeutic potential in patients suffering from certain hematological malignancies. PMID:18691115

  6. High-entropy bulk metallic glasses as promising magnetic refrigerants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Juntao; Huo, Lishan; Li, Jiawei; Men, He; Wang, Xinmin; Inoue, Akihisa; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Jun-Qiang; Li, Run-Wei

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the Ho20Er20Co20Al20RE20 (RE = Gd, Dy, and Tm) high-entropy bulk metallic glasses (HE-BMGs) with good magnetocaloric properties are fabricated successfully. The HE-BMGs exhibit a second-order magnetic phase transition. The peak of magnetic entropy change ( ?SMpk ) and refrigerant capacity (RC) reaches 15.0 J kg-1 K-1 and 627 J kg-1 at 5 T, respectively, which is larger than most rare earth based BMGs. The heterogeneous nature of glasses also contributes to the large ?SMpk and RC. In addition, the magnetic ordering temperature, ?SMpk and RC can be widely tuned by alloying different rare earth elements. These results suggest that the HE-BMGs are promising magnetic refrigerant at low temperatures.

  7. GPR119: a promising target for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin Won; Kim, Hyo Seon; Im, Ji Hye; Kim, Ji Won; Jun, Dae Won; Lim, Sung Chul; Lee, Kyeong; Choi, Jong Min; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kang, Keon Wook

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with metabolic syndrome and has the unique characteristic of excess lipid accumulation in liver. G-protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is a promising target for type 2 diabetes. However, the role of GPR119 activation in hepatic steatosis and its precise mechanism has not been investigated. In primary cultured hepatocytes from wild-type and GPR119 knockout (KO) mice, expression of lipogenic enzymes was elevated in GPR119 KO hepatocytes. Treatment of hepatocytes and HepG2 cells with GPR119 agonists in phase 2 clinical trials (MBX-2982 [MBX] and GSK1292263) inhibited protein expression of both nuclear and total sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1, a key lipogenesis transcription factor. Oral administration of MBX in mice fed a high-fat diet potently inhibited hepatic lipid accumulation and expression levels of SREBP-1 and lipogenesis-related genes, whereas the hepatic antilipogenesis effects of MBX were abolished in GPR119 KO mice. MBX activated AMPK and increased Ser-372 phosphorylation of SREBP-1c, an inhibitory form of SREBP-1c. Moreover, inhibition of AMPK recovered MBX-induced down-regulation of SREBP-1. These findings demonstrate for the first time that the GPR119 ligand alleviates hepatic steatosis by inhibiting SREBP-1-mediated lipogenesis in hepatocytes.-Yang, J. W., Kim, H. S., Im, J. H., Kim, J. W., Jun, D. W., Lim, S. C., Lee, K., Choi, J. M., Kim, S. K., Kang, K. W. GPR119: a promising target for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:26399788

  8. The promise of e-Health – a Canadian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Richard C

    2002-01-01

    Canadians value their health care system above any other social program. Canada's system of health care faces significant financial and population pressures, relating to cost, access, quality, accountability, and the integration of information and communication technologies (ICTs). The health-system also faces certain unique challenges that include care delivery within a highly decentralised system of financing and accountability, and care delivery to a significant portion of the population sparsely distributed across a landmass of 10 million square kilometres, in areas of extreme climatic conditions. All of these challenges are significant catalysts in the development of technologies that aim to significantly mitigate or eliminate these selfsame challenges. The system is undergoing widespread review, nationally, and within each province and territory, where the bulk of care provision is financed and managed. The challenges are being addressed by national, regional and provincial initiatives in the public, private and not-for-profit sectors. The promise of e-Health lies in the manner and degree to which it can mitigate or resolve these challenges to the health system and build on advancements in ICTs supporting the development of a health infostructure. Canada is actively developing and implementing technological solutions to deliver health information and health care services across the country. These solutions, while exciting and promising, also present new challenges, particularly in regard to acceptable standards, choice of technologies, overcoming traditional jurisdictional boundaries, up-front investment, and privacy and confidentially. Many organisations and governments are working to address these challenges. The Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) will play an increasingly significant role in these initiatives, as the management of health information becomes a more crucial factor in the successful delivery of health care services in the new millennium. PMID:12459044

  9. Modeling Promising Nonmyeloablative Conditioning Regimens in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Devikha; Nakamoto, Betty; Watts, Korashon L.; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Minimal conditioning or even no conditioning would be the preferred preparation for most gene therapy applications for nonmalignant diseases. However, reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens in patients with nonhematologic malignancies have not led to long-term engraftment unless a selective advantage was present for the transplanted donor cells. Similar findings have also been observed in a number of large animal studies. Inadequate myelosuppression levels were thought to be responsible for the outcomes. To address this issue several innovative protocols in small animals have been presented with selective hematopoietic myelosuppression and less systemic toxicity. Such protocols promised to curb the transplant-related morbidity and mortality in myeloablative conditioning and provide effective long-term engraftment, especially in patients with gene-corrected autografts. In the present study we have tested some of these promising RIC regimens in nonhuman primates, a clinically relevant large animal model. Our data suggest that transient myelosuppression induced by anti-c-Kit antibody in conjunction with low-dose irradiation may lead to long-term engraftment, albeit at low levels. The animals with busulfan conditioning with or without anti-c-Kit that received gene-modified autologous transplants with green fluorescent protein expression had similar myelosuppression, but failed long-term engraftment and despite immunosuppressive treatment had all the hallmarks seen previously in similar models without immunosuppression. Our preliminary data expand current knowledge of RIC and emphasize the need to explore whether specific and directed myelosuppression alone is adequate in the absence of microenvironmental modulation, or whether innovative combinations are necessary for safe and effective engraftment. PMID:24937231

  10. Omics approaches in food safety: fulfilling the promise?

    PubMed Central

    Bergholz, Teresa M.; Moreno Switt, Andrea I.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are rapidly transforming our approaches to detection, prevention and treatment of foodborne pathogens. Microbial genome sequencing in particular has evolved from a research tool into an approach that can be used to characterize foodborne pathogen isolates as part of routine surveillance systems. Genome sequencing efforts will not only improve outbreak detection and source tracking, but will also create large amounts of foodborne pathogen genome sequence data, which will be available for data mining efforts that could facilitate better source attribution and provide new insights into foodborne pathogen biology and transmission. While practical uses and application of metagenomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics data and associated tools are less prominent, these tools are also starting to yield practical food safety solutions. PMID:24572764

  11. Hospital Medicine's Evolution: Literature Search and Interview Study with Practices

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Ruth; Novelli, Marianne; Lorence, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Hospital medicine is a young specialty that is still evolving. In its early years, research focused on clinical outcomes, efficiency, and cost effectiveness. As the specialty matures, increasing attention is being given to the patient and hospitalist experience with the hospitalist model of care. Methods: In 2008, we conducted a literature search to identify patients' and hospitalists' satisfaction concerns and potential strategies for their resolution. We used our findings to develop a semistructured interview guide as a basis for a wide-ranging discussion with Kaiser Permanente (KP) hospitalists and physician leaders and KP and non-KP subject-matter experts on their priorities, concerns, and successful practices. Results: Respondents identified sustainability and communications in coordinating care as their high-priority concerns with sustainability as the top priority. Within these broad concerns, they identified contributing factors and their interrelationships. Factors influencing sustainability of the hospitalist model include hospitalist scheduling, workload, comanagement responsibilities, and recruitment and retention. Regarding communications in coordinating care, respondents viewed themselves as being in the center of a web involving communication with patients, physicians in other services, nurses, and other hospitalists. Conclusion: Promising approaches have been developed to address sustainability concerns and for communicating with patients, physicians in other services, nurses, and other hospitalists. However, getting reliable feedback on patient satisfaction surveys for individual hospitalists is a continuing challenge. Despite the use of brochures and business cards to introduce themselves to patients and explain their role, there are difficulties in establishing a hospitalist-patient bond. PMID:22058670

  12. Stereological approaches to identifying neuropathology in psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Lewis, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The challenges involved in identifying the neuropathological substrates of the clinical syndrome recognized as schizophrenia are well known. Stereological sampling provides a means to obtain accurate and precise quantitative estimates of components of neural circuits, and thus offers promise of an enhanced capacity to detect subtle alterations in brain structure associated with schizophrenia. In this review, we 1) consider the importance and rationale for robust quantitative studies of brain abnormalities in postmortem studies of schizophrenia, 2) provide a brief overview of stereological methods for obtaining such measures, 3) discuss the methodological details that should be reported to document the robustness of a stereological study, 4) given the constraints of postmortem human studies, suggest how to approach the limitations of less robust designs, and 5) present an overview of methodologically sound stereological estimates from postmortem studies of schizophrenia. PMID:20678756

  13. Art: an occupation with promise for developing empathy.

    PubMed

    Peloquin, S M

    1996-09-01

    Empathy is central to the interactions of occupational therapists who value personal dignity. Persons from various sectors of the behavioral sciences and the medical humanities have proposed that engagement with the arts can develop empathy, an assumption that prompted this inquiry. The observations of artists and art philosophers suggest that the assumption that art may develop empathy is grounded in the kindred natures of the two practices and in the actions that occur when a person engages with a work of art. The assumption that art may develop empathy is grounded in the kinship of the actions common to both practices: response, emotion, and connection. Artists and art philosophers' observations of human practices have uncovered three rules of art that may dispose one toward empathy: reliance on bodily senses, use of metaphor, and occupation by virtual worlds. Analysis of art's potential suggests that a person who would derive empathy from art must (a) use the senses to grasp feeling, (b) stretch the imagination to see a new perspective, and (c) invite an occupation that enhances understanding. Persons who hope to develop empathy must pursue an experience that evokes the fellow feeling that inspires it. Art can offer this experience. PMID:8863938

  14. Colposcopy in general practice.

    PubMed

    Cherry, S; Blackledge, D; Russell, R

    1996-11-01

    Primary care physicians are in an excellent position to identify women most at risk for cancer precursors. They can use a variety of modalities, including colposcopy thus reducing patient anxiety and waiting time. This article describes a training program for such a service, which includes at least 100 colposcopy examinations under supervision. It is applicable outside a hospital clinic setting. Subsequent practice must have a referral base sufficient to maintain competence as well as economic viability. All GP colposcopists in the Perth area attend regular quality assurance meetings. An audit has shown that properly trained GPs can achieve a level of competence equivalent to that expected of their specialist colleagues (89% concordance between colposcopic impression and histology). The format of the audit was based on that of the Royal Australian College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RACOG). Treatment must be performed by experts. General practice is the appropriate location for community screening studies using colposcopy. PMID:8952109

  15. High hydrostatic pressure processing: a promising nonthermal technology to inactivate viruses in high-risk foods.

    PubMed

    Lou, Fangfei; Neetoo, Hudaa; Chen, Haiqiang; Li, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne outbreaks of viral origin have become increasingly a serious public health concern. High-pressure processing (HPP), a nonthermal technology, has come to the forefront for food processing given its minimal effects on food quality. Recent studies have revealed encouraging results for the inactivation of several human viruses by HPP. This review provides comprehensive information on the use of HPP to eliminate viruses in model systems and foods. We address the influences of various parameters, including pressure level, holding time, pH, temperature, and food matrix on the efficacy of pressure inactivation of viruses, as well as insight into the mechanisms for inactivation of enveloped and nonenveloped viruses. HPP is a promising technology for mitigating virus contamination of foods, thus it is essential to identify the optimal parameters for enhancing virus inactivation while ensuring sensory and nutritional quality retention of foods. PMID:25884283

  16. Aptamer-Based Analysis: A Promising Alternative for Food Safety Control

    PubMed Central

    Amaya-González, Sonia; de-los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J.; Lobo-Castañón, Maria Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Ensuring food safety is nowadays a top priority of authorities and professional players in the food supply chain. One of the key challenges to determine the safety of food and guarantee a high level of consumer protection is the availability of fast, sensitive and reliable analytical methods to identify specific hazards associated to food before they become a health problem. The limitations of existing methods have encouraged the development of new technologies, among them biosensors. Success in biosensor design depends largely on the development of novel receptors with enhanced affinity to the target, while being stable and economical. Aptamers fulfill these characteristics, and thus have surfaced as promising alternatives to natural receptors. This Review describes analytical strategies developed so far using aptamers for the control of pathogens, allergens, adulterants, toxins and other forbidden contaminants to ensure food safety. The main progresses to date are presented, highlighting potential prospects for the future. PMID:24287543

  17. Engaging Students in the Scientific Practices of Explanation and Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiser, Brian J.; Berland, Leema K.; Kenyon, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" identifies eight science and engineering practices for K-12 classrooms. These practices, along with core ideas and crosscutting concepts, define the nation's learning goals for science. An important advance from earlier standards (AAAS 1993, NRC 1996), these practices are clearly identified "not" as…

  18. Cholesterol uptake disruption, in association with chemotherapy, is a promising combined metabolic therapy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guillaumond, Fabienne; Bidaut, Ghislain; Ouaissi, Mehdi; Servais, Stéphane; Gouirand, Victoire; Olivares, Orianne; Lac, Sophie; Borge, Laurence; Roques, Julie; Gayet, Odile; Pinault, Michelle; Guimaraes, Cyrille; Nigri, Jérémy; Loncle, Céline; Lavaut, Marie-Noëlle; Garcia, Stéphane; Tailleux, Anne; Staels, Bart; Calvo, Ezequiel; Tomasini, Richard; Iovanna, Juan Lucio; Vasseur, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The malignant progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is accompanied by a profound desmoplasia, which forces proliferating tumor cells to metabolically adapt to this new microenvironment. We established the PDAC metabolic signature to highlight the main activated tumor metabolic pathways. Comparative transcriptomic analysis identified lipid-related metabolic pathways as being the most highly enriched in PDAC, compared with a normal pancreas. Our study revealed that lipoprotein metabolic processes, in particular cholesterol uptake, are drastically activated in the tumor. This process results in an increase in the amount of cholesterol and an overexpression of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) in pancreatic tumor cells. These findings identify LDLR as a novel metabolic target to limit PDAC progression. Here, we demonstrate that shRNA silencing of LDLR, in pancreatic tumor cells, profoundly reduces uptake of cholesterol and alters its distribution, decreases tumor cell proliferation, and limits activation of ERK1/2 survival pathway. Moreover, blocking cholesterol uptake sensitizes cells to chemotherapeutic drugs and potentiates the effect of chemotherapy on PDAC regression. Clinically, high PDAC Ldlr expression is not restricted to a specific tumor stage but is correlated to a higher risk of disease recurrence. This study provides a precise overview of lipid metabolic pathways that are disturbed in PDAC. We also highlight the high dependence of pancreatic cancer cells upon cholesterol uptake, and identify LDLR as a promising metabolic target for combined therapy, to limit PDAC progression and disease patient relapse. PMID:25675507

  19. Identifying unproven cancer treatments on the health web: addressing accuracy, generalizability and scalability.

    PubMed

    Aphinyanaphongs, Yin; Fu, Lawrence D; Aliferis, Constantin F

    2013-01-01

    Building machine learning models that identify unproven cancer treatments on the Health Web is a promising approach for dealing with the dissemination of false and dangerous information to vulnerable health consumers. Aside from the obvious requirement of accuracy, two issues are of practical importance in deploying these models in real world applications. (a) Generalizability: The models must generalize to all treatments (not just the ones used in the training of the models). (b) Scalability: The models can be applied efficiently to billions of documents on the Health Web. First, we provide methods and related empirical data demonstrating strong accuracy and generalizability. Second, by combining the MapReduce distributed architecture and high dimensionality compression via Markov Boundary feature selection, we show how to scale the application of the models to WWW-scale corpora. The present work provides evidence that (a) a very small subset of unproven cancer treatments is sufficient to build a model to identify unproven treatments on the web; (b) unproven treatments use distinct language to market their claims and this language is learnable; (c) through distributed parallelization and state of the art feature selection, it is possible to prepare the corpora and build and apply models with large scalability. PMID:23920640

  20. The metabolomics of asthma control: a promising link between genetics and disease

    PubMed Central

    McGeachie, Michael J; Dahlin, Amber; Qiu, Weiliang; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Savage, Jessica; Wu, Ann Chen; Wan, Emily S; Sordillo, Joanne E; Al-Garawi, Amal; Martinez, Fernando D; Strunk, Robert C; Lemanske, Robert F; Liu, Andrew H; Raby, Benjamin A; Weiss, Scott; Clish, Clary B; Lasky-Su, Jessica A

    2015-01-01

    Short-acting ? agonists (e.g., albuterol) are the most commonly used medications for asthma, a disease that affects over 300 million people in the world. Metabolomic profiling of asthmatics taking ? agonists presents a new and promising resource for identifying the molecular determinants of asthma control. The objective is to identify novel genetic and biochemical predictors of asthma control using an integrative “omics” approach. We generated lipidomic data by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS), ­ using plasma samples from 20 individuals with asthma. The outcome of interest was a binary indicator of asthma control defined by the use of albuterol inhalers in the preceding week. We integrated metabolomic data with genome-wide genotype, gene expression, and methylation data of this cohort to identify genomic and molecular indicators of asthma control. A Conditional Gaussian Bayesian Network (CGBN) was generated using the strongest predictors from each of these analyses. Integrative and metabolic pathway over-representation analyses (ORA) identified enrichment of known biological pathways within the strongest molecular determinants. Of the 64 metabolites measured, 32 had known identities. The CGBN model based on four SNPs (rs9522789, rs7147228, rs2701423, rs759582) and two metabolites—monoHETE_0863 and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) could predict asthma control with an AUC of 95%. Integrative ORA identified 17 significantly enriched pathways related to cellular immune response, interferon signaling, and cytokine-related signaling, for which arachidonic acid, PGE2 and S1P, in addition to six genes (CHN1, PRKCE, GNA12, OASL, OAS1, and IFIT3) appeared to drive the pathway results. Of these predictors, S1P, GNA12, and PRKCE were enriched in the results from integrative and metabolic ORAs. Through an integrative analysis of metabolomic, genomic, and methylation data from a small cohort of asthmatics, we implicate altered metabolic pathways, related to sphingolipid metabolism, in asthma control. These results provide insight into the pathophysiology of asthma control. PMID:26421150

  1. 5 CFR 724.402 - Best practices study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Best practices study. 724.402 Section 724... RETALIATION ACT OF 2002 Best Practices § 724.402 Best practices study. (a) OPM will conduct a comprehensive study in the executive branch to identify best practices for taking appropriate disciplinary...

  2. Using Online Modules to Bridge Research to Practice in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Mary E.; King, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    Although research identifies a plethora of evidence-based instructional practices, classroom teachers find research difficult to access and often of little relevance to classroom practice; therefore, they do not implement these practices. Bridging the gap between research and practice requires continued and mediated support as teachers translate…

  3. Variations in tobacco control in National Dental PBRN practices: The role of patient and practice factors

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Midge N.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Coley, Heather L.; Williams, Jessica H.; Kohler, Connie; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Richman, Joshua S.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Sadasivam, Rajani S.; Houston, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    We engaged dental practices enrolled in The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network to quantify tobacco screening (ASK) and advising (ADVISE); and to identify patient and practice characteristics associated with tobacco control. Dental practices (N=190) distributed patient surveys that measured ASK and ADVISE. 29% of patients were ASKED about tobacco use during visit, 20% were identified as tobacco users, and 41% reported being ADVISED. Accounting for clustering of patients within practices, younger age and male gender were positively associated with ASK and ADVISE. Adjusting for patient age and gender, a higher proportion of non-whites in the practice, preventive services and proportion on public assistance were positively associated with ASK. Proportion of tobacco users in the practice and offering other preventive services were more strongly associated with ASK and ADVISE than other practice characteristics. Understanding variations in performance is an important step toward designing strategies for improving tobacco control in dentistry. PMID:24164227

  4. Global Studies: Problems and Promises for Elementary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overly, Norman V., Ed.; Kimpston, Richard D., Ed.

    This publication identifies rationale, content, and materials for teaching about world problems in the elementary school. Intended predominantly for use by classroom teachers and supervisors, the publication is also a useful resource for teacher training. It contains four chapters. Chapter I, A Perspective on Global Studies, reviews the historical…

  5. Monitoring Progress: Response to Intervention's Promise and Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Response to intervention began as a way to identify and teach struggling readers and special education students. It's fast becoming a way to change schooling for everyone. This special report examines the many forms the approach is now taking, its research base, its influence on the educational marketplace, and the federal regulations that both…

  6. The Young Gifted Child: Potential and Promise: An Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smutny, Joan Franklin, Ed.

    Forty-one papers on young gifted children are grouped in sections on identification, special populations, parenting, social/emotional needs, and education. The papers are: "The Beginnings of Giftedness: Optimizing Early Learning" (Clark); "Identifying the Gifted Infant" (Gelbrich); "Seeking Advanced Potentials: Developmentally Appropriate…

  7. Objectivity in Grading: The Promise of Bar Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jae, Haeran; Cowling, John

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes the use of a new technology to assure student anonymity and reduce bias hazards: identifying students by using bar codes. The limited finding suggests that the use of bar codes for assuring student anonymity could potentially cause students to perceive that grades are assigned more fairly and reassure teachers that they are…

  8. Promising Strategies To Reduce Gun Violence. OJJDP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquent Prevention (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    In recent years, communities across the country have struggled to develop effective solutions to the problem of gun violence. Many have approached the United States Department of Justice for help in identifying solutions. This publication was developed in response to these requests. It is designed to provide state and local elected officials,…

  9. General Practice Locum Improvement Tool

    PubMed Central

    Weatherburn, Christopher; Hasan, Shawkat

    2014-01-01

    An improvement culture is required in the NHS. Staff members who move from one place of work to another are often best placed to see alternative methods of working that at times are more efficient – locum general practitioners (GPs) tend to be in this category. A tool was developed specifically to obtain quality improvement suggestions to the general practice from the locum GP and vice versa in a time efficient manner. A pilot study was performed in one general practice in Tayside (Grove Health Centre) in December 2013 to assess if this was possible. During this month a general practice partner provided feedback to the locum GP by completing a drop down tick box survey while reviewing three cases dealt with by the locum. The locum GP was emailed after their session with a one question survey enquiring about improvement suggestions for that practice. Five different locum GPs provided clinical cover during the month studied – of these, one opted out from the study. The other four locums performed their clinical session and completed the survey. Feedback from the practice to locums included specific clinical guidance, suggestions for improving documentation, and ways to optimise referrals; of note, unique feedback was given to each locum and this was generated using this tool. Themes from the locum suggestions to the practice included more physical resources (such as cameras in each room), different ways of handling prescriptions, and a suggestion about identifying complex patients. As a direct result of this pilot a locum box has been implemented in this practice and plans are to rerun this tool periodically. The authors would recommend utilising this tool periodically in other general practices as it has the potential to identify improvement suggestions unique for that particular practice.

  10. Porous Alumina as a Promising Biomaterial for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela; Panatto, Donatella; Larosa, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Porous aluminum is a nanostructured material characterized by unique properties, such as chemical stability, regular uniformity, dense hexagonal porous lattice with high aspect ratio nanopores, excellent mechanical strength, and biocompatibility. This overview examines how the structure and properties of porous alumina can be exploited in the field of public health. Porous alumina can be employed for fabricating membranes and filters for bioremediation, water ultrafiltration, and microfiltration/nanofiltration, being a promising technique for having clean and fresh water, which is essential for human health. Porous alumina-based nanobiosensor coated with specific antibodies or peptides seem to be a useful tool to detect and remove pathogens both in food and in water, as well as for environmental monitoring. Further, these applications, being low-energy demanding and cost-effective, are particularly valuable in resource-limited settings and contexts, and can be employed as point of use devices in developing countries, where there is an urgent need of hygiene and safety assurance. PMID:26572980

  11. TurboBrayton Cryocooler: A Flight Worthy and Promising Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbon, Judith A.; Swift, Walt L.; Zagarola, Mark V.; DiPirro, Mike; Whitehouse, Paul

    1999-01-01

    A new development in cryocooler technology, a reverse TurboBrayton cycle cryocooler, developed by Creare, Inc. of Hanover, NH, has now been flight tested. This cooler provides high reliability and long life. With no linear moving components common in current flight cryocoolers, the TurboBrayton cooler requires no active control systems to provide a vibration-free signature. The cooler provides first stage cooling for advanced cryogenic systems and serves as a direct replacement for stored cryogen systems with a longer lifetime. Following a successful flight on STS-95, a TurboBrayton cryocooler will be flown on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 2000 to provide renewed refrigeration capability for the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). The TurboBrayton cycle cooler is a promising technology already being considered for additional flight programs such as Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) and Constellation X. These future missions require an advanced generation of the cooler that is currently under development to provide cooling at 10K and less. This paper presents an overview of the current generation cooler with recent flight test results and details the current plans and development progress on the next generation TurboBrayton technology for future missions.

  12. Graphdiyne as a promising material for detecting amino acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Gao, Pengfei; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of glycine, glutamic acid, histidine and phenylalanine on single-layer graphdiyne/ graphene is investigated by ab initio calculations. The results show that for each amino acid molecule, the adsorption energy on graphdiyne is larger than the adsorption energy on graphene and dispersion interactions predominate in the adsorption. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that at room temperature the amino acid molecules keep migrating and rotating on graphdiyne surface and induce fluctuation in graphdiyne bandgap. Additionally, the photon absorption spectra of graphdiyne-amino-acid systems are investigated. We uncover that the presence of amino acid molecules makes the photon absorption peaks of graphdiyne significantly depressed and shifted. Finally, quantum electronic transport properties of graphdiyne-amino-acid systems are compared with the transport properties of pure graphdiyne. We reveal that the amino acid molecules induce distinct changes in the electronic conductivity of graphdiyne. The results in this paper reveal that graphdiyne is a promising two-dimensional material for sensitively detecting amino acids and may potentially be used in biosensors. PMID:26568200

  13. Promises and Challenges of Smac Mimetics as Cancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Fulda, Simone

    2015-11-15

    Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins block programmed cell death and are expressed at high levels in various human cancers, thus making them attractive targets for cancer drug development. Second mitochondrial activator of caspases (Smac) mimetics are small-molecule inhibitors that mimic Smac, an endogenous antagonist of IAP proteins. Preclinical studies have shown that Smac mimetics can directly trigger cancer cell death or, even more importantly, sensitize tumor cells for various cytotoxic therapies, including conventional chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or novel agents. Currently, several Smac mimetics are under evaluation in early clinical trials as monotherapy or in rational combinations (i.e., GDC-0917/CUDC-427, LCL161, AT-406/Debio1143, HGS1029, and TL32711/birinapant). This review discusses the promise as well as some challenges at the translational interface of exploiting Smac mimetics as cancer therapeutics. Clin Cancer Res; 21(22); 5030-6. ©2015 AACR.See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Cell Death and Cancer Therapy." PMID:26567362

  14. Promises and failures of gallium as an antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Minandri, Fabrizia; Bonchi, Carlo; Frangipani, Emanuela; Imperi, Francesco; Visca, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Gallium has a long history as a diagnostic and chemotherapeutic agent. The pharmacological properties of Ga(III) rely on chemical mimicry; when Ga(III) is exogenously supplied to living cells it can replace Fe(III) within target molecules, thereby perturbing bacterial metabolism. Ga(III)-induced metabolic distresses are dramatic in fast-growing cells, like bacterial cells. Interest in the antibacterial properties of Ga(III) has been raised by the compelling need for novel drugs to combat multidrug-resistant bacteria and by the shortage of new antibiotic candidates in the pharmaceutical pipeline. Ga(III) activity has been demonstrated, both in vitro and in animal models of infections, on several bacterial pathogens, also including intracellular and biofilm-forming bacteria. Ga(III) activity is affected by iron availability and the metabolic state of the cell, being maximal in iron-poor media and in respiring cells. Synergism between Ga(III) and antibiotics holds promise as last resort therapy for infections sustained by pandrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:24762310

  15. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by somes promising Brazilian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, C M; Freitas, R M; Luz, N N N; Bezerra, M Z B; Trevisan, M T S

    2011-08-01

    A microplate assay and a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) "in situ" assay based on the Ellman assay was used to screen for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Brazilian medicinal plants of families that, according to the literature, have traditional uses that might be connected with acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Eighteen species belonging to Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Rutaceae families were tested. The most active plants were Ipomoea asarifolia (IC50 = 0.12 mg/mL), Jatropha curcas (IC50 = 0.25 mg/mL), Jatropha gossypiifolia (IC50 = 0.05 mg/mL), Kalanchoe brasiliensis (IC50 = 0.16 mg/mL) and Senna alata (IC50 = 0.08 mg/mL). The most promising extracts were the Jatropha gossypiifolia and Senna alata species assuming there were compounds with a similar activity to galanthamine, which should contain about 1% of an active compound, or if present at lower levels even more active compounds than galanthamine (IC50 = 0.37 x 10-3 mg/mL) should be present. PMID:21881804

  16. Muscle wasting in disease: molecular mechanisms and promising therapies.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shenhav; Nathan, James A; Goldberg, Alfred L

    2015-01-01

    Atrophy occurs in specific muscles with inactivity (for example, during plaster cast immobilization) or denervation (for example, in patients with spinal cord injuries). Muscle wasting occurs systemically in older people (a condition known as sarcopenia); as a physiological response to fasting or malnutrition; and in many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, cancer-associated cachexia, diabetes, renal failure, cardiac failure, Cushing syndrome, sepsis, burns and trauma. The rapid loss of muscle mass and strength primarily results from excessive protein breakdown, which is often accompanied by reduced protein synthesis. This loss of muscle function can lead to reduced quality of life, increased morbidity and mortality. Exercise is the only accepted approach to prevent or slow atrophy. However, several promising therapeutic agents are in development, and major advances in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms that regulate the protein balance in muscle include the identification of several cytokines, particularly myostatin, and a common transcriptional programme that promotes muscle wasting. Here, we discuss these new insights and the rationally designed therapies that are emerging to combat muscle wasting. PMID:25549588

  17. Mastl kinase, a promising therapeutic target, promotes cancer recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Luong, Vivian Q.; Giannini, Peter J.; Peng, Aimin

    2014-01-01

    Mastl kinase promotes mitotic progression and cell cycle reentry after DNA damage. We report here that Mastl is frequently upregulated in various types of cancer. This upregulation was correlated with cancer progression in breast and oral cancer, poor patient survival in breast cancer, and tumor recurrence in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. We further investigated the role of Mastl in tumor resistance using cell lines derived from the initial and recurrent tumors of the same head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. Ectopic expression of Mastl in the initial tumor cells strongly promoted cell proliferation in the presence of cisplatin by attenuating DNA damage signaling and cell death. Mastl knockdown in recurrent tumor cells re-sensitized their response to cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo. Finally, Mastl targeting specifically potentiated cancer cells to cell death in chemotherapy while sparing normal cells. Thus, this study revealed that Mastl upregulation is involved in cancer progression and tumor recurrence after initial cancer therapy, and validated Mastl as a promising target to increase the therapeutic window. PMID:25373736

  18. Mastl kinase, a promising therapeutic target, promotes cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Luong, Vivian Q; Giannini, Peter J; Peng, Aimin

    2014-11-30

    Mastl kinase promotes mitotic progression and cell cycle reentry after DNA damage. We report here that Mastl is frequently upregulated in various types of cancer. This upregulation was correlated with cancer progression in breast and oral cancer, poor patient survival in breast cancer, and tumor recurrence in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. We further investigated the role of Mastl in tumor resistance using cell lines derived from the initial and recurrent tumors of the same head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. Ectopic expression of Mastl in the initial tumor cells strongly promoted cell proliferation in the presence of cisplatin by attenuating DNA damage signaling and cell death. Mastl knockdown in recurrent tumor cells re-sensitized their response to cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo. Finally, Mastl targeting specifically potentiated cancer cells to cell death in chemotherapy while sparing normal cells. Thus, this study revealed that Mastl upregulation is involved in cancer progression and tumor recurrence after initial cancer therapy, and validated Mastl as a promising target to increase the therapeutic window. PMID:25373736

  19. "Ziziphus jujuba": A red fruit with promising anticancer activities.

    PubMed

    Tahergorabi, Zoya; Abedini, Mohammad Reza; Mitra, Moodi; Fard, Mohammad Hassanpour; Beydokhti, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Z. jujuba) is a traditional herb with a long history of use for nutrition and the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. It grows mostly in South and East Asia, as well as in Australia and Europe. Mounting evidence shows the health benefits of Z. jujuba, including anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiobesity, antioxidant, and hepato- and gastrointestinal protective properties, which are due to its bioactive compounds. Chemotherapy, such as with cis-diamminedichloroplatinium (CDDP, cisplatin) and its derivatives, is widely used in cancer treatment. It is an effective treatment for human cancers, including ovarian cancer; however, drug resistance is a major obstacle to successful treatment. A better understanding of the mechanisms and strategies for overcoming chemoresistance can greatly improve therapeutic outcomes for patients. In this review article, the bioactive compounds present in Z. jujuba are explained. The high prevalence of many different cancers worldwide has recently attracted the attention of many researchers. This is why our research group focused on studying the anticancer activity of Z. jujuba as well as its impact on chemoresistance both in vivo and in vitro. We hope that these studies can lead to a promising future for cancer patients. PMID:26392706

  20. The promise and peril of the pharmacological enhancer Modafinil.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The neuro-enhancement Modafinil promises to dramatically increase users' waking hours without much sacrifice to clarity of thought and without serious side effects (inducing addiction). For Modafinil to be advantageous, its usage must enable access to goods that themselves improve the quality of one's life. I draw attention to a variety of conditions that must be met for an experience, activity or object to improve the quality of one's life, such as positional, relational, and saturation conditions, as well as it's being good for its own sake. I discuss and describe the contexts in which widespread usage (legal or not) of Modafinil would undermine these conditions being met, and thus users would fail to significantly improve the quality of their lives and would in fact potentially make both themselves and nonusers worse off in important respects thus far overlooked by critics. In the right contexts, where free time is protected and prolonged, Modafinil does have a variety of potential benefits including, most interestingly, a distinctive form of agency possible only in free time. The potential disadvantages and advantages highlighted in this article are relevant not only to public institutions deciding whether to legalize Modafinil's use as an enhancement but also to individuals deciding whether to use it illegally, as well as to the questions of how and whether to alter key features of one's context (e.g. regulating work hours or extending social services) rather than, or in addition, to regulating the use of enhancement drugs such as Modafinil. PMID:23278474