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1

Promising Practices: Spotlighting Excellence in Comprehensive Internationalization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The future of the United States hinges on its ability to educate a globally competent citizenry. This report showcases internationalization at eight colleges and universities selected to participate in "Promising Practices," a project organized and administered by the American Council on Education (Washington, DC), with funding from the Carnegie…

Engberg, David, Ed.; Green, Madeleine F., Ed.

2

Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three Latin American countries--Brazil, Peru and Argentina--were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Garrett, Gerald; Johansson, Anna Carin; Hess, Lauren

2005-01-01

3

Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Southeast Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three countries in Southeast Asia--Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand--were examined to identify promising practices and to…

Libretto, Salvatore; Nemes, Susanna; Namur, Jenny; Garrett, Gerald; Hess, Lauren; Kaplan, Linda

2005-01-01

4

Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in four European countries-Poland, Spain, Slovenia, and Italy-were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Skinstad, Anne Helene; Garrett, Gerald; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.

2005-01-01

5

Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: An Overview of Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a research project sponsored and funded by the State Department's Bureau of International Narcotics and Affairs (INL) on substance abuse and treatment in ten countries. The purpose of the study was to identify promising practices in drug treatment in Europe, Latin America, and Southeast Asia. The steps taken to complete this…

Garrett, Gerald; Nemes, Susanna; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Libretto, Salvatore; Skinstadt, Anne Helene; Hess, Lauren

2005-01-01

6

What If? Promising Practices for Improving Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, there is little deviation from the standard, business-as-usual practices in the world of education. This book challenges these stale practices and asks the important questions that can improve schools beyond the current state of mediocrity. Written for administrators, supervisors, teachers, parents--even politicians and corporate…

Dunn, Rita, Ed.; Griggs, Shirley A., Ed.

2007-01-01

7

Promising Practices: Vocational Education Resource Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed to assist community college administrators and faculty in enhancing vocational educational programs and services, this Vocational Education Resource Package profiles four vocational education programs at California community colleges that show promise in serving special population students. First, the Applied Mathematics for Electronics…

Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.

8

Promising Practices in Citywide Afterschool Initiatives. CityWorks: Focus on Infrastructure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief is the first in a series featuring promising practices in city-wide after-school initiatives, with a focus at the infrastructure level, focusing on the infrastructure representing the underlying elements or framework that hold a system or initiative together. The brief identifies practices to support the public relations function and…

Hall, Georgia

9

Promises to Practice: Learning a PROactive Approach to Ethical Dilemmas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning to be PROactive, as the title of this article suggests, means Pooling one's knowledge, Reflecting respect, and Opening oneself to action. It recognizes early childhood educators' promises to their field of practice, based on widely held beliefs and principles. Educators can apply professional ethics to everyday problem solving and their…

Ambery, Mary Elizabeth; Steinbrunner, Ruth K.

2007-01-01

10

PROMISING PRACTICES FOR SMALL SCHOOLS IMPROVEMENT. ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MEETING THE UNIQUE PROBLEMS OF PROVIDING QUALITY EDUCATION IN SMALL SCHOOLS CALLS FOR SPECIAL PROGRAMS. THE WESTERN STATES SMALL SCHOOLS PROJECT HAS COMPILED 9 PROMISING PROGRAM PRACTICES WHICH CAPITALIZE UPON THE POTENTIAL STRENGTHS INHERENT IN SMALLNESS--INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION IN HIGH SCHOOL LANGUAGE ARTS, INDIVIDUALIZED ENGLISH IN A SMALL…

STUTZ, ROWAN C.

11

Contexts for Promise: Noteworthy Practices and Innovations in the Identification of Gifted Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph contains 11 papers describing model projects that address the identification of gifted students. An introduction by Carolyn M. Callahan and Carol A. Tomlinson identifies commonalities and themes in the promising practices highlighted in the papers. The papers include: (1) "Project STREAM: Support, Training and Resources for…

Callahan, Carolyn M., Ed.; And Others

12

The Practice and Promise of Prison Programming. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on employment-related programs in prison, exploring what the research literature tells about the effectiveness of prison-based education, vocational training, and prison industry on postrelease outcomes. Also studied was the state of practice of such programs and strategic opportunities for improving existing employment-related…

Lawrence, Sarah; Mears, Daniel P.; Dubin, Glenn; Travis, Jeremy

13

A Community College and Employer Partnership. Promising Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a pilot site selected to participate in Illinois' Shifting Gears (SG) initiative in 2007, Oakton Community College (OCC) partnered with Presbyterian Homes to develop a bridge course to prepare a cadre of their employed Certified Nurse Assistants (CNAs) to enter college-credit level prerequisite courses to a Practical Nursing program. Oakton…

Office of Community College Research and Leadership, 2010

2010-01-01

14

Engaging Women in Computer Science and Engineering: Promising Practices for Promoting Gender Equity in Undergraduate Research Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building on research that identifies and addresses issues of women's underrepresentation in computing, this article describes promising practices in undergraduate research experiences that promote women's long-term interest in computer science and engineering. Specifically, this article explores whether and how REU programs include programmatic…

Kim, Karen A.; Fann, Amy J.; Misa-Escalante, Kimberly O.

2011-01-01

15

Women in CS: An Evaluation of Three Promising Practices Christine Alvarado  

E-print Network

Women in CS: An Evaluation of Three Promising Practices Christine Alvarado Harvey Mudd College alvarado@cs.hmc.edu Zachary Dodds Harvey Mudd College dodds@cs.hmc.edu ABSTRACT Historically, Harvey Mudd

Alvarado, Christine

16

The Promise of the Affordable Care Act, the Practical Realities of Implementation  

E-print Network

transitions. Our initial brief, Maximizing Health Care Enrollment through Seamless Coverage for Families of a work or life transition. INTRODUCTION The promise of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is that if someoneThe Promise of the Affordable Care Act, the Practical Realities of Implementation: Maintaining

Militzer, Burkhard

17

Puzzles and Pieces in Wonderland: The Promise and Practice of Student Affairs Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph considers student affairs research, providing an overview of research issues; a practical guide to conducting and teaching about research; and a critique of current research assumptions, methods, and practices. "The Promise of Student Affairs Research" (Karl Beeler and Deborah Ellen Hunter) uses "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" as…

Beeler, Karl J., Ed.; Hunter, Deborah Ellen, Ed.

18

Promising Practices in Small High Schools. A Report of 28 Northwest Projects, 1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promising educational practices utilized in small high schools in the Northwestern United States, including Alaska, are described. Practices and programs reported include an educational enrichment program, multiple-class teaching, a nongraded minicourse curriculum, a phasing program for high school English, a media center retrieval system, a…

McCarl, Robert, Ed.

19

Education for Civic Engagement in Democracy: Service Learning and Other Promising Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays and references addresses the problem of the disengagement in public affairs and politics by U.S. youth and young adults. The collection brings together evidence of youth disengagement and reports on promising practices for civic education. Several chapters are devoted to research findings on the impact of service and…

Mann, Sheilah, Ed.; Patrick, John J., Ed.

20

Seeing is Believing: Promising Practices for How School Districts Promote Family Engagement. Issue Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harvard Family Research Project (HFRP) and the National Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) have teamed up to bring you a ground-breaking policy brief that examines the role of school districts in promoting family engagement. "Seeing is Believing: Promising Practices for How School Districts Promote Family Engagement" spotlights how six school…

Westmoreland, Helen; Rosenberg, Heidi M.; Lopez, M. Elena; Weiss, Heather

2009-01-01

21

Neuroprotection for Ischemic Stroke: Moving Past Shortcomings and Identifying Promising Directions  

PubMed Central

The translation of neuroprotective agents for ischemic stroke from bench-to-bedside has largely failed to produce improved treatments since the development of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). One possible reason for lack of translation is the failure to acknowledge the greatest risk factor for stroke, age, and other common comorbidities such as hypertension, obesity, and diabetes that are associated with stroke. In this review, we highlight both mechanisms of studying these factors and results of those that have been addressed. We also discuss the potential role of other lifestyle factors associated with an increased stroke risk such as sleep fragmentation and/or deprivation. Furthermore, many proposed therapeutic agents have targeted molecular mechanisms occurring soon after the onset of ischemia despite data indicating delayed patient presentation following ischemic stroke. Modulating inflammation has been identified as a promising therapeutic avenue consistent with preliminary success of ongoing clinical trials for anti-inflammatory compounds such as minocycline. We review the role of inflammation in stroke and in particular, the role of inflammatory cell recruitment and macrophage phenotype in the inflammatory process. Emerging evidence indicates an increasing role of neuro-immune crosstalk, which has led to increased interest in identification of peripheral biomarkers indicative of neural injury. It is our hope that identification and investigation of factors influencing stroke pathophysiology may lead to improved therapeutics. PMID:23344061

Turner, Ryan C.; Lucke-Wold, Brandon; Lucke-Wold, Noelle; Elliott, Alisa S.; Logsdon, Aric F.; Rosen, Charles L.; Huber, Jason D.

2013-01-01

22

The Evidence. Supported Education: A Promising Practice. Evidence-Based Practices KIT (Knowledge Informing Transformation)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supported Employment is an evidence-based practice that helps people with mental illness find and keep meaningful jobs in the community. Given these outcomes the challenge for Supported Employment programs is to rethink the emphasis on immediate work for everyone and help consumers utilize appropriate education and training opportunities available…

Unger, Karen V.

2011-01-01

23

Training Frontline Staff. Supported Education: A Promising Practice. Evidence-Based Practices KIT (Knowledge Informing Transformation)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This four-part workbook will help program leaders teach education specialists the principles, processes, and skills necessary to deliver effective Supported Education services. The workbook includes the following: (1) Basic elements and practice principles of Supported Education; (2) Knowledge and skills to help consumers make informed choices…

Unger, Karen V.

2011-01-01

24

Identifying Effective Classroom Practices Using Student Achievement Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research continues to find large differences in student achievement gains across teachers' classrooms. The variability in teacher effectiveness raises the stakes on identifying effective teachers and teaching practices. This paper combines data from classroom observations of teaching practices and measures of teachers' ability to improve student…

Kane, Thomas J.; Taylor, Eric S.; Tyler, John H.; Wooten, Amy L.

2011-01-01

25

Assessment of promising forest-management practices and technologies for enhancing the conservation and sequestration of atmospheric carbon and their costs at the site level  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: (1) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequestering and conserving carbon; (2) Assess available data on costs at the site level for promising forest and agroforestry management practices; and (3) Evaluate estimates of land technically suitable in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets and the proposed Global Forest Agreement goals.

Dixon, R.K.; Schroeder, P.E.; Winjum, J.K.

1991-10-01

26

Understanding Evidence-Based Information for the Early Childhood Field: Tips from RAND's Promising Practices Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growing and diverse use of the term "evidence-based practice" it can be difficult for policymakers, funders, program officers, and other professionals to separate the good evidence from the flawed. Furthermore, once good evidence has been identified, it can be difficult to know how to use it. This article discusses key issues to consider…

Mattox, Teryn; Kilburn, M. Rebecca

2012-01-01

27

Fostering Resilience among Urban Youth Exposed to Violence: A Promising Area for Interdisciplinary Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most studies to date have examined negative effects of exposure to community violence, in line with the deficit-based perspective. However, given that most youth exposed to community violence demonstrate positive adaptation or resilience over time, we suggest a shift in perspective, practices, and policies across systems toward identifying and…

Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison K.

2013-01-01

28

Gene prioritization aims to identify the most promising genes (or proteins) among a larger pool of candidates  

E-print Network

Gene prioritization aims to identify the most promising genes (or proteins) among a larger pool for prioritization are useful at several stages of any gene-hunting process. These bioinformatics tools were on a few of the most likely candidate genes1­3 . For instance, a linkage analysis on patients

29

Interdisciplinary promises versus practices in medicine: The decoupled experiences of social sciences and humanities scholars.  

PubMed

This paper explores social scientists' and humanities (SSH) scholars' integration within the academic medical research environment. Three questions guided our investigation: Do SSH scholars adapt to the medical research environment? How do they navigate their career within a culture that may be inconsistent with their own? What strategies do they use to gain legitimacy? The study builds on three concepts: decoupling, doxa, and epistemic habitus. Twenty-nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with SSH scholars working in 11 faculties of medicine across Canada. Participants were selected through purposeful and snowball sampling. The data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. For most of our participants, moving into medicine has been a challenging experience, as their research practices and views of academic excellence collided with those of medicine. In order to achieve some level of legitimacy more than half of our participants altered their research practices. This resulted in a dissonance between their internalized appreciation of academic excellence and their new, altered, research practices. Only six participants experienced no form of challenge or dissonance after moving into medicine, while three decided to break with their social science and humanities past and make the medical research community their new home. We conclude that the work environment for SSH scholars in faculties of medicine does not deliver on the promise of inclusiveness made by calls for interdisciplinarity in Canadian health research. PMID:25500163

Albert, Mathieu; Paradis, Elise; Kuper, Ayelet

2015-02-01

30

Enacting the ‘neuro’ in practice: Translational research, adhesion and the promise of porosity  

PubMed Central

This article attends to the processes through which neuroscience and the neuro are enacted in a specific context: a translational neuroscience research group that was the setting of an ethnographic study. The article therefore provides a close-up perspective on the intersection of neuroscience and translational research. In the scientific setting we studied, the neuro was multiple and irreducible to any particular entity or set of practices across a laboratory and clinical divide. Despite this multiplicity, the group’s work was held together through the ‘promise of porosity’ – that one day there would be translation of lab findings into clinically effective intervention. This promise was embodied in the figure of the Group Leader whose expertise spanned clinical and basic neurosciences. This is theorized in terms of a contrast between cohesion and adhesion in interdisciplinary groupings. We end by speculating on the role of ‘vivification’ – in our case mediated by the Group Leader – in rendering ‘alive’ the expectations of interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:25362829

Michael, Mike

2014-01-01

31

The Promise of Virtual Teams: Identifying Key Factors in Effectiveness and Failure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of the investigation is to identify enabling and disenabling factors in the development and operation of virtual teams; to evaluate the importance of factors such as team development, cross-cultural variables, leadership, communication and social cohesion as contributors to virtual team effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach:…

Horwitz, Frank M.; Bravington, Desmond; Silvis, Ulrik

2006-01-01

32

A Decision Making Model to Identify and Install Promising College Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An external audit of East Los Angeles College's Extended Opportunity Programs and Services (EOPS) Program brought the inadequacies of the planning and evaluation model currently utilized for developmental programs to the attention of academic planners. In response to this, a two-level decision-making model was developed to aid in identifying and…

Galvin, Kevin; Kester, Donald

33

VLSI Technology: Impact and Promise. Identifying Emerging Issues and Trends in Technology for Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a 3-year study to identify emerging issues and trends in technology for special education, this paper addresses the implications of very large scale integrated (VLSI) technology. The first section reviews the development of educational technology, particularly microelectronics technology, from the 1950s to the present. The implications…

Bayoumi, Magdy

34

Transit Systems Project Title: Identifying Best Practices for  

E-print Network

Transit Systems Project Title: Identifying Best Practices for Managing Operating Costs for Rural Public Transit Systems By: Suzie Edrington Jonathan Brooks Linda Cherrington Paul Hamilton Todd Hansen Operating Costs for Rural and Small Urban Public Transit Systems iii Table of Contents LIST OF FIGURES

35

The doctor of nursing practice and nursing education: highlights, potential, and promise.  

PubMed

The success of the doctor of nursing practice (DNP) programs have exceeded everyone's expectations and resulted in increased interest in doctoral education in nursing. A shortage of doctorally prepared nurse educators continues to plague the profession and has a severe impact on the ability of schools of nursing to educate future generations of nurses. As a terminal degree in nursing practice, there is little focus on DNP graduates who are prepared as educators. To remedy this deficit, this article will therefore discuss and highlight (a) the significant potential of the DNP to mitigate the current nursing faculty shortage and to close the practice-education gap, (b) the specialized role of DNP graduates as educators and leaders in nursing education, and (c) the implications of the DNP for nursing scholarship. PMID:21925464

Danzey, Ida Maria; Ea, Emerson; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Garbutt, Susan J; Rafferty, Margaret; Zychowicz, Michael E

2011-01-01

36

Promising Practices To Connect Schools with the Community. Family, School, Community Partnership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph is the second in a series, whose purpose is to provide practitioners and researchers a forum for securing the most current knowledge pertinent to family, school, and community partnership issues. This publication focuses on emerging practices that link communities and schools, especially creating the school as the hub for…

Hiatt-Michael, Diana B., Ed.

37

Promising Homework Practices: Teachers' Perspectives on Making Homework Work for Newcomer Immigrant Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the homework practices of eight teachers working in a high school designed to serve newcomer immigrant students. Individual structured interviews were conducted in which teachers working in an innovative setting explained their purposes of assigning homework, their beliefs about factors affecting their students' homework…

Bang, Hee Jin

2012-01-01

38

The Promise and Practice of Pragmatism-Based Music Education in Democratic Societies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his book, "What's So Important about Music Education?" (2010), Goble J. Scott argues from a foundation of C. S. Peirce's pragmatist philosophy that school music education that enables students to understand and engage with the musical practices (or "praxes") of different cultural communities in terms of their…

Goble, J. Scott

2013-01-01

39

Promising Practices for Effective Transition for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (E/BD) have been consistently experiencing dismal outcomes. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of outcomes for this population, examine school-based instructional and behavioral strategies, and discuss transition related practices intended to improve present and future…

Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Mackiewicz, Sara Moore

2012-01-01

40

Egalitarian Promises and Inegalitarian Practices: Women's Roles in the American Owenite Communities, 1824-1828.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes differences between the high principles and realities of several attempts to establish communities based on theoritical equality of the sexes by Robert Owen. Reveals women continued to perform traditional female roles and household tasks. Argues that dichotomy between theory and practice contributes to failure of such utopian societies.…

Kolmerton, Carol A.

1981-01-01

41

Technological Advances in the Treatment of Trauma: A Review of Promising Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the availability of empirically supported practices for addressing posttraumatic stress disorder and other forms of trauma-related distress, the development and implementation of new technology to deliver these treatments is exciting. Technological innovations in this literature aim to expand availability of empirically based intervention,…

Paul, Lisa A.; Hassija, Christina M.; Clapp, Joshua D.

2012-01-01

42

Innovative Contextualized Curriculum for a CNA to LPN Bridge Course. Promising Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a pilot site selected to participate in Illinois' Shifting Gears (SG) initiative in 2007, Oakton Community College (OCC) partnered with Presbyterian Homes to develop a bridge course to prepare a cadre of their employed Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) to enter college-credit prerequisite courses to a Practical Nursing program. Oakton…

Office of Community College Research and Leadership, 2010

2010-01-01

43

Obtaining subjects’ consent to publish identifying personal information: current practices and identifying potential issues  

PubMed Central

Background In studies publishing identifying personal information, obtaining consent is regarded as necessary, as it is impossible to ensure complete anonymity. However, current journal practices around specific points to consider when obtaining consent, the contents of consent forms and how consent forms are managed have not yet been fully examined. This study was conducted to identify potential issues surrounding consent to publish identifying personal information. Methods Content analysis was carried out on instructions for authors and consent forms developed by academic journals in four fields (as classified by Journal Citation Reports): medicine general and internal, genetics and heredity, pediatrics, and psychiatry. An online questionnaire survey of editors working for journals that require the submission of consent forms was also conducted. Results Instructions for authors were reviewed for 491 academic journals (132 for medicine general and internal, 147 for genetics and heredity, 100 for pediatrics, and 112 for psychiatry). Approximately 40% (203: 74 for medicine general and internal, 31 for genetics and heredity, 58 for pediatrics, and 40 for psychiatry) stated that subject consent was necessary. The submission of consent forms was required by 30% (154) of the journals studied, and 10% (50) provided their own consent forms for authors to use. Two journals mentioned that the possible effects of publication on subjects should be considered. Many journal consent forms mentioned the difficulties in ensuring complete anonymity of subjects, but few addressed the study objective, the subjects’ right to refuse consent and the withdrawal of consent. The main reason for requiring the submission of consent forms was to confirm that consent had been obtained. Conclusion Approximately 40% of journals required subject consent to be obtained. However, differences were observed depending on the fields. Specific considerations were not always documented. There is a need to address issues around the study objective, subjects’ right to refuse consent and the withdrawal of consent. Whether responsibility for ensuring that the consent form has been signed lies with publishers also needs to be discussed. PMID:24267590

2013-01-01

44

Laminin, gamma 2 (LAMC2): A Promising New Putative Pancreatic Cancer Biomarker Identified by Proteomic Analysis of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Tissues*  

PubMed Central

In pancreatic cancer, the incidence and mortality curves coincide. One major reason for this high mortality rate in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients is the dearth of effective diagnostic, prognostic, and disease-monitoring biomarkers. Unfortunately, existing tumor markers, as well as current imaging modalities, are not sufficiently sensitive and/or specific for early-stage diagnosis. There is, therefore, an urgent need for improved serum markers of the disease. Herein, we performed Orbitrap® mass spectrometry proteomic analysis of four PDAC tissues and their adjacent benign tissues and identified a total of 2190 nonredundant proteins. Sixteen promising candidates were selected for further scrutiny using a systematic scoring algorithm. Our preliminary serum verification of the top four candidates (DSP, LAMC2, GP73, and DSG2) in 20 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and 20 with benign pancreatic cysts, showed a significant (p < 0.05) elevation of LAMC2 in pancreatic cancer serum. Extensive validation of LAMC2 in healthy, benign, and PDAC sera from geographically diverse cohorts (n = 425) (Japan, Europe, and USA) demonstrated a significant increase in levels in early-stage PDAC compared with benign diseases. The sensitivity of LAMC2 was comparable to CA19.9 in all data sets, with an AUC value greater than 0.85 in discriminating healthy patients from early-stage PDAC patients. LAMC2 exhibited diagnostic complementarity with CA19.9 by showing significant (p < 0.001 in two out of three cohorts) elevation in PDAC patients with clinically low CA19.9 levels. PMID:23798558

Kosanam, Hari; Prassas, Ioannis; Chrystoja, Caitlin C.; Soleas, Ireena; Chan, Alison; Dimitromanolakis, Apostolos; Blasutig, Ivan M.; Rückert, Felix; Gruetzmann, Robert; Pilarsky, Christian; Maekawa, Masato; Brand, Randall; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.

2013-01-01

45

Promising practices for delivery of court-supervised substance abuse treatment: Perspectives from six high-performing California counties operating Proposition 36  

PubMed Central

Operative for nearly a decade, California's voter-initiated Proposition 36 program offers many offenders community-based substance abuse treatment in lieu of likely incarceration. Research has documented program successes and plans for replication have proliferated, yet very little is known about how the Proposition 36 program works or practices for achieving optimal program outcomes. In this article, we identify policies and practices that key stakeholders perceive to be most responsible for the successful delivery of court-supervised substance abuse treatment to offenders under Proposition 36. Data was collected via focus groups conducted with 59 county stakeholders in six high-performing counties during 2009. Discussion was informed by seven empirical indicators of program performance and outcomes and was focused on identifying and describing elements contributing to success. Program success was primarily attributed to four strategies, those that: (1) fostered program engagement, monitored participant progress, and sustained cooperation among participants; (2) cultivated buy-in among key stakeholders; (3) capitalized on the role of the court and the judge; and (4) created a setting which promoted a high-quality treatment system, utilization of existing resources, and broad financial and political support for the program. Goals and practices for implementing each strategy are discussed. Findings provide a “promising practices” resource for Proposition 36 program evaluation and improvement and inform the design and study of other similar types of collaborative justice treatment efforts. PMID:20965568

Evans, Elizabeth; Anglin, M. Douglas; Urada, Darren; Yang, Joy

2010-01-01

46

Collaborative supply chain management : The most promising practice for building efficient and sustainable supply chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of contemporary supply-chain management systems. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper highlights the examples of state-of-the-art practice in supply-chain management, and speculates about where this movement is headed. Some of the collaborative supply chain management products generating the most interest will also be examined. Findings – Collaborative planning, forecasting and

Mohsen Attaran; Sharmin Attaran

2007-01-01

47

Resource Guide on Racial Profiling Data Collections Systems: Promising Practices and Lessons Learned  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prepared by staff at Northeastern University for the US Department of Justice, this report is a resource guide on racial profiling. The report offers an overview of the nature of racial profiling; gives information on data collection and its purpose; describes current activities in California, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Great Britain; and offers some recommendations for the future. Non-specialists may not be interested in the particulars of data collection, but the report still contains much of interest to anyone concerned with racial profiling and efforts to stop the practice.

Farrell, Amy.; Mcdevitt, Jack.; Ramirez, Deborah.

2000-01-01

48

The Promise of Response to Intervention: Evaluating Current Science and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As response to intervention (RTI) is adopted by increasing numbers of schools and districts, knowledge about "what works" continues to grow. This much-needed book analyzes the key components of RTI service delivery and identifies the characteristics of successful implementation. Critically reviewing the available research, leading authorities…

Glover, Todd A., Ed.; Vaughn, Sharon, Ed.

2010-01-01

49

Identifying and Extinguishing Dysfunctional and Deadly Organizational Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is possible to define an organization's culture in terms of its dominant behavioral practices and their molar consequences, from the shop floor to the executive suite (Redmon & Mason, 2001). Dysfunctional and potentially deadly practices (for the organization as a whole) can be "latent." They often go undetected until their dramatic…

Mawhinney, Thomas C.

2009-01-01

50

Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) are promising laboratories for conducting dissemination and implementation research.  

PubMed

Dissemination and implementation science addresses the application of research findings in varied health care settings. Despite the potential benefit of dissemination and implementation work to primary care, ideal laboratories for this science have been elusive. Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) have a long history of conducting research in community clinical settings, demonstrating an approach that could be used to execute multiple research projects over time in broad and varied settings. PBRNs also are uniquely structured and increasingly involved in pragmatic trials, a research design central to dissemination and implementation science. We argue that PBRNs and dissemination and implementation scientists are ideally suited to work together and that the collaboration of these 2 groups will yield great value for the future of primary care and the delivery of evidence-based health care. PMID:25381072

Heintzman, John; Gold, Rachel; Krist, Alexander; Crosson, Jay; Likumahuwa, Sonja; DeVoe, Jennifer E

2014-01-01

51

Promise and dismay: The state of strategic environmental assessment systems and practices in Canada  

SciTech Connect

Has strategic environmental assessment (SEA) finally reached a point of maturity in Canada? Or, is it still stumbling to find its place in the impact assessment family? Strategic environmental assessment has been ongoing in Canada for a number of years, both formally and informally, and under a variety of labels and institutional models. The result is a system of SEA that is diverse, founded on a range of principles and frameworks, and not well understood. This paper provides a critical review of Canadian SEA systems and practices. To accomplish this objective, a manageable and diverse set of past and recent SEA and SEA-like frameworks and applications are described and critically analyzed based on a set of input, process, and output evaluation criteria. Results suggest considerable variability in SEA experience and value added. This is due in large part to the institutional and methodological pluralism of SEA, the boundaries of which are not well defined. Under the federal system, since the formalization of SEA, many applications have been disappointing in light of broader SEA good-practice principles and criteria. Indeed, some of the better examples of SEA have neither carried the SEA name tag nor occurred under formal SEA requirements. Further, many of the same challenges to project-based impact assessment also plague the development and value added of SEA. Of particular concern is the systematic separation of SEA from downstream decision inputs and assessment activities. As Canada commences review of its federal SEA Directive in preparation for the next generation of SEA, this paper reflects on what it has achieved in the prior.

Noble, Bram F. [Department of Geography, University of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5C8 (Canada)], E-mail: b.noble@usask.ca

2009-01-15

52

Identifying standard practices in research library book conservation  

E-print Network

rather than a stand-alone repair (e.g., lifting endsheets, dye- ing leather or cloth, and consolidating leather) also were more common to special collections than to general collec- tions. This gap was most significant for dyeing cloth with acrylics...; Gary Frost for the idea that sparked this research; Alberto Campagnolo for sharing his study on European book repair practices; Tom Lehman for techni- cal help with the online survey; Kristen St. John, Ann Frellsen, and Roberta Pilette for reading...

Baker, Whitney; Dube, Liz

2010-01-26

53

Practice environment for nurse practitioners in California. Identifying barriers.  

PubMed Central

Barriers exist that prevent nurse practitioners from using their primary health care knowledge and skills. We present the incidence of and specific barriers experienced by nurse practitioner respondents in California, the state with the largest number of nurse practitioners in the nation. A January 1995 survey was sent to all nurse practitioners certified in California to elicit their experiences regarding legal or social barriers in their practice, with space for an open-ended response. Of an estimated 3,895 nurse practitioners in California, 2,741 (70%) returned surveys. Most nurse practitioner (65%) respondents in California are providing primary care. Perceived barriers to practice are lack of prescriptive authority, lack of support from physicians, reimbursement difficulties, and lack of public awareness. Current barriers to nurse practitioner practice in California are similar to national barriers discovered in 1992 data. The development of interprofessional dialogue and the recognition of the contributions of all primary care professionals are some of the steps that can be taken to reduce these barriers and increase the use and effectiveness of nurse practitioners in primary care. PMID:8987426

Anderson, A L; Gilliss, C L; Yoder, L

1996-01-01

54

Addressing Language Barriers in Client-Centered Health Promotion: Lessons Learned and Promising Practices From Texas WIC.  

PubMed

The growing population of nonnative English speakers in the United States challenges program planners to offer services that will effectively reach limited English proficiency (LEP) audiences. This article presents findings from evaluation research conducted with the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) to identify best practices and areas of concern for working with LEP clients. Data were collected through online surveys of 338 WIC teaching staff in 2010 and 65 WIC local agency directors in 2011 as part of an implementation evaluation of client-centered nutrition education. Data identified current practices, facilitating factors, and challenges in working with LEP clients. Facilitating factors included cultural competency, material and translation resources, linguistic competency, professional development opportunities, and rapport with clients. Challenges cited included linguistic challenges, lack of cultural competencies, issues related to the client-staff interaction, and insufficient time, materials, and staffing. Best practices inferred from the data relate to developing linguistic standards for bilingual staff, considerations for translating written materials, interpretation services, cultural competency, and staff training. Findings may help inform the development of this and other linguistically and culturally appropriate health promotion programs. PMID:25445982

Seth, Jennifer Greenberg; Isbell, Matthew G; Atwood, Robin Dochen; Ray, Tara C

2014-12-01

55

A methodology to identify efficient collaborative practices of decision-making  

E-print Network

A methodology to identify efficient collaborative practices of decision-making in industrial a methodology to identify and structure efficient practices that would improve collaborative decision-making in industrial projects. The proposed methodology uses CIMOSA cube as a reference architecture that provides

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

Global tyrosine kinome profiling of human thyroid tumors identifies Src as a promising target for invasive cancers  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinome profiling is a novel technique for identifying activated kinases in human cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Src activity is increased in invasive thyroid cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of Src activity decreased proliferation and invasion in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Further investigation of Src targeted therapies in thyroid cancer is warranted. -- Abstract: Background: Novel therapies are needed for the treatment of invasive thyroid cancers. Aberrant activation of tyrosine kinases plays an important role in thyroid oncogenesis. Because current targeted therapies are biased toward a small subset of tyrosine kinases, we conducted a study to reveal novel therapeutic targets for thyroid cancer using a bead-based, high-throughput system. Methods: Thyroid tumors and matched normal tissues were harvested from twenty-six patients in the operating room. Protein lysates were analyzed using the Luminex immunosandwich, a bead-based kinase phosphorylation assay. Data was analyzed using GenePattern 3.0 software and clustered according to histology, demographic factors, and tumor status regarding capsular invasion, size, lymphovascular invasion, and extrathyroidal extension. Survival and invasion assays were performed to determine the effect of Src inhibition in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) cells. Results: Tyrosine kinome profiling demonstrated upregulation of nine tyrosine kinases in tumors relative to matched normal thyroid tissue: EGFR, PTK6, BTK, HCK, ABL1, TNK1, GRB2, ERK, and SRC. Supervised clustering of well-differentiated tumors by histology, gender, age, or size did not reveal significant differences in tyrosine kinase activity. However, supervised clustering by the presence of invasive disease showed increased Src activity in invasive tumors relative to non-invasive tumors (60% v. 0%, p < 0.05). In vitro, we found that Src inhibition in PTC cells decreased cell invasion and proliferation. Conclusion: Global kinome analysis enables the discovery of novel targets for thyroid cancer therapy. Further investigation of Src targeted therapy for advanced thyroid cancer is warranted.

Cho, Nancy L., E-mail: nlcho@partners.org [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Lin, Chi-Iou [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Du, Jinyan [Broad Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142 (United States)] [Broad Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142 (United States); Whang, Edward E. [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Ito, Hiromichi [Department of Surgery, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI 48912 (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI 48912 (United States); Moore, Francis D.; Ruan, Daniel T. [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

2012-05-11

57

Practical and theoretical aspects of adjoint parameter estimation and identifiability in meteorology and oceanography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper has two aims. One is to survey briefly the state of the art of parameter estimation in meteorology and oceanography in view of applications of 4-D variational data assimilation techniques to inverse parameter estimation problems, which bear promise of serious positive impact on improving model prediction. The other aim is to present crucial aspects of identifiability and

I. M. Navon

1998-01-01

58

Practical and Theoretical Aspects of Adjoint Parameter Estimation and Identifiability in Meteorology and Oceanography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper has two aims. One is to survey briefly the state of the art of parameter estimation in meteorology and oceanography in view of applications of 4-D variational data assimilation techniques to inverse parameter estimation problems, which bear promise of serious positive impact on improving model prediction. The other aim is to present crucial aspects of identifiability and

I. M. Navon

1997-01-01

59

Eggplant and related species are promising genetic resources to dissect the plant immune response to Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and to identify new resistance determinants.  

PubMed

The apparent lack of durability of many resistance (R) genes highlights the need for the constant identification of new genetic sources of resistance for the breeding of new disease-resistant crop cultivars. To this end, we screened a collection of accessions of eggplant and close relatives for resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) and Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xeu), foliar plant pathogens of many solanaceous crops. Both pathogens caused substantial disease on most genotypes of eggplant and its relatives. Promisingly, however, some of the genotypes were fully or partially resistant to either of the pathogens, suggesting the presence of effective resistance determinants in these genotypes. Segregation of resistance to the growth of Xeu following infiltration in F2 progeny from a cross of a resistant and susceptible genotype suggests that resistance to Xeu is inherited as a multigenic trait. With regard to Pto, a mutant strain lacking all 28 functional type III secreted effectors, and a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain expressing a P.?syringae type III secretion system (T3SS), both elicit a strong cell death response on most eggplant lines. Several genotypes thus appear to harbour a mechanism for the direct recognition of a component of the T3SS. Therefore, eggplant and its close relatives are promising resources to unravel novel aspects of plant immunity and to identify new candidate R genes that could be employed in other Solanaceae in which Xeu and Pto cause agriculturally relevant diseases. PMID:24684604

Clarke, Christopher R; Hayes, Byron W; Runde, Brendan J; Wicker, Emmanuel; Vinatzer, Boris A

2014-10-01

60

P-Cadherin Linking Breast Cancer Stem Cells and Invasion: A Promising Marker to Identify an “Intermediate/Metastable” EMT State  

PubMed Central

Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (also known as EMT) is a fundamental mechanism occurring during embryonic development and tissue differentiation, being also crucial for cancer progression. Actually, the EMT program contributes to the dissemination of cancer cells from solid tumors and to the formation of micro-metastasis that subsequently develop into clinically detectable metastases. Besides being a process that is defined by the progressive loss of epithelial cell characteristics and the acquisition of mesenchymal features, EMT has also been implicated in therapy resistance, immune escape, and maintenance of cancer stem cell properties, such as self-renewal capacity. However, the majority of the studies usually neglect the progressive alterations occurring during intermediate EMT states, which imply a range of phenotypic cellular heterogeneity that can potentially generate more metastable and plastic tumor cells. In fact, few studies have tried to identify these transitory states, partly due to the current lack of a detailed understanding of EMT, as well as of reliable readouts for its progression. Herein, a brief review of evidences is presented, showing that P-cadherin expression, which has been already identified as a breast cancer stem cell marker and invasive promoter, is probably able to identify an intermediate EMT state associated with a metastable phenotype. This hypothesis is based on our own work, as well as on the results described by others, which suggest the use of P-cadherin as a promising EMT marker, clearly functioning as an important clinical prognostic factor and putative therapeutic target in breast carcinogenesis. PMID:25601904

Ribeiro, Ana Sofia; Paredes, Joana

2014-01-01

61

"Use of Current Best Evidence": Promises and Illusions, Limitations and Contradictions in the Triangle of Research, Policy and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the methodological and epistemological implications of the relationships between R&D, policy and practice. The proposals towards "evidence-based policy and practice" are analysed with respect to this triangle from three angles: (1) meaning; (2) production; and (3) use of evidence. A comprehensive model of the research cycle,…

Lassnigg, Lorenz

2012-01-01

62

Identifying competencies required for medication prescribing for general practice residents: a nominal group technique study  

PubMed Central

Background Teaching of medication prescribing is a specific challenge in general practice curriculum. The aim of this study was to identify and rank the competencies required for prescribing medication for general practice residents in France. Methods Qualitative consensus study using the nominal group technique. We invited different stakeholders of the general practice curriculum and medication use in primary care to a series of meetings. The nominal group technique allowed for the quick development of a list of consensual and ranked answers to the following question: “At the end of their general practice curriculum, in terms of medication prescribing, what should residents be able to do?”. Results Four meetings were held that involved a total of 31 participants, enabling the creation of a final list of 29 ranked items, grouped in 4 domains. The four domains identified were ‘pharmacology’, ‘regulatory standards’, ‘therapeutics’, and ‘communication (both with patients and healthcare professionals)’. Overall, the five items the most highly valued across the four meetings were: ‘write a legible and understandable prescription’, ‘identify specific populations’, ‘prescribe the doses and durations following the indication’, ‘explain a lack of medication prescription to the patient’, ‘decline inappropriate medication request’. The ‘communication skills’ domain was the domain with the highest number of items (10 items), and with the most highly-valued items. Conclusion The study results suggest a need for developing general practice residents’ communication skills regarding medication prescribing. PMID:25084813

2014-01-01

63

Identifying components of advanced-level clinical nutrition practice: a Delphi study.  

PubMed

The dietetics profession lacks a comprehensive definition of advanced-level practice. Using a three-round Delphi study with mailed surveys, expert consensus on four dimensions of advanced-level practice that define advanced practice registered dietitians (RDs) in clinical nutrition was explored. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDs who met advanced-level practice criteria. In round 1, experts rated the essentiality of statements on a 7-point ordinal scale and generated open-ended practice activity statements regarding the following four dimensions of advanced-level practice: professional knowledge, abilities and skills, approaches to practice, roles and relationships, and practice behaviors. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 was neutral, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. In rounds 2 and 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus by evaluating their previous responses, group median rating, and comments. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to a statement was ?2.0. Eighty-five experts enrolled (72.6%); 76 (89.4%) completed all rounds. In total, 233 statements were rated, with 100% achieving consensus; 211 (90.6%) were essential to advanced practice RD clinical practice. Having a master's degree; completing an advanced practice residency; research coursework; and advanced continuing education were essential, as were having 8 years of experience; clinical nutrition knowledge/expertise; specialization; participation in research activities; and skills in technology and communication. Highly essential approaches to practice were systematic yet adaptable and used critical thinking and intuition and highly essential values encompassed professional growth and service to patients. Roles emphasized patient care and leadership. Essential practice activities within the nutrition care process included provision of complex patient-centered nutrition care using application of advanced knowledge/expertise and interviewing and counseling strategies approached in a comprehensive yet discriminating manner. Communication with patients and the health care team is a priority. An advanced-level practice model in clinical nutrition was proposed depicting the requisite attributes and activities within four dimensions of professional practice. PMID:22709813

Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

2012-06-01

64

Identifying Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education through High Quality Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if meta-analysis can be used to enhance efforts to identify evidence-based practices (EBPs). In this study, the quality of included studies acted as the moderating variable. I used the quality indicators for experimental and quasi-experimental research developed by Gersten, Fuchs, Coyne, Greenwood, and…

Friedt, Brian

2012-01-01

65

Identifying Effective Classroom Practices Using Student Achievement Data. NBER Working Paper No. 15803  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has confirmed both the importance of teachers in producing student achievement growth and in the variability across teachers in the ability to do that. Such findings raise the stakes on our ability to identify effective teachers and teaching practices. This paper combines information from classroom-based observations and measures…

Kane, Thomas J.; Taylor, Eric S.; Tyler, John H.; Wooten, Amy L.

2010-01-01

66

A genome-wide association study identifies two novel promising candidate genes affecting Escherichia coli F4ab/F4ac susceptibility in swine.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing F4 fimbria is the major pathogenic bacteria causing diarrhoea in neonatal and post-weaning piglets. Previous studies have revealed that the susceptibility to ETEC F4ab/F4ac is an autosomal Mendelian dominant trait and the loci controlling the F4ab/F4ac receptor are located on SSC13q41, between markers SW207 and S0283. To pinpoint these loci and further validate previous findings, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a two generation family-based population, consisting of 301 piglets with phenotypes of susceptibility to ETEC F4ab/F4ac by the vitro adhesion test. The DNA of all piglets and their parents was genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip, and 50,972 and 50,483 SNPs were available for F4ab and F4ac susceptibility, respectively, in the association analysis after quality control. In summary, 28 and 18 significant SNPs (p<0.05) were detected associated with F4ab and F4ac susceptibility respectively at genome-wide significance level. From these significant findings, two novel candidate genes, HEG1 and ITGB5, were firstly identified as the most promising genes underlying F4ab/F4ac susceptibility in swine according to their functions and positions. Our findings herein provide a novel evidence for unravelling genetic mechanism of diarrhoea risk in piglets. PMID:22457712

Fu, Wei-Xuan; Liu, Yang; Lu, Xin; Niu, Xiao-Yan; Ding, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Qin

2012-01-01

67

Blood transfusion at the time of the First World War - practice and promise at the birth of transfusion medicine.  

PubMed

The centenary of the start of the First World War has stirred considerable interest in the political, social, military and human factors of the time and how they interacted to produce and sustain the material and human destruction in the 4?years of the war and beyond. Medical practice may appear distant and static and perhaps seems to have been somewhat ineffectual in the face of so much trauma and in the light of the enormous advances in medicine and surgery over the last century. However, this is an illusion of time and of course medical, surgical and psychiatric knowledge and procedures were developing rapidly at the time and the war years accelerated implementation of many important advances. Transfusion practice lay at the heart of resuscitation, and although direct transfusion from donor to recipient was still used, Geoffrey Keynes from Britain, Oswald Robertson from America and his namesake Lawrence Bruce Robertson from Canada, developed methods for indirect transfusion from donor to recipient by storing blood in bottles and also blood-banking that laid the foundation of modern transfusion medicine. This review explores the historical setting behind the development of blood transfusion up to the start of the First World War and on how they progressed during the war and afterwards. A fresh look may renew interest in how a novel medical speciality responded to the needs of war and of post-war society. PMID:25586955

Boulton, F; Roberts, D J

2014-12-01

68

Examining the practice of generalist expertise: a qualitative study identifying constraints and solutions  

PubMed Central

Objectives Provision of person-centred generalist care is a core component of quality primary care systems. The World Health Organisation believes that a lack of generalist primary care is contributing to inefficiency, ineffectiveness and inequity in healthcare. In UK primary care, General Practitioners (GPs) are the largest group of practising generalists. Yet GPs fulfil multiple roles and the pressures of delivering these roles along with wider contextual changes create real challenges to generalist practice. Our study aimed to explore GP perceptions of enablers and constraints for expert generalist care, in order to identify what is needed to ensure health systems are designed to support the generalist role. Design Qualitative study in General Practice. Setting UK primary care. Main outcome measures A qualitative study – interviews, surveys and focus groups with GPs and GP trainees. Data collection and analysis was informed by Normalisation Process Theory. Design and setting Qualitative study in General Practice. We conducted interviews, surveys and focus groups with GPs and GP trainees based mainly, but not exclusively, in the UK. Data collection and analysis were informed by Normalization Process Theory. Participants UK based GPs (interview and surveys); European GP trainees (focus groups). Results Our findings highlight key gaps in current training and service design which may limit development and implementation of expert generalist practice (EGP). These include the lack of a consistent and universal understanding of the distinct expertise of EGP, competing priorities inhibiting the delivery of EGP, lack of the consistent development of skills in interpretive practice and a lack of resources for monitoring EGP. Conclusions We describe four areas for change: Translating EGP, Priority setting for EGP, Trusting EGP and Identifying the impact of EGP. We outline proposals for work needed in each area to help enhance the expert generalist role. PMID:24475347

Reeve, Joanne; Dowrick, Christopher F; Freeman, George K; Gunn, Jane; Mair, Frances; May, Carl; Mercer, Stewart; Palmer, Victoria; Howe, Amanda; Irving, Greg; Shiner, Alice; Watson, Jessica

2013-01-01

69

Promising Practices and Strategies for Using Trauma-Informed Child Welfare Practice to Improve Foster Care Placement Stability: A Breakthrough Series Collaborative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper will provide information on a recent Breakthrough Series Collaborative (BSC) conducted by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network on Using Trauma-Informed Child Welfare Practice to Improve Foster Care Placement Stability. Information on this particular BSC will be provided, followed by initial findings gathered from an evaluation of…

Conradi, Lisa; Agosti, Jen; Tullberg, Erika; Richardson, Lisa; Langan, Heather; Ko, Susan; Wilson, Charles

2011-01-01

70

Tailored interventions to overcome identified barriers to change: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background In the previous version of this review, the effectiveness of interventions tailored to barriers to change was found to be uncertain. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change on professional practice or patient outcomes. Search methods For this update, in addition to the EPOC Register and pending files, we searched the following databases without language restrictions, from inception until August 2007: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, BNI and HMIC. We searched the National Research Register to November 2007. We undertook further searches to October 2009 to identify potentially eligible published or ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions tailored to address prospectively identified barriers to change that reported objectively measured professional practice or healthcare outcomes in which at least one group received an intervention designed to address prospectively identified barriers to change. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently assessed quality and extracted data. We undertook quantitative and qualitative analyses. The quantitative analyses had two elements. We carried out a meta-regression to compare interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change with either no interventions or an intervention(s) not tailored to the barriers.We carried out heterogeneity analyses to investigate sources of differences in the effectiveness of interventions. These included the effects of: risk of bias, concealment of allocation, rigour of barrier analysis, use of theory, complexity of interventions, and the reported presence of administrative constraints. Main results We included 26 studies comparing an intervention tailored to address identified barriers to change to no intervention or an intervention(s) not tailored to the barriers. The effect sizes of these studies varied both across and within studies. Twelve studies provided enough data to be included in the quantitative analysis. A meta-regression model was fitted adjusting for baseline odds by fitting it as a covariate, to obtain the pooled odds ratio of 1.54 (95% CI, 1.16 to 2.01) from Bayesian analysis and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.27 to 1.82, P < 0.001) from classical analysis. The heterogeneity analyses found that no study attributes investigated were significantly associated with effectiveness of the interventions. Authors’ conclusions Interventions tailored to prospectively identified barriers are more likely to improve professional practice than no intervention or dissemination of guidelines. However, the methods used to identify barriers and tailor interventions to address them need further development. Research is required to determine the effectiveness of tailored interventions in comparison with other interventions. PMID:20238340

Baker, Richard; Camosso-Stefinovic, Janette; Gillies, Clare; Shaw, Elizabeth J; Cheater, Francine; Flottorp, Signe; Robertson, Noelle

2014-01-01

71

Fostering More-Effective Public Health by Identifying Administrative Evidence-Based Practices  

PubMed Central

Context The aim of evidence-based decision-making in public health involves the integration of science-based interventions with community preferences to improve population health. Although considerable literature is available on the development and adoption of evidence-based guidelines and barriers to their implementation, the evidence base specific to public health administration is less developed. This article reviews the literature from public health and related disciplines to identify administrative evidence-based practices (A-EBPs; i.e., agency-level structures and activities that are positively associated with performance measures). Evidence acquisition A “review of reviews” was carried out to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of A-EBPs covering the time frame January 2000 through March 2012. The following steps were used: (1) select databases; (2) determine search parameters and conduct the search; (3) screen titles and abstracts; (4) obtain selected documents; (5) perform initial synthesis; (6) abstract data; and (7) synthesize evidence. Evidence synthesis In both the reviews and original empiric studies, the most common outcome reported was performance of the local health department or local public health system. On the basis of a synthesis of data from 20 reviews, a total of 11 high-priority A-EBPs were identified (i.e., practices that local public health systems potentially can modify within a few years). The A-EBPs covered five major domains of workforce development, leadership, organizational climate and culture, relationships and partnerships, and financial processes. Conclusions As the body of practice-based research continues to grow and the ability to measure administrative evidence-based practices improves, this initial list can be further developed and improved. PMID:22898125

Brownson, Ross C.; Allen, Peg; Duggan, Kathleen; Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Erwin, Paul C.

2013-01-01

72

Novel prognostic gene mutations identified in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and their impact on clinical practice.  

PubMed

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a lymphoid malignancy characterized by progressive accumulation of mature lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, liver, and lymphoid organs. Although most patients with CLL have an insidious clinical course, a subset of cases present with fast evolution and chemotherapy resistance, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Few clinically validated prognostic markers, such as TP53, are available for use in clinical practice to guide treatment decisions. Recently, several novel prognostically relevant molecular markers have been identified in CLL. We conducted a narrative literature review of the latest findings to evaluate the potential inclusion of these markers in the management of CLL cases. PMID:24548608

Campregher, Paulo Vidal; Hamerschlak, Nelson

2014-08-01

73

Practical strategies for identifying groundwater discharges into sediment and surface water with fiber optic temperature measurement.  

PubMed

Identifying or ruling out groundwater discharges into sediment and surface waters is often critical for evaluating impacts and for planning remedial actions. Information about subsurface structure and groundwater can be helpful, but imperfect information, heterogeneous materials, and the likelihood of preferential pathways make it difficult to locate seeps without direct seep monitoring. We present the practical application of a method that uses fiber optic temperature measurement to provide high-resolution, sensitive, and dynamic monitoring of seepage from sediments over large areas: distributed temperature sensing to identify groundwater discharge (DTSID). First, we introduce a stochastic Monte Carlo method for designing DTSID installation based on site characteristics and the required probability of detecting particular size seeps. We then present practical methods for analysing DTSID results to prioritize locations for further investigation used at three industrial locations. Summer conditions generally presented greater difficulty in the method due to stronger environmentally-driven temperature fluctuations and thermal stratification of surface water. Tidal fluctuations were shown to be helpful in seepage detection at some locations by creating a dynamic temperature pattern that likely reflects changing seepage with varying water levels. At locations with suitable conditions for the application of DTSID, it can provide unique information regarding likely seep locations, enhancing an integrated site investigation. PMID:24841752

Selker, John; Selker, Frank; Huff, Julie; Short, Russ; Edwards, Deborah; Nicholson, Peter; Chin, Arthur

2014-07-01

74

Interactive Multimedia: Practice and Promise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes developments in interactive multimedia (IMM) in the early 1990s. Its aim is to provide educators, students, trainers, librarians, managers, and practitioners with an overview, not only of the directions and uses of the technology, but also of the research foundations and educational and contextual issues that need to be…

Latchem, Colin, Ed.; And Others

75

The Trouble with Triplets in Biodiversity Informatics: A Data-Driven Case against Current Identifier Practices  

PubMed Central

The biodiversity informatics community has discussed aspirations and approaches for assigning globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) to biocollections for nearly a decade. During that time, and despite misgivings, the de facto standard identifier has become the “Darwin Core Triplet”, which is a concatenation of values for institution code, collection code, and catalog number associated with biocollections material. Our aim is not to rehash the challenging discussions regarding which GUID system in theory best supports the biodiversity informatics use case of discovering and linking digital data across the Internet, but how well we can link those data together at this moment, utilizing the current identifier schemes that have already been deployed. We gathered Darwin Core Triplets from a subset of VertNet records, along with vertebrate records from GenBank and the Barcode of Life Data System, in order to determine how Darwin Core Triplets are deployed “in the wild”. We asked if those triplets follow the recommended structure and whether they provide an easy and unambiguous means to track from specimen records to genetic sequence records. We show that Darwin Core Triplets are often riddled with semantic and syntactic errors when deployed and curated in practice, despite specifications about how to construct them. Our results strongly suggest that Darwin Core Triplets that have not been carefully curated are not currently serving a useful role for relinking data. We briefly consider needed next steps to overcome current limitations. PMID:25470125

Guralnick, Robert; Conlin, Tom; Deck, John; Stucky, Brian J.; Cellinese, Nico

2014-01-01

76

Bridging the Gaps to Success: Promising Practices for Promoting Transfer among Low-Income and First-Generation Students. An In-Depth Study of Six Exemplary Community Colleges in Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study asks the question: what are the promising practices for transferring students from two-year to four-year institutions? To answer this question, the Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education conducted a study to examine the institutional characteristics, practices, and policies that might contribute to assuring that…

Smith, Chandra Taylor; Miller, Abby

2009-01-01

77

The promise and challenge of practice-research collaborations: Guiding principles and strategies for initiating, designing, and implementing program evaluation research.  

PubMed

The authors present a set of guiding principles and strategies to facilitate the collaborative efforts of social work researchers and practitioners as they initiate, design, and implement outcome evaluations of human service interventions and programs. Beginning with an exploration of the interpersonal barriers to practice-research collaborations, and building on their experiences in successfully completing a community-based research evaluation, the authors identify specific relationship-focused principles and strategies and illustrate how these approaches can guide practice-research teams through the various sequential activities of the evaluation research process. In particular, it is suggested that practice-research collaborations can be formed, strengthened, and sustained by emphasis on a spirit of discovery and shared leadership at the start of the relationship, use of a comprehensive evaluation model to clarify and frame the evaluation and program goals, beginning where the client is when selecting research methodology and measurement tools, commitment to keeping the program first and recording everything during the implementation and data-collection stages, discussion of emerging findings and presentation of findings in graphic format at the data-analysis stage, and a total team approach at the dissemination stage. PMID:21314067

Secret, Mary; Abell, Melissa L; Berlin, Trey

2011-01-01

78

Using read codes to identify patients with irritable bowel syndrome in general practice: a database study  

PubMed Central

Background Estimates of the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) vary widely, and a large proportion of patients report having consulted their general practitioner (GP). In patients with new onset gastrointestinal symptoms in primary care it might be possible to predict those at risk of persistent symptoms. However, one of the difficulties is identifying patients within primary care. GPs use a variety of Read Codes to describe patients presenting with IBS. Furthermore, in a qualitative study, exploring GPs’ attitudes and approaches to defining patients with IBS, GPs appeared reluctant to add the IBS Read Code to the patient record until more serious conditions were ruled out. Consequently, symptom codes such as 'abdominal pain’, 'diarrhoea’ or 'constipation’ are used. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of recorded consultations for IBS and to explore the symptom profile of patients with IBS using data from the Salford Integrated Record (SIR). Methods This was a database study using the SIR, a local patient sharing record system integrating primary, community and secondary care information. Records were obtained for a cohort of patients with gastrointestinal disorders from January 2002 to December 2011. Prevalence rates, symptom recording, medication prescribing and referral patterns were compared for three patient groups (IBS, abdominal pain (AP) and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)). Results The prevalence of IBS (age standardised rate: 616 per year per 100,000 population) was much lower than expected compared with that reported in the literature. The majority of patients (69%) had no gastrointestinal symptoms recorded in the year prior to their IBS. However a proportion of these (22%) were likely to have been prescribed NICE guideline recommended medications for IBS in that year. The findings for AP and IBD were similar. Conclusions Using Read Codes to identify patients with IBS may lead to a large underestimate of the community prevalence. The IBS diagnostic Read Code was rarely applied in practice. There are similarities with many other medically unexplained symptoms which are typically difficult to diagnose in clinical practice. PMID:24295337

2013-01-01

79

A system-wide analysis using a senior-friendly hospital framework identifies current practices and opportunities for improvement in the care of hospitalized older adults.  

PubMed

Older adults are vulnerable to hospital-associated complications such as falls, pressure ulcers, functional decline, and delirium, which can contribute to prolonged hospital stay, readmission, and nursing home placement. These vulnerabilities are exacerbated when the hospital's practices, services, and physical environment are not sufficiently mindful of the complex, multidimensional needs of frail individuals. Several frameworks have emerged to help hospitals examine how organization-wide processes can be customized to avoid these complications. This article describes the application of one such framework-the Senior-Friendly Hospital (SFH) framework adopted in Ontario, Canada-which comprises five interrelated domains: organizational support, processes of care, emotional and behavioral environment, ethics in clinical care and research, and physical environment. This framework provided the blueprint for a self-assessment of all 155 adult hospitals across the province of Ontario. The system-wide analysis identified practice gaps and promising practices within each domain of the SFH framework. Taken together, these results informed 12 recommendations to support hospitals at all stages of development in becoming friendly to older adults. Priorities for system-wide action were identified, encouraging hospitals to implement or further develop their processes to better address hospital-acquired delirium and functional decline. These recommendations led to collaborative action across the province, including the development of an online toolkit and the identification of accountability indicators to support hospitals in quality improvement focusing on senior-friendly care. PMID:25355067

Wong, Ken S; Ryan, David P; Liu, Barbara A

2014-11-01

80

Identifying Practical Solutions to Meet America’s Fiber Needs: Proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit  

PubMed Central

Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the “Food & Fiber Summit,” which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber’s role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap. PMID:25006857

Mobley, Amy R.; Jones, Julie Miller; Rodriguez, Judith; Slavin, Joanne; Zelman, Kathleen M.

2014-01-01

81

Identifying practical solutions to meet America's fiber needs: proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit.  

PubMed

Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the "Food & Fiber Summit," which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber's role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap. PMID:25006857

Mobley, Amy R; Jones, Julie Miller; Rodriguez, Judith; Slavin, Joanne; Zelman, Kathleen M

2014-07-01

82

Identifying key factors in homeowner's adoption of water quality best management practices.  

PubMed

The recognition of the significance of the residential environment in contributing to non-point source (NPS) pollution and the inherently dispersed nature of NPS pollution itself that presents significant challenges to effective regulation has led to the creation and dissemination of best management practices (BMPs) that can reduce the impacts of NPS pollution (Environmental Protection Agency US, Protecting water quality from urban runoff, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_urban-facts_final.pdf , 2003). However, very few studies have examined the factors that influence the adoption of BMPs by residential homeowners, despite the fact that residential environments have been identified as one of the most significant contributors to NPS pollution. Given this need, the purpose of this project was to explore how demographic and knowledge-based factors predict adoption of residential BMPs in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Illinois using statistical analyses of survey data collected as part of a watershed planning process. The findings indicate that broad knowledge of BMPs is the strongest predictor of use for a specific BMP. Knowledge of BMPs is strongly correlated with their use, which reinforces the need for educational programs, even among those assumed to be knowledgeable about BMPs. PMID:23609309

Brehm, Joan M; Pasko, Danielle K; Eisenhauer, Brian W

2013-07-01

83

Identifying Key Factors in Homeowner's Adoption of Water Quality Best Management Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recognition of the significance of the residential environment in contributing to non-point source (NPS) pollution and the inherently dispersed nature of NPS pollution itself that presents significant challenges to effective regulation has led to the creation and dissemination of best management practices (BMPs) that can reduce the impacts of NPS pollution (Environmental Protection Agency US, Protecting water quality from urban runoff, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_urban-facts_final.pdf, 2003). However, very few studies have examined the factors that influence the adoption of BMPs by residential homeowners, despite the fact that residential environments have been identified as one of the most significant contributors to NPS pollution. Given this need, the purpose of this project was to explore how demographic and knowledge-based factors predict adoption of residential BMPs in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Illinois using statistical analyses of survey data collected as part of a watershed planning process. The findings indicate that broad knowledge of BMPs is the strongest predictor of use for a specific BMP. Knowledge of BMPs is strongly correlated with their use, which reinforces the need for educational programs, even among those assumed to be knowledgeable about BMPs.

Brehm, Joan M.; Pasko, Danielle K.; Eisenhauer, Brian W.

2013-07-01

84

Work–life balance: promises made and promises kept  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence on the association between the management practices conventionally identified with high performance workplaces (HPWs) and measures of work–life balance. Our framework identifies those practices associated with workers reporting that their employer makes work–life balance commitments, and separately identifies those practices associated with workers reporting that their employer keeps the commitments they make. Our results do not support

John S. Heywood; W. S. Siebert; Xiangdong Wei

2010-01-01

85

Noteworthy practices as identified by the US Department of Energy environmental, safety, and health first 31 Tiger Team assessments  

SciTech Connect

Noteworthy Practices are exceptional ways of accomplishing a performance objective or some aspect of it. Other DOE facilities are encouraged to adopt these practices when they are applicable to their operation. Noteworthy Practices included in this report have been drawn from the first 31 Tiger Team Assessments at DOE sites. This report includes all noteworthy practices listed in an earlier tabulation (June 1990) which the Secretary of the US Department of Energy distributed for information on July 31, 1990. This earlier tabulation included noteworthy practices from the first thirteen Tiger Team Assessments. A brief key-word title has been assigned to each Noteworthy Practice. This title provides a brief description of each Noteworthy Practice. The reader may peruse these titles in the table of contents to identify Noteworthy Practices that may be applicable to their site, facility, or operations. A flexible-disk copy of this compilation is also available in ASCII format on personal-computer, DOS-formatted disks from the Office of Special Projects in the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health at the Headquarters of the US Department of Energy. The ASCII file may be used in combination with word processing software for more detailed word and text-string searches.

Not Available

1992-05-01

86

The Use of Single Subject Research to Identify Evidence-based Practice in Special Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-subject research plays an important role in the development of evidence-based practice in special education. The defining features of single-subject research are presented, the con- tributions of single-subject research for special education are reviewed, and a specific proposal is of- fered for using single-subject research to document evidence-based practice. This article allows readers to determine if a specific study is

Robert H. Horner; EDWARD G. CARR; JAMES HALLE

2005-01-01

87

Insights into Innovative Classroom Practices with ICT: Identifying the Impetus for Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on the literature of transformational leadership and learning organisation with a concern to foster innovative changes in classroom practices. Based on the understanding that effective use of ICT has to be construed in the pedagogical and organisational context, this study focuses on the impact of the relevant contextual factors…

Wong, Emily M. L.; Li, Sandy S. C.; Choi, Tat-heung; Lee, Tsz-ngong

2008-01-01

88

The Evolution of a Teacher Community of Practice: Identifying Facilitating and Constraining Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from a larger, qualitative study that explored the potential of a school-based teacher community of practice as a model for a transformative form of teacher professional development. This paper reports on initial findings from a grounded theory exploration of the factors that facilitated and constrained the evolution…

Borg, Tracey

2012-01-01

89

Identifying Best Practices for Multicultural Education in a Psychology Graduate Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to examine teaching practices at Fuller Theological Seminary's graduate psychology program, using secondary analysis of existing data. Lee, Shields, and Oh (2008) collected data from approximately 300 students who evaluated the helpfulness of 18 different instructional methodologies used at Fuller, and answered questions…

Hunnicutt, Adrienne D.

2010-01-01

90

Statistical learning algorithms for identifying contrasting tillage practices with landsat thematic mapper data  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tillage management practices have direct impact on water holding capacity, evaporation, carbon sequestration, and water quality. This study examines the feasibility of two statistical learning algorithms, such as Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), for cla...

91

Identifying and Clarifying Values and Reason Statements that Promote Effective Food Parenting Practices, Using Intensive Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Generate and test parents' understanding of values and associated reason statements to encourage effective food parenting practices. Methods: This study was cross-sectional. Sixteen parents from different ethnic groups (African American, white, and Hispanic) living with their 3- to 5-year-old child were recruited. Interested parents…

Beltran, Alicia; Hingle, Melanie D.; Knesek, Jessica; O'Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom

2011-01-01

92

Identifying the Benefits of Observational Practice in the Acquisition of a Novel Coordination Skill  

E-print Network

). The pendulums could be programed to oscillate at different relative phase patterns. The model trained with three frequencies (0.75, 0.85, and 1.0 Hz) at producing the 90? relative phase pattern. The observers saw this. The groups were compared pre- and post... not differ from the physical practice group and both were more perceptually accurate than the control group. The authors concluded that observational training via a model and animated 90? coordination pattern can aid perceptual learning, while...

Park, Inchon

2014-08-14

93

Undiagnosed diabetes from cross-sectional GP practice data: an approach to identify communities with high likelihood of undiagnosed diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate undiagnosed diabetes prevalence from general practitioner (GP) practice data and identify areas with high levels of undiagnosed and diagnosed diabetes. Design Data from the North-West Adelaide Health Survey (NWAHS) were used to develop a model which predicts total diabetes at a small area. This model was then applied to cross-sectional data from general practices to predict the total level of expected diabetes. The difference between total expected and already diagnosed diabetes was defined as undiagnosed diabetes prevalence and was estimated for each small area. The patterns of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes were mapped to highlight the areas of high prevalence. Setting North-West Adelaide, Australia. Participants This study used two population samples—one from the de-identified GP practice data (n=9327 active patients, aged 18?years and over) and another from NWAHS (n=4056, aged 18?years and over). Main outcome measures Total diabetes prevalence, diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes prevalence at GP practice and Statistical Area Level 1. Results Overall, it was estimated that there was one case of undiagnosed diabetes for every 3–4 diagnosed cases among the 9327 active patients analysed. The highest prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was seen in areas of lower socioeconomic status. However, the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was substantially higher in the least disadvantaged areas. Conclusions The method can be used to estimate population prevalence of diabetes from general practices wherever these data are available. This approach both flags the possibility that undiagnosed diabetes may be a problem of less disadvantaged social groups, and provides a tool to identify areas with high levels of unmet need for diabetes care which would enable policy makers to apply geographic targeting of effective interventions. PMID:25056976

Bagheri, Nasser; McRae, Ian; Konings, Paul; Butler, Danielle; Douglas, Kirsty; Del Fante, Peter; Adams, Robert

2014-01-01

94

Biomarkers identified with time-lapse imaging: discovery, validation, and practical application  

PubMed Central

“Time-lapse markers,” which are defined by time-lapse imaging and correlated with clinical outcomes, may provide embryologists with new opportunities for improving embryo selection. This article provides an overview of noninvasive biomarkers defined by time-lapse imaging studies. In addition to comprehensively reviewing the discovery of each time-lapse marker, it focuses on the criteria necessary for their successful integration into clinical practice, including [1] statistical and biological significance, [2] validation through prospective clinical studies, and [3] development of reliable technology to measure and quantify the time-lapse marker. Because manual analysis of time-lapse images is labor intensive and limits the practical use of the image data in the clinic, automated image analysis software platforms may contribute substantially to improvements in embryo selection accuracy. Ultimately, time-lapse markers that are based on a foundation of basic research, validated through prospective clinical studies, and enabled by a reliable quantification technology may improve IVF success rates, encourage broader adoption of single-embryo transfer, and reduce the risks associated with multiple gestation pregnancies. PMID:23499001

Chen, Alice A.; Tan, Lei; Suraj, Vaishali; Pera, Renee Reijo; Shen, Shehua

2014-01-01

95

Using Simulation Technology to Identify Gaps Between Education and Practice Among New Graduate Nurses.  

PubMed

Applied knowledge was observed among nurse groups from a medical-surgical residency program to measure clinical performance during simulation training. Twenty groups of new graduate nurses were observed during five simulated clinical scenarios, and their performances were scored on a 24-item checklist. Nurse groups showed significant improvement (p < 0.001) in applied knowledge in four clinical domains from week 1 to week 5, and the results provided valuable information of the groups' overall performances. In two of the five scenarios, poor decisions and prioritization of competing tasks were factors associated with lower performance group scores. Complex patient conditions may pose a challenge for new graduate nurses, and standardized training during the residency program may help instructors recognize specific factors to address during the transition from education to practice. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2014;45(x):xxx-xxx. PMID:25406636

Everett-Thomas, Ruth; Valdes, Beatriz; Valdes, Guillermo R; Shekhter, Ilya; Fitzpatrick, Maureen; Rosen, Lisa F; Arheart, Kristopher L; Birnbach, David J

2014-11-22

96

Identifying lettuce species ( Lactuca subsect. Lactuca , Asteraceae): A practical application of flow cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wild lettuce species L. serriola, L. saligna, and L. virosa are important genitors in lettuce (L. sativa) breeding. Identifying these wild species can be problematic because in some cases they look very similar. Flow cytometry\\u000a was tested for its reliability and general applicability as a tool to distinguish them. Three series of tests were conducted:\\u000a (1) Tests with three

Wim J. M. Koopman

2000-01-01

97

Mesoscale Biotransformations of Uranium: Identifying Sites and Strategies where Reductive Immobilization is Practical  

SciTech Connect

Bioreduction of U in contaminated sediments is an attractive strategy because of its low cost, and because of short-term studies supporting its feasibility. However, any in-situ immobilization approach for U will require assurance of either permanent fixation, or of very low release rates into the biosphere. Our previous long-term (2 years) laboratory experiments have shown that organic carbon (OC) based U(VI) bioreduction to UO2 can be transient even under sustained reducing (methanogenic) conditions. The biogeochemical processes underlying this finding urgently need to be understood. The current research is designed to identify mechanisms responsible for anaerobic U oxidation, and identify conditions that will support long-term stability of bioreduced U. We are investigating: (1) effects of OC concentration and supply rate on remobilization of bioreduced U, (2) the roles of Fe- and Mn-oxides as potential U oxidants in sediments, and (3) the role of microorganisms in U reoxidation, and (4) influences of pH on U(IV)/U(VI) redox equilibrium.

Tetsu K. Tokunaga; Jiamin Wan; Terry C. Hazen; Mary K. Firestone; Eoin Brodie; Yongman Kim; Rebecca Daly

2006-06-01

98

Defense Programs benchmarking in Chicago, April 1994: Identifying best practices in the pollution prevention programs of selected private industries  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Defense Programs (DP) was the first US Department of Energy (DOE) Cognizant Secretarial Office (CSO) to attempt to benchmark private industries for best-in-class practices in the field of pollution prevention. Defense Programs` intent in this effort is to identify and bring to DOE field offices strategic and technological tools that have helped private companies minimize waste and prevent pollution. Defense Programs` premier benchmarking study focused on business practices and process improvements used to implement exceptional pollution prevention programs in four privately owned companies. The current interest in implementing partnerships information exchange, and technology transfer with the private sector prompted DP to continue to seek best practices in the area of pollution prevention through a second benchmarking endeavor in May 1994. This report presents the results of that effort. The decision was made to select host facilities that own processes similar to those at DOE plants and laboratories, that have programs that have been recognized on a local or national level, that have an interest in partnering with the Department on an information-sharing basis, and that are located in proximity to each other. The DP benchmarking team assessed the pollution prevention programs of five companies in the Chicago area--GE Plastics, Navistar, Northrop Corporation, Sundstrand and Caterpillar. At all facilities visited, Ozone Depleting Compounds (ODCs), hazardous wastes, releases under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), waste water and non-hazardous wastes are being eliminated, replaced, reduced, recycled and reused whenever practicable.

NONE

1995-12-01

99

The Promise and Challenge of Practice-Research Collaborations: Guiding Principles and Strategies for Initiating, Designing, and Implementing Program Evaluation Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors present a set of guiding principles and strategies to facilitate the collaborative efforts of social work researchers and practitioners as they initiate, design, and implement outcome evaluations of human service interventions and programs. Beginning with an exploration of the interpersonal barriers to practice-research collaborations,…

Secret, Mary; Abell, Melissa L.; Berlin, Trey

2011-01-01

100

Persistent Identifiers in the Publication and Citation of Scientific Data - Theory and Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade data driven research has become a third pillar of scientific work alongside with theoretical reasoning and experiment. Greatly increased computing power and storage, together with web services and other electronic resources have facilitated a quantum leap in new research based on the analysis of great amounts of data. However, traditional scientific communication only slowly changes to new media other than an emulation of paper. This leaves many data inaccessible and, in the long run exposes valuable data to the risk of loss. To improve access to data and to create incentives for scientists to make their data accessible, a group of German data centres initiated the project "Publication and Citation of Scientific Data" (STD-DOI) which was funded by the German Science Foundation DFG for the periods 2003-2005 and 2006-2008. In this project the German National Library for Science and Technology (TIB Hannover), together with the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ Potsdam), Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) Bremerhaven, University of Bremen, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, and the DLR German Remote Sensing Data Center set up the first system to assign DOIs to data sets and for their publication. A prerequisite for data to be made available is a proper citation. This means that all fields mandatory for a bibliographic citation are included. In addition, a mechanism is needed that ensures that the location of the referenced data on the internet can be resolved at any time. In the past, this was a problematic issue because URLs are short-lived, many becoming invalid after only a few months. Data publication on the internet therefore needs a system of reliable pointers to a web publication to make these publications citeable. To achieve this persistence of identifiers for their conventional publications many scientific publishers use Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). The identifier is resolved through the handle system to the valid location (URL) where the dataset can be found. This approach meets one of the prerequisites for citeability of scientific data published online. In addition, the valid bibliographic citation can be included in the catalogues of German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB). The data publications themselves are held at discipline specific data centres, for instance ICSU World Data Centers. The data providers take on the role of publication agents and are responsible for the long-term availability of the data. The discipline specific publication agents are also responsible for the quality of the published data. Syntactic and semantic quality checks are used to secure data quality. Data may come as data supplements to scientific papers, or as time series from environmental monitoring systems, or as novel form of publication in a data journal. The latter requires a peer-review process, analogous to conventional science publications.

Klump, J.; Brase, J.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.; Hildenbrand, B.; Hoeck, H.; Lautenschlager, M.; Sens, I.

2008-12-01

101

Practical Challenges and Considerations in Designing Digital Object Identifiers for Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the basic idea of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) is fairly simple, a robust implementation must consider a number of factors that are not necessarily obvious at first glance. This is especially true when attempting to apply the DOI framework -- which was designed for use with published works -- to datasets for which concepts like identity, provenance, and lifecycle may be much more complex or ambiguous. The IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) recently undertook an effort to build DOIs for various parts of its data holdings, and we share some of the particular challenges and solutions that emerged from this process, including: - The often conflicting priorities of the various interested parties (the data creator, the data curator, the researcher citing the data, and the reader following the citation back to its source), - The need to define a proper data granularity, and the options for representing data subsets, variations, and collections, - The advantages and disadvantages of DOI opacity, - The challenges imposed by the DOI framework's fundamentally unidirectional nature, - Building a scalable and maintainable system for serving DOI target URLs.

Clark, A.

2013-12-01

102

CSWE Core Competencies and Practice Behaviors 1. Identify with the SW profession, its mission and core values, and conduct oneself  

E-print Network

sources of knowledge, including research- based knowledge and practice wisdom Analyze models-informed practice and practice-informed research. Use research evidence to inform practice Use practice experience to inform scientific inquiry Understand the process of evidence-informed practice 7. Apply knowledge

Gilbert, Matthew

103

Insulin degludec early clinical experience: does the promise from the clinical trials translate into clinical practice-a case-based evaluation.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Clinical experience of patients is an additional source of information that can inform prescribing decisions for new therapies in practice. In diabetes, for example, patients with recurrent hypoglycemia may be excluded from trials conducted for regulatory purposes. Using insulin degludec (IDeg), a new basal insulin with an ultra-long duration of action as an example, an interim analysis is presented describing whether the decision to prescribe IDeg to patients experiencing treatment-limiting problems on their existing insulin regimes represented good clinical and economic value. Methods: Records from the first 51 consecutive patients with diabetes (35 type 1 [T1D] and 16 type 2 [T2D]) switching to insulin degludec from either insulin glargine (IGlar) or insulin detemir (IDet), mostly due to problems with hypoglycemia (39/51, 76.5%), were reviewed at up to 37 weeks. Patients indicated frequency of hypoglycemia and completed a disease-specific questionnaire reporting six measures of confidence and treatment satisfaction. For the largest group of exposed patents, the T1D module of the IMS Core Diabetes Model (CDM) was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the treatment decision. Findings: HbA1c decreased by 0.5?±?0.3% points and 0.7?±?0.3% points for T1D and T2D, respectively. Hypoglycemic events decreased by >90%. Combined mean scores were ?3.7 (1?=?much worse, 3?=?no change, 5?=?much improved) for all six satisfaction and confidence items. In T1D, the treatment decision was highly cost-effective in the CDM lifetime analysis. Even when excluding benefits beyond hypoglycemia reduction, predicted cost per quality-adjusted life-year for IDeg vs IGlar/IDet was £10,754. Interpretation: These data illustrate the complementary nature of clinical trial and practice data when evaluating the value of therapeutic innovations in diabetes care. There were reductions in patient-reported hypoglycemia, reduced HbA1c, and improved treatment satisfaction in relation to the decision to prescribe IDeg. Initial health economic evaluation suggested that the decision to prescribe IDeg in this phenotypic group of T1D patients represented good value for money. PMID:25325179

Evans, Marc; McEwan, Phil; Foos, Volker

2014-10-29

104

Use of Rasch Rating Scale Modeling to Develop and Validate a Measure of District-Level Characteristics and Practices Identified to Improve Instruction and Increase Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing qualitative evidence in the literature supports specific characteristics and practices, presented from a distributed leadership perspective, to be prevalent in school districts that demonstrate significant increases in student achievement. Quantitative evidence linking these identified district-level characteristics and practices to…

Soska, Paul J., III

2012-01-01

105

Developing Mathematically Promising Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, written on the recommendation of the Task Force on Mathematically Promising Students, investigates issues involving the development of promising mathematics students. Recommendations are made concerning topics such as the definition of promising students; the identification of such students; appropriate curriculum, instruction, and…

Sheffield, Linda Jensen, Ed.

106

Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

Dudley, Michael R.

2010-01-01

107

Mountain Promise page 1 Mountain Promise  

E-print Network

health care for WV communities page 15 #12;Mountain Promise page 2 duction and use of ozone of leisure time, as most people would, as a negative. GDP counts expenditures for defensive activities defensive expenditures made to prevent the erosion of quality of life as a negative. The GDP accounts

Baltisberger, Jay H.

108

Of birds, carbon and water: integrating multiple ecosystem service impacts to identify locations for agricultural conservation practice adoption  

EPA Science Inventory

Human use of the landscape for crop production can degrade ecosystem services. A number of agricultural conservation practices are touted as mitigating these impacts. Many of these practices are encouraged by incentive programs such as the Conservation Reserve Program administere...

109

Promising Practices for Urban Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of research-based articles is framed around the International Reading Association's 10 "literacy rights" of every child, outlining what children need to become competent readers and writers. Under Right 1--Children have a right to appropriate early reading instruction based on their individual needs--are the following articles:…

Mason, Pamela A., Ed.; Schumm, Jeanne Shay, Ed.

110

Adolescent Literacy Instruction: Policies and Promising Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive resource explores how adolescence and academic achievement are defined within today's political context, examines the in-school potential of teens' out-of-school immersion in digital technologies and popular culture, and shows teachers how to embed comprehension strategies into classroom instruction. The book contains innovative…

Lewis, Jill, Ed.; Moorman, Gary, Ed.

2007-01-01

111

Examining the Culture of Poverty: Promising Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spurred by preservice teachers' perceptions that diversity issues such as poverty would not affect their teaching, professors in 1 southeastern U.S. elementary teacher-preparation program took action, which resulted in this examination of the culture of poverty and the identification of strategies to best serve children living in poverty. The…

Cuthrell, Kristen; Stapleton, Joy; Ledford, Carolyn

2009-01-01

112

Multicultural Science Education: Theory, Practice, and Promise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a relatively new area of investigation, the study of multicultural education as it relates to science teaching and learning has spawned numerous interpretations by researchers and authors worldwide. The contributors of this international volume--among them are science teacher educators, science teachers, scientists, researchers, program…

Hines, S. Maxwell, Ed.

2007-01-01

113

Identifying Instructional Targets for Early Childhood via Authentic Assessment: Alignment of Professional Standards and Practice-Based Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now at middle age, the field of Early Childhood Intervention (ECI) and its professionals have demonstrated a unique capacity to develop their own practice-based evidence (PBE) and professional standards to forge solutions to challenging professional practice dilemmas. This innovative capacity is no more evident than in designing and implementing…

Bagnato, Stephen J.; McLean, Mary; Macy, Marisa; Neisworth, John T.

2011-01-01

114

Ability to Identify, Explain and Solve Problems in Everyday Tasks: Preliminary Validation of a Direct Video Measure of Practical Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent developments in the definitional literature on mental retardation emphasize the need to ground the concept of adaptive behavior in an expanded model of intelligence, which includes practical and social intelligence. Development of a direct measure of practical intelligence might increase the likelihood that an assessment of this domain…

Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Greenspan, Stephen

2005-01-01

115

Progress and promise.  

PubMed

This editorial introduces the current issue of the journal School Psychology Quarterly (SPQ).There has been an impressive and promising progress of school psychology science has been reflected in every issue of SPQ, including the current one. PMID:23294232

Kamphaus, Randy W

2012-12-01

116

Identifying and Promoting Transition Evidence-Based Practices and Predictors of Success: A Position Paper of the Division on Career Development and Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This position paper describes the Division of Career Development and Transition's stance and recommendations for identifying and promoting secondary transition evidence-based practices and predictors of postschool success for students with disabilities. Recommendations for experimental research, correlational research, and secondary analysis…

Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Rowe, Dawn A.; Cameto, Renee; Test, David W.; Morningstar, Mary E.

2013-01-01

117

Do Workshops in Evidence-Based Practice Equip Participants to Identify and Answer Questions Requiring Consideration of Clinical Research? A Diagnostic Skill Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires practitioners to identify and formulate questions in response to patient encounters, and to seek, select, and appraise applicable clinical research. A standardized workshop format serves as the model for training of medical educators in these skills. We developed an evaluation exercise to assess the ability…

Wyer, Peter C,; Naqvi, Zoon; Dayan, Peter S.; Celentano, James J.; Eskin, Barnet; Graham, Mark J.

2009-01-01

118

Off-label prescriptions: how to identify them, frame them, announce them and monitor them in practice?  

PubMed

Following the Mediator crisis and the passage of the Health and Safety Law of December 2011, off-label prescriptions are a real concern shared by all those involved in healthcare system. Off-label, in the strictest sense of the term, is defined as all prescriptions that do not correspond to the summary of product characteristics (SPC), particularly those that fail to comply with the indications and dosage regimens defined by the marketing authorization (MA) for clear safety reasons. There are various rasons for off-label prescriptions, both conscious and unconscious. They are intended to respond to unmet medical needs, the needs of poorly studied populations or not studied at all in trials, but in relation to whom it is reasonable to extrapolate that MA would be given (common-sense prescriptions) and, additionally, to urgent public health needs (such as baclofen, pregnant women, and HIV drugs). All these prescriptions would deserve to be studied for a potential MA. However, there are off-label prescriptions that need to be restricted or even penalized in the case of compassionate prescriptions or unjustified prescriptions or prescriptions not based on any scientific grounds. Off-label prescriptions are not easy to track down because if the prescriber has to write "off-label" on his prescription, then clearly, in practice, he will only do so in exceptional cases. Neither the pharmacists who dispense the drug nor the Social Security that reimburses it, have access to the diagnosis (or targeted indication). Thus, in order to identify the off-label prescription, we must be able to cross reference the available databases (such as pharmacovigilance database, medicalized information system program [programme de médicalisation des systèmes d'information, PMSI], hospital drug formularies, general sample of beneficiaries [échantillon généraliste de bénéficiaires, EGB] or national inter-regional Health Insurance Information System [système national d'informations inter-régions d'Assurance maladie, SNIIRAM], sales data, and data from market surveys). The shared computerized patient file may resolve this problem. The temporary use recommendation (TUR) proposed by the Drug Safety Law will only partially deal with this problem for recently marketed molecules. This temporary and exceptional mechanism will authorize a recognized off-label prescription, which may be reimbursed and monitored for 3 years. These TURs will only concern a small portion of "off-label" drugs having yet a positive risk/benefit ratio (conditional MA) but this is far from matching with majority of off-label prescriptions. As such, and in order to improve the use of drugs, it is important to propose a control system for all "off-label" prescriptions with a dedicated committee: the "off-label" committee which would determine the frame of the "off-label" prescriptions. PMID:23981260

Le Jeunne, Claire; Billon, Nathalie; Dandon, Anne; Berdaï, Driss; Adgibi, Yolande; Bergmann, Jean-François; Bordet, Régis; Carpentier, Anne; Cohn, Emmanuelle; Courcier, Soizic; Girault, Danièle; Goni, Sylvia; Jolliet, Pascale; Liard, François; Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Simon, Tabassome; Vernotte, Christine; Westerloppe, Jérémie

2013-01-01

119

Use of a Biographical Data Inventory to Identify Behavioral Correlates of Practicing Medical Technologists: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Biographical Data Inventory (BDI) and a standard final evaluation form were developed and administered to practicing medical technologists and senior year medical technology students at a State university. A correlation of .68 between scores reinforced findings of other studies, suggesting that BDI's are useful in advisement and selection of…

Blume, Christiana S.

1976-01-01

120

Professional Development for Information Communication Technology Integration: Identifying and Supporting a Community of Practice through Design-Based Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests effective classroom ICT integration occurs through needs-based, collaborative professional development (Chandra-Handa, 2001; Cuttance, 2001; Figg, 2000; Gibson, Oberg, & Pelz, 1999; Gross, 2000; Haughey, 2002). A community of practice (CoP) (Wenger, 1998; Wenger, McDermott, & Snyder, 2002) can be an effective mode of such…

MacDonald, Ronald J.

2008-01-01

121

Using Conversion and Design Social R & D Principles to Identify Some Practice Implications for the Training of Trainers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature review examines 12 current works dealing with converting basic research on adult learning, adult development, adult education, instructional methods, and learning theory to practical application in the training of trainers. Focus of the review is on translating principles from scientific language to language more suitable to…

Lapides, Jerry

122

Use of a single page elder abuse assessment and management tool: a practical clinician's approach to identifying elder mistreatment.  

PubMed

Elder abuse is a growing, alarming public health issue. As health care professionals, our challenge is to balance our duty to protect the safety of the vulnerable elder with the elder's right to self-determination. Clinicians in busy practice settings across the continuum of care as well as community-based social workers, emergency medical system, police, and banking personnel are collaborative partners needing tools that focus on early recognition, assessment, intervention, and management of elder abuse. A simple one-page tool that provides principles of assessment and management, best practice guidelines and screening questions will hopefully serve to raise awareness of this important public health issue and maintain a high index of suspicion for elder abuse, neglect and financial exploitation. PMID:16803779

Bomba, Patricia A

2006-01-01

123

Surgical site infection prevention: a survey to identify the gap between evidence and practice in University of Toronto teaching hospitals  

PubMed Central

Background A gap exists between the best evidence and practice with regards to surgical site infection (SSI) prevention. Awareness of evidence is the first step in knowledge translation. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to 59 general surgeons and 68 residents at University of Toronto teaching hospitals. Five domains pertaining to SSI prevention with questions addressing knowledge of prevention strategies, efficacy of antibiotics, strategies for changing practice and barriers to implementation of SSI prevention strategies were investigated. Results Seventy-six individuals (60%) responded. More than 90% of respondents stated there was evidence for antibiotic prophylaxis and perioperative normothermia and reported use of these strategies. There was a discrepancy in the perceived evidence for and the self-reported use of perioperative hyperoxia, omission of hair removal and bowel preparation. Eighty-three percent of respondents felt that consulting published guidelines is important in making decisions regarding antibiotics. There was also a discrepancy between what respondents felt were important strategies to ensure timely administration of antibiotics and what strategies were in place. Checklists, standardized orders, protocols and formal surveillance programs were rated most highly by 75%–90% of respondents, but less than 50% stated that these strategies were in place at their institutions. Conclusion Broad-reaching initiatives that increase surgeon and trainee awareness and implementation of multifaceted hospital strategies that engage residents and attending surgeons are needed to change practice. PMID:22617541

Eskicioglu, Cagla; Gagliardi, Anna R.; Fenech, Darlene S.; Forbes, Shawn S.; McKenzie, Marg; McLeod, Robin S.; Nathens, Avery B.

2012-01-01

124

The promises of qualitative inquiry.  

PubMed

We address the significance and implications of the formal entry of qualitative inquiry into the American Psychological Association. In our view, the discipline is enriched in new and important ways. Most prominently, the qualitative movement brings with it a pluralist orientation to knowledge and to practices of inquiry. Adding to the traditional view of knowledge as empirically supported theory are research practices congenial with varying accounts of knowledge, including, for example, knowledge as hermeneutic understanding, social construction, and practice-based experience. Added to the goal of prediction are investments in increasing cultural understanding, challenging cultural conventions, and directly fostering social change. The qualitative movement also enriches the discipline as a whole through the special ways in which it inspires new ranges of theory, fosters minority inclusion, and invites interdisciplinary collaboration. Finally, the movement holds promise in terms of the discipline's contribution to society at large. Here we focus on the advantages of knowing with others in addition to about them, and on ways in which qualitative work enhances communication with the society and the world. Realizing these potentials will depend on developments in responsible research and reporting, academic and journal policies, along with the discipline's capacities for appreciating a more comprehensive orientation to inquiry. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25581004

Gergen, Kenneth J; Josselson, Ruthellen; Freeman, Mark

2015-01-01

125

Effective Teaching Practices in Reading that Enhance the Success of Students Identified as At-Risk for Reading Failure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this descriptive study was to investigate the use of decoding strategies, specifically phonemic awareness, alphabetic principle, accuracy and fluency, and vocabulary, to determine if applying the identified decoding strategies would have an effect on the students at-risk for reading failure. The purpose was to determine if these…

Sambucci, Joan N.

2010-01-01

126

Good Practice Chaplaincy: An Exploratory Study Identifying the Appropriate Skills, Attitudes and Practices for the Selection, Training and Utilisation of Chaplains.  

PubMed

This article presents an overview of exploratory research regarding the skills, knowledge, attitudes and practices considered necessary for chaplains to be highly competent in providing holistic care to clients and staff. Utilising a qualitative methodology, two focus groups comprising Salvation Army chaplains and their managers provided data about their expectations of chaplaincy personnel and about the pastoral care interventions undertaken by chaplains. The results indicated that while there were some differences in opinion, nevertheless, in overall terms, there was general agreement between chaplains and their managers about particular personal and professional qualities necessary for chaplains to be considered appropriate and proficient. Evidence was also obtained indicating a need for change with regard to the organisational attitude and culture of The Salvation Army towards chaplaincy. Recommendations are presented concerning (1) the selection criteria for chaplaincy, (2) training and utilisation of chaplains plus (3) issues relating to organizational cultural change necessary to develop a future-ready chaplaincy more suitable for the twenty-first century. PMID:25371346

Carey, Lindsay B; Rumbold, Bruce

2014-11-01

127

Use of technology assessment databases to identify the issues associated with adoption of structural health monitoring practices.  

SciTech Connect

The goal is to create a systematic method and structure to compile, organize, and summarize SHM related data to identify the level of maturity and rate of evolution and have a quick and ongoing evaluation of the current state of SHM among research institutions and industry. Hundreds of technical publication and conference proceedings were read and analyzed to compile the database. Microsoft Excel was used to create a useable interface that could be filtered to compare any of the entered data fields.

Roach, Dennis Patrick; Smith, Bryce; Neidigk, Stephen

2010-09-01

128

Objectification Theory: Areas of Promise and Refinement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article elaborates on three themes related to Szymanski, Moffitt, and Carr's major contribution aims. First, the article describes the promise of objectification theory as a grounding framework in research and practice, outlining how this theory integrates key aspects of several other important theoretical models. Second, this article…

Moradi, Bonnie

2011-01-01

129

A Legal Brief--Unfulfilled Hiring Promises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a specific case, this article reviews some common areas of contract and tort law applicable to principals and employment practices in public and private schools. The question/answer format treats contract validity, negligent misrepresentation, and constitutionality issues involved in a case based on unfulfilled hiring promises. Includes four…

Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B.

1988-01-01

130

American Promise: POV  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dramatic, poignant, and provocative, PBSâÂÂs Point of View documentaries provide access to often overlooked facets of American society. African-American filmmakers and parents Joe Brewster and Michèle Stephenson chronicle twelve years of educational ups and downs of their son, Idris, and his classmate Seun in American Promise. The documentary follows the two boysâ journey through ManhattanâÂÂs prestigious Dalton School as recruited students of color, shedding light on the black male achievement gap in the context of early education. Through their experiences, the viewer is offered intimate access to modern civil rights, gender and racial gaps, and generational conflict in the black community. The website offers a full length trailer, background, character descriptions, and a photo slideshow, as well as online streaming from February 4th â March 5th, 2014.

2014-02-01

131

A promising method for identifying cross-cultural differences in patient perspective: the use of Internet-based focus groups for content validation of new Patient Reported Outcome assessments  

PubMed Central

Objectives This proof of concept (POC) study was designed to evaluate the use of an Internet-based bulletin board technology to aid parallel cross-cultural development of thematic content for a new set of patient-reported outcome measures (PROs). Methods The POC study, conducted in Germany and the United States, utilized Internet Focus Groups (IFGs) to assure the validity of new PRO items across the two cultures – all items were designed to assess the impact of excess facial oil on individuals' lives. The on-line IFG activities were modeled after traditional face-to-face focus groups and organized by a common 'Topic' Guide designed with input from thought leaders in dermatology and health outcomes research. The two sets of IFGs were professionally moderated in the native language of each country. IFG moderators coded the thematic content of transcripts, and a frequency analysis of code endorsement was used to identify areas of content similarity and difference between the two countries. Based on this information, draft PRO items were designed and a majority (80%) of the original participants returned to rate the relative importance of the newly designed questions. Findings The use of parallel cross-cultural content analysis of IFG transcripts permitted identification of the major content themes in each country as well as exploration of the possible reasons for any observed differences between the countries. Results from coded frequency counts and transcript reviews informed the design and wording of the test questions for the future PRO instrument(s). Subsequent ratings of item importance also deepened our understanding of potential areas of cross-cultural difference, differences that would be explored over the course of future validation studies involving these PROs. Conclusion The use of IFGs for cross-cultural content development received positive reviews from participants and was found to be both cost and time effective. The novel thematic coding methodology provided an empirical platform on which to develop culturally sensitive questionnaire content using the natural language of participants. Overall, the IFG responses and thematic analyses provided a thorough evaluation of similarities and differences in cross-cultural themes, which in turn acted as a sound base for the development of new PRO questionnaires. PMID:16995935

Atkinson, Mark J; Lohs, Jan; Kuhagen, Ilka; Kaufman, Julie; Bhaidani, Shamsu

2006-01-01

132

[Promising networks, fruitful inquiry].  

PubMed

This supplement of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social includes 10 original contributions, and also six current themes, all of them related to childhood obesity. It is the result of an institutional program that it has been identified as Redes de Investigación Institucional, and it has been promoted and developed by the Coordinación de Investigación of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. PMID:24866301

Frenk, Silvestre

2014-01-01

133

Cast iron promises.  

PubMed

During the Victorian era, a fiercely competitive industry emerged to build and operate Britain's railways. Many of the design and construction skills required were still fairly rudimentary, and were typically developed through practical experience. The resulting mix of entrepreneurship and new technology reshaped the landscape, but often in ways which proved hazardous for passengers. Minor accidents were commonplace, and a number of major failures occurred, one such being the collapse of the Tay Bridge, in 1879. Events in the ten years prior to this disaster still have some resonance today. Ambitions to exploit new technology are not always matched by foresight in the planning, financing or management of projects. Contracts may be based on wrong assumptions, and prove difficult to enforce. Once a project has gathered momentum, those working on it may fear that any attempt to draw attention to risks or defects will be seen as disloyal. When work is completed, it cannot be assumed that formal inspections will reveal potential flaws, or that those using the technology will appreciate the need to follow the procedures laid down for them. Some possible parallels with recent experiences in NHS computing are noted. PMID:18005560

Hawker, Andrew

2007-01-01

134

The promise of proteomics in animal science  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Proteomics hold significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy. The ability of proteomics to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins is unparalleled. In this review, we will...

135

Identifying strategies to maximise recruitment and retention of practices and patients in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of an intervention to optimise secondary prevention for coronary heart disease in primary care. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Identifying strategies to maximise recruitment and retention of practices and patients in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of an intervention to optimise secondary prevention for coronary heart disease in primary care.

136

Temporal growth and geographic variation in the use of laboratory tests by NHS general practices: using routine data to identify research priorities  

PubMed Central

Background Laboratory tests are extensively used for diagnosis and monitoring in UK primary care. Test usage by GPs, and associated costs, have grown substantially in recent years. Aim This study aimed to quantify temporal growth and geographic variation in utilisation of laboratory tests. Design and setting Retrospective cohort study using data from general practices in the UK. Method Data from the General Practice Research Database, including patient demographics, clinical details, and laboratory test results, were used to estimate rates of change in utilisation between 2005 and 2009, and identify tests with greatest inter-regional variation, by fitting random-effects Poisson regression models. The study also investigated indications for test requests, using diagnoses and symptoms recorded in the 2 weeks before each test. Results Around 660 000 tests were recorded in 230 000 person-years of follow-up. Test use increased by 24.2%, from 23 872 to 29 644 tests per 10 000 person-years, between 2005 and 2009. Tests with the largest increases were faecal occult blood (121%) and C-reactive protein (86%). There was substantial geographic variation in test utilisation; GPs in some regions requested tests such as plasma viscosity and cardiac enzymes at a rate more than three times the national average. Conclusion Increases in the use of laboratory tests have substantial resource implications. Rapid increases in particular tests may be supported by evidence-based guidelines, but these are often vague about who should be tested, how often, and for how long. Substantial regional variation in test use may reflect uncertainty about diagnostic accuracy and appropriate indications for the laboratory test. There is a need for further research on the diagnostic accuracy, therapeutic impact, and effect on patient health outcomes of the most rapidly increasing and geographically variable tests. PMID:23540482

Busby, John; Schroeder, Knut; Woltersdorf, Wolfram; Sterne, Jonathan AC; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Hay, Alastair; Hollingworth, William

2013-01-01

137

Current social work perspectives on clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several forms of progress in the development of clinical practice theory and method are identified. There is a renewed positive valuation of psychodynamic approaches, a general acceptance of a systems framework, and a greater operationalization of procedures. The current controversy between the social work scientists and artists concerning research strategies is discussed. Three promising new perspectives—of morality, spirituality, and hermeneutics-are

Max Siporin

1985-01-01

138

A Bold and Promising Model with a Few Loose Ends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Without a doubt the authors' proposal of viewing gifted education in systemic terms is a promising one. In fact, it is most refreshing to read something eclectic like this with an aim to synthesize a field of research and practice which for too long has lacked consensus in both practice and theory. The author agrees with them that a mechanistic…

Persson, Roland S.

2012-01-01

139

Identifying actives from HTS data sets: practical approaches for the selection of an appropriate HTS data-processing method and quality control review.  

PubMed

High-throughput screening (HTS) has achieved a dominant role in drug discovery over the past 2 decades. The goal of HTS is to identify active compounds (hits) by screening large numbers of diverse chemical compounds against selected targets and/or cellular phenotypes. The HTS process consists of multiple automated steps involving compound handling, liquid transfers, and assay signal capture, all of which unavoidably contribute to systematic variation in the screening data. The challenge is to distinguish biologically active compounds from assay variability. Traditional plate controls-based and non-controls-based statistical methods have been widely used for HTS data processing and active identification by both the pharmaceutical industry and academic sectors. More recently, improved robust statistical methods have been introduced, reducing the impact of systematic row/column effects in HTS data. To apply such robust methods effectively and properly, we need to understand their necessity and functionality. Data from 6 HTS case histories are presented to illustrate that robust statistical methods may sometimes be misleading and can result in more, rather than less, false positives or false negatives. In practice, no single method is the best hit detection method for every HTS data set. However, to aid the selection of the most appropriate HTS data-processing and active identification methods, the authors developed a 3-step statistical decision methodology. Step 1 is to determine the most appropriate HTS data-processing method and establish criteria for quality control review and active identification from 3-day assay signal window and DMSO validation tests. Step 2 is to perform a multilevel statistical and graphical review of the screening data to exclude data that fall outside the quality control criteria. Step 3 is to apply the established active criterion to the quality-assured data to identify the active compounds. PMID:21160066

Shun, Tong Ying; Lazo, John S; Sharlow, Elizabeth R; Johnston, Paul A

2011-01-01

140

Nanotechnology: Its Promise and Challenges  

SciTech Connect

Vicki Colvin of Rice University talks about how nanotechnology-enabled systems, with dimensions on the scale of a billionth of a meter, offer great promise for solving difficult social problems and creating enormous possibilities.

Vicki Colvin

2009-05-14

141

Blueprints Promising Programs FACT SHEET  

E-print Network

training program (part of the Families That Care series) that promotes healthy, protective parent-child interactions and reduces children’s risk for early substance use initiation. It is based on the social development model, which theorizes that enhancing protective factors such as effective parenting practices will decrease the likelihood that children will engage in problem behaviors. While most sessions are focused on improving parenting skills and parents ’ self efficacy, the program also provides students with peer pressure refusal skills and has demonstrated reductions in children’s alcohol initiation. Program Targets The program has been successfully implemented with families of middle school children who resided in rural, economically stressed neighborhoods in the Midwest. Program Content GGC is a weekly, five-session multimedia program that strengthens parents ’ child-rearing techniques, parent-child bonding, and children’s peer resistance skills. Children are required to attend one session, which focuses on peer pressure. The other four sessions involve only parents, and include instruction in the following areas: ? Identifying risk factors for adolescent substance use and creating strategies to enhance the family’s

unknown authors

142

Theorizing Practice and Practicing Theory  

E-print Network

his paper describes the emerging field of practice theory as it is practiced in relation to organizational phenomena. We identify three approaches—empirical, theoretical, and philosophical—that relate to the what, the how, ...

Feldman, Martha S.

143

A cross-sectional study identifying the pattern of factors related to psychological intimate partner violence exposure in Slovenian family practice attendees: what hurt them the most  

PubMed Central

Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is yet to be fully acknowledged as a public health problem in Slovenia. This study aimed to explore the health and other patient characteristics associated with psychological IPV exposure and gender-related specificity in family clinic attendees. Methods In a multi-centre cross-sectional study, 960 family practice attendees aged 18 years and above were recruited. In 689 interviews with currently- or previously-partnered patients, the short form of A Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire and additional questions about behavioural patterns of exposure to psychological abuse in the past year were given. General practitioners (GPs) reviewed the medical charts of 470 patients who met the IPV exposure criteria. The Domestic Violence Exposure Medical Chart Check List was used, collecting data on the patients’ lives and physical, sexual and reproductive, and psychological health status, as well as sick leave, hospitalisation, visits to family practices and referrals to other clinical specialists in the past year. In multivariate logistic regression modelling the factors associated with past year psychological IPV exposure were identified, with P?

2014-01-01

144

Washington Promise Scholarship Program Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Washington Promise Scholarship program was established to encourage excellent academic performance and to reward low- and middle-income students who demonstrate meritorious achievement in high school by providing them a 2-year scholarship. An evaluation was conducted to study the program and its impact on college attendance and student…

Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

145

America: No Promise Without Agony.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We may discover signs of promise in the midst of agony if we make some shifts of perspective. (1) "Our fear of overt violence must be countered by our acknowledgement of covert violence." Covert violence is subtle and more destructive than physical violence because it is the "denial of personhood"--the insinuation by an act or by neglect that a…

Brown, Robert McAfee

146

Is Technology Fulfilling Its Promise?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology has promised trainers so much--from the ability to train distant learners to new ways of keeping young employees engaged. But has it delivered? In this article, several trainers consider whether their investment in training technology has been worth it.

Weinstein, Margery

2011-01-01

147

Understanding conditional promises and threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditional promises and threats are speech acts that are used to manipulate other people's behaviour. Studies on human reasoning typically use propositional logic to analyse what people infer from such inducements. While this approach is sufficient to uncover conceptual features of inducements, it fails to explain them. To overcome this limitation, we propose a multilevel analysis integrating motivational, linguistic, deontic,

Sieghard Beller; Andrea Bender; Gregory Kuhnmünch

2005-01-01

148

K-12 and University Educators Working Together toward Change: Initiating a Conversation about Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study of a joint school/university professional development opportunity explored how 12 practitioners came together to examine change in light of discrepancies between current practice in local schools and promising practices recommended in the literature for students identified as having significant disabilities. The group met monthly…

Fisher, Mary; Rogan, Patricia M.

2012-01-01

149

Drawing a Line in the Sand: Identifying the Borderzone between Self and Other in EL1 and EL2 Citation Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current concerns about academic plagiarism in student writing assume qualitative and quantitative differences in the writing of students for whom English is a first language (EL1) and English is a second language (EL2), but lack precision in measuring those differences. I examined the citation practices of EL1 and EL2 students in a timed writing…

Hyland, Theresa Ann

2009-01-01

150

Testing of a Nitrogen Index to Assess N Management Practices With GIS To Identify High-Risk Cropping System/Landscape Combinations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shaffer and Delgado (2002) reported that there is the need for quick nutrient management tools capable of quickly assessing the effects of management practices on nitrogen losses. Tier-one tools were defined as tools capable of conducting quick assessments of the effects of management on N losses us...

151

Identifying Key Elements of Community-Based ESD: ESD-J's Projects to Collect ESD in Practice in Japan and Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since its establishment in 2003, the Japan Council on the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD-J) has paid close attention to informal learning processes in community-based efforts to promote local sustainable development. ESD-J carried out two projects to collect information on and visualise community-based ESD practice: the…

Noguchi, Fumiko

2010-01-01

152

MEASURING RISKS IN HUMANS: THE PROMISE AND PRACTICE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiology has been considered the fundamental science of public health policy. The use of epidemiologic data in environmental health policy has been limited particularly in the environmental regulatory arena. Epidemiologic risk assessment (ERA) is different from risk ass...

153

Block Scheduling: Center for School Success Promising Practices Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication focuses on block scheduling. Alternative scheduling models--usually called "block scheduling" because they involve blocks of time for student learning--restructure the school day. Schools may adopt block scheduling to create more productive and personal relationships among teachers and students, to design challenging curricula…

Imbimbo, Josephine; Gilkes, Alwyn

2009-01-01

154

Illinois Adult Education Bridges: Promising Practices. Transition Highlights. Issue 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To enhance state-level adult education and employment policy, in 2007 the Joyce Foundation began the Shifting Gears (SG) initiative to assist six states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin) to integrate adult education, workforce development and postsecondary education policies and improve job opportunities for low-skilled…

Bragg, Debra; Oertle, Kathleen Marie; Kim, Sujung; Kirby, Catherine; Taylor, Jason; Harmon, Tim; Liss, Loralea

2011-01-01

155

Poverty, Race and Youth: Challenges and Promising Practices in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transition from high school to adult life is an exciting time for many young people. Youth from high poverty backgrounds, however, are considered at-risk for a host of unfavorable outcomes including academic failure, school dropout, drug abuse, unemployment and incarceration. These adolescents are more likely than their more affluent peers to…

Hughes, Carolyn; Stenhjem, Pamela H.; Newkirk, Reginald

2007-01-01

156

Global Reach and Local Practice: The Promise of MOOCs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robert Goodwin-Jones opens his discussion with the thought "If you want to attract attention to a new online course, the foolproof strategy today is to label it a MOOC, a massive open online course." The hype surrounding MOOCs has resulted in substantial interest--from the general public to university presidents--in online learning, as…

Godwin-Jones, Robert

2014-01-01

157

Socialization in Online Programs. Promising Practices in Online Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers studying socialization in online learning note that definitions are quite broad, suggesting that "Socialization is about people being able to mingle and establish connections on one or more levels. They speak[with] one another; share ideas and information and confirm the connections made through an agreed upon means." More broadly,…

Watson, John; Gemin, Butch

2008-01-01

158

Promising Practices in Florida: Integrating Academic and Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a compilation of 90 successful interdisciplinary projects and activities and integrated academic and vocational curriculum ideas implemented in Florida during the past 3 years. The activities and projects have been submitted by teachers and have not been officially evaluated or reviewed. Each description provides this information:…

Jones, Betty, Comp.

159

Country Stars: Promising Practices for Rural At-Risk Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory describes programs for serving at-risk students in rural small schools in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Section 1 lists 72 programs by state, including 8 programs that were added to the directory in 1995. Each entry includes target population; a brief description of program features; the school/community…

Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

160

Annual Outcomes and Assessment Conference Designing and Assessing Promising Practices  

E-print Network

.S. Department of Education in the Office of Vocational and Adult Education; academic advisor at Austin Community education with current certifications in general education, special education, English as a second language Speakers Updates from the Workforce, Academic Affairs and Research Division at the Texas Higher Education

Mohanty, Saraju P.

161

Implementing Promising Practices to Prepare Quality Teacher Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States does more than just talk; it invests a lot of money in public education. While students are the major focus of concern, teachers are a mainstay in the enterprise. In 2002, the U.S. invested $192 billion in teacher pay and benefits. More than 50% of all dollars allocated by the government for education is paid in salaries for…

Gentry, Ruben

2012-01-01

162

Teachers' Working Conditions and the Unmet Promise of Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I consider the promise of computer-facilitated technologies for enriching the practice of teaching art. Selected art education writings highlight the potential of computer technologies for K-12 art education. In search of an understanding of K-12 teachers' experiences and perceptions about technology utilization, I examine aspects of teachers'…

Delacruz, Elizabeth

2004-01-01

163

New promise for the electric car: plastic-metal batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic metals are much more than a laboratory curiosity. They might find practical application in many products in which metal or semiconductor materials are now used--electromagnetic shielding, photovoltaic cells, diodes and transistors, even wiring. But the most promising potential use is in batteries. Two different organic polymers (long-chain hydrocarbon molecules) are being investigated for possible use in batteries; polyacetylene (the

1982-01-01

164

Identifying Plane Figures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here you can practice identifying triangles, quadrilaterals and other polygons. Spring training is here so work on you baseball skills while studying your math! Baseball Angle Review and Baseball Triangle Practice will help your game in and out of the classroom. Make Benchmark a breeze with the Quadrilateral Sorter. ...

West, Mrs.

2013-03-07

165

Effective Practices and Structures for Middle Grades Education. Policy Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document draws upon theory and research about early adolescence and about the effects of middle grades structures and practices on student outcomes. The purpose is to identify specific problem areas and promising innovations that should be considered by policymakers as they establish guidelines for the restructuring of education in the middle…

Mac Iver, Douglas

166

The Promise of Psychiatric Pharmacogenomics.  

PubMed

Clinicians already face "personalized" medicine every day while experiencing the great variation in toxicities and drug efficacy among individual patients. Pharmacogenetics studies are the platform for discovering the DNA determinants of variability in drug response and tolerability. Research now focuses on the genome after its beginning with analyses of single genes. Therapeutic outcomes from several psychotropic drugs have been weakly linked to specific genetic variants without independent replication. Drug side effects show stronger associations to genetic variants, including human leukocyte antigen loci with carbamazepine-induced dermatologic outcome and MC4R with atypical antipsychotic weight gain. Clinical implementation has proven challenging, with barriers including a lack of replicable prospective evidence for clinical utility required for altering medical care. More recent studies show promising approaches for reducing these barriers to routine incorporation of pharmacogenetics data into clinical care. PMID:25483343

Hamilton, Steven P

2015-01-01

167

Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise  

PubMed Central

The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

2013-01-01

168

Promising therapeutic targets in neuroblastoma  

PubMed Central

Neuroblastoma, the most common extra- cranial solid tumor in children, is derived from neural crest cells. Nearly half of patients present with metastatic disease, and have 5-year EFS of less than 50%. New approaches with targeted therapy may improve efficacy without increased toxicity. The current review will evaluate three promising targeted therapies, including 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a radiopharmaceutical taken up by the human norepinephrine transporter expressed in 90% of neuroblastomas, immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies targeting the GD2 ganglioside, expressed on 98% of neuroblastoma cells, and inhibitors of ALK, a tyrosine kinase which is mutated or amplified in approximately 10% of neuroblastoma and expressed on the surface of most neuroblastoma cells. Early phase trials have confirmed the activity of 131I-MIBG in relapsed neuroblastoma, with response rates of about 30%, but the technical aspects of administration of large amounts of radioactivity in young children and the limited access have hindered incorporation into treatment of newly diagnosed patients. Anti-GD2 antibodies have also demonstrated activity in relapsed disease, and a recent phase III randomized trial showed a significant improvement in event-free survival for patients receiving chimeric anti-GD2 (ch14.18) combined with cytokines and isotretinoin after myeloablative consolidation therapy. A recently approved small molecule inhibitor of ALK has promising pre-clinical activity for neuroblastoma, and is currently in phase I and II trials. This is the first agent directed to a specific mutation in neuroblastoma, and marks a new step toward personalized therapy for neuroblastoma. Further clinical development of targeted treatments offers new hope for children with neuroblastoma. PMID:22589483

Matthay, Katherine K.; George, Rani E.; Yu, Alice L.

2012-01-01

169

Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education in Ghana: A Symposium To Examine Current Practices and Identify Future Directions (1st, Ajumako, Central Region, Ghana, June 25-26, 2001).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Girls' Education Unit (GEU) of the Basic Education Division of Ghana Education Service (GES) organized this Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education (AAGE) symposium to address the issues of girls' education, to construct a comprehensive picture of what interventions related to girls' education are currently being implemented, and identify

Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

170

Preventing ARDS: progress, promise, and pitfalls.  

PubMed

Advances in critical care practice have led to a substantial decline in the incidence of ARDS over the past several years. Low tidal volume ventilation, timely resuscitation and antimicrobial administration, restrictive transfusion practices, and primary prevention of aspiration and nosocomial pneumonia have likely contributed to this reduction. Despite decades of research, there is no proven pharmacologic treatment of ARDS, and mortality from ARDS remains high. Consequently, recent initiatives have broadened the scope of lung injury research to include targeted prevention of ARDS. Prediction scores have been developed to identify patients at risk for ARDS, and clinical trials testing aspirin and inhaled budesonide/formoterol for ARDS prevention are ongoing. Future trials aimed at preventing ARDS face several key challenges. ARDS has not been validated as an end point for pivotal clinical trials, and caution is needed when testing toxic therapies that may prevent ARDS yet potentially increase mortality. PMID:25288000

Beitler, Jeremy R; Schoenfeld, David A; Thompson, B Taylor

2014-10-01

171

A promising new thermoelectric material - Ruthenium silicide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and theoretical efforts directed toward increasing thermoelectric figure of merit values by a factor of 2 or 3 have been encouraging in several respects. An accurate and detailed theoretical model developed for n-type silicon-germanium (SiGe) indicates that ZT values several times higher than currently available are expected under certain conditions. These new, high ZT materials are expected to be significantly different from SiGe, but not unreasonably so. Several promising candidate materials have been identified which may meet the conditions required by theory. One such candidate, ruthenium silicide, currently under development at JPL, has been estimated to have the potential to exhibit figure of merit values 4 times higher than conventional SiGe materials. Recent results are summarized.

Vining, Cronin B.; Mccormack, Joseph A.; Zoltan, Andrew; Zoltan, Leslie D.

1991-01-01

172

The Ambivalence of Promising Technology  

PubMed Central

Issues of responsibility in the world of nanotechnology are becoming explicit with the emergence of a discourse on ‘responsible development’ of nanoscience and nanotechnologies. Much of this discourse centres on the ambivalences of nanotechnology and of promising technology in general. Actors must find means of dealing with these ambivalences. Actors’ actions and responses to ambivalence are shaped by their position and context, along with strategic games they are involved in, together with other actors. A number of interviews were conducted with industrial actors with the aim of uncovering their ethical stances towards responsible development of nanotechnology. The data shows that standard repertoires of justification of nanotechnological development were used. Thus, the industrial actors fell back on their position and associated responsibilities. Such responses reinforce a division of moral labour in which industrial actors and scientists can focus on the progress of science and technology, while other actors, such as NGOs, are expected to take care of broader considerations, such as ethical and social issues. PMID:20835398

2010-01-01

173

Will psychoanalysis fulfill its promise?  

PubMed

Although Freud had aspirations of a university structure for psychoanalytic education the sociopolitical structure of the Austro-Hungarian empire precluded this, and psychoanalysis developed by default in the central European heartland within a part-time, private-practice educational structure. With its rapid spread in the post-World-War-II United States, and its ready penetration of American academic psychiatry, a counter educational structure arose in some quarters: the department-of-psychiatry-affiliated institute within the medical school. This article outlines beyond these other, more ambitious, academic vistas (the David Shakow model, the Anna Freud model, the Menninger Foundation, Emory University (USA), AP de BA (Argentina)); conceptions even closer to the ideal (idealized) goal of full-time placement within the university, with strong links to medicine, to the behavioral sciences and to the humanities. The putative advantages of such a structure are presented. PMID:22471637

Wallerstein, Robert S

2012-04-01

174

Telepsychiatry: Promise, potential, and challenges.  

PubMed

Despite the high prevalence and potentially disabling consequences of mental disorders, specialized mental health services are extremely deficient, leading to the so-called 'Mental Health Gap'. Moreover, the services are concentrated in the urban areas, further worsening the rural-urban and tertiary primary care divide. Strengthening of and expanding the existing human resources and infrastructure, and integrating mental health into primary care appear to be the two major solutions. However, both the strategies are riddled with logistic difficulties and have a long gestation period. In such a scenario, telepsychiatry or e-mental health, defined as the use of information and communication technology to provide or support psychiatric services across distances, appears to be a promising answer. Due to its enormous potential, a review of the existing literature becomes imperative. An extensive search of literature was carried out and has been presented to delineate the modes of communication, acceptability and satisfaction, reliability, outcomes, cost-effectiveness, and legal and ethical challenges related to telepsychiatry. Telepsychiatry has been applied for direct patient care (diagnosis and management), consultation, and training, education, and research purposes. Both real-time, live interaction (synchronous) and store-forward (asynchronous) types of technologies have been used for these purposes. A growing amount of literature shows that training, supervision, and consultation by specialists to primary care physicians through telepsychiatry has several advantages. In this background, we have further focused on the models of telepsychiatry best suited for India, considering that mental health care can be integrated into primary care and taken to the doorstep of patients in the community. PMID:23441027

Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita

2013-01-01

175

BIOMEDICAL MATHEMATICS: Promising Directions in Imaging,  

E-print Network

BIOMEDICAL MATHEMATICS: Promising Directions in Imaging, Therapy Planning, and Inverse Problems #12;BIOMEDICAL MATHEMATICS: Promising Directions in Imaging, Therapy Planning, and Inverse Problems Yair Censor, Ming Jiang, Ge Wang Editors The Huangguoshu International Interdisciplinary Conference on Biomedical

Censor, Yair

176

Mixed-methods study identifies key strategies for improving infant and young child feeding practices in a highly stunted rural indigenous population in Guatemala.  

PubMed

Guatemala's rural indigenous population suffers from one of the highest rates of chronic child malnutrition (stunting) in the world. Successfully addressing stunting requires defining the barriers to and opportunities for new behaviour-change initiatives. We undertook a mixed-methods assessment of feeding practices and food purchasing behaviours around infants and young children aged 6-36 months in two rural indigenous Guatemalan communities. We found that most caregivers were aware only of acute forms of child malnutrition and that they greatly underestimated the local prevalence of malnutrition. Despite moderate adherence to exclusive breastfeeding and timing of complementary food introduction, diets had poor diversity and inadequate meal frequency. Furthermore, perceptions of food insecurity were high even in the presence of land ownership and agricultural production. Although fortified foods were highly valued, they were considered expensive. At the same time, proportionally equivalent amounts of money were spent on junk foods or other processed foods by most participants. Biological mothers often lacked autonomy for food purchasing and nutritional decisions because of the power exerted by husbands and paternal grandmothers. Our findings suggest several creative and community-based programming initiatives including education about the acute vs. chronic malnutrition distinction, engaging landowners in discussions about domestic food consumption, engaging with caregivers to redirect funds towards fortified foods rather than junk food purchases and directing behaviour-change initiatives towards all household stakeholders. PMID:25040768

Brown, Kelley; Henretty, Nicole; Chary, Anita; Webb, Meghan Farley; Wehr, Heather; Moore, Jillian; Baird, Caitlin; Díaz, Anne Kraemer; Rohloff, Peter

2014-07-18

177

Risk factors of falls in inpatients and their practical use in identifying high-risk persons at admission: Fukushima Medical University Hospital cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To clarify the risk factors for falls in hospital settings and to propose the use of such factors to identify high-risk persons at admission. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Fukushima Medical University Hospital, Japan, from August 2008 and September 2009. Participants 9957 adult consecutive inpatients admitted to our hospital. Methods Information was collected at admission from clinical records obtained from a structured questionnaire conducted in face-to-face interviews with subjects by nurses and doctors and fall events were collected from clinical records. Results The proportion of patients who fell during follow-up was 2.5% and the incidence of falls was 3.28 per 100 person-days. There were significant differences in age, history of falling, cognitive dysfunction, planned surgery, wheelchair use, need for help to move, use of a remote caring system, rehabilitation, use of laxative, hypnotic or psychotropic medications and need for help with activities of daily living (ADL) between patients who did and did not fall. Multivariable adjusted ORs for falls showed that age, history of falls and need for help with ADL were common risk factors in both men and women. Using psychotropic medication also increased the risk of falling in men while cognitive dysfunction and use of hypnotic medication increased the risk of falling in women. Planned surgery was associated with a low risk of falls in women. Conclusions To prevent falls in inpatients it is important to identify high-risk persons. Age, history of falling and the need for help with ADL are the most important pieces of information to be obtained at admission. Care plans for patients including fall prevention should be clear and considered. PMID:25232563

Hayakawa, Takehito; Hashimoto, Shigeatsu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hirano, Noriko; Kurihara, Yumi; Kawashima, Takako; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

2014-01-01

178

Utility, Limitations, and Promise of Proteomics in Animal Science  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in veterinary/animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing veterinary/animal science research. E...

179

The Utility, Limitations, and Promise of Proteomics in Animal Science  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. Examples of...

180

A comparison between the efficiency of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and nested PCR in identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis during routine clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Objectives Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is more sensitive, specific, and rapid than the conventional methods of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear and culture. The aim of this study was to determine if the Xpert MTB/rifampicin (RIF) assay had additional advantages over nested PCR for the detection of MTB in a geographical area with intermediate tuberculosis (TB) incidence. Methods Between February and December 2013, the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and MTB nested PCR, as well as AFB smear and culture, were simultaneously performed on 198 clinical samples (160 pulmonary and 38 non-pulmonary specimens) collected from 171 patients hospitalized at Hallym University Medical Center for possible TB. The accuracy of the diagnosis of MTB culture-positive TB and the turnaround time of reporting laboratory results were calculated and compared. Rifampin resistance by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay was reviewed with that of conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST). Results The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and MTB nested PCR for diagnosis of MTB culture-positive pulmonary TB were 86.1% vs. 69.4% (P=0.1563), 97.8% vs. 94.1% (P=0.2173), 91.2% vs. 75.8% (P=0.1695), and 96.4% vs. 92.0% (P=0.2032), respectively. The median turnaround times of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and MTB nested PCR were 0 [0-4] days and 4 [1-11] days, respectively (P<0.001). Two cases of rifampin resistance, as determined by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, were found to be multi-drug resistant (MDR) pulmonary TB by DST. Conclusions The Xpert MTB/RIF assay seemed to be sensitive, specific, and comparable to nested PCR for identifying MTB among clinically suspected TB patients, and the assay can be valuable in giving a timely identification of resistance to rifampin. PMID:24976983

Kim, Cheol-Hong; Woo, Heungjeong; Kim, Changhwan; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Jang, Seung-Hun; Park, Sang Myeon; Lee, Myung Goo; Jung, Ki-Suck; Hyun, Jeongwon; Kim, Hyun Soo

2014-01-01

181

Glucokinase activators (GKAs) promise a new pharmacotherapy for diabetics  

PubMed Central

The glucose-phosphorylating enzyme glucokinase, a promising target for developing new antidiabetic agents, was identified through the combined efforts of basic research and human biochemical genetics. Allosteric glucokinase activators (GKAs) were discovered by high-throughput screening of a large compound library and first reported in 2003. GKAs stimulate insulin release and glucose metabolism in the liver thereby lowering blood sugar, and promising trials in humans demonstrate that they are highly effective in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Many companies are now attempting to develop effective and safe GKAs for treating diabetics. PMID:20948841

Porte, Daniel

2010-01-01

182

Cancer and Inflammation: Promise for Biological Therapy  

PubMed Central

Cancers often arise as the end stage of inflammation in adults, but not in children. As such there is a complex interplay between host immune cells during neoplastic development, with both an ability to promote cancer as well as limit or eliminate it, most often complicit with the host. In humans, defining inflammation and the presence of inflammatory cells within or surrounding the tumor is a critical aspect of modern pathology. Groups defining staging for neoplasms are strongly encouraged to assess and incorporate measures of the presence of apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis as well as the nature and quality of the immune infiltrate. Both environmental as well as genetic factors enhance the risk of cigarette smoking, H. pylori, hepatitis B/C, human papilloma virus, solar irradiation, asbestos, pancreatitis, or other causes of chronic inflammation. Identifying suitable genetic polymorphisms in cytokines, cytokine receptors, and Toll-like receptors among other immune response genes is also seen as high value as genomic sequencing becomes less expensive. Animal models which incorporate and assess not only the genetic anlagen but also the inflammatory cells and the presence of microbial pathogen [PAMPs] and damage associated molecular pattern molecules [DAMPs] are necessary. Identifying micro-RNAs involved in regulating the response to damage or injury are seen as highly promising. Although no therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat cancers based on insights into inflammatory pathways are currently approved for the common epithelial malignancies, there remains substantial interest in agents targeting COX2 or PPAR?, ethyl pyruvate, as well as steroids and several novel agents on the horizon. PMID:20386472

Demaria, Sandra; Pikarsky, Eli; Karin, Michael; Coussens, Lisa M.; Chen, Yen-Ching; El-Omar, Emad M.; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Dubinett, Steven M.; Mao, Jenny T.; Szabo, Eva; Krieg, Arthur; Weiner, George J.; Fox, Bernard A.; Coukos, George; Wang, Ena; Abraham, Robert T.; Carbone, Michele; Lotze, Michael T.

2010-01-01

183

Identifying Best Practices in Hydraulic Fracturing Using  

E-print Network

in Medina and Whirlpool sands of southwest New York State Using Virtual Intelligence Techniques #12;SPE Medina and Whirlpool sands of southwest New York State are considered to be tight gas sands. Most wells 72385 METHODOLOGY Although the terms data mining and knowledge discovery are not new, the combination

Mohaghegh, Shahab

184

Identify fractions in multiple ways  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice identifying fractions 1. Compare fractions and find different fractions using the same denominators. 2. Identify fractions on a number line and see if you can do it. 3. Help find grampy and identify the fraction to find him. 4. Comparing fractions with pie charts ...

Marsh, Mrs.

2006-10-27

185

Promising alternative settings for HPV vaccination of US adolescents  

PubMed Central

Vaccination in alternative settings, defined here as being outside of traditional primary care, can help address the pressing public health problem of low human papillomavirus vaccine coverage among adolescents in the United States. Pharmacies are promising because they are highly accessible and have well established immunization practices. However, pharmacies currently face policy and reimbursement challenges. School-located mass vaccination programs are also promising because of their high reach and demonstrated success in providing other vaccines, but control by local policymakers and challenges in establishing community partnerships complicate widespread implementation. Health centers in schools are currently too few to greatly increase access to human papillomavirus vaccine. Specialty clinics have experience with vaccination, but the older age of their patient populations limits their reach. Future steps to making alternative settings a success include expanding their use of statewide vaccine registries and improving their coordination with primary care providers. PMID:24405401

Shah, Parth D.; Gilkey, Melissa B.; Pepper, Jessica K.; Gottlieb, Sami L.; Brewer, Noel T.

2014-01-01

186

New study on acupuncture contains promising findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Great Beyond: Acupuncture 'works in mice'http://blogs.nature.com/news/thegreatbeyond/2010/05/acupuncture_works_in_mice.htmlYankees starter A.J. Burnett credits acupuncture with helping him stay healthyhttp://www.nj.com/yankees/index.ssf/2010/05/yankees_starter_aj_burnett_cre.htmlNational Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Acupuncturehttp://nccam.nih.gov/health/acupuncture/Acupuncture: MedlinePlushttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/acupuncture.htmlAmerican Academy of Medical Acupuncture [pdf]http://www.medicalacupuncture.org/Acupuncture has been practiced for thousands of year, but some medical scholars and health care experts remain skeptical of its benefits. Some have claimed that establishing a control group in clinical trails to prove the treatment's efficacy is difficult, if not impossible. This week, a team of researchers at the Center for Translational Neuromedicine at the University of Rochester Medical Center announced that the needle pricks involved in acupuncture might help relieve pain by triggering a natural painkilling chemical. Medical researcher and lead author Dr. Maiken Nedergaard and her colleagues reported their findings in the journal Nature Neuroscience. The findings were based on studies that administered half-hour acupuncture treatments to a group of mice with paw discomfort. Dr. Nedergaard and her colleagues found that adenosine (the natural painkiller in question) levels in the affected areas near the needle insertion points were 24 times greater after treatment. This particular chemical is best known for regulating sleep by inhibiting nerve signals and inflammation. While these are certainly early days for this work, the initial results are promising and it will be interesting to track follow-up studies.The first link will take visitors to a piece from this Monday's Bloomburg Businessweek which reports on this recent study. The second link will take interested parties to an entry from the Nature blog, "The Great Beyond". The entry talks a bit about the new study and also has several additional links. The third link will lead visitors to a recent article from the Newark Star-Ledger about New York Yankee A.J. Burnett's use of acupuncture. Moving on the fourth link leads to the acupuncture information page, provided by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. The fifth link will whisk users away to more information on acupuncture from MedlinePlus and the National Institutes of Health. The last link leads to the homepage of the American Academy of Medical Acupuncture, which has information on their professional work and the world of acupuncture.

Grinnell, Max

2010-06-04

187

Identifying Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this environmental science activity (page 3 of the PDF), leaners will identify and explain the causes of erosion. They will observe the effects of erosion on the surrounding area and further explore examples of erosion online. An extension activity allows learners to make a hands-on model of soil erosion. Though this was created as a pre-visit activity for a workshop about water flow and erosion, it makes a great stand-alone activity as well!

Cosi

2009-01-01

188

Early Trial Promising for Ebola Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Early Trial Promising for Ebola Vaccine Injections appear safe, but one expert is ... 2015) Wednesday, November 26, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Ebola Immunization WEDNESDAY, Nov. 26, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- An ...

189

Pancreatic Cancer: Targeted Treatments Hold Promise  

MedlinePLUS

... Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Pancreatic Cancer: Targeted Treatments Hold Promise Search the Consumer Updates ... Scientists are working to develop breakthrough therapies for pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest cancers affecting both men ...

190

Implementing Evidence-Based Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, social work has been influenced by new forms of practice that hold promise for bringing practice and research together to strengthen the scientific knowledge base supporting social work intervention. The most recent new practice framework is evidence-based practice. However, although evidence-based practice has many qualities that might…

Mullen, Edward J.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

2008-01-01

191

Evaluating Your Program. Supported Education: A Promising Practice. Evidence-Based Practices KIT (Knowledge Informing Transformation)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Key stakeholders who implement Supported Education may find themselves asking two questions: (1) Has Supported Education been implemented as planned?; and (2) Has Supported Education resulted in the expected outcomes? Asking these two questions and using the answers to help improve Supported Education are critical for ensuring the success of one's…

Unger, Karen V.

2011-01-01

192

Building Your Program. Supported Education: A Promising Practice. Evidence-Based Practices KIT (Knowledge Informing Transformation)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Building Your Program" is intended to help mental health authorities, agency administrators, and program leaders think through and develop Supported Education. The first part of this booklet gives you background information about the Supported Education model. Specific information about your role in implementing and sustaining Supported Education…

Unger, Karen V.

2011-01-01

193

Identifying Elements of a Biography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, students will identify and describe evidence in a text showing that it is a biography. In guided and independent practice students will use A Picture Book of Anne Frank by David A. Adler.

ReadWorks

2012-03-23

194

Advanced available-to-promise: Classification, selected methods and requirements for operations and inventory management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced available-to-promise (AATP) comprises of an assortment of methods and tools to enhance order promising responsiveness and order fulfillment reliability. This paper contributes to a theoretical framework for the development of models and algorithms supporting order quantity and due date quoting. At first, alternative generic AATP systems will be identified on the basis of relevant classification criteria. Based upon this

Richard Pibernik

2005-01-01

195

ENABLING AGRICULTURE: THE EVOLUTION AND PROMISE OF AGRICULTURAL KNOWLEDGE FRAMEWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the evolution of different agricultural knowledge frameworks and assesses their different approaches to enabling agricultural development. We identify the strengths and weaknesses in early and current frameworks and discuss present trends in thinking about how best to promote innovation and rural development. The paper's practical purpose is to contribute to strengthening the foundation that donors and governments

William M. Rivera; Gary Alex; James Hanson; Regina Birner

196

Teen Risk-Taking: Promising Prevention Programs and Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook explores some of the practical issues associated with finding, choosing, and starting potentially effective prevention programs for at-risk preteens and teens. The guidebook is based on a study of 51 intervention programs that identified elements and delivery mechanisms that were associated with their effectiveness. A closer look at…

Eisen, Marvin; Pallitto, Christina; Bradner, Carolyn; Bolshun, Natalya

197

Order promising/fulfillment and customer/channel collaboration in supply chain management  

E-print Network

This research investigates the order promising and fulfillment and customer and channel collaboration functions of a company. In addition to presenting more precise definitions, we identify and analyze current and emerging ...

An, Yimin, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

198

Stem cell research and economic promises.  

PubMed

In the context of stem cell research, the promise of economic growth has become a common policy argument for adoption of permissive policies and increased government funding. However, declarations of economic and commercial benefit, which can be found in policy reports, the scientific literature, public funding policies, and the popular press, have arguably created a great deal of expectation. Can stem cell research deliver on the economic promise? And what are the implications of this economic ethos for the researchers who must work under its shadow? PMID:20579253

Caulfield, Timothy

2010-01-01

199

Problems and promises of the protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating protocols (or guidelines, standards) for medical work is becoming big business. The pros and cons of protocols have been reiterated many times: advocates argue that protocols may enhance the quality of care, reduce unwanted variations in practice, and may help to render medical practice more scientific. Critics, on the contrary, argue that protocols will lead to cookbook medicine, to

Marc Berg

1997-01-01

200

Implementing and assessing organizational practices in local health departments.  

PubMed Central

One of the most difficult forms of public health practice to characterize involves governmental public health agencies, especially at the local level. A lack of consensus within the public health community as to the purpose and content of organizational public health practice inhibits efforts to increase the capability of public health to address effectively its core functions of assessment, policy development, and assurance. Meaningful capacity building efforts must establish both benchmarks and expectations for the organizational practice of public health. Those markers must be established so that the impact of practice on outcomes and health status can be examined. A model identifying 10 organizational practices was established through the work of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in collaboration with national practice organizations. Early applications of the model to public health capacity building activities have been effective. Among the applications have been approaches to surveillance of health department practice, certification of local health departments using practice guidelines, and development of leadership within the public health enterprise. Although results are promising, use of the model requires additional external examination and validation, as well as acceptance and consensus within the public health community. The development of organizational practice guidelines for public health agencies may be useful in further efforts to characterize and measure public health practice and its impact on the public's health. PMID:8041846

Turnock, B J; Handler, A; Dyal, W W; Christenson, G; Vaughn, E H; Rowitz, L; Munson, J W; Balderson, T; Richards, T B

1994-01-01

201

The Promise and Perils of Thought Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of thought experiments are cited, some well-known, some not. These illustrate the power of thought experiments. Other examples are given that show some of the dangers. As well as examples from the science, some examples of visual reasoning from mathematics are also presented, again with an eye to illustrating their promise and perils.…

Brown, James Robert

2006-01-01

202

The Unmet Promise of Alternatives to Incarceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A careful review of the research literature on alternatives to incarcera tion suggests that their promise of reducing the prison population has remained largely unmet. For each of the reform strategies reviewed, the nonincarcerative options were transformed, serving criminal jus tice system values and goals other than reducing imprisonment. Sen tencing alternatives, such as restitution and community service, were found

James Austin; Barry Krisberg

1982-01-01

203

Implementing Performance Assessment: Promises, Problems, and Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters in this collection contribute to the debate about the value and usefulness of radically different kinds of assessments in the U.S. educational system by considering and expanding on the theoretical underpinnings of reports and speculation. The chapters are: (1) "Assessment Reform: Promises and Challenges" (Nidhi Khattri and David…

Kane, Michael B., Ed.; Mitchell, Ruth, Ed.

204

Promise in Action: Examples of Institutional Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author illustrates how three campuses have, in their own way, attempted to bring coherence to the student experience and enrich that experience by more closely matching what was promised to what each student actually experiences while enrolled. Fulfilling students' expectations that were purposefully articulated in the mission…

Kuh, George D.

2013-01-01

205

The Promise of Zoomable User Interfaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zoomable user interfaces (ZUIs) have received a significant amount of attention in the 18 years since they were introduced. They have enjoyed some success, and elements of ZUIs are widely used in computers today, although the grand vision of a zoomable desktop has not materialised. This paper describes the premise and promise of ZUIs along with…

Bederson, Benjamin B.

2011-01-01

206

Promises and challenges of evolvable hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolvable hardware (EHW) has attracted increas- ing attention since the early 1990's with the advent of easily reconfigurable hardware, such as field programmable gate arrays (FPGA's). It promises to provide an entirely new approach to complex electronic circuit design and new adaptive hardware. EHW has been demonstrated to be able to perform a wide range of tasks from pattern recognition

Xin Yao; Tetsuya Higuchi

1999-01-01

207

Merit Scholars and the Fulfillment of Promise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to assess how successful Merit Scholars judged themselves in making progress toward their long-term objectives: fulfilling the promise they expect of themselves. Three thousand and eighty-nine Merit Scholars between 1956 and 1960 provided information in 1965 about their long-range goals and the progress they felt they were…

Watley, Donivan J.; Kaplan, Rosalyn

208

Selection of promising sites for magma energy experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Long Valley and Coso Hot Springs areas of California have been identified as the most promising sites for conducting a magma energy extraction experiment. These two locations were selected from among the potential sites on the basis of several factors that are critical to the success of the proposed long-term energy extraction experiment. These factors include the likelihood of the existence of shallow magma targets as well as several other drilling, energy extraction and programmatic considerations. As the magma energy extraction program continues, these sites will be analyzed in detail so that one can be selected as the site for the planned magma experiment.

Carson, C.C.

1985-01-01

209

Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI): A promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated whether the Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI) can discriminate between young children fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normally developing children. Unlike other executive function rating instruments, the CHEXI focuses specifically on inhibitory control and working memory, without including items that overlap with the diagnostic criteria of ADHD. The CHEXI was found to

Lisa B. Thorell; Lilianne Eninger; Karin C. Brocki; Gunilla Bohlin

2010-01-01

210

Promising Aedes aegypti Repellent Chemotypes Identified through Integrated QSAR, Virtual Screening, Synthesis, and Bioassay  

PubMed Central

Molecular field topology analysis, scaffold hopping, and molecular docking were used as complementary computational tools for the design of repellents for Aedes aegypti, the insect vector for yellow fever, chikungunya, and dengue fever. A large number of analogues were evaluated by virtual screening with Glide molecular docking software. This produced several dozen hits that were either synthesized or procured from commercial sources. Analysis of these compounds by a repellent bioassay resulted in a few highly active chemicals (in terms of minimum effective dosage) as viable candidates for further hit-to-lead and lead optimization effort. PMID:24039693

Oliferenko, Polina V.; Oliferenko, Alexander A.; Poda, Gennadiy I.; Osolodkin, Dmitry I.; Pillai, Girinath G.; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Tsikolia, Maia; Agramonte, Natasha M.; Clark, Gary G.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Katritzky, Alan R.

2013-01-01

211

Promise and Pitfalls of Using Grain Size Analysis to Identify Glacial Sediments in Alpine Lake Cores.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lakes fed by glacier outwash should have a clastic particle-size record distinct from non-glacial lakes in the same area, but do they? The unique turquoise color of alpine glacial lakes reflects the flux of suspended clastic glacial rock flour to those lakes; conversely, lakes not fed by outwash are generally clear with sediments dominated by organics or slope-wash from nearby hillslopes. This contrast in sediment types and sources should produce a distinct and measureable different in grain sizes between the two settings. Results from a variety of lakes suggest the actual situation is often more subtle and complex. I compare grain size results to other proxies to assess the value of grain size analysis for paleoglacier studies. Over the past 10 years, my colleagues and I have collected and analyzed sediment cores from a wide variety of lakes below small alpine glaciers in an attempt to constrain the timing and magnitude of alpine glaciation in those basins. The basic concept is that these lakes act as continuous catchments for any rock flour produced upstream by glacier abrasion; as a glacier grows, the flux of rock flour to the lake will also increase. If the glacier disappears entirely, rock flour deposition will also cease in short order. We have focused our research in basins with simple sedimentologic settings: mostly small, high-altitude, stripped granitic or metamorphic cirques in which the cirque glaciers are the primary source of clastic sediments. In most cases, the lakes are fed by meltwater from a modern glacier, but were ice free during the earlier Holocene. In such cases, the lake cores should record formation of and changes in activity of the glacier upstream. We used a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 laser particle size analyzer for our grain size analyses, as well as recording magnetic susceptibility, color, and organics for the same cores. The results indicate that although lakes often experience increases in silt and clay-size (<0.63 mm) clastic particles when a glacier is present upstream, the signal can be highly variable and complex, most likely the result of stochastic processes in the basin. Our analyses indicate that although particle size reflects glacier activity upstream, it is rarely the best record of glacier change and is most useful in combination with other proxies, most notably MS, color, and organic content.

Clark, D. H.

2011-12-01

212

Assessing college students' attitudes toward responsible drinking messages to identify promising binge drinking intervention strategies.  

PubMed

Health communication appeals were utilized through a Web site simulation to evaluate the potential effectiveness of 3 intervention approaches to promote responsible drinking among college students. Within the Web site simulation, participants were exposed to a persuasive message designed to represent either the generalized social norms advertising approach (based on others' behavior), the personalized behavioral feedback approach (tailored to the individual's behavior), or the schema-based approach (tailored to the individual's self-schema, or personality). A control group was exposed to a message that was designed to be neutral (it was designed to discourage heavy drinking, but it did not represent any of the previously mentioned approaches). It was hypothesized that the more personalized the message was to the individual, the more favorable college students' attitudes would be toward the responsible drinking message. Participants receiving the more personalized messages did report more favorable attitudes toward the responsible drinking message. PMID:17967148

Pilling, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A

2007-01-01

213

The Promise of Standardized Data Collection: School Health Variables Identified by States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A gap in data prevents measurement of the needs of school-age children and the influence of school nursing interventions on student health and education outcomes. Its remedy is in the data collected in school health rooms. A national clinical database describing school health will allow education and health leaders to build evidence-based programs…

Johnson, Kathleen H.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Westbrook, Linda Oakes

2012-01-01

214

Turning Ideas into Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features five schools (John P. Oldham Elementary, Norwood, Massachusetts; R. J. Richey Elementary, Burnet, Texas; Pittsburgh Carmalt Science and Technology Academy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; John D. Shaw Elementary, Wasilla, Alaska; and Springville K-8, Portland Oregon) that offer five promising practices. From fourth graders learning…

Adams, Caralee

2011-01-01

215

Gene Therapy for the Inner Ear: Challenges and Promises  

PubMed Central

Since the recognition of genes as the discrete units of heritability, and of DNA as their molecular substrate, the utilization of genes for therapeutic purposes has been recognized as a potential means of correcting genetic disorders. The tools of molecular biology, which allow the manipulation of DNA sequence, provided the means to put this concept into practice. However, progress in the implementation of these ideas has been slow. Here we review the history of the idea of gene therapy and the complexity of genetic disorders. We also discuss the requirements for sequence-based therapy to be accomplished for different types of inherited diseases, as well as the methods available for gene manipulation. The challenges that have limited the applications of gene therapy are reviewed, as are ethical concerns. Finally, we discuss the promise of gene therapy to address inherited and acquired disorders of the inner ear. PMID:19494569

Ryan, Allen F.; Dazert, Stefan

2015-01-01

216

Some promising dimensions for behavioral community technology  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the search for effective and replicable approaches to planned change in communities has escalated. Applied behavior analysts have participated in these efforts to remedy existing community problems and to increase the capacities of community residents to meet their goals. Examples of behavioral technologies for community settings are described and their advantages are noted. Criteria for more contextually appropriate community technologies are suggested and strategies for developing behavioral methods according to these criteria are described. This paper outlines some promising dimensions for behavioral community technology and discusses several possible limitations to a behavioral approach to addressing societal problems. PMID:16795630

Fawcett, Stephen B.; Mathews, R. Mark; Fletcher, R. Kay

1980-01-01

217

Abstract Features of emerging online social information services show promises for overcoming  

E-print Network

, these emerging technologies, including blog, wikis, social networking services, and media sharing services, shareAbstract ­ Features of emerging online social information services show promises for overcoming practices of such technologies in the domain of knowledge management. Then a quality model of online social

Mankoff, Jennifer

218

Reducing Class Size: Promises and Perils  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reducing class size, especially in primary grades, can have tremendous academic and social benefits for children--benefits that endure well beyond those first years of school. But smaller class sizes are not a cure-all. Beyond the hoopla of enthusiasm for this seemingly simple change in educational practice lie serious consequences for students…

Bascia, Nina; Fredua-Kwarteng, Eric

2008-01-01

219

Promises and Pitfalls of Learning Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning objects (LOs), generally understood as digital learning resources shared through the Internet and reused in multiple learning contexts, have aroused worldwide enthusiasm in the field of educational technology during the last years. Although LOs and LO systems offer tremendous possibilities to improve educational practices, there are many…

Nurmi, Sami; Jaakkola, Tomi

2006-01-01

220

The promise of microfluidic artificial lungs.  

PubMed

Microfluidic or microchannel artificial lungs promise to enable a new class of truly portable, therapeutic artificial lungs through feature sizes and blood channel designs that closely mimic those found in their natural counterpart. These new artificial lungs could potentially: 1) have surface areas and priming volumes that are a fraction of current technologies thereby decreasing device size and reducing the foreign body response; 2) contain blood flow networks in which cells and platelets experience pressures, shear stresses, and branching angles that copy those in the human lung thereby improving biocompatibility; 3) operate efficiently with room air, eliminating the need for gas cylinders and complications associated with hyperoxemia; 4) exhibit biomimetic hydraulic resistances, enabling operation with natural pressures and eliminating the need for blood pumps; and, 5) provide increased gas exchange capacity enabling respiratory support for active patients. This manuscript reviews recent research efforts in microfluidic artificial lungs targeted at achieving the advantages above, investigates the ultimate performance and scaling limits of these devices using a proven mathematical model, and discusses the future challenges that must be overcome in order for microfluidic artificial lungs to be applied in the clinic. If all of these promising advantages are realized and the remaining challenges are met, microfluidic artificial lungs could revolutionize the field of pulmonary rehabilitation. PMID:25198427

Potkay, Joseph A

2014-11-01

221

PROMISING STRATEGIES FOR THE PREVENTION OF DEMENTIA  

PubMed Central

The incidence and prevalence of dementia is expected to increase several fold in the coming decades. Given that the current pharmaceutical treatment of dementia can only modestly improve symptoms, risk factor modification remains the cornerstone for dementia prevention. Some of the most promising strategies for the prevention of dementia include vascular risk factor control, cognitive activity, physical activity, social engagement, diet, and recognition of depression. In observational studies, vascular risk factors - including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity - are fairly consistently associated with increased risk of dementia. In addition, people with depression are at high risk of cognitive impairment. Other studies have reported that intake of anti-oxidants or polyunsaturated fats may be associated with reduced incidence of dementia in population studies and that people who are cognitively, socially, and physically active have reduced risk of cognitive impairment. However, randomized trials of risk factor modification have been mixed. Most promisingly, interventions of cognitive and physical activity improve cognitive performance and slow cognitive decline. Future studies should continue to examine the implication of risk factor modification in controlled trials, with particular focus on whether several simultaneous interventions may have additive or multiplicative effects. PMID:19822776

Middleton, Laura; Yaffe, Kristine

2009-01-01

222

Nanotechnology: Promises and challenges for tomorrow  

SciTech Connect

Nanotechnology is based on the ability to create and utilize materials, devices and systems through control of the matter at the nanometer scale. If successful, nanotechnology is expected to lead to broad new technological developments. The efficiency of energy conversion can be increased through the use of nanostructured materials with enhanced magnetic, light emission or wear resistant properties. Energy generation using nanostructured photovoltaics or nanocluster driven photocatalysis could fundamentally change the economic viability of renewable energy sources. In addition, the ability to imitate molecular processes found in living organisms may be key to developing highly sensitive and discriminating chemical and biological sensors. Such sensors could greatly expand the range of medical home testing as well as provide new technologies to counter the spread of chemical and biological weapons. Even the production of chemicals and materials could be revolutionized through the development of molecular reactors that can promote low energy chemical pathways for materials synthesis. Although nanotechnologies hold great promise, significant scientific challenges must be addressed before they can convert that promise into a reality. A key challenge in nanoscience is to understand how nano-scale tailoring of materials can lead to novel and enhanced functions. The authors' laboratory, for example, is currently making broad contributions in this area by synthesizing and exploring nanomaterials ranging from layered structures for electronics/photonics to novel nanocrystalline catalysts. They are even adapting functions from biological molecules to synthesize new forms of nanostructured materials.

ROMIG JR.,ALTON D.; MICHAEL,JOSEPH R.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.

2000-02-29

223

FXYD3: A Promising Biomarker for Urothelial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objective: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the kidney is a relatively rare but aggressive form of kidney cancer. Differential diagnosis of renal UC from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can be difficult, but is critical for correct patient management. We aimed to use global gene expression profiling to identify genes specifically expressed in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the kidney, with purpose of finding new biomarkers for differential diagnosis of UC of both upper and lower tract from normal tissues. Materials and methods: Microarray gene expression profiling was performed on a variety of human kidney tumor samples, including clear cell, papillary, chromophobe, oncocytoma, renal UC and normal kidney controls. Differentially expressed mRNAs in various kidney tumor subtypes were thus identified. Protein expression in human UC tumor samples from both upper and lower urinary tract was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results: FXYD3 (MAT-8) mRNA was specifically expressed in UC of the kidney and not in normal kidney tissue or in any RCC tumor subtypes. FXYD3 mRNA levels displayed equal or better prediction rate for the detection of renal UC than the mRNA levels of selected known UC markers as p63, vimentin, S100P, KRT20 and KRT7. Finally, immunohistochemical staining of clinical UC samples showed that FXYD3 protein is overexpressed in majority of UC of the upper genitourinary tract (encompassing the kidney, ?90%) and in majority of high grade bladder UC (?84%, it’s <40% in low grade tumors, P < 0.001) compared to normal kidney and bladder tissues. Conclusion: FXYD3 may be a promising novel biomarker for the differential diagnosis of renal UC and a promising prognosis marker of UC from bladder. Because it was identified genome-widely, FXYD3 may have important biological ramifications for the genetic study of UC. PMID:21499437

Zhang, ZhongFa; Pang, See-Tong; Kasper, Katherine A.; Luan, Chunyan; Wondergem, Bill; Lin, Fan; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Teh, Bin Tean; Yang, Ximing J.

2011-01-01

224

Who Will Deliver on the Promise?  

PubMed Central

The Doctor of Public Health (DrPH) Core Competency Model aspires to rigorously train future leaders of public health practice to direct and advance societal efforts that address socially rooted causes of health and illness. Although there is no proven formula for success, 3 principles derived from practice may guide the way forward: (1) institutionalize mutual learning and reciprocity between schools of public health and public health agencies and organizations, (2) capitalize on the full resources of the larger university to enrich the educational experiences of DrPH candidates and public health leaders, and (3) globalize the search for model DrPH programs that may be adapted for US schools. Schools of public health must ensure that DrPH programs gain the status and resources needed to fulfill their societal mandate. PMID:22095349

Healton, Cheryl G.

2012-01-01

225

The promise of Lean in health care.  

PubMed

An urgent need in American health care is improving quality and efficiency while controlling costs. One promising management approach implemented by some leading health care institutions is Lean, a quality improvement philosophy and set of principles originated by the Toyota Motor Company. Health care cases reveal that Lean is as applicable in complex knowledge work as it is in assembly-line manufacturing. When well executed, Lean transforms how an organization works and creates an insatiable quest for improvement. In this article, we define Lean and present 6 principles that constitute the essential dynamic of Lean management: attitude of continuous improvement, value creation, unity of purpose, respect for front-line workers, visual tracking, and flexible regimentation. Health care case studies illustrate each principle. The goal of this article is to provide a template for health care leaders to use in considering the implementation of the Lean management system or in assessing the current state of implementation in their organizations. PMID:23274021

Toussaint, John S; Berry, Leonard L

2013-01-01

226

Diabetic macular edema: New promising therapies.  

PubMed

The treatment of diabetic macular edema is rapidly evolving. The era of laser therapy is being quickly replaced by an era of pharmacotherapy. Several pharmacotherapies have been recently developed for the treatment of retinal vascular diseases such as diabetic macular edema. Several intravitreal injections or sustained delivery devices have undergone phase 3 testing while others are currently being evaluated. The results of clinical trials have shown the superiority of some of these agents to laser therapy. However, with the availability of several of these newer agents, it may be difficult to individualize treatment options especially those patients respond differently to various therapies. As such, more effort is still needed in order to determine the best treatment regimen for a given patient. In this article, we briefly summarize the major new therapeutic additions for the treatment of diabetic macular edema and allude to some future promising therapies. PMID:24379924

Shamsi, Hanan N Al; Masaud, Jluwi S; Ghazi, Nicola G

2013-12-15

227

The promise and pitfalls of community resilience.  

PubMed

An important shift in terminology has occurred in emergency preparedness, and the concept of community resilience has become ubiquitous. Although enhancing community resilience is broader than preparedness, and emphasizes a distinct set of activities and participants, the terms are often used interchangeably. The implications of this shift have not been fully explored. This commentary describes the potential promise and pitfalls of the concept of community resilience and recommends strategies to overcome its limitations. We believe that resilience has the power to dramatically change this field in immense, positive ways, but some important challenges such as confusion about definitions and lack of accountability must first be overcome. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;7:603-606). PMID:24345588

Uscher-Pines, Lori; Chandra, Anita; Acosta, Joie

2013-12-01

228

Vaccination against infectious diseases: what is promising?  

PubMed

Vaccination has proven to be one of the best weapons protecting the mankind against infectious diseases. Along with the huge progress in microbiology, numerous highly efficacious and safe vaccines have been produced by conventional technology (cultivation), by the use of molecular biology (genetic modification), or by synthetic chemistry. Sterilising prevention is achieved by the stimulation of antibody production, while the stimulation of cell-mediated immune responses may prevent the outbreak of disease in consequence of an acute or reactivated infection. From several examples, two rules are deduced to evaluate the perspectives of future vaccine developments: They are promising, if (1) the natural infectious disease induces immunity or (2) passive immunisation (transfer of antibodies, adoptive transfer of lymphocytes) is successful in preventing infection. PMID:25064610

Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Berger, Annemarie

2014-12-01

229

Diabetic macular edema: New promising therapies  

PubMed Central

The treatment of diabetic macular edema is rapidly evolving. The era of laser therapy is being quickly replaced by an era of pharmacotherapy. Several pharmacotherapies have been recently developed for the treatment of retinal vascular diseases such as diabetic macular edema. Several intravitreal injections or sustained delivery devices have undergone phase 3 testing while others are currently being evaluated. The results of clinical trials have shown the superiority of some of these agents to laser therapy. However, with the availability of several of these newer agents, it may be difficult to individualize treatment options especially those patients respond differently to various therapies. As such, more effort is still needed in order to determine the best treatment regimen for a given patient. In this article, we briefly summarize the major new therapeutic additions for the treatment of diabetic macular edema and allude to some future promising therapies. PMID:24379924

Shamsi, Hanan N Al; Masaud, Jluwi S; Ghazi, Nicola G

2013-01-01

230

"Geriatricizing" Hospitalists: Identifying Educational Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to identify differences between geriatricians and hospitalists in caring for hospitalized older adults, so as to inform faculty development programs that have the goal of improving older patient care. Eleven hospitalists and 13 geriatricians were surveyed regarding knowledge, confidence, and practice patterns in…

Friedman, Susan M.; Gillespie, Suzanne M.; Medina-Walpole, Annette M.; Caprio, Thomas V.; Karuza, Jurgis; McCann, Robert M.

2013-01-01

231

Power & Promise for student aid represents the George Washington University's commitment to the power of education and the promise of  

E-print Network

POWER & PROMISE OVERVIEW Power & Promise for student aid represents the George Washington University's commitment to the power of education and the promise of tomorrow's leaders. Launched in 2009, Power & Promise ensures that qualified students, regardless of financial resources, can take full

Vertes, Akos

232

Furfural--a promising platform for lignocellulosic biofuels.  

PubMed

Furfural offers a promising, rich platform for lignocellulosic biofuels. These include methylfuran and methyltetrahydrofuran, valerate esters, ethylfurfuryl and ethyltetrahydrofurfuryl ethers as well as various C(10)-C(15) coupling products. The various production routes are critically reviewed, and the needs for improvements are identified. Their relative industrial potential is analysed by defining an investment index and CO(2) emissions as well as determining the fuel properties for the resulting products. Finally, the most promising candidate, 2-methylfuran, was subjected to a road trial of 90,000 km in a gasoline blend. Importantly, the potential of the furfural platform relies heavily on the cost-competitive production of furfural from lignocellulosic feedstock. Conventional standalone and emerging coproduct processes-for example, as a coproduct of cellulosic ethanol, levulinic acid or hydroxymethyl furfural-are expensive and energetically demanding. Challenges and areas that need improvement are highlighted. In addition to providing a critical review of the literature, this paper also presents new results and analysis in this area. PMID:22213717

Lange, Jean-Paul; van der Heide, Evert; van Buijtenen, Jeroen; Price, Richard

2012-01-01

233

Fulfilling The Pittsburgh Promise[R]: Early Progress of Pittsburgh's Postsecondary Scholarship Program. Monograph  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents a detailed assessment of the extent to which "The Pittsburgh Promise"--a postsecondary education scholarship intended to remedy the area's population decline, foster high school completion and college readiness among Pittsburgh district students, and prepare a capable and energetic workforce for the city--has met its goals to…

Gonzalez, Gabriella C.; Bozick, Robert; Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Phillips, Andrea

2011-01-01

234

Promise Neighborhoods: The Promise and Politics of Community Capacity Building as Urban School Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this inquiry is to consider how the U.S. Department of Education's Promise Neighborhoods (PNs) program can improve persistently low-achieving urban schools by making their "neighborhoods whole again" through community capacity building for education reform. As the "first federal initiative to put education at the…

Horsford, Sonya Douglass; Sampson, Carrie

2014-01-01

235

The Promise of Neuroprotective Agents in Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. Since there are limited treatment options for PD, neuroprotective agents are currently being tested as a means to slow disease progression. Agents targeting oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation are prime candidates for neuroprotection. This review identifies Rasagiline, Minocycline, and creatine, as the most promising neuroprotective agents for PD, and they are all currently in phase III trials. Other agents possessing protective characteristics in delaying PD include stimulants, vitamins, supplements, and other drugs. Additionally, combination therapies also show benefits in slowing PD progression. The identification of neuroprotective agents for PD provides us with therapeutic opportunities for modifying the course of disease progression and, perhaps, reducing the risk of onset when preclinical biomarkers become available. PMID:22125548

Seidl, Stacey E.; Potashkin, Judith A.

2011-01-01

236

Challenges and promises in modeling dermatologic disorders with bioengineered skin.  

PubMed

The tremendous cost of drug development is often attributed to the long time interval between identifying lead compounds in preclinical studies to assessing clinical efficacy in randomized clinical trials. Many candidate molecules show promise in cell culture or animal models, only to fail in late stage in human investigations. There is a need for novel technologies that allow investigators to quickly and reliably predict drug safety and efficacy. The advent of microtechnology has made it possible to integrate multiple microphysiologic organ systems into a single microfabricated chip. This review focuses on three-dimensional engineered skin, which has enjoyed a long history of uses both in clinical treatments of refractory ulcers and as a laboratory model. We discuss current biological and engineering challenges in construction of a robust bioengineered skin and provide a blueprint for its potential utility to model dermatologic disorders such as psoriasis or cutaneous drug reactions. PMID:24951469

Eungdamrong, Narat J; Higgins, Claire; Guo, Zongyou; Lee, Wen-Han; Gillette, Brian; Sia, Samuel; Christiano, Angela M

2014-09-01

237

Predictors of student success in the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) Licensed Practical Nurse training program (91WM6) as identified by expert nurse educators, instructors, and administrators at Fort Sam Houston Post, San Antonio, Texas  

E-print Network

The U.S. Army Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) dates back to the fall of 1947 and evolved from severe professional nursing shortages of World War II. Today, as in the past, to sustain U.S. Army readiness the highly medically trained combat soldier...

Scialdo, Antonia

2006-04-12

238

Integrating agile practices into critical software development  

E-print Network

Integrating agile practices into critical software development Katarzyna Lukasiewicz, Janusz Górski approaches and in particular the agile development practices are considered as a promising alternative. In this text we describe our research towards introducing agile practices into critical software development

Boyer, Edmond

239

Systematic evaluation of satellite remote sensing for identifying uranium mines and mills.  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we systematically evaluate the ability of current-generation, satellite-based spectroscopic sensors to distinguish uranium mines and mills from other mineral mining and milling operations. We perform this systematic evaluation by (1) outlining the remote, spectroscopic signal generation process, (2) documenting the capabilities of current commercial satellite systems, (3) systematically comparing the uranium mining and milling process to other mineral mining and milling operations, and (4) identifying the most promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling that can be identified using satellite remote sensing. The Ranger uranium mine and mill in Australia serves as a case study where we apply and test the techniques developed in this systematic analysis. Based on literature research of mineral mining and milling practices, we develop a decision tree which utilizes the information contained in one or more observables to determine whether uranium is possibly being mined and/or milled at a given site. Promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling at the Ranger site included in the decision tree are uranium ore, sulfur, the uranium pregnant leach liquor, ammonia, and uranyl compounds and sulfate ion disposed of in the tailings pond. Based on the size, concentration, and spectral characteristics of these promising observables, we then determine whether these observables can be identified using current commercial satellite systems, namely Hyperion, ASTER, and Quickbird. We conclude that the only promising observables at Ranger that can be uniquely identified using a current commercial satellite system (notably Hyperion) are magnesium chlorite in the open pit mine and the sulfur stockpile. Based on the identified magnesium chlorite and sulfur observables, the decision tree narrows the possible mineral candidates at Ranger to uranium, copper, zinc, manganese, vanadium, the rare earths, and phosphorus, all of which are milled using sulfuric acid leaching.

Blair, Dianna Sue; Stork, Christopher Lyle; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Smith, Jody Lynn

2006-01-01

240

Five promising methods for health foresight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to show through empirical examples how five foresight methods have provided value in medicine and global health, and to argue for greater use of health foresight. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Through evaluation, literature search, and personal experiences, five approaches were identified where health foresight has shown strong value: forecasting, scenario planning, Delphi, technology roadmapping, and mass collaboration.

Hassan Masum; Jody Ranck; Peter A. Singer

2010-01-01

241

Making Something of It: The Untold Stories of Promising Black Males at a Predominately White Institution of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promising Black males are an understudied and underserved population in the field of higher education. The purpose of this study was to understand how promising Black males define academic success and to identify the factors that affect academic success at a large predominately White public institutions of higher education located in the…

Funk, Michael Sean

2012-01-01

242

Current Practices and Obstacles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the assessment practices used by resource room teachers in Jordan to determine eligibility for learning disability, and to identify assessment obstacles. The study also investigated whether assessment practices and obstacles of assessment differ among resource room teachers as a function of gender and academic…

Al-Natour, Mayada; AlKhamra, Hatem; Al-Smadi, Yahya

2008-01-01

243

Production of transgenic livestock: promise fulfilled.  

PubMed

The introduction of specific genes into the genome of farm animals and its stable incorporation into the germ line has been a major technological advance in agriculture. Transgenic technology provides a method to rapidly introduce "new" genes into cattle, swine, sheep, and goats without crossbreeding. It is a more extreme methodology, but in essence, not really different from crossbreeding or genetic selection in its result. Methods to produce transgenic animals have been available for more than 20 yr, yet recently lines of transgenic livestock have been developed that have the potential to improve animal agriculture and benefit producers and/or consumers. There are a number of methods that can be used to produce transgenic animals. However, the primary method to date has been the microinjection of genes into the pronuclei of zygotes. This method is one of an array of rapidly developing transgenic methodologies. Another method that has enjoyed recent success is that of nuclear transfer or "cloning." The use of this technique to produce transgenic livestock will profoundly affect the use of transgenic technology in livestock production. Cell-based, nuclear transfer or cloning strategies have several distinct advantages for use in the production of transgenic livestock that cannot be attained using pronuclear injection of DNA. Practical applications of transgenesis in livestock production include enhanced prolificacy and reproductive performance, increased feed utilization and growth rate, improved carcass composition, improved milk production and/or composition, and increased disease resistance. One practical application of transgenics in swine production is to improve milk production and/or composition. To address the problem of low milk production, transgenic swine over-expressing the milk protein bovine alpha-lactalbumin were developed and characterized. The outcomes assessed were milk composition, milk yield, and piglet growth. Our results indicate that transgenic overexpression of milk proteins may provide a means to improve swine lactation performance. PMID:15000404

Wheeler, M B

2003-01-01

244

Alcoholism research: delivering on the promise.  

PubMed

Prospects for research advances in alcoholism are very promising, because of the explosion in the neurosciences and advances in epidemiology and typology of the disorder. For example, the field is now ready for molecular genetics studies of the early onset form of alcoholism that is transmitted from father to son with high penetrance. Leading neuroscientists are being recruited into alcoholism research. Paradoxically, this time of new hope coincides with challenges to the scientific enterprise, such as the animal rights movement and impatience with the scientific process in the face of the public health emergencies represented by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and drug abuse. The emergence of genetically based subtypes of alcoholism suggests that at least two discrete illness processes are involved. Mounting evidence from spinal fluid studies has rekindled interest in a key role for serotonin in the early onset form of alcoholism. One hypothesis now being explored is that genetically low brain serotonin function may be part of the predisposition to this form of alcoholism. It is known that acute alcohol intake transiently increases brain serotonin turnover. Thus, drinking might be viewed as an attempt to correct a deficit, only to produce further serotonin depletion as the drug's effect wears off, setting up a vicious cycle of repeated attempts to self-medicate. Impulsive, violent, and suicidal behavior as well as alcohol abuse are associated with the low brain serotonin activity. Persons with these problems suffer from circadian rhythm and glucose metabolism disturbances that may also be mediated by serotonin. New pharmacological probes are now available to tease out the mechanisms of altered serotonin function. The progressively deteriorating course of severe episodic alcoholism in many ways parallels the process of electrically kindled seizures in experimental animals. There is evidence that repeated withdrawal episodes may kindle a worsening course, including phobic disorders, perhaps by triggering a hyper-reactive noradrenalin system. PMID:2847208

Goodwin, F K

1988-01-01

245

Ethical Dilemmas in Administrative Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the dimensions of ethics in administrative practice, identifies some of the characteristic circumstances that frequently precipitate ethical dilemmas, and suggests strategies for addressing ethical dilemmas. (Author)

Price, David W.

1997-01-01

246

Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae): a promising source of antioxidants.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe(+3), phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11?g/100?g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100?g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10?µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe(+3) was 19.98 to 336.48? ?g/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30?mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity. PMID:24489987

da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira; Alves, Maria Silvana

2013-01-01

247

Neuroimaging in Psychiatric Pharmacogenetics Research: The Promise and Pitfalls  

PubMed Central

The integration of research on neuroimaging and pharmacogenetics holds promise for improving treatment for neuropsychiatric conditions. Neuroimaging may provide a more sensitive early measure of treatment response in genetically defined patient groups, and could facilitate development of novel therapies based on an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying pharmacogenetic associations. This review summarizes progress in efforts to incorporate neuroimaging into genetics and treatment research on major psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and addiction. Methodological challenges include: performing genetic analyses in small study populations used in imaging studies; inclusion of patients with psychiatric comorbidities; and the extensive variability across studies in neuroimaging protocols, neurobehavioral task probes, and analytic strategies. Moreover, few studies use pharmacogenetic designs that permit testing of genotype × drug effects. As a result of these limitations, few findings have been fully replicated. Future studies that pre-screen participants for genetic variants selected a priori based on drug metabolism and targets have the greatest potential to advance the science and practice of psychiatric treatment. PMID:23793356

Falcone, Mary; Smith, Ryan M; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Kumar Bhattacharjee, Abesh; Kelsoe, John R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Lerman, Caryn

2013-01-01

248

Ginseng: a promising neuroprotective strategy in stroke  

PubMed Central

Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines in the world. It has been used in the treatment of various ailments and to boost immunity for centuries; especially in Asian countries. The most common ginseng variant in traditional herbal medicine is ginseng, which is made from the peeled and dried root of Panax Ginseng. Ginseng has been suggested as an effective treatment for a vast array of neurological disorders, including stroke and other acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Ginseng’s neuroprotective effects are focused on the maintenance of homeostasis. This review involves a comprehensive literature search that highlights aspects of ginseng’s putative neuroprotective effectiveness, focusing on stroke. Attenuation of inflammation through inhibition of various proinflammatory mediators, along with suppression of oxidative stress by various mechanisms, including activation of the cytoprotective transcriptional factor Nrf2, which results in decrease in reactive oxygen species, could account for its neuroprotective efficacy. It can also prevent neuronal death as a result of stroke, thus decreasing anatomical and functional stroke damage. Although there are diverse studies that have investigated the mechanisms involved in the efficacy of ginseng in treating disorders, there is still much that needs to be clarified. Both in vitro and in vivo studies including randomized controlled clinical trials are necessary to develop in-depth knowledge of ginseng and its practical applications. PMID:25653588

Rastogi, Vaibhav; Santiago-Moreno, Juan; Doré, Sylvain

2015-01-01

249

Evidence-Based Practices in Secondary Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A literature review was conducted to identify evidence-based practices in secondary transition using quality indicator checklists for experimental research. Practices were categorized by the Taxonomy for Transition Programming. Overall, 32 secondary transition evidence-based practices were identified. Two practices had a strong level of evidence,…

Test, David W.; Fowler, Catherine H.; Richter, Sharon M.; White, James; Mazzotti, Valerie; Walker, Allison R.; Kohler, Paula; Kortering, Larry

2009-01-01

250

Practicing Interdisciplinarity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from BioScience is about the practice of interdisciplinary research. We explore the practical difficulties of interdisciplinary research in the context of a regional- or local-scale project. We posit four barriers to interdisciplinarity that are common across many disciplines and draw on our own experience and on other sources to explore how these barriers are manifested. Values enter into scientific theories and data collection through scientists' hidden assumptions about disciplines other than their own, through the differences between quantitative and interpretive social sciences, and through roadblocks created by the organization of academia and the relationship between academics and the larger society. Participants in interdisciplinary projects need to be self-reflective about the value judgments embedded in their choice of variables and models. They should identify and use a core set of shared concerns to motivate the effort, be willing to respect and to learn more about the other, be able to work with new models and alternative taxonomies, and allow for plurality and incompleteness.

SHARACHCHANDRA LÃÂÃÂLÃÂÃÂ and RICHARD B. NORGAARD (;)

2005-11-01

251

Practicing gender or practicing science? Gender practices of women scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subtle biases women face in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields have been the subject of many studies and initiatives in recent years. Many programs hoping to increase the numbers of women in these fields and to contribute to women's advancement have focused on identifying and remedying gendered institutional barriers and practices that ultimately disadvantage women. This dissertation

Laura Anne Rhoton

2009-01-01

252

The Promise of Antiretrovirals for HIV Prevention  

PubMed Central

With an estimated 2.6 million new HIV infections diagnosed annually, the world needs new prevention strategies to partner with condom use, harm reduction approaches for injection drug users, and male circumcision. Antiretrovirals can reduce the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission and limit HIV acquisition after occupational exposure. Macaque models and clinical trials demonstrate efficacy of oral or topical antiretrovirals used prior to HIV exposure to prevent HIV transmission, ie pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Early initiation of effective HIV treatment in serodiscordant couples results in a 96% decrease in HIV transmission. HIV testing to determine serostatus and identify undiagnosed persons is foundational to these approaches. The relative efficacy of different approaches, adherence, cost and long-term safety will affect uptake and impact of these strategies. Ongoing research will help characterize the role for oral and topical formulations and help quantify potential benefits in sub-populations at risk for HIV acquisition. PMID:22351302

Flash, Charlene; Krakower, Douglas; Mayer, Kenneth H.

2013-01-01

253

Mexican Immigrant Youth and Resiliency: Research and Promising Programs. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mexican immigrant youth lag behind other immigrant groups in educational completion and achievement, but many resilient Mexican immigrant youth have overcome tough odds to succeed. This digest examines the research about resiliency and some promising programs for Mexican American youth. Resiliency theory identifies protective factors present in…

Chavkin, Nancy Feyl; Gonzalez, John

254

Nanorobotics is an emerging interdisciplinary technology area raising new scientific challenges and promising revolution-  

E-print Network

and promising revolution- ary advancements in applications such as medicine, biology and industrial function, as well as for identifying ways of designing protein-based nano- mechanical systems. Industrial Nanorobotics The papers in the second group of this special issue are rel- evant to industrial nanorobotics (or

Mavroidis, Constantinos

255

Utility of remotely sensed data for identification of soil conservation practices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed are a variety of remotely sensed data sources that may have utility in the identification of conservation practices and related linear features. Test sites were evaluated in Alabama, Kansas, Mississippi, and Oklahoma using one or more of a variety of remotely sensed data sources, including color infrared photography (CIR), LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data, and aircraft-acquired Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data. Both visual examination and computer-implemented enhancement procedures were used to identify conservation practices and other linear features. For the Kansas, Mississippi, and Oklahoma test sites, photo interpretations of CIR identified up to 24 of the 109 conservation practices from a matrix derived from the SCS National Handbook of Conservation Practices. The conservation practice matrix was modified to predict the possibility of identifying the 109 practices at various photographic scales based on the observed results as well as photo interpreter experience. Some practices were successfully identified in TM data through visual identification, but a number of existing practices were of such size and shape that the resolution of the TM could not detect them accurately. A series of computer-automated decorrelation and filtering procedures served to enhance the conservation practices in TM data with only fair success. However, features such as field boundaries, roads, water bodies, and the Urban/Ag interface were easily differentiated. Similar enhancement techniques applied to 5 and 10 meter TIMS data proved much more useful in delineating terraces, grass waterways, and drainage ditches as well as the features mentioned above, due partly to improved resolution and partly to thermally influenced moisture conditions. Spatially oriented data such as those derived from remotely sensed data offer some promise in the inventory and monitoring of conservation practices as well as in supplying parameter data for a variety of computer-implemented agricultural models.

Pelletier, R. E.; Griffin, R. H.

1986-01-01

256

Strengthening chronic disease prevention programming: the Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Assessment Tool.  

PubMed

Best practices identified solely on the strength of research evidence may not be entirely relevant or practical for use in community-based public health and the practice of chronic disease prevention. Aiming to bridge the gap between best practices literature and local knowledge and expertise, the Ontario Public Health Association, through the Toward Evidence-Informed Practice initiative, developed a set of resources to strengthen evidence-informed decision making in chronic disease prevention programs. A Program Assessment Tool, described in this article, emphasizes better processes by incorporating review criteria into the program planning and implementation process. In a companion paper, "Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Evidence Tool," we describe another tool, which emphasizes better evidence by providing guidelines and worksheets to identify, synthesize, and incorporate evidence from a range of sources (eg, peer-reviewed literature, gray literature, local expertise) to strengthen local programs.The Program Assessment Tool uses 19 criteria derived from literature on best and promising practices to assess and strengthen program planning and implementation. We describe the benefits, strengths, and challenges in implementing the tool in 22 community-based chronic disease prevention projects in Ontario, Canada. The Program Assessment Tool helps put best processes into operation to complement adoption and adaptation of evidence-informed practices for chronic disease prevention. PMID:23721789

Albert, Dayna; Fortin, Rebecca; Lessio, Anne; Herrera, Christine; Riley, Barbara; Hanning, Rhona; Rush, Brian

2013-01-01

257

Realizing the Promise of Chemical Glycobiology  

PubMed Central

Chemical glycobiology is emerging as one of the most uniquely powerful sub-disciplines of chemical biology. The previous scarcity of chemical strategies and the unparalleled structural diversity have created a uniquely fertile ground that is both rich in challenges and potentially very profound in implications. Glycans (oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates) are everywhere in biological systems and yet remain disproportionately neglected – reviews highlighting this ‘Cinderella status’ abound. Yet, the last two decades have witnessed tremendous progress, notably in chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis, ‘sequencing’ and arraying, metabolic engineering and imaging. These vital steps serve to highlight not only the great potential but just how much more remains to be done. The vast chemical and functional space of glycans remains to be truly explored. Top-down full-scale glycomic and glycoproteomic studies coupled with hypothesis-driven, bottom-up innovative chemical strategies will be required to properly realize the potential impact of glycoscience on human health, energy, and economy. In this review, we cherry-pick far-sighted advances and use these to identify possible challenges, opportunities and avenues in chemical glycobiology. PMID:23914294

Wang, Lai-Xi; Davis, Benjamin G.

2013-01-01

258

Identity Management Systems in Healthcare: The Issue of Patient Identifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to a recent recommendation of the European Commission, now is the time for Europe to enhance interoperability in eHealth. Although interoperability of patient identifiers seems promising for matters of patient mobility, patient empowerment and effective access to care, we see that today there is indeed a considerable lack of interoperability in the field of patient identification. Looking from a socio-technical rather than a merely technical point of view, one can understand the fact that the development and implementation of an identity management system in a specific healthcare context is influenced by particular social practices, affected by socio-economical history and the political climate and regulated by specific data protection legislations. Consequently, the process of making patient identification in Europe more interoperable is a development beyond semantic and syntactic levels. In this paper, we gives some examples of today’s patient identifier systems in Europe, discuss the issue of interoperability of (unique) patient identifiers from a socio-technical point of view and try not to ignore the ‘privacy side’ of the story.

Soenens, Els

259

CODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

E-print Network

OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE 2 Responsibilities Supervisors Identify research projects and experimentsCODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE 1 The following generic Code of Practice applies to all work areas within the University of Alberta that use hydrogen sulfide gas. It outlines responsibilities, safe

Machel, Hans

260

Relationship of osteopathic medical licensure examinations with undergraduate admission measures and predictive value of identifying future performance in osteopathic principles and practice/osteopathic manipulative medicine courses and rotations.  

PubMed

Two hundred sixty-five students from four classes at one school of osteopathic medicine were studied to determine the correlation between several frequently used premedical admission criteria to predict performance on the early and current versions of the osteopathic medical licensure examinations. Further analysis evaluated the predictive value of the examination of the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners (NBOME) and its successor, the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA (COMLEX-USA) in determining subsequent performance in the ascending levels of the examination sequence, as well as to predict performance in the courses and rotations of osteopathic principles and practice (OPP) and osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM). This study also investigated the relationship between the early and later parts of the osteopathic medical licensure examinations. Analysis showed that of all premedical parameters, only the Medical College Aptitude Test score was positively correlated with performance on COMLEX-USA. In addition, a positive correlation was demonstrated between the performance in either Level 1 of COMLEX-USA or in the earlier form of the NBOME examination Part I and subsequent performance on the current Level 2 of COMLEX-USA or the old NBOME Part II. Finally, analysis indicated that COMLEX-USA predicted performance in OPP knowledge and skills. PMID:12462306

Meoli, Frederick G; Wallace, Warren S; Kaiser-Smith, Joanne; Shen, Linjun

2002-11-01

261

Circulating endothelial progenitor cell: a promising biomarker in clinical oncology.  

PubMed

Human cancers are endowed with sustained vascularization capability, and their growth, invasion, and metastasis are vascularization dependent. Recently, accumulated body of evidence suggests that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can support vasculogenesis and induce angiogenesis through paracrine mechanisms. In addition, numerous clinical studies have revealed the increase in the number of EPCs in the peripheral blood of cancer patients and demonstrated the correlation of circulating EPCs (CEPCs) with the clinical outcomes. This review highlights current enrichment procedures and methods for the detection of CEPCs and different biomarkers to identify CEPCs as well as the functions of EPCs in tumor vascularization. Furthermore, we systematically review available studies on the clinical relevance of CEPCs in cancer patients to explore the potential diagnostic and prognostic values of CEPCs. Although several contrasting results exist, CEPCs can conceivably serve as a promising biomarker for the early diagnosis, prognosis prediction, and treatment response indication in the future. Additionally, further well-designed clinical studies with larger sample size and unique, specific enumeration procedures are warranted to achieve further insight into the clinical implications of CEPCs. PMID:25428376

Ge, Yu-Zheng; Wu, Ran; Lu, Tian-Ze; Xin, Hui; Yu, Peng; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Hao; Xu, Zheng; Xu, Lu-Wei; Shen, Jiang-Wei; Xu, Xiao; Zhou, Liu-Hua; Li, Wen-Cheng; Zhu, Jia-Geng; Jia, Rui-Peng

2015-01-01

262

Realizing the Promise of Competency-Based Medical Education.  

PubMed

Competency-based medical education (CBME) places a premium on both educational and clinical outcomes. The Milestones component of the Next Accreditation System represents a fundamental change in medical education in the United States and is part of the drive to realize the full promise of CBME. The Milestones framework provides a descriptive blueprint in each specialty to guide curriculum development and assessment practices.From the beginning of the Outcomes project in 1999, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the larger medical education community recognized the importance of improving their approach to assessment. Work-based assessments, which rely heavily on the observations and judgments of clinical faculty, are central to a competency-based approach. The direct observation of learners and the provision of robust feedback have always been recognized as critical components of medical education, but CBME systems further elevate their importance. Without effective and frequent direct observation, coaching, and feedback, the full potential of CBME and the Milestones cannot be achieved. Furthermore, simply using the Milestones as end-of-rotation evaluations to "check the box" to meet requirements undermines the intent of an outcomes-based accreditation system.In this Commentary, the author explores these challenges, addressing the concerns raised by Williams and colleagues in their Commentary. Meeting the assessment challenges of the Milestones will require a renewed commitment from institutions to meet the profession's "special obligations" to patients and learners. All stakeholders in graduate medical education must commit to a professional system of self-regulation to prepare highly competent physicians to fulfill this social contract. PMID:25295967

Holmboe, Eric S

2014-10-01

263

Promising New Drugs and Combinations. Fulfilling Our Pledge.  

PubMed

We are fortunate, as physicians and clinical researchers, to live in a time of unprecedented expansion of treatment approaches. Much of this change is due to the application of new knowledge regarding the causes of malignant transformation and progression, and the pace of research and its application is likely to quicken. The pace of change is exemplified by the number and variety of new drugs that will transform treatment of cancer in the next few years: antibodies for breast cancer and lymphoma, differentiating agents for acute promyelocytic leukemia, molecularly targeted agents for chronic myelocytic leukemia, antiangiogenic drugs, antimetastatic agents, and new natural products with unique mechanisms of action. Some are already approved and in routine use, while others are progressing rapidly through the pre-approval process. All of this change presents a challenge to the practicing oncologist who must understand the biology, pharmacology, and clinical uses of the new drugs. What are the advantages, limitations, risks, and benefits of the drugs, how do they interact with other drugs and with irradiation, and how are they likely to be used in the future? To provide timely access to this information, The Oncologist has asked its board of editors to develop a new section of the Journal that will be devoted to Promising New Drugs and Combinations. Two experienced and highly respected clinical researchers, Frank Balis, Chief of the Pharmacology and Experimental Section in the Pediatrics Branch at the National Cancer Institute, and Michael Hawkins, Associate Director at the Washington Hospital Center Cancer Institute, have agreed to edit and oversee this section of the journal and will make sure that our readership has essential information on new drugs as they approach marketing status. Please let us know if we are providing useful and timely information. We value your suggestions for making The Oncologist the most relevant of all the journals you read. PMID:10545863

Chabner

1999-01-01

264

Identifying tier one key suppliers.  

PubMed

In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base. PMID:23615061

Wicks, Steve

2013-01-01

265

Assessment and management of methotrexate hepatotoxicity in psoriasis patients: report from a consensus conference to evaluate current practice and identify key questions toward optimizing methotrexate use in the clinic.  

PubMed

Experts in psoriasis, hepatology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics convened to discuss the safety and monitoring of methotrexate with respect to hepatotoxicity when used in the treatment of psoriasis. Methotrexate is an efficacious and cost-effective treatment for psoriasis, but is associated with significant safety issues, particularly relating to hepatotoxicity. Current British, Dutch, German, EU and US guidelines for baseline evaluations, monitoring and prevention of hepatotoxicity in patients with psoriasis receiving methotrexate were evaluated. Liver safety monitoring is currently reliant upon multiple methods, including biopsy, serological tests for biomarkers such as type III procollagen amino terminal propeptide (PIIINP), and liver function tests based on liver enzymes. Monitoring of patients receiving long-term therapy is expected to be improved by the utilization of serum biomarkers currently in development such as the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) panel and other non-invasive tests of hepatic architecture, such as fibroelastography, microbubbles and magnetic resonance imaging. Appropriate studies to determine optimal dosing to maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity, potentially utilizing pharmacogenetic principles, are clearly needed. Key questions for future research are identified including needs for optimal screening and monitoring, identification of appropriate biomarkers, assessment of relationships between dosing and safety, utility of liver biopsy, optimal dosing regimens (including route of administration), methods to measure methotrexate levels in blood, and use of methotrexate as a standardized active comparator in trials of experimental drugs used to treat psoriasis. PMID:21198946

Barker, J; Horn, E J; Lebwohl, M; Warren, R B; Nast, A; Rosenberg, W; Smith, C

2011-07-01

266

Promising Practices in Undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education: Summary of Two Workshops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous teaching, learning, assessment, and institutional innovations in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education have emerged in the past decade. Because virtually all of these innovations have been developed independently of one another, their goals and purposes vary widely. Some focus on making science…

Nielsen, Natalie

2011-01-01

267

Schools and the Culturally Diverse Exceptional Student: Promising Practices and Future Directions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 14 papers were given at a 1986 Ethnic and Multicultural Symposia and are intended to provide state-of-the-art information on the education of culturally and linguistically diverse exceptional students. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Demography As It Affects Special Education" (James Yates); "A Prereferral Process for Preventing…

Ortiz, Alba A., Ed.; Ramirez, Bruce A., Ed.

268

Inside Urban Charter Schools: Promising Practices and Strategies in Five High-Performing Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Inside Urban Charter Schools" offers an unprecedentedly intimate glimpse into the world of charter schools by profiling five high-performing urban charter schools serving predominantly low-income, minority youth in Massachusetts. Interviews, focus groups, and classroom observations conducted over the course of two years flesh out rich and…

Merseth, Katherine K.

2009-01-01

269

Pitfalls and Promising Practices of Youth-Adult Partnerships: An Evaluator's Reflections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth-adult partnerships (Y-APs) are an innovation being used increasingly as a key strategy for promoting youth development, as well as for building strong programs and communities. This article discusses three pitfalls that can undermine their effectiveness: (1) the assumption that youth should do everything of importance; (2) the belief that…

Camino, Linda

2005-01-01

270

Building Organization Capacity for a Focus on Youth Development. Promising Practices in Citywide Afterschool Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community Network for Youth Development (CNYD) has served the San Francisco Bay Area for the past twelve years as a youth development intermediary organization offering support, training, and capacity building resources to youth-serving organizations and programs. This report discusses CNYD's capacity-building approach. CNYD has developed a…

National Institute on Out-of-School Time, 2004

2004-01-01

271

77 FR 4550 - Promising and Practical Strategies to Increase Postsecondary Success  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Industry-Recognized Credentials Job Placement Learning Assessment...Points Non-Traditional Age Students On-the-Job Training Online Teaching...Resources Paid Internships Part-Time Students Pay-for-Performance...

2012-01-30

272

The Changing Faculty and Student Success: Non-Tenure-Track Faculty Promising Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of the American academic workforce has fundamentally shifted over the past several decades. Whereas full-time tenured and tenure-track faculty were once the norm, more than two-thirds of the professoriate in non-profit postsecondary education is now comprised of non-tenure-track faculty. New hires across all institutional types are now…

Kezar, Adrianna; Maxey, Daniel

2012-01-01

273

Management and Operations of Online Programs: Ensuring Quality and Accountability. Promising Practices in Online Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online learning is growing rapidly as states and districts are creating new online schools, and existing programs are adding new courses and students. The growth reflects the spreading understanding that online courses and programs can serve a wide variety of students and needs. These include: (1) Creating opportunities for small and rural school…

Watson, John; Gemin, Butch

2009-01-01

274

Parental Involvement in Education: What Works in the Pacific? Promising Practices in the Pacific Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing parent involvement in the Pacific region requires an understanding of the traditional system of Pacific education. While historically Pacific education involved parents and community members as children's first teachers, the American model of education virtually ignores this tradition. The school assumes the entire responsibility for…

Koki, Stan; Lee, Harvey

275

Tying Early Childhood Education More Closely to Schooling: Promise, Perils and Practical Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Over the past decade or so, the idea of joining early childhood education (ECE) and schooling has gained currency in the educational reform arena. Numerous education reform proposals and plans include ECE as a component. Scores of school districts around the country have added preschool classrooms to at least some of their elementary…

Halpern, Robert

2013-01-01

276

Catholic Higher Education: Practice and Promise. Diverse Expressions of Catholic Identity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection provides transcripts of remarks delivered by five participants in the Association of Catholic Colleges and Universities' meeting at the University of St. Thomas in St. Paul, Minnesota. They include: (1) "The Catholic Intellectual Tradition" (Margaret O'Brien Steinfels), which focuses on the willingness of Catholic institutions to…

Steinfels, Margaret O'Brien; And Others

1995-01-01

277

Establishing Conceptual Boundaries: What Is an Adult Education Project, Promise and Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a movement toward workforce development as an academic entity, the identity of adult education as projects for inquiry is troubled. In some academic programs, adult education has been termed adult learning in the service of promoting teaching and learning for the workplace. However, adult education's inquiry, its projects, might be more…

Stein, David S.

2014-01-01

278

Noopur Raje, MD, Director, Center for Multiple Myeloma From Promise to Practice  

E-print Network

, including the Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, the only proton beam radiation therapy facility in New. With nearly 400 clinical trials underway, we can offer our patients novel therapies and technologies customized cancer therapy for our patients. Our renowned, experienced surgeons perform a high volume

Mootha, Vamsi K.

279

Promising Practices for High-Risk Youth in the Northwest Region: Initial Search.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a progress report for a project attempting to gather and share information about effective dropout prevention strategies in action at the middle school and high school levels around the Northwest region of the United States. Introductory material reviews current views of the dropout problem, recent reports which address the issue of…

Green, Karen Reed; Baker, Andrea

280

Promising Practices Supporting Low-Income, First-Generation Students at DeVry University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers a comprehensive description of the academic and social support systems for low-income, first-generation students attending a major four-year, for-profit, multi-campus university. College retention and success research has determined that effective support services succeed in retaining and graduating low-income, first-generation…

Miller, Abby; Taylor Smith, Chandra; Nichols, Andrew

2011-01-01

281

77 FR 56194 - Promising and Practical Strategies to Increase Postsecondary Success; Request for Information  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Non-Traditional Age Students On-the-Job Training Online Teaching/Learning Open Educational Resources Paid Internships Part-Time Students Pay-for-Performance Persistence Personalized Instruction Productivity Real-Time...

2012-09-12

282

UNL/OSU Researchers Try Promising Technique to Remove Groundwater  

E-print Network

UNL/OSU Researchers Try Promising Technique to Remove Groundwater Contamination Under Former Oklahoma State University have joined to test promising new methods of removing longstanding groundwater into specially drilled injection wells, where it mixes with contaminants in the groundwater under the former

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

283

Some Glorious and Incomparable Promises of the Bible  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the first half of World War II General Douglas MacArthur was forced to leave the Philippines in the Pacific Theater by the Japanese. Upon his departure he made a promise to the Philippino people: “I will return.” General MacArthur, through the strength and power of the American military was able to keep his promise. If humanity can make and

Thomas D. Ice

2009-01-01

284

The Glorious and Incomparable Promises of the Bible  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the first half of World War II General Douglas MacArthur was forced to leave the Philippines in the Pacific Theater by the Japanese. Upon his departure he made a promise to the Philippino people: “I will return.” General MacArthur, through the strength and power of the American military was able to keep his promise. If humanity can make and

Thomas D. Ice

2009-01-01

285

Kalamazoo Promise: Can a Universal College Scholarship Reform Urban Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Kalamazoo Promise provides a scholarship for full tuition for any high school graduate from the district who's been accepted to attend a Michigan postsecondary institution. The Promise has changed the attitudes of the students, their parents, and the community and has combined with other efforts to promote successful reform and systemic change…

Miron, Gary; Jones, Jeffrey N.; Kelaher-Young, Allison J.

2011-01-01

286

Wind energy offers considerable promise; the wind itself is free,  

E-print Network

Wind energy offers considerable promise; the wind itself is free, wind power is clean. One of these sources, wind energy, offers considerable promise; the wind itself is free, wind power is clean, and it is virtually inexhaustible. In recent years, research on wind energy has accelerated

Langendoen, Koen

287

Cognitive Strategy Instruction for Adolescents: What We Know about the Promise, What We Don't Know about the Potential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Strategy instruction" is quickly becoming one of the most common--and perhaps the most commonly misunderstood--components of adolescent literacy research and practice. In this essay, veteran teacher educator Mark Conley argues that a particular type of strategy instruction known as cognitive strategy instruction holds great promise for improving…

Conley, Mark W.

2008-01-01

288

Quantitative comparison of spatial fields for hydrological model assessment some promising approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current practice for assessing spatial predictions from distributed hydrological models is simplistic, with visual inspection and occasional point observations generally used for model assessment. With the increasing availability of spatial observations from remote sensing and intensive field studies, the current methods for assessing the spatial component of model predictions need to advance. This paper emphasises the role that spatial field comparisons can play in model assessment. A review of the current methods used in hydrology, and other disciplines where spatial field comparisons are widely used, reveals some promising methods for quantitatively comparing spatial fields. These promising approaches--segmentation, importance maps, fuzzy comparison and multiscale comparison--are for local comparison of spatial fields. They address some of the weaknesses with the current approaches to spatial field comparison used in hydrological modelling and, in doing so, emulate some aspects of human visual comparison. The potential of these approaches for assessing spatial predictions and understanding model performance is illustrated with a simple example.

Wealands, Stephen R.; Grayson, Rodger B.; Walker, Jeffrey P.

2005-01-01

289

Health Literacy Practices and Educational Competencies for Health Professionals: A Consensus Study  

PubMed Central

Health care professionals often lack adequate knowledge about health literacy and the skills needed to address low health literacy among patients and their caregivers. Many promising practices for mitigating the effects of low health literacy are not used consistently. Improving health literacy training for health care professionals has received increasing emphasis in recent years. The development and evaluation of curricula for health professionals has been limited by the lack of agreed-upon educational competencies in this area. This study aimed to identify a set of health literacy educational competencies and target behaviors, or practices, relevant to the training of all health care professionals. The authors conducted a thorough literature review to identify a comprehensive list of potential health literacy competencies and practices, which they categorized into 1 or more educational domains (i.e., knowledge, skills, attitudes) or a practice domain. The authors stated each item in operationalized language following Bloom's Taxonomy. The authors then used a modified Delphi method to identify consensus among a group of 23 health professions education experts representing 11 fields in the health professions. Participants rated their level of agreement as to whether a competency or practice was both appropriate and important for all health professions students. A predetermined threshold of 70% agreement was used to define consensus. After 4 rounds of ratings and modifications, consensus agreement was reached on 62 out of 64 potential educational competencies (24 knowledge items, 27 skill items, and 11 attitude items), and 32 out of 33 potential practices. This study is the first known attempt to develop consensus on a list of health literacy practices and to translate recommended health literacy practices into an agreed-upon set of measurable educational competencies for health professionals. Further work is needed to prioritize the competencies and practices in terms of relative importance. PMID:24093348

Coleman, Clifford A.; Hudson, Stan; Maine, Lucinda L.

2013-01-01

290

Pediatric posttraumatic seizures: epidemiology, putative mechanisms of epileptogenesis and promising investigational progress.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic seizures and epilepsy are common in children experiencing traumatic brain injury and portend worse functional outcome. Unfortunately, the pathogenesis of pediatric posttraumatic seizures and epilepsy remains poorly understood, and no efficacious preventive therapy for post-traumatic epilepsy has been identified. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric posttraumatic seizures, discusses prominent putative mechanisms of posttraumatic epileptogenesis and highlights recent promising progress in experimental investigations of posttraumatic seizures and epilepsy. PMID:16943659

Statler, Kimberly D

2006-01-01

291

Huntsman Cancer Institute study in zebrafish finds a new compound showing promise in leukemia  

Cancer.gov

A new compound, studied in zebrafish, shows promise in patient leukemia samples when current treatments fail, say researchers from Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah. Their report appears online in Blood, the Journal of the American Society of Hematology... The researchers used a novel approach that may have a broad range of potential future applications in identifying new drugs for cancer treatment: a line of zebrafish in which immature T cells glow green under fluorescent light.

292

Practicing Precision  

E-print Network

/her field, giving immediate adoption of research-proven practices. ?Furthermore, we envision that neighboring growers will be more likely to implement new management practices demonstrated on nearby farms rather than those shown only on small Experiment... Station plots.? PIN strives to achieve these water savings through producer education, which results in the adoption of advanced technologies and conservation practices. Preliminary studies suggest that, based on 90,000 acres of irrigated land, widespread...

Supercinski, Danielle

2007-01-01

293

Miscanthus: A Promising Biomass Crop EMILY A. HEATON,*,1  

E-print Network

Miscanthus: A Promising Biomass Crop EMILY A. HEATON,*,1 FRANK G. DOHLEMAN,{,2 A. FERNANDO MIGUEZ and the Case for High-Yielding Crops ............... 77 C. A Role for Miscanthus Ã? Giganteus .......................................... 102 A. Taxonomy and Origins ........................................................ 102 B. Miscanthus

David, Mark B.

294

Acupuncture: a promising treatment for depression during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFew medically acceptable treatments for depression during pregnancy are available. The aim of this randomized controlled pilot study was to determine whether acupuncture holds promise as a treatment for depression during pregnancy.

Rachel Manber; Rosa N. Schnyer; John J. B. Allen; A. John Rush; Christine M. Blasey

2004-01-01

295

New Treatment Shows Promise in Younger Breast Cancer Patients  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. New Treatment Shows Promise in Younger Breast Cancer Patients: ... of breast cancer recurrence in some younger women, new research suggests. This combination approach -- using estrogen-blockers ...

296

New and emerging technologies: promise, achievement and deception.  

PubMed

Technology has touched every aspect of dentistry from diagnosis to treatment. The promises and limitations of several emerging technologies, including lasers, digital radiology and electronic anesthesia, are reviewed. PMID:7860884

Zakariasen, K L

1995-02-01

297

MEK: A Single Drug Target Shows Promise in Multiple Cancers  

Cancer.gov

Drugs that block the MEK protein have shown promise in several cancers. Trametinib has had encouraging results in patients with advanced melanoma, and selumetinib has been tested in patients with advanced thyroid and ovarian cancers.

298

Best Program Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended for use by adult literacy programs in Saskatchewan, Canada, consists of three questionnaires. The questionnaires were developed under the guidance of Saskatchewan's 11-member Good Practice Task Force to give adult literacy programs an opportunity to reflect on their current initiatives, identify their strengths,…

Saskatchewan Literacy Network, Saskatoon.

299

The Promise of Novel Molecular Markers in Bladder Cancer  

PubMed Central

Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the US and is associated with the highest cost per patient. A high likelihood of recurrence, mandating stringent surveillance protocols, has made the development of urinary markers a focus of intense pursuit with the hope of decreasing the burden this disease places on patients and the healthcare system. To date, routine use of markers is not recommended for screening or diagnosis. Interests include the development of a single urinary marker that can be used in place of or as an adjunct to current screening and surveillance techniques, as well identifying a molecular signature for an individual’s disease that can help predict progression, prognosis, and potential therapeutic response. Markers have shown potential value in improving diagnostic accuracy when used as an adjunct to current modalities, risk-stratification of patients that could aid the clinician in determining aggressiveness of surveillance, and allowing for a decrease in invasive surveillance procedures. This review discusses the current understanding of emerging biomarkers, including miRNAs, gene signatures and detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood, and their potential clinical value in bladder cancer diagnosis, as prognostic indicators, and surveillance tools, as well as limitations to their incorporation into medical practice. PMID:25535079

Miremami, Jahan; Kyprianou, Natasha

2014-01-01

300

Changing Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This serial issue contains nine articles all on the subject of "changing practice," i.e., innovative practices of rural English teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network. "Byte-ing into Medieval Literature" (John Fyler) describes an online conference on medieval literature for rural high school students. "Literacy in Cattle Country" (Dan…

Benson, Chris, Ed.

1999-01-01

301

Technology-Based Practices for Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review was conducted of the literature on technology-based practices for secondary students with learning disabilities. Technology-based practices included computer- or video-based interventions, multimedia programs, technology-based assessment, and verbatim audio recordings. Three practices appear promising: hypertext and hypermedia software…

Maccini, Paula; Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Hughes, Charles A.

2002-01-01

302

Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: School Psychologists' Practices and Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From its inception as a disability category in the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, serving students under the special education category Emotional Disturbance (ED) has been a challenging task for school psychologists. In particular, the vague and ambiguous federal definition has created an environment in which inconsistent assessment…

Hanchon, Timothy A.; Allen, Ryan A.

2013-01-01

303

Encouraging SME Participation in Training: Identifying Practical Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study of training for small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) at a university found that the following factors influenced SME participation: preliminary consultation with SMEs on design and delivery, free half-day workshops in repeated cycles, individual pacing of learning, and business focus. (Contains 14 references.) (JOW)

Johnston, Karen; Loader, Kim

2003-01-01

304

High-Quality Traineeships: Identifying What Works. Good Practice Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traineeships were introduced alongside apprenticeships to increase the reach of contracted training to a wider range of occupations and industries and to a broader range of learners (particularly women) and to improve the labour market prospects of young people. Traineeships have given hundreds of thousands of Australians access to nationally…

National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

2009-01-01

305

[OVESCO: a promising system for endoscopic closure of gastrointestinal tract perforations].  

PubMed

Perforations of the gastrointestinal tract are a significant source of morbidity in clinical practice. Surgery has been the standard of care. However, endoscopic treatment with clips can be used when perforations are small. The development of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has substantially contributed to research in this field, such as the over the scope clip (OVESCO or OTSC). This system is one of the most promising technologies for closure of perforations of the gastrointestinal tract because of its efficacy, safety and rapidity. Other indications include severe gastrointestinal bleeding, fistulae, anastomotic leaks, and bariatric surgery anastomosis remodelling. This article describes the OVESCO system from its initial design to its introduction in clinical practice. PMID:21757263

Junquera, Félix; Martínez-Bauer, Eva; Miquel, Mireia; Fort, Miriam; Gallach, Marta; Brullet, Enric; Campo, Rafael

2011-10-01

306

Genetic testing for inherited ocular disease: delivering on the promise at last?  

PubMed

Genetic testing is of increasing clinical utility for diagnosing inherited eye disease. Clarifying a clinical diagnosis is important for accurate estimation of prognosis, facilitating genetic counselling and management of families, and in the future will direct gene-specific therapeutic strategies. Often, precise diagnosis of genetic ophthalmic conditions is complicated by genetic heterogeneity, a difficulty that the so-called 'next-generation sequencing' technologies promise to overcome. Despite considerable counselling and ethical complexities, next-generation sequencing offers to revolutionize clinical practice. This will necessitate considerable adjustment to standard practice but has the power to deliver a personalized approach to genomic medicine for many more patients and enhance the potential for preventing vision loss. PMID:23845030

Gillespie, Rachel L; Hall, Georgina; Black, Graeme C

2014-01-01

307

Promoting Evidence-Based Practice Through a Research Training Program for Point-of-Care Clinicians  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a research training program on clinicians’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to research and evidence-based practice (EBP). BACKGROUND: EBP has been shown to improve patient care and outcomes. Innovative approaches are needed to overcome individual and organizational barriers to EBP. METHODS: Mixed-methods design was used to evaluate a research training intervention with point-of-care clinicians in a Canadian urban health organization. Participants completed the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Survey over 3 timepoints. Focus groups and interviews were also conducted. RESULTS: Statistically significant improvement in research knowledge and ability was demonstrated. Participants and administrators identified benefits of the training program, including the impact on EBP. CONCLUSIONS: Providing research training opportunities to point-of-care clinicians is a promising strategy for healthcare organizations seeking to promote EBP, empower clinicians, and showcase excellence in clinical research. PMID:25390076

Black, Agnes T.; Balneaves, Lynda G.; Garossino, Candy; Puyat, Joseph H.; Qian, Hong

2015-01-01

308

New Strategies in Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Application of molecular diagnostics to clinical practice  

PubMed Central

An increasingly complete compendium of recurrently mutated genes in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has been defined, and the application of massively parallel sequencing to identify mutations in clinical practice now promises to improve the care of patients with this disease. More than 25 recurrent MDS-associated somatic mutations have been identified, involving biological pathways as diverse as chromatin remodeling and pre-mRNA splicing. Several of these mutations have been demonstrated to have prognostic implications that are independent of existing risk stratification systems based on clinical and pathological parameters. Application of these recent discoveries to diagnosis, prognosis, risk stratification and treatment selection for patients with MDS has the potential to improve patient outcomes. Here, we review recent advances in MDS and discuss potential applications of these discoveries to clinical practice. PMID:23329810

Tothova, Zuzana; Steensma, David P.; Ebert, Benjamin L.

2013-01-01

309

Research Supporting Middle Grades Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exemplary Middle Grades Research: Evidence-Based Studies Linking Theory to Practice features research published throughout 2009 in MGRJ that has been identified by the Information Age Publishing's review board as the most useful in terms of assisting educators with making practical applications from evidence-based studies to classroom and school…

Hough, David L., Ed.

2010-01-01

310

CODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

E-print Network

Supervisors · Identify research projects and experiments that use hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or where H2S mayCODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE Rev January 2013 1 The following generic Code of Practice applies to all work areas within the University of Alberta that use hydrogen sulfide gas or where hydrogen

Machel, Hans

311

Nutrition Practices of Older Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify nutrition practices of older athletes that may affect competitive performance and reflect nutrition misinformation. Statewide Senior Games participants (n=100) were surveyed on dietary practices, supplement use and sources of nutrition information. The survey instrument was previewed by an exercise physiologist and gerontology RD for content validity and pretested in a seniors exercise

A. K. Black; R. A. Glass

1998-01-01

312

List of HIPAA Identifiers  

Cancer.gov

List of HIPAA Identifiers ER-0001-F1 VER. 1.0.0 Effective Date: 9/14/2011 Page 1 of 1 The following is a list of the HIPAA Identifiers referenced in the federal regulations: Names; All geographical subdivisions smaller than a state, including

313

Identifying and Classifying Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we identify and classify rocks? In this lesson, we are going to learn about different ways that we classify and identify rocks! There are three types of rocks. Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous As we are learning about the three types of rocks, print out this chart and use it to write down what you learn about each type of ...

Owen, Elisabeth

2010-11-03

314

Summary Xylem vulnerability to cavitation is a promising criterion for identifying trees with high drought tolerance, but  

E-print Network

drought tolerance, but traditional techniques for measuring cavitation resistance are unsuitablefor safety and growth potential. Keywords: drought resistance, embolism, genotypic variabil- ity, xylem droughts will increase re- gionally in the future (e.g., Hulme et al. 2002, Barnett et al. 2006

Mencuccini, Maurizio

315

Practical Action  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded over 40 years ago by an economist, Practical Action's aim is to help impoverished people "use technology to challenge poverty", to gain "access to technical options and knowledge", and "influence the social, economic and institutional systems for innovation and use of technology." The "Downloads" tab has a link to "Practical Answers" that cover almost two dozen themes and lets users browse the extensive library, submit technical questions to expert, and it also provides users with a section entitled "Share" which documents peoples' experience with Practical Action. Visitors will also find the "Featured Articles" section of the Downloads useful and full of such practical information as "Build Your Own Tippy Tap", for hand washing after toileting and a "Solar Voltaic System Design Info Sheet" that covers electrical design issues. Back on the homepage, visitors will find links to their social networking, e-newsletter, and the latest from their series of blogs.

316

The Practical Turn in Teacher Education: Designing a Preparation Sequence for Core Practice Frames  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amid calls for more practice-based teacher education, this article presents a concrete illustration of a practice-based bridging strategy for preparing high school biology teachers to enact open-inquiry labs. Open-inquiry labs were considered a core practice frame that served as a context for identifying core practices and for giving coherence to…

Janssen, Fred; Westbroek, Hanna; Doyle, Walter

2014-01-01

317

Identifying Extreme Exposure Values  

Cancer.gov

There are various perspectives on whether to exclude potentially unlikely exposure values. If the researcher chooses to do so, several approaches exist for identifying extreme values. We examined the plausibility of the reported frequencies for each food item in the NHANES 2009-10 DSQ and chose to exclude extreme values using a method that identifies them based on the actual distribution of the sample, but also minimizes the number of values excluded.

318

Identifying Conserved Discriminative Motifs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of regulatory motifs underlying gene expression is a challenging problem, particularly in eukaryotes. An\\u000a algorithm to identify statistically significant discriminative motifs that distinguish between gene expression clusters is\\u000a presented. The predictive power of the identified motifs is assessed with a supervised Naïve Bayes classifier. An information-theoretic\\u000a feature selection criterion helps find the most informative motifs. Results on benchmark

Jyotsna Kasturi; Raj Acharya; Ross Hardison

2008-01-01

319

Valuing Diversity: A Well-Intended but Empty Promise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When professional development in diversity is provided to educators in the field, it usually targets classroom practice with the intent of closing the achievement gap. These efforts are critical. But work should not stop there because culture underlies every policy, practice, and procedure in the school and influences every thought, interaction,…

Guerra, Patricia L.

2012-01-01

320

Educational Leadership at 2050: Conjectures, Challenges, and Promises  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a practical, bold, no-holds barred look at challenges facing educational leaders and the university programs that prepare them through mid-century. It examines key continuities and discontinuities of current times for school, education, and society. Both practice and preparation occur in contested social space, the implications of which…

Papa, Rosemary; Mullen, Carol A.; English, Fenwick W.; Creighton, Theodore

2012-01-01

321

GRAVEL SYSTEM HOLDS PROMISE FOR SALMON FRY INCUBATION  

E-print Network

completed. Initial work is with pink salmon because the two-year cycle of this species permits quick the rigors of ocean life. The concept of incubating salmon eggs in a carefully controlled gravel environmentGRAVEL SYSTEM HOLDS PROMISE FOR SALMON FRY INCUBATION Robert M. Burnett Fis hery b i 0 log

322

Genetic monitoring as a promising tool for conservation and management  

E-print Network

Genetic monitoring as a promising tool for conservation and management Michael K. Schwartz1 and conservation fields, there is no consensus, and some confusion, regard- ing its definition. To some, genetic. Beckwith Avenue, Missoula, MT 59801, USA 2 Center for Investigation of Biodiversity and Genetic Resources

323

The Promise and Pitfalls of Integrated Strategy Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary on Edwin Ellis' model of integrative strategy instruction for students with learning disabilities points out that the model holds considerable promise. However, the model necessitates that teachers be trained to assess student cognition using multiple methods and that content area teachers think in new ways about their instruction…

Walsh, John

1993-01-01

324

Race to Top Promises Come Home to Roost  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grant recipients risk losing millions of dollars in Race to the Top money if they fail to live up to their promises, federal education officials make clear. By threatening to revoke Hawaii's $75 million Race to the Top award for failing to make "adequate progress" on key milestones of its education reform plan, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne…

McNeil, Michele

2012-01-01

325

Breast Cancer Vaccine Shows Promise in Early Trial  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast Cancer Vaccine Shows Promise in Early Trial Injection boosted ... 2015) Tuesday, December 2, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Breast Cancer Immunization TUESDAY, Dec. 2, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- An ...

326

The Math Promise: Celebrating at Home and School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Math Promise is a contract that family members make with one another. They commit to spending mathematical time together; getting to know each other's mathematical thinking and understanding; and finding time to play math games, solve problems, and notice mathematics in their daily lives. Whether parents and children are cooking in the…

Legnard, Danielle; Austin, Susan

2014-01-01

327

Fusing Tissue Engineering and Systems Biology Toward Fulfilling Their Promise  

E-print Network

Fusing Tissue Engineering and Systems Biology Toward Fulfilling Their Promise BENJAMIN D. COSGROVE 2008; published online 11 March 2008) Abstract--Tissue engineering has progressed to enable devel- opment of engineered 3D in vitro tissue models that can recapitulate in vivo cellular physiologies

328

eHealth communication and behavior change: promise and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional health communication interventions have often failed to show significant changes in people's behaviors. Guidance from social semiotic frameworks suggests that health communication interventions can be improved by incorporating greater participation by the intended audiences of users, paying greater attention to social contexts, and increasing broad use of integrated multimedia dissemination strategies. The use of eHealth communication has great promise

Linda Neuhauser; Gary L. Kreps

2010-01-01

329

A race for an Ebola vaccine: promises and obstacles.  

PubMed

While several impeding factors have limited Ebola vaccine development, the current epidemic has provided a surge which may lead to a record pace for a vaccine against Ebola. Consequently, multiple FDA trials are currently underway using two promising vaccine platforms; one has recently demonstrated durable immunity within non-human primates. PMID:25535021

Cooper, Christopher L; Bavari, Sina

2015-02-01

330

Every Child Every Promise Workforce Readiness. Issue Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third "Every Child, Every Promise" research brief focuses on the large percentage of the children and youth who will enter the workforce over the next two decades are lacking enough of the "soft" or applied skills--such as teamwork, decision-making, and communication--that will help them become effective employees and managers. The report…

America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2007

2007-01-01

331

The Challenge and Promise of a Catholic University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers 30 papers on the continuing discussion of the nature of a Catholic university. The papers are: "Introduction: The Challenge and Promise of a Catholic University" (Theodore M. Hesburgh); "Reflections on the Mission of a Catholic University" (Harold W. Attridge); "The Difference of a Catholic University" (Otto Bird); "A Catholic…

Hesburgh, Theodore M., Ed.

332

The Math Promise: Celebrating at Home and School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 7-page article describes a model for building family and community partnerships and elevating numeracy through a contract. By committing to the Math Promise, students, teachers and parents hold each other accountable for engaging in mathematics together beyond the classroom walls. The authors suggest online resources to help launch the project and provide a bibliography for further reading.

Legnard, Danielle; Austin, Susan

2014-10-01

333

MSU News Service Fall seeded peas and lentils show promise  

E-print Network

MSU News Service Fall seeded peas and lentils show promise as economical nitrogen source; tour-seeded peas and lentils for spring grazing and as a nitrogen source for a subsequent wheat crop, say. Legumes, like peas and lentils, take nitrogen from the air and accumulate it in both the above

Maxwell, Bruce D.

334

Predictor Models in Software Engineering (PROMISE) 1. Genearl Information  

E-print Network

, or explored the cost-effectiveness of different modeling techniques. To achieve the promise of cost- effective extractors, to visualization and presentation, to social network analysis and more. Very often, the information mined by MSR will require further manual analysis and interpretation by experts. Note that none

Menzies, Tim

335

Promises of Money Meant to Heighten Student Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does motivating students to study harder with the promise of cash sound like innovation--or bribery? That's a question educators and researchers have been debating, amid concerns that money-for-achievement programs actually decrease students' intrinsic motivation to learn and send mixed messages about studying. But the idea is catching on, with…

Ash, Katie

2008-01-01

336

Winter Urban Immersion Service Trip: Urban Promise, Camden, New Jersey  

E-print Network

by Urban Promise staff and discussion of the educational and social issues related to Christian Community on education and the conversation surrounding the issue of poverty and education Gain on-site experience will: Develop knowledge of Christian Community Development principles Learn about poverty's impact

Nelson, Tim

337

Promising applications of the liquid metal MHD energy conversion technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of the liquid-metal MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) energy conversion technology that could benefit from its unique features are reviewed with emphasis on applications that might be realized in the relatively near future and on the OMACON (optimized magnetohydrodynamic conversion) concept. Included among the promising applications are cogeneration, energy recovery from industrial processes involving the use of molten metals, energy conversion from

H. Branover; A. El-Boher; E. Greenspan; A. Barak

1989-01-01

338

Gender Bias in Academic Medicine: Pitfalls, Promise and Progress  

E-print Network

Gender Bias in Academic Medicine: Pitfalls, Promise and Progress University of Pittsburgh April 28 the application of gender bias #12;What we believed... · That the lack of women leaders in any field would fix; Carr et al., JWH, 2003 #12;Constructs: 1. Social Categories 2. Expectancy Bias #12;Gender is a Social

Sheridan, Jennifer

339

Screening Test Finds Drugs That Show Promise Against Ebola  

MedlinePLUS

... Screening Test Finds Drugs That Show Promise Against Ebola Researchers uncover 53 potential treatments; all are already FDA approved but need more ... biocontainment," Garcia-Sastre said. Researchers used this fake Ebola virus ... treatment project, according to background information from the study. ...

340

Nursing Practice Models: Implications for IS Design  

PubMed Central

Nursing Practice Models describe the structural and contextual features of nursing practice environments. They offer direction in the design of information systems for practice. As part of a larger study, using a modified Delphi process, an expert panel identified 11 higher order factors characterizing and addressing the communication demands, scope of practice and nature of interdisciplinary collaboration needed for contemporary practice. These factors provide a model that IS design and implementation teams can use to specify features of the clinical practice environment that IS applications should support. Support for this work came from a grant, Variations in Nursing Practice Models, M Anthony, PI (NR 8723).

Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Anthony, Mary

1997-01-01

341

Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't, What's Promising. Research in Brief. National Institute of Justice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Research in Brief describes the scientific methodologies used to perform a review of crime prevention programs and then discusses what research has shown to work, what it has shown not to work, and what approaches seem promising for crime prevention. The first step was to identify and review reports evaluating the effectiveness of crime…

Sherman, Lawrence W.; Gottfredson, Denise C.; MacKenzie, Doris L.; Eck, John; Reuter, Peter; Bushway, Shawn D.

342

Strengthening chronic disease prevention programming: the Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Evidence Tool.  

PubMed

In public health and chronic disease prevention there is increasing priority for effective use of evidence in practice. In Ontario, Canada, despite various models being advanced, public health practitioners are seeking ways to identify and apply evidence in their work in practical and meaningful ways. In a companion article, "Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Assessment Tool," we describe use of a tool to assess and strengthen program planning and implementation processes using 19 criteria derived from best and promising practices literature. In this article, we describe use of a complementary Program Evidence Tool to identify, synthesize, and apply a range of evidence sources to strengthen the content of chronic disease prevention programming.The Program Evidence Tool adapts tools of evidence-based medicine to the unique contexts of community-based health promotion and chronic disease prevention. Knowledge management tools and a guided dialogue process known as an Evidence Forum enable community stakeholders to make appropriate use of evidence in diverse social, political, and structural contexts. Practical guidelines and worksheets direct users through 5 steps: 1) define an evidence question, 2) develop a search strategy, 3) collect and synthesize evidence, 4) interpret and adapt evidence, and 5) implement and evaluate. We describe the Program Evidence Tool's benefits, strengths, challenges, and what was learned from its application in 4 Ontario public health departments. The Program Evidence Tool contributes to the development and understanding of the complex use of evidence in community-based chronic disease prevention. PMID:23721788

Albert, Dayna; Fortin, Rebecca; Herrera, Christine; Riley, Barbara; Hanning, Rhona; Lessio, Anne; Rush, Brian

2013-01-01

343

Practical leadership  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines conceptions of leadership and leadership enactment by teachers to develop a conceptual foundation for teacher leadership. The research question driving this study was: How do elementary school teacher leaders within a curricular and instructional reform effort describe their conceptions and enactment of leadership within their school and district contexts? Two program sites for elementary school science reform were selected, and six teachers from each program were invited to participate in the study. First-hand reports of conceptions of leadership and stories of enactment, collected through individual and focus group interviews with the teachers, served as the primary data for the study. A case for each of the twelve teachers is presented and analyzed. The outcome of the study is a theory of practical leadership. This conception draws upon the intellectual tradition of practical reasoning, which emphasizes deliberation and action of the individual when faced with a decision or a problematic situation. Practical leadership draws primarily from three dimensions: the self of the leader; the contexts in which the leader is acting; and the purposes that drive the leader's actions. Examples of leadership enactment from the cases are presented with attention to how these enactment stories demonstrate the teachers' use of practical reasoning in the situations described. The final analysis looks more specifically at the idea of practical leadership using a dynamic model called "leadership space" to demonstrate interactions among self, contexts, and purposes over time. The dissertation highlights three conclusions: (1) practical reasoning as the theoretical foundation for analyzing leadership provides a useful and valid analytical framework since it locates the leadership enactment in the deliberation and actions of the leader rather than understanding leadership as the application of a generalized set of principles about how to lead; (2) conceptions of leadership influence leadership enactment; and (3) teacher leadership roles are crafted, not filled.

Sato, Mistilina Dawn

344

A Broken Promise: Examining the Merit-Aid Policy and Implementation Gap in the Michigan Promise Scholarship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2006, Michigan changed their traditional merit award to a credit contingent program based upon successful completion of 60 college credits. The Michigan Promise Scholarship was crafted by state policymakers without input from the financial aid community. This case study suggests that the change in policy resulted in two unintended consequences:…

Daun-Barnet, Nathan; Hermsen, Albert; Vedder, Lori; Mabry, Beth

2013-01-01

345

Multiplication Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice Your Multiplication Skills! Watch These Fun Multiplication Videos *Need a review? Watch the Multiplication is Repeated Addition Video Four Legged Zoo I ve Got 6 Ready or Not Here I Come (5s) Twelve Toes Elementary My Dear 2s Figure 8 Lucky 7s Video My Hero Zero Naughty Number 9 Practice your multiplication skills with these fun games: Multiplication Facts Become the king of multiplication with Castle Quest Dish up some ice cream with Crazy Cone Multiplication. Earn disco moves to make a dinosaur dance with Disco Dino. Design your own granny and make her race in a ...

Miss Lerdahl

2010-02-23

346

Metal alloy identifier  

DOEpatents

To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

Riley, William D. (Avondale, MD); Brown, Jr., Robert D. (Avondale, MD)

1987-01-01

347

Identifying Technical Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared four different approaches to identifying technical words in an anatomy text. The first approach used a four step rating scale, and was used as the comparison for evaluating the other three approaches. It had a high degree of reliability. The least successful approach was that using clues provided by the writer such as labels in…

Chung, Teresa Mihwa; Nation, Paul

2004-01-01

348

Correlates of infection control practices in dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Studies conducted in the first decade of the AIDS epidemic indicated that, in general, dentists had suboptimal levels of compliance with standard infection control practices, including work practices designed to reduce exposure to bloodborne pathogens. This study was designed to assess current rates of compliance with these practices in a population of Maryland dentists and to identify correlates of

Robyn R. M. Gershon; Christine Karkashian; David Vlahov; Martha Grimes; Elizabeth Spannhake

1998-01-01

349

School Nursing Practice: Roles and Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an application of the American Nurses' Association's (ANA's) "Standards of Clinical Nursing Practice" (1991) to the specialty of school nursing. It identifies specialty standards of practice for the school nurse subsumed under the standards of clinical practice which apply to all nurses. Chapter One focuses on the ANA standards…

Proctor, Susan Tonskemper; And Others

350

Research Making Its Way into Classroom Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifying researchers whose work has influenced classroom practice, raises questions about the nature of research and its relationship with practice, and the means through which knowledge is distributed. We argue that normally, influence arises through lines of research more than individuals, that knowing-in-practice distribution systems should…

Johnston, Peter; Goatley, Virginia

2015-01-01

351

Stem cells: a promising source for vascular regenerative medicine.  

PubMed

The rising and diversity of many human vascular diseases pose urgent needs for the development of novel therapeutics. Stem cell therapy represents a challenge in the medicine of the twenty-first century, an area where tissue engineering and regenerative medicine gather to provide promising treatments for a wide variety of diseases. Indeed, with their extensive regeneration potential and functional multilineage differentiation capacity, stem cells are now highlighted as promising cell sources for regenerative medicine. Their multilineage differentiation involves environmental factors such as biochemical, extracellular matrix coating, oxygen tension, and mechanical forces. In this review, we will focus on human stem cell sources and their applications in vascular regeneration. We will also discuss the different strategies used for their differentiation into both mature and functional smooth muscle and endothelial cells. PMID:25167472

Rammal, Hassan; Harmouch, Chaza; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Laurent-Maquin, Dominique; Labrude, Pierre; Menu, Patrick; Kerdjoudj, Halima

2014-12-15

352

Reduction of boundary effects in spiral MRI experiment PROMISE  

E-print Network

Magnetorotational instability (MRI) is one of the most important and most common instabilities in astrophysics, it is widely accepted that it serves as a source of turbulent viscosity in accretion disks -- the most energy efficient objects in the Universe. However it is very difficult to bring this process down on earth and model it in a laboratory experiment. Several different approaches have been proposed, one of the most recent is PROMISE (Potsdam-ROssendorf Magnetorotational InStability Experiment). It consists of a flow of a liquid metal between two rotating cylinders under applied current-free spiral magnetic field. The cylinders must be covered with plates which introduce additional end-effects which alter the flow and make it more difficult to clearly distinguish between MRI stable and unstable state. In this paper we propose simple and inexpensive improvement to the PROMISE experiment which would reduce those undesirable effects.

J. Szklarski

2007-04-18

353

The Promises And Pitfalls Of Evidence-Based Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Evidence-based medicine,(EBM) aims to address,the persistent problem,of clinical practice variation with the help of various tools, including standardized practice guidelines. While advocates welcome the stronger scientific foundation of such guidelines, critics fear that they will lead to “cookbook medicine.” Studies show, however, that few guidelines lead to consistent changes in provider behavior. The hopes, fears, and mixed re- cord

Stefan Timmermans; Aaron Mauck

2005-01-01

354

Twenty Years of Promises: Fullerene in Medicinal Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many biological activities have been envisioned for fullerenes and some of them seem to be very promising. The lack of solubility in biologically friendly environments is the major obstacle in the development of this field. The possibility of multiple fuctionalization can be exploited to get more soluble compounds but, up to now, only a few polyadducts, presenting perfectly defined geometry, can be selectively prepared avoiding long purification processes.

da Ros, Tatiana

355

Review of Selected Literature: The Agony and Promise of America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the more than 300 books and 600 essays on or related to U.S. higher education that were written in 1968, 2 themes appear frequently: (1) the presence and power of college students (which may be thought of as the agony and the promise of America), and (2) the future of U.S. institutions of higher education. The paper reviews 6 documents on each…

Meeth, L. Richard

356

Sporting embodiment: sports studies and the (continuing) promise of phenomenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst in recent years sports studies have addressed the calls ‘to bring the body back in’ to theorisations of sport and physical activity, the ‘promise of phenomenology’ remains largely under?realised with regard to sporting embodiment. Relatively few accounts are grounded in the ‘flesh’ of the lived sporting body, and phenomenology offers a powerful framework for such analysis. A wide?ranging, multi?stranded

2009-01-01

357

Public Health's Promise fortheFuture: 1989Presidential Address  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public health's promise forthefuture isinextricably related toefforts which maximize humanpotential andwhichrealize theworld's interdependence. Public health challenges arenotonly constant andcomplex butfrequently surrounded bypolitical activ- ities. Inthis environment, thepublic health enterprise hasbeen enhanced bytheInstitute ofMedicine, National Academy ofSci- ences' report onTheFuture ofPublic Health andtheassessment framework itprovides. Riskreduction through preventive andhealth promotion activities istheprimary focus ofpublic health, but facilitation isoften dependent uponsociety's understanding

IRIS S. SHANNON

358

Cell-based immune therapy shows promise in leukemia patients  

Cancer.gov

Memorial Sloan-Kettering investigators report that genetically modified immune cells have shown great promise in killing the cancer cells of patients with relapsed B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In fact, all five of the patients who have received the new therapy – known as targeted immunotherapy – have gone into complete remission, with no detectable cancer cells. The results of this ongoing clinical trial are reported online on March 20 in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

359

Improving the Nurse–Family Partnership in Community Practice  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based preventive interventions are rarely final products. They have reached a stage of development that warrant public investment but require additional research and development to strengthen their effects. The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP), a program of nurse home visiting, is grounded in findings from replicated randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVE: Evidence-based programs require replication in accordance with the models tested in the original randomized controlled trials in order to achieve impacts comparable to those found in those trials, and yet they must be changed in order to improve their impacts, given that interventions require continuous improvement. This article provides a framework and illustrations of work our team members have developed to address this tension. METHODS: Because the NFP is delivered in communities outside of research contexts, we used quantitative and qualitative research to identify challenges with the NFP program model and its implementation, as well as promising approaches for addressing them. RESULTS: We describe a framework used to address these issues and illustrate its use in improving nurses’ skills in retaining participants, reducing closely spaced subsequent pregnancies, responding to intimate partner violence, observing and promoting caregivers’ care of their children, addressing parents’ mental health problems, classifying families’ risks and strengths as a guide for program implementation, and collaborating with indigenous health organizations to adapt and evaluate the program for their populations. We identify common challenges encountered in conducting research in practice settings and translating findings from these studies into ongoing program implementation. CONCLUSIONS: The conduct of research focused on quality improvement, model improvement, and implementation in NFP practice settings is challenging, but feasible, and holds promise for improving the impact of the NFP. PMID:24187112

Donelan-McCall, Nancy; O’Brien, Ruth; MacMillan, Harriet; Jack, Susan; Jenkins, Thomas; Dunlap, Wallace P.; O’Fallon, Molly; Yost, Elly; Thorland, Bill; Pinto, Francesca; Gasbarro, Mariarosa; Baca, Pilar; Melnick, Alan; Beeber, Linda

2013-01-01

360

A policy analysis of adult literacy promotion in the Third World: An accounting of promises made and promises fulfilled  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To the individual, literacy has promised a new mentality, a new social definition, and new economic capacities. At the collective level, literacy has promised modernization of institutions, democratization of political systems, and cultural renewal of societies in the Third World. Have the promises of literacy been fulfilled? The processes of policy formulation, policy analysis and policy assessment are essentially social processes and a search for `proof' of the effects of literacy is naive, to say the least. What we need is a position on literacy promotion that is plausible, credible and probable, and thereby compelling for action. While both the enthusiasts for literacy and the sceptics continue to draw different conclusions from the same research and experience, a consensus is emerging that the question `Why Literacy?' should now be laid to rest. The question to ask now should be: `How Literacy?' In regard to the question of `How Literacy?', there are two basic positions: Should literacy be taught within the specific small-frame of the selective and intensive approach to literacy, with the provision of basic needs? Or, should literacy be taught within a large-frame of literacy as a `potential added', on a mass-scale and with the political orientation? This paper clearly opts for literacy as generative rather than merely instrumental.

Bhola, H. S.

1985-09-01

361

Predicting sudden cardiac death from T wave alternans of the surface electrocardiogram: promise and pitfalls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sudden cardiac death remains a preeminent public health problem. Despite advances in preventative treatment for patients known to be at risk, to date we have been able to identify, and thus treat, only a small minority of these patients. Therefore, there is a major need to develop noninvasive diagnostic technologies to identify patients at risk. Recent studies have demonstrated that measurement of microvolt-level T wave alternans is a promising technique for the accurate identification of patients at risk for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. In this article, we review the clinical data establishing the relationship between microvolt T wave alternans and susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. We also review the methods and technology that have been developed to measure microvolt levels of T wave alternans noninvasively in broad populations of ambulatory patients. In particular, we examine techniques that permit the accurate measurement of T wave alternans during exercise stress testing.

Rosenbaum, D. S.; Albrecht, P.; Cohen, R. J.

1996-01-01

362

Exciting Maser Science with New Instruments - the Promise of the EVLA  

E-print Network

In the near future, the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) will allow surveys for maser sources with unprecedented sensitivity, spectral coverage and spectroscopic capabilities. In particular, comprehensive surveys for many maser species with simultaneous sensitive continuum imaging and absorption studies will give a comprehensive radio picture of star formation in the Galactic plane and elsewhere. Very efficient EVLA surveys for H2O megamasers in Active Galacic Nuclei will be possible to practically arbitrary redshifts. EVLA and Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) studies of H2O and SiO masers will serve as high resolution probes of the innermost envelopes of oxygen-rich evolved stars and HCN masers of carbon-rich stars. Farther in the future, the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) promises the detection of OH gigamasers at all conceivable redshifts and maser astrometry with unprecedented accuracy.

Karl M. Menten

2007-08-22

363

Cognitive Rehabilitation for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Promises and Problems  

PubMed Central

Objective: Cognitive training entails the repeated exercise of a specific cognitive process over a period of time to improve performance on the trained task as well as on tasks that were not specifically trained (transfer effect). Cognitive training shows promise in remediating deficits in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – a disorder believed to stem from deficient cognitive processes – where the focus has been primarily on training working memory and attention. We discuss evidence from studies that have produced broad, limited, or no transfer effects with the goal of identifying factors that may be responsible for this heterogeneity. Results: There are several implicit assumptions that appear to drive researchers’ decisions regarding both the selection of cognitive abilities to train as well as the training tasks chosen to target those abilities. We identify these implicit assumptions and their weaknesses. We also draw attention to design limitations that may be contributing to lack of transfer. Conclusion: Although the overall pattern of findings from these studies is promising, the methodological and theoretical limitations associated with the literature limit conclusions about the efficacy of cognitive training as a rehabilitation method for ADHD. We hypothesize several suggestions that may improve training effects and summarize the evidence which led to our hypotheses. PMID:25320614

Tajik-Parvinchi, Diana; Wright, Leah; Schachar, Russell

2014-01-01

364

COLLABORATIVE PRACTICE AGREEMENT DEFINITIONS  

E-print Network

agreed upon by the advanced practice registered nurse and one or more licensed physicians or dentists Practice Registered Nurse, which have entered into collaborative practices (List all physicians below1 COLLABORATIVE PRACTICE AGREEMENT DEFINITIONS Collaborative Practice Agreement refers

365

On identified predictive control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-tuning control algorithms are potential successors to manually tuned PID controllers traditionally used in process control applications. A very attractive design method for self-tuning controllers, which has been developed over recent years, is the long-range predictive control (LRPC). The success of LRPC is due to its effectiveness with plants of unknown order and dead-time which may be simultaneously nonminimum phase and unstable or have multiple lightly damped poles (as in the case of flexible structures or flexible robot arms). LRPC is a receding horizon strategy and can be, in general terms, summarized as follows. Using assumed long-range (or multi-step) cost function the optimal control law is found in terms of unknown parameters of the predictor model of the process, current input-output sequence, and future reference signal sequence. The common approach is to assume that the input-output process model is known or separately identified and then to find the parameters of the predictor model. Once these are known, the optimal control law determines control signal at the current time t which is applied at the process input and the whole procedure is repeated at the next time instant. Most of the recent research in this field is apparently centered around the LRPC formulation developed by Clarke et al., known as generalized predictive control (GPC). GPC uses ARIMAX/CARIMA model of the process in its input-output formulation. In this paper, the GPC formulation is used but the process predictor model is derived from the state space formulation of the ARIMAX model and is directly identified over the receding horizon, i.e., using current input-output sequence. The underlying technique in the design of identified predictive control (IPC) algorithm is the identification algorithm of observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters developed by Juang et al. at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully applied to identification of flexible structures.

Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

1993-01-01

366

Identifying risk: the limitations of incident reporting.  

PubMed

Incident reporting is considered an important source of risk management data for identifying and addressing the causes of errors that occur in health-care organizations. However, the effectiveness of incident reporting in accurately identifying risk may be influenced by variables in the structure and design of incident reporting systems. Several variables, including data bias, system usability, non-standardized terminology and coding, and deficiencies in combined data analysis can reduce risk data accuracy. Until incident reporting systems are enhanced and an environment of safety is promoted, incident reports can provide only a glimmer of insight into organizational risk and quality improvement. Practice environments that support shared decision-making and collaborative care teams and provide stimulating learning opportunities can enhance professional nursing practice and inspire a culture of patient safety. PMID:17410923

Burkoski, Vanessa

2007-03-01

367

NREL Designs Promising New Oxides for Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

High-efficiency, thin-film solar cells require electrical contacts with high electrical conductivity, and the top contact must also have high optical transparency. This need is currently met by transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), which conduct electricity but are 90% transparent to visible light. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have derived three key design principles for selecting promising materials for TCO contacts. NREL's application of these design principles has resulted in a 10,000-fold improvement in conductivity for one TCO material.

Not Available

2012-04-01

368

The microeconomics of personalized medicine: today's challenge and tomorrow's promise.  

PubMed

'Personalized medicine' promises to increase the quality of clinical care and, in some cases, decrease health-care costs. Despite this, only a handful of diagnostic tests have made it to market, with mixed success. Historically, the challenges in this field were scientific. However, as discussed in this article, with the maturation of the '-omics' sciences, it now seems that the major barriers are increasingly related to economics. Overcoming the poor microeconomic alignment of incentives among key stakeholders is therefore crucial to catalysing the further development and adoption of personalized medicine, and we propose several actions that could help achieve this goal. PMID:19300459

Davis, Jerel C; Furstenthal, Laura; Desai, Amar A; Norris, Troy; Sutaria, Saumya; Fleming, Edd; Ma, Philip

2009-04-01

369

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors as promising cancer therapeutics  

PubMed Central

The year of 2005 was a watershed in the history of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors due to the important findings of selective killing in BRCA-deficient cancers by PARP inhibition. The findings made PARP inhibition one of the most promising new therapeutic approaches to cancers, especially to those with specific defects. With AZD2281 and BSI-201 entering phase III clinical trials, the final application of PARP inhibitors in clinic would come true soon. This current paper will review the major advances in targeting PARP for cancer therapy and discuss the existing questions, the answers to which may influence the future of PARP inhibitors as cancer therapeutics. PMID:20676117

He, Jin-xue; Yang, Chun-hao; Miao, Ze-hong

2010-01-01

370

Ecotourism: the Promise and Perils of Environmentally Oriented Travel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA) latest Hot Topics feature is Ecotourism: the Promise and Perils of Environmentally-Oriented Travel, prepared by Heather E. Lindsay. The detailed report explores the opportunities and pitfalls of ecotourism, for which "finding a compromise between preservation and development is often challenging, and can generate additional environmental problems for the very regions it is intended to protect." Key citations for the report link to the full-text articles from scholarly journals in the CSA database, and over two dozen related Web links are also provided. Anyone interested in reviewing the impact of ecotourism will appreciate this well-organized, thorough report.

Lindsay, Heather E.

2003-01-01

371

The promise of air cargo: System aspects and vehicle design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current operation of the air cargo system is reviewed. An assessment of the future of air cargo is provided by: (1) analyzing statistics and trends, (2) by noting system problems and inefficiencies, (3) by analyzing characteristics of 'air eligible' commodities, and (4) by showing the promise of new technology for future cargo aircraft with significant improvements in costs and efficiency. The following topics are discussed: (1) air cargo demand forecasts; (2) economics of air cargo transport; (3) the integrated air cargo system; (4) evolution of airfreighter design; and (5) the span distributed load concept.

Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

1976-01-01

372

N-Cinnamoylated Aminoquinolines as Promising Antileishmanial Agents  

PubMed Central

A series of cinnamic acid conjugates of primaquine and chloroquine were evaluated for their in vitro antileishmanial activities. Although primaquine derivatives had modest activity, chloroquine conjugates exhibited potent activity against both promastigotes (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 2.6 to 21.8 ?M) and intramacrophagic amastigotes (IC50 = 1.2 to 9.3 ?M) of Leishmania infantum. Both the high activity of these chloroquine analogues and their mild-to-low toxicity toward host cells make them promising leads for the discovery of new antileishmanial agents. PMID:23917315

Vale-Costa, S.; Costa-Gouveia, J.; Pérez, B.; Silva, T.; Teixeira, C.; Gomes, P.

2013-01-01

373

Porous liquids: a promising class of media for gas separation.  

PubMed

A porous liquid containing empty cavities has been successfully fabricated by surface engineering of hollow structures with suitable corona and canopy species. By taking advantage of the liquid-like polymeric matrices as a separation medium and the empty cavities as gas transport pathway, this unique porous liquid can function as a promising candidate for gas separation. Moreover, such a facile synthetic strategy can be further extended to the fabrication of other types of nanostructure-based porous liquid, opening up new opportunities for preparation of porous liquids with attractive properties for specific tasks. PMID:25404583

Zhang, Jinshui; Chai, Song-Hai; Qiao, Zhen-An; Mahurin, Shannon M; Chen, Jihua; Fang, Youxing; Wan, Shun; Nelson, Kimberly; Zhang, Pengfei; Dai, Sheng

2015-01-12

374

Research and development needs in process industries: Promising technologies  

SciTech Connect

The object of this discussion is to look at the needs for research and development in the emerging technologies that are most readily used in the process industries. This is a very daunting task, since the technologies that have developed or been suggested over the years have been numerous. In this second of two sessions on the process industries specific promising emerging technologies were reviewed. Discussion focused on seven unit operations, some of which have broad applicability in a wide range of process industries. These were: electrophoresis; field-enhanced adsorption; stabilized operations; field-enhanced solvent extraction; field-enhanced distillation; field-enhanced membranes; field-enhanced filtration.

Basaran, O.A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

1996-05-01

375

Humanized mice for immune system investigation: progress, promise and challenges  

PubMed Central

Preface Significant advances in our understanding of the in vivo functions of human cells, tissues and immune systems have resulted from the development of mouse strains that are based on severely immunodeficient mice expressing mutations in the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor common ?-chain locus. These mouse strains support the engraftment of a functional human immune system and permit detailed analysis of human immune biology, development and functions. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in the development of humanized mice, the lessons learned, the remaining challenges and the promise of using humanized mice for the in vivo study of human immunology. PMID:23059428

Shultz, Leonard D.; Brehm, Michael A.; Garcia, J. Victor; Greiner, Dale L.

2013-01-01

376

Resource based view: a promising new theory for healthcare organizations  

PubMed Central

This commentary reviews a recent piece by Burton and Rycroft-Malone on the use of Resource Based View (RBV) in healthcare organizations. It first outlines the core content of their piece. It then discusses their attempts to extend RBV to the analysis of large scale quality improvement efforts in healthcare. Some critique is elaborated. The broader question of why RBV seems to be migrating into healthcare management research is considered. They conclude RBV is a promising new theory for healthcare organizations. PMID:25396211

Ferlie, Ewan

2014-01-01

377

Identifying Distant AGNs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baldwin, Phillips, and Terlevich emission-line ratio diagnostic ([OIII]/H? versus [NII]/H?, hereafter BPT diagram) efficiently separates galaxies whose signal is dominated by star formation (BPT-SF) from those dominated by AGN activity (BPT-AGN). Yet the BPT diagram is limited to z<0.5, the redshift at which [NII]?6584 leaves the optical spectral window. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we construct a new diagnostic, or TBT diagram, that is based on rest-frame g-z color, [NeIII]?3869, and [OII]??3726+3729 and can be used for galaxies out to z<1.4. The TBT diagram identifies 98.7% of the SDSS BPT-AGN as TBT-AGN and 97% of the SDSS BPT-SF as TBT-SF. Furthermore, it identifies 97% of the OPTX Chandra X-ray selected AGNs as TBT-AGN. This is in contrast to the BPT diagram, which misidentifies 20% of X-ray selected AGNs as BPT-SF.

Trouille, Laura; Barger, Amy; Tremonti, Christy

2014-07-01

378

Identifying the Educationally Influential Physician: A Systematic Review of Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Previous studies have indicated that educationally influential physicians' (EIPs) interactions with peers can lead to practice changes and improved patient outcomes. However, multiple approaches have been used to identify and investigate EIPs' informal or formal influence on practice, which creates study outcomes that are difficult…

Kronberger, Matthew P.; Bakken, Lori L.

2011-01-01

379

Implementing routine outcome monitoring in clinical practice: Benefits, challenges, and solutions.  

PubMed

Abstract This article reviews the benefits, obstacles, and challenges that can hinder (and have hindered) implementation of routine outcome monitoring in clinical practice. Recommendations for future routine outcome assessment efforts are also provided. Spanning three generations, as well as multiple developed tools and approaches, the four authors of this article have spent much of their careers working to address these issues and attempt to consolidate this learning and experience briefly here. Potential "elephants in the room" are brought into the discussion wherever relevant, rather than leaving them to obstruct silently the field's efforts. Some of these topics have been largely ignored, yet must be addressed if we are to fulfill our promise of integrating science and practice. This article is an attempt to identify these important issues and start an honest and open dialogue. PMID:23885809

Boswell, James F; Kraus, David R; Miller, Scott D; Lambert, Michael J

2015-01-01

380

Informing evidence-based practice: a review of research analyzing adult protective services data.  

PubMed

The mission of Adult Protective Services (APS) is to protect older and vulnerable adults from abuse, neglect, and exploitation. The complexity of APS cases and the potential for life-changing interventions point to the need for research that examines and evaluates APS practices. A literature review identified 50 studies published during a 16-year period that used APS agencies, clients, data, or resources to test hypotheses regarding elder abuse. The analysis revealed promising efforts toward knowledge development about elder mistreatment and self-neglect. This article provides an overview of salient findings, notes the scarcity of studies that analyze the effectiveness of APS, and highlights the need for additional research. Lessons learned are described, and APS practitioners and researchers are urged to work collaboratively to develop key practice-related questions about APS processes and outcomes that can be tested with appropriate research methodologies. PMID:24965804

Ernst, Joy Swanson; Ramsey-Klawsnik, Holly; Schillerstrom, Jason E; Dayton, Carol; Mixson, Paula; Counihan, Mary

2014-01-01

381

Coaching Literacy Teachers as They Design Critical Literacy Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literacy specialists and coaches are called upon for literacy leadership in schools and often wrestle with the tensions of implementing top-down reforms and making room for teacher- and student-led practices, such as critical literacy. Critical literacy education holds the promise of engaging learners to use literacy practices in ways that matter…

Rogers, Rebecca

2014-01-01

382

Good Practice case studies Interpreted practical  

E-print Network

Good Practice case studies Interpreted practical conservation Sherwood Forest District 1. Protected wellbeing. It is hoped 1 | Good practice case studies | Equality and Diversity | 14/02/2012 #12;Good Practice case studies 2 | Good practice case studies | Equality and Diversity | 14/02/2012 the group

383

Both Promise and Peril: Information Technology and Experiential Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because new information-age learning models incorporate experiential education theories and practices, integration of information technology is an opportunity to integrate experiential methods. Scenarios are presented for integrating technology into experiential curricula. Problems include cost, training, lack of quality software, and…

Stringer, L. Allison

1999-01-01

384

Clinical knowledge management at scale: fulfilling the promise of pervasive  

E-print Network

, calculations, evidence-based templates for­ e.g., forcing functions, calculations, evidence-based templates Geriatric adjustments Dosing calculations #12;Evidence for CDS (knowledge-based)Evidence for CDS (knowledge-based ­ e.g., protocols, care pathways, practice guidelines 6. Descriptive or predictive modeling ­ e

Gabrieli, John

385

The Promise and the Caution of Resilience Models for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Resilience is a very useful construct for framing school mental health services to children and is particularly applicable to mental health services in school settings. Still, resilience perspectives should not be overgeneralized to school mental health practice because risk and resilience wax and wane over time and daily decisions about students'…

Doll, Beth; Jones, Kristin; Osborn, Allison; Dooley, Kadie; Turner, April

2011-01-01

386

Games for Learning: Vast Wasteland or a Digital Promise?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research about emerging best practices in the learning sciences points to the potential of deploying digital games as one possible solution to the twin challenges of weak student engagement and the need for more robust achievement in literacy, science, technology, and math. This chapter reviews key cross-cutting themes in this special volume,…

Levine, Michael H.; Vaala, Sarah E.

2013-01-01

387

Pharmacogenomics: The Promise of Personalized Medicine for CNS Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses first on the concept of pharmacogenomics and its related concepts (biomarkers and personalized prescription). Next, the first generation of five DNA pharmacogenomic tests used in the clinical practice of psychiatry is briefly reviewed. Then the possible involvement of these pharmacogenomic tests in the exploration of early clinical proof of mechanism is described by using two of the

Jose de Leon

2009-01-01

388

Internet-Based Data Collection: Promises and Realities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of Internet to aid research practice has become more popular in the recent years. In fact, some believe that Internet surveying and electronic data collection may revolutionize many disciplines by allowing for easier data collection, larger samples, and therefore more representative data. However, others are skeptical of its usability as…

Benfield, Jacob A.; Szlemko, William J.

2006-01-01

389

Rose garden promises of intelligent tutoring systems: Blossom or thorn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) have been in existence for over a decade. However, few controlled evaluation studies have been conducted comparing the effectiveness of these systems to more traditional instruction methods. Two main promises of ITSs are examined: (1) Engender more effective and efficient learning in relation to traditional formats; and (2) Reduce the range of learning outcome measures where a majority of individuals are elevated to high performance levels. Bloom (1984) has referred to these as the two sigma problem; to achieve two standard deviation improvements with tutoring over traditional instruction methods. Four ITSs are discussed in relation to the two promises. These tutors have undergone systematic, controlled evaluations: (1) The LISP tutor (Anderson Farrell and Sauers, 1984); (2) Smithtown (Shute and Glaser, in press); (3) Sherlock (Lesgold, Lajoie, Bunzo and Eggan, 1990); and (4) The Pascal ITS (Bonar, Cunningham, Beatty and Well, 1988). Results show that these four tutors do accelerate learning with no degradation in final outcome. Suggestions for improvements to the design and evaluation of ITSs are discussed.

Shute, Valerie J.

1991-01-01

390

Emerging Cancer Vaccines: The Promise of Genetic Vectors  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic vaccination against cancer is an important approach which, when combined with other therapies, can improve long-term control of cancer. In fact, the induction of adaptive immune responses against Tumor Associated Antigens (TAAs) as well as innate immunity are important factors for tumor stabilization/eradication. A variety of immunization technologies have been explored in last decades and are currently under active evaluation, such as cell-based, protein, peptide and heat-shock protein-based cancer vaccines. Genetic vaccines are emerging as promising methodologies to elicit immune responses against a wide variety of antigens, including TAAs. Amongst these, Adenovirus (Ad)-based vectors show excellent immunogenicity profile and have achieved immunological proof of concept in humans. In vivo electroporation of plasmid DNA (DNA-EP) is also a desirable vaccine technology for cancer vaccines, as it is repeatable several times, a parameter required for the long-term maintenance of anti-tumor immunity. Recent findings show that combinations of different modalities of immunization (heterologous prime/boost) are able to induce superior immune reactions as compared to single-modality vaccines. In this review, we will discuss the challenges and requirements of emerging cancer vaccines, particularly focusing on the genetic cancer vaccines currently under active development and the promise shown by Ad and DNA-EP heterologous prime-boost. PMID:24212974

Aurisicchio, Luigi; Ciliberto, Gennaro

2011-01-01

391

Delivering on the promise of transit timing variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transiting timing variations (TTVs) have held the promise of enabling the measurement of planet masses and radii in multi-transiting planet systems found with the Kepler spacecraft. However, when a single TTV frequency is detected, a degeneracy commonly exists between the eccentricities and masses of the planets (Lithwick, Xie & Wu 2012), making the masses and eccentricities indeterminate. In some cases this degeneracy has been broken with n-body integrations, but this enshrouds the answer in complex numerics. It may also be broken statistically, but this still does not provide measurements for individual planets.We show how this degeneracy may be broken with a measurement of TTV at the synodic frequency, which has an amplitude that depends strongly on the planet-star mass ratios and on the planets' semi-major axis ratio, yet weakly on their eccentricities. This "chopping" signal is generally modest in amplitude, but when it is detected it can provide the primary constraint upon planet masses, such as in Kepler 11d&e and KOI-872c. We show by example how harmonic analysis of TTVs combined with analytic formulae can break the eccentricity-mass degeneracy without the need for dynamical integrations, thus delivering on the promise of TTVs, while at the same time clarifying the origin of the planetary mass constraints resulting from TTV analysis.

Agol, Eric; Deck, Katherine

2015-01-01

392

Angle Practice!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How well do you know your angles? Check out these games and put your knowledge to the test! They will stump you if you don't pay close attention to the different angles they give you! Alien Angles! - Use the protractor to guess where the alien has flown away to. If you pick the right spot, you can save all the aliens! Squirt the Dog! Angle practice - Move the hose using different measures of angles to try and squirt the dog. To what degree? - Think you're ready to challenge yourself? Check out ...

Hume, Ms.

2012-11-02

393

List identifies threatened ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

Showstack, Randy

2012-09-01

394

Time to Talk: 5 Things to Know about Complementary Health Practices for Cognitive Function, Dementia, and Alzheimer's ...  

MedlinePLUS

... as several mind and body practices such as music therapy and mental imagery, which have shown promise ... of some mind and body practices such as music therapy suggest they may be helpful for some ...

395

Conceptual and practical challenges for implementing the communities of practice model on a national scale - a Canadian cancer control initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cancer program delivery, like the rest of health care in Canada, faces two ongoing challenges: to coordinate a pan-Canadian approach across complex provincial jurisdictions, and to facilitate the rapid translation of knowledge into clinical practice. Communities of practice, or CoPs, which have been described by Etienne Wenger as a collaborative learning platform, represent a promising solution to these challenges

Colene Bentley; George P Browman; Barbara Poole

2010-01-01

396

Preparing Mathematics and Science Teachers for Diverse Classrooms: Promising Strategies for Transformative Pedagogy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book provides a theoretical basis and practical strategies to counter resistance to learning to teach for diversity (in culturally and gender-inclusive ways), and resistance to teaching for understanding (using student-centered and inquiry-based pedagogical approaches). Teacher educators from across the United States present rich narratives of their experiences in helping prospective and practicing teachers learn to teach for diversity and for understanding in a variety of mathematics and science contexts. Mathematics and science education has been slow to respond to issues of diversity and equity. Preparing Mathematics and Science Teachers for Diverse Classrooms: Promising Strategies for Transformative Pedagogy helps to begin a network for support and collaboration among teacher educators in science and mathematics who work for multicultural education and equity. A unique and much-needed contribution, this book is an essential resource for teacher educators, K-12 teachers who work as student teacher supervisors and cooperating teachers, and graduate students in mathematics and science education, and a compelling text for science and mathematics methods courses.

2010-05-04

397

Identifying Young, Nearby Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Young stars have certain characteristics, e.g., high atmospheric abundance of lithium and chromospheric activity, fast rotation, distinctive space motion and strong X-ray flux compared to that of older main sequence stars. We have selected a list of candidate young (<100Myr) and nearby (<60pc) stars based on their space motion and/or strong X-ray flux. To determine space motion of a star, one needs to know its coordinates (RA, DEC), proper motion, distance, and radial velocity. The Hipparcos and Tycho catalogues provide all this information except radial velocities. We anticipate eventually searching approx. 1000 nearby stars for signs of extreme youth. Future studies of the young stars so identified will help clarify the formation of planetary systems for times between 10 and 100 million years. Certainly, the final output of this study will be a very useful resource, especially for adaptive optics and space based searches for Jupiter-mass planets and dusty proto-planetary disks. We have begun spectroscopic observations in January, 2001 with the 2.3 m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in New South Wales, Australia. These spectra will be used to determine radial velocities and other youth indicators such as Li 6708A absorption strength and Hydrogen Balmer line intensity. Additional observations of southern hemisphere stars from SSO are scheduled in April and northern hemisphere observations will take place in May and July at the Lick Observatory of the University of California. AT SSO, to date, we have observed about 100 stars with a high resolution spectrometer (echelle) and about 50 stars with a medium spectral resolution spectrometer (the "DBS"). About 20% of these stars turn out to be young stars. Among these, two especially noteworthy stars appear to be the closest T-Tauri stars ever identified. Interestingly, these stars share the same space motions as that of a very famous star with a dusty circumstellar disk--beta Pictoris. This new finding better constrains the age of beta Pictoris to be approx. 10 Myr.

Webb, Rich; Song, Inseok; Zuckerman, Ben; Bessell, Mike

2001-01-01

398

Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's  

MedlinePLUS

... identify Parkinson’s is to demonstrate the presence of Lewy bodies , abnormal clumps of alpha-synuclein protein , in the ... also shown that people with advanced PD have Lewy bodies in other areas of the body, for example, ...

399

Omics approaches in food safety: fulfilling the promise?  

PubMed

Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are rapidly transforming our approaches to the detection, prevention, and treatment of foodborne pathogens. Microbial genome sequencing in particular has evolved from a research tool into an approach that can be used to characterize foodborne pathogen isolates as part of routine surveillance systems. Genome sequencing efforts will not only improve outbreak detection and source tracking, but will also create large amounts of foodborne pathogen genome sequence data, which will be available for data-mining efforts that could facilitate better source attribution and provide new insights into foodborne pathogen biology and transmission. Although practical uses and application of metagenomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics data and associated tools are less prominent, these tools are also starting to yield practical food safety solutions. PMID:24572764

Bergholz, Teresa M; Moreno Switt, Andrea I; Wiedmann, Martin

2014-05-01

400

Peptide vaccines for hematological malignancies: a missed promise?  

PubMed

Despite the crucial aid that newly developed target therapies are providing to chemotherapy and stem cell transplant, the cure for many hematological malignancies is still an unmet need. Although available therapies are able to induce an effective debulking of the tumor, most of the time, an insidious minimal residual disease survives current treatments and it is responsible for an immediate or delayed relapse. Peptide-derived antitumor vaccines have been developed with the idea that an artificially "educated" immune system may exert an active specific antitumor response able to control and ultimately eradicate underlying post-treatment residual disease. This review will summarize current knowledge of peptide vaccines for hematological malignancies, trying to analyze promises and pitfalls of a safe and intelligent tool that after many years from its first appearance has not yet established its potential role as alternative immune mediated therapeutic approach for hematopoietic tumors. PMID:24399190

Bocchia, Monica; Defina, Marzia; Aprile, Lara; Sicuranza, Anna

2014-02-01

401

Neuronal Signal Transduction Pathways: Wasteland or the Promised Land?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Proteins used in signal transduction pathways are commonly found in different cell types and organs. However, specific proteins whose expression is highly restricted are also utilized for allowing discrete responsiveness to signals that are otherwise ignored by other cells. How the brain uses common and specific signal proteins for communication within and beyond the cerebrum has been an area of intense study. A new book concentrates on the signaling that occurs in the brain under normal and pathological conditions--memory, apoptosis, neurodegeneration, depression, and drug dependence--and is filled with chapters written by experts in neurobiology and neurophysiology. Bryan Roth reviews the book and discusses in detail several chapters that may lead to promising future research.

Bryan L. Roth (Cleveland; Case Western Reserve University REV)

2000-08-15

402

Prevention of peritoneal adhesions: A promising role for gene therapy  

PubMed Central

Adhesions are the most frequent complication of abdominopelvic surgery, yet the extent of the problem, and its serious consequences, has not been adequately recognized. Adhesions evolved as a life-saving mechanism to limit the spread of intraperitoneal inflammatory conditions. Three different pathophysiological mechanisms can independently trigger adhesion formation. Mesothelial cell injury and loss during operations, tissue hypoxia and inflammation each promotes adhesion formation separately, and potentiate the effect of each other. Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that interruption of a single pathway does not completely prevent adhesion formation. This review summarizes the pathogenesis of adhesion formation and the results of single gene therapy interventions. It explores the promising role of combinatorial gene therapy and vector modifications for the prevention of adhesion formation in order to stimulate new ideas and encourage rapid advancements in this field. PMID:22171139

Atta, Hussein M

2011-01-01

403

Promising pharmacological directions in the world of lysophosphatidic Acid signaling.  

PubMed

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a signaling lipid that binds to six known lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPARs), named LPA1-LPA6. These receptors initiate signaling cascades relevant to development, maintenance, and healing processes throughout the body. The diversity and specificity of LPA signaling, especially in relation to cancer and autoimmune disorders, makes LPA receptor modulation an attractive target for drug development. Several LPAR-specific analogues and small molecules have been synthesized and are efficacious in attenuating pathology in disease models. To date, at least three compounds have passed phase I and phase II clinical trials for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and systemic sclerosis. This review focuses on the promising therapeutic directions emerging in LPA signaling toward ameliorating several diseases, including cancer, fibrosis, arthritis, hydrocephalus, and traumatic injury. PMID:25593637

Stoddard, Nicole C; Chun, Jerold

2015-01-01

404

Salivaomics - A promising future in early diagnosis of dental diseases  

PubMed Central

Human saliva plays an important role in the health of the oral cavity and of the body as a whole. Salivary diagnostics is a dynamic and emerging field in the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. Saliva reflects the physiologic state of the body, including emotional, endocrinal, nutritional, and metabolic variations. The collection of saliva samples is noninvasive, safe, and inexpensive. Traditional clinical criteria are insufficient for determining sites of active disease, for monitoring the response to therapy, or for measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression. Salivaomics includes five diagnostic alphabets proteins, mRNAs, miRNAs, metabolic compounds, and microbes offering substantial advantages because disease states may be accompanied by detectable changes. Salivaomics, the future of saliva-based techniques for early diagnosis of dental diseases, is promising and may offer a robust alternative for clinicians to use in the near future to make clinical decisions. PMID:24688554

Koneru, Suneetha; Tanikonda, Rambabu

2014-01-01

405

Promising Pharmacological Directions in the World of Lysophosphatidic Acid Signaling  

PubMed Central

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a signaling lipid that binds to six known lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPARs), named LPA1-LPA6. These receptors initiate signaling cascades relevant to development, maintenance, and healing processes throughout the body. The diversity and specificity of LPA signaling, especially in relation to cancer and autoimmune disorders, makes LPA receptor modulation an attractive target for drug development. Several LPAR-specific analogues and small molecules have been synthesized and are efficacious in attenuating pathology in disease models. To date, at least three compounds have passed phase I and phase II clinical trials for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and systemic sclerosis. This review focuses on the promising therapeutic directions emerging in LPA signaling toward ameliorating several diseases, including cancer, fibrosis, arthritis, hydrocephalus, and traumatic injury.

Stoddard, Nicole C.; Chun, Jerold

2015-01-01

406

Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

1993-11-01

407

Engaging Students in the Scientific Practices of Explanation and Argumentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"A Framework for K-12 Science Education" identifies eight science and engineering practices for K-12 classrooms. These practices, along with core ideas and crosscutting concepts, define the nation's learning goals for science. An important advance from earlier standards (AAAS 1993, NRC 1996), these practices are clearly identified "not" as…

Reiser, Brian J.; Berland, Leema K.; Kenyon, Lisa

2012-01-01

408

An intensive search for promising fungal biological control agents of ticks, particularly Rhipicephalus microplus.  

PubMed

Entomopathogenic fungi have been investigated worldwide as promising biological control agents of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. The current study evaluates the virulence of several fungal isolates to R. microplus larva in the laboratory as part of an effort to identify isolates with promise for effective biocontrol of R. microplus in the field. Sixty fungal isolates, encompassing 5 Beauveria spp. and 1 Engyodontium albus (=Beauveria alba), were included in this study. In addition to bioassays, the isolates were characterized morphologically and investigated as to their potential for conidial mass production. These findings were correlated with previous reports on the same fungal isolates of their natural UV-B tolerance (Fernandes et al., 2007), thermotolerance and cold activity (Fernandes et al., 2008), and genotypes (Fernandes et al., 2009). R. microplus larvae obtained from artificially infested calves were less susceptible to Beauveria bassiana infection than ticks acquired from naturally infested cattle from a different location. Isolates CG 464, CG 500 and CG 206 were among the most virulent Beauveria isolates tested in this study. All fungal isolates presented morphological features consistent with their species descriptions. Of the 53 B. bassiana isolates, five (CG 481, CG 484, CG 206, CG 235 and CG 487) had characteristics that qualified them as promising candidates for biological control agents of R. microplus, viz., mean LC(50) between 10(7) and 10(8)conidiaml(-1); produced 5000 conidia or more on 60mm(2) surface area of PDAY medium; and, in comparison to untreated (control) conidia, had the best conidial tolerances to UV-B (7.04 kJ m(-2)) and heat (45°C, 2h) of 50% or higher, and conidial cold (5°C, 15d) activity (mycelial growth) higher than 60%. The current study of 60 Beauveria spp. isolates, therefore, singles out a few (five) with high potential for controlling ticks under field conditions. PMID:21705145

Fernandes, Everton K K; Angelo, Isabele C; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Bahiense, Thiago C; Moraes, Aurea M L; Roberts, Donald W; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

2011-12-15

409

Rural practice. Preference, perception, and reality.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have approached the geographic maldistribution of physicians in the United States by evaluating factors associated with rural placement and retention, with "rural" being variably defined. To our knowledge, no one has qualitatively investigated physicians' perceptions of rurality or how closely those perceptions fit commonly used definitions of rurality. In addition, no one has evaluated physicians' preference for rural practice or the association between this preference and the rurality of their practice as they perceive it. This descriptive study uses a questionnaire mailed to graduates of a community hospital, university-affiliated Family Medicine residency program to evaluate physician perception and preference regarding rural practice. The participation rate was 83.1%. Agreement between the rurality of practice sites, as perceived, and definitions of rural was greatest when defined as a "nonurban population center of less than 25,000." Twenty-one (44.7%) of 47 respondents who preferred rural practice sites perceived themselves to be in urban practice sites. Respondents identified a nonurban population center of less than 25,000 as their perceived threshold between rural and urban practice settings. This threshold should be further evaluated as a potential operational standard. Nearly one half of the respondents who preferred rural practice perceived themselves to be in urban practice, indicating significant barriers to rural practice in this population. Potentially many more physicians may settle in rural practices if barriers for those who prefer rural practice can be identified and eliminated. PMID:8124495

Hartlaub, P P; Gordon, R L

1993-11-01

410

Developmentally Appropriate Practice: Buzz Words or Best Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) concerns teaching techniques which identify and foster developmental needs of children individually and in groups from birth to age 8. In a DAP classroom, play is a central focus, as it enables children to make sense of their world, develops social and cultural understanding, and fosters flexible and…

Smrekar, Jocelynn; Hansen, Andrea

1998-01-01

411

Linking Science and Practice: Toward a System for Enabling Communities to Adopt Best Practices for Chronic Disease Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the development of a system for collecting and assessing best community-based health promotion practices for dissemination is described. The key system components are (a) a protocol for identifying meritorious practices, (b) criteria for assessing those practices, and (c) an assessment procedure. A key informant process was used to identify interventions, and interviews were conducted to acquire detailed

Roy Cameron; Mari Alice Jolin; Rosemary Walker; Nicky McDermott; Myrna Gough

2001-01-01

412

Strategies for Achieving Whole-Practice Engagement and Buy-in to the Patient-Centered Medical Home  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The current model of primary care in the United States limits physicians’ ability to offer high-quality care. The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) shows promise in addressing provision of high-quality care, but achieving a PCMH practice model often requires comprehensive organizational change. Guided by Solberg’s conceptual framework for practice improvement, which argues for shared prioritization of improvement and change, we describe strategies for obtaining organizational buy-in to and whole-staff engagement of PCMH transformation and practice improvement. METHODS Semistructured interviews with 136 individuals and 7 focus groups involving 48 individuals were conducted in 20 small- to mid-sized medical practices in Pennsylvania during the first regional rollout of a statewide PCMH initiative. For this study, we analyzed interview transcripts, monthly narrative reports, and observer notes from site visits to identify discourse pertaining to organizational buy-in and strategies for securing buy-in from personnel. Using a consensual qualitative research approach, data were reduced, synthesized, and managed using qualitative data management and analysis software. RESULTS We identified 13 distinct strategies used to obtain practice buy-in, reflecting 3 overarching lessons that facilitate practice buy-in: (1) effective communication and internal PCMH campaigns, (2) effective resource utilization, and (3) creation of a team environment. CONCLUSION Our study provides a list of strategies useful for facilitating PCMH transformation in primary care. These strategies can be investigated empirically in future research, used to guide medical practices undergoing or considering PCMH transformation, and used to inform health care policy makers. Our study findings also extend Solberg’s conceptual framework for practice improvement to include buy-in as a necessary condition across all elements of the change process. PMID:24445102

Bleser, William K.; Miller-Day, Michelle; Naughton, Dana; Bricker, Patricia L.; Cronholm, Peter F.; Gabbay, Robert A.

2014-01-01

413

Overcoming Challenges and Identifying a Consensus about Autism Intervention Programming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifying effective interventions to help children with autism reach their potential has been a source of disagreement among professionals and parents for decades. The complexities of the challenges that face children with autism, and uncertainty about best practices, have delayed progress. This article identifies seven critical program…

Stephens, Carolyn E.

2005-01-01

414

Data Identifiers, Versioning, and Micro-citation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data citation, especially using Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs), is an increasingly accepted scientific practice. For example, the AGU Council asserts that data "publications" should "be credited and cited like the products of any other scientific activity," and Thomson Reuters has recently announced a data citation index built from DOIs assigned to data sets. Correspondingly, formal guidelines for how to cite a data set (using DOIs or similar identifiers/locators) have recently emerged, notably those from the international DataCite consortium, the UK Digital Curation Centre, and the US Federation of Earth Science Information Partners. These different data citation guidelines are largely congruent. They agree on the basic practice and elements of data citation, especially for relatively static, whole data collections. There is less agreement on some of the more subtle nuances of data citation. They define different methods for handling different data set versions, especially for the very dynamic, growing data sets that are common in Earth Sciences. They also differ in how people should cite specific, arbitrarily large elements, "passages," or subsets of a larger data collection, i.e., the precise data records actually used in a study. This detailed "micro-citation", and careful reference to exact versions of data are essential to ensure scientific reproducibility. Identifiers such as DOIs are necessary but not sufficient for the precise, detailed, references necessary. Careful practice must be coupled with the use of curated identifiers. In this paper we review the pros and cons of different approaches to versioning and micro-citation. We suggest a workable solution for most existing Earth science data and suggest a more rigorous path forward for the future.

Parsons, M. A.; Duerr, R. E.

2012-12-01

415

Best Practices in ELL Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this work, prominent authorities review the latest research on all aspects of ELL instruction (K-12) and identify what works for today's students and schools. Provided are best-practice guidelines for targeting reading, writing, oral language, vocabulary, content-domain literacies, and other core skill areas; assessing culturally and…

Li, Guofang, Ed.; Edwards, Patricia A., Ed.

2010-01-01

416

Adult Education; Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course organized by the United Kingdom and the University of Liverpool aimed at reviewing research undertaken in European countries, and examining its significance for the practice of adult education in different countries and the possibilities of cooperative action. The three main areas of research identified were: the approach to adult…

Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

417

The promise and peril of accountable care for vulnerable populations: a framework for overcoming obstacles.  

PubMed

Accountable care organizations (ACOs) are a promising payment model aimed at reducing costs while also improving the quality of care. However, there is a risk that vulnerable populations may not be fully incorporated into this new model. We define two distinct vulnerable populations, clinically at-risk and socially disadvantaged, and we discuss how ACOs may benefit each group. We provide a framework to use in considering challenges for both vulnerable patients and health systems on the path to accountable care. We identify policies that can help overcome these obstacles: strategies that support ACO formation in diverse settings and that monitor, measure, and reward the performance of providers that reach all patients, including vulnerable populations. PMID:22869656

Lewis, Valerie A; Larson, Bridget Kennedy; McClurg, Asha Belle; Boswell, Rebecca Goldman; Fisher, Elliott S

2012-08-01

418

Novel pharmaceutical cocrystal consisting of paracetamol and trimethylglycine, a new promising cocrystal former.  

PubMed

Paracetamol (APAP), a frequently used antipyretic drug, has poor compression moldability. In this study, we identified a novel cocrystal consisting of APAP and trimethylglycine (TMG) that exhibits improved tabletability. TMG was used instead of oxalic acid (OXA), which is a coformer reported previously. The cocrystal (APAP-TMG at a molar ratio of 1:1) was characterized by X-ray analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. The crystal structure of APAP-TMG revealed that it was a cocrystal, since no proton was transferred between the APAP and TMG molecules. The compression and dissolution properties of APAP-TMG were similar to that of the APAP-OXA cocrystal. In addition, taste sensing measurements suggested that TMG has a sweet and umami taste, indicating that TMG should suppress the bitterness of APAP. From these results, TMG could be a safe and promising cocrystal former that could replace OXA, which can irritate tissues. PMID:25010838

Maeno, Yusuke; Fukami, Toshiro; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Ozeki, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Toyofumi; Tomono, Kazuo

2014-10-01

419

Aptamer-Based Analysis: A Promising Alternative for Food Safety Control  

PubMed Central

Ensuring food safety is nowadays a top priority of authorities and professional players in the food supply chain. One of the key challenges to determine the safety of food and guarantee a high level of consumer protection is the availability of fast, sensitive and reliable analytical methods to identify specific hazards associated to food before they become a health problem. The limitations of existing methods have encouraged the development of new technologies, among them biosensors. Success in biosensor design depends largely on the development of novel receptors with enhanced affinity to the target, while being stable and economical. Aptamers fulfill these characteristics, and thus have surfaced as promising alternatives to natural receptors. This Review describes analytical strategies developed so far using aptamers for the control of pathogens, allergens, adulterants, toxins and other forbidden contaminants to ensure food safety. The main progresses to date are presented, highlighting potential prospects for the future. PMID:24287543

Amaya-González, Sonia; de-los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J.; Lobo-Castañón, Maria Jesús

2013-01-01

420

Practical Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nuffield Foundation was created in 1943 by William Morris, the founder of Morris Motors. He wanted to contribute to improvements in society, primarily the "advancement of social well-being." According to the site, he "emphasised the importance of education, training and research in achieving that goal." This website, created by the Foundation, is a logical extension of his work, containing practical activities designed for use in the classroom with students in high school and college. The activities here are arranged into a dozen topics, including Astronomy, Atoms and nuclei, and Physics applications. The activities here include "Hearing a laser beam," "What's the frequency?," and 75 others that use video clips, interactive graphics, and other visual materials to make these concepts and principles come alive. The Forces and Motion area is one of the best, as it is host to activities that really delve into the concepts of speed, velocity, and acceleration. Visitors can also use the search engine to look for specific items of interest.

2012-08-17

421

Monitoring Progress: Response to Intervention's Promise and Pitfalls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Response to intervention began as a way to identify and teach struggling readers and special education students. It's fast becoming a way to change schooling for everyone. This special report examines the many forms the approach is now taking, its research base, its influence on the educational marketplace, and the federal regulations that both…

Education Week, 2011

2011-01-01

422

Pyrethroids as promising marine antifoulants: laboratory and field studies.  

PubMed

Due to the regulations and bans regarding the use of traditional toxic chemicals against marine fouling organisms and the practical impediments to the commercialization of natural product antifoulants, there is an urgent need for compounds that are antifouling-active, environmentally friendly, and have a potential for commercial application. In this study, a series of common, commercially available pyrethroid products, which are generally used as environmentally safe insecticides, was evaluated for antifouling activity in the laboratory using an anti-settlement test with cyprids of the barnacle Balanus albicostatus and also in a field experiment. Laboratory assay showed that all eleven pyrethroids (namely, rich d-trans-allethrin, Es-biothrin, rich d-prallethrin, S-prallethrin, tetramethrin, rich d-tetramethrin, phenothrin, cyphenothrin, permethrin, cypermethrin, and high active cypermethrin) were able to inhibit barnacle settlement (EC(50) range of 0.0316 to 87.00 microg/ml) without significant toxicity. Analysis of structure-activity relationships suggested that the cyano group at the alpha-carbon position had a significant influence on the expression of antifouling activity in pyrethroids. In the field, the antifouling activity of pyrethroids was further confirmed, with the most potent pyrethroids being cypermethrin and high active cypermethrin, which displayed efficiency comparable with that of tributyltin. In summary, our investigation indicated that these pyrethroids have a great and practical commercial potential as antifouling agents. PMID:18654821

Feng, Danqing; Ke, Caihuan; Li, Shaojing; Lu, Changyi; Guo, Feng

2009-01-01

423

Genetic Tools for the Industrially Promising Methanotroph Methylomicrobium buryatense.  

PubMed

Aerobic methanotrophs oxidize methane at ambient temperatures and pressures and are therefore attractive systems for methane-based bioconversions. In this work, we developed and validated genetic tools for Methylomicrobium buryatense, a haloalkaliphilic gammaproteobacterial (type I) methanotroph. M. buryatense was isolated directly on natural gas and grows robustly in pure culture with a 3-h doubling time, enabling rapid genetic manipulation compared to many other methanotrophic species. As a proof of concept, we used a sucrose counterselection system to eliminate glycogen production in M. buryatense by constructing unmarked deletions in two redundant glycogen synthase genes. We also selected for a more genetically tractable variant strain that can be conjugated with small incompatibility group P (IncP)-based broad-host-range vectors and determined that this capability is due to loss of the native plasmid. These tools make M. buryatense a promising model system for studying aerobic methanotroph physiology and enable metabolic engineering in this bacterium for industrial biocatalysis of methane. PMID:25548049

Puri, Aaron W; Owen, Sarah; Chu, Frances; Chavkin, Ted; Beck, David A C; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Lidstrom, Mary E

2015-03-01

424

The bioartificial kidney: current status and future promise.  

PubMed

The rapid understanding of the cellular and molecular bases of organ function and disease processes will be translated in the next decade into new therapeutic approaches to a wide range of clinical disorders, including acute and chronic renal failure. Central to these new therapies are the developing technologies of cell therapy and tissue engineering, which are based on the ability to expand stem or progenitor cells in tissue culture to perform differentiated tasks and to introduce these cells into the patient either via extracorporeal circuits or as implantable constructs. Cell therapy devices are currently being developed to replace the filtrative, metabolic, and endocrinologic functions of the kidney lost in both acute and chronic renal failure. This review summarizes the current state of development of a wearable or implantable bioartificial kidney. These devices have the promise to be combined to produce a wearable or implantable bioartificial kidney for full renal replacement therapy that may significantly diminish morbidity and mortality in patients with acute or chronic kidney disease. PMID:23619508

Humes, H David; Buffington, Deborah; Westover, Angela J; Roy, Shuvo; Fissell, William H

2014-03-01

425

Shear exfoliation in liquids : a promising way to produce graphene.  

E-print Network

My initial project was to install and test a new spectrometer for the solid state physics group. However, due to a delay in the construction of the new photoluminescence laboratory this project had to be abandoned. Graphene is a one atom thick 2D material that presents remarkable physical properties whose applications are very promising. However, the current means of production present several limitations. They are costly in terms of energy consumption and yields are ridiculously low. Thus, to progress from the laboratory to industrial production it will be necessary to find a method to produce large quantities of defect graphene. In April 2014, a paper \\cite{graphene_shear} came out in \\emph{Nature Material} demonstrating that shear exfoliation in liquids would be a scalable way to produce defect-free grahene. The aim of my project was to test this new method by trying to reproduce some of the results published in this article. It involved the setting up of the experiment, the production of samples and fin...

Mougeot, Maxime

2014-01-01

426

Drug carriers in pharmaceutical design: promises and progress.  

PubMed

Ever since pure molecular entities have been adapted as drug, varied manifestations other than elimination of infections are frequently been acknowledged as side effects. Contemporary drug research focuses on these issues besides developing new molecules for the restoration of unnatural functional deviations in various tissues and organs. The most promising advancement to achieve this concept of ideal drug is the encapsulation of drug in biocompatible nano or microspheres. Encapsulation can insulate the toxic drugs and lease a better half life to molecules undergoing spontaneous degradation under physiological conditions. It is also worthwhile to incorporate along some immunomodulators to strengthen and channelize the innate immune response of the host in right direction. This holistic approach would also prevent the physiological modulations dictated by invading pathogens, which paralyze the important functionaries of the host. Lipoproteins, lipid like molecules and probiotic non-colonizing bacterial membrane mimics might prove to be the best ingredients for encapsulation. Some synthetic non-immunogenic supra molecules like fullarenes and dendrimers also exhibit great potential for the development of new encapsulation technology. Here an attempt is made to review the progress in terms of aims and achievements in the area of drug carriers and encapsulation with its overall impact on therapeutic industry. PMID:17346190

Dutta, Ranjna C

2007-01-01

427

Promises and failures of gallium as an antibacterial agent.  

PubMed

Gallium has a long history as a diagnostic and chemotherapeutic agent. The pharmacological properties of Ga(III) rely on chemical mimicry; when Ga(III) is exogenously supplied to living cells it can replace Fe(III) within target molecules, thereby perturbing bacterial metabolism. Ga(III)-induced metabolic distresses are dramatic in fast-growing cells, like bacterial cells. Interest in the antibacterial properties of Ga(III) has been raised by the compelling need for novel drugs to combat multidrug-resistant bacteria and by the shortage of new antibiotic candidates in the pharmaceutical pipeline. Ga(III) activity has been demonstrated, both in vitro and in animal models of infections, on several bacterial pathogens, also including intracellular and biofilm-forming bacteria. Ga(III) activity is affected by iron availability and the metabolic state of the cell, being maximal in iron-poor media and in respiring cells. Synergism between Ga(III) and antibiotics holds promise as last resort therapy for infections sustained by pandrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:24762310

Minandri, Fabrizia; Bonchi, Carlo; Frangipani, Emanuela; Imperi, Francesco; Visca, Paolo

2014-01-01

428

Microencapsulation: A promising technique for controlled drug delivery.  

PubMed

MICROPARTICLES OFFER VARIOUS SIGNIFICANT ADVANTAGES AS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS, INCLUDING: (i) an effective protection of the encapsulated active agent against (e.g. enzymatic) degradation, (ii) the possibility to accurately control the release rate of the incorporated drug over periods of hours to months, (iii) an easy administration (compared to alternative parenteral controlled release dosage forms, such as macro-sized implants), and (iv) Desired, pre-programmed drug release profiles can be provided which match the therapeutic needs of the patient. This article gives an overview on the general aspects and recent advances in drug-loaded microparticles to improve the efficiency of various medical treatments. An appropriately designed controlled release drug delivery system can be a foot ahead towards solving problems concerning to the targeting of drug to a specific organ or tissue, and controlling the rate of drug delivery to the target site. The development of oral controlled release systems has been a challenge to formulation scientist due to their inability to restrain and localize the system at targeted areas of gastrointestinal tract. Microparticulate drug delivery systems are an interesting and promising option when developing an oral controlled release system. The objective of this paper is to take a closer look at microparticles as drug delivery devices for increasing efficiency of drug delivery, improving the release profile and drug targeting. In order to appreciate the application possibilities of microcapsules in drug delivery, some fundamental aspects are briefly reviewed. PMID:21589795

Singh, M N; Hemant, K S Y; Ram, M; Shivakumar, H G

2010-07-01

429

Nucleic acid aptamers: clinical applications and promising new horizons.  

PubMed

Aptamers are a special class of nucleic acid molecules that are beginning to be investigated for clinical use. These small RNA/DNA molecules can form secondary and tertiary structures capable of specifically binding proteins or other cellular targets; they are essentially a chemical equivalent of antibodies. Aptamers have the advantage of being highly specific, relatively small in size, and non-immunogenic. Since the discovery of aptamers in the early 1990s, great efforts have been made to make them clinically relevant for diseases like cancer, HIV, and macular degeneration. In the last two decades, many aptamers have been clinically developed as inhibitors for targets such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thrombin. The first aptamer based therapeutic was FDA approved in 2004 for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration and several other aptamers are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. With advances in targeted-therapy, imaging, and nanotechnology, aptamers are readily considered as potential targeting ligands because of their chemical synthesis and ease of modification for conjugation. Preclinical studies using aptamer-siRNA chimeras and aptamer targeted nanoparticle therapeutics have been very successful in mouse models of cancer and HIV. In summary aptamers are in several stages of development, from pre-clinical studies to clinical trials and even as FDA approved therapeutics. In this review, we will discuss the current state of aptamers in clinical trials as well as some promising aptamers in pre-clinical development. PMID:21838685

Ni, X; Castanares, M; Mukherjee, A; Lupold, S E

2011-01-01

430

Intralesional therapy for advanced melanoma: promise and limitation  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Patients with unresectable, multiple or advanced locally/regionally metastatic stage IIIB/C or stage IV M1a melanoma have a high risk for recurrence, progression and metastasis. The article reviews treatment advances for this population. Recent findings After promising phase 2 results with Allovectin-7 (velimogene aliplasmid), overall survival in a phase 3 study was shorter for Allovectin-7 than for dacarbazine/temozolomide (median 18.8 versus 24.1 months). In a phase 2 trial of intratumoral electroporation of plasmid interleukin-12 among 28 patients with advanced melanoma, the primary endpoint of best overall response rate within 24 weeks of first treatment was 32.2% for objective response and 10.7% for complete response. In the phase 3 OPTiM trial of talimogene laherparepvec, the intralesional agent that is furthest along in clinical testing, the primary endpoint of durable response rate was 16% for talimogene laherparepvec and 2% for granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In the PV-10 phase 2 trial among 80 patients with stage III–IV melanoma, the overall response rate was 51%, with a 26% complete response rate. Summary Despite advances, many patients will need several lines of therapy. Some will not be eligible for systemic therapy. Their low toxicity, easy administration and likely systemic immune effects make intralesional therapies an attractive option. PMID:25629369

Agarwala, Sanjiv S.

2015-01-01

431

[Euphorbiaceae diterpenes: plant toxins or promising molecules for the therapy?].  

PubMed

Most of the species of Euphorbiaceae are known to be toxic and poisonous plants because their milky latex has strong skin irritant activity, and chronic exposure can result carcinogenic effect. The toxic constituents of Euphorbiaceae species are specific diterpenes, called in common as phorboids. These compounds (tigliane, ingenane and daphnane derivatives) possess extreme pro-inflammatory and tumour promoting effects due to the activation of protein kinase C enzyme. The present article gives a survey about the present estimation of Euphorbiaceae diterpenes on the basis of own experimental results and literature data. The study tries to answer the question whether these compounds can be regarded as plant toxins or they may have therapeutic relevance? It was concluded that one group of diterpenes, such as most of phorbol and ingenol esters can be considered exclusively as toxins without any possible medicinal use. The other group of diterpenes comprises compounds, which display toxicity, but in adequate dose they have therapeutic perspective (e.g. the resiniferatoxin with capsaicine-like effect). The third group of compounds such as diterpenes of non-phorboid type with macrocyclic or polycyclic structures do not have toxic effect or this property is markedly reduced, however demonstrate interesting biological activities (anti-MDR, antiproliferative and tubulin-interacting effects). Thus, these compounds may be promising lead compounds for natural product based drug developments. PMID:16318224

Hohmann, Judit; Molnár, József

2004-01-01

432

NANOG: A promising target for digestive malignant tumors  

PubMed Central

NANOG has been extensively researched since its discovery by Chambers et al. NANOG is a homeodomain transcription factor and an essential regulator of embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal, which inhibits differentiation. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subset of cells that are thought to drive uncontrolled tumor growth; CSCs retain the tumor capabilities of self-renewal and propagation. The existence of CSCs was recently shown by direct experimental evidence. NANOG is expressed in CSCs and ESCs, although it remains unclear whether ESCs and CSCs share similar mechanisms in the regulation of physical and biological processes. Several studies suggest that the expression level of NANOG is high in cancer tissues and low or absent in normal tissues. High levels of NANOG expression are associated with advanced stages of cancer and a poor prognosis, indicating that it plays a vital role in tumor transformation, tumorigenesis, and tumor metastasis. NANOG is part of a complex regulatory network that controls cell fate determination, proliferation, and apoptosis. NANOG cooperates with other regulators, such as microflora, transcription factors, and kinases, in cancer cells. NANOG might have a promising future in anti-cancer and other therapeutic treatments, which could improve human health. PMID:25278701

Sun, Ai-Xi; Liu, Chang-Jiang; Sun, Zi-Qin; Wei, Zhi

2014-01-01

433

Molecular evolution study in China: progress and future promise.  

PubMed

China has a large land area with highly diverse topography, climate and vegetation, and animal resources and is ranked eighth in the world and first in the Northern Hemisphere on richness of biodiversity. Even though little work on molecular evolution had been reported a decade ago, studies on both the evolution of macromolecules and the molecular phylogeny have become active in China in recent years. This review highlights some of the interesting and important developments in molecular evolution study in China. Chinese scientists have made significant contribution on the methods inferring phylogeny and biogeography of animals and plants in East Asia using molecular data. Studies on population and conservation genetics of animals and plants, such as Golden monkey and Chinese sturgeon, provided useful information for conserving the endangered species. East and South Asia has been demonstrated to be one of the centres of domestication. Origin and evolution of genes and gene families have been explored, which shed new insight on the genetic mechanism of adaptation. In the genomic era, Chinese researchers also made a transition from single-gene to a genomic investigation approach. Considering the fact that amazing progress has been made in the past few years, and more and more talented young scientists are entering field, the future of molecular evolution study in China holds much promise. PMID:17317644

Zhang, Ya-ping; Ge, Song

2007-06-29

434

Mastl kinase, a promising therapeutic target, promotes cancer recurrence  

PubMed Central

Mastl kinase promotes mitotic progression and cell cycle reentry after DNA damage. We report here that Mastl is frequently upregulated in various types of cancer. This upregulation was correlated with cancer progression in breast and oral cancer, poor patient survival in breast cancer, and tumor recurrence in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. We further investigated the role of Mastl in tumor resistance using cell lines derived from the initial and recurrent tumors of the same head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. Ectopic expression of Mastl in the initial tumor cells strongly promoted cell proliferation in the presence of cisplatin by attenuating DNA damage signaling and cell death. Mastl knockdown in recurrent tumor cells re-sensitized their response to cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo. Finally, Mastl targeting specifically potentiated cancer cells to cell death in chemotherapy while sparing normal cells. Thus, this study revealed that Mastl upregulation is involved in cancer progression and tumor recurrence after initial cancer therapy, and validated Mastl as a promising target to increase the therapeutic window. PMID:25373736

Wang, Ling; Luong, Vivian Q.; Giannini, Peter J.; Peng, Aimin

2014-01-01

435

CARMENES ultra-stable cooling system: very promising results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CARMENES is a high resolution spectrograph to detect planets through the variation of radial velocity, destined for the Calar Alto Observatory in Almeria, Spain. The optical bench has a working temperature of 140K with a 24 hours stability of ±0,1K; goal ±0,01K. It is enclosed with a radiation shield actively cooled with thermalized nitrogen gas that flows through strategically positioned heat exchangers to remove its radiative load. The cooling system has an external preparation unit (N2GPU), which provides the nitrogen gas through actively vaporizing liquid nitrogen with heating resistances and a three stage circuit flow, each one controlled by an independent PID. Since CARMENES is still in the construction phase, a dedicated test facility has been built in order to simulate the instrument and correctly establish the N2GPU parameters. Furthermore, the test facility allows a wide range of configurations set-ups, which enables a full characterization of the N2GPU and the cooling system. The N2GPU has been designed to offer a wide temperature range of thermally stabilized nitrogen gas flow, which apart from CARMENES could also be used to provide ultra-high thermal stability in other cryogenic instruments. The present paper shows the testing of the cooling performance, the hardware used and the very promising results obtained.

Mirabet, E.; Carvas, P.; Lizon, J.-L.; Becerril, S.; Rodríguez, E.; Abril, M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Morales, R.; Pérez, D.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Amado, P. J.; Seifert, W.; Quirrenbach, A.; Caballero, J. A.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Dreizler, S.

2014-07-01

436

Novel peptides of therapeutic promise from Indian Conidae.  

PubMed

Highly structured small peptides are the major toxic constituents of the venom of cone snails, a family of widely distributed predatory marine molluscs. These animals use the venom for rapid prey immobilization. The peptide components in the venom target a wide variety of membrane-bound ion channels and receptors. Many have been found to be highly selective for a diverse range of mammalian ion channels and receptors associated with pain-signaling pathways. Their small size, structural stability, and target specificity make them attractive pharmacologic agents. A select number of laboratories mainly from the United States, Europe, Australia, Israel, and China have been engaged in intense drug discovery programs based on peptides from a few snail species. Coastal India has an estimated 20-30% of the known cone species; however, few serious studies have been reported so far. We have begun a comprehensive program for the identification and characterization of peptides from cone snails found in Indian Coastal waters. This presentation reviews our progress over the last 2 years. As expected from the evolutionary history of these venom components, our search has yielded novel peptides of therapeutic promise from the new species that we have studied. PMID:16387709

Gowd, K Hanumae; Sabareesh, V; Sudarslal, S; Iengar, Prathima; Franklin, Benjamin; Fernando, Antony; Dewan, Kalyan; Ramaswami, Mani; Sarma, Siddhartha P; Sikdar, Sujit; Balaram, P; Krishnan, K S

2005-11-01

437

Muscle wasting in disease: molecular mechanisms and promising therapies.  

PubMed

Atrophy occurs in specific muscles with inactivity (for example, during plaster cast immobilization) or denervation (for example, in patients with spinal cord injuries). Muscle wasting occurs systemically in older people (a condition known as sarcopenia); as a physiological response to fasting or malnutrition; and in many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, cancer-associated cachexia, diabetes, renal failure, cardiac failure, Cushing syndrome, sepsis, burns and trauma. The rapid loss of muscle mass and strength primarily results from excessive protein breakdown, which is often accompanied by reduced protein synthesis. This loss of muscle function can lead to reduced quality of life, increased morbidity and mortality. Exercise is the only accepted approach to prevent or slow atrophy. However, several promising therapeutic agents are in development, and major advances in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms that regulate the protein balance in muscle include the identification of several cytokines, particularly myostatin, and a common transcriptional programme that promotes muscle wasting. Here, we discuss these new insights and the rationally designed therapies that are emerging to combat muscle wasting. PMID:25549588

Cohen, Shenhav; Nathan, James A; Goldberg, Alfred L

2014-12-31

438

Promising antimicrobial capability of thin film metallic glasses.  

PubMed

Thin film metallic glasses (TFMGs) are demonstrated to exhibit excellent surface flatness, high corrosion resistance and satisfactory hydrophobic properties. Moreover, the antimicrobial and biocompatibility abilities of TFMGs are examined and the results are compared with the behavior of pure Ag and 316L stainless steel. Three TFMGs, Al48Ag37Ti15, Zr54Ti35Si11, and Zr59Ti22Ag19, are prepared by sputtering to assess the antimicrobial performance against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are the most common nosocomial infection pathogens. Experimental results show that the antimicrobial effect of the Al- or Ag-containing AlAgTi and ZrTiAg TFMGs is similar to that of the pure Ag coating. The ZrTiSi TFMG with no Ag or Al shows poor antimicrobial capability. The physical properties of highly smooth surface and hydrophobic nature alone are not sufficient to result in promising antimicrobial ability. The chemical metal ion release still plays a major role, which should be born in mind in designing biomedical devices. PMID:24433907

Chu, Y Y; Lin, Y S; Chang, C M; Liu, J-K; Chen, C H; Huang, J C

2014-03-01

439

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC): Report on Underwriting Practices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FDIC has released the latest Report on Underwriting Practices covering the period October 1997 to March 1998. The report aims to identify changes in underwriting standards, the riskiness of new lending practices, and new issues in underwriting new loans.

440

Public Health Campaigns to Change Industry Practices that Damage Health: An Analysis of 12 Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Industry practices such as advertising, production of unsafe products, and efforts to defeat health legislation play a major role in current patterns of U.S. ill health. Changing these practices may be a promising strategy to promote health. The authors analyze 12 campaigns designed to modify the health-related practices of U.S. corporations in…

Freudenberg, Nicholas; Picard Bradley, Sarah; Serrano, Monica

2009-01-01

441

Cooperative testing of a positive personnel identifier  

SciTech Connect

HEDL has a requirement to ensure the identification of remote computer terminal operators on a real-time nuclear inventory data base. The integrity of this data base depends on input from authorized individuals. Thus, a key to developing such a system is the ability to positively identify people attempting access to the system. Small scale tests of the Identimat 2000T hand geometry unit with an adjusting alogrithm have suggested a promising solution. To prove operational suitability, HEDL, in cooperation with Sandia Laboratories, has designed a large scale test of the Identimat 2000T. Data gathering on error rates, reliability, maintainability, and user acceptance will determine if the Identimat 2000T is suitable for the HEDL application. If proven acceptable, use of the Identimat 2000T can be broadened to many general applications where security information, locations and systems are required.

O'Callaghan, P.B.; Grambihler, A.J.; Graham, D.K.; Bradley, R.G.

1980-06-01

442

Stereological approaches to identifying neuropathology in psychosis  

PubMed Central

The challenges involved in identifying the neuropathological substrates of the clinical syndrome recognized as schizophrenia are well known. Stereological sampling provides a means to obtain accurate and precise quantitative estimates of components of neural circuits, and thus offers promise of an enhanced capacity to detect subtle alterations in brain structure associated with schizophrenia. In this review, we 1) consider the importance and rationale for robust quantitative studies of brain abnormalities in postmortem studies of schizophrenia, 2) provide a brief overview of stereological methods for obtaining such measures, 3) discuss the methodological details that should be reported to document the robustness of a stereological study, 4) given the constraints of postmortem human studies, suggest how to approach the limitations of less robust designs, and 5) present an overview of methodologically sound stereological estimates from postmortem studies of schizophrenia. PMID:20678756

Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Lewis, David A.

2010-01-01

443

Towards a practical parallelisation of the simplex method  

E-print Network

computational scheme in terms of serial efficiency and numerical robustness. ... The second aim of the paper is to identify promising computational strate- gies for ...... [14] R. E. Bixby, M. Fenelon, Z. Gu, E. Rothberg, and R. Wunderling. MIP:.

444

Identifying unproven cancer treatments on the health web: addressing accuracy, generalizability and scalability.  

PubMed

Building machine learning models that identify unproven cancer treatments on the Health Web is a promising approach for dealing with the dissemination of false and dangerous information to vulnerable health consumers. Aside from the obvious requirement of accuracy, two issues are of practical importance in deploying these models in real world applications. (a) Generalizability: The models must generalize to all treatments (not just the ones used in the training of the models). (b) Scalability: The models can be applied efficiently to billions of documents on the Health Web. First, we provide methods and related empirical data demonstrating strong accuracy and generalizability. Second, by combining the MapReduce distributed architecture and high dimensionality compression via Markov Boundary feature selection, we show how to scale the application of the models to WWW-scale corpora. The present work provides evidence that (a) a very small subset of unproven cancer treatments is sufficient to build a model to identify unproven treatments on the web; (b) unproven treatments use distinct language to market their claims and this language is learnable; (c) through distributed parallelization and state of the art feature selection, it is possible to prepare the corpora and build and apply models with large scalability. PMID:23920640

Aphinyanaphongs, Yin; Fu, Lawrence D; Aliferis, Constantin F

2013-01-01

445

Problem and Preferred Management Practices Identification Workshop  

SciTech Connect

The goals for this workshop were: to introduce key players in the Appalachian basin oil industry to DOE's new Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) program; to explain the various elements of our two-year project in detail; to transfer technology through a series of short, invited talks; to identify technical problems and best management practices; and to recruit members for our Preferred Management Practices (PMP) Council.

Patchen, Douglas G.

2003-03-10

446

Educational responses to unethical healthcare practice.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to explore explanations for unethical healthcare practice and identify educational responses. The meaning of unethical practice is outlined and causes of it are suggested, primarily relating to individual perpetrators and organisational culture or climate. Empirical and theoretical literature is reviewed and research findings are discussed. Individual resilience and the ethical climate of healthcare organisations are considered as responses to unethical practice. Role modelling is explored, acknowledging the role of effective leadership. PMID:22848954

Grob, Catherine; Leng, Jane; Gallagher, Ann

447

Management of inflammatory bowel disease: does rifaximin offer any promise?  

PubMed

An increasing number of both clinical and laboratory-derived observations support the importance of luminal components in driving the inflammatory response in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Although its role is unclear, antibiotic therapy is commonly used in clinical practice for the treatment of moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. Metronidazole and/or ciprofloxacin are currently employed in active Crohn's disease, particularly in patients with colonic involvement and with perianal disease. Rifaximin, a rifamycin-derived antibiotic, is characterized by a wide range of antibacterial activity and a very low systemic absorption. Some preliminary data show its efficacy in severe active ulcerative colitis, pouchitis and prevention of postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease. PMID:15855753

Gionchetti, Paolo; Rizzello, Fernando; Morselli, Claudia; Romagnoli, Rossella; Campieri, Massimo

2005-01-01

448

MIT study finds new drug candidate shows promise against cancer  

Cancer.gov

Drugs containing platinum are among the most powerful and widely used cancer drugs. However, such drugs have toxic side effects, and cancer cells can eventually become resistant to them. MIT researchers have now identified, in laboratory studies, a compound that kills cancer cells better than cisplatin, the most commonly used platinum anticancer drug. The new compound may be able to evade cancer-cell resistance to conventional platinum compounds. MIT is home to the David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research.

449

Cataclysmic Variables: Products from SDSS to the Promise of LSST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey provides a uniform database of spectra of over 200 cataclysmic variables. Followup work on these systems has produced important information on the population as a whole and its evolution, as well as identified two groups that are important at low accretion rates. However, SDSS was not designed for stellar variability nor completeness. The next generation of deeper, wider surveys that are dedicated to transient phenomena culminating in LSST should give us many of the answers that we seek.

Szkody, Paula

2010-12-01

450

Promising X-ray fluorescence tests for superconducting tunneljunction detector  

SciTech Connect

Scientists in the Physical Biosciences Division of the Ernest Orlando Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) studying transition metals in proteins with fluorescence-detected L-edge absorption spectroscopy have found the measurements to be extremely challenging. The difficulty is that the metal centers are present in very dilute concentrations so that their weak fluorescence is often obscured by strong background signals carbon and oxygen. To solve this problem, the Berkeley group has been working with researchers from the Advanced Detector Group at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on an energy-dispersive superconducting tunnel junction x-ray detector. These devices in principle have the energy resolution needed to reveal the metal signal. The most recent results with the latest version of the detector on Beamline 4.0.1-2 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) illustrate the promise of the cryogenic detector strategy not only for this application but also for spectroscopy of other types of dilute samples. Transition-metal complexes are key elements in many biologically important processes that are catalyzed by proteins (enzymes), photosynthesis being a prime example. The changes in that occur in electronic structure throughout a catalytic cycle are the subject of much research aimed at understanding the mechanisms of these processes. L-edge x-ray spectroscopy offers several advantages relative to the more common K-edge techniques, since it involves allowed transitions to the d-orbitals associated with metal-ligand bonding. It also has a rich multiplet structure interpretable by theory and higher spectral resolution.

Friedrich, Stephan; Robinson, Arthur L.

2001-05-15

451

Recent advances in rilpivirine: new data and promising treatment option.  

PubMed

The usefulness of every antiretroviral drug in the clinical setting should be continuously evaluated, since registration studies may not adequately reflect real-world patient populations. Rilpivirine was developed in an effort to generate patient-tailored drugs with high convenience and minimal side effects. By now, rilpivirine is currently licensed for use with other antiretroviral agents, and as a single agent or a single-tablet regimen with tenofovir and emtricitabine , in antiretroviral-naive, HIV-1-infected adults with < 100,000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml because of a higher rate of virological failure above this level. However, after its introduction several questions remained to be elucidated, such as the efficacy of rilpivirine with abacavir/lamivudine, or its use in switching strategies, a useful alternative for patients with toxicity or intolerance. Cumulative data suggest the efficacy and safety of the combination of abacavir/lamivudine plus rilpivirine in the clinical setting, and an increasing number of patients received rilpivirine after protease inhibitor, efavirenz, or nevirapine-based therapy without compromising rilpivirine exposure after the change. Moreover, rilpivirine is a substrate and weak inducer of the CYP3A4, but there are no significant pharmacokinetic interactions with new anti-hepatitis C compounds such as telaprevir, simeprevir, daclatasvir, ledipasvir, and sofosbuvir, an important issue for a drug with low risk of hepatoxicity. As a new and promising strategy, rilpivirine has been evaluated with darunavir and dolutegravir in dual therapies, without need of dose adjustment and with adequate preliminary data. Therefore, to date, new data on rilpivirine confirm the good results observed in the clinical trials. PMID:25221991

Casado, José Luis; Bañón, Sara

2014-01-01

452

Laparotomy closure using an elastic suture: A promising approach.  

PubMed

Background: Midline laparotomy wound failure like burst abdomen remains one of the major complications after abdominal surgery. The use of sutures with a closer resemblance to abdominal wall physiology, like elastic threads, could decrease the risk of these complications occurring. Thus, we evaluated the possibility of using a new elastic thread composed of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) as a suture for the closure of midline laparotomies compared to conventionally used polypropylene (PP) in a rabbit model. Methods: The elastic TPU thread was processed and tensile tests were performed. Twenty female chinchilla rabbits underwent midline laparotomy. They were randomized to a TPU and a PP group depending on the suture used for fascia closure. After 7 or 21 days, the abdominal walls were assessed macroscopically for wound healing complications and were explanted for histopathological investigation. Results: Tensile tests showed a mean elastic elongation of 55.5% and a sufficient material strength of the TPU thread. In animal experiments, there was no difference between the groups at 7 days; however, the TPU suture showed significantly less CD68 positive cells (p?promising tensile characteristics. Midline laparotomy closure is feasible and safe in a rabbit model. Immunohistochemistry indicates similar biocompatibility and wound healing after implantation compared to PP after 21 days. To confirm these findings and to proof long-term capability further studies need to be conducted. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014. PMID:24904007

Lambertz, A; Vogels, R R M; Busch, D; Schuster, P; Jockenhövel, S; Neumann, U P; Klinge, U; Klink, C D

2014-06-01

453

Promise and status of international applications of photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

A global overview of the status of the photovoltaics (PV) technology and its commercialization is presented. There are substantial marketing opportunities for selected PV applications, despite high-PV costs. These are mostly in the developing nations. Also, the adoption of solar technologies like PV might be quite beneficial to the developing nations. The Ivory Coast and Mexico were reviewed for their potential as PV consumers. The near-term potentials are promising. The long-term outlooks are clouded by possible competition from other indigenous energy resources or adverse political decisions. The Republic of South Africa, a highly industrialized nation, was also evaluated as a PV consumer. Its near-term potential appears to be minimal because of cheap coal power and an existing power grid. The same factors, plus nuclear power that will soon come on line, could inhibit long-term PV development. The US, France, West Germany, and Japan are the major industrial nations conducting research, development and commercialization programs on PV. At least twelve other countries are involved to a lesser degree. In technology, the US is ahead but the programs and the progress in the other three major countries are nevertheless significant. They are well aware of the exporting potential of PV and are taking steps to exploit it. France and West Germany are developing complete saleable systems, whereas the US has been concentrating on components. Japan has been developing its own technology base and systems and may soon decide to become more active in the market place. Federal funding in the US for PV is being drastically reduced. In contrast, the governmental funding in the other three major nations is relatively strong and appears to be growing.

Altseimer, J.H.; Krupka, M.C.

1981-01-01

454

Graphene nanomesh promises extremely efficient in vivo photothermal therapy.  

PubMed

Reduced graphene oxide nanomesh (rGONM), as one of the recent structures of graphene with a surprisingly strong near-infrared (NIR) absorption, is used for achieving ultraefficient photothermal therapy. First, by using TiO2 nanoparticles, graphene oxide nanoplatelets (GONPs) are transformed into GONMs through photocatalytic degradation. Then rGONMs functionalized by polyethylene glycol (PEG), arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-based peptide, and cyanine 7 (Cy7) are utilized for in vivo tumor targeting and fluorescence imaging of human glioblastoma U87MG tumors having ?? ?3 integrin receptors, in mouse models. The rGONM-PEG suspension (1 ?g mL(-1) ) exhibits about 4.2- and 22.4-fold higher NIR absorption at 808 nm than rGONP-PEG and graphene oxide (GO) with lateral dimensions of ?60 nm and ?2 ?m. In vivo fluorescence imaging demonstrates high selective tumor uptake of rGONM-PEG-Cy7-RGD in mice bearing U87MG cells. The excellent NIR absorbance and tumor targeting of rGONM-PEG-Cy7-RGD results in an ultraefficient photothermal therapy (100% tumor elimination 48 h after intravenous injection of an ultralow concentration (10 ?g mL(-1) ) of rGONM-PEG-Cy7-RGD followed by irradiation with an ultralow laser power (0.1 W cm(-2) ) for 7 min), whereas the corresponding rGO- and rGONP-based composites do not present remarkable treatments under the same conditions. All the mice treated by rGONM-PEG-Cy7-RGD survived over 100 days, whereas the mice treated by other usual rGO-based composites were dead before 38 days. The results introduce rGONM as one of the most promising nanomaterials in developing highly desired ultraefficient photothermal therapy. PMID:23625739

Akhavan, Omid; Ghaderi, Elham

2013-11-11

455

Medical Geography: a Promising Field of Application for Geostatistics  

PubMed Central

The analysis of health data and putative covariates, such as environmental, socio-economic, behavioral or demographic factors, is a promising application for geostatistics. It presents, however, several methodological challenges that arise from the fact that data are typically aggregated over irregular spatial supports and consist of a numerator and a denominator (i.e. population size). This paper presents an overview of recent developments in the field of health geostatistics, with an emphasis on three main steps in the analysis of areal health data: estimation of the underlying disease risk, detection of areas with significantly higher risk, and analysis of relationships with putative risk factors. The analysis is illustrated using age-adjusted cervix cancer mortality rates recorded over the 1970–1994 period for 118 counties of four states in the Western USA. Poisson kriging allows the filtering of noisy mortality rates computed from small population sizes, enhancing the correlation with two putative explanatory variables: percentage of habitants living below the federally defined poverty line, and percentage of Hispanic females. Area-to-point kriging formulation creates continuous maps of mortality risk, reducing the visual bias associated with the interpretation of choropleth maps. Stochastic simulation is used to generate realizations of cancer mortality maps, which allows one to quantify numerically how the uncertainty about the spatial distribution of health outcomes translates into uncertainty about the location of clusters of high values or the correlation with covariates. Last, geographically-weighted regression highlights the non-stationarity in the explanatory power of covariates: the higher mortality values along the coast are better explained by the two covariates than the lower risk recorded in Utah. PMID:19412347

Goovaerts, P.

2008-01-01

456

Refinement of Promising Coating Compositions for Directionally Cast Eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful application of high creep strength, directionally solidified gamma/gamma prime-delta (Ni-19.7Cb-6Cr-2.5Al) eutectic superalloy turbine blades requires the development of suitable coatings for airfoil, root and internal blade surfaces. In order to improve coatings for the gamma/gamma prime-delta alloy, the current investigation had the goals of (1) refining promising coating compositions for directionally solidified eutectics, (2) evaluating the effects of coating/ substrate interactions on the mechanical properties of the alloy, and (3) evaluating diffusion aluminide coatings for internal surfaces. Burner rig cyclic oxidation, furnace cyclic hot corrosion, ductility, and thermal fatigue tests indicated that NiCrAlY+Pt(63 to 127 micron Ni-18Cr-12Al-0.3Y + 6 micron Pt) and NiCrAlY(63 to 127 micron Ni-18Cr-12Al-0.3Y) coatings are capable of protecting high temperature gas path surfaces of eutectic alloy airfoils. Burner rig (Mach 0.37) testing indicated that the useful coating life of the 127 micron thick coatings exceeded 1000 hours at 1366 K (2000 deg F). Isothermal fatigue and furnance hot corrosion tests indicated that 63 micron NiCrAlY, NiCrAlY + Pt and platinum modified diffusion aluminide (Pt + Al) coating systems are capable of protecting the relatively cooler surfaces of the blade root. Finally, a gas phase coating process was evaluated for diffusion aluminizing internal surfaces and cooling holes of air-cooled gamma/gamma prime-delta turbine blades.

Strangman, T. E.; Felten, E. J.; Benden, R. S.

1976-01-01

457

Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: New Trends and Promises  

PubMed Central

Transgenic plants and associated bacteria constitute a new generation of genetically modified organisms for efficient and environmental-friendly treatment of soil and water contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This review focuses on recent advances in phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs, including the development of transgenic plants and associated bacteria. Phytoremediation, or the use of higher plants for rehabilitation of soil and groundwater, is a promising strategy for cost-effective treatment of sites contaminated by toxic compounds, including toxic PCBs. Plants can help mitigate environmental pollution by PCBs through a range of mechanisms: besides uptake from soil (phytoextraction), plants are capable of enzymatic transformation of PCBs (phytotransformation); by releasing a variety of secondary metabolites, plants also enhance the microbial activity in the root zone, improving biodegradation of PCBs (rhizoremediation). However, because of their hydrophobicity and chemical stability, PCBs are only slowly taken up and degraded by plants and associated bacteria, resulting in incomplete treatment and potential release of toxic metabolites into the environment. Moreover, naturally occurring plant-associated bacteria may not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for PCB degradation. In order to overcome these limitations, bacterial genes involved in the metabolism of PCBs, such as biphenyl dioxygenases, have been introduced into higher plants, following a strategy similar to the development of transgenic crops. Similarly, bacteria have then been genetically modified that exhibit improved biodegradation capabilities and are able to maintain stable relationships with plants. Transgenic plants and associated bacteria bring hope for a broader and more efficient application of phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs. PMID:20384372

Van Aken, Benoit; Correa, Paola A.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

2011-01-01

458

Practicing Democracy in the NCLB Elementary Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The practice of teaching democracy in school is diminishing. The implementation of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has forced teachers to teach to the test, and has required some to follow scripted curriculum, leaving little time or incentive for teaching democracy. This study examines the importance of practicing democracy and identifies ways in…

Davis, Margaret H.

2010-01-01

459

Leadership Practices in German and UK Organisations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine whether leadership practices vary between German and UK organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The author used self-assessment documents submitted by German and UK organisations to the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), to identify leadership practices in both countries. A…

McCarthy, Grace

2005-01-01

460

Analyzing the Teaching of Professional Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Based on their case studies of preparation for professional practice in the clergy, teaching, and clinical psychology, Grossman and colleagues (2009) identified three key concepts for analyzing and comparing practice in professional education--representations, decomposition, and approximations--to support professional educators…

Moss, Pamela A.

2011-01-01

461

Design Step 1: Identify the Need  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students practice the initial steps involved in an engineering design challenge. They begin by reviewing the steps of the engineering design loop and discussing the client need for the project. Next, they identify a relevant context, define the problem within their design teams, and examine the project's requirements and constraints. (Note: Conduct this activity in the context of a design project that students are working on, which could be a challenge determined by the teacher, brainstormed with the class, or the example project challenge provided [to design a prosthetic arm that can perform a mechanical function].)

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

462

77 FR 27756 - Applications for New Awards; Promise Neighborhoods Program-Planning Grant Competition, Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Awards; Promise Neighborhoods Program-- Planning Grant Competition, Correction AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement...FY) 2012 for the Promise Neighborhoods planning grant competition (2012 Planning Grant NIA). This notice corrects an...

2012-05-11

463

From Practice to Evidence in Child Welfare: Model Specification and Fidelity Measurement of Team Decisionmaking  

PubMed Central

Fidelity measurement methods have traditionally been used to develop and evaluate the effects of psychosocial treatments and, more recently, their implementation in practice. The fidelity measurement process can also be used to operationally define and specify components of emerging but untested practices outside the realm of conventional treatment. Achieving optimal fidelity measurement effectiveness (scientific validity and reliability) and efficiency (feasibility and relevance in routine care contexts) is challenging. The purpose of this paper is to identify strategies to address these challenges in child welfare system practices. To illustrate the challenges, and operational steps to address them, we present a case example using the “Team Decisionmaking” (TDM; Annie E. Casey Foundation) intervention. This intervention has potential utility for decreasing initial entry into and time spent in foster care and increasing rates of reunification and relative care. While promising, the model requires rigorous research to refine knowledge regarding the relationship between intervention components and outcomes—research that requires fidelity measurement. The intent of this paper is to illustrate how potentially generalizable steps for developing effective and efficient fidelity measurement methods can be used to more clearly define and test the effects of child welfare system practices. PMID:25346560

Bearman, Sarah Kate; Garland, Ann F.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.

2014-01-01

464

The Promise of New Ideas and New Technology for Improving Teaching and Learning  

PubMed Central

There have been enormous advances in our understanding of human learning in the past three decades. There have also been important advances in our understanding of the nature of knowledge and new knowledge creation. These advances, when combined with the explosive development of the Internet and other technologies, permit advances in educational practices at least as important as the invention of the printing press in 1460. We have built on the cognitive learning theory of David Ausubel and various sources of new ideas on epistemology. Our research program has focused on understanding meaningful learning and on developing better methods to achieve such learning and to assess progress in meaningful learning. The concept map tool developed in our program has proved to be highly effective both in promoting meaningful learning and in assessing learning outcomes. Concept mapping strategies are also proving powerful for eliciting, capturing, and archiving knowledge of experts and organizations. New technology for creating concept maps developed at the University of West Florida permits easier and better concept map construction, thus facilitating learning, knowledge capture, and local or distance creation and sharing of structured knowledge, especially when utilized with the Internet. A huge gap exists between what we now know to improve learning and use of knowledge and the practices currently in place in most schools and corporations. There are promising projects in progress that may help to achieve accelerated advances. These include projects in schools at all educational levels, including projects in Colombia, Costa Rica, Italy, Spain, and the United States, and collaborative projects with corporate organizations and distance learning projects. Results to date have been encouraging and suggest that we may be moving from the lag phase of educational innovation to a phase of exponential growth. PMID:12888848

Novak, Joseph D.

2003-01-01

465

A Practice-Based Analysis of an Online Strategy Game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we will analyze a massively multiplayer online game in an attempt to identify the elements of practice that enable social interaction and cooperation within the game’s virtual world. Communities of Practice and Activity Theory offer the theoretical lens for identifying and understanding what constitutes practice within the community and how such practice is manifest and transmitted during game play. Our analysis suggests that in contrast to prevalent perceptions of practice as being textually mediated, in virtual settings it is framed as much in social interactions as in processes, artifacts and the tools constituting the ‘linguistic’ domain of the game or the practice the gaming community is about.

Milolidakis, Giannis; Kimble, Chris; Akoumianakis, Demosthenes

466

Literacy Instruction: Practices, Problems, Promises. Proceedings of the Annual Conference and Course on Literacy (37th, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference proceedings document contains 18 papers focusing on ideas and strategies for effective literacy instruction. Following opening remarks by Rita M. Bean, are four keynote addresses: "Toward Uncommon Sense Literacy Learning; Integrating Reading and Writing" (John Mayher); "Literacy Learning in At-Risk First Graders" (Diane DeFord);…

King, Caryn M., Comp.; Bean, Rita M., Comp.

467

The Need for Principal Renewal: The Promise of Sustaining Principals through Principal-to-Principal Reflective Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Given the challenging complexity of the modern principalship--including high-stakes testing, standards-based reform, increased accountability, and severe budget cuts--practitioners and scholars emphasize the urgency of supporting principals' stress-relief and renewal. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: This…

Drago-Severson, Eleanor

2012-01-01

468

Present and Future of Cyber Education in Korea: Suggestion for Its Promising Future Based on Representative Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of cyber education in Korea that is meeting the educational needs of corporations as well as universities. Topics include Web pages; plans for performance evaluation; system architecture; and future possibilities, including service providers, information infrastructure, and rules and regulations. (Contains 23 references.) (LRW)

Kim, Youngsoo; Lee, Jong Yeon

1999-01-01

469

Inquiry, Evidence, and Excellence: The Promise and Practice of Quality Assurance. A Festschrift in Honor of Frank B. Murray  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overall aim of this volume of essays is to honor Frank B. Murray's commitments to empirically-based quality assurance and to the development of increasingly effective systems of quality control in educator preparation programs. As the editors approached the authors with the invitation to contribute an essay, two characteristic aspects of…

LaCelle-Peterson, Mark, Ed.; Rigden, Diana, Ed.

2012-01-01

470

Digital Learning and Technology: Federal Policy Recommendations to Seize the Opportunity--and Promising Practices That Inspire Them. Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many industries in the United States already have seen positive results and increased productivity from the effective use of technology. With the challenges currently facing the nation's education system--including a persistent dropout rate of nearly 30 percent, slashed state and district budgets, and the economically and socially important goals…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

2011-01-01

471

Supporting Young Indigenous Children's Language Development in Canada: A Review of Research on Needs and Promising Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers an original review of research and reports about young Indigenous children's language development needs and approaches to meeting them. The review addresses not only children's acquisition of an Indigenous language but also their acquisition of other languages (e.g., English and French), because their progress in one linguistic…

Ball, Jessica

2009-01-01

472

Communicating and managing change during extreme weather events: promising practices for responding to urgent and emergent climate threats.  

PubMed

Large-scale weather events in the USA such as hurricanes Sandy, Isaac and Katrina challenge traditional approaches to change communication and management (CCM) before during and after crises. A major challenge (as well as opportunity) is addressing change from the 'whole-community' perspective affecting a spectrum of people, policies, processes, behaviours and outcomes. When CCM is used effectively, one of its fundamental advantages is creating a sense of urgency. This paper looks at optimising communication during extreme weather events, engaging stakeholders, harnessing the power of social media and change, and correlating organisational and individual behaviours and actions. The strategic blend of change management and crisis communication strategies and tactics in CCM is a central feature in the response to the full range of extreme weather scenarios. PMID:23835423

Tinker, Tim L

2013-01-01

473

Annual Report on Promising Practices: How the Algebra Project Eliminates the "Game of Signs" with Negative Numbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that operations with negative numbers should be taught using a curriculum that is grounded in algebraic geometry. This position is supported by the results from a study that compared the conceptual understanding of grade 9 students who received the Algebra Project transition curriculum to a control group of grade 6 gifted…

Carson, Cristi L.; Day, Judith

474

Promising Practices: Informational Outreach to The HIV\\/AIDS Population On SSI\\/SSDI Benefits and Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV \\/ AIDS crosses all borders, rich and poor, black and white and youth and seniors alike. Additionally, individuals with HIV\\/AIDS are told not to work as they may lose their benefits, should a continuing disability review be conducted. Perseverance, building trust and investing many hours of staff time has brought a level of comfort to allow Barrier Free Living

Edwin Lopez-Soto

2006-01-01

475

A Case Study of a Community-Based Participatory Evaluation Research (CBPER) Project: Reflections on Promising Practices and Shortcomings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instrumental case study documents a community-based participatory evaluation research (CBPER) project that involved a community partner, two graduate students, a faculty member, and an external funder. It highlights the fact that a participatory evaluation model is a viable way to conduct community-based research (CBR) when a community…

Puma, Jini; Bennett, Laurie; Cutforth, Nick; Tombari, Chris; Stein, Paul

2009-01-01

476

Location bias of identifiers in clinical narratives.  

PubMed

Scrubbing identifying information from narrative clinical documents is a critical first step to preparing the data for secondary use purposes, such as translational research. Evidence suggests that the differential distribution of protected health information (PHI) in clinical documents could be used as additional features to improve the performance of automated de-identification algorithms or toolkits. However, there has been little investigation into the extent to which such phenomena transpires in practice. To empirically assess this issue, we identified the location of PHI in 140,000 clinical notes from an electronic health record system and characterized the distribution as a function of location in a document. In addition, we calculated the 'word proximity' of nearby PHI elements to determine their co-occurrence rates. The PHI elements were found to have non-random distribution patterns. Location within a document and proximity between PHI elements might therefore be used to help de-identification systems better label PHI. PMID:24551358

Hanauer, David A; Mei, Qiaozhu; Malin, Bradley; Zheng, Kai

2013-01-01

477

Identifying \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The top web search result is crucial for user satisfaction with the web search experience. We argue that the importance of the relevance at the top position necessitates special handling of the top web search result for some queries. We propose an effective approach of leveraging millions of past user interactions with a web search engine to automatically detect \\

Eugene Agichtein; Zijian Zheng

2006-01-01

478

Digital photography and computer technology : a promising field of innovation 1 Digital photography and computer technology  

E-print Network

Digital photography and computer technology : a promising field of innovation 1 Digital photography: (+33) 320 43 42 56 {vcord,lecomte}@lifl.fr #12;Digital photography and computer technology : a promising field of innovation 2 Digital photography and computer technology : a promising field

Donsez, Didier

479

Theory into Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of putting theory into practice can be addressed and advocated to educators and gifted students through the presentation of a Continuum of Practice. Articulating the sequence and phases of practice can underscore how practice can take place; it also can change the perspective and meaning of practice.

Kaplan, Sandra N.

2012-01-01

480

NCI Community Cancer Centers Program - Related Programs - NCI Best Practices for Biospecimen Resources  

Cancer.gov

The NCI Best Practices for Biospecimen Resources identifies best practices for biospecimen collection, processing, storage, retrieval, and dissemination and addresses concepts of good laboratory practice to ensure a level of consistency and standardization across NCI-supported biospecimen resources.

481

Cost Estimates for Operating a Primary Care Practice Facilitation Program  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Practice facilitation is widely recognized as a promising method for achieving large-scale practice redesign. Little is known, however, about the cost of providing practice facilitation to small primary practices from the prospective of an organization providing facilitation activities. METHODS We report practice facilitation costs on 19 practices in South Texas that were randomized to receive facilitation activities. The study design assured that each practice received at least 6 practice facilitation visits during the intervention year. We examined only the variable cost associated with practice facilitation activities. Fixed or administrative costs of providing facilitation actives were not captured. All facilitator activities (time, mileage, and materials) were self-reported by the practice facilitators and recorded in spreadsheets. RESULTS The median total variable cost of all practice facilitation activities from start-up through monitoring, including travel and food, was $9,670 per practice (ranging from $8,050 to $15,682). Median travel and food costs were an additional $2,054 but varied by clinic. Approximately 50% of the total cost is attributable to practice assessment and start-up activities, with another 31% attributable to practice facilitation visits. Sensitivity analysis suggests that a 24-visit practice facilitation protocol increased estimated median total variable costs of all practice facilitation activities only by $5,428, for a total of $15,098. CONCLUSIONS We found that, depending on the facilitators wages and the intensity of the intervention, the cost of practice facilitation ranges between $9,670 and $15,098 per practice per year and have the potential to be cost-neutral from a societal prospective if practice facilitation results in 2 fewer hospitalizations per practice per year. PMID:23690319

Culler, Steven D.; Parchman, Michael L.; Lozano-Romero, Raquel; Noel, Polly H.; Lanham, Holly J.; Leykum, Luci K.; Zeber, John E.

2013-01-01

482

Motivational patterns as an instrument for predicting success in promising young football players.  

PubMed

Abstract Psychological characteristics are crucial to identifying talents, which is why these are being incorporated in today's multidimensional talent models. In addition to multidimensionality, talent studies are increasingly drawing on holistic theories of development, leading to the use of person-oriented approaches. The present study adopts such an approach by looking at the influence that motivational characteristics have on the development of performance, in a person-oriented way. For this purpose, it looks at how the constructs achievement motive, achievement goal orientation and self-determination interact with one another, what patterns they form and how these patterns are linked to subsequent sports success. Ninety-seven top young football players were questioned twice. Another year later, it was enquired which of these players had been selected for the U15 national team. At both measuring points, four patterns were identified, which displayed a high degree of structural and individual stability. As expected, the highly intrinsically achievement-oriented players were significantly more likely to move up into the U15 national team. The results point to the importance of favourable patterns of motivational variables in the form of specific types, for medium-term performance development among promising football talents, and thus provide valuable clues for the selection and promotion of those. PMID:24938614

Zuber, Claudia; Zibung, Marc; Conzelmann, Achim

2015-01-01

483

Mentoring Practices Benefiting Pediatric Nurses.  

PubMed

Previous studies examining predictors of pediatric nurse protégé mentoring benefits demonstrated that protégé perception of quality was the single best predictor of mentoring benefits. The ability to identify the mentoring practices that predict specific benefits for individual nurses provides a better understanding of how mentoring relationships can be leveraged within health care organizations promoting mutual mentoring benefits. This descriptive correlational, non-experimental study of nurses at a northeast Ohio, Magnet® recognized, free-standing pediatric hospital advances nursing science by demonstrating how mentoring practices benefit pediatric nurse protégés. PMID:25128577

Weese, Meghan M; Jakubik, Louise D; Eliades, Aris B; Huth, Jennifer J

2014-07-31

484

Using EHRs to integrate research with patient care: promises and challenges.  

PubMed

Clinical research is the foundation for advancing the practice of medicine. However, the lack of seamless integration between clinical research and patient care workflow impedes recruitment efficiency, escalates research costs, and hence threatens the entire clinical research enterprise. Increased use of electronic health records (EHRs) holds promise for facilitating this integration but must surmount regulatory obstacles. Among the unintended consequences of current research oversight are barriers to accessing patient information for prescreening and recruitment, coordinating scheduling of clinical and research visits, and reconciling information about clinical and research drugs. We conclude that the EHR alone cannot overcome barriers in conducting clinical trials and comparative effectiveness research. Patient privacy and human subject protection policies should be clarified at the local level to exploit optimally the full potential of EHRs, while continuing to ensure participant safety. Increased alignment of policies that regulate the clinical and research use of EHRs could help fulfill the vision of more efficiently obtaining clinical research evidence to improve human health. PMID:22542813

Weng, Chunhua; Appelbaum, Paul; Hripcsak, George; Kronish, Ian; Busacca, Linda; Davidson, Karina W; Bigger, J Thomas

2012-01-01

485

Personalized Exposure Assessment: Promising Approaches for Human Environmental Health Research  

PubMed Central

New technologies and methods for assessing human exposure to chemicals, dietary and lifestyle factors, infectious agents, and other stressors provide an opportunity to extend the range of human health investigations and advance our understanding of the relationship between environmental exposure and disease. An ad hoc Committee on Environmental Exposure Technology Development was convened to identify new technologies and methods for deriving personalized exposure measurements for application to environmental health studies. The committee identified a “toolbox” of methods for measuring external (environmental) and internal (biologic) exposure and assessing human behaviors that influence the likelihood of exposure to environmental agents. The methods use environmental sensors, geographic information systems, biologic sensors, toxicogenomics, and body burden (biologic) measurements. We discuss each of the methods in relation to current use in human health research; specific gaps in the development, validation, and application of the methods are highlighted. We also present a conceptual framework for moving these technologies into use and acceptance by the scientific community. The framework focuses on understanding complex human diseases using an integrated approach to exposure assessment to define particular exposure–disease relationships and the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in disease occurrence. Improved methods for exposure assessment will result in better means of monitoring and targeting intervention and prevention programs. PMID:16002370

Weis, Brenda K.; Balshaw, David; Barr, John R.; Brown, David; Ellisman, Mark; Lioy, Paul; Omenn, Gilbert; Potter, John D.; Smith, Martyn T.; Sohn, Lydia; Suk, William A.; Sumner, Susan; Swenberg, James; Walt, David R.; Watkins, Simon; Thompson, Claudia; Wilson, Samuel H.

2005-01-01

486

Histological healing in inflammatory bowel disease: A still unfulfilled promise  

PubMed Central

Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is traditionally based on several drugs, including salicylates, corticosteroids, and antibiotics; in addition, the therapeutic armamentarium has considerably evolved with the advent of newer, effective therapeutic measures (such as the biological agents) that are able to improve in a considerable manner both the clinical and endoscopic variables. Thus, mucosal healing, at least considered from an endoscopic point of view, is today regarded as the ultimate endpoint for treatment of these conditions. However, it is also increasingly clear that endoscopic healing is not necessarily paralleled by histological healing; There are few doubts that the latter should be considered as a true, objective healing and the ultimate goal to reach when treating patients with IBD. Unfortunately, and surprisingly, only a few, incomplete, and somewhat conflicting data exist on this topic, especially because there is still the need to standardize both histological assessment and the severity grading of these disorders; Issues that have not been yet been resolved for clinical practice and therapeutic trials. Hopefully, with the help of an increased awareness on the clinical researchers’ side, and the availability of dedicated pathologists on the other side, this matter will be effectively faced and resolved in the near future. PMID:23467585

Villanacci, Vincenzo; Antonelli, Elisabetta; Geboes, Karel; Casella, Giovanni; Bassotti, Gabrio

2013-01-01

487

Cannabinoids: new promising agents in the treatment of neurological diseases.  

PubMed

Nowadays, Cannabis sativa is considered the most extensively used narcotic. Nevertheless, this fame obscures its traditional employ in native medicine of South Africa, South America, Turkey, Egypt and in many regions of Asia as a therapeutic drug. In fact, the use of compounds containing Cannabis and their introduction in clinical practice is still controversial and strongly limited by unavoidable psychotropic effects. So, overcoming these adverse effects represents the main open question on the utilization of cannabinoids as new drugs for treatment of several pathologies. To date, therapeutic use of cannabinoid extracts is prescribed in patients with glaucoma, in the control of chemotherapy-related vomiting and nausea, for appetite stimulation in patients with anorexia-cachexia syndrome by HIV, and for the treatment of multiple sclerosis symptoms. Recently, researcher efforts are aimed to employ the therapeutic potentials of Cannabis sativa in the modulation of cannabinoid receptor activity within the central nervous system, particularly for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, as well as psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders. This review evaluates the most recent available data on cannabinoids utilization in experimental and clinical studies, and highlights their beneficial effects in the prevention of the main neurological diseases and for the clinical treatment of symptoms with them correlated. PMID:25407719

Giacoppo, Sabrina; Mandolino, Giuseppe; Galuppo, Maria; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

2014-01-01

488

Gene Therapy, Early Promises, Subsequent Problems, and Recent Breakthroughs  

PubMed Central

Gene therapy is one of the most attractive fields in medicine. The concept of gene delivery to tissues for clinical applications has been discussed around half a century, but scientist’s ability to manipulate genetic material via recombinant DNA technology made this purpose to reality. Various approaches, such as viral and non-viral vectors and physical methods, have been developed to make gene delivery safer and more efficient. While gene therapy initially conceived as a way to treat life-threatening disorders (inborn errors, cancers) refractory to conventional treatment, to date gene therapy is considered for many non–life-threatening conditions including those adversely influence on a patient’s quality of life. Gene therapy has made significant progress, including tangible success, although much slower than was initially predicted. Although, gene therapies still at a fairly primitive stage, it is firmly science based. There is justifiable hope that with enhanced pathobiological understanding and biotechnological improvements, gene therapy will be a standard part of clinical practice within 20 years. PMID:24312844

Razi Soofiyani, Saeideh; Baradaran, Behzad; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Kazemi, Tohid; Mohammadnejad, Leila

2013-01-01

489

Vaccines: facing complex problems with the promise of immunology.  

PubMed

Highly renowned in the vaccines world, Stanley A. Plotkin has worked at many leading institutions throughout his career, and is Emeritus Professor of the University of Pennsylvania and Adjunct Professor of the Johns Hopkins University. In 1991, Plotkin joined Sanofi Pasteur and worked there from 1991 to 1997, and now works as principal of Vaxconsult, LLC as a consultant to vaccine manufacturers, biotechnology companies and non-profit research organizations. Plotkin has served as chairman of the Infectious Diseases Committee and the AIDS Task Force of the American Academy of Pediatrics, liaison member of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, and Chairman of the Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee of the National Institutes of Health. He has been a recipient of numerous prestigious medals and awards throughout his career, and his bibliography includes over 700 articles and several books, including the standard textbook on vaccines. He has worked extensively on the development and application of many vaccines including anthrax, oral polio, rabies, varicella and cytomegalovirus. He is also codeveloper of the newly licensed pentavalent rotavirus and is well-known for developing the rubella vaccine, now in standard use throughout the world. PMID:24972860

Plotkin, Stanley A; Rees, Jenaid

2014-08-01

490

Intradermal Insulin Delivery: A Promising Future for Diabetes Management.  

PubMed

The incidence of insulinopenic diabetes mellitus is constantly increasing, and in addition, approximately a third of all hyperinsulinemic diabetic patients develop insulinopenia. Optimal glycemic control is essential to minimize the risk for diabetes-induced complications, but the majority of diabetic patients fail to achieve proper long-term glucose levels even in clinical trials, and even more so in clinical practice. Compliance with a treatment regimen is likely to be higher if the procedure is simple, painless, and discreet. Thus, insulin has been suggested for nasal, gastrointestinal, and inhalation therapy, but so far with considerable downsides in effect, side effects, or patient acceptance. The stratum corneum is the main barrier preventing convenient drug administration without the drawbacks of subcutaneous injections. Recently, devices with miniaturized needles have been developed that combine the simplicity and discretion of patch-based treatments, but with the potential of peptide and protein administration. As this review describes, initial comparisons with subcutaneous administration now suggest microneedle patches for active insulin delivery are efficient in maintaining glycemic control. Hollow microneedle technology could also prove to be efficient in systemic as well as local delivery of other macromolecular drugs, such as vaccines. PMID:24876605

Hultström, Michael; Roxhed, Niclas; Nordquist, Lina

2014-04-10

491

New Teacher Mentoring: Hopes and Promise for Improving Teacher Effectiveness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teacher quality is the single most important lever schools have for raising student achievement. A substantial body of research indicates that new teachers are less able than their more experienced colleagues to help students fulfill their academic potential. Yet in many school districts particularly those in urban settings as many as half of the teachers may have less than five years experience. In addition, the students who face the greatest challenges are most likely to be assigned novice teachers. By supporting new teachers, increasing their effectiveness, and reducing turnover, school districts can give the children most in need of high-quality teaching a real chance at success. In this practical yet visionary book, Ellen Moir and her colleagues at the New Teacher Center review what current research suggests (and doesn t) about the power of welldesigned mentoring programs to shape teacher and student outcomes. They set forth the principles of high-quality instructional mentoring and describe the elements of a rigorous professional development program. Detailed case studies show how these principles can be applied at the district level and highlight the opportunities and challenges involved in implementing these programs in different contexts. The book makes a powerful case for using new teacher mentoring as an entry point for creating a strong professional culture with a shared, aligned understanding of high-quality teaching.

Moir, Ellen; Barlin, Dara; Gless, Janet; Miles, Jan