Science.gov

Sample records for identify promising practices

  1. Provenance: Promise and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, R. E.

    2008-12-01

    Capturing provenance is one of the fundamental principles of archive theory. Provenance consists of information about the creation of an object, its ownership, and how this information has changed over time. The data management community has been discussing how to apply the concepts of provenance to science data. Considerable attention has been paid to developing mechanisms to record how data were created, since this is key to reproducing research results. Less attention has been paid to the other elements of provenance, even though data and the organizations that archive data are dynamic and ever changing. Some practice is coming into play; but there is a large gap between theory and practice. This talk will review the current state of the art, discuss the gap between theory and practice, and describe what could be done to close the gap.

  2. A Grounded Theory for Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: Promising Practices for Assessment, Intervention, and Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Dori

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative grounded theory study examined how practicing professionals involved in the ED identification process reconstructed the category of "emotional disturbance" as it applied to students in an alternative educational setting. A grounded theory integrates six emergent themes and essentially reframes the existing ED criteria in contemporary…

  3. Educating Homeless Students: Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H., Ed.; Reed-Victor, Evelyn, Ed.

    This book is for educators who serve homeless students or students temporarily sharing houses with other families. It describes many promising strategies for working with these students. The chapters are: (1) "Educating Homeless Children and Youth: An Introduction" (James H. Stronge); (2) "Meeting the Developmental and Educational Needs of…

  4. Promising Practices in Instruction of Discovery Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stefanie; Steffy, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Libraries are continually changing to meet the needs of users; this includes implementing discovery tools, also referred to as web-scale discovery tools, to make searching library resources easier. Because these tools are so new, it is difficult to establish definitive best practices for teaching these tools; however, promising practices are…

  5. Student Teaching: Problems and Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Gary A., Ed.; Edwards, Sara, Ed.

    The working conference "Student Teaching: Problems and Promising Practices" brought together experts representing three different role orientations: cooperating teachers, school system representatives, and teacher educators. Under discussion was the student teaching process and the nature of research that might contribute to its better…

  6. Promising Practices: Teaching the Disadvantaged Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miley, James F., Comp.; And Others

    Intended for teachers, the document offers 10 articles on educating the disadvantaged gifted student. Included are the following titles: "Four Promising Practices for Teaching Gifted Disadvantaged Students" (which describes a workshop with problem solving and creative expressive activities) by E. Paul Torrance; "Cultural Diversity and the…

  7. Energy options: the practical and the promising

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    A review of renewable energy sources (solar, wind, biomass, hydroelectric, geothermal, and ocean thermal gradients); advanced technologies for fuel cells, cogeneration, breeder reactors, and nuclear fusion; and synthetic fuels from coal gasification or liquefaction shale oil, and tar sands explores US options for supplanting fossil fuels and developing the electric power necessary for economic growth. The DOE projects that renewables will contribute only 3% of power generated by the year 2000, while the advanced technologies will only make a significant contribution in the 21st century. Coal and nuclear energy are the major energy sources for the interim until promising alternatives prove to be practical. 17 references.

  8. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libretto, Salvatore; Nemes, Susanna; Namur, Jenny; Garrett, Gerald; Hess, Lauren; Kaplan, Linda

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three countries in Southeast Asia--Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand--were examined to identify promising practices and to…

  9. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: An Overview of Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Gerald; Nemes, Susanna; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Libretto, Salvatore; Skinstadt, Anne Helene; Hess, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a research project sponsored and funded by the State Department's Bureau of International Narcotics and Affairs (INL) on substance abuse and treatment in ten countries. The purpose of the study was to identify promising practices in drug treatment in Europe, Latin America, and Southeast Asia. The steps taken to complete this…

  10. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Garrett, Gerald; Johansson, Anna Carin; Hess, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three Latin American countries--Brazil, Peru and Argentina--were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

  11. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Skinstad, Anne Helene; Garrett, Gerald; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in four European countries-Poland, Spain, Slovenia, and Italy-were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

  12. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Skinstad, Anne Helene; Garrett, Gerald; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in four European countries-Poland, Spain, Slovenia, and Italy-were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

  13. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libretto, Salvatore; Nemes, Susanna; Namur, Jenny; Garrett, Gerald; Hess, Lauren; Kaplan, Linda

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three countries in Southeast Asia--Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand--were examined to identify promising practices and to…

  14. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: An Overview of Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Gerald; Nemes, Susanna; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Libretto, Salvatore; Skinstadt, Anne Helene; Hess, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a research project sponsored and funded by the State Department's Bureau of International Narcotics and Affairs (INL) on substance abuse and treatment in ten countries. The purpose of the study was to identify promising practices in drug treatment in Europe, Latin America, and Southeast Asia. The steps taken to complete this…

  15. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Garrett, Gerald; Johansson, Anna Carin; Hess, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three Latin American countries--Brazil, Peru and Argentina--were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

  16. Promising Practices: A Teacher Resource (Grades 4-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provenzano, Johanna Z., Ed.

    Part of a project to help teachers respond to the challenge of teaching content subjects to a variety of limited-English-proficient (LEP) learners, this report presents the recommendations of a group of master teachers who first identified promising practices for educating minority language students and then supplemented these by selecting…

  17. Using Multimedia to Introduce Your Promising Practice. Supported Education: A Promising Practice. Evidence-Based Practices KIT (Knowledge Informing Transformation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Karen V.

    2011-01-01

    Supported Education is a promising practice that helps people with mental illnesses who are interested in education and training return to school. Current research shows that Supported Education has demonstrated results. While more research is needed, Supported Education services show promise of becoming an evidence-based practice. Education…

  18. What If? Promising Practices for Improving Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Rita, Ed.; Griggs, Shirley A., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Today, there is little deviation from the standard, business-as-usual practices in the world of education. This book challenges these stale practices and asks the important questions that can improve schools beyond the current state of mediocrity. Written for administrators, supervisors, teachers, parents--even politicians and corporate…

  19. What If? Promising Practices for Improving Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Rita, Ed.; Griggs, Shirley A., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Today, there is little deviation from the standard, business-as-usual practices in the world of education. This book challenges these stale practices and asks the important questions that can improve schools beyond the current state of mediocrity. Written for administrators, supervisors, teachers, parents--even politicians and corporate…

  20. Promising Practices for Connecting High School to the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, W. E., Ed.; Harwell, Sandra, Ed.

    This monograph, containing 24 articles by 11 authors, describes a number of practices that have shown promise for better connecting high school with the broader world beyond school. The monograph begins with "Connecting High School with the Real World" (Sandi Harwell, William Blank), which discusses the concept of "real life" and various ways of…

  1. Promising Practices: A Teacher Resource (Grades K-3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provenzano, Johanna Z., Ed.

    A collection of promising instructional practices for teachers of limited-English-speaking primary grade students is organized as a series of lessons on planning, classroom management, teaching procedures, and evaluation in a variety of content areas. Examples of basic learning activities intended to serve as a framework for teacher…

  2. Reducing Aggressive Male Behavior in Elementary School: Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Barbara; Gibson, Jamel; Morrison-Danner, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Student aggression and violent behavior, especially among males, is pervasive and problematic in the classroom. When incorporated in the lesson design, promising practices (music, movement, and visual stimulation) are evidence-based strategies that may reduce male aggression in the classroom.

  3. Promising Practices for Connecting High School to the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, W. E., Ed.; Harwell, Sandra, Ed.

    This monograph, containing 24 articles by 11 authors, describes a number of practices that have shown promise for better connecting high school with the broader world beyond school. The monograph begins with "Connecting High School with the Real World" (Sandi Harwell, William Blank), which discusses the concept of "real life" and various ways of…

  4. 'Promising' therapies: neuroscience, clinical practice, and the treatment of psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Pickersgill, Martyn

    2011-03-01

    Neuroscientific research into mental health commands generous funding, suggesting neuroscience is understood by a variety of actors and institutions as having significant potential to enhance the therapeutic practices of psychiatrists. This article interrogates this 'therapeutic promise' of neuroscience through the case study of the psychiatric condition personality disorder. Specifically, the focus is on the promissory discourse of clinicians specialising in the management of two variants of personality disorder--antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy--and researchers investigating the neurobiology of these constructs. The article discusses the respondents' ambivalent expectations regarding the therapeutic promise of brain research, and shows how these are structured by understandings of the ontology of personality disorder. In turn, these ambivalences direct our attention to practical issues surrounding the potential of neuroscience to translate into and enhance clinical practice, as well as theoretical concerns revolving around the place and role of the biological within contemporary neuroscience, psychiatry and psychology. In sum, the necessity of large material and symbolic investments in neuroscience should, perhaps, be reflected upon more critically, and analytic encounters with this discipline must keep in mind it's at times surprising commitment to the realms of the social and the psychological. PMID:21281313

  5. Contexts for Promise: Noteworthy Practices and Innovations in the Identification of Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Carolyn M., Ed.; And Others

    This monograph contains 11 papers describing model projects that address the identification of gifted students. An introduction by Carolyn M. Callahan and Carol A. Tomlinson identifies commonalities and themes in the promising practices highlighted in the papers. The papers include: (1) "Project STREAM: Support, Training and Resources for…

  6. Getting Started with Evidence-Based and Promising Practices. Supported Education: A Promising Practice. Evidence-Based Practices KIT (Knowledge Informing Transformation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Karen V.

    2011-01-01

    Within a system, change affects stakeholders differently. Consequently, when making changes in the mental health system, mental health agencies should expect varied reactions from staff, community members, consumers, and families. Since misunderstandings can stymie efforts to implement evidence-based and promising practices, it is important to…

  7. Enhancing Parent-Child Interactions through Home Visiting: Promising Practice or Unfulfilled Promise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, C. A.; Luze, G. L.; Eshbaugh, E. M.; Hyun-Joo, J.; Kantz, K. R.

    2007-01-01

    Many intervention programs use home visiting to target enhanced parent-child interactions; however, few studies have examined specific intervention strategies, limiting the potential utility of evaluation results to guide practice, research, or policy effectively. In this paper, we recommend that researchers and program evaluators open the "black…

  8. The Four Cs of Promising Practices in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberler, Zachary; Levin, John S.

    2014-01-01

    To address the achievement or opportunity gap of underrepresented populations in community colleges, this qualitative field methods study investigated five California community college programs that have demonstrated progress in improving (or show significant potential to improve) student achievement. This research found that promising practices…

  9. Strategies for Career Development: Promise, Practice and Pretence. Report 305.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Wendy; And Others

    Case studies of 15 leading employers in the United Kingdom were conducted to examine their career development practices. Employees, line managers, executives, and human resources professionals in the finance, energy, high technology, manufacturing, service, and public service sectors were interviewed regarding the career development practices and…

  10. Assessing Leadership Dispositions: Issues, Challenges, and Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, James; Chirichello, Michael; Mallory, Barbara; Melton, Teri; Lindahl, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Although researchers have succeeded in identifying knowledge and skills and personal traits and characteristics of effective leaders, they have not been nearly as successful in identifying or defining those elusive leadership qualities that fall into the affective domain--what the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE)…

  11. A Community College and Employer Partnership. Promising Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Community College Research and Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As a pilot site selected to participate in Illinois' Shifting Gears (SG) initiative in 2007, Oakton Community College (OCC) partnered with Presbyterian Homes to develop a bridge course to prepare a cadre of their employed Certified Nurse Assistants (CNAs) to enter college-credit level prerequisite courses to a Practical Nursing program. Oakton…

  12. The Practice and Promise of Prison Programming. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Sarah; Mears, Daniel P.; Dubin, Glenn; Travis, Jeremy

    This study focused on employment-related programs in prison, exploring what the research literature tells about the effectiveness of prison-based education, vocational training, and prison industry on postrelease outcomes. Also studied was the state of practice of such programs and strategic opportunities for improving existing employment-related…

  13. Implementing Career Academies Schoolwide: 2001-2002 Developments, Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, David; Dayton, Charles; Lenz, Robert; Tidyman, Susan

    This document, which is based on the findings of case studies of how four high schools from across the country have successfully implemented the schoolwide career academy model, presents recent developments and best practices in schoolwide career academies. The document consists of a brief introduction describing the case studies and one chapter…

  14. Anatomy of Professional Practice: Promising Research Perspectives on Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick W.

    2007-01-01

    This is the first book to bring into focus the full scope of professional practice in educational leadership. This book probes the limitations of traditional research in fully comprehending the true nature of leadership, and points out how future research must be expanded to deal with understanding the complexity of educational leadership…

  15. Development of a Contextualized ESL Bridge Curriculum. Promising Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Community College Research and Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Black Hawk College (BHC) is a comprehensive community college serving all or part of nine counties and a population of approximately 224,510 residents in a mostly rural area of north-west Illinois. This practice was fully developed and implemented for the Shifting Gears (SG) initiative during the 2007-08 academic years. Heeding BHC's strategic…

  16. Changing horses midstream: the promise and prudence of practice redesign.

    PubMed

    Loxterkamp, David; Kazal, Louis A

    2008-01-01

    An emerging vision for primary care calls for the adoption of information technology and a strong business model to save a dying health care system. The authors are participants in the National Demonstration Project (NDP), a study sponsored by leading organizations in family medicine and directed by a for-profit subsidiary of the American Academy of Family Physicians, TransforMED. The NDP embraces the Future of Family Medicine Report and seeks to test the ability of existing practices to implement its basic tenets. The NDP will conclude in June 2008, but its findings and observations will likely ripple out for years. Our report is a personal reflection that looks beyond the question of whether busy practices and practitioners can change horses midstream. We ask, "Is this primary care, and is this what it needs?" PMID:18332412

  17. Promising Afterschool Practices: A Showcase of Innovative, Creative and Successful Afterschool Programs. Fourth Annual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute on Out-of-School Time, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A "Promising Practice" is a system, process, or activity in a program that works and leads to good results. It is something that would work in other programs, if only they were aware about it. "Promising Practices" capture some of the most innovative, creative and successful ways that programs serve youth. This publication provides a selection of…

  18. Engaging Women in Computer Science and Engineering: Promising Practices for Promoting Gender Equity in Undergraduate Research Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Karen A.; Fann, Amy J.; Misa-Escalante, Kimberly O.

    2011-01-01

    Building on research that identifies and addresses issues of women's underrepresentation in computing, this article describes promising practices in undergraduate research experiences that promote women's long-term interest in computer science and engineering. Specifically, this article explores whether and how REU programs include programmatic…

  19. Engaging Women in Computer Science and Engineering: Promising Practices for Promoting Gender Equity in Undergraduate Research Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Karen A.; Fann, Amy J.; Misa-Escalante, Kimberly O.

    2011-01-01

    Building on research that identifies and addresses issues of women's underrepresentation in computing, this article describes promising practices in undergraduate research experiences that promote women's long-term interest in computer science and engineering. Specifically, this article explores whether and how REU programs include programmatic…

  20. Ultrasequencing of the meiofaunal biosphere: practice, pitfalls and promises.

    PubMed

    Creer, S; Fonseca, V G; Porazinska, D L; Giblin-Davis, R M; Sung, W; Power, D M; Packer, M; Carvalho, G R; Blaxter, M L; Lambshead, P J D; Thomas, W K

    2010-03-01

    Biodiversity assessment is the key to understanding the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, but there is a well-acknowledged biodiversity identification gap related to eukaryotic meiofaunal organisms. Meiofaunal identification is confounded by the small size of taxa, morphological convergence and intraspecific variation. However, the most important restricting factor in meiofaunal ecological research is the mismatch between diversity and the number of taxonomists that are able to simultaneously identify and catalogue meiofaunal diversity. Accordingly, a molecular operational taxonomic unit (MOTU)-based approach has been advocated for en mass meiofaunal biodiversity assessment, but it has been restricted by the lack of throughput afforded by chain termination sequencing. Contemporary pyrosequencing offers a solution to this problem in the form of environmental metagenetic analyses, but this represents a novel field of biodiversity assessment. Here, we provide an overview of meiofaunal metagenetic analyses, ranging from sample preservation and DNA extraction to PCR, sequencing and the bioinformatic interrogation of multiple, independent samples using 454 Roche sequencing platforms. We report two examples of environmental metagenetic nuclear small subunit 18S (nSSU) analyses of marine and tropical rainforest habitats and provide critical appraisals of the level of putative recombinant DNA molecules (chimeras) in metagenetic data sets. Following stringent quality control measures, environmental metagenetic analyses achieve MOTU formation across the eukaryote domain of life at a fraction of the time and cost of traditional approaches. The effectiveness of Roche 454 sequencing brings substantial advantages to studies aiming to elucidate the molecular genetic richness of not only meiofaunal, but also all complex eukaryotic communities. PMID:20331766

  1. Identifying Unethical Practices in Journal Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serebnick, Judith

    1991-01-01

    Discusses unethical practices of authors, editors, and reviewers of scholarly journals, including problems related to coauthorship, data sharing, and underreporting; ethical responsibilities of editors; ethics of peer review; and suggestions for eliminating or limiting unethical practices, such as more explicit guidelines for journals and better…

  2. Promising Practices in Small High Schools. A Report of 28 Northwest Projects, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarl, Robert, Ed.

    Promising educational practices utilized in small high schools in the Northwestern United States, including Alaska, are described. Practices and programs reported include an educational enrichment program, multiple-class teaching, a nongraded minicourse curriculum, a phasing program for high school English, a media center retrieval system, a…

  3. Promises to Keep: The Alignment of State Policy Implementation with Best Practices for New Principal Mentorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peggy S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines principal mentoring practices in Wisconsin. Particular attention is paid to practices deemed promising in the literature on mentoring for improving principals' capacity for instructional leadership. The implementation of Wisconsin's policy for teacher and administrator mentoring (PI 34) is also examined. Wisconsin's…

  4. Programs That Work, from the Promising Practices Network on Children, Families and Communities. RAND Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilburn, M. Rebecca, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The Promising Practices Network (PPN) on Children, Families and Communities (www.promisingpractices.net) began as a partnership between four state-level organizations that help public and private organizations improve the well-being of children and families. The PPN website, archived in June 2014, featured summaries of programs and practices that…

  5. Programs That Work, from the Promising Practices Network on Children, Families and Communities. RAND Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilburn, M. Rebecca, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The Promising Practices Network (PPN) on Children, Families and Communities (www.promisingpractices.net) began as a partnership between four state-level organizations that help public and private organizations improve the well-being of children and families. The PPN website, archived in June 2014, featured summaries of programs and practices that…

  6. Identifying Best Practices for an Interactive Webinar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoumenou, Virginie; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Coleman, Gayle; Malekian, Fatemeh; Zee, Julia M. K.; Fountain, Brent J.; Marsh, Akela

    2015-01-01

    A webinar or web-seminar is a presentation, seminar, lecture, or workshop transmitted over the internet. This emerging technology is becoming increasingly popular due to its convenience and affordability. However, little research has been conducted on best practices for an interactive webinar that engages learners in a professional development or…

  7. Identifying Best Practices for an Interactive Webinar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoumenou, Virginie; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Coleman, Gayle; Malekian, Fatemeh; Zee, Julia M. K.; Fountain, Brent J.; Marsh, Akela

    2015-01-01

    A webinar or web-seminar is a presentation, seminar, lecture, or workshop transmitted over the internet. This emerging technology is becoming increasingly popular due to its convenience and affordability. However, little research has been conducted on best practices for an interactive webinar that engages learners in a professional development or…

  8. Identifying and Understanding Effective High School Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Stacey A.; Cannata, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    The authors report on a yearlong investigation into similar schools that performed well and less well in the same district. They found that the higher-performing schools engaged in an intentional set of systemic practices that encourage Personalization for Academic and Social Learning (PASL) in one district and integrated structures of academic…

  9. A multivariate spatial crash frequency model for identifying sites with promise based on crash types.

    PubMed

    Jonathan, Aguero-Valverde; Wu, Kun-Feng Ken; Donnell, Eric T

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have proposed the use of a systemic approach to identify sites with promise (SWiPs). Proponents of the systemic approach to road safety management suggest that it is more effective in reducing crash frequency than the traditional hot spot approach. The systemic approach aims to identify SWiPs by crash type(s) and, therefore, effectively connects crashes to their corresponding countermeasures. Nevertheless, a major challenge to implementing this approach is the low precision of crash frequency models, which results from the systemic approach considering subsets (crash types) of total crashes leading to higher variability in modeling outcomes. This study responds to the need for more precise statistical output and proposes a multivariate spatial model for simultaneously modeling crash frequencies for different crash types. The multivariate spatial model not only induces a multivariate correlation structure between crash types at the same site, but also spatial correlation among adjacent sites to enhance model precision. This study utilized crash, traffic, and roadway inventory data on rural two-lane highways in Pennsylvania to construct and test the multivariate spatial model. Four models with and without the multivariate and spatial correlations were tested and compared. The results show that the model that considers both multivariate and spatial correlation has the best fit. Moreover, it was found that the multivariate correlation plays a stronger role than the spatial correlation when modeling crash frequencies in terms of different crash types. PMID:26615494

  10. Identifying best practices for audit committees.

    PubMed

    Burke, J V; Luecke, R W; Meeting, D

    1996-06-01

    Most healthcare organizations have an audit committee of the governing board, or a finance committee, that fulfills the audit oversight function. Financial managers play a key role in shaping the content, agency, and operation of the audit committee. The findings of a recent research study conducted by Arthur Anderson & Co., SC, into the best practices of audit committees have implications for healthcare organizations. PMID:10158244

  11. Best Practices for Identifying Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnsen, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Parents often go to principals to ask for help in supporting their gifted children. They may request acceleration for their child in mathematics, a specialized curriculum or course, extracurricular activities, a pullout program, or even a different teacher. Since misconceptions about identifying gifted students are prevalent, it's important that…

  12. Identifying Effective Practices and Programs: A Guide Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Judith M.; And Others

    Methods of identifying effective special education practices are analyzed to help practitioners identify and adopt such practices. The contents of this guide include a flowchart for effective practice identification (EPI), an analysis of decision-making steps in this process, and two examples of identification procedures. The decision-making steps…

  13. Identifying Effective Practices and Programs: A Guide Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Judith M.; And Others

    Methods of identifying effective special education practices are analyzed to help practitioners identify and adopt such practices. The contents of this guide include a flowchart for effective practice identification (EPI), an analysis of decision-making steps in this process, and two examples of identification procedures. The decision-making steps…

  14. Childhood executive function inventory (CHEXI): a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD?

    PubMed

    Thorell, Lisa B; Eninger, Lilianne; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI) can discriminate between young children fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normally developing children. Unlike other executive function rating instruments, the CHEXI focuses specifically on inhibitory control and working memory, without including items that overlap with the diagnostic criteria of ADHD. The CHEXI was found to discriminate very well between children fulfilling the criteria for ADHD and normally developing children, also when controlling for the effect of IQ and socioeconomic status (SES). Both sensitivity and specificity of the two CHEXI subscales were shown to be high using either parent or teacher ratings. The highest overall classification rate was found for parent ratings on the inhibition subscale, with sensitivity and specificity reaching 93.3. To summarize, the CHEXI should be considered a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD, although it is for future research to determine whether the CHEXI can be successfully used to also discriminate between different psychopathological groups. PMID:19381995

  15. Educational Technology and the Teaching of History: Promise, Practice, and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Judy D.; Clouse, R. Wilburn

    This paper reviews how history teachers use the myriad of tools catalogued under the rubric of technology. This review is limited to secondary settings, and considers the promise of technology, current practice regarding the use of technology in the classroom, and the possibilities in store for creative teachers through technology like hypermedia.…

  16. Promising Practices in Professional Growth & Support: "Case Study of Aspire Public Schools"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Four organizations with promising practices in teacher Professional Growth & Support have significantly raised outcomes for low-income students. The charter management networks, Achievement First and Aspire Public Schools, and the two reform organizations, Teach Plus and Agile Mind, have successfully increased student achievement with a…

  17. Promising Practices in Professional Growth & Support: "Case Study of Achievement First"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Four organizations with promising practices in teacher Professional Growth & Support have significantly raised outcomes for low-income students. The charter management networks, Achievement First and Aspire Public Schools, and the two reform organizations, Teach Plus and Agile Mind, have successfully increased student achievement with a…

  18. Promising Practices in Professional Growth & Support: "Case Study of Teach Plus"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Four organizations with promising practices in teacher Professional Growth & Support have significantly raised outcomes for low-income students. The charter management networks, Achievement First and Aspire Public Schools, and the two reform organizations, Teach Plus and Agile Mind, have successfully increased student achievement with a…

  19. Promising Practices in Professional Growth & Support: "Case Study of Agile Mind"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Four organizations with promising practices in teacher Professional Growth & Support have significantly raised outcomes for low-income students. The charter management networks, Achievement First and Aspire Public Schools, and the two reform organizations, Teach Plus and Agile Mind, have successfully increased student achievement with a…

  20. Education for Civic Engagement in Democracy: Service Learning and Other Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Sheilah, Ed.; Patrick, John J., Ed.

    This collection of essays and references addresses the problem of the disengagement in public affairs and politics by U.S. youth and young adults. The collection brings together evidence of youth disengagement and reports on promising practices for civic education. Several chapters are devoted to research findings on the impact of service and…

  1. Technology in the Classroom: Practice and Promise in the 21st Century. TESOL Professional Papers #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth

    The discussion of technology in the classroom, particularly for second language instruction, looks at: current practices in technology-enhanced schoolrooms or learning centers; benefits and liabilities of technology-mediated language learning; and the as yet unrealized promise of computer-assisted language learning for the student and the teacher.…

  2. The Transition to Kindergarten: A Review of Current Research and Promising Practices To Involve Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohan-Baker, Marielle; Little, Priscilla M. D.

    Noting the disconnect between what is known about the crucial role that transition plays in ensuring educational continuity and what is currently available in schools, the Harvard Family Research Project conducted a review of current research on the transition to kindergarten, focusing on promising transition practices and the role that schools…

  3. Educating Emotionally Disturbed Children--Promising Practices. Journal within a Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Robert, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Seven articles by educators with a variety of perspectives examine promising educational practices for use with children having emotional disturbances. Lee Bell offers strategies for using group activities in "All Together Now: Group Techniques for Teaching Students with Emotional Disturbances." Lyn Sarda and Rik Flynn discuss benefits and…

  4. Blending Learning: The Evolution of Online and Face-to-Face Education from 2008-2015. Promising Practices in Blended and Online Learning Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Allison; Watson, John; Staley, Patrick; Patrick, Susan; Horn, Michael; Fetzer, Leslie; Hibbard, Laura; Oglesby, Jonathan; Verma, Sue

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) produced a series of papers documenting promising practices identified throughout the field of K-12 online learning. Since then, we have witnessed a tremendous acceleration of transformative policy and practice driving personalized learning in the K-12 education space. State,…

  5. Training Frontline Staff. Supported Education: A Promising Practice. Evidence-Based Practices KIT (Knowledge Informing Transformation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Karen V.

    2011-01-01

    This four-part workbook will help program leaders teach education specialists the principles, processes, and skills necessary to deliver effective Supported Education services. The workbook includes the following: (1) Basic elements and practice principles of Supported Education; (2) Knowledge and skills to help consumers make informed choices…

  6. The Evidence. Supported Education: A Promising Practice. Evidence-Based Practices KIT (Knowledge Informing Transformation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Karen V.

    2011-01-01

    Supported Employment is an evidence-based practice that helps people with mental illness find and keep meaningful jobs in the community. Given these outcomes the challenge for Supported Employment programs is to rethink the emphasis on immediate work for everyone and help consumers utilize appropriate education and training opportunities available…

  7. Long-term care in the United States: policy themes and promising practices.

    PubMed

    Lehning, Amanda J; Austin, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    This analysis provides an overview of the major policy themes and promising practices emerging in recent years as policymakers and researchers struggle to design a long-term care system that meets the needs of an aging population. Themes that have dominated the long-term care policy debates include: recruiting and retaining a qualified long-term care workforce; devising financing mechanisms for those requiring long-term care; and moving away from an institutional-based long-term care system towards more home- and community-based services. Three promising practices that have emerged in the past few decades include: the culture change movement; service integration that combines medical and social care; and various forms of community residential care that bring together housing and services in a more home-like environment. It concludes with long-term care recommendations for policymakers. PMID:20029701

  8. Identifying Balanced Action Learning: Cases of South Korean Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; Bong, Hyeon-Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Despite considerable commitment to the application of action learning as leadership and organization development by a large number of Korean organizations, few identified empirical studies of action learning practices have been reported. The purpose of this study was to conduct case studies of South Korean action learning practices to examine…

  9. Identifying Balanced Action Learning: Cases of South Korean Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; Bong, Hyeon-Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Despite considerable commitment to the application of action learning as leadership and organization development by a large number of Korean organizations, few identified empirical studies of action learning practices have been reported. The purpose of this study was to conduct case studies of South Korean action learning practices to examine…

  10. Examination of Leadership Practices of Principals Identified as Servant Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tim; Martin, Barbara N.; Hutchinson, Sandy; Jinks, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the leadership practices of principals identified as servant leaders. The conceptual framework used to access the leadership behaviours was the leadership practices advocated by Kouzes and Posner. Statistical analysis included a multivariate test to determine if the demographic variables were significantly…

  11. Identifying Effective Classroom Practices Using Student Achievement Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Taylor, Eric S.; Tyler, John H.; Wooten, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    Research continues to find large differences in student achievement gains across teachers' classrooms. The variability in teacher effectiveness raises the stakes on identifying effective teachers and teaching practices. This paper combines data from classroom observations of teaching practices and measures of teachers' ability to improve student…

  12. Identifying, Documenting, Evaluating, and Sharing Innovative Classroom Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippitt, Ronald O.; Fox, Robert S.

    A survey of teaching practices and a face-to-face sharing institute were designed for an experiment to identify innovative practices, to legitimize the sharing of them, and to develop criteria for evaluating the relevance and importance of particular inventions. This experiment was part of a project involving a state organization of teachers and…

  13. Bonded labour practice in Nepal the promise of education as a magnet of child bondedness.

    PubMed

    Giri, Birendra Raj

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights that in Nepal, the promise of education seems to have become a magnet of child bondedness. After some government intervention in 2000, the haliya and kamaiya bonded labour practices have become a socially stigmatising matter for adults, and a legal hurdle for kisan (landlord) employers, but the practices continue. Both parties to these bonded labour practices seem to have found the idea of education as a safe meeting point. While parents send their children to work with the hope of obtaining education for them, besides other material benefits, employers seek to pay as little as possible and will often not give sufficient time to their young workers to study. Though most children have little or no say during the contract, they, too, are initially attracted by the promise of education. Based on detailed fieldwork, this article explores to what extent the largely unfulfilled educational aspirations for Musahar and Tharu working children can be seen as a restrained form of empowerment or a continuing system of bonded labour in Nepal. PMID:20648975

  14. The Promise of Virtual Teams: Identifying Key Factors in Effectiveness and Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Frank M.; Bravington, Desmond; Silvis, Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the investigation is to identify enabling and disenabling factors in the development and operation of virtual teams; to evaluate the importance of factors such as team development, cross-cultural variables, leadership, communication and social cohesion as contributors to virtual team effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach:…

  15. The Promise of Virtual Teams: Identifying Key Factors in Effectiveness and Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Frank M.; Bravington, Desmond; Silvis, Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the investigation is to identify enabling and disenabling factors in the development and operation of virtual teams; to evaluate the importance of factors such as team development, cross-cultural variables, leadership, communication and social cohesion as contributors to virtual team effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach:…

  16. VLSI Technology: Impact and Promise. Identifying Emerging Issues and Trends in Technology for Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayoumi, Magdy

    As part of a 3-year study to identify emerging issues and trends in technology for special education, this paper addresses the implications of very large scale integrated (VLSI) technology. The first section reviews the development of educational technology, particularly microelectronics technology, from the 1950s to the present. The implications…

  17. Integrating genomic and epigenomic information: a promising strategy for identifying functional DNA variants of human disease.

    PubMed

    Zaina, S; Lund, G

    2012-04-01

    In a clinical setting diagnosis, heritability, risk and outcome of human disease rely heavily on the use of markers present in specific tissues. In the past decade, the development of genome-wide, non-hypothesis driven methods to identify molecular markers associated with disease have led to the discovery of numerous genetic variations associated with specific human diseases, the majority of which map within non-coding regions of the genome. In parallel, whole-genome studies focused on the role of gene regulatory epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation and histone modifications are providing a conceptual framework for understanding the functional significance of sequence variation in human disease. This review highlights selected recent development in epigenetics and discusses their implications with respect to the identification of functional or novel single nucleotide polymorphisms. PMID:22292420

  18. Fostering Resilience among Urban Youth Exposed to Violence: A Promising Area for Interdisciplinary Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison K.

    2013-01-01

    Most studies to date have examined negative effects of exposure to community violence, in line with the deficit-based perspective. However, given that most youth exposed to community violence demonstrate positive adaptation or resilience over time, we suggest a shift in perspective, practices, and policies across systems toward identifying and…

  19. Fostering Resilience among Urban Youth Exposed to Violence: A Promising Area for Interdisciplinary Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison K.

    2013-01-01

    Most studies to date have examined negative effects of exposure to community violence, in line with the deficit-based perspective. However, given that most youth exposed to community violence demonstrate positive adaptation or resilience over time, we suggest a shift in perspective, practices, and policies across systems toward identifying and…

  20. Understanding Evidence-Based Information for the Early Childhood Field: Tips from RAND's Promising Practices Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattox, Teryn; Kilburn, M. Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    With the growing and diverse use of the term "evidence-based practice" it can be difficult for policymakers, funders, program officers, and other professionals to separate the good evidence from the flawed. Furthermore, once good evidence has been identified, it can be difficult to know how to use it. This article discusses key issues to consider…

  1. Fostering resilience among urban youth exposed to violence: a promising area for interdisciplinary research and practice.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison K

    2013-12-01

    Most studies to date have examined negative effects of exposure to community violence, in line with the deficit-based perspective. However, given that most youth exposed to community violence demonstrate positive adaptation or resilience over time, we suggest a shift in perspective, practices, and policies across systems toward identifying and building individual, family, and community assets and strengths that may more effectively support youth who have been exposed to community violence and related risks into competent, caring, and thriving adults. In this article, we review how resilience has been conceptualized and operationalized within the context of community violence, highlight gaps in literature, and offer directions for future public health research and practice. We illustrate this review with practice-based examples from public health work in the San Francisco Bay Area. Future multidisciplinary longitudinal studies that identify protective processes and successful trajectories and rigorous evaluations of strength-based policies, programs, and protective processes are needed. PMID:23818463

  2. ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENHANCING THE CONSERVATION AND SEQUESTRATION OF ATMOSPHERIC CARBON AND THEIR COSTS AT SITE LEVEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: ) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequesteri...

  3. Assessment of promising forest-management practices and technologies for enhancing the conservation and sequestration of atmospheric carbon and their costs at the site level

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.K.; Schroeder, P.E.; Winjum, J.K.

    1991-10-01

    The objectives of the report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: (1) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequestering and conserving carbon; (2) Assess available data on costs at the site level for promising forest and agroforestry management practices; and (3) Evaluate estimates of land technically suitable in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets and the proposed Global Forest Agreement goals.

  4. Interdisciplinary promises versus practices in medicine: the decoupled experiences of social sciences and humanities scholars.

    PubMed

    Albert, Mathieu; Paradis, Elise; Kuper, Ayelet

    2015-02-01

    This paper explores social scientists' and humanities (SSH) scholars' integration within the academic medical research environment. Three questions guided our investigation: Do SSH scholars adapt to the medical research environment? How do they navigate their career within a culture that may be inconsistent with their own? What strategies do they use to gain legitimacy? The study builds on three concepts: decoupling, doxa, and epistemic habitus. Twenty-nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with SSH scholars working in 11 faculties of medicine across Canada. Participants were selected through purposeful and snowball sampling. The data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. For most of our participants, moving into medicine has been a challenging experience, as their research practices and views of academic excellence collided with those of medicine. In order to achieve some level of legitimacy more than half of our participants altered their research practices. This resulted in a dissonance between their internalized appreciation of academic excellence and their new, altered, research practices. Only six participants experienced no form of challenge or dissonance after moving into medicine, while three decided to break with their social science and humanities past and make the medical research community their new home. We conclude that the work environment for SSH scholars in faculties of medicine does not deliver on the promise of inclusiveness made by calls for interdisciplinarity in Canadian health research. PMID:25500163

  5. Enacting the ‘neuro’ in practice: Translational research, adhesion and the promise of porosity

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This article attends to the processes through which neuroscience and the neuro are enacted in a specific context: a translational neuroscience research group that was the setting of an ethnographic study. The article therefore provides a close-up perspective on the intersection of neuroscience and translational research. In the scientific setting we studied, the neuro was multiple and irreducible to any particular entity or set of practices across a laboratory and clinical divide. Despite this multiplicity, the group’s work was held together through the ‘promise of porosity’ – that one day there would be translation of lab findings into clinically effective intervention. This promise was embodied in the figure of the Group Leader whose expertise spanned clinical and basic neurosciences. This is theorized in terms of a contrast between cohesion and adhesion in interdisciplinary groupings. We end by speculating on the role of ‘vivification’ – in our case mediated by the Group Leader – in rendering ‘alive’ the expectations of interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:25362829

  6. Enacting the 'neuro' in practice: translational research, adhesion and the promise of porosity.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Caragh; Michael, Mike

    2014-10-01

    This article attends to the processes through which neuroscience and the neuro are enacted in a specific context: a translational neuroscience research group that was the setting of an ethnographic study. The article therefore provides a close-up perspective on the intersection of neuroscience and translational research. In the scientific setting we studied, the neuro was multiple and irreducible to any particular entity or set of practices across a laboratory and clinical divide. Despite this multiplicity, the group's work was held together through the 'promise of porosity'--that one day there would be translation of lab findings into clinically effective intervention. This promise was embodied in the figure of the Group Leader whose expertise spanned clinical and basic neurosciences. This is theorized in terms of a contrast between cohesion and adhesion in interdisciplinary groupings. We end by speculating on the role of 'vivification'--in our case mediated by the Group Leader--in rendering 'alive' the expectations of interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:25362829

  7. Structural and practical identifiability analysis of S-system.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Choujun; Li, Benjamin Yee Shing; Yeung, Lam Fat

    2015-12-01

    In the field of systems biology, biological reaction networks are usually modelled by ordinary differential equations. A sub-class, the S-systems representation, is a widely used form of modelling. Existing S-systems identification techniques assume that the system itself is always structurally identifiable. However, due to practical limitations, biological reaction networks are often only partially measured. In addition, the captured data only covers a limited trajectory, therefore data can only be considered as a local snapshot of the system responses with respect to the complete set of state trajectories over the entire state space. Hence the estimated model can only reflect partial system dynamics and may not be unique. To improve the identification quality, the structural and practical identifiablility of S-system are studied. The S-system is shown to be identifiable under a set of assumptions. Then, an application on yeast fermentation pathway was conducted. Two case studies were chosen; where the first case is based on a larger state trajectories and the second case is based on a smaller one. By expanding the dataset which span a relatively larger state space, the uncertainty of the estimated system can be reduced. The results indicated that initial concentration is related to the practical identifiablity. PMID:26577163

  8. Innovations at Miami practice show promise for treating high-risk Medicare patients.

    PubMed

    Tanio, Craig; Chen, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Patients with five or more chronic conditions drive most Medicare costs. Our organization, ChenMed, developed a scalable primary care-led delivery model that focuses on this population while getting reimbursed through full-risk capitation by Medicare Advantage plans. ChenMed is a primary care-led group practice based in Florida that serves low-to-moderate-income elderly patients, largely through the Medicare Advantage program. Our model includes a number of innovations: a one-stop-shop approach for delivering multispecialty services in the community, smaller physician panel sizes of 350-450 patients that allow for intensive health coaching and preventive care, on-site physician pharmacy dispensing, a collaborative physician culture with peer review, and customized information technology. These innovations have improved patient medication adherence, increased the time doctors and patients spend together, and led to high rates of patient satisfaction. Additionally, our Medicare patients have substantially lower rates of hospital use than their peers in the Miami Medicare market. Creating chronic disease centers focused on seniors with multiple chronic conditions is a promising delivery system innovation with major potential to improve the cost and quality of care. PMID:23733982

  9. 'Personalized medicine' to identify genetic risks for type 2 diabetes and focus prevention: can it fulfill its promise?

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Allen M; Hawkins, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    Public health measures are required to address the worldwide increase in type 2 diabetes. Proponents of personalized medicine predict a future in which disease treatment and, more important, prevention will be tailored to high-risk individuals rather than populations and will be based on genetic and other new biomarker tests. Accurate biomarker tests to identify people at risk for diabetes could allow more-targeted and perhaps individualized prevention efforts. DNA variants conferring higher risk for type 2 diabetes have been identified. However, these account for only a small fraction of genetic risk, which limits their practical predictive value. Nor has identification of these variants yet led to new, individualized prevention methods. Further research is needed to identify genomic and other types of biomarkers that could accurately predict risk and facilitate targeted prevention. PMID:22232093

  10. The frontline clinical manager identifying direct reports' level of practice.

    PubMed

    Longo, M Anne; Roussel, Linda; Pennington, Sandra L; Hoying, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Patricia Benner applied the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition to describe and interpret skill acquisition and clinical judgment in nursing practice. Operational definitions for the 5 levels of her original Novice to Expert Theory were used by the study participants in a large Midwestern pediatric hospital to self-identify their level of practice. The frontline clinical managers of these direct care registered nurses (RNs) used the same tool to rate their direct reports. The aim of this portion of a larger study was to determine if the clinical manager's perception of their direct reports was the same as that of the RNs. The results of this study are being used by one study unit's clinical managers as the basis for implementing the Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model. The clinical managers work with their direct reports depending on the level of practice and the details of the task to be performed. One example is creating therapeutic relationships with each other and with families to ensure a safe environment for all. PMID:23934257

  11. The Promise of Technology for College Instruction: From Drill and Practice to Avatars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlenschmidt, Sally; Kacer, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Technology and its uses have undergone significant change in the past several decades. Although the technology of 2010 has changed in ways unimaginable in 1960, the promise of technology today is similar to the promise of technology then. The achievement of student learning seems more likely to lie in the minds of the people who use the technology…

  12. Identifying Reservoirs of Infection: A Conceptual and Practical Challenge

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Many infectious agents, especially those that cause emerging diseases, infect more than one host species. Managing reservoirs of multihost pathogens often plays a crucial role in effective disease control. However, reservoirs remain variously and loosely defined. We propose that reservoirs can only be understood with reference to defined target populations. Therefore, we define a reservoir as one or more epidemiologically connected populations or environments in which the pathogen can be permanently maintained and from which infection is transmitted to the defined target population. Existence of a reservoir is confirmed when infection within the target population cannot be sustained after all transmission between target and nontarget populations has been eliminated. When disease can be controlled solely by interventions within target populations, little knowledge of potentially complex reservoir infection dynamics is necessary for effective control. We discuss the practical value of different approaches that may be used to identify reservoirs in the field. PMID:12498665

  13. Playing Hopscotch in Inclusive Education Reform: Examining Promises and Limitations of Policy and Practice in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waitoller, Federico R.; Thorius, Kathleen King

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we provide commentary on the "state of play" of inclusive education in the United States. We focus on the promises and limitations of inter-related accountability- and market-driven policies and Response to Intervention (RTI) (Vaughn and Fuchs, 2003). We argue that these policies and practice have "hopscotched"…

  14. Case Study of Manor New Tech High School: Promising Practices in STEM Education for Comprehensive High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourgey, Hannah; Asiabanpour, Bahram; Fenimore, Carol

    2010-01-01

    The following paper culminates a year of research conducted by researchers at E[superscript 3] Alliance and Texas State University and sponsored by the National Science Foundation. The following reports on promising practices observed and reported at Manor New Tech High School (MNTH), a Texas Science Technology Engineering Mathematics (T-STEM)…

  15. Mini-ISES identifies promising carbafructopyranose-based salens for asymmetric catalysis: Tuning ligand shape via the anomeric effect

    PubMed Central

    Karukurichi, Kannan R.; Fei, Xiang; Swyka, Robert A.; Broussy, Sylvain; Shen, Weijun; Dey, Sangeeta; Roy, Sandip K.; Berkowitz, David B.

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces new methods of screening for and tuning chiral space and in so doing identifies a promising set of chiral ligands for asymmetric synthesis. The carbafructopyranosyl-1,2-diamine(s) and salens constructed therefrom are particularly compelling. It is shown that by removing the native anomeric effect in this ligand family, one can tune chiral ligand shape and improve chiral bias. This concept is demonstrated by a combination of (i) x-ray crystallographic structure determination, (ii) assessment of catalytic performance, and (iii) consideration of the anomeric effect and its underlying dipolar basis. The title ligands were identified by a new mini version of the in situ enzymatic screening (ISES) procedure through which catalyst-ligand combinations are screened in parallel, and information on relative rate and enantioselectivity is obtained in real time, without the need to quench reactions or draw aliquots. Mini-ISES brings the technique into the nanomole regime (200 to 350 nmol catalyst/20 μl organic volume) commensurate with emerging trends in reaction development/process chemistry. The best-performing β-d-carbafructopyranosyl-1,2-diamine–derived salen ligand discovered here outperforms the best known organometallic and enzymatic catalysts for the hydrolytic kinetic resolution of 3-phenylpropylene oxide, one of several substrates examined for which the ligand is “matched.” This ligand scaffold defines a new swath of chiral space, and anomeric effect tunability defines a new concept in shaping that chiral space. Both this ligand set and the anomeric shape-tuning concept are expected to find broad application, given the value of chiral 1,2-diamines and salens constructed from these in asymmetric catalysis. PMID:26501130

  16. A practical guideline for identifying research intent with projects that collect private, identifiable health information.

    PubMed

    Amdur, Robert J; Speers, Marjorie A

    2003-06-01

    Radiation oncologists frequently engage in activities that involve the collection and analysis of data from medical records. Access to health information is an ethical issue because, if not done according to appropriate guidelines, it constitutes an invasion of privacy or breach in confidentiality. To protect patients for the social harm that may result from medical record review, our society has established laws and regulations that apply to projects that require medical record review. A major branch point in the guidelines for such projects is whether private information will be collected for research or nonresearch purposes. However, a problem with discussing privacy protection in terms of a research versus nonresearch model is that it is difficult to make this distinction for many kinds of projects. The purpose of this paper is to establish a practical guideline that can be used to decide if a project that involves analysis of private, identifiable medical information should be considered research from the regulatory standpoint. PMID:12796610

  17. Power and promise of narrative for advancing physical therapist education and practice.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Bruce H; Jensen, Gail M; Delany, Clare M; Mostrom, Elizabeth; Knab, Mary; Jampel, Ann

    2015-06-01

    This perspective article provides a justification for and an overview of the use of narrative as a pedagogical tool for educators to help physical therapist students, residents, and clinicians develop skills of reflection and reflexivity in clinical practice. The use of narratives is a pedagogical approach that provides a reflective and interpretive framework for analyzing and making sense of texts, stories, and other experiences within learning environments. This article describes reflection as a well-established method to support critical analysis of clinical experiences; to assist in uncovering different perspectives of patients, families, and health care professionals involved in patient care; and to broaden the epistemological basis (ie, sources of knowledge) for clinical practice. The article begins by examining how phronetic (ie, practical and contextual) knowledge and ethical knowledge are used in physical therapy to contribute to evidence-based practice. Narrative is explored as a source of phronetic and ethical knowledge that is complementary but irreducible to traditional objective and empirical knowledge-the type of clinical knowledge that forms the basis of scientific training. The central premise is that writing narratives is a cognitive skill that should be learned and practiced to develop critical reflection for expert practice. The article weaves theory with practical application and strategies to foster narrative in education and practice. The final section of the article describes the authors' experiences with examples of integrating the tools of narrative into an educational program, into physical therapist residency programs, and into a clinical practice. PMID:25524869

  18. Laminin, gamma 2 (LAMC2): a promising new putative pancreatic cancer biomarker identified by proteomic analysis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues.

    PubMed

    Kosanam, Hari; Prassas, Ioannis; Chrystoja, Caitlin C; Soleas, Ireena; Chan, Alison; Dimitromanolakis, Apostolos; Blasutig, Ivan M; Rückert, Felix; Gruetzmann, Robert; Pilarsky, Christian; Maekawa, Masato; Brand, Randall; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2013-10-01

    In pancreatic cancer, the incidence and mortality curves coincide. One major reason for this high mortality rate in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients is the dearth of effective diagnostic, prognostic, and disease-monitoring biomarkers. Unfortunately, existing tumor markers, as well as current imaging modalities, are not sufficiently sensitive and/or specific for early-stage diagnosis. There is, therefore, an urgent need for improved serum markers of the disease. Herein, we performed Orbitrap® mass spectrometry proteomic analysis of four PDAC tissues and their adjacent benign tissues and identified a total of 2190 nonredundant proteins. Sixteen promising candidates were selected for further scrutiny using a systematic scoring algorithm. Our preliminary serum verification of the top four candidates (DSP, LAMC2, GP73, and DSG2) in 20 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and 20 with benign pancreatic cysts, showed a significant (p < 0.05) elevation of LAMC2 in pancreatic cancer serum. Extensive validation of LAMC2 in healthy, benign, and PDAC sera from geographically diverse cohorts (n = 425) (Japan, Europe, and USA) demonstrated a significant increase in levels in early-stage PDAC compared with benign diseases. The sensitivity of LAMC2 was comparable to CA19.9 in all data sets, with an AUC value greater than 0.85 in discriminating healthy patients from early-stage PDAC patients. LAMC2 exhibited diagnostic complementarity with CA19.9 by showing significant (p < 0.001 in two out of three cohorts) elevation in PDAC patients with clinically low CA19.9 levels. PMID:23798558

  19. Pursuing Promise Neighborhoods: With or without the Grant Program. A Center Policy & Practice Brief. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The federal "Promise Neighborhoods" program underscores the importance of all children and youth having "access to great schools and strong systems of family and community support that will prepare them to attain an excellent education and successfully transition to college and a career." From this perspective, this brief stresses the importance…

  20. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Lessons Learned from Manufacturing and Automotive Career Pathway Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from automotive and…

  1. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Hands-On Multidisciplinary Career Exploration and Mentorships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from…

  2. Identifying and Extinguishing Dysfunctional and Deadly Organizational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawhinney, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    It is possible to define an organization's culture in terms of its dominant behavioral practices and their molar consequences, from the shop floor to the executive suite (Redmon & Mason, 2001). Dysfunctional and potentially deadly practices (for the organization as a whole) can be "latent." They often go undetected until their dramatic…

  3. Identifying and Extinguishing Dysfunctional and Deadly Organizational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawhinney, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    It is possible to define an organization's culture in terms of its dominant behavioral practices and their molar consequences, from the shop floor to the executive suite (Redmon & Mason, 2001). Dysfunctional and potentially deadly practices (for the organization as a whole) can be "latent." They often go undetected until their dramatic…

  4. Innovative Contextualized Curriculum for a CNA to LPN Bridge Course. Promising Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Community College Research and Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As a pilot site selected to participate in Illinois' Shifting Gears (SG) initiative in 2007, Oakton Community College (OCC) partnered with Presbyterian Homes to develop a bridge course to prepare a cadre of their employed Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) to enter college-credit prerequisite courses to a Practical Nursing program. Oakton…

  5. Research-Practice Interactions as Reported in Recent Design Studies: Still Promising, Still Hazy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Bart J. B.; Pareja Roblin, Natalie N.; McKenney, Susan E.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    This study portrays recent research-practice connections found in 18 design research reports focusing on the creation of instructional solutions. Solutions in different stages of development varied greatly in duration, ranging from one lesson to a whole year curriculum, spanned all levels of education, many subjects (science, math, language,…

  6. Promising Homework Practices: Teachers' Perspectives on Making Homework Work for Newcomer Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Hee Jin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the homework practices of eight teachers working in a high school designed to serve newcomer immigrant students. Individual structured interviews were conducted in which teachers working in an innovative setting explained their purposes of assigning homework, their beliefs about factors affecting their students' homework…

  7. From Person-in-Environment to Strengths: The Promise of Postmodern Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dybicz, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Social work relies heavily on its value base to guide practice; however, there are no conceptual models--on par with person-in-environment (PIE)--to describe how these values are implemented within an evidence-based approach. However, the philosophical foundation of empiricism and positivism that lends PIE its strength also brings with it inherent…

  8. Promising Homework Practices: Teachers' Perspectives on Making Homework Work for Newcomer Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Hee Jin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the homework practices of eight teachers working in a high school designed to serve newcomer immigrant students. Individual structured interviews were conducted in which teachers working in an innovative setting explained their purposes of assigning homework, their beliefs about factors affecting their students' homework…

  9. From Person-in-Environment to Strengths: The Promise of Postmodern Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dybicz, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Social work relies heavily on its value base to guide practice; however, there are no conceptual models--on par with person-in-environment (PIE)--to describe how these values are implemented within an evidence-based approach. However, the philosophical foundation of empiricism and positivism that lends PIE its strength also brings with it inherent…

  10. Promising Practices for Community College Developmental Education: A Discussion Resource for the Connecticut Community College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy; Jenkins, Davis

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes key findings from the literature on effective developmental education practice. It is designed to promote discussion among community college educators and state agency staff in Connecticut as they consider how to improve outcomes for their many students who are academically unprepared to succeed in college. One common theme…

  11. The Promise and Practice of Pragmatism-Based Music Education in Democratic Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, J. Scott

    2013-01-01

    In his book, "What's So Important about Music Education?" (2010), Goble J. Scott argues from a foundation of C. S. Peirce's pragmatist philosophy that school music education that enables students to understand and engage with the musical practices (or "praxes") of different cultural communities in terms of their…

  12. Technological Advances in the Treatment of Trauma: A Review of Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Lisa A.; Hassija, Christina M.; Clapp, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    Given the availability of empirically supported practices for addressing posttraumatic stress disorder and other forms of trauma-related distress, the development and implementation of new technology to deliver these treatments is exciting. Technological innovations in this literature aim to expand availability of empirically based intervention,…

  13. Promising Practices to Meet Global Challenges in Science and Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Donna F., Ed.; White, Arthur L., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The chapters in this book reflect the work of science and mathematics educators who have worked for many years at the international level. As members of the International Consortium for Research in Science and Mathematics Education, their work provides readers with issues, models, practices, and research results that have applicability and…

  14. GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The assessment produced productivity and cost data for forest and agroforestry management practices in 94 nations. hat is, out of a total of 140 nations in the world with forest resources, about two-thirds are represented in the database at present. he total forest and woodland a...

  15. Promising Practices for Effective Transition for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Mackiewicz, Sara Moore

    2012-01-01

    Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (E/BD) have been consistently experiencing dismal outcomes. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of outcomes for this population, examine school-based instructional and behavioral strategies, and discuss transition related practices intended to improve present and future…

  16. Proteomics in clinical trials and practice: present uses and future promise.

    PubMed

    Azad, Nilofer S; Rasool, Nabila; Annunziata, Christina M; Minasian, Lori; Whiteley, Gordon; Kohn, Elise C

    2006-10-01

    The study of clinical proteomics is a promising new field that has the potential to have many applications, including the identification of biomarkers and monitoring of disease, especially in the field of oncology. Expression proteomics evaluates the cellular production of proteins encoded by a particular gene and exploits the differential expression and post-translational modifications of proteins between healthy and diseased states. These biomarkers may be applied towards early diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of response to therapy. Functional proteomics seeks to decipher protein-protein interactions and biochemical pathways involved in disease biology and targeted by newer molecular therapeutics. Advanced spectrometry technologies and new protein array formats have improved these analyses and are now being applied prospectively in clinical trials. Further advancement of proteomics technology could usher in an era of personalized molecular medicine, where diseases are diagnosed at earlier stages and where therapies are more effective because they are tailored to the protein expression of a patient's malignancy. PMID:16737951

  17. Keeping Promises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Gregory A.

    2005-01-01

    Commitments are between people, not schedules. Project management as practiced today creates a "commitment-free zone," because it assumes that people will commit to centrally managed schedules without providing a mechanism to ensure their work can be done. So they give it their best, but something always seems to come up ..."I tried, but you know how it is." This form of project management does not provide a mechanism to ensure that what should be done, can in fact be done at the required moment. Too often, promises reliable promise. made in coordination meetings are conditional and unreliable. It has been my experience that at times trust can be low and hard to build in this environment. The absence of reliable promises explains why on well-run projects, people are often only completing 30-50 percent of the deliverables they d promised for the week. We all know what a promise is; we have plenty of experience making them and receiving them from others. So what s the problem? The sad fact is that the project environment-like many other work environments- is often so filled with systemic dishonesty, that we don t expect promises that are reliable. Project managers excel when they manage their projects as networks of commitments and help their people learn to elicit and make reliable promises.

  18. Payment and Pricing Plans: Survey Identifies Most Common Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, David M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 787 colleges and universities investigated institutions' payment and pricing practices designed to attract and retain students. Issues examined include acceptance of credit cards, cash discounts, prepayment options, differential pricing based on credits or programs, and the rationales for and results of the policies. Results reflect…

  19. The Promise of Response to Intervention: Evaluating Current Science and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Todd A., Ed.; Vaughn, Sharon, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    As response to intervention (RTI) is adopted by increasing numbers of schools and districts, knowledge about "what works" continues to grow. This much-needed book analyzes the key components of RTI service delivery and identifies the characteristics of successful implementation. Critically reviewing the available research, leading authorities…

  20. Promising and Proven Substance Abuse Prevention Programs. Guide to Science-Based Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    For more than a decade, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrations Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) has supported demonstration programs designed to identify interventions that work with populations at high risk to prevent substance abuse, delay its onset, and reduce substance abuse-related behaviors. Research now…

  1. The Promise of Response to Intervention: Evaluating Current Science and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Todd A., Ed.; Vaughn, Sharon, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    As response to intervention (RTI) is adopted by increasing numbers of schools and districts, knowledge about "what works" continues to grow. This much-needed book analyzes the key components of RTI service delivery and identifies the characteristics of successful implementation. Critically reviewing the available research, leading authorities…

  2. California Child Care and Development Compensation Study: Towards Promising Policy and Practice. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; And Others

    There is evidence that increasing the compensation of child care workers improves the quality of child care. This study was funded by the Child Development Division of the California Department of Education to identify policy options addressing the improvement of compensation for staff working in child care and development programs. The report…

  3. Identifying the Gifted: A Theory-Practice Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarborough, Betty H.; Johnson, Roger A.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of 87 gifted programs, identified as outstanding by 36 State Departments of Education, indicated such results as that achievement tests, and not recommended behavioral procedures, were used to ascertain giftedness in 82 percent of programs. (MC)

  4. Toward developmentally aware practices in the legal system: Progress, challenge, and promise.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Michael E

    2015-11-01

    Much research in developmental psychology has implications for practice and policy. In this article, I first describe how initial attempts to understand early social development and embrace multidisciplinary perspectives helped inform more nuanced approaches to the development of parenting plans for children with separating and maltreating parents. Second, I trace the ways in which notorious child abuse cases fostered research on children's testimonial capacities, which, in turn, informed the development of more effective forensic interview techniques. Progress in these domains has, however, been offset by failures to apply similar developmentally sensitive principles when dealing with children classified as suspects rather than victims, with children who testify in court, and with children in the child welfare system. PMID:26618946

  5. Promising clinical practices of metformin in women with PCOS and early-stage endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Ruijin; Li, Xin; Billig, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a high risk of developing endometrial cancer (EC). There is an urgent need for non-surgical prevention and treatment strategies for these patients who fail to respond to progesterone treatment and wish to preserve their fertility. Recently, we have reported that the combined treatment with metformin and progesterone-based oral contraceptives has successfully reversed the early-stage EC into normal endometria in addition to improvement of insulin resistance in women with PCOS. More importantly, one of these treated women has successfully delivered a healthy newborn baby. However, before such treatment can be recommended to the clinical practice, the molecular basis of metformin in the endometrium under physiological and pathological conditions must be elucidated.

  6. Promise and dismay: The state of strategic environmental assessment systems and practices in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, Bram F.

    2009-01-15

    Has strategic environmental assessment (SEA) finally reached a point of maturity in Canada? Or, is it still stumbling to find its place in the impact assessment family? Strategic environmental assessment has been ongoing in Canada for a number of years, both formally and informally, and under a variety of labels and institutional models. The result is a system of SEA that is diverse, founded on a range of principles and frameworks, and not well understood. This paper provides a critical review of Canadian SEA systems and practices. To accomplish this objective, a manageable and diverse set of past and recent SEA and SEA-like frameworks and applications are described and critically analyzed based on a set of input, process, and output evaluation criteria. Results suggest considerable variability in SEA experience and value added. This is due in large part to the institutional and methodological pluralism of SEA, the boundaries of which are not well defined. Under the federal system, since the formalization of SEA, many applications have been disappointing in light of broader SEA good-practice principles and criteria. Indeed, some of the better examples of SEA have neither carried the SEA name tag nor occurred under formal SEA requirements. Further, many of the same challenges to project-based impact assessment also plague the development and value added of SEA. Of particular concern is the systematic separation of SEA from downstream decision inputs and assessment activities. As Canada commences review of its federal SEA Directive in preparation for the next generation of SEA, this paper reflects on what it has achieved in the prior.

  7. Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice

    PubMed Central

    Guerry, Anne D.; Polasky, Stephen; Lubchenco, Jane; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Daily, Gretchen C.; Griffin, Robert; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Bateman, Ian J.; Duraiappah, Anantha; Elmqvist, Thomas; Feldman, Marcus W.; Folke, Carl; Hoekstra, Jon; Kareiva, Peter M.; Keeler, Bonnie L.; Li, Shuzhuo; McKenzie, Emily; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Reyers, Belinda; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Rockström, Johan; Tallis, Heather; Vira, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides into decision-making. We explore progress and crucial gaps at this frontier, reflecting upon the 10 y since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We focus on three key dimensions of progress and ongoing challenges: raising awareness of the interdependence of ecosystems and human well-being, advancing the fundamental interdisciplinary science of ecosystem services, and implementing this science in decisions to restore natural capital and use it sustainably. Awareness of human dependence on nature is at an all-time high, the science of ecosystem services is rapidly advancing, and talk of natural capital is now common from governments to corporate boardrooms. However, successful implementation is still in early stages. We explore why ecosystem service information has yet to fundamentally change decision-making and suggest a path forward that emphasizes: (i) developing solid evidence linking decisions to impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services, and then to human well-being; (ii) working closely with leaders in government, business, and civil society to develop the knowledge, tools, and practices necessary to integrate natural capital and ecosystem services into everyday decision-making; and (iii) reforming institutions to change policy and practices to better align private short-term goals with societal long-term goals. PMID:26082539

  8. Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice.

    PubMed

    Guerry, Anne D; Polasky, Stephen; Lubchenco, Jane; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Daily, Gretchen C; Griffin, Robert; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Bateman, Ian J; Duraiappah, Anantha; Elmqvist, Thomas; Feldman, Marcus W; Folke, Carl; Hoekstra, Jon; Kareiva, Peter M; Keeler, Bonnie L; Li, Shuzhuo; McKenzie, Emily; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Reyers, Belinda; Ricketts, Taylor H; Rockström, Johan; Tallis, Heather; Vira, Bhaskar

    2015-06-16

    The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides into decision-making. We explore progress and crucial gaps at this frontier, reflecting upon the 10 y since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We focus on three key dimensions of progress and ongoing challenges: raising awareness of the interdependence of ecosystems and human well-being, advancing the fundamental interdisciplinary science of ecosystem services, and implementing this science in decisions to restore natural capital and use it sustainably. Awareness of human dependence on nature is at an all-time high, the science of ecosystem services is rapidly advancing, and talk of natural capital is now common from governments to corporate boardrooms. However, successful implementation is still in early stages. We explore why ecosystem service information has yet to fundamentally change decision-making and suggest a path forward that emphasizes: (i) developing solid evidence linking decisions to impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services, and then to human well-being; (ii) working closely with leaders in government, business, and civil society to develop the knowledge, tools, and practices necessary to integrate natural capital and ecosystem services into everyday decision-making; and (iii) reforming institutions to change policy and practices to better align private short-term goals with societal long-term goals. PMID:26082539

  9. Registry to Referral: A Promising Means for Identifying and Referring Infants and Toddlers for Early Intervention Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farel, Anita M.; Meyer, Robert E.; Hicken, Margaret; Edmonds, Larry

    2003-01-01

    This article proposes use of birth defects registries in facilitating early intervention. It reports results of a survey to identify state programs that are using, or planning to use, birth defects surveillance systems to identify and refer children and families for services. It provides four case examples and recommended steps to encourage use of…

  10. Registry to Referral: A Promising Means for Identifying and Referring Infants and Toddlers for Early Intervention Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farel, Anita M.; Meyer, Robert E.; Hicken, Margaret; Edmonds, Larry

    2003-01-01

    This article proposes use of birth defects registries in facilitating early intervention. It reports results of a survey to identify state programs that are using, or planning to use, birth defects surveillance systems to identify and refer children and families for services. It provides four case examples and recommended steps to encourage use of…

  11. Promising practices for delivery of court-supervised substance abuse treatment: Perspectives from six high-performing California counties operating Proposition 36

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Elizabeth; Anglin, M. Douglas; Urada, Darren; Yang, Joy

    2010-01-01

    Operative for nearly a decade, California's voter-initiated Proposition 36 program offers many offenders community-based substance abuse treatment in lieu of likely incarceration. Research has documented program successes and plans for replication have proliferated, yet very little is known about how the Proposition 36 program works or practices for achieving optimal program outcomes. In this article, we identify policies and practices that key stakeholders perceive to be most responsible for the successful delivery of court-supervised substance abuse treatment to offenders under Proposition 36. Data was collected via focus groups conducted with 59 county stakeholders in six high-performing counties during 2009. Discussion was informed by seven empirical indicators of program performance and outcomes and was focused on identifying and describing elements contributing to success. Program success was primarily attributed to four strategies, those that: (1) fostered program engagement, monitored participant progress, and sustained cooperation among participants; (2) cultivated buy-in among key stakeholders; (3) capitalized on the role of the court and the judge; and (4) created a setting which promoted a high-quality treatment system, utilization of existing resources, and broad financial and political support for the program. Goals and practices for implementing each strategy are discussed. Findings provide a “promising practices” resource for Proposition 36 program evaluation and improvement and inform the design and study of other similar types of collaborative justice treatment efforts. PMID:20965568

  12. Promising practices for delivery of court-supervised substance abuse treatment: perspectives from six high-performing California counties operating Proposition 36.

    PubMed

    Evans, Elizabeth; Anglin, M Douglas; Urada, Darren; Yang, Joy

    2011-05-01

    Operative for nearly a decade, California's voter-initiated Proposition 36 program offers many offenders community-based substance abuse treatment in lieu of likely incarceration. Research has documented program successes and plans for replication have proliferated, yet very little is known about how the Proposition 36 program works or practices for achieving optimal program outcomes. In this article, we identify policies and practices that key stakeholders perceive to be most responsible for the successful delivery of court-supervised substance abuse treatment to offenders under Proposition 36. Data was collected via focus groups conducted with 59 county stakeholders in six high-performing counties during 2009. Discussion was informed by seven empirical indicators of program performance and outcomes and was focused on identifying and describing elements contributing to success. Program success was primarily attributed to four strategies, those that: (1) fostered program engagement, monitored participant progress, and sustained cooperation among participants; (2) cultivated buy-in among key stakeholders; (3) capitalized on the role of the court and the judge; and (4) created a setting which promoted a high-quality treatment system, utilization of existing resources, and broad financial and political support for the program. Goals and practices for implementing each strategy are discussed. Findings provide a "promising practices" resource for Proposition 36 program evaluation and improvement and inform the design and study of other similar types of collaborative justice treatment efforts. PMID:20965568

  13. From promise to practice: pairing non-invasive sampling with genomics in conservation.

    PubMed

    Russello, Michael A; Waterhouse, Matthew D; Etter, Paul D; Johnson, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Conservation genomics has become an increasingly popular term, yet it remains unclear whether the non-invasive sampling that is essential for many conservation-related studies is compatible with the minimum requirements for harnessing next-generation sequencing technologies. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of using genotyping-by-sequencing of non-invasively collected hair samples to simultaneously identify and genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a climate-sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). We identified and genotyped 3,803 high-confidence SNPs across eight sites distributed along two elevational transects using starting DNA amounts as low as 1 ng. Fifty-five outlier loci were detected as candidate gene regions under divergent selection, constituting potential targets for future validation. Genome-wide estimates of gene diversity significantly and positively correlated with elevation across both transects, with all low elevation sites exhibiting significant heterozygote deficit likely due to inbreeding. More broadly, our results highlight a range of issues that must be considered when pairing genomic data collection with non-invasive sampling, particularly related to field sampling protocols for minimizing exogenous DNA, data collection strategies and quality control steps for enhancing target organism yield, and analytical approaches for maximizing cost-effectiveness and information content of recovered genomic data. PMID:26244114

  14. From promise to practice: pairing non-invasive sampling with genomics in conservation

    PubMed Central

    Waterhouse, Matthew D.; Etter, Paul D.; Johnson, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation genomics has become an increasingly popular term, yet it remains unclear whether the non-invasive sampling that is essential for many conservation-related studies is compatible with the minimum requirements for harnessing next-generation sequencing technologies. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of using genotyping-by-sequencing of non-invasively collected hair samples to simultaneously identify and genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a climate-sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). We identified and genotyped 3,803 high-confidence SNPs across eight sites distributed along two elevational transects using starting DNA amounts as low as 1 ng. Fifty-five outlier loci were detected as candidate gene regions under divergent selection, constituting potential targets for future validation. Genome-wide estimates of gene diversity significantly and positively correlated with elevation across both transects, with all low elevation sites exhibiting significant heterozygote deficit likely due to inbreeding. More broadly, our results highlight a range of issues that must be considered when pairing genomic data collection with non-invasive sampling, particularly related to field sampling protocols for minimizing exogenous DNA, data collection strategies and quality control steps for enhancing target organism yield, and analytical approaches for maximizing cost-effectiveness and information content of recovered genomic data. PMID:26244114

  15. Identifying best practices in short-term eruption forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, John; Marzocchi, Warner; Papale, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Volcano Observatory Best Practices Workshop: Near-Term Eruption Forecasting; Erice, Italy, 11-15 September 2011 Eighty volcanologists associated with volcano observatories in 27 countries gathered at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in Italy to share experiences and develop synergy in shortterm forecasting of eruptions. The meeting was conducted under the aegis of the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO); sponsored by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI); and endorsed by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

  16. Leadership attributes identified by practicing occupational health nurses.

    PubMed

    Murray, M B; Hill, J

    1992-10-01

    This study examined which theoretical approaches to leadership occupational health nurses perceive as most desirable. The trait approach dominates in North American research literature, with occupational health nurses favoring the more traditional leadership attributes of "visionary," "intellectually creative," and "strong linguistic ability." Australian occupational health nurses identified the managerial character traits of "being well informed," "good communication skills," and "objective decision maker" as most appropriate traits of good leaders. Occupational health nurses need to develop alternative leadership approaches to acquire effective political and organizational strategies in today's competitive environment. PMID:1463549

  17. Genome Wide Association Study Identifies 20 Novel Promising Genes Associated with Milk Fatty Acid Traits in Chinese Holstein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin; Li, Yanhua; Qiao, Lv

    2014-01-01

    Detecting genes associated with milk fat composition could provide valuable insights into the complex genetic networks of genes underling variation in fatty acids synthesis and point towards opportunities for changing milk fat composition via selective breeding. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 22 milk fatty acids in 784 Chinese Holstein cows with the PLINK software. Genotypes were obtained with the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead chip and a total of 40,604 informative, high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used. Totally, 83 genome-wide significant SNPs and 314 suggestive significant SNPs associated with 18 milk fatty acid traits were detected. Chromosome regions that affect milk fatty acid traits were mainly observed on BTA1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26 and 27. Of these, 146 SNPs were associated with more than one milk fatty acid trait; most of studied fatty acid traits were significant associated with multiple SNPs, especially C18:0 (105 SNPs), C18 index (93 SNPs), and C14 index (84 SNPs); Several SNPs are close to or within the DGAT1, SCD1 and FASN genes which are well-known to affect milk composition traits of dairy cattle. Combined with the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions of the genes, 20 novel promising candidates for C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C14 index, C18:0, C18:1n9c, C18 index, SFA, UFA and SFA/UFA were found, which composed of HTR1B, CPM, PRKG1, MINPP1, LIPJ, LIPK, EHHADH, MOGAT1, ECHS1, STAT1, SORBS1, NFKB2, AGPAT3, CHUK, OSBPL8, PRLR, IGF1R, ACSL3, GHR and OXCT1. Our findings provide a groundwork for unraveling the key genes and causal mutations affecting milk fatty acid traits in dairy cattle. PMID:24858810

  18. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of underfortified products and enforcement of applicable fortification standards. Only by taking concrete steps to improve the entire regulatory system that is built on a cooperative working relationship between regulatory agencies and food producers will a nutrition strategy that uses fortification see its intended health effects. PMID:26374804

  19. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices.

    PubMed

    Luthringer, Corey L; Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-09-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of underfortified products and enforcement of applicable fortification standards. Only by taking concrete steps to improve the entire regulatory system that is built on a cooperative working relationship between regulatory agencies and food producers will a nutrition strategy that uses fortification see its intended health effects. PMID:26374804

  20. Promising Practices in CTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Standards Branch.

    This document contains 85 articles taken from previously published issues of the "CTS Communication Network Update," a publication about the career and technology studies (CTS) program of career education designed for Alberta, Canada, high school juniors and seniors. Following an introductory section and a section on general CTS, the document…

  1. From Promise to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Richard

    2008-01-01

    For the last year, an independent panel chaired by Sir Adrian Webb has been evaluating the role of the further education (FE) sector in the delivery of education, lifelong learning, and skills in Wales. The challenges facing the panel were considerable and its remit broader than that of the Foster review in England. In response, the final report…

  2. Global tyrosine kinome profiling of human thyroid tumors identifies Src as a promising target for invasive cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Nancy L.; Lin, Chi-Iou; Du, Jinyan; Whang, Edward E.; Ito, Hiromichi; Moore, Francis D.; Ruan, Daniel T.

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinome profiling is a novel technique for identifying activated kinases in human cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Src activity is increased in invasive thyroid cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of Src activity decreased proliferation and invasion in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Further investigation of Src targeted therapies in thyroid cancer is warranted. -- Abstract: Background: Novel therapies are needed for the treatment of invasive thyroid cancers. Aberrant activation of tyrosine kinases plays an important role in thyroid oncogenesis. Because current targeted therapies are biased toward a small subset of tyrosine kinases, we conducted a study to reveal novel therapeutic targets for thyroid cancer using a bead-based, high-throughput system. Methods: Thyroid tumors and matched normal tissues were harvested from twenty-six patients in the operating room. Protein lysates were analyzed using the Luminex immunosandwich, a bead-based kinase phosphorylation assay. Data was analyzed using GenePattern 3.0 software and clustered according to histology, demographic factors, and tumor status regarding capsular invasion, size, lymphovascular invasion, and extrathyroidal extension. Survival and invasion assays were performed to determine the effect of Src inhibition in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) cells. Results: Tyrosine kinome profiling demonstrated upregulation of nine tyrosine kinases in tumors relative to matched normal thyroid tissue: EGFR, PTK6, BTK, HCK, ABL1, TNK1, GRB2, ERK, and SRC. Supervised clustering of well-differentiated tumors by histology, gender, age, or size did not reveal significant differences in tyrosine kinase activity. However, supervised clustering by the presence of invasive disease showed increased Src activity in invasive tumors relative to non-invasive tumors (60% v. 0%, p < 0.05). In vitro, we found that Src inhibition in PTC cells decreased cell invasion and proliferation. Conclusion: Global kinome analysis enables the discovery of novel targets for thyroid cancer therapy. Further investigation of Src targeted therapy for advanced thyroid cancer is warranted.

  3. Identifying Student Competencies in Macro Practice: Articulating the Practice Wisdom of Field Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regehr, Cheryl; Bogo, Marion; Donovan, Kirsten; Lim, April; Anstice, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Although a growing literature examines competencies in clinical practice, competencies of students in macro social work practice have received comparatively little attention. A grounded-theory methodology was used to elicit field instructor views of student competencies in community, organization, and policy contexts. Competencies described by…

  4. Identifying Student Competencies in Macro Practice: Articulating the Practice Wisdom of Field Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regehr, Cheryl; Bogo, Marion; Donovan, Kirsten; Lim, April; Anstice, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Although a growing literature examines competencies in clinical practice, competencies of students in macro social work practice have received comparatively little attention. A grounded-theory methodology was used to elicit field instructor views of student competencies in community, organization, and policy contexts. Competencies described by…

  5. Addressing language barriers in client-centered health promotion: lessons learned and promising practices from Texas WIC.

    PubMed

    Seth, Jennifer Greenberg; Isbell, Matthew G; Atwood, Robin Dochen; Ray, Tara C

    2015-05-01

    The growing population of nonnative English speakers in the United States challenges program planners to offer services that will effectively reach limited English proficiency (LEP) audiences. This article presents findings from evaluation research conducted with the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) to identify best practices and areas of concern for working with LEP clients. Data were collected through online surveys of 338 WIC teaching staff in 2010 and 65 WIC local agency directors in 2011 as part of an implementation evaluation of client-centered nutrition education. Data identified current practices, facilitating factors, and challenges in working with LEP clients. Facilitating factors included cultural competency, material and translation resources, linguistic competency, professional development opportunities, and rapport with clients. Challenges cited included linguistic challenges, lack of cultural competencies, issues related to the client-staff interaction, and insufficient time, materials, and staffing. Best practices inferred from the data relate to developing linguistic standards for bilingual staff, considerations for translating written materials, interpretation services, cultural competency, and staff training. Findings may help inform the development of this and other linguistically and culturally appropriate health promotion programs. PMID:25445982

  6. Promising Perceptions, Divergent Practices and Barriers to Integrated Malaria Prevention in Wakiso District, Uganda: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Musoke, David; Miiro, George; Karani, George; Morris, Keith; Kasasa, Simon; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Guwatudde, David; Musoke, Miph Boses

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization recommends use of multiple approaches to control malaria. The integrated approach to malaria prevention advocates the use of several malaria prevention methods in a holistic manner. This study assessed perceptions and practices on integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda. Methods A clustered cross-sectional survey was conducted among 727 households from 29 villages using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Assessment was done on awareness of various malaria prevention methods, potential for use of the methods in a holistic manner, and reasons for dislike of certain methods. Households were classified as using integrated malaria prevention if they used at least two methods. Logistic regression was used to test for factors associated with the use of integrated malaria prevention while adjusting for clustering within villages. Results Participants knew of the various malaria prevention methods in the integrated approach including use of insecticide treated nets (97.5%), removing mosquito breeding sites (89.1%), clearing overgrown vegetation near houses (97.9%), and closing windows and doors early in the evenings (96.4%). If trained, most participants (68.6%) would use all the suggested malaria prevention methods of the integrated approach. Among those who would not use all methods, the main reasons given were there being too many (70.2%) and cost (32.0%). Only 33.0% households were using the integrated approach to prevent malaria. Use of integrated malaria prevention by households was associated with reading newspapers (AOR 0.34; 95% CI 0.22 –0.53) and ownership of a motorcycle/car (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.03 – 2.98). Conclusion Although knowledge of malaria prevention methods was high and perceptions on the integrated approach promising, practices on integrated malaria prevention was relatively low. The use of the integrated approach can be improved by promoting use of multiple malaria prevention methods through various communication channels such as mass media. PMID:25837978

  7. The direct support workforce in community supports to individuals with developmental disabilities: issues, implications, and promising practices.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Amy; Larson, Sheryl

    2007-01-01

    Difficulties in finding, keeping, and ensuring the competence of the direct support workforce in community developmental disability services has long been a challenge for individuals, families, providers, and policy makers. Direct support staff recruitment, retention, and competence are widely reported as one of the most significant barriers to the sustainability, growth, and quality of community services for people with developmental disabilities (ANCOR [2001] State of the states report. Alexandria, VA: ANCOR; Colorado Department of Human Services, [2000] Response to Footnote 106 of the FY 2001 appropriations long bill: Capacity of the community services systems for persons with developmental disabilities in Colorado; Hewitt [2000] Dynamics of the workforce crisis. Presentation at the NASDDDS Fall meeting. Alexandria, VA). While long in existence, these challenges are ones of growing concern because the number of people demanding community services is increasing and the population of people from which to recruit workers is declining (Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation [2006] The supply of direct support professionals serving individuals with intellectual disabilities and other developmental disabilities: Report to Congress. Washington, DC: Office of Disability, Aging and Long-Term Care Policy, ASPE, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). As the service system moves towards consumer direction, managed care, and more noncategorical service delivery systems, the difficulties of providing for an adequate and well-prepared workforce to support people with developmental disabilities becomes more complex and multifaceted. The solutions to those challenges are also more complex. This article reviews the literature regarding the complexity of the direct support workforce crisis, the effects of this crisis on various stakeholder groups, promising practices designed to address the challenges, and the related practice and policy implications. PMID:17563893

  8. Accelerating evidence reviews and broadening evidence standards to identify effective, promising, and emerging policy and environmental strategies for prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Laura; Castro, Sarah; Brownson, Ross C; Claus, Julie; Orleans, C Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The childhood obesity epidemic has stimulated the emergence of many policy and environmental strategies to increase healthy eating and active living, with relatively few research recommendations identifying the most effective and generalizable strategies. Yet, local, state, and national decision makers have an urgent need to take action, particularly with respect to lower-income and racial and ethnic populations at greatest risk. With the surge of promising and emerging policy and environmental strategies, this review provides a framework, criteria, and process modeled from existing expert classification systems to assess the strength of evidence for these strategies. Likewise, this review highlights evidence gaps and ways to increase the types and amount of evidence available to inform policy and environmental strategies. These priorities include documenting independent and interdependent effects, determining applicability to different populations and settings, assessing implementation fidelity and feasibility, identifying cumulative benefits and costs, ascertaining impacts on health equity, and tracking sustainability. PMID:21219169

  9. School Leaders' Use of Data-Driven Decision-Making for School Improvement: A Study of Promising Practices in Two California Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Guadalupe H.

    2011-01-01

    The current interest in using data-driven decision-making in schools has focused on how best to use student achievement data to meet the demands of current accountability requirements. The purpose of this study was to investigate promising practices specific to school leaders' use of data-driven decision-making for school improvement at two…

  10. School Leaders' Use of Data-Driven Decision-Making for School Improvement: A Study of Promising Practices in Two California Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Guadalupe H.

    2011-01-01

    The current interest in using data-driven decision-making in schools has focused on how best to use student achievement data to meet the demands of current accountability requirements. The purpose of this study was to investigate promising practices specific to school leaders' use of data-driven decision-making for school improvement at two…

  11. Identifying industrial best practices for the waste minimization of low-level radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1996-04-01

    In US DOE, changing circumstances are affecting the management and disposal of solid, low-level radioactive waste (LLW). From 1977 to 1991, the nuclear power industry achieved major reductions in solid waste disposal, and DOE is interested in applying those practices to reduce solid waste at DOE facilities. Project focus was to identify and document commercial nuclear industry best practices for radiological control programs supporting routine operations, outages, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The project team (DOE facility and nuclear power industry representatives) defined a Work Control Process Model, collected nuclear power industry Best Practices, and made recommendations to minimize LLW at DOE facilities.

  12. Identifying and transforming dysfunctional nurse-nurse relationships through reflective practice and action research.

    PubMed

    Taylor, B

    2001-12-01

    This project facilitated reflective practice processes in experienced Registered Nurses (RNs) in order to raise critical awareness of practice problems, work systematically through problem-solving processes to uncover constraints, and improve the quality of care given by nurses in light of the identified constraints and possibilities. Twelve experienced female RNs working in a large Australian rural hospital shared their experiences of nursing during three action research cycles. A thematic concern of dysfunctional nurse-nurse relationships was identified, as evidenced by bullying and horizontal violence. The negotiated action plan was put into place and participants reported varying degrees of success in attempting to improve nurse-nurse relationships. PMID:11785443

  13. The Promise and Reality of Formative Assessment Practice in a Continuous Assessment Scheme: The Case of Trinidad and Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lisle, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Continuous Assessment (CA) systems are externally directed, curriculum-based assessment schemes used for both summative and formative purposes within classrooms. CA has been implemented as national policy in several postcolonial developing countries and is believed to hold great promise for improving education outcomes. This theory-driven…

  14. Identifying competencies required for medication prescribing for general practice residents: a nominal group technique study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Teaching of medication prescribing is a specific challenge in general practice curriculum. The aim of this study was to identify and rank the competencies required for prescribing medication for general practice residents in France. Methods Qualitative consensus study using the nominal group technique. We invited different stakeholders of the general practice curriculum and medication use in primary care to a series of meetings. The nominal group technique allowed for the quick development of a list of consensual and ranked answers to the following question: “At the end of their general practice curriculum, in terms of medication prescribing, what should residents be able to do?”. Results Four meetings were held that involved a total of 31 participants, enabling the creation of a final list of 29 ranked items, grouped in 4 domains. The four domains identified were ‘pharmacology’, ‘regulatory standards’, ‘therapeutics’, and ‘communication (both with patients and healthcare professionals)’. Overall, the five items the most highly valued across the four meetings were: ‘write a legible and understandable prescription’, ‘identify specific populations’, ‘prescribe the doses and durations following the indication’, ‘explain a lack of medication prescription to the patient’, ‘decline inappropriate medication request’. The ‘communication skills’ domain was the domain with the highest number of items (10 items), and with the most highly-valued items. Conclusion The study results suggest a need for developing general practice residents’ communication skills regarding medication prescribing. PMID:25084813

  15. Promising Partnership Practices, 2002: The 5th Annual Collection from Members of the National Network of Partnership Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansorn, Natalie Rodriguez, Ed.; Salinas, Karen Clark, Ed.

    This publication highlights 93 exemplary practices of school, family, and community partnerships selected from members of the National Network of Partnerships Schools at Johns Hopkins University, Maryland. Network member sites represent 18 states and 2 Canadian provinces. The publication highlights six types of practices: parenting (e.g., parent…

  16. "Use of Current Best Evidence": Promises and Illusions, Limitations and Contradictions in the Triangle of Research, Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassnigg, Lorenz

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the methodological and epistemological implications of the relationships between R&D, policy and practice. The proposals towards "evidence-based policy and practice" are analysed with respect to this triangle from three angles: (1) meaning; (2) production; and (3) use of evidence. A comprehensive model of the research cycle,…

  17. Identifying components of advanced-level clinical nutrition practice: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2012-06-01

    The dietetics profession lacks a comprehensive definition of advanced-level practice. Using a three-round Delphi study with mailed surveys, expert consensus on four dimensions of advanced-level practice that define advanced practice registered dietitians (RDs) in clinical nutrition was explored. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDs who met advanced-level practice criteria. In round 1, experts rated the essentiality of statements on a 7-point ordinal scale and generated open-ended practice activity statements regarding the following four dimensions of advanced-level practice: professional knowledge, abilities and skills, approaches to practice, roles and relationships, and practice behaviors. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 was neutral, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. In rounds 2 and 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus by evaluating their previous responses, group median rating, and comments. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to a statement was ≤2.0. Eighty-five experts enrolled (72.6%); 76 (89.4%) completed all rounds. In total, 233 statements were rated, with 100% achieving consensus; 211 (90.6%) were essential to advanced practice RD clinical practice. Having a master's degree; completing an advanced practice residency; research coursework; and advanced continuing education were essential, as were having 8 years of experience; clinical nutrition knowledge/expertise; specialization; participation in research activities; and skills in technology and communication. Highly essential approaches to practice were systematic yet adaptable and used critical thinking and intuition and highly essential values encompassed professional growth and service to patients. Roles emphasized patient care and leadership. Essential practice activities within the nutrition care process included provision of complex patient-centered nutrition care using application of advanced knowledge/expertise and interviewing and counseling strategies approached in a comprehensive yet discriminating manner. Communication with patients and the health care team is a priority. An advanced-level practice model in clinical nutrition was proposed depicting the requisite attributes and activities within four dimensions of professional practice. PMID:22709813

  18. Identifying Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education through High Quality Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedt, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if meta-analysis can be used to enhance efforts to identify evidence-based practices (EBPs). In this study, the quality of included studies acted as the moderating variable. I used the quality indicators for experimental and quasi-experimental research developed by Gersten, Fuchs, Coyne, Greenwood, and…

  19. Identifying best management practices to minimize P loss in a tile drained landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses from agriculture have been identified as a primary contributor to harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie. The objectives of this presentation will be to provide estimates of cropping systems management and other conservation practices that can be used to minimize P losses from this land...

  20. Identifying Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education through High Quality Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedt, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if meta-analysis can be used to enhance efforts to identify evidence-based practices (EBPs). In this study, the quality of included studies acted as the moderating variable. I used the quality indicators for experimental and quasi-experimental research developed by Gersten, Fuchs, Coyne, Greenwood, and…

  1. Identifying low-value clinical practices in critical care medicine: protocol for a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Niven, Daniel J; McCormick, T Jared; Straus, Sharon E; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Jeffs, Lianne P; Stelfox, Henry T

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Reducing unnecessary, low-value clinical practice (ie, de-adoption) is key to improving value for money in healthcare, especially among patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) where resource consumption exceeds other medical and surgical populations. Research suggests that low-value clinical practices are common in medicine, however systematically and objectively identifying them is a widely cited barrier to de-adoption. We will conduct a scoping review to identify low-value clinical practices in adult critical care medicine that are candidates for de-adoption. Methods and analysis We will systematically search the literature to identify all randomised controlled trials or systematic reviews that focus on diagnostic or therapeutic interventions in adult patients admitted to medical, surgical or specialty ICUs, and are published in 3 general medical journals with the highest impact factor (New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association). 2 investigators will independently screen abstracts and full-text articles against inclusion criteria, and extract data from included citations. Included citations will be classified according to whether or not they represent a repeat examination of the given research question (ie, replication research), and whether the results are similar or contradictory to the original study. Studies with contradictory results will determine clinical practices that are candidates for de-adoption. Ethics and dissemination Our scoping review will use robust methodology to systematically identify a list of clinical practices in adult critical care medicine with evidence supporting their de-adoption. In addition to adding to advancing the study of de-adoption, this review may also serve as the launching point for clinicians and researchers in critical care to begin reducing the number of low-value clinical practices. Dissemination of these results to relevant stakeholders will include tailored presentations at local, national and international meetings, and publication of a manuscript. Ethical approval is not required for this study. PMID:26510726

  2. Revisiting an Old Friend: The Practice and Promise of Cooperative Learning for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schul, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative learning has long been at the disposal of school teachers. However, it is often misunderstood by some teachers as just another form of collaborative group work. This article revisits cooperative learning, including a sampling of its popular variations, with practical approaches toward effectively integrating it into classroom…

  3. Collaborative Action Research and Project Work: Promising Practices for Developing Collaborative Inquiry among Early Childhood Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Mary Jane

    2007-01-01

    Excerpts from case studies of two preservice teaching teams exemplify a new approach for merging research and practice within an introductory early childhood methods course. Through participation in cycles of collaborative action research focused on the joint task of implementing long-term projects, preservice teachers evidenced change in the ways…

  4. Promising Practices in the State of Florida for Dropout Prevention and Transition for Students with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Laura J.; And Others

    Project RETAIN (Retention in Education Technical Assistance and Information Network) is a Florida project that assists school districts through identification and dissemination of effective practices that keep students with mild disabilities in school. One part of the project examined dropout rates from Florida's 67 school districts and their…

  5. Using the Primary Care Behavioral Health Provider Adherence Questionnaire (PPAQ) to identify practice patterns.

    PubMed

    Beehler, Gregory P; Funderburk, Jennifer S; King, Paul R; Wade, Michael; Possemato, Kyle

    2015-12-01

    Primary care-mental health integration (PC-MHI) is growing in popularity. To determine program success, it is essential to know if PC-MHI services are being delivered as intended. The investigation examines responses to the Primary Care Behavioral Health Provider Adherence Questionnaire (PPAQ) to explore PC-MHI provider practice patterns. Latent class analysis was used to identify clusters of PC-MHI providers based on their self-report of adherence on the PPAQ. Analysis revealed five provider clusters with varying levels of adherence to PC-MHI model components. Across clusters, adherence was typically lowest in relation to collaboration with other primary care staff. Clusters also differed significantly in regard to provider educational background and psychotherapy approach, level of clinic integration, and previous PC-MHI training. The PPAQ can be used to identify PC-MHI provider practice patterns that have relevance for future clinical effectiveness studies, development of provider training, and quality improvement initiatives. PMID:26622911

  6. Eliciting, Identifying, Interpreting, and Responding to Students' Ideas: Teacher Candidates' Growth in Formative Assessment Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Birmingham, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    With the goal of helping teacher candidates become well-started beginners, it is important that methods courses in teacher education programs focus on high-leverage practices. Using responsive teaching practices, specifically eliciting, identifying, interpreting, and responding to students' science ideas (i.e., formative assessment), can be used to support all students in learning science successfully. This study follows seven secondary science teacher candidates in a yearlong practice-based methods course. Course assignments (i.e., plans for and reflections on teaching) as well as teaching videos were analyzed using a recursive qualitative approach. In this paper, we present themes and patterns in teacher candidates' abilities to elicit, identify, interpret, and respond to students' ideas. Specifically, we found that those teacher candidates who grew in the ways in which they elicited students' ideas from fall to spring were also those who were able to adopt a more balanced reflection approach (considering both teacher and student moves). However, we found that even the teacher candidates who grew in these practices did not move toward seeing students' ideas as nuanced; rather, they saw students' ideas in a dichotomous fashion: right or wrong. We discuss implications for teacher preparation, specifically for how to promote productive reflection and tools for better understanding students' ideas.

  7. Classroom Practices in Teaching English--1965-66: A Third Report of the NCTE Committee to Report Promising Practices in the Teaching of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, Champaign, IL.

    The 13 articles in this report fall into four categories: programs for the culturally disadvantaged, teaching composition, curriculum revision, and detailed classroom practices. Mildred A. Dawson outlines compensatory programs used in Sacramento, California, to prevent drop-outs; Lois Grose concentrates on the pattern-practice method of teaching…

  8. Barcode Identifiers as a Practical Tool for Reliable Species Assignment of Medically Important Black Yeast Species

    PubMed Central

    Heinrichs, Guido; de Hoog, G. Sybren

    2012-01-01

    Herpotrichiellaceous black yeasts and relatives comprise severe pathogens flanked by nonpathogenic environmental siblings. Reliable identification by conventional methods is notoriously difficult. Molecular identification is hampered by the sequence variability in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain caused by difficult-to-sequence homopolymeric regions and by poor taxonomic attribution of sequences deposited in GenBank. Here, we present a potential solution using short barcode identifiers (27 to 50 bp) based on ITS2 ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which allows unambiguous definition of species-specific fragments. Starting from proven sequences of ex-type and authentic strains, we were able to describe 103 identifiers. Multiple BLAST searches of these proposed barcode identifiers in GenBank revealed uniqueness for 100 taxonomic entities, whereas the three remaining identifiers each matched with two entities, but the species of these identifiers could easily be discriminated by differences in the remaining ITS regions. Using the proposed barcode identifiers, a 4.1-fold increase of 100% matches in GenBank was achieved in comparison to the classical approach using the complete ITS sequences. The proposed barcode identifiers will be made accessible for the diagnostic laboratory in a permanently updated online database, thereby providing a highly practical, reliable, and cost-effective tool for identification of clinically important black yeasts and relatives. PMID:22785187

  9. Tailored interventions to overcome identified barriers to change: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard; Camosso-Stefinovic, Janette; Gillies, Clare; Shaw, Elizabeth J; Cheater, Francine; Flottorp, Signe; Robertson, Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Background In the previous version of this review, the effectiveness of interventions tailored to barriers to change was found to be uncertain. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change on professional practice or patient outcomes. Search methods For this update, in addition to the EPOC Register and pending files, we searched the following databases without language restrictions, from inception until August 2007: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, BNI and HMIC. We searched the National Research Register to November 2007. We undertook further searches to October 2009 to identify potentially eligible published or ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions tailored to address prospectively identified barriers to change that reported objectively measured professional practice or healthcare outcomes in which at least one group received an intervention designed to address prospectively identified barriers to change. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently assessed quality and extracted data. We undertook quantitative and qualitative analyses. The quantitative analyses had two elements. We carried out a meta-regression to compare interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change with either no interventions or an intervention(s) not tailored to the barriers.We carried out heterogeneity analyses to investigate sources of differences in the effectiveness of interventions. These included the effects of: risk of bias, concealment of allocation, rigour of barrier analysis, use of theory, complexity of interventions, and the reported presence of administrative constraints. Main results We included 26 studies comparing an intervention tailored to address identified barriers to change to no intervention or an intervention(s) not tailored to the barriers. The effect sizes of these studies varied both across and within studies. Twelve studies provided enough data to be included in the quantitative analysis. A meta-regression model was fitted adjusting for baseline odds by fitting it as a covariate, to obtain the pooled odds ratio of 1.54 (95% CI, 1.16 to 2.01) from Bayesian analysis and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.27 to 1.82, P < 0.001) from classical analysis. The heterogeneity analyses found that no study attributes investigated were significantly associated with effectiveness of the interventions. Authors’ conclusions Interventions tailored to prospectively identified barriers are more likely to improve professional practice than no intervention or dissemination of guidelines. However, the methods used to identify barriers and tailor interventions to address them need further development. Research is required to determine the effectiveness of tailored interventions in comparison with other interventions. PMID:20238340

  10. Issues in Educating Young Gifted Children: Promising Practices. Leadership Accessing Monograph: Education of Gifted and Talented Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Merle

    This monograph addresses issues and problems related to identification of and programming for gifted/talented children of preschool, kindergarten, and primary age. Barriers to early identification and programming are identified. A rationale for early identification and programming is presented, followed by administrative options including…

  11. Blood transfusion at the time of the First World War--practice and promise at the birth of transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Boulton, F; Roberts, D J

    2014-12-01

    The centenary of the start of the First World War has stirred considerable interest in the political, social, military and human factors of the time and how they interacted to produce and sustain the material and human destruction in the 4 years of the war and beyond. Medical practice may appear distant and static and perhaps seems to have been somewhat ineffectual in the face of so much trauma and in the light of the enormous advances in medicine and surgery over the last century. However, this is an illusion of time and of course medical, surgical and psychiatric knowledge and procedures were developing rapidly at the time and the war years accelerated implementation of many important advances. Transfusion practice lay at the heart of resuscitation, and although direct transfusion from donor to recipient was still used, Geoffrey Keynes from Britain, Oswald Robertson from America and his namesake Lawrence Bruce Robertson from Canada, developed methods for indirect transfusion from donor to recipient by storing blood in bottles and also blood-banking that laid the foundation of modern transfusion medicine. This review explores the historical setting behind the development of blood transfusion up to the start of the First World War and on how they progressed during the war and afterwards. A fresh look may renew interest in how a novel medical speciality responded to the needs of war and of post-war society. PMID:25586955

  12. Practical identifiability and uncertainty analysis of the one-dimensional hindered-compression continuous settling model.

    PubMed

    Li, Ben; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2016-03-01

    The practical application of the one-dimension hindered-compression settling models remains a challenge, since the model calibration strongly depends on experimental observations with limited information. In this study, the identifiability of parameter subsets of the hindered-compression models is evaluated for various experimental layouts. Global sensitivity analysis is used to preliminarily select the influential parameters which can be reasonably estimated, while the identifiability analysis of parameter subsets is conducted based on the local sensitivity functions and collinearity measures. The batch settling curve observations are informative for calibrating hindered parameters, and to determine the compression parameters, the concentration profile observations may need to be collected. For different experimental layouts, at least three parameters are identifiable, and the number of identifiable parameters can potentially increase to five, if both batch settling curve and concentration observations are available. The parameter subset identifiability is sensitive to the choice of initial parameter values, and determining the initial values of hindered parameters and gel concentration by measuring the hindered settling velocities and the top concentration of the static sediment respectively allows efficient reduction of the sensitivity. Parameter subset estimates are sensitive to the values of fixed parameters, and reliable estimation of identifiable parameter subsets is possible to significantly decrease model prediction uncertainties. PMID:26734783

  13. Identifying knowledge-attitude-practice gaps to enhance HPV vaccine diffusion.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Elisia L; Head, Katharine J

    2013-01-01

    To examine differences in knowledge, attitudes, and related practices among adopters and nonadopters of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the researchers conducted 83 in-depth interviews with 18- to 26-year-old women. The study identified knowledge-attitude-practice gaps in the context of the HPV vaccine to explain why diffusion of a preventive innovation (such as the HPV vaccine) requires targeted risk communication strategies in order to increase demand. Salient findings included similarities between vaccinated and unvaccinated women's lack of knowledge and uncertainties about HPV and cervical cancer. Vaccinated women who had no knowledge of HPV or no-risk/low-risk perceptions of HPV reported receiving vaccination, indicating HPV risk protection behavior could precede knowledge acquisition for vaccinated women. These vaccinated women identified an interpersonal network supportive of vaccination and reported supportive social influences. Among unvaccinated women, unsupportive vaccination attitudes included low perceived personal risk of HPV. In contrast, unvaccinated women often cited erroneous beliefs that HPV could be avoided by abstinence, monogamy, and knowledge of their partners' sexual history as reasons that the vaccine was not personally relevant. Unvaccinated women cited interpersonal influences that activated short- and long-term vaccination safety and efficacy concerns. Different levels of fear regarding the HPV vaccine may underlie (a) attitudinal differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women in perceived vaccination value and (b) attitude-practice gaps. PMID:23767775

  14. IDENTIFYING AND CLARIFYING VALUES AND REASONS STATEMENTS THAT PROMOTE EFFECTIVE FOOD PARENTING PRACTICES, USING INTENSIVE INTERVIEWS

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, Alicia; Hingle, Melanie D; Knesek, Jessica; O’Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Generate and test parents’ understanding of values and associated reason statements to encourage effective food parenting practices. METHODS This study was cross-sectional. Sixteen parents from different ethnic groups (African American, White and Hispanic) living with their 3–5 year old child were recruited. Interested parents were directed to a website where they provided screening information and informed consent. Two types of telephone interviews were employed: semi-structured intensive interviews and cognitive interviews. RESULTS The most common core values identified in the semi-structured interview were religion/spirituality, family, and health, which appeared invariant across parent ethnicity. Parent responses to cognitive interviews enabled rephrasing of statements that were not well understood; the list of values was increased; and reason statements were added to cover the spectrum cited by parents. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Values and reasons statements will be used to tailor intrinsic motivational messages for effective food parenting practices. PMID:22078775

  15. Nanocuration workflows: Establishing best practices for identifying, inputting, and sharing data to inform decisions on nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Christina M; Mills, Karmann A; Morris, Stephanie A; Klaessig, Fred; Gaheen, Sharon; Lewinski, Nastassja

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is a critical opportunity in the field of nanoscience to compare and integrate information across diverse fields of study through informatics (i.e., nanoinformatics). This paper is one in a series of articles on the data curation process in nanoinformatics (nanocuration). Other articles in this series discuss key aspects of nanocuration (temporal metadata, data completeness, database integration), while the focus of this article is on the nanocuration workflow, or the process of identifying, inputting, and reviewing nanomaterial data in a data repository. In particular, the article discusses: 1) the rationale and importance of a defined workflow in nanocuration, 2) the influence of organizational goals or purpose on the workflow, 3) established workflow practices in other fields, 4) current workflow practices in nanocuration, 5) key challenges for workflows in emerging fields like nanomaterials, 6) examples to make these challenges more tangible, and 7) recommendations to address the identified challenges. Throughout the article, there is an emphasis on illustrating key concepts and current practices in the field. Data on current practices in the field are from a group of stakeholders active in nanocuration. In general, the development of workflows for nanocuration is nascent, with few individuals formally trained in data curation or utilizing available nanocuration resources (e.g., ISA-TAB-Nano). Additional emphasis on the potential benefits of cultivating nanomaterial data via nanocuration processes (e.g., capability to analyze data from across research groups) and providing nanocuration resources (e.g., training) will likely prove crucial for the wider application of nanocuration workflows in the scientific community. PMID:26425437

  16. Nanocuration workflows: Establishing best practices for identifying, inputting, and sharing data to inform decisions on nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Powers, Christina M; Mills, Karmann A; Morris, Stephanie A; Klaessig, Fred; Gaheen, Sharon; Lewinski, Nastassja; Ogilvie Hendren, Christine

    2015-01-01

    There is a critical opportunity in the field of nanoscience to compare and integrate information across diverse fields of study through informatics (i.e., nanoinformatics). This paper is one in a series of articles on the data curation process in nanoinformatics (nanocuration). Other articles in this series discuss key aspects of nanocuration (temporal metadata, data completeness, database integration), while the focus of this article is on the nanocuration workflow, or the process of identifying, inputting, and reviewing nanomaterial data in a data repository. In particular, the article discusses: 1) the rationale and importance of a defined workflow in nanocuration, 2) the influence of organizational goals or purpose on the workflow, 3) established workflow practices in other fields, 4) current workflow practices in nanocuration, 5) key challenges for workflows in emerging fields like nanomaterials, 6) examples to make these challenges more tangible, and 7) recommendations to address the identified challenges. Throughout the article, there is an emphasis on illustrating key concepts and current practices in the field. Data on current practices in the field are from a group of stakeholders active in nanocuration. In general, the development of workflows for nanocuration is nascent, with few individuals formally trained in data curation or utilizing available nanocuration resources (e.g., ISA-TAB-Nano). Additional emphasis on the potential benefits of cultivating nanomaterial data via nanocuration processes (e.g., capability to analyze data from across research groups) and providing nanocuration resources (e.g., training) will likely prove crucial for the wider application of nanocuration workflows in the scientific community. PMID:26425437

  17. Novel prognostic gene mutations identified in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and their impact on clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Campregher, Paulo Vidal; Hamerschlak, Nelson

    2014-08-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a lymphoid malignancy characterized by progressive accumulation of mature lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, liver, and lymphoid organs. Although most patients with CLL have an insidious clinical course, a subset of cases present with fast evolution and chemotherapy resistance, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Few clinically validated prognostic markers, such as TP53, are available for use in clinical practice to guide treatment decisions. Recently, several novel prognostically relevant molecular markers have been identified in CLL. We conducted a narrative literature review of the latest findings to evaluate the potential inclusion of these markers in the management of CLL cases. PMID:24548608

  18. The Role of Social Work in Advancing the Practice of Indigenous Education: Obstacles and Promises in Empowerment-Oriented Social Work Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yellow Bird, Michael J.; Chenault, Venida

    The mission of social work is to help people meet their basic needs and enhance their well-being. Through a strong empowerment orientation, the profession can aid people vulnerable to oppression as a result of racism, discrimination, and poverty. Social work can be a powerful force in advancing the practice of Indigenous education. Social workers…

  19. Promising Practices and Strategies for Using Trauma-Informed Child Welfare Practice to Improve Foster Care Placement Stability: A Breakthrough Series Collaborative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradi, Lisa; Agosti, Jen; Tullberg, Erika; Richardson, Lisa; Langan, Heather; Ko, Susan; Wilson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This paper will provide information on a recent Breakthrough Series Collaborative (BSC) conducted by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network on Using Trauma-Informed Child Welfare Practice to Improve Foster Care Placement Stability. Information on this particular BSC will be provided, followed by initial findings gathered from an evaluation of…

  20. Bringing a Network-Oriented Approach to Domestic Violence Services: A Focus Group Exploration of Promising Practices.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Lisa A; Banyard, Victoria; Woulfe, Julie; Ash, Sarah; Mattern, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Despite powerful evidence that informal social support contributes to survivors' safety and well-being, mainstream domestic violence (DV) programs have not developed comprehensive models for helping isolated survivors reengage with these networks. Although many advocates use network-oriented strategies informally, they often do so without resources, funding, or training. This qualitative focus group study explored advocates' use and perceptions of network-oriented strategies. Advocates working in a range of DV programs across one state described the importance of network-oriented work and articulated its five dimensions, including helping survivors build their capacity to form healthy relationships, identify helpful and harmful network members, reengage with existing networks, develop new relationships, and respond more effectively to network members. PMID:26270387

  1. Searching Usenet for Virtual Communities of Practice: Using Mixed Methods to Identify the Constructs of Wenger's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murillo, Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: This research set out to determine whether communities of practice can be entirely Internet-based by formally applying Wenger's theoretical framework to Internet collectives. Method: A model of a virtual community of practice was developed which included the constructs Wenger identified in co-located communities of practice: mutual…

  2. The Trouble with Triplets in Biodiversity Informatics: A Data-Driven Case against Current Identifier Practices

    PubMed Central

    Guralnick, Robert; Conlin, Tom; Deck, John; Stucky, Brian J.; Cellinese, Nico

    2014-01-01

    The biodiversity informatics community has discussed aspirations and approaches for assigning globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) to biocollections for nearly a decade. During that time, and despite misgivings, the de facto standard identifier has become the “Darwin Core Triplet”, which is a concatenation of values for institution code, collection code, and catalog number associated with biocollections material. Our aim is not to rehash the challenging discussions regarding which GUID system in theory best supports the biodiversity informatics use case of discovering and linking digital data across the Internet, but how well we can link those data together at this moment, utilizing the current identifier schemes that have already been deployed. We gathered Darwin Core Triplets from a subset of VertNet records, along with vertebrate records from GenBank and the Barcode of Life Data System, in order to determine how Darwin Core Triplets are deployed “in the wild”. We asked if those triplets follow the recommended structure and whether they provide an easy and unambiguous means to track from specimen records to genetic sequence records. We show that Darwin Core Triplets are often riddled with semantic and syntactic errors when deployed and curated in practice, despite specifications about how to construct them. Our results strongly suggest that Darwin Core Triplets that have not been carefully curated are not currently serving a useful role for relinking data. We briefly consider needed next steps to overcome current limitations. PMID:25470125

  3. SEA monitoring in Swedish regional transport infrastructure plans - Improvement opportunities identified in practical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, K.; Balfors, B.; Folkeson, L.; Nilsson, M.

    2010-11-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) requires monitoring in order to identify unforeseen adverse effects and to enable appropriate remedial action to be taken. Guidelines on how to monitor significant environmental impacts have been developed but experience from practice is limited. This paper presents a study of environmental monitoring in Swedish regional transport infrastructure planning. The result shows that essentially no environmental monitoring is currently performed. Monitoring of the plans merely involves checking the implementation of projects and performing an economic account. At present, a new planning period has commenced for the regional transport infrastructure plans. To obtain an iterative SEA process for the new plan with integrated SEA monitoring, the following means are suggested: reinforcement of practitioners' incentives to plan and perform monitoring; integration of monitoring in the SEA process; pre-determined impact thresholds that prompt remedial action; and more efficient use of monitoring results.

  4. The use of nutritional 'positive deviants' to identify approaches for modification of dietary practices.

    PubMed Central

    Wishik, S M; Vynckt, S

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes methodology for doing nutrition surveys among deprived population groups of grossly homogeneous socioeconomic status so as to identify those families in which a child between age six months and five years falls in the upper 25 per cent in height and weight measurements. These families are labeled as being "Positive Deviants" from the undernutrition that prevails in the population. They are then studied anthropologically to uncover any practices related to food sources, storage, preparation, consumption, and content. The information would be used in designing food supplementation or other nutritional promotion in the population at large on the assumption that the observed "favorable" practices, although atypical, are feasible and culturally acceptable because they are indigenously rather than extraneously derived. In addition, the survey collected data on fertility because of findings concerning the close interrelatedness among a woman's nutritional state, her age when first giving birth, intervals between births, and the growth and development of her young children. Severe undernutrition raised a woman's safe age threshold for first birth above 20 years and a reasonably safe birth interval to more than three years. PMID:1247135

  5. Identifying context factors explaining physician's low performance in communication assessment: an explorative study in general practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Communication is a key competence for health care professionals. Analysis of registrar and GP communication performance in daily practice, however, suggests a suboptimal application of communication skills. The influence of context factors could reveal why communication performance levels, on average, do not appear adequate. The context of daily practice may require different skills or specific ways of handling these skills, whereas communication skills are mostly treated as generic. So far no empirical analysis of the context has been made. Our aim was to identify context factors that could be related to GP communication. Methods A purposive sample of real-life videotaped GP consultations was analyzed (N = 17). As a frame of reference we chose the MAAS-Global, a widely used assessment instrument for medical communication. By inductive reasoning, we analyzed the GP behaviour in the consultation leading to poor item scores on the MAAS-Global. In these cases we looked for the presence of an intervening context factor, and how this might explain the actual GP communication behaviour. Results We reached saturation after having viewed 17 consultations. We identified 19 context factors that could potentially explain the deviation from generic recommendations on communication skills. These context factors can be categorized into doctor-related, patient-related, and consultation-related factors. Conclusions Several context factors seem to influence doctor-patient communication, requiring the GP to apply communication skills differently from recommendations on communication. From this study we conclude that there is a need to explicitly account for context factors in the assessment of GP (and GP registrar) communication performance. The next step is to validate our findings. PMID:22166064

  6. Aircraft absorbers - Promise and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, A. O.

    1981-05-01

    Attention is given to the application of sound absorbers to aircraft engine ducts. Fan duct application is discussed with reference to the frequency spectrum of fan noise, the wave number spectrum of fan noise, and both local and extended reactions to lining types. The design of duct linings is examined, noting a number of analysis techniques for non-uniform ducts and linings. The impedence meter is considered for non-destructive testing of curved lining panels, and possibilities for mode measurements for lining design are reviewed.

  7. Interactive Multimedia: Practice and Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latchem, Colin, Ed.; And Others

    This book describes developments in interactive multimedia (IMM) in the early 1990s. Its aim is to provide educators, students, trainers, librarians, managers, and practitioners with an overview, not only of the directions and uses of the technology, but also of the research foundations and educational and contextual issues that need to be…

  8. Perceptions, Promising Practices, and Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkley, Russell; Scales, Roya; Unruh, Lori; Holt, Janice; Nichols, Janet

    2013-01-01

    university/school partnership. These teachers were selected from a group of 65 teachers who had participated in the online mentoring program. In this program of two time periods lasting two months each,…

  9. Identifying Educational Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A Guide to the Selection of Evidence-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Resource Center Program, 2014

    2014-01-01

    One component of the recently required State Systemic Improvement Plan (SSIP) for State Departments of Education calls for the selection and implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). This report provides six steps to guide the process of selecting evidence based practices (EBP): (1) Begin with the End in Mind--Determine Targeted Outcomes;…

  10. An algorithm to identify rheumatoid arthritis in primary care: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink study

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Sara; Hider, Samantha L; Raza, Karim; Stack, Rebecca J; Hayward, Richard A; Mallen, Christian D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multisystem, inflammatory disorder associated with increased levels of morbidity and mortality. While much research into the condition is conducted in the secondary care setting, routinely collected primary care databases provide an important source of research data. This study aimed to update an algorithm to define RA that was previously developed and validated in the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Methods The original algorithm consisted of two criteria. Individuals meeting at least one were considered to have RA. Criterion 1: ≥1 RA Read code and a disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) without an alternative indication. Criterion 2: ≥2 RA Read codes, with at least one ‘strong’ code and no alternative diagnoses. Lists of codes for consultations and prescriptions were obtained from the authors of the original algorithm where these were available, or compiled based on the original description and clinical knowledge. 4161 people with a first Read code for RA between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012 were selected from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD, successor to the GPRD), and the criteria applied. Results Code lists were updated for the introduction of new Read codes and biological DMARDs. 3577/4161 (86%) of people met the updated algorithm for RA, compared to 61% in the original development study. 62.8% of people fulfilled both Criterion 1 and Criterion 2. Conclusions Those wishing to define RA in the CPRD, should consider using this updated algorithm, rather than a single RA code, if they wish to identify only those who are most likely to have RA. PMID:26700281

  11. A High-Throughput In Vitro Drug Screen in a Genetically Engineered Mouse Model of Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma Identifies BMS-754807 as a Promising Therapeutic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Halvorson, Kyle G.; Barton, Kelly L.; Schroeder, Kristin; Misuraca, Katherine L.; Hoeman, Christine; Chung, Alex; Crabtree, Donna M.; Cordero, Francisco J.; Singh, Raj; Spasojevic, Ivan; Berlow, Noah; Pal, Ranadip; Becher, Oren J.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) represent a particularly lethal type of pediatric brain cancer with no effective therapeutic options. Our laboratory has previously reported the development of genetically engineered DIPG mouse models using the RCAS/tv-a system, including a model driven by PDGF-B, H3.3K27M, and p53 loss. These models can serve as a platform in which to test novel therapeutics prior to the initiation of human clinical trials. In this study, an in vitro high-throughput drug screen as part of the DIPG preclinical consortium using cell-lines derived from our DIPG models identified BMS-754807 as a drug of interest in DIPG. BMS-754807 is a potent and reversible small molecule multi-kinase inhibitor with many targets including IGF-1R, IR, MET, TRKA, TRKB, AURKA, AURKB. In vitro evaluation showed significant cytotoxic effects with an IC50 of 0.13 ?M, significant inhibition of proliferation at a concentration of 1.5 ?M, as well as inhibition of AKT activation. Interestingly, IGF-1R signaling was absent in serum-free cultures from the PDGF-B; H3.3K27M; p53 deficient model suggesting that the antitumor activity of BMS-754807 in this model is independent of IGF-1R. In vivo, systemic administration of BMS-754807 to DIPG-bearing mice did not prolong survival. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated that tumor tissue drug concentrations of BMS-754807 were well below the identified IC50, suggesting that inadequate drug delivery may limit in vivo efficacy. In summary, an unbiased in vitro drug screen identified BMS-754807 as a potential therapeutic agent in DIPG, but BMS-754807 treatment in vivo by systemic delivery did not significantly prolong survival of DIPG-bearing mice. PMID:25748921

  12. Identifying and developing rugby talent among 10-year-old boys: a practical model.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, A E; Spamer, M J; Steyn, H S

    1998-11-01

    The re-entry of South Africa into the international sporting arena and the resultant need for the identification and development of talent, especially among formerly deprived groups of people, provided the incentive for this study. Its aim was to identify the physical, motor and anthropometric variables that will enable coaches to identify 10-year-old boys, based on their abilities, who could become successful rugby players. Altogether, 173 ten-year-old boys with no rugby experience from a cross-section of the population were selected at random and subjected to 14 physical and motor tests and 14 anthropometric measurements. From 22 schools which participated in the Western Transvaal primary schools under-11 rugby league, the three top teams (n = 45 individuals) were selected and also tested. The results from these three teams were used as the criteria for rugby talent among 10-year-old boys. To establish the best predictors of talent, a stepwise discriminant analysis was conducted: this indicated eight variables (four motor and four anthropometric) that discriminated maximally between the talented and the rest of the players of this age. With classification functions based on these eight variables, 93.8% of all the subjects were classified correctly, indicating good validity. A canonical analysis, based on the selected variables, was then conducted on all the under-11 teams that played in the league in the region (n = 330), and they were ranked according to the scores of the first canonical variable from the most to the least talented. By comparing these results with the players who were chosen for the region's primary schools team, a success rate of 88% in prediction of talent was established. We conclude that this is a successful and practical method to aid the teacher and the coach in selecting and developing talent among 10-year-old rugby players in South Africa. PMID:10189074

  13. From theory to practice: identifying authentic opinion leaders to improve care.

    PubMed

    Collins, B A; Hawks, J W; Davis, R

    2000-07-01

    Diffusion of Innovations and Opinion Leader theories can be translated into practical applications to improve health care delivery and financial performance by applying them to influence referral patterns and decrease variations in care. Health care organizations can rapidly spread "better practices" to their practicing physicians by understanding the social and communication networks that are naturally developed by those practitioners. Physicians view this diffusion process as promoting autonomy, and as a legitimate approach to adoption of information needed in daily practice. PMID:18540342

  14. The promise of multi-omics and clinical data integration to identify and target personalized healthcare approaches in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Higdon, Roger; Earl, Rachel K; Stanberry, Larissa; Hudac, Caitlin M; Montague, Elizabeth; Stewart, Elizabeth; Janko, Imre; Choiniere, John; Broomall, William; Kolker, Natali; Bernier, Raphael A; Kolker, Eugene

    2015-04-01

    Complex diseases are caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, creating a difficult challenge for diagnosis and defining subtypes. This review article describes how distinct disease subtypes can be identified through integration and analysis of clinical and multi-omics data. A broad shift toward molecular subtyping of disease using genetic and omics data has yielded successful results in cancer and other complex diseases. To determine molecular subtypes, patients are first classified by applying clustering methods to different types of omics data, then these results are integrated with clinical data to characterize distinct disease subtypes. An example of this molecular-data-first approach is in research on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a spectrum of social communication disorders marked by tremendous etiological and phenotypic heterogeneity. In the case of ASD, omics data such as exome sequences and gene and protein expression data are combined with clinical data such as psychometric testing and imaging to enable subtype identification. Novel ASD subtypes have been proposed, such as CHD8, using this molecular subtyping approach. Broader use of molecular subtyping in complex disease research is impeded by data heterogeneity, diversity of standards, and ineffective analysis tools. The future of molecular subtyping for ASD and other complex diseases calls for an integrated resource to identify disease mechanisms, classify new patients, and inform effective treatment options. This in turn will empower and accelerate precision medicine and personalized healthcare. PMID:25831060

  15. Identifying Factors That Encourage and Hinder Knowledge Sharing in a Longstanding Online Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon; Hara, Noriko

    2006-01-01

    Despite the strong interests among practitioners, there is a knowledge gap with regard to online communities of practice. This study examines knowledge sharing among critical-care and advanced-practice nurses, who are engaged in a longstanding online community of practice. Data were collected about members' online knowledge contribution as well as…

  16. Identifying key factors in homeowner's adoption of water quality best management practices.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Joan M; Pasko, Danielle K; Eisenhauer, Brian W

    2013-07-01

    The recognition of the significance of the residential environment in contributing to non-point source (NPS) pollution and the inherently dispersed nature of NPS pollution itself that presents significant challenges to effective regulation has led to the creation and dissemination of best management practices (BMPs) that can reduce the impacts of NPS pollution (Environmental Protection Agency US, Protecting water quality from urban runoff, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_urban-facts_final.pdf , 2003). However, very few studies have examined the factors that influence the adoption of BMPs by residential homeowners, despite the fact that residential environments have been identified as one of the most significant contributors to NPS pollution. Given this need, the purpose of this project was to explore how demographic and knowledge-based factors predict adoption of residential BMPs in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Illinois using statistical analyses of survey data collected as part of a watershed planning process. The findings indicate that broad knowledge of BMPs is the strongest predictor of use for a specific BMP. Knowledge of BMPs is strongly correlated with their use, which reinforces the need for educational programs, even among those assumed to be knowledgeable about BMPs. PMID:23609309

  17. Practical approach in hepatitis B e antigen-negative individuals to identify treatment candidates

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, Ahmad Najib; Tan, Soek-Siam; Mohamed, Rosmawati

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of chronic hepatitis B is characterized by different phases of infection, and patients may evolve from one phase to another or may revert to a previous phase. The hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative form is the predominant infection worldwide, which consists of individuals with a range of viral replication and liver disease severity. Although alanine transaminase (ALT) remains the most accessible test available to clinicians for monitoring the liver disease status, further evaluations are required for some patients to assess if treatment is warranted. Guidance from practice guidelines together with thorough investigations and classifications of patients ensure recognition of who needs which level of care. This article aims to assist physicians in the assessment of HBeAg-negative individuals using liver biopsy or non-invasive tools such as hepatitis B s antigen quantification and transient elastography in addition to ALT and hepatitis B virus DNA, to identify who will remain stable, who will reactivate or at risk of disease progression hence will benefit from timely initiation of anti-viral therapy. PMID:25232242

  18. Practical approach in hepatitis B e antigen-negative individuals to identify treatment candidates.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Ahmad Najib; Tan, Soek-Siam; Mohamed, Rosmawati

    2014-09-14

    The natural history of chronic hepatitis B is characterized by different phases of infection, and patients may evolve from one phase to another or may revert to a previous phase. The hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative form is the predominant infection worldwide, which consists of individuals with a range of viral replication and liver disease severity. Although alanine transaminase (ALT) remains the most accessible test available to clinicians for monitoring the liver disease status, further evaluations are required for some patients to assess if treatment is warranted. Guidance from practice guidelines together with thorough investigations and classifications of patients ensure recognition of who needs which level of care. This article aims to assist physicians in the assessment of HBeAg-negative individuals using liver biopsy or non-invasive tools such as hepatitis B s antigen quantification and transient elastography in addition to ALT and hepatitis B virus DNA, to identify who will remain stable, who will reactivate or at risk of disease progression hence will benefit from timely initiation of anti-viral therapy. PMID:25232242

  19. Identifying Key Factors in Homeowner's Adoption of Water Quality Best Management Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehm, Joan M.; Pasko, Danielle K.; Eisenhauer, Brian W.

    2013-07-01

    The recognition of the significance of the residential environment in contributing to non-point source (NPS) pollution and the inherently dispersed nature of NPS pollution itself that presents significant challenges to effective regulation has led to the creation and dissemination of best management practices (BMPs) that can reduce the impacts of NPS pollution (Environmental Protection Agency US, Protecting water quality from urban runoff, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_urban-facts_final.pdf, 2003). However, very few studies have examined the factors that influence the adoption of BMPs by residential homeowners, despite the fact that residential environments have been identified as one of the most significant contributors to NPS pollution. Given this need, the purpose of this project was to explore how demographic and knowledge-based factors predict adoption of residential BMPs in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Illinois using statistical analyses of survey data collected as part of a watershed planning process. The findings indicate that broad knowledge of BMPs is the strongest predictor of use for a specific BMP. Knowledge of BMPs is strongly correlated with their use, which reinforces the need for educational programs, even among those assumed to be knowledgeable about BMPs.

  20. Identifying Practical Solutions to Meet America’s Fiber Needs: Proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, Amy R.; Jones, Julie Miller; Rodriguez, Judith; Slavin, Joanne; Zelman, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the “Food & Fiber Summit,” which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber’s role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap. PMID:25006857

  1. Identifying practical solutions to meet America's fiber needs: proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Amy R; Jones, Julie Miller; Rodriguez, Judith; Slavin, Joanne; Zelman, Kathleen M

    2014-07-01

    Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the "Food & Fiber Summit," which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber's role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap. PMID:25006857

  2. ENHANCING RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT IN THE APPALACHIAN BASIN BY IDENTIFYING TECHNICAL BARRIER AND PREFERRED PRACTICES

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald R. McDowell; Khashayar Aminian; Katharine L. Avary; John M. Bocan; Michael Ed. Hohn; Douglas G. Patchen

    2003-09-01

    The Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) project, a two-year study sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), had three primary objectives: (1) the identification of problems, problematic issues, potential solutions and preferred practices related to oil production; (2) the creation of an Appalachian Regional Council to oversee and continue this investigation beyond the end of the project; and (3) the dissemination of investigative results to the widest possible audience, primarily by means of an interactive website. Investigation and identification of oil production problems and preferred management practices began with a Problem Identification Workshop in January of 2002. Three general issues were selected by participants for discussion: Data Management; Reservoir Engineering; and Drilling Practices. At the same meeting, the concept of the creation of an oversight organization to evaluate and disseminated preferred management practices (PMP's) after the end of the project was put forth and volunteers were solicited. In-depth interviews were arranged with oil producers to gain more insight into problems and potential solutions. Project members encountered considerable reticence on the part of interviewees when it came to revealing company-specific production problems or company-specific solutions. This was the case even though interviewees were assured that all responses would be held in confidence. Nevertheless, the following production issues were identified and ranked in order of decreasing importance: Water production including brine disposal; Management of production and business data; Oil field power costs; Paraffin accumulation; Production practices including cementing. An number of secondary issues were also noted: Problems associated with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Waterflooding; Reservoir characterization; Employee availability, training, and safety; and Sale and Purchase problems. One item was mentioned both in interviews and in the Workshop, as, perhaps, the key issue related to oil production in the Appalachian region - the price of a barrel of oil. Project members sought solutions to production problems from a number of sources. In general, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) website, both regional and national, proved to be a fertile source of information. Technical issues included water production, paraffin accumulation, production practices, EOR and waterflooding were addressed in a number of SPE papers. Articles on reservoir characterization were found in both the AAPG Bulletin and in SPE papers. Project members extracted topical and keyword information from pertinent articles and websites and combined them in a database that was placed on the PUMP website. Because of difficulties finding potential members with the qualifications, interests, and flexibility of schedule to allow a long-term commitment, it was decided to implement the PMP Regional Council as a subcommittee of the Producer Advisory Group (PAG) sponsored by Appalachian Region PTTC. The advantages of this decision are that the PAG is in already in existence as a volunteer group interested in problem identification and implementation of solutions and that PAG members are unpaid, so no outside funds will be required to sustain the group. The PUMP website became active in October of 2002. The site is designed to evolve; as new information becomes available, it can be readily added to the site or the site can be modified to accommodate it. The site is interactive allowing users to search within the PUMP site, within the Appalachian Region PTTC site, or within the whole internet through the input of user-supplied key words for information on oil production problems and solutions. Since its inception in the Fall of 2002, the PUMP site has experienced a growing number of users of increasingly diverse nature and from an increasing geographic area. This indicates that the site is reaching its target audience in the Appalachian region and beyond. Following up on a commitment to technology transfer, a total of eight focused-technology workshops were sponsored by the Appalachian Region PTTC center at the request of the PUMP project. Five Welltender Operations and Safety seminars were held in Kentucky, West Virginia, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. A two-day Applied Reservoir Characterization seminar and a one-day course on Paraffin, Asphaltene, and Scale problems were held in Pennsylvania. A one-day workshop on Produced Water was held in OH. In addition to workshops and the PUMP website, the project also generated several topical reports available to the public through the website and through USDOE.

  3. Bridging the Gaps to Success: Promising Practices for Promoting Transfer among Low-Income and First-Generation Students. An In-Depth Study of Six Exemplary Community Colleges in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chandra Taylor; Miller, Abby

    2009-01-01

    This study asks the question: what are the promising practices for transferring students from two-year to four-year institutions? To answer this question, the Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education conducted a study to examine the institutional characteristics, practices, and policies that might contribute to assuring that…

  4. Identify practice gaps in medication education through surveys to patients and physicians

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Zhan-Miao; Zhi, Xiao-Jie; Yang, Ling; Sun, Shu-Sen; Zhang, Zhuo; Sun, Zhi-Ming; Zhai, Suo-Di

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective communication and education formats between health care providers and patients about medication use are associated with patients’ satisfaction, recall of information, and eventually their health status. Limited research exists on physician-delivered education interventions, as well as on whether the current content of medication education and delivery formats satisfies the needs of both patients and physicians. Our objective was to identify the practice gaps regarding medication education content and delivery. Methods Separate surveys were obtained from ambulatory care patients presenting to the outpatient pharmacy for medication pickups, and physicians working at the hospital clinics. Results A total of 108 patients completed the patient survey, and 116 hospital clinic physicians completed the physician survey. Female patients had a higher degree of concern regarding medication information compared with male patients (4.04±0.65 versus 3.58±0.66, P=0.001). Physicians were less likely to educate patients regarding their medications’ on drug–drug interactions (24.3%), drug–food interactions (24.3%), and what to do about their prescriptions if an adverse reaction is experienced (24.3%) during physician–patient encounters. Patients’ most desired education format was physician counseling (82.4%) and the second most desired education format was pharmacist counseling (50.9%). Medication device demonstration (7.0%) was the least used educational format delivered to patients by physicians, and patients would like to see an increased education delivery format through medication device demonstration (Method desired [MD] – Method received [MR] =12.0%). Patients would like to see expanded roles of patient focused handout (MD-MR=22.2%), telephone consultation (21.2%), pharmacist counseling (12.9%), the use of medication database embedded within the hospital information system (12.2%) and device demonstration (12.0%). Conclusion This study illustrates that there are practice gaps in current medication education both in terms of content and delivery format. The study provided valuable information in designing and implementing future education activities that are drivers of good medication use and adherence. PMID:26557752

  5. The promise and challenge of practice-research collaborations: Guiding principles and strategies for initiating, designing, and implementing program evaluation research.

    PubMed

    Secret, Mary; Abell, Melissa L; Berlin, Trey

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a set of guiding principles and strategies to facilitate the collaborative efforts of social work researchers and practitioners as they initiate, design, and implement outcome evaluations of human service interventions and programs. Beginning with an exploration of the interpersonal barriers to practice-research collaborations, and building on their experiences in successfully completing a community-based research evaluation, the authors identify specific relationship-focused principles and strategies and illustrate how these approaches can guide practice-research teams through the various sequential activities of the evaluation research process. In particular, it is suggested that practice-research collaborations can be formed, strengthened, and sustained by emphasis on a spirit of discovery and shared leadership at the start of the relationship, use of a comprehensive evaluation model to clarify and frame the evaluation and program goals, beginning where the client is when selecting research methodology and measurement tools, commitment to keeping the program first and recording everything during the implementation and data-collection stages, discussion of emerging findings and presentation of findings in graphic format at the data-analysis stage, and a total team approach at the dissemination stage. PMID:21314067

  6. Are Online Sources for Identifying Evidence-Based Practices Trustworthy? An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Test, David W.; Kemp-Inman, Amy; Diegelmann, Karen; Hitt, Sara Beth; Bethune, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The use of evidence-based practices has become a focus in education since the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act reauthorization of 2004 required using practices based on scientific research to improve student outcomes. Although many teachers may not have the time or expertise to evaluate the…

  7. Identifying Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Culturally Competent Practice for School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, Martell; Gourdine, Ruby; Canfield, James

    2010-01-01

    This study presents descriptive findings from self-reported qualitative and quantitative data on barriers and facilitators to culturally competent school social work practice. The study highlights the need for the development of evaluative methods for the purpose of examining how elements within the practice environment affect school social work…

  8. Identifying a Core Set of Science Teaching Practices: A Delphi Expert Panel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloser, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The "Framework for K-12 Science Education" details ambitious goals for students' learning of science content and practices. However, this document provides science teachers little guidance about instructional practices that are central to helping students achieve these goals. Research indicates that a teacher's instructional…

  9. Are Online Sources for Identifying Evidence-Based Practices Trustworthy? An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Test, David W.; Kemp-Inman, Amy; Diegelmann, Karen; Hitt, Sara Beth; Bethune, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The use of evidence-based practices has become a focus in education since the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act reauthorization of 2004 required using practices based on scientific research to improve student outcomes. Although many teachers may not have the time or expertise to evaluate the…

  10. Noteworthy practices as identified by the US Department of Energy environmental, safety, and health first 31 Tiger Team assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Noteworthy Practices are exceptional ways of accomplishing a performance objective or some aspect of it. Other DOE facilities are encouraged to adopt these practices when they are applicable to their operation. Noteworthy Practices included in this report have been drawn from the first 31 Tiger Team Assessments at DOE sites. This report includes all noteworthy practices listed in an earlier tabulation (June 1990) which the Secretary of the US Department of Energy distributed for information on July 31, 1990. This earlier tabulation included noteworthy practices from the first thirteen Tiger Team Assessments. A brief key-word title has been assigned to each Noteworthy Practice. This title provides a brief description of each Noteworthy Practice. The reader may peruse these titles in the table of contents to identify Noteworthy Practices that may be applicable to their site, facility, or operations. A flexible-disk copy of this compilation is also available in ASCII format on personal-computer, DOS-formatted disks from the Office of Special Projects in the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health at the Headquarters of the US Department of Energy. The ASCII file may be used in combination with word processing software for more detailed word and text-string searches.

  11. A general model-based design of experiments approach to achieve practical identifiability of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models.

    PubMed

    Galvanin, Federico; Ballan, Carlo C; Barolo, Massimiliano; Bezzo, Fabrizio

    2013-08-01

    The use of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) models is a common and widespread practice in the preliminary stages of drug development. However, PK-PD models may be affected by structural identifiability issues intrinsically related to their mathematical formulation. A preliminary structural identifiability analysis is usually carried out to check if the set of model parameters can be uniquely determined from experimental observations under the ideal assumptions of noise-free data and no model uncertainty. However, even for structurally identifiable models, real-life experimental conditions and model uncertainty may strongly affect the practical possibility to estimate the model parameters in a statistically sound way. A systematic procedure coupling the numerical assessment of structural identifiability with advanced model-based design of experiments formulations is presented in this paper. The objective is to propose a general approach to design experiments in an optimal way, detecting a proper set of experimental settings that ensure the practical identifiability of PK-PD models. Two simulated case studies based on in vitro bacterial growth and killing models are presented to demonstrate the applicability and generality of the methodology to tackle model identifiability issues effectively, through the design of feasible and highly informative experiments. PMID:23733369

  12. The development of a short instrument to identify common unmet needs in older people in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Iliffe, Steve; Lenihan, Penny; Orrell, Martin; Walters, Kate; Drennan, Vari; See Tai, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Background: No structured needs assessment tool exists that is appropriate for older people and also suitable for use in routine consultations in general practice. Aims: To engage older people in the development of a brief, valid, practical, and acceptable instrument to help identify common unmet needs suitable for use in routine clinical practice in primary care. Design of study: User involvement in a multi-stages approach to heuristic development. Setting: General practices, voluntary groups, and community organisations in north and central London. Method: Subjects included patients aged 65 years and over in purposively selected practices, voluntary organisations for older people in the same localities, community organisations involving older people, general practitioners and community nurses. Data were collected through mixed methodology interviews using a structured assessment tool (Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly), a postal questionnaire, and focus groups. Synthesis and interpretation of results was done through a consensus conference followed by a Delphi process involving primary care professionals. Results: Five domains of unmet need were identified as priority areas by all three data collection methods, the consensus conference, and the Delphi process: senses (vision and hearing), physical ability (mobility and falls), incontinence, cognition, and emotional distress (depression and anxiety) (SPICE). Conclusions: Public involvement in the design of clinical tools allowed the development of a brief assessment instrument that could potentially identify common, important, and tractable unmet needs in older people. PMID:15588536

  13. A Universal Checklist for Identifying Infants and Toddlers Eligible for Early Intervention. TRACE Practice Guide, Volume 2, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Hill, Glinda

    2007-01-01

    This practice guide includes a description of the development and use of a universal checklist for identifying infants and toddlers that may be eligible for early intervention. The checklist was specifically developed to facilitate and streamline the identification of potentially eligible children without the need to administer screening or…

  14. Experiencing a Mathematical Problem-Solving Teaching Approach: Opportunities to Identify Ambitious Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Judy; Taylor, Merilyn

    2015-01-01

    Learning to teach is a complex matter, and many different models of pre-service teacher education have been used to support novice teachers' preparation for the classroom. More recently there have been calls for a focus on core high-leverage teaching practices and for novice teachers to engage in representations, decompositions, and approximations…

  15. Mathematics Reform Curricula and Special Education: Identifying Intersections and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayeski, Kristin L.; Paulsen, Kim J.

    2010-01-01

    In many general education classrooms today, teachers are using "reform" mathematics curricula. These curricula emphasize the application of mathematics in real-life contexts and include such practices as collaborative, group problem solving and student-generated algorithms. Students with learning disabilities in the area of mathematics can…

  16. Identifying and Clarifying Values and Reason Statements that Promote Effective Food Parenting Practices, Using Intensive Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Alicia; Hingle, Melanie D.; Knesek, Jessica; O'Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Generate and test parents' understanding of values and associated reason statements to encourage effective food parenting practices. Methods: This study was cross-sectional. Sixteen parents from different ethnic groups (African American, white, and Hispanic) living with their 3- to 5-year-old child were recruited. Interested parents…

  17. Insights into Innovative Classroom Practices with ICT: Identifying the Impetus for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Emily M. L.; Li, Sandy S. C.; Choi, Tat-heung; Lee, Tsz-ngong

    2008-01-01

    This paper draws on the literature of transformational leadership and learning organisation with a concern to foster innovative changes in classroom practices. Based on the understanding that effective use of ICT has to be construed in the pedagogical and organisational context, this study focuses on the impact of the relevant contextual factors…

  18. Reaching for Rigor: Identifying Practices of Effective High Schools. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannata, Marisa; Haynes, Katherine Taylor; Smith, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    What distinguishes high schools that "beat the odds" for students from traditionally lower-performing groups from schools that struggle to improve the achievement and graduation rates of these student populations? What types of programs, practices, and processes support better than expected outcomes for students at risk of failure? How…

  19. Statistical learning algorithms for identifying contrasting tillage practices with landsat thematic mapper data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage management practices have direct impact on water holding capacity, evaporation, carbon sequestration, and water quality. This study examines the feasibility of two statistical learning algorithms, such as Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), for cla...

  20. Fostering Self-Determination in Higher Education: Identifying Evidence-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getzel, Elizabeth Evans

    2014-01-01

    Research on the transition of students with disabilities and their post-school outcomes continues to move the field of special education in the direction of evidence-based practices. As special education professionals work to better recognize the impact of instructional and environmental characteristics to prepare youth for their transition, so…

  1. The Evolution of a Teacher Community of Practice: Identifying Facilitating and Constraining Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a larger, qualitative study that explored the potential of a school-based teacher community of practice as a model for a transformative form of teacher professional development. This paper reports on initial findings from a grounded theory exploration of the factors that facilitated and constrained the evolution…

  2. Identifying and clarifying values and reason statements that promote effective food parenting practices, using intensive interviews

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to generate and test parents' understanding of values and associated reason statements to encourage effective food parenting practices. This study was cross-sectional. Sixteen parents from different ethnic groups (African American, white, and Hispanic) living with their 3- to 5-yea...

  3. Identifying Best Practices in Training Transfer: A Qualitative Study of Training Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lisa A.; Hutchins, Holly

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative data were gathered from trainers regarding best practices for supporting training transfer. Using content analysis, findings suggest interventions for bolstering transfer are best carried out in the work context and design/delivery phase, take place after training or during, and involve trainers and supervisors. However, trainers…

  4. Identifying g: A Review of Current Factor Analytic Practices in the Science of Mental Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Blacksmith, Nikki

    2009-01-01

    Factor analysis is arguably one of the most important tools in the science of mental abilities. While many studies have been conducted to make recommendations regarding "best practices" concerning its use, it is unknown the degree to which contemporary ability researchers abide by those standards. The current study sought to evaluate the typical…

  5. Identifying and Promoting Best Practices in Residency Application and Selection in a Complex Academic Health Network.

    PubMed

    Bandiera, Glen; Abrahams, Caroline; Ruetalo, Mariela; Hanson, Mark D; Nickell, Leslie; Spadafora, Salvatore

    2015-12-01

    Medical education institutions have a social mandate to produce a diverse physician workforce that meets the public's needs. Recent reports have framed the admission process outcome of undergraduate and postgraduate medical education (UGME and PGME) programs as a key determinant of the collective contributions graduating cohorts will make to society, creating a sense of urgency around the issue of who gets accepted. The need for evidence-informed residency application and selection processes is growing because of the increasing size and diversity of the applicant pool and the need for equity, fairness, social accountability, and health human resource planning. The selection literature, however, is dominated by a UGME focus and emphasizes determination of desirable qualities of future physicians and selection instrument reliability and validity. Gaps remain regarding PGME selection, particularly the creation of specialty-specific selection criteria, suitable outcome measures, and reliable selection systems.In this Perspective, the authors describe the University of Toronto's centralized approach to defining system-level best practices for residency application and selection. Over the 2012-2013 academic year, the Best Practices in Application and Selection working group reviewed relevant literature and reports, consulted content experts, surveyed local practices, and conducted iterative stakeholder consultations on draft recommendations. Strong agreement arose around the resulting 13 principles and 24 best practices, which had either empirical support or face validity. These recommendations, which are shared in this article, have been adopted by the university's PGME advisory committee and will inform a national initiative to improve trainees' transition from UGME to PGME in Canada. PMID:26488571

  6. The Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program: Learning To Succeed. Executive Summary. Volume I: Reducing Barriers for Homeless Children and Youth for Access and Achievement. Volume II: Educating Homeless Children and Youth: A Resource Guide for Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Planning and Evaluation Service.

    This document, which summarizes the study, "Reducing Barriers for Homeless Children and Youth for Access and Achievement," and the guide, "Educating Homeless Children and Youth: A Resource Guide for Promising Practices," provides evidence that state education agencies and local educational agencies have made significant progress in revising laws,…

  7. Educational Interventions to Improve Practice of Nonspecialty Physicians Who Are Identified in Need by Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Peter G.; Ginsburg, Liane Soberman; Dunn, Earl; Beckett, Roy; Faulkner, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on the peer review process of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, the licensing and regulatory authority, and the effect of educational interventions on physicians identified to be in need. Since 1980, the college has assessed more than 175 random and targeted nonspecialist physicians each year. A structured…

  8. Practices to identify and preclude adverse Aircraft-and-Rotorcraft-Pilot Couplings - A design perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Marilena D.; Masarati, Pierangelo; Gennaretti, Massimo; Jump, Michael; Zaichik, Larisa; Dang-Vu, Binh; Lu, Linghai; Yilmaz, Deniz; Quaranta, Giuseppe; Ionita, Achim; Serafini, Jacopo

    2015-07-01

    Understanding, predicting and supressing the inadvertent aircraft oscillations caused by Aircraft/Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings (A/RPC) is a challenging problem for designers. These are potential instabilities that arise from the effort of controlling aircraft with high response actuation systems. The present paper reviews, updates and discusses desirable practices to be used during the design process for unmasking A/RPC phenomena. These practices are stemming from the European Commission project ARISTOTEL Aircraft and Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings - Tools and Techniques for Alleviation and Detection (2010-2013) and are mainly related to aerodynamic and structural modelling of the aircraft/rotorcraft, pilot modelling and A/RPC prediction criteria. The paper proposes new methodologies for precluding adverse A/RPCs events taking into account the aeroelasticity of the structure and pilot biodynamic interaction. It is demonstrated that high-frequency accelerations due to structural elasticity cause negative effects on pilot control, since they lead to involuntary body and limb-manipulator system displacements and interfere with pilot's deliberate control activity (biodynamic interaction) and, finally, worsen handling quality ratings.

  9. Short communication: Practical issues in implementing volatile metabolite analysis for identifying mastitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hettinga, Kasper A; de Bok, Frank A M; Lam, Theo J G M

    2015-11-01

    Several parameters for improving volatile metabolite analysis using headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of volatile metabolites were evaluated in the framework of identification of mastitis-causing pathogens. Previous research showed that the results of such volatile metabolites analysis were comparable with those based on bacteriological culturing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of several method changes on the applicability and potential implementation of this method in practice. The use of a relatively polar column is advantageous, resulting in a faster and less complex chromatographic setup with a higher resolving power yielding higher-quality data. Before volatile metabolite analysis is applied, a minimum incubation of 8h is advised, as reducing incubation time leads to less reliable pathogen identification. Application of GC-MS remained favorable compared with regular gas chromatography. The complexity and cost of a GC-MS system are such that this limits the application of the method in practice for identification of mastitis-causing pathogens. PMID:26342985

  10. High School Review Summary, 2005: A Status Report Identifying Technical Assistance, Policies, and Promising Practices to Facilitate High School Improvement Statewide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The quality of high schools--how well they prepare students for productive employment as well as active citizenship--has been part of the state and national agendas for several years. To help complete an action plan for addressing the issue of high school quality, the Iowa Department of Education and State Board of Education during the spring of…

  11. Practical method to identify orbital anomaly as spacecraft breakup in the geostationary region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uetsuhara, Masahiko; Hanada, Toshiya

    2013-09-01

    Identifying spacecraft breakup events is an essential issue for better understanding of the current orbital debris environment. This paper proposes an observation planning approach to identify an orbital anomaly, which appears as a significant discontinuity in archived orbital history, as a spacecraft breakup. The proposed approach is applicable to orbital anomalies in the geostationary region. The proposed approach selects a spacecraft that experienced an orbital anomaly, and then predicts trajectories of possible fragments of the spacecraft at an observation epoch. This paper theoretically demonstrates that observation planning for the possible fragments can be conducted. To do this, long-term behaviors of the possible fragments are evaluated. It is concluded that intersections of their trajectories will converge into several corresponding regions in the celestial sphere even if the breakup epoch is not specified and it has uncertainty of the order of several weeks.

  12. Mesoscale Biotransformations of Uranium: Identifying Sites and Strategies where Reductive Immobilization is Practical

    SciTech Connect

    Tetsu K. Tokunaga; Jiamin Wan; Terry C. Hazen; Mary K. Firestone; Eoin Brodie; Yongman Kim; Rebecca Daly

    2006-06-01

    Bioreduction of U in contaminated sediments is an attractive strategy because of its low cost, and because of short-term studies supporting its feasibility. However, any in-situ immobilization approach for U will require assurance of either permanent fixation, or of very low release rates into the biosphere. Our previous long-term (2 years) laboratory experiments have shown that organic carbon (OC) based U(VI) bioreduction to UO2 can be transient even under sustained reducing (methanogenic) conditions. The biogeochemical processes underlying this finding urgently need to be understood. The current research is designed to identify mechanisms responsible for anaerobic U oxidation, and identify conditions that will support long-term stability of bioreduced U. We are investigating: (1) effects of OC concentration and supply rate on remobilization of bioreduced U, (2) the roles of Fe- and Mn-oxides as potential U oxidants in sediments, and (3) the role of microorganisms in U reoxidation, and (4) influences of pH on U(IV)/U(VI) redox equilibrium.

  13. Identifying specific language impairment in deaf children acquiring British Sign Language: implications for theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Mason, Kathryn; Rowley, Katherine; Marshall, Chloe R; Atkinson, Joanna R; Herman, Rosalind; Woll, Bencie; Morgan, Gary

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents the first ever group study of specific language impairment (SLI) in users of sign language. A group of 50 children were referred to the study by teachers and speech and language therapists. Individuals who fitted pre-determined criteria for SLI were then systematically assessed. Here, we describe in detail the performance of 13 signing deaf children aged 5-14 years on normed tests of British Sign Language (BSL) sentence comprehension, repetition of nonsense signs, expressive grammar and narrative skills, alongside tests of non-verbal intelligence and fine motor control. Results show these children to have a significant language delay compared to their peers matched for age and language experience. This impaired development cannot be explained by poor exposure to BSL, or by lower general cognitive, social, or motor abilities. As is the case for SLI in spoken languages, we find heterogeneity within the group in terms of which aspects of language are affected and the severity of the impairment. We discuss the implications of the existence of language impairments in a sign language for theories of SLI and clinical practice. PMID:20306624

  14. Self-Management Goal Setting: Identifying the Practice Patterns of Community-Based Physical Therapists

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Karen; Bourret, Drew; Khan, Usman; Truong, Henry; Nixon, Stephanie; McKay, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe the collaborative goal-setting practices of community-based physical therapists trained in a self-management (SM) approach who work with clients with chronic conditions and to describe clients' goal-achievement rates. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted for 296 randomly selected home-care clients from July 2009 through July 2010 using a chart-abstraction form created to capture demographic data and information related to goal setting and achievement. Data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, and Pearson's chi-square tests. Results: There was no significant relationship between sex, age, or number of chronic conditions and setting SM or non-self-management (NSM) goals or the type of SM goal set. The majority of goals set were “action” as opposed to “verbal” goals. A high proportion (89–100%) of both SM and NSM goals were met. Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware that it is possible to set SM goals regardless of the client's sex, age, or number of chronic conditions. Other possible influences on goal setting, such as severity of chronic conditions and challenges of the health care system, should be further investigated. PMID:24799753

  15. Persistent Identifiers in the Publication and Citation of Scientific Data - Theory and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Brase, J.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.; Hildenbrand, B.; Hoeck, H.; Lautenschlager, M.; Sens, I.

    2008-12-01

    In the last decade data driven research has become a third pillar of scientific work alongside with theoretical reasoning and experiment. Greatly increased computing power and storage, together with web services and other electronic resources have facilitated a quantum leap in new research based on the analysis of great amounts of data. However, traditional scientific communication only slowly changes to new media other than an emulation of paper. This leaves many data inaccessible and, in the long run exposes valuable data to the risk of loss. To improve access to data and to create incentives for scientists to make their data accessible, a group of German data centres initiated the project "Publication and Citation of Scientific Data" (STD-DOI) which was funded by the German Science Foundation DFG for the periods 2003-2005 and 2006-2008. In this project the German National Library for Science and Technology (TIB Hannover), together with the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ Potsdam), Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) Bremerhaven, University of Bremen, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, and the DLR German Remote Sensing Data Center set up the first system to assign DOIs to data sets and for their publication. A prerequisite for data to be made available is a proper citation. This means that all fields mandatory for a bibliographic citation are included. In addition, a mechanism is needed that ensures that the location of the referenced data on the internet can be resolved at any time. In the past, this was a problematic issue because URLs are short-lived, many becoming invalid after only a few months. Data publication on the internet therefore needs a system of reliable pointers to a web publication to make these publications citeable. To achieve this persistence of identifiers for their conventional publications many scientific publishers use Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). The identifier is resolved through the handle system to the valid location (URL) where the dataset can be found. This approach meets one of the prerequisites for citeability of scientific data published online. In addition, the valid bibliographic citation can be included in the catalogues of German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB). The data publications themselves are held at discipline specific data centres, for instance ICSU World Data Centers. The data providers take on the role of publication agents and are responsible for the long-term availability of the data. The discipline specific publication agents are also responsible for the quality of the published data. Syntactic and semantic quality checks are used to secure data quality. Data may come as data supplements to scientific papers, or as time series from environmental monitoring systems, or as novel form of publication in a data journal. The latter requires a peer-review process, analogous to conventional science publications.

  16. Practical implementation of the corrected force analysis technique to identify the structural parameter and load distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclère, Quentin; Ablitzer, Frédéric; Pézerat, Charles

    2015-09-01

    The paper aims to combine two objectives of the Force Analysis Technique (FAT): vibration source identification and material characterization from the same set of measurement. Initially, the FAT was developed for external load location and identification. It consists in injecting measured vibration displacements in the discretized equation of motion. Two developments exist: FAT and CFAT (Corrected Force Analysis Technique) where two finite difference schemes are used. Recently, the FAT was adapted for the identification of elastic and damping properties in a structure. The principal interests are that the identification is local and allows mapping of material characteristics, the identification can be made at all frequencies, especially in medium and high frequency domains. The paper recalls the development of FAT and CFAT on beams and plates and how it can be possible to extract material characteristics in areas where no external loads are applied. Experimental validations are shown on an aluminum plate with arbitrary boundary conditions, excited by a point force and where a piece of foam is glued on a sub-surface of the plate. Contactless measurements were made using a scanning laser vibrometer. The results of FAT and CFAT are compared and discussed for material property identifications in the regions with and without foam. The excitation force identification is finally made by using the identified material properties. CFAT gives excellent results comparable to a direct measurement obtained by a piezoelectric sensor. The relevance of the corrected scheme is then underlined for both source identification and material characterization from the same measurements.

  17. Defense Programs benchmarking in Chicago, April 1994: Identifying best practices in the pollution prevention programs of selected private industries

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP) was the first US Department of Energy (DOE) Cognizant Secretarial Office (CSO) to attempt to benchmark private industries for best-in-class practices in the field of pollution prevention. Defense Programs` intent in this effort is to identify and bring to DOE field offices strategic and technological tools that have helped private companies minimize waste and prevent pollution. Defense Programs` premier benchmarking study focused on business practices and process improvements used to implement exceptional pollution prevention programs in four privately owned companies. The current interest in implementing partnerships information exchange, and technology transfer with the private sector prompted DP to continue to seek best practices in the area of pollution prevention through a second benchmarking endeavor in May 1994. This report presents the results of that effort. The decision was made to select host facilities that own processes similar to those at DOE plants and laboratories, that have programs that have been recognized on a local or national level, that have an interest in partnering with the Department on an information-sharing basis, and that are located in proximity to each other. The DP benchmarking team assessed the pollution prevention programs of five companies in the Chicago area--GE Plastics, Navistar, Northrop Corporation, Sundstrand and Caterpillar. At all facilities visited, Ozone Depleting Compounds (ODCs), hazardous wastes, releases under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), waste water and non-hazardous wastes are being eliminated, replaced, reduced, recycled and reused whenever practicable.

  18. Laboratory test ordering and results management systems: a qualitative study of safety risks identified by administrators in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Paul; Halley, Lyn; McKay, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore experiences and perceptions of frontline administrators involved in the systems-based management of laboratory test ordering and results handling in general medical practice. Design Qualitative using focus group interviews. Setting West of Scotland general medical practices in three National Health Service (NHS) territorial board areas. Participants Convenience samples of administrators (receptionists, healthcare assistants and phlebotomists). Methods Transcript data were subjected to content analysis. Results A total of 40 administrative staff were recruited. Four key themes emerged: (1) system variations and weaknesses (eg, lack of a tracking process is a known risk that needs to be addressed). (2) Doctor to administrator communication (eg, unclear information can lead to emotional impacts and additional workload). (3) Informing patients of test results (eg, levels of anxiety and uncertainty are experienced by administrators influenced by experience and test result outcome) and (4) patient follow-up and confidentiality (eg, maintaining confidentiality in a busy reception area can be challenging). The key findings were explained in terms of sociotechnical systems theory. Conclusions The study further confirms the safety-related problems associated with results handling systems and adds to our knowledge of the communication and psychosocial issues that can affect the health and well-being of staff and patients alike. However, opportunities exist for practices to identify barriers to safe care, and plan and implement system improvements to accommodate or mitigate the potential for human error in this complex area. PMID:24503302

  19. Using the Delphi Approach to Identify Priority Areas for Health Visiting Practice in an Area of Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Bryar, Rosamund; Anto-Awuakye, Sandra; Christie, Janice; Davis, Claire; Plumb, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Families with children living in areas of high deprivation face multiple health and social challenges, and this high level of need has impacts on the work of health practitioners working in such areas. All families in the UK with children under five years have access to health visiting services, and health visitors have a key role in mitigating the effects of deprivation by addressing health needs through evidence based practice. This paper reports the first stage of a project in Tower Hamlets, London, an area of significant deprivation, which aims to develop an evidence-based toolkit to support health visitors in their practice with families. The first stage used a modified Delphi process to identify the priority health needs of families in the area between June and July 2012. The three-stage Delphi process involved 25 people: four health visitors, four other members of the health visiting service, and 17 representatives of other services working with families. A focus group event was followed by a second event where individuals completed a questionnaire ranking the 27 priorities identified in the first event. The consultation process concluded with participants completing a second questionnaire, by email, confirming or changing their prioritisation of the topics. PMID:24151552

  20. Antibacterial prescribing patterns in small animal veterinary practice identified via SAVSNET: the small animal veterinary surveillance network.

    PubMed

    Radford, A D; Noble, P J; Coyne, K P; Gaskell, R M; Jones, P H; Bryan, J G E; Setzkorn, C; Tierney, Á; Dawson, S

    2011-09-17

    In this study, data from veterinary clinical records were collected via the small animal veterinary surveillance network (SAVSNET). Over a three-month period, data were obtained from 22,859 consultations at 16 small animal practices in England and Wales: 69 per cent from dogs, 24 per cent from cats, 3 per cent from rabbits and 4 per cent from miscellaneous species. The proportion of consults where prescribing of antibacterials was identified was 35.1 per cent for dogs, 48.5 per cent for cats and 36.6 per cent for rabbits. Within this population, 76 per cent of antibacterials prescribed were ?-lactams, including the most common group of clavulanic acid-potentiated amoxicillin making up 36 per cent of the antibacterials prescribed. Other classes included lincosamides (9 per cent), fluoroquinolones and quinolones (6 per cent) and nitroimidazoles (4 per cent). Vancomycin and teicoplanin (glycopeptide class), and imipenem and meropenem (?-lactam class) prescribing was not identified. Prescribing behaviour varied between practices. For dogs and cats, the proportion of consults associated with the prescription of antibacterials ranged from 0.26 to 0.55 and 0.41 to 0.73, respectively. PMID:21911433

  1. Lessons to be Learned from Evidence-based Medicine: Practice and Promise of Evidence-based Medicine and Evidence-based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Fredric M.

    2000-01-01

    Presents statistics of deaths caused by medical errors and argues the effects of misconceptions in diagnosis and treatment. Suggests evidence-based medicine to enhance the quality of practice and minimize error rates. Presents 10 evidence-based lessons and discusses the possible benefits of evidence-based medicine to evidence-based education and…

  2. The Promise and Challenge of Practice-Research Collaborations: Guiding Principles and Strategies for Initiating, Designing, and Implementing Program Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secret, Mary; Abell, Melissa L.; Berlin, Trey

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a set of guiding principles and strategies to facilitate the collaborative efforts of social work researchers and practitioners as they initiate, design, and implement outcome evaluations of human service interventions and programs. Beginning with an exploration of the interpersonal barriers to practice-research collaborations,…

  3. The Promise and Challenge of Practice-Research Collaborations: Guiding Principles and Strategies for Initiating, Designing, and Implementing Program Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secret, Mary; Abell, Melissa L.; Berlin, Trey

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a set of guiding principles and strategies to facilitate the collaborative efforts of social work researchers and practitioners as they initiate, design, and implement outcome evaluations of human service interventions and programs. Beginning with an exploration of the interpersonal barriers to practice-research collaborations,…

  4. Identifying biogeochemical processes beneath stormwater infiltration ponds in support of a new best management practice for groundwater protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Chang, Ni-Bin; Wanielista, Martin P.; Xuan, Zhemin

    2011-01-01

     When applying a stormwater infiltration pond best management practice (BMP) for protecting the quality of underlying groundwater, a common constituent of concern is nitrate. Two stormwater infiltration ponds, the SO and HT ponds, in central Florida, USA, were monitored. A temporal succession of biogeochemical processes was identified beneath the SO pond, including oxygen reduction, denitrification, manganese and iron reduction, and methanogenesis. In contrast, aerobic conditions persisted beneath the HT pond, resulting in nitrate leaching into groundwater. Biogeochemical differences likely are related to soil textural and hydraulic properties that control surface/subsurface oxygen exchange. A new infiltration BMP was developed and a full-scale application was implemented for the HT pond. Preliminary results indicate reductions in nitrate concentration exceeding 50% in soil water and shallow groundwater beneath the HT pond.

  5. Developing clinical practice guidelines: target audiences, identifying topics for guidelines, guideline group composition and functioning and conflicts of interest

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this first paper we discuss: the target audience(s) for guidelines and their use of guidelines; identifying topics for guidelines; guideline group composition (including consumer involvement) and the processes by which guideline groups function and the important procedural issue of managing conflicts of interest in guideline development. PMID:22762776

  6. Developing Mathematically Promising Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Linda Jensen, Ed.

    This book, written on the recommendation of the Task Force on Mathematically Promising Students, investigates issues involving the development of promising mathematics students. Recommendations are made concerning topics such as the definition of promising students; the identification of such students; appropriate curriculum, instruction, and…

  7. Developing Mathematically Promising Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Linda Jensen, Ed.

    This book, written on the recommendation of the Task Force on Mathematically Promising Students, investigates issues involving the development of promising mathematics students. Recommendations are made concerning topics such as the definition of promising students; the identification of such students; appropriate curriculum, instruction, and…

  8. Identifying Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Practices Among Primary Care Providers of Minority, Low-Income and Immigrant Patient Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Denise M.; Wilson, Tracey E.; Gany, Francesca; Aragones, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Objective Minority populations in the United States are disproportionally affected by Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-related cancer. We sought to understand physician practices, knowledge and beliefs that affect utilization of the HPV vaccine in primary care settings serving large minority populations in areas with increased rates of HPV-related cancer. Study Design Cross-sectional survey of randomly selected primary care providers, including pediatricians, family practice physicians and internists, serving large minority populations in Brooklyn, N.Y. and in areas with higher than average cervical cancer rates. Results Of 156 physicians randomly selected, 121 eligible providers responded to the survey; 64% were pediatricians, 19% were internists and 17% were family practitioners. Thirty-four percent of respondents reported that they routinely offered HPV vaccine to their eligible patients. Seventy percent of physicians reported that the lack of preventive care visits for patients in the eligible age group limited their ability to recommend the HPV vaccine and 70% of those who reported this barrier do not routinely recommend HPV vaccine. The lack of time to educate parents about the HPV vaccine and cost of the vaccine to their patients were two commonly reported barriers that affected whether providers offered the vaccine. Conclusions Our study found that the majority of providers serving the highest risk populations for HPV infection and HPV-related cancers are not routinely recommending the HPV vaccine to their patients. Reasons for providers' failure to recommend the HPV vaccine routinely are identified and possible areas for targeted interventions to increase HPV vaccination rates are discussed. PMID:24886959

  9. Use of Rasch Rating Scale Modeling to Develop and Validate a Measure of District-Level Characteristics and Practices Identified to Improve Instruction and Increase Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Paul J., III

    2012-01-01

    Increasing qualitative evidence in the literature supports specific characteristics and practices, presented from a distributed leadership perspective, to be prevalent in school districts that demonstrate significant increases in student achievement. Quantitative evidence linking these identified district-level characteristics and practices to…

  10. Of birds, carbon and water: integrating multiple ecosystem service impacts to identify locations for agricultural conservation practice adoption

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human use of the landscape for crop production can degrade ecosystem services. A number of agricultural conservation practices are touted as mitigating these impacts. Many of these practices are encouraged by incentive programs such as the Conservation Reserve Program administere...

  11. Identifying clinical and support-service resources and network practices for cancer patients and survivors in southern Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Eida M.; Jiménez, Julio C.; Quinn, Gwendolyn; García, Myra; Colón, Yesenia; Ramos, Axel; Brandon, Thomas; Simmons, Vani; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Nazario, Cruz María

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to identify cancer-related health care services and to explore the presence of inter-organizational interactions among clinical and support oncology services in southern Puerto Rico. Methods From January through July of 2010, a survey was completed by 54 health care organizations offering clinical, supportive, or both services to cancer patients/survivors (CPS) in southern PR. Survey data were compiled and descriptive analyses performed using the software Statistical Package for a Social Science (SPSS), version 18.0. Results The distribution of the primary services provided by the participating organizations was the following: 26 had clinical services, 16 had support services, and 12 offered a combination of clinical and support services. Only 24% of the surveyed organizations offered their services exclusively to patients diagnosed with cancer. In terms of referral practices, 61% of the responses were for medical specialists, 43% were for mental health services, and 37% were referrals for primary care services. The most common reason for interacting (n = 27) was to provide a given patient both an referral and information. Conclusion Findings suggest gaps in both the availability of oncology services and the delivery of integrated health care. Lack of communication among clinical and support organizations (for cancer patients, specifically) could negatively impact the quality of the services that they offer. Further network analysis studies are needed to confirm these gaps. Until systemic, structural changes occur, more efforts are needed to facilitate communication and collaboration among these kinds of organization. PMID:25249352

  12. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  13. Using the 6S Pyramid to Identify Research-Based Instructional Practices for Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santangelo, Tanya; Novosel, Leslie C.; Cook, Bryan G.; Gapsis, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    To optimize students' learning outcomes, educators are increasingly expected to use instructional practices shown to be effective by credible research. To help make this possible, organizations and scholars are producing resources that summarize research related to various instructional practices. However, as the collection of resources grows in…

  14. Using the 6S Pyramid to Identify Research-Based Instructional Practices for Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santangelo, Tanya; Novosel, Leslie C.; Cook, Bryan G.; Gapsis, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    To optimize students' learning outcomes, educators are increasingly expected to use instructional practices shown to be effective by credible research. To help make this possible, organizations and scholars are producing resources that summarize research related to various instructional practices. However, as the collection of resources grows in…

  15. Promising Practices for Home/School Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, Anne; Fink, Mary

    This report contains profiles of 18 innovative and successful parent involvement programs for migrant families. The programs were selected based on recommendations from State Directors of Migrant Education and migrant educators and on a search of the ERIC database. Each profile includes sponsoring institution or agency, program format, program…

  16. Examining the Culture of Poverty: Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Stapleton, Joy; Ledford, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Spurred by preservice teachers' perceptions that diversity issues such as poverty would not affect their teaching, professors in 1 southeastern U.S. elementary teacher-preparation program took action, which resulted in this examination of the culture of poverty and the identification of strategies to best serve children living in poverty. The…

  17. Class Size Reduction: From Promise to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbach, Anke; Ehrle, Karen; Zahorik, John; Molnar, Alex

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of a Wisconsin initiative compared academic progress in three types of smaller K-3 classes (15 students per teacher) with that in comparison schools. Smaller classes had fewer discipline problems, more time for instruction and individualization, varied instructional strategies, and more content and in-depth coverage. (Contains 10…

  18. Adolescent Literacy Instruction: Policies and Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jill, Ed.; Moorman, Gary, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive resource explores how adolescence and academic achievement are defined within today's political context, examines the in-school potential of teens' out-of-school immersion in digital technologies and popular culture, and shows teachers how to embed comprehension strategies into classroom instruction. The book contains innovative…

  19. Promising Practices for Urban Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Pamela A., Ed.; Schumm, Jeanne Shay, Ed.

    This collection of research-based articles is framed around the International Reading Association's 10 "literacy rights" of every child, outlining what children need to become competent readers and writers. Under Right 1--Children have a right to appropriate early reading instruction based on their individual needs--are the following articles:…

  20. Silicon solar cell efficiency: Practice and promise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The maximum efficiency of silicon solar cells was calculated and yielded a value near 18%. Additionally, the performance of these high efficiency cells in a synchronous orbit radiation field was calculated and it is suggested that these cells would be superior to present silicon cells. The performance of conventional cells was analyzed and several areas in which performance gains may be achieved are discussed. These areas include improvements in diffused region profile, in reduction of excess forward currents in cells made from low resistivity material, and in the theory for describing complex solar cell structures.

  1. Multicultural Science Education: Theory, Practice, and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, S. Maxwell, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    As a relatively new area of investigation, the study of multicultural education as it relates to science teaching and learning has spawned numerous interpretations by researchers and authors worldwide. The contributors of this international volume--among them are science teacher educators, science teachers, scientists, researchers, program…

  2. EARLY SCHOOL ADMISSIONS PROJECT, PROMISING PRACTICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    THE EXPERIMENTAL PROJECT ATTEMPTS TO DETERMINE WHETHER EARLY ADMISSION TO SCHOOL CAN OVERCOME BARRIERS TO LEARNING WHICH ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS SEEM TO IMPOSE. A DEPRIVED CHILD OFTEN DOES NOT RECEIVE ATTENTION, AFFECTION, OR GUIDANCE WITHIN HIS HOME. THE YOUNG CHILD SHOULD BE HELPED TO DEVELOP A WHOLESOME SELF-CONCEPT, TO ACQUIRE THE DRIVE TO…

  3. Examining the Culture of Poverty: Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Stapleton, Joy; Ledford, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Spurred by preservice teachers' perceptions that diversity issues such as poverty would not affect their teaching, professors in 1 southeastern U.S. elementary teacher-preparation program took action, which resulted in this examination of the culture of poverty and the identification of strategies to best serve children living in poverty. The…

  4. Best and Promising Practices in Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Alan, Ed.; Ringlaben, Ravic, Ed.

    Twenty-six papers on the education of students with developmental disabilities are divided into 7 sections on: (1) definition and placement; (2) assessment and curriculum; (3) instructional strategies; (4) individual needs; (5) systematic and data-based instruction and management; (6) family involvement and community attitudes; and (7) appropriate…

  5. Best and Promising Practices in Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Alan, Ed.; Ringlaben, Ravic, Ed.

    Twenty-six papers on the education of students with developmental disabilities are divided into 7 sections on: (1) definition and placement; (2) assessment and curriculum; (3) instructional strategies; (4) individual needs; (5) systematic and data-based instruction and management; (6) family involvement and community attitudes; and (7) appropriate…

  6. Adolescent Literacy Instruction: Policies and Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jill, Ed.; Moorman, Gary, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive resource explores how adolescence and academic achievement are defined within today's political context, examines the in-school potential of teens' out-of-school immersion in digital technologies and popular culture, and shows teachers how to embed comprehension strategies into classroom instruction. The book contains innovative…

  7. The Kalamazoo Promise Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Lachowska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    This study takes advantage of the unexpected announcement of the Kalamazoo Promise to study its effects on student achievement and behavior in high school. The Kalamazoo Promise provides college scholarships to graduates of Kalamazoo Public Schools (KPS), a midsized urban school district in Michigan that is racially and economically diverse.…

  8. The Kalamazoo Promise Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Lachowska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    This study takes advantage of the unexpected announcement of the Kalamazoo Promise to study its effects on student achievement and behavior in high school. The Kalamazoo Promise provides college scholarships to graduates of Kalamazoo Public Schools (KPS), a midsized urban school district in Michigan that is racially and economically diverse.…

  9. PROMISE. Beyond frontiers.

    PubMed

    Ray, Manaan Kar; Rae, Sarah; Agius, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The concepts underlying the PROMISE initiative are described. This initiative to implement more humane healthcare is now developing from a local initiativein Cambridge to a global movement. PMID:26417826

  10. Off-label prescriptions: how to identify them, frame them, announce them and monitor them in practice?

    PubMed

    Le Jeunne, Claire; Billon, Nathalie; Dandon, Anne; Berdaï, Driss; Adgibi, Yolande; Bergmann, Jean-François; Bordet, Régis; Carpentier, Anne; Cohn, Emmanuelle; Courcier, Soizic; Girault, Danièle; Goni, Sylvia; Jolliet, Pascale; Liard, François; Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Simon, Tabassome; Vernotte, Christine; Westerloppe, Jérémie

    2013-01-01

    Following the Mediator crisis and the passage of the Health and Safety Law of December 2011, off-label prescriptions are a real concern shared by all those involved in healthcare system. Off-label, in the strictest sense of the term, is defined as all prescriptions that do not correspond to the summary of product characteristics (SPC), particularly those that fail to comply with the indications and dosage regimens defined by the marketing authorization (MA) for clear safety reasons. There are various rasons for off-label prescriptions, both conscious and unconscious. They are intended to respond to unmet medical needs, the needs of poorly studied populations or not studied at all in trials, but in relation to whom it is reasonable to extrapolate that MA would be given (common-sense prescriptions) and, additionally, to urgent public health needs (such as baclofen, pregnant women, and HIV drugs). All these prescriptions would deserve to be studied for a potential MA. However, there are off-label prescriptions that need to be restricted or even penalized in the case of compassionate prescriptions or unjustified prescriptions or prescriptions not based on any scientific grounds. Off-label prescriptions are not easy to track down because if the prescriber has to write "off-label" on his prescription, then clearly, in practice, he will only do so in exceptional cases. Neither the pharmacists who dispense the drug nor the Social Security that reimburses it, have access to the diagnosis (or targeted indication). Thus, in order to identify the off-label prescription, we must be able to cross reference the available databases (such as pharmacovigilance database, medicalized information system program [programme de médicalisation des systèmes d'information, PMSI], hospital drug formularies, general sample of beneficiaries [échantillon généraliste de bénéficiaires, EGB] or national inter-regional Health Insurance Information System [système national d'informations inter-régions d'Assurance maladie, SNIIRAM], sales data, and data from market surveys). The shared computerized patient file may resolve this problem. The temporary use recommendation (TUR) proposed by the Drug Safety Law will only partially deal with this problem for recently marketed molecules. This temporary and exceptional mechanism will authorize a recognized off-label prescription, which may be reimbursed and monitored for 3 years. These TURs will only concern a small portion of "off-label" drugs having yet a positive risk/benefit ratio (conditional MA) but this is far from matching with majority of off-label prescriptions. As such, and in order to improve the use of drugs, it is important to propose a control system for all "off-label" prescriptions with a dedicated committee: the "off-label" committee which would determine the frame of the "off-label" prescriptions. PMID:23981260

  11. Shifting the Focus to Student Learning: Characteristics of Effective Teaching Practice as Identified by Experienced Pre-Service Faculty Advisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, Nancy; Hatt, Blaine E.

    2012-01-01

    Cochrane-Smith and Power identify trends in teacher education programs with some relating to heightened teacher accountability for students' learning. In this paper we provide a model that identifies characteristics believed to be critical elements related to a teacher's conceptual focus shifting from an emphasis on their teaching to their…

  12. Design, Development, and Psychometric Analysis of a General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Topic Inventory Based on the Identified Main Chemistry Topics Relevant to Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.

    2013-01-01

    This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing…

  13. Design, Development, and Psychometric Analysis of a General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Topic Inventory Based on the Identified Main Chemistry Topics Relevant to Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.

    2013-01-01

    This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing…

  14. Identifying and Promoting Transition Evidence-Based Practices and Predictors of Success: A Position Paper of the Division on Career Development and Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Rowe, Dawn A.; Cameto, Renee; Test, David W.; Morningstar, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    This position paper describes the Division of Career Development and Transition's stance and recommendations for identifying and promoting secondary transition evidence-based practices and predictors of postschool success for students with disabilities. Recommendations for experimental research, correlational research, and secondary analysis…

  15. Identifying and Promoting Transition Evidence-Based Practices and Predictors of Success: A Position Paper of the Division on Career Development and Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Rowe, Dawn A.; Cameto, Renee; Test, David W.; Morningstar, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    This position paper describes the Division of Career Development and Transition's stance and recommendations for identifying and promoting secondary transition evidence-based practices and predictors of postschool success for students with disabilities. Recommendations for experimental research, correlational research, and secondary analysis…

  16. Using Evidence-Based Conceptual Frameworks to Identify Leadership Practices of Principals of Successful Schools Serving English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    This study is one of five thematic dissertations investigating the leadership practices of principals leading successful schools serving ELA learners. Schools selected for participation in this study had (a) an open enrollment policy, (b) at least 40% of total enrollment consists of ELL students, (c) has earned a School Performance Framework (SPF)…

  17. Professional Development for Information Communication Technology Integration: Identifying and Supporting a Community of Practice through Design-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests effective classroom ICT integration occurs through needs-based, collaborative professional development (Chandra-Handa, 2001; Cuttance, 2001; Figg, 2000; Gibson, Oberg, & Pelz, 1999; Gross, 2000; Haughey, 2002). A community of practice (CoP) (Wenger, 1998; Wenger, McDermott, & Snyder, 2002) can be an effective mode of such…

  18. Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias: An Organizational Approach to Identifying and Addressing Practices and Learning Needs of Family Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Michael; Ferrier, Suzanne; Sargeant, Joan; Loney, Elaine; Bethune, Graeme; Murphy, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    Caring for patients with dementia is complex and demanding. Since family physicians (FPs) provide much of this care, we examined their practices, learning needs, and barriers to care concerning Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. We surveyed 392 (approximately 50%) Nova Scotia FPs and conducted focus groups and interviews with: FPs; staff of…

  19. Using Conversion and Design Social R & D Principles to Identify Some Practice Implications for the Training of Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapides, Jerry

    This literature review examines 12 current works dealing with converting basic research on adult learning, adult development, adult education, instructional methods, and learning theory to practical application in the training of trainers. Focus of the review is on translating principles from scientific language to language more suitable to…

  20. Promising More Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    When NASA needed a real-time, online database system capable of tracking documentation changes in its propulsion test facilities, engineers at Stennis Space Center joined with ECT International, of Brookfield, Wisconsin, to create a solution. Through NASA's Dual-Use Program, ECT developed Exdata, a software program that works within the company's existing Promise software. Exdata not only satisfied NASA s requirements, but also expanded ECT s commercial product line. Promise, ECT s primary product, is an intelligent software program with specialized functions for designing and documenting electrical control systems. An addon to AutoCAD software, Promis e generates control system schematics, panel layouts, bills of material, wire lists, and terminal plans. The drawing functions include symbol libraries, macros, and automatic line breaking. Primary Promise customers include manufacturing companies, utilities, and other organizations with complex processes to control.

  1. Surgical site infection prevention: a survey to identify the gap between evidence and practice in University of Toronto teaching hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Eskicioglu, Cagla; Gagliardi, Anna R.; Fenech, Darlene S.; Forbes, Shawn S.; McKenzie, Marg; McLeod, Robin S.; Nathens, Avery B.

    2012-01-01

    Background A gap exists between the best evidence and practice with regards to surgical site infection (SSI) prevention. Awareness of evidence is the first step in knowledge translation. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to 59 general surgeons and 68 residents at University of Toronto teaching hospitals. Five domains pertaining to SSI prevention with questions addressing knowledge of prevention strategies, efficacy of antibiotics, strategies for changing practice and barriers to implementation of SSI prevention strategies were investigated. Results Seventy-six individuals (60%) responded. More than 90% of respondents stated there was evidence for antibiotic prophylaxis and perioperative normothermia and reported use of these strategies. There was a discrepancy in the perceived evidence for and the self-reported use of perioperative hyperoxia, omission of hair removal and bowel preparation. Eighty-three percent of respondents felt that consulting published guidelines is important in making decisions regarding antibiotics. There was also a discrepancy between what respondents felt were important strategies to ensure timely administration of antibiotics and what strategies were in place. Checklists, standardized orders, protocols and formal surveillance programs were rated most highly by 75%–90% of respondents, but less than 50% stated that these strategies were in place at their institutions. Conclusion Broad-reaching initiatives that increase surgeon and trainee awareness and implementation of multifaceted hospital strategies that engage residents and attending surgeons are needed to change practice. PMID:22617541

  2. Effective Teaching Practices in Reading that Enhance the Success of Students Identified as At-Risk for Reading Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambucci, Joan N.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this descriptive study was to investigate the use of decoding strategies, specifically phonemic awareness, alphabetic principle, accuracy and fluency, and vocabulary, to determine if applying the identified decoding strategies would have an effect on the students at-risk for reading failure. The purpose was to determine if these…

  3. An Exploration of the Psychosocial Characteristics of High Achieving Students and Identified Gifted Students: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchotte, Jennifer A.; Suhr, Diana; Alfurayh, Naif F.; Graefe, Amy K.

    2016-01-01

    High achieving students or "bright children" are often denied access to gifted services because they do not meet "gifted" criteria. Although psychosocial factors play an integral role in academic success, and can be useful in providing a clearer picture of student need, they are seldom considered in the decision to identify

  4. Service-Learning: Promise and Possibility in Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalles, Susan; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Herein we identify and address promising practices, essential theories, and related cautions within service-learning. The argument that service-learning is an organized community service which is connected to curriculum in an effort to deepen learning around content was scrutinized and endorsed. We envisioned service-learning as more than a joint…

  5. Use of technology assessment databases to identify the issues associated with adoption of structural health monitoring practices.

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Smith, Bryce; Neidigk, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    The goal is to create a systematic method and structure to compile, organize, and summarize SHM related data to identify the level of maturity and rate of evolution and have a quick and ongoing evaluation of the current state of SHM among research institutions and industry. Hundreds of technical publication and conference proceedings were read and analyzed to compile the database. Microsoft Excel was used to create a useable interface that could be filtered to compare any of the entered data fields.

  6. Good Practice Chaplaincy: An Exploratory Study Identifying the Appropriate Skills, Attitudes and Practices for the Selection, Training and Utilisation of Chaplains.

    PubMed

    Carey, Lindsay B; Rumbold, Bruce

    2015-08-01

    This article presents an overview of exploratory research regarding the skills, knowledge, attitudes and practices considered necessary for chaplains to be highly competent in providing holistic care to clients and staff. Utilising a qualitative methodology, two focus groups comprising Salvation Army chaplains and their managers provided data about their expectations of chaplaincy personnel and about the pastoral care interventions undertaken by chaplains. The results indicated that while there were some differences in opinion, nevertheless, in overall terms, there was general agreement between chaplains and their managers about particular personal and professional qualities necessary for chaplains to be considered appropriate and proficient. Evidence was also obtained indicating a need for change with regard to the organisational attitude and culture of The Salvation Army towards chaplaincy. Recommendations are presented concerning (1) the selection criteria for chaplaincy, (2) training and utilisation of chaplains plus (3) issues relating to organizational cultural change necessary to develop a future-ready chaplaincy more suitable for the twenty-first century. PMID:25371346

  7. Gaia: Status and Promises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzetti, A.

    2015-10-01

    The power of micro-arcsecond (µas) astrometry is about to be unleashed. ESA's Gaia mission, now entering its second year of routine science operations, will soon fulfil its promise for revolutionary science in the countless aspects of Galactic astronomy and astrophysics. I will briefly review the Gaia mission status of operations, and the scenario for intermediate data releases. Iwill then illustrate the potential of µas astrometry for detection and improved characterization of planetary systems in the neighborhood of the Sun.

  8. A promising method for identifying cross-cultural differences in patient perspective: the use of Internet-based focus groups for content validation of new Patient Reported Outcome assessments

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Mark J; Lohs, Jan; Kuhagen, Ilka; Kaufman, Julie; Bhaidani, Shamsu

    2006-01-01

    Objectives This proof of concept (POC) study was designed to evaluate the use of an Internet-based bulletin board technology to aid parallel cross-cultural development of thematic content for a new set of patient-reported outcome measures (PROs). Methods The POC study, conducted in Germany and the United States, utilized Internet Focus Groups (IFGs) to assure the validity of new PRO items across the two cultures – all items were designed to assess the impact of excess facial oil on individuals' lives. The on-line IFG activities were modeled after traditional face-to-face focus groups and organized by a common 'Topic' Guide designed with input from thought leaders in dermatology and health outcomes research. The two sets of IFGs were professionally moderated in the native language of each country. IFG moderators coded the thematic content of transcripts, and a frequency analysis of code endorsement was used to identify areas of content similarity and difference between the two countries. Based on this information, draft PRO items were designed and a majority (80%) of the original participants returned to rate the relative importance of the newly designed questions. Findings The use of parallel cross-cultural content analysis of IFG transcripts permitted identification of the major content themes in each country as well as exploration of the possible reasons for any observed differences between the countries. Results from coded frequency counts and transcript reviews informed the design and wording of the test questions for the future PRO instrument(s). Subsequent ratings of item importance also deepened our understanding of potential areas of cross-cultural difference, differences that would be explored over the course of future validation studies involving these PROs. Conclusion The use of IFGs for cross-cultural content development received positive reviews from participants and was found to be both cost and time effective. The novel thematic coding methodology provided an empirical platform on which to develop culturally sensitive questionnaire content using the natural language of participants. Overall, the IFG responses and thematic analyses provided a thorough evaluation of similarities and differences in cross-cultural themes, which in turn acted as a sound base for the development of new PRO questionnaires. PMID:16995935

  9. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of lumbar spine x-ray for low back pain in UK primary care practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Psychological models predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological models to predict the health professional behaviour 'referral for lumbar spine x-ray in patients presenting with low back pain' by UK primary care physicians. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of primary care physicians in Scotland and north England. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (referral rates for lumbar spine x-rays), behavioural simulation (lumbar spine x-ray referral decisions based upon scenarios), and behavioural intention (general intention to refer for lumbar spine x-rays in patients with low back pain). Explanatory variables were the constructs within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Weinstein's Stage Model termed the Precaution Adoption Process (PAP), and knowledge. For each of the outcome measures, a generalised linear model was used to examine the predictive value of each theory individually. Linear regression was used for the intention and simulation outcomes, and negative binomial regression was used for the behaviour outcome. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross-theoretical construct' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all individual constructs across theories. Results Constructs from TPB, SCT, CS-SRM, and OLT predicted behaviour; however, the theoretical models did not fit the data well. When predicting behavioural simulation, the proportion of variance explained by individual theories was TPB 11.6%, SCT 12.1%, OLT 8.1%, and II 1.5% of the variance, and in the cross-theory analysis constructs from TPB, CS-SRM and II explained 16.5% of the variance in simulated behaviours. When predicting intention, the proportion of variance explained by individual theories was TPB 25.0%, SCT 21.5%, CS-SRM 11.3%, OLT 26.3%, PAP 2.6%, and knowledge 2.3%, and in the cross-theory analysis constructs from TPB, SCT, CS-SRM, and OLT explained 33.5% variance in intention. Together these results suggest that physicians' beliefs about consequences and beliefs about capabilities are likely determinants of lumbar spine x-ray referrals. Conclusions The study provides evidence that taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that predict clinical behaviour. However, a number of conceptual and methodological challenges remain. PMID:21619689

  10. Managing the Risk of Triggered Seismicity: Can We Identify (and Avoid) Potentially Active Faults? - A Practical Case Study in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, M. D.; Alt, R. C., II; Walsh, F. R.; Walters, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that throughout the central and eastern U.S. there has been a marked increase in seismicity since 2009, at least some of which appears to increased wastewater injection. No area has seen a greater increase in seismicity than Oklahoma. In this paper, we utilize newly available information on in situ stress orientation and relative magnitudes, the distribution of high volume injection wells and knowledge of the intervals used for waste water disposal to identify the factors potentially contributing to the occurrence of triggered seismicity. While there are a number of sites where in situ stress data has been successfully used to identify potentially active faults, we are investigating whether this methodology can be implemented throughout a state utilizing the types of information frequently available in areas of oil and gas development. As an initial test of this concept, we have been compiling stress orientation data from wells throughout Oklahoma provided by private industry. Over fifty new high quality data points, principally drilling-induced tensile fractures observed in image logs, result in a greatly improved understanding of the stress field in much of the state. A relatively uniform ENE direction of maximum compressive stress is observed, although stress orientations (and possibly relative stress magnitudes) differ in the southern and southwestern parts of the state. The proposed methodology can be tested in the area of the NE-trending fault that produced the M 5+ earthquakes in the Prague, OK sequence in 2011, and the Meers fault in southwestern OK, that produced a M~7 reverse faulting earthquake about 1100 years ago. This methodology can also be used to essentially rule out slip on other major faults in the area, such as the ~N-S trending Nemaha fault system. Additional factors leading to the occurrence of relatively large triggered earthquakes in Oklahoma are 1) the overall increase in injection volumes throughout the state in recent years (especially in some particular areas) 2) the injection of waste water in a geologic formation laying directly above crystalline basement rocks and 3) the widespread distribution of injection wells.

  11. Building resilience into practical conservation: identifying local management responses to global climate change in the southern Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, J. A.; Marshall, P. A.; Johnson, J. E.; Harman, S.

    2010-06-01

    Climate change is now considered the greatest long-term threat to coral reefs, with some future change inevitable despite mitigation efforts. Managers must therefore focus on supporting the natural resilience of reefs, requiring that resilient reefs and reef regions be identified. We develop a framework for assessing resilience and trial it by applying the framework to target management responses to climate change on the southern Great Barrier Reef. The framework generates a resilience score for a site based on the evaluation of 19 differentially weighted indicators known or thought to confer resilience to coral reefs. Scores are summed, and sites within a region are ranked in terms of (1) their resilience relative to the other sites being assessed, and (2) the extent to which managers can influence their resilience. The framework was applied to 31 sites in Keppel Bay of the southern Great Barrier Reef, which has a long history of disturbance and recovery. Resilience and ‘management influence potential’ were both found to vary widely in Keppel Bay, informing site selection for the staged implementation of resilience-based management strategies. The assessment framework represents a step towards making the concept of resilience operational to reef managers and conservationists. Also, it is customisable, easy to teach and implement and effective in building support among local communities and stakeholders for management responses to climate change.

  12. Risk factors, practice variation and hematological outcomes of children identified with non-anemic iron deficiency following screening in primary care setting

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Kawsari; Thorpe, Kevin E; Maguire, Jonathon L; Birken, Catherine S; Fehlings, Darcy; Hanley, Anthony J; Parkin, Patricia C

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, risk factors, physician practice patterns and longitudinal hematological outcome of children following screening for non-anemic iron deficiency (NAID). METHODS: The present analysis was a longitudinal cohort study invovling healthy children one to five years of age. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the prevalence, risk factors, practice patterns and hematological outcome of children identified with NAID. The association between NAID and potential risk factors were examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of 2276 children undergoing screening, 155 had NAID, corresponding to a prevalence of 7% (95% CI 5.95% to 8.05%). Risk factors significantly associated with NAID included: younger age (OR 1.08 [95% CI 1.06 to 1.11]), higher body mass index z-score (OR 1.22 [95% CI 1.01 to 1.48]), longer duration of breastfeeding (OR 1.05 [95% CI 1.01 to 1.08]) and increased volume of cow’s milk intake (OR 1.13 [95% CI 1.01 to 1.26]). An assessment of practice patterns revealed that for 37% of children, an intervention for NAID was documented; and for 8.4% a physician-ordered follow-up laboratory test was completed to re-evaluate iron status. A total of 58 (37%) children underwent a follow-up laboratory test, of whom 38 (65.5%) had resolution of NAID, 15 (25.9%) had persistence of NAID and two (3.4%) had progression of NAID to anemia. CONCLUSION: NAID is common in early childhood and is associated with modifiable risk factors. Substantial practice variation exists in the management of NAID. Further research is necessary to understand the benefits of screening for NAID and evidence-informed practice guidelines may reduce practice variation in the management of NAID in early childhood. PMID:26435669

  13. Aquaculture: Challenges and promise

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is the culture of aquatic organisms, which includes fish, mollusks, crustaceans, algae and plants. People have been involved in different forms of aquaculture for thousands of years, with early documented evidence dating back as far as 500 BC in China (Ling 1977). Today, the practice of ...

  14. Performance Scores in General Practice: A Comparison between the Clinical versus Medication-Based Approach to Identify Target Populations

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Lary, Olivier; Boisnault, Philippe; Naiditch, Michel; Szidon, Philippe; Duhot, Didier; Bourgueil, Yann; Pelletier-Fleury, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Context From one country to another, the pay-for-performance mechanisms differ on one significant point: the identification of target populations, that is, populations which serve as a basis for calculating the indicators. The aim of this study was to compare clinical versus medication-based identification of populations of patients with diabetes and hypertension over the age of 50 (for men) or 60 (for women), and any consequences this may have on the calculation of P4P indicators. Methods A comparative, retrospective, observational study was carried out with clinical and prescription data from a panel of general practitioners (GPs), the Observatory of General Medicine (OMG) for the year 2007. Two indicators regarding the prescription for statins and aspirin in these populations were calculated. Results We analyzed data from 21.690 patients collected by 61 GPs via electronic medical files. Following the clinical-based approach, 2.278 patients were diabetic, 8,271 had hypertension and 1.539 had both against respectively 1.730, 8.511 and 1.304 following the medication-based approach (% agreement?=?96%, kappa?=?0.69). The main reasons for these differences were: forgetting to code the morbidities in the clinical approach, not taking into account the population of patients who were given life style and diet rules only or taking into account patients for whom morbidities other than hypertension could justify the use of antihypertensive drugs in the medication-based approach. The mean (confidence interval) per doctor was 33.7% (31.5–35.9) for statin indicator and 38.4% (35.4–41.4) for aspirin indicator when the target populations were identified on the basis of clinical criteria whereas they were 37.9% (36.3–39.4) and 43.8% (41.4–46.3) on the basis of treatment criteria. Conclusion The two approaches yield very “similar” scores but these scores cover different realities and offer food for thought on the possible usage of these indicators in the framework of P4P programmes. PMID:22536430

  15. MAKS - Eastern promise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempsell, Mark; Parkinson, Bob

    1993-03-01

    The history and technical details of a MAKS project of multipurpose aerospace system developed in Moscow by NPO Molnija is described. The current MAKS configuration has a 20 m long winged orbiter and a single drop tank containing all the ascent propellant. Three versions of MAKS has been designed including the manned version for crew transfer missions, the unmanned version for delivery of cargo, and a totally expendable version, called MAKS-T. The MAKS orbiter will use an RD-701 engine developed by NPO Energomash. The RD-701 is a twin chambered engine capable of operating as an oxygen-hydrogene-kerosine engine for high trust, or a pure oxygen-hydrogene engine for high performance measured by specific impulse. The MAKS project is considered to be promising route to low cost flexible transportation into LEO.

  16. Credible threats and promises.

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2002-01-01

    We consider various implications of information about the other player in two-player evolutionary games. A simple model of desertion shows that information about the partner's behaviour can be disadvantageous, and highlights the idea of credible threats. We then discuss the general issue of whether the partner can convince the focal player that it will behave in a specific way, i.e. whether the focal player can make credible threats or promises. We show that when desertion decisions depend on reserves, a player can manipulate its reserves so as to create a credible threat of desertion. We then extend previous work on the evolution of trust and commitment, discussing conditions under which it is advantageous to assume that a partner will behave in a certain way even though it is not in its best interest. PMID:12495517

  17. Objectification Theory: Areas of Promise and Refinement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    This article elaborates on three themes related to Szymanski, Moffitt, and Carr's major contribution aims. First, the article describes the promise of objectification theory as a grounding framework in research and practice, outlining how this theory integrates key aspects of several other important theoretical models. Second, this article…

  18. Promising Strategies in Probation and Parole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, E. Kim; And Others

    This report is designed to aid probation and parole administrators, planners, program operators, and line staff by highlighting programs and practices throughout the country which appear to have special promise. The scarcity of evaluative data and the limitations inherent in a study of this kind forced heavy reliance on subjective assessments in…

  19. The Promise Rich vs. The Promise Poor. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The second "Every Child, Every Promise" research brief examines the association between a family's income and the presence of the Five Promises in their child's life. The report documents the Promise gap that exists between children in low-income families and those in higher income families. Although parents in low-income families are typically…

  20. Importance sampling : promises and limitations.

    SciTech Connect

    West, Nicholas J.; Swiler, Laura Painton

    2010-04-01

    Importance sampling is an unbiased sampling method used to sample random variables from different densities than originally defined. These importance sampling densities are constructed to pick 'important' values of input random variables to improve the estimation of a statistical response of interest, such as a mean or probability of failure. Conceptually, importance sampling is very attractive: for example one wants to generate more samples in a failure region when estimating failure probabilities. In practice, however, importance sampling can be challenging to implement efficiently, especially in a general framework that will allow solutions for many classes of problems. We are interested in the promises and limitations of importance sampling as applied to computationally expensive finite element simulations which are treated as 'black-box' codes. In this paper, we present a customized importance sampler that is meant to be used after an initial set of Latin Hypercube samples has been taken, to help refine a failure probability estimate. The importance sampling densities are constructed based on kernel density estimators. We examine importance sampling with respect to two main questions: is importance sampling efficient and accurate for situations where we can only afford small numbers of samples? And does importance sampling require the use of surrogate methods to generate a sufficient number of samples so that the importance sampling process does increase the accuracy of the failure probability estimate? We present various case studies to address these questions.

  1. Exemplary & Promising Gender Equity Programs, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This report identifies promising and exemplary programs that promote gender equity in and through education during the 1996-99 Gender Equity Expert Panel review cycle. These programs need to meet four criteria: evidence of success/effectiveness in promoting gender equity, quality of program, educational significance, and usefulness to others or…

  2. Promising Strategies for Improving Student Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfredson, Denise C.

    In response to growing public concern over declining educational quality and discipline problems in today's schools, this paper reviews research on the causes of school disruption and student misbehavior, identifies promising ameliorative strategies, and examines specific research-practitioner collaborations that have successfully reduced school…

  3. The promise of proteomics in animal science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics hold significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy. The ability of proteomics to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins is unparalleled. In this review, we will...

  4. The use of a prescription drug monitoring program to develop algorithms to identify providers with unusual prescribing practices for controlled substances.

    PubMed

    Ringwalt, Christopher; Schiro, Sharon; Shanahan, Meghan; Proescholdbell, Scott; Meder, Harold; Austin, Anna; Sachdeva, Nidhi

    2015-10-01

    The misuse, abuse and diversion of controlled substances have reached epidemic proportion in the United States. Contributing to this problem are providers who over-prescribe these substances. Using one state's prescription drug monitoring program, we describe a series of metrics we developed to identify providers manifesting unusual and uncustomary prescribing practices. We then present the results of a preliminary effort to assess the concurrent validity of these algorithms, using death records from the state's vital records database pertaining to providers who wrote prescriptions to patients who then died of a medication or drug overdose within 30 days. Metrics manifesting the strongest concurrent validity with providers identified from these records related to those who co-prescribed benzodiazepines (e.g., valium) and high levels of opioid analgesics (e.g., oxycodone), as well as those who wrote temporally overlapping prescriptions. We conclude with a discussion of a variety of uses to which these metrics may be put, as well as problems and opportunities related to their use. PMID:26143508

  5. Identifying strategies to maximise recruitment and retention of practices and patients in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of an intervention to optimise secondary prevention for coronary heart disease in primary care. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Identifying strategies to maximise recruitment and retention of practices and patients in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of an intervention to optimise secondary prevention for coronary heart disease in primary care.

  6. A cross-sectional study identifying the pattern of factors related to psychological intimate partner violence exposure in Slovenian family practice attendees: what hurt them the most

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is yet to be fully acknowledged as a public health problem in Slovenia. This study aimed to explore the health and other patient characteristics associated with psychological IPV exposure and gender-related specificity in family clinic attendees. Methods In a multi-centre cross-sectional study, 960 family practice attendees aged 18 years and above were recruited. In 689 interviews with currently- or previously-partnered patients, the short form of A Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire and additional questions about behavioural patterns of exposure to psychological abuse in the past year were given. General practitioners (GPs) reviewed the medical charts of 470 patients who met the IPV exposure criteria. The Domestic Violence Exposure Medical Chart Check List was used, collecting data on the patients’ lives and physical, sexual and reproductive, and psychological health status, as well as sick leave, hospitalisation, visits to family practices and referrals to other clinical specialists in the past year. In multivariate logistic regression modelling the factors associated with past year psychological IPV exposure were identified, with P < 0.05 set as the level of statistical significance. Results Of the participants (n = 470), 12.1% (n = 57) were exposed to psychological IPV in the previous year (46 women and 11 men). They expressed more complaints regarding sexual and reproductive (p = 0.011), and psychological and behavioural status (p <0.001), in the year prior to the survey. Unemployment or working part-time, a college degree, an intimate relationship of six years or more and a history of disputes in the intimate relationship, increased the odds of psychological IPV exposure in the sample, explaining 41% of the variance. In females, unemployment and a history of disputes in the intimate relationship explained 43% of the variance. Conclusions The prevalence of psychological IPV above 10% during the past year was similar to earlier studies in Slovenia, although the predominance of better-educated people might be associated with lower tolerance toward psychological abuse. GPs should pay special attention to unemployed patients and those complaining about family disputes, to increase early detection. PMID:24593032

  7. Nanotechnology: Its Promise and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Vicki Colvin

    2009-05-14

    Vicki Colvin of Rice University talks about how nanotechnology-enabled systems, with dimensions on the scale of a billionth of a meter, offer great promise for solving difficult social problems and creating enormous possibilities.

  8. Implications for Improving Fetal Death Vital Statistics: Connecting Reporters' Self-Identified Practices and Barriers to Third Trimester Fetal Death Data Quality in New York City.

    PubMed

    Lee, Erica; Toprani, Amita; Begier, Elizabeth; Genovese, Richard; Madsen, Ann; Gambatese, Melissa

    2016-02-01

    Objectives Perinatal mortality prevention strategies that target fetal deaths often utilize vital records data sets shown to contain critical quality deficiencies. To understand the causes of deficient data, we linked survey responses of fetal death reporters with facility fetal death data quality indicators. Methods In 2011, we surveyed the person most responsible for fetal death reporting at New York City healthcare facilities on their attitudes, barriers, and practices regarding reporting. We compared responses by 2 facility data quality indicators (data completeness and ill-defined cause of fetal death) for third trimester fetal death registrations using Chi squared tests. Results Thirty-nine of 50 facilities completed full questionnaires (78 % response rate); responding facilities reported 84 % (n = 11,891) of all 2011 fetal deaths, including 329 third trimester fetal deaths. Facilities citing ≥1 reporting barrier were approximately five times more likely to have incomplete third trimester registrations than facilities citing no substantial barriers (37.5 vs 7.9 %; RR 4.7; 95 % CI [1.6-14.2]). Reported barriers included onerous reporting requirements (n = 10; 26 %) and competing physician priorities (n = 11; 28 %). Facilities citing difficulty involving physicians in reporting were more likely to report fetal deaths with nonspecific cause-of-death information (70.9 vs 56.6 %; RR 1.3; 95 % CI [1.1-1.5]). Conclusions Self-reported challenges correlate with completeness and accuracy of reported fetal death data, suggesting that such barriers are likely contributing to low quality data. We identified several improvement opportunities, including in-depth training and reducing the information collected, especially for early fetal deaths (<20 weeks' gestation), the majority of events reported. PMID:26518007

  9. A Bold and Promising Model with a Few Loose Ends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    Without a doubt the authors' proposal of viewing gifted education in systemic terms is a promising one. In fact, it is most refreshing to read something eclectic like this with an aim to synthesize a field of research and practice which for too long has lacked consensus in both practice and theory. The author agrees with them that a mechanistic…

  10. A Bold and Promising Model with a Few Loose Ends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    Without a doubt the authors' proposal of viewing gifted education in systemic terms is a promising one. In fact, it is most refreshing to read something eclectic like this with an aim to synthesize a field of research and practice which for too long has lacked consensus in both practice and theory. The author agrees with them that a mechanistic…

  11. Mass transit: A barren promise

    SciTech Connect

    Love, J.

    1992-07-01

    Last fall, Congress passed a transportation act that could increase Federal aid to mass transit over the next six years by more than 50 percent - to $31.5 billion. This figure doesn`t even include possible diversions of 50 percent to 100 percent of Federal highway funds in some communities. Most of the new money will be used to purchase buses and build rail lines. The alleged benefits of increased Federal assistance are seductive: For wear motorists, public transit promises reduced traffic congestion; for environmentalists, it promises less use of fossil fuels and less air pollution; for city planners, it promises a step toward urban revitalization; for the poor, it promises inexpensive access to transportation; and for the business community, it promises to lure suburbanites back to central business districts. Taxpayers have pumped more than $100 billion into urban mass transit systems during the past 25 years. Regretfully, experience demonstrates that each supposed benefit of publicly supported transit is more myth than reality. 5 figs.

  12. AMLCD cockpit: promise and payoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Michael P.; Jackson, Timothy W.; Meyer, Frederick M.; Reising, John M.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1999-08-01

    The active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) has become the preferred flight instrument technology in avionics multifunction display applications. Current bubble canopy fighter cockpit applications involve sizes up to 7.8 X 7.8 in. active display. Dual use avionics versions of AMLCD technology are now as large as 6.7 X 6.7 in. active display area in the ARINC D sized color multifunction display (MFD). This is the standard instrument in all new Boeing transport aircraft and is being retrofitted into the C-17A. A special design of the ARINC D instrument is used in the Space Shuttle cockpit upgrade. Larger sizes of AMLCD were desired when decisions were made in the early 1990s for the F-22. Commercial AMLCD technology has now produced monitors at 1280 X 1024 resolution (1.3 megapixels) in sizes of 16 to 21 in. diagonal. Each of these larger AMLCDs has more information carrying capacity than the entire F-22A cockpit instrument panel shipset, comprising six separate smaller AMLCDs (1.2 megapixels total). The larger AMLCDs are being integrated into airborne mission crewstations for use in dim ambient lighting conditions. It is now time to identify and address the technology challenges of upgrading these larger AMLCDs for sunlight readable application and of developing concepts for their integration into advanced bubble canopy fighter cockpits. The overall goals are to significantly increase the informational carrying capacity to bring both sensor and information fusion into the cockpit and, thereby, to enable a significant increase in warfighter situational awareness and effectiveness. A research cockpit was built using specialized versions of the IBM 16.1 in and two smaller 10 in. AMLCDs to examine human factors and display design issues associated with these next-generation AMLCD cockpit displays. This cockpit was later upgraded to allow greater reconfigurability and flexibility in the display hardware used to conduct part- task mission simulations. The objective optical characterization of the AMLCDs used in this simulator and the cockpit design are described. Display formats under consideration for test in this cockpit are described together with some of the basic human factors engineering issues involved. Studies conducted in this cockpit will be part of an ongoing joint effort of the hardware-focused aerospace displays team and the pilot-focused human factors team in the Air Force Research Laboratory's Crew System Interface Division. The objective of these studies is to ascertain the payoffs of the large AMLCD promise in combat cockpits.

  13. Identifying changes in the role of the infection preventionist through the 2014 practice analysis study conducted by the Certification Board of Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc.

    PubMed

    Henman, Lita Jo; Corrigan, Robert; Carrico, Ruth; Suh, Kathryn N

    2015-07-01

    The Certification Board of Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc (CBIC) is a voluntary autonomous multidisciplinary board that provides direction and administers the certification process for professionals who are responsible for the infection prevention and control program in a health care facility. The CBIC performs a practice analysis approximately every 4-5 years. The practice analysis is an integral part of the certification examination development process and serves as the backbone of the test content outline. In 2013, the CBIC determined that a practice analysis was required and contracted with Prometric to facilitate the process. The practice analysis was carried out in 2014 by a diverse group of subject matter experts from the United States and Canada. The practice analysis results showed a significant change in the number of tasks and associated knowledge required for the competent practice of infection prevention. As authorized by the CBIC, the test committee is currently reclassifying the bank of examination questions as required and is writing and reviewing questions based on the updated test specifications and content outline. The new content outline will be reflected in examinations that are taken beginning in July 2015. This iterative process of assessing and updating the certification examination ensures not only a valid competency tool but a true reflection of current practices. PMID:25858308

  14. Solutions for Failing High Schools: Converging Visions and Promising Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legters, Nettie; Balfanz, Robert; McPartland, James

    Promising solutions to the failings of traditional comprehensive high schools were reviewed to identify basic principles and strategies for improving high schools nationwide. Selected research studies, policy documents, and promising high school programs were reviewed. The review revealed the following principles for helping high schools better…

  15. Washington Promise Scholarship Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    The Washington Promise Scholarship program was established to encourage excellent academic performance and to reward low- and middle-income students who demonstrate meritorious achievement in high school by providing them a 2-year scholarship. An evaluation was conducted to study the program and its impact on college attendance and student…

  16. The promise of quantum simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Richard P.; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2015-07-21

    In this study, quantum simulations promise to be one of the primary applications of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history of quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and co-workers, demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH+ molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggest that quantum simulations of quantum chemistry have a bright future.

  17. The promise of quantum simulation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Muller, Richard P.; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2015-07-21

    In this study, quantum simulations promise to be one of the primary applications of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history of quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and co-workers, demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH+ molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggest that quantum simulations of quantum chemistry have a bright future.

  18. The Promise of Quantum Simulation.

    PubMed

    Muller, Richard P; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2015-08-25

    Quantum simulations promise to be one of the primary applications of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history of quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and co-workers, demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH(+) molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggest that quantum simulations of quantum chemistry have a bright future. PMID:26197037

  19. Identifying Key Elements of Community-Based ESD: ESD-J's Projects to Collect ESD in Practice in Japan and Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguchi, Fumiko

    2010-01-01

    Since its establishment in 2003, the Japan Council on the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD-J) has paid close attention to informal learning processes in community-based efforts to promote local sustainable development. ESD-J carried out two projects to collect information on and visualise community-based ESD practice: the…

  20. A study to identify the attitudes and needs of qualified staff concerning the use of research findings in clinical practice within mental health care settings.

    PubMed

    Veeramah, V

    1995-11-01

    In 1972 the Report of the Committee on Nursing recommended that nursing should become a research-based profession. Although, it is acknowledged that research has made a significant contribution to the body of nursing theory since then, it has had little impact on clinical practice. The present study is a small exploratory survey to assess the attitudes and needs of qualified nurses working within mental health care settings concerning the use of research findings in practice. A total of 150 questionnaires were sent to trained nurses working within a defined geographical area in the south-east of England and 118 were returned, giving a response rate of 78%. The main findings suggest that although the vast majority of nurses in the study have a very positive attitude towards research, very few actually make significant use of research findings to enhance their clinical practice. Some of the variables that seem to contribute to this state of affairs are: lack of the necessary research appreciation skills to critically evaluate research findings and apply them in practice; not enough relevant research studies available in the clinical areas; and inadequate support from managers. However, most of the nurses in the study said that they would be involved with research activities if the time was provided for them to do so. PMID:8568058

  1. Making the Invisible of Learning Visible: Pre-Service Teachers Identify Connections between the Use of Literacy Strategies and Their Content Area Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitton-Kukner, Jennifer; Orr, Anne Murray

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe four ways secondary pre-service teachers appeared to be developing assessment practices during field experience, after taking a content area literacy course. This paper arises from a multi-year study exploring pre-service and beginning content area teachers' use of literacy strategies in teaching mathematics, science, and…

  2. University versus Practice: A Pilot Study to Identify Skills Shortages That Exist in First-Year Trainee Accountants in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Romburgh, Henriëtte; van der Merwe, Nico

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the skills shortages in first-year trainee accountants entering practice in South Africa and to recommend ways to address and overcome those shortages. Questionnaires were administered to registered audit firms in Gauteng Province to gather the perceptions of senior trainees, managers and partners on the skills…

  3. University versus Practice: A Pilot Study to Identify Skills Shortages That Exist in First-Year Trainee Accountants in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Romburgh, Henriëtte; van der Merwe, Nico

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the skills shortages in first-year trainee accountants entering practice in South Africa and to recommend ways to address and overcome those shortages. Questionnaires were administered to registered audit firms in Gauteng Province to gather the perceptions of senior trainees, managers and partners on the skills…

  4. Illinois Adult Education Bridges: Promising Practices. Transition Highlights. Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra; Oertle, Kathleen Marie; Kim, Sujung; Kirby, Catherine; Taylor, Jason; Harmon, Tim; Liss, Loralea

    2011-01-01

    To enhance state-level adult education and employment policy, in 2007 the Joyce Foundation began the Shifting Gears (SG) initiative to assist six states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin) to integrate adult education, workforce development and postsecondary education policies and improve job opportunities for low-skilled…

  5. Promising Practices for Strengthening the Regional STEM Workforce Development Ecosystem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    U.S. strength in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines has formed the basis of innovations, technologies, and industries that have spurred the nation's economic growth throughout the last 150 years. Universities are essential to the creation and transfer of new knowledge that drives innovation. This knowledge moves…

  6. Block Scheduling: Center for School Success Promising Practices Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imbimbo, Josephine; Gilkes, Alwyn

    2009-01-01

    This publication focuses on block scheduling. Alternative scheduling models--usually called "block scheduling" because they involve blocks of time for student learning--restructure the school day. Schools may adopt block scheduling to create more productive and personal relationships among teachers and students, to design challenging curricula…

  7. Promising Practices in Serving Academically Talented Youth in Urban Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    In 1982, the UC Berkeley Gifted Program took in its first cohort. The initial group consisted of 282 middle and high school students. As was the case with many programs for gifted youths, admission to the program was based on students' SAT scores, and urban students were underrepresented. In this article, the author discusses how the program has…

  8. Kaleidoscope 2; A Descriptive Collection of Promising Educational Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAdam, Phyllis A.; Fuller, Elisabeth

    This issue of Kaleidoscope, which focuses on projects involving innovative educational change funded under ESEA Title III, describes 60 programs in both elementary and secondary schools in Massachusetts. The projects cover a wide range of educational interests including: curriculum development, environmental education, individualized instruction,…

  9. Socialization in Online Programs. Promising Practices in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, John; Gemin, Butch

    2008-01-01

    Researchers studying socialization in online learning note that definitions are quite broad, suggesting that "Socialization is about people being able to mingle and establish connections on one or more levels. They speak[with] one another; share ideas and information and confirm the connections made through an agreed upon means." More broadly,…

  10. Kaleidoscope 2; A Descriptive Collection of Promising Educational Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAdam, Phyllis A.; Fuller, Elisabeth

    This issue of Kaleidoscope, which focuses on projects involving innovative educational change funded under ESEA Title III, describes 60 programs in both elementary and secondary schools in Massachusetts. The projects cover a wide range of educational interests including: curriculum development, environmental education, individualized instruction,…

  11. Managing Educator Talent: Promising Practices and Lessons from Midwestern States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Monica P.; Behrstock, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This policy analysis explains the need for a system approach to educator talent management. The report analyzes how state policies in the Midwest support the development of effective teachers and leaders throughout their career. The report focuses on state policies in teacher preparation including certification and licensure, recruitment and…

  12. MEASURING RISKS IN HUMANS: THE PROMISE AND PRACTICE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory


    Epidemiology has been considered the fundamental science of public health policy. The use of epidemiologic data in environmental health policy has been limited particularly in the environmental regulatory arena. Epidemiologic risk assessment (ERA) is different from risk ass...

  13. Improving Community College Student Persistence: An Investigation of Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mary Beth McJunkin

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, community colleges have garnered national attention in terms of their potential to produce graduates and assist in the revitalization of the national economy. This has resulted in an increased need for both community college researchers and practitioners to understand more fully the factors that influence student persistence. The…

  14. Promising Practices in Florida: Integrating Academic and Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Betty, Comp.

    This document is a compilation of 90 successful interdisciplinary projects and activities and integrated academic and vocational curriculum ideas implemented in Florida during the past 3 years. The activities and projects have been submitted by teachers and have not been officially evaluated or reviewed. Each description provides this information:…

  15. Promising Practices in Career and Technology Studies (CTS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Learning and Teaching Resources Branch.

    This document contains profiles of 130 successful programs and partnerships in Career and Technology Studies (CTS) in Alberta, Canada. Following an introduction to the CTS program and its implementation, the profiles are organized into 23 sections that follow the strands of the program. The sections cover the following topics: CTS general;…

  16. Promising Practices in Serving Academically Talented Youth in Urban Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    In 1982, the UC Berkeley Gifted Program took in its first cohort. The initial group consisted of 282 middle and high school students. As was the case with many programs for gifted youths, admission to the program was based on students' SAT scores, and urban students were underrepresented. In this article, the author discusses how the program has…

  17. Poverty, Race and Youth: Challenges and Promising Practices in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Carolyn; Stenhjem, Pamela H.; Newkirk, Reginald

    2007-01-01

    The transition from high school to adult life is an exciting time for many young people. Youth from high poverty backgrounds, however, are considered at-risk for a host of unfavorable outcomes including academic failure, school dropout, drug abuse, unemployment and incarceration. These adolescents are more likely than their more affluent peers to…

  18. Global Reach and Local Practice: The Promise of MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Robert Goodwin-Jones opens his discussion with the thought "If you want to attract attention to a new online course, the foolproof strategy today is to label it a MOOC, a massive open online course." The hype surrounding MOOCs has resulted in substantial interest--from the general public to university presidents--in online learning, as…

  19. Promising Practices in Florida: Integrating Academic and Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Betty, Comp.

    This document is a compilation of 90 successful interdisciplinary projects and activities and integrated academic and vocational curriculum ideas implemented in Florida during the past 3 years. The activities and projects have been submitted by teachers and have not been officially evaluated or reviewed. Each description provides this information:…

  20. Systematic review of health branding: growth of a promising practice.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Vallone, Donna; Post, Samantha; Nielsen, Wendy

    2015-03-01

    Brands are marketing tools that create mental representations in the minds of consumers about products, services, and organizations. Brands create schema that help consumers decide whether to initiate or continue use of a product or service. Health branding determines behavioral choice by building consumer relationships and identification with health behaviors and their benefits. Health branding can be measured by the associations individuals form with health behaviors. In 2008, Evans and colleagues systematically reviewed the literature on health brands, reported on branded health messages and campaigns worldwide, and examined specific branding strategies in multiple subject areas. This paper extends that review. We replicated the comprehensive online literature search strategy from 2008. We screened a total of 311 articles and included 130 for full-text review. This included both articles from the 2008 review and new articles. After excluding those new articles that did not meet full-text inclusion criteria, we reviewed 69 in total. Of these, 32 were new articles since the 2008 review. Branded health campaigns cover most major domains of public health and appear worldwide. Since 2008, we observed improvement in evaluation, application of theory, and description of campaign strategies in published work. We recommend enhanced education of public health practitioners and researchers on the use and evaluation of branding. PMID:25729450

  1. Poverty, Race and Youth: Challenges and Promising Practices in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Carolyn; Stenhjem, Pamela H.; Newkirk, Reginald

    2007-01-01

    The transition from high school to adult life is an exciting time for many young people. Youth from high poverty backgrounds, however, are considered at-risk for a host of unfavorable outcomes including academic failure, school dropout, drug abuse, unemployment and incarceration. These adolescents are more likely than their more affluent peers to…

  2. Promising Practices for Strengthening the Regional STEM Workforce Development Ecosystem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    U.S. strength in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines has formed the basis of innovations, technologies, and industries that have spurred the nation's economic growth throughout the last 150 years. Universities are essential to the creation and transfer of new knowledge that drives innovation. This knowledge moves…

  3. Implementing Promising Practices to Prepare Quality Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    The United States does more than just talk; it invests a lot of money in public education. While students are the major focus of concern, teachers are a mainstay in the enterprise. In 2002, the U.S. invested $192 billion in teacher pay and benefits. More than 50% of all dollars allocated by the government for education is paid in salaries for…

  4. Early Commitment Financial Aid Programs: Promises, Practices, and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2005-01-01

    Student financial assistance has long been a means to promote access to postsecondary education and attainment of college degrees. Numerous types of financial aid programs have proliferated over the years, including a relatively new concept that specifically targets high-risk, low-income students, focusing not just on getting them to go to college…

  5. The promise of heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1994-09-01

    In his paper in this issue, Dr. David Crandall of the Office of Fusion Energy presented DOE budget figures for magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE). Funding for IFE decreased from about $9M in FY91 and FY92 to $7.7M in FY93. The Bush budget for FY94 allocated $6.5M for IFE. Clearly the trend is down. In contrast, the FY93 budget for MFE is $330.7M and the Bush budget allocated $416.6M for FY94. These trends force one to ask if there should be an IFE program. In the authors opinion the answer to this question is emphatically affirmative. The remainder of this paper explaines the reasons for this opinion. The paper will emphasize heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF), but many of the reasons apply to any inertial fusion system. There are numerous studies, detailed calculations, and experiments that support the conclusion that HIF is promising: however, enough `promising` fusion schemes have come and gone that many fusion researchers (and politicians) have developed some skepticism about the results and projections of studies, calculations, and even some experiments. To be believable, results and projections must be consistent with scientific, technological, and industrial experience. Therefore this paper will not emphasize detailed studies, but rather plausibility arguments based on experience with large high-energy accelerators and common industrial practice.

  6. Identifying and Supporting English Learner Students with Learning Disabilities: Key Issues in the Literature and State Practice. REL 2015-086

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burr, Elizabeth; Haas, Eric; Ferriere, Karen

    2015-01-01

    While the literature on learning disabilities and on second-language acquisition is relatively extensive within the field of education, less is known about the specific characteristics and representation of English learner students with learning disabilities. Because there are no definitive resources and processes for identifying and determining…

  7. A Practice/Research Collaborative: An Innovative Approach to Identifying and Responding to Psychosocial Functioning Problems and Recidivism Risk among Juvenile Arrestees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Walters, Wansley; Meyers, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Effectively identifying and responding to the psychosocial problems and recidivism risk of arrested youths remain critical needs in the field. Centralized intake facilities, such as juvenile assessment centers (JACs), can play a key role in this process. As part of a U.S. National Demonstration Project, the Miami-Dade JAC, serving a…

  8. A Practice/Research Collaborative: An Innovative Approach to Identifying and Responding to Psychosocial Functioning Problems and Recidivism Risk among Juvenile Arrestees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Walters, Wansley; Meyers, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Effectively identifying and responding to the psychosocial problems and recidivism risk of arrested youths remain critical needs in the field. Centralized intake facilities, such as juvenile assessment centers (JACs), can play a key role in this process. As part of a U.S. National Demonstration Project, the Miami-Dade JAC, serving a…

  9. Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education in Ghana: A Symposium To Examine Current Practices and Identify Future Directions (1st, Ajumako, Central Region, Ghana, June 25-26, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    The Girls' Education Unit (GEU) of the Basic Education Division of Ghana Education Service (GES) organized this Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education (AAGE) symposium to address the issues of girls' education, to construct a comprehensive picture of what interventions related to girls' education are currently being implemented, and identify…

  10. The (non)comparability of the correlation effect size across different measurement procedures: a challenge to meta-analysis as a tool for identifying "evidence based practices".

    PubMed

    Nugent, William R

    2011-05-01

    Meta-analysis is becoming a principal tool for research synthesis and for the identification and justification of evidence based practices. A fundamental assumption in meta-analysis is that effect sizes based upon different measures are comparable. Recent work has challenged this assumption in the case of the standardized mean difference. In this article it is shown that population universe (true) score level correlation effect sizes, for the relationship between two constructs A and B, based upon different measures will be comparable only if construct validity invariance holds across the measures used to make inferences to A and the measures used to make inferences to B. The results of a simulation study are also reported which show that the results of a meta-analysis may be significantly and adversely affected by violations of construct validity invariance. Finally, it is concluded that the theoretical results obtained in this article, and the results of the simulation study, combine to suggest that the role of meta-analysis in the synthesis of social work research, and in the identification of evidence based practices, be de-emphasized until important questions about the sensitivity of meta-analysis to violations of construct validity invariance are answered. PMID:21660822

  11. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  12. MFTF-progress and promise

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1980-10-03

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) has been in construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for 3 years, and most of the major subsystems are nearing completion. Recently, the scope of this project was expanded to meet new objectives, principally to reach plasma conditions corresponding to energy break-even. To fulfill this promise, the single-cell minimum-B mirror configuration will be replaced with a tandem mirror configuration (MFTF-B). The facility must accordingly be expanded to accomodate the new geometry. This paper briefly discusses the status of the major MFTF subsystems and describes how most of the technological objectives of MFTF will be demonstrated before we install the additional systems necessary to make the tandem. It also summarizes the major features of the expanded facility.

  13. International Collaboration: Promises and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, R. Jay; Widmer, Jocelyn M.; Lerman, Amir

    2015-01-01

    We currently face a myriad of grand global challenges in fields such as poverty, the environment, education, science, and medicine. However, our current means of dealing with such challenges has fallen short, and ingenious solutions are required to overcome the inherent resistance to progress toward ameliorating such difficulties. Here, we highlight the promises and challenges of international collaboration in achieving success toward these trials. We note prior successes in fields such as education, medicine, science, and environmental issues made to date, yet at the same time we do note deficiencies and shortcomings in these efforts. Hence, the notion of international collaboration should be strengthened and encouraged by governments, non-profit organizations, and others moving forward using creative means to bring talented teams together to tackle these challenges across the globe. PMID:25973264

  14. The promise of psychiatric pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians already face "personalized" medicine every day while experiencing the great variation in toxicities and drug efficacy among individual patients. Pharmacogenetics studies are the platform for discovering the DNA determinants of variability in drug response and tolerability. Research now focuses on the genome after its beginning with analyses of single genes. Therapeutic outcomes from several psychotropic drugs have been weakly linked to specific genetic variants without independent replication. Drug side effects show stronger associations to genetic variants, including human leukocyte antigen loci with carbamazepine-induced dermatologic outcome and MC4R with atypical antipsychotic weight gain. Clinical implementation has proven challenging, with barriers including a lack of replicable prospective evidence for clinical utility required for altering medical care. More recent studies show promising approaches for reducing these barriers to routine incorporation of pharmacogenetics data into clinical care. PMID:25483343

  15. Promising candidates for allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    Gern, James E

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in understanding environmental risk factors for allergic diseases in children have led to renewed efforts aimed at prevention. Factors that modify the probability of developing allergies include prenatal exposures, mode of delivery, diet, patterns of medication use, and exposure to pets and farm animals. Recent advances in microbial detection techniques demonstrate that exposure to diverse microbial communities in early life is associated with a reduction in allergic disease. In fact, microbes and their metabolic products might be essential for normal immune development. Identification of these risk factors has provided new targets for prevention of allergic diseases, and possibilities of altering microbial exposure and colonization to reduce the incidence of allergies is a promising approach. This review examines the rationale, feasibility, and potential effect for the prevention of childhood allergic diseases and explores possible strategies for enhancing exposure to beneficial microbes. PMID:26145984

  16. Promising therapeutic targets in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Matthay, Katherine K.; George, Rani E.; Yu, Alice L.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extra- cranial solid tumor in children, is derived from neural crest cells. Nearly half of patients present with metastatic disease, and have 5-year EFS of less than 50%. New approaches with targeted therapy may improve efficacy without increased toxicity. The current review will evaluate three promising targeted therapies, including 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a radiopharmaceutical taken up by the human norepinephrine transporter expressed in 90% of neuroblastomas, immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies targeting the GD2 ganglioside, expressed on 98% of neuroblastoma cells, and inhibitors of ALK, a tyrosine kinase which is mutated or amplified in approximately 10% of neuroblastoma and expressed on the surface of most neuroblastoma cells. Early phase trials have confirmed the activity of 131I-MIBG in relapsed neuroblastoma, with response rates of about 30%, but the technical aspects of administration of large amounts of radioactivity in young children and the limited access have hindered incorporation into treatment of newly diagnosed patients. Anti-GD2 antibodies have also demonstrated activity in relapsed disease, and a recent phase III randomized trial showed a significant improvement in event-free survival for patients receiving chimeric anti-GD2 (ch14.18) combined with cytokines and isotretinoin after myeloablative consolidation therapy. A recently approved small molecule inhibitor of ALK has promising pre-clinical activity for neuroblastoma, and is currently in phase I and II trials. This is the first agent directed to a specific mutation in neuroblastoma, and marks a new step toward personalized therapy for neuroblastoma. Further clinical development of targeted treatments offers new hope for children with neuroblastoma. PMID:22589483

  17. Teachers' Working Conditions and the Unmet Promise of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delacruz, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    I consider the promise of computer-facilitated technologies for enriching the practice of teaching art. Selected art education writings highlight the potential of computer technologies for K-12 art education. In search of an understanding of K-12 teachers' experiences and perceptions about technology utilization, I examine aspects of teachers'…

  18. Capturing the Promise of Science in Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralston, Henry J., III; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports the findings of the Working Group on Capturing the Promise of Medical Research, which addressed questions concerning the direction of biomedical research, academia-industry relations, and the integration of scientific developments in medical education and practice. A dominant theme emerged: the central importance of an environment of…

  19. The promise of reverse vaccinology.

    PubMed

    Heinson, Ashley I; Woelk, Christopher H; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2015-03-01

    Reverse vaccinology (RV) is a computational approach that aims to identify putative vaccine candidates in the protein coding genome (proteome) of pathogens. RV has primarily been applied to bacterial pathogens to identify proteins that can be formulated into subunit vaccines, which consist of one or more protein antigens. An RV approach based on a filtering method has already been used to construct a subunit vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B that is now registered in several countries (Bexsero). Recently, machine learning methods have been used to improve the ability of RV approaches to identify vaccine candidates. Further improvements related to the incorporation of epitope-binding annotation and gene expression data are discussed. In the future, it is envisaged that RV approaches will facilitate rapid vaccine design with less reliance on conventional animal testing and clinical trials in order to curb the threat of antibiotic resistance or newly emerged outbreaks of bacterial origin. PMID:25733557

  20. Mixed-methods study identifies key strategies for improving infant and young child feeding practices in a highly stunted rural indigenous population in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kelley; Henretty, Nicole; Chary, Anita; Webb, Meghan Farley; Wehr, Heather; Moore, Jillian; Baird, Caitlin; Díaz, Anne Kraemer; Rohloff, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Guatemala's rural indigenous population suffers from one of the highest rates of chronic child malnutrition (stunting) in the world. Successfully addressing stunting requires defining the barriers to and opportunities for new behaviour-change initiatives. We undertook a mixed-methods assessment of feeding practices and food purchasing behaviours around infants and young children aged 6-36 months in two rural indigenous Guatemalan communities. We found that most caregivers were aware only of acute forms of child malnutrition and that they greatly underestimated the local prevalence of malnutrition. Despite moderate adherence to exclusive breastfeeding and timing of complementary food introduction, diets had poor diversity and inadequate meal frequency. Furthermore, perceptions of food insecurity were high even in the presence of land ownership and agricultural production. Although fortified foods were highly valued, they were considered expensive. At the same time, proportionally equivalent amounts of money were spent on junk foods or other processed foods by most participants. Biological mothers often lacked autonomy for food purchasing and nutritional decisions because of the power exerted by husbands and paternal grandmothers. Our findings suggest several creative and community-based programming initiatives including education about the acute vs. chronic malnutrition distinction, engaging landowners in discussions about domestic food consumption, engaging with caregivers to redirect funds towards fortified foods rather than junk food purchases and directing behaviour-change initiatives towards all household stakeholders. PMID:25040768

  1. Corporate Forecasting: Promise and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelwright, Steven C.; Clarke, Darral G.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses a survey of forecast preparers and users in 127 major companies in an attempt to assess underlying problems and identify areas for improvement. Concludes that forecasting responsibilities and tasks must be better defined and that forecast preparers and users must become better informed about one another's roles. (Author/JG)

  2. Risk factors of falls in inpatients and their practical use in identifying high-risk persons at admission: Fukushima Medical University Hospital cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Takehito; Hashimoto, Shigeatsu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hirano, Noriko; Kurihara, Yumi; Kawashima, Takako; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To clarify the risk factors for falls in hospital settings and to propose the use of such factors to identify high-risk persons at admission. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Fukushima Medical University Hospital, Japan, from August 2008 and September 2009. Participants 9957 adult consecutive inpatients admitted to our hospital. Methods Information was collected at admission from clinical records obtained from a structured questionnaire conducted in face-to-face interviews with subjects by nurses and doctors and fall events were collected from clinical records. Results The proportion of patients who fell during follow-up was 2.5% and the incidence of falls was 3.28 per 100 person-days. There were significant differences in age, history of falling, cognitive dysfunction, planned surgery, wheelchair use, need for help to move, use of a remote caring system, rehabilitation, use of laxative, hypnotic or psychotropic medications and need for help with activities of daily living (ADL) between patients who did and did not fall. Multivariable adjusted ORs for falls showed that age, history of falls and need for help with ADL were common risk factors in both men and women. Using psychotropic medication also increased the risk of falling in men while cognitive dysfunction and use of hypnotic medication increased the risk of falling in women. Planned surgery was associated with a low risk of falls in women. Conclusions To prevent falls in inpatients it is important to identify high-risk persons. Age, history of falling and the need for help with ADL are the most important pieces of information to be obtained at admission. Care plans for patients including fall prevention should be clear and considered. PMID:25232563

  3. Organ printing: promises and challenges.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Vladimir; Kasyanov, Vladimir; Drake, Christopher; Markwald, Roger R

    2008-01-01

    Organ printing or biomedical application of rapid prototyping, also defined as additive layer-by-layer biomanufacturing, is an emerging transforming technology that has potential for surpassing traditional solid scaffold-based tissue engineering. Organ printing has certain advantages: it is an automated approach that offers a pathway for scalable reproducible mass production of tissue engineered products; it allows a precised simultaneous 3D positioning of several cell types; it enables creation tissue with a high level of cell density; it can solve the problem of vascularization in thick tissue constructs; finally, organ printing can be done in situ. The ultimate goal of organ-printing technology is to fabricate 3D vascularized functional living human organs suitable for clinical implantation. The main practical outcomes of organ-printing technology are industrial scalable robotic biofabrication of complex human tissues and organs, automated tissue-based in vitro assays for clinical diagnostics, drug discovery and drug toxicity, and complex in vitro models of human diseases. This article describes conceptual framework and recent developments in organ-printing technology, outlines main technological barriers and challenges, and presents potential future practical applications. PMID:18154465

  4. Magnetic refrigeration: the promise and the problems

    SciTech Connect

    Barclay, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic refrigeration uses the temperature- and field-dependence of the entropy of some magnetic materials to accomplish cooling. Because of the intrinsically high efficiency of the magnetization and demagnetization process and because of the potential for excellent heat transfer between solids and fluids, magnetic refrigerators promise to have higher efficiency than existing gas-cycle refrigerators. Many ground-based and space-based applications could benefit significantly from the cost savings implied by higher efficiency. Other attributes of these devices are high reliability and low volume and mass per unit cooling power. The development of these refrigerators is underway at several places around the world, including the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The progress to date has been encouraging but some problems have been clearly identified. The arguments for high efficiency and the problems that will need to be solved to achieve this goal are discussed.

  5. A promising new thermoelectric material - Ruthenium silicide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vining, Cronin B.; Mccormack, Joseph A.; Zoltan, Andrew; Zoltan, Leslie D.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical efforts directed toward increasing thermoelectric figure of merit values by a factor of 2 or 3 have been encouraging in several respects. An accurate and detailed theoretical model developed for n-type silicon-germanium (SiGe) indicates that ZT values several times higher than currently available are expected under certain conditions. These new, high ZT materials are expected to be significantly different from SiGe, but not unreasonably so. Several promising candidate materials have been identified which may meet the conditions required by theory. One such candidate, ruthenium silicide, currently under development at JPL, has been estimated to have the potential to exhibit figure of merit values 4 times higher than conventional SiGe materials. Recent results are summarized.

  6. Detecting Polygenic Evolution: Problems, Pitfalls, and Promises.

    PubMed

    Wellenreuther, Maren; Hansson, Bengt

    2016-03-01

    Unraveling the genetic basis of organismal form and function remains one of the major goals of evolutionary biology. Theory has long supported a model of polygenic evolution in which quantitative traits are underpinned by many genes of small effect, but empirical methods have lacked the power to detect causative loci when effect sizes are small or moderate. We (i) review traditional approaches used for identifying the molecular basis of phenotypic traits, to highlight the inherent problems and pitfalls that bias them towards the detection of large-effect loci. We then (ii) outline the promises of recent statistical frameworks to detect polygenic signatures of trait evolution, and discuss some of the first studies in evolutionary biology employing these approaches. Lastly, we (iii) outline future directions and point to areas that still need development. PMID:26806794

  7. Telepsychiatry: Promise, potential, and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence and potentially disabling consequences of mental disorders, specialized mental health services are extremely deficient, leading to the so-called ‘Mental Health Gap’. Moreover, the services are concentrated in the urban areas, further worsening the rural-urban and tertiary primary care divide. Strengthening of and expanding the existing human resources and infrastructure, and integrating mental health into primary care appear to be the two major solutions. However, both the strategies are riddled with logistic difficulties and have a long gestation period. In such a scenario, telepsychiatry or e-mental health, defined as the use of information and communication technology to provide or support psychiatric services across distances, appears to be a promising answer. Due to its enormous potential, a review of the existing literature becomes imperative. An extensive search of literature was carried out and has been presented to delineate the modes of communication, acceptability and satisfaction, reliability, outcomes, cost-effectiveness, and legal and ethical challenges related to telepsychiatry. Telepsychiatry has been applied for direct patient care (diagnosis and management), consultation, and training, education, and research purposes. Both real-time, live interaction (synchronous) and store–forward (asynchronous) types of technologies have been used for these purposes. A growing amount of literature shows that training, supervision, and consultation by specialists to primary care physicians through telepsychiatry has several advantages. In this background, we have further focused on the models of telepsychiatry best suited for India, considering that mental health care can be integrated into primary care and taken to the doorstep of patients in the community. PMID:23441027

  8. A comparison between the efficiency of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and nested PCR in identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis during routine clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheol-Hong; Woo, Heungjeong; Kim, Changhwan; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Jang, Seung-Hun; Park, Sang Myeon; Lee, Myung Goo; Jung, Ki-Suck; Hyun, Jeongwon; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is more sensitive, specific, and rapid than the conventional methods of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear and culture. The aim of this study was to determine if the Xpert MTB/rifampicin (RIF) assay had additional advantages over nested PCR for the detection of MTB in a geographical area with intermediate tuberculosis (TB) incidence. Methods Between February and December 2013, the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and MTB nested PCR, as well as AFB smear and culture, were simultaneously performed on 198 clinical samples (160 pulmonary and 38 non-pulmonary specimens) collected from 171 patients hospitalized at Hallym University Medical Center for possible TB. The accuracy of the diagnosis of MTB culture-positive TB and the turnaround time of reporting laboratory results were calculated and compared. Rifampin resistance by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay was reviewed with that of conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST). Results The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and MTB nested PCR for diagnosis of MTB culture-positive pulmonary TB were 86.1% vs. 69.4% (P=0.1563), 97.8% vs. 94.1% (P=0.2173), 91.2% vs. 75.8% (P=0.1695), and 96.4% vs. 92.0% (P=0.2032), respectively. The median turnaround times of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and MTB nested PCR were 0 [0-4] days and 4 [1-11] days, respectively (P<0.001). Two cases of rifampin resistance, as determined by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, were found to be multi-drug resistant (MDR) pulmonary TB by DST. Conclusions The Xpert MTB/RIF assay seemed to be sensitive, specific, and comparable to nested PCR for identifying MTB among clinically suspected TB patients, and the assay can be valuable in giving a timely identification of resistance to rifampin. PMID:24976983

  9. A Promising Development: "Promise" Scholarships Targeting Individual Communities Reduce Barriers to College Access--and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Promise Scholarships in community colleges and sources of funding. The following community colleges and their scholarships are mentioned in this article: (1) Oregon Promise, Oregon; (2) Ventura College Promise, California; (3) Kalamazoo Promise, Michigan; (4) Pittsburgh Promise, Pennsylvania; (5) SEED Scholarship, Delaware;…

  10. Pharmacologic Preconditioning: Translating the Promise

    PubMed Central

    Gidday, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    A transient, ischemia-resistant phenotype known as “ischemic tolerance” can be established in brain in a rapid or delayed fashion by a preceding noninjurious “preconditioning” stimulus. Initial preclinical studies of this phenomenon relied primarily on brief periods of ischemia or hypoxia as preconditioning stimuli, but it was later realized that many other stressors, including pharmacologic ones, are also effective. This review highlights the surprisingly wide variety of drugs now known to promote ischemic tolerance, documented and to some extent mechanistically characterized in preclinical animal models of stroke. Although considerably more experimentation is needed to thoroughly validate the ability of any currently identified preconditioning agent to protect ischemic brain, the fact that some of these drugs are already clinically approved for other indications implies that the growing enthusiasm for translational success in the field of pharmacologic preconditioning may be well justified. PMID:21197121

  11. Cancer and inflammation: promise for biologic therapy.

    PubMed

    Demaria, Sandra; Pikarsky, Eli; Karin, Michael; Coussens, Lisa M; Chen, Yen-Ching; El-Omar, Emad M; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Dubinett, Steven M; Mao, Jenny T; Szabo, Eva; Krieg, Arthur; Weiner, George J; Fox, Bernard A; Coukos, George; Wang, Ena; Abraham, Robert T; Carbone, Michele; Lotze, Michael T

    2010-05-01

    Cancers often arise as the end stage of inflammation in adults, but not in children. As such there is a complex interplay between host immune cells during neoplastic development, with both an ability to promote cancer and limit or eliminate it, most often complicit with the host. In humans, defining inflammation and the presence of inflammatory cells within or surrounding the tumor is a critical aspect of modern pathology. Groups defining staging for neoplasms are strongly encouraged to assess and incorporate measures of the presence of apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis and also the nature and quality of the immune infiltrate. Both environmental and genetic factors enhance the risk of cigarette smoking, Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B/C, human papilloma virus, solar irradiation, asbestos, pancreatitis, or other causes of chronic inflammation. Identifying suitable genetic polymorphisms in cytokines, cytokine receptors, and Toll-like receptors among other immune response genes is also seen as high value as genomic sequencing becomes less expensive. Animal models that incorporate and assess not only the genetic anlagen but also the inflammatory cells and the presence of microbial pathogens and damage-associated molecular pattern molecules are necessary. Identifying micro-RNAs involved in regulating the response to damage or injury are seen as highly promising. Although no therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat cancers based on insights into inflammatory pathways are currently approved for the common epithelial malignancies, there remains substantial interest in agents targeting COX2 or PPARgamma, ethyl pyruvate and steroids, and several novel agents on the horizon. PMID:20386472

  12. Identifying and Managing Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Janice M.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and…

  13. Fulfilling the promise of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Rita R

    2002-11-01

    Genetic engineering has produced pharmaceuticals, disease-resistant plants, cloned animals and research and industrial products. While the comparably mature field of medical biotechnology now reveals its true potential, marine biotechnology is still in the realm of the future. As we explore the earth for new sources of natural chemicals, we now search the waters. Myriad organisms, most unknown to us, live there. Many produce compounds that can be commercialized, or the organisms themselves may be commercialized, through genetic engineering methods. For decades, scientists studied the ocean depths searching for unique molecules and organisms. But not until the early 1980s was there a synthesis uniting marine natural products, ecology, aquaculture and bioremediation research under the heading of marine biotechnology. As harvesting enough products from marine sources to produce sufficient amounts, even for study, is nearly impossible, we need to use genomics techniques to identify biologically active compounds. As we damage our oceanic ecosystems through pollution, overfishing and destructive fishing methods, opportunities to learn more about marine organisms and their commercial potential may be limited. Although governments and intergovernmental agencies are committed to funding and expanding oceanic research, more funding is needed to discover and study the ocean's vast, unplumbed resources. PMID:14550029

  14. Multiple sclerosis: Prospects and promise.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Stephen L; Chan, Jonah R; Oksenberg, Jorge R

    2013-09-01

    We have entered a golden era in multiple sclerosis (MS) research. Two decades ago, our understanding of the disease was largely descriptive and there were no approved therapies to modify the natural history of MS. Today, delineation of immune pathways relevant to MS have been clarified; a comprehensive map of genes that influence risk compiled; clues to environmental triggers identified; noninvasive in vivo monitoring of the MS disease process has been revolutionized by high-field MRI; and many effective therapies for the early, relapsing, component of MS now exist. However, major challenges remain. We still have no useful treatment for progressive MS (the holy grail of MS research), no means to repair injured axons or protect neurons, and extremely limited evidence to guide treatment decisions. Recent advances have set in place a foundation for development of increasingly selective immunotherapy for patients; application of genetic and genomic discoveries to improve therapeutic options; development of remyelination or neuroprotection therapies for progressive MS; and integrating clinical, imaging and genomic data for personalized medicine. MS has now advanced from the backwaters of autoimmune disease research to the front-line, and definitive answers, including cures, are now realistic goals for the next decade. Many of the breakthrough discoveries in MS have also resulted from meaningful interactions across disciplines, and especially from translational and basic scientists working closely with clinicians, highlighting that the clinical value of discoveries are most often revealed when ideas developed in the laboratory are tested at the bedside. PMID:23955638

  15. Using Assessment To Identify Effective Teaching Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendon, Laura I.; Jalomo, Romero, Jr.

    This paper outlines the characteristics of validating and invalidating models of classroom instruction, the characteristics of good teachers, and assessment methods that support validating, therapeutic learning. The academically validating model suggests that: (1) students bring a rich reservoir of experience to the classroom; (2) the past is a…

  16. The Utility, Limitations, and Promise of Proteomics in Animal Science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. Examples of...

  17. Promising Directions for Research Regarding Adult Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Alan B.

    Documents about adult education in Latin America at the Survey and Analysis Center of the Adult Education Association of the U.S.A. were reviewed to identify promising research directions. A theoretical framework for research should be developed and should include definitions of concepts and variables in different settings and identification of…

  18. Utility, Limitations, and Promise of Proteomics in Animal Science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in veterinary/animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing veterinary/animal science research. E...

  19. Epigenetics of human melanoma: promises and challenges.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Besaratinia A; Tommasi S

    2014-10-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer with rising incidence and mortality rates. Although early-stage melanoma is highly curable, advanced-stage melanoma is refractory to treatment. This underscores the importance of prevention and early detection as well as the need to improve treatment and prognostication of human melanoma. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms of the initiation and progression of human melanoma can help identify potential targets of intervention for prevention, diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of this disease. Aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications are the best-established epigenetic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The occurrence of epigenetic changes prior to clinical diagnosis of cancer and their reversibility through pharmacologic/genetic approaches offer a promising avenue for basic and translational research on human melanoma. Candidate gene(s) or genome-wide aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications have been observed in human melanoma tumor tissues and cell lines, and correlated to cellular and functional characteristics and/or clinicopathological features of this malignancy. The present review summarizes the published researches on aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications in connection with human melanoma. Representative studies are highlighted to set forth the current state of knowledge, gaps in the knowledgebase, and future directions in these epigenetic fields of research. Examples of epigenetic therapy applied for human melanoma in vitro, and the challenges of its in vivo application for clinical treatment of solid tumors are discussed.

  20. Epigenetics of human melanoma: promises and challenges.

    PubMed

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Tommasi, Stella

    2014-10-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer with rising incidence and mortality rates. Although early-stage melanoma is highly curable, advanced-stage melanoma is refractory to treatment. This underscores the importance of prevention and early detection as well as the need to improve treatment and prognostication of human melanoma. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms of the initiation and progression of human melanoma can help identify potential targets of intervention for prevention, diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of this disease. Aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications are the best-established epigenetic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The occurrence of epigenetic changes prior to clinical diagnosis of cancer and their reversibility through pharmacologic/genetic approaches offer a promising avenue for basic and translational research on human melanoma. Candidate gene(s) or genome-wide aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications have been observed in human melanoma tumor tissues and cell lines, and correlated to cellular and functional characteristics and/or clinicopathological features of this malignancy. The present review summarizes the published researches on aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications in connection with human melanoma. Representative studies are highlighted to set forth the current state of knowledge, gaps in the knowledgebase, and future directions in these epigenetic fields of research. Examples of epigenetic therapy applied for human melanoma in vitro, and the challenges of its in vivo application for clinical treatment of solid tumors are discussed. PMID:24895357

  1. Cancer and Inflammation: Promise for Biological Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Demaria, Sandra; Pikarsky, Eli; Karin, Michael; Coussens, Lisa M.; Chen, Yen-Ching; El-Omar, Emad M.; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Dubinett, Steven M.; Mao, Jenny T.; Szabo, Eva; Krieg, Arthur; Weiner, George J.; Fox, Bernard A.; Coukos, George; Wang, Ena; Abraham, Robert T.; Carbone, Michele; Lotze, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Cancers often arise as the end stage of inflammation in adults, but not in children. As such there is a complex interplay between host immune cells during neoplastic development, with both an ability to promote cancer as well as limit or eliminate it, most often complicit with the host. In humans, defining inflammation and the presence of inflammatory cells within or surrounding the tumor is a critical aspect of modern pathology. Groups defining staging for neoplasms are strongly encouraged to assess and incorporate measures of the presence of apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis as well as the nature and quality of the immune infiltrate. Both environmental as well as genetic factors enhance the risk of cigarette smoking, H. pylori, hepatitis B/C, human papilloma virus, solar irradiation, asbestos, pancreatitis, or other causes of chronic inflammation. Identifying suitable genetic polymorphisms in cytokines, cytokine receptors, and Toll-like receptors among other immune response genes is also seen as high value as genomic sequencing becomes less expensive. Animal models which incorporate and assess not only the genetic anlagen but also the inflammatory cells and the presence of microbial pathogen [PAMPs] and damage associated molecular pattern molecules [DAMPs] are necessary. Identifying micro-RNAs involved in regulating the response to damage or injury are seen as highly promising. Although no therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat cancers based on insights into inflammatory pathways are currently approved for the common epithelial malignancies, there remains substantial interest in agents targeting COX2 or PPAR?, ethyl pyruvate, as well as steroids and several novel agents on the horizon. PMID:20386472

  2. Integrated digital avionic systems - Promise and threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zempolich, B. A.

    1983-10-01

    The progress being made in effective systems design implementation for digital equipment for aircraft avionics sytems is assayed. The history of digital systems integration in avionics hardware is traced from use of 16-transistor chips to emerging 100,000 gate chips, and attention is given to architectural considerations for future hardware. Design considerations include top-down or bottom-up architecture, distributed microprocessor and computer resources, integrated components or data fusion, etc. Systems decomposition practices in design permit separate design of flight safety systems, redundancy, fault tolerance, and identifying components that feature different technologies. Present flight control systems sport a MBTF of 1,000,000 hr when separate controls are installed for each flight system.

  3. Therapeutic targets for rheumatoid arthritis: Progress and promises.

    PubMed

    Alghasham, Abdullah; Rasheed, Zafar

    2014-03-01

    Recent therapeutic advancements in understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have highlighted the strategies that aim to inhibit the harmful effects of up-regulated cytokines or other inflammatory mediators and to inhibit their associated signaling events. The utility of cytokine as therapeutic targets in RA has been unequivocally demonstrated by the success of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α blockade in clinical practice. Partial and non-responses to TNF-α blocking agents, however, together with the increasing clinical drive to remission induction, requires that further therapeutic targets be identified. Numerous proinflammatory mediators with their associated cell signaling events have now been demonstrated in RA, including interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-12 superfamilies. Continued efforts are ongoing to target IL-6, IL-15 and IL-17 in clinical trials with promising data emerging. In the present review, we focus on IL-7, IL-18, IL-32 and IL-10 family of cytokines (IL-19, IL-20 and IL-22) as they are implicated in contributing to the pathogenesis of RA, which could be targeted and offer new therapeutic options for RA therapy. Recent evidences also suggest that multiligand receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), several adipokines and various components of immune system play a critical role in the pathophysiology of RA; therefore we have also highlighted them as therapeutic targets for RA therapy. Components of subcellular pathways, involve in nuclear transcription factor (NF)-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway have also been discussed and offer several novel potential therapeutic opportunities for RA. PMID:24437572

  4. Self-acquired patient images: the promises and the pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Damanpour, Shadi; Srivastava, Divya; Nijhawan, Rajiv I

    2016-03-01

    Self-acquired patient images, also known as selfies, are increasingly utilized in the practice of dermatology; however, research on their utility is somewhat limited. While the implementation of selfies has yet to be universally accepted, their role in triage appears to be especially useful. The potential for reducing office wait times, expediting referrals, and providing dermatologic services to patients with limited access to care is promising. In addition, as technology advances, the number of smartphone applications related to dermatology that are available to the general public has risen exponentially. With appropriate standardization, regulation, and confidentiality measures, these tools can be feasible adjuncts in clinical practice, dermatologic surgery, and teledermatology. Selfies likely will have a large role in dermatologic practice and delivery in the future. PMID:26963112

  5. RDoC: Translating promise into progress.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Christopher J; Hajcak, Greg

    2016-03-01

    As highlighted by articles in the current special issue, the RDoC initiative holds promise for advancing understanding of mental health problems. However, the initiative is at its early stages and it remains unclear what level of progress can be achieved and how quickly. In this closing article, we identify major challenges facing RDoC and propose concrete approaches to addressing these challenges, including (a) clearer specification of clinical problems for study, with use of symptom dimensions from integrative dimensional models of psychopathology as provisional, modifiable referents; (b) encouragement of research on a distinct set of traits corresponding to process constructs from the RDoC matrix-those represented across animal, child temperament, and adult personality literatures-to serve as interfaces between matrix constructs and clinical problems; (c) an emphasis in the near term on use of proximal units of analysis in RDoC studies-in particular, on physiological, behavioral, and self-report measures of matrix constructs (examined as states or traits, or both); (d) inclusion of a clear ontogenetic-developmental component in RDoC research projects; (e) routine analysis of the psychometric properties of nonreport (e.g., physiological, task-behavioral) variables, including systematic evaluation of their reliability and convergent-discriminant validity; (f) modification of existing grant review criteria to prioritize replication and synergy in RDoC investigative work; and (g) creation of a cumulative data network system (RDoC-DataWeb) to encourage and facilitate coordination of research efforts across RDoC research groups. PMID:26877135

  6. Parkinson's Drug Shows Promise Against Macular Degeneration

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155695.html Parkinson's Drug Shows Promise Against Macular Degeneration But more research ... no one is recommending that patients take the drug, levodopa (L-dopa), to thwart eye disease. But ...

  7. New Dengue Virus Vaccine Shows Promise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Promise Research may also aid in development of Zika virus vaccine, expert suggests To use the sharing features ... of other major health concerns such as the Zika virus. "The dengue virus is closely related to Zika ...

  8. New Drug Shows Promise Against Severe Sinusitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157064.html New Drug Shows Promise Against Severe Sinusitis In early ... more severe patients are the target of the new treatment option," explained study author Dr. Claus Bachert, ...

  9. The Promise and Reality of Pharmacogenetics in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Peter P.; Judy, Jennifer T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Existing psychotropic medications for the treatment of mental illnesses, including antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics, are clinically sub-optimal. They are effective in only a subset of patients or produce partial responses, and they are often associated with debilitating side effects that discourage adherence. There is growing enthusiasm in the promise of pharmacogenetics to personalize the use of these treatments to maximize their efficacy and tolerability. However, there is still a long way to go before this promise becomes a reality. In this article, we review the progress that has been made in research towards understanding how genetic factors influence psychotropic drug responses and the challenges that lie ahead in translating the research findings into clinical practices that yield tangible benefits for patients with mental illnesses. PMID:20159346

  10. Promising alternative settings for HPV vaccination of US adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Parth D.; Gilkey, Melissa B.; Pepper, Jessica K.; Gottlieb, Sami L.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination in alternative settings, defined here as being outside of traditional primary care, can help address the pressing public health problem of low human papillomavirus vaccine coverage among adolescents in the United States. Pharmacies are promising because they are highly accessible and have well established immunization practices. However, pharmacies currently face policy and reimbursement challenges. School-located mass vaccination programs are also promising because of their high reach and demonstrated success in providing other vaccines, but control by local policymakers and challenges in establishing community partnerships complicate widespread implementation. Health centers in schools are currently too few to greatly increase access to human papillomavirus vaccine. Specialty clinics have experience with vaccination, but the older age of their patient populations limits their reach. Future steps to making alternative settings a success include expanding their use of statewide vaccine registries and improving their coordination with primary care providers. PMID:24405401

  11. Polymer electrolytes, problems, prospects, and promises

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasubramanian, G.; Boone, D.

    1995-07-01

    Ionically conducting polymer electrolytes have generated, in recent years, wide-spread interest as candidate materials for a number of applications including high energy density and power lithium batteries. In the early 70s the first measurements of ionic conductivity in polyethylene oxide (PEO)-salt complexes were carried out. However, Armand was the first one to realize potential of these complexes (polymer-salt complexes) as practical ionically conducting materials for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries. Subsequent research efforts identified the limitations and constraints of the polymer electrolytes. These limitations include poor ionic conductivity at RT (< 10{sup {minus}8} S/cm), low cation transport number (<0.2) etc. Several different approaches have been made to improving the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolytes while retaining the flexibility, processibility, ease of handling and relatively low impact on the environment that polymers inherently possess. This paper- reviews evolution of polymer electrolytes from conventional PEO-LiX slat complexes to the more conducting polyphosphazene and copolymers, gelled electrolytes etc. We also review the various chemical approaches including modifying PEO to synthesizing complicated polymer architecture. In addition, we discuss effect of various lithium salts on the conductivity of PEO-based polymers. Charge/discharge and cycle life data of polymer cells containing oxide and chalcogenide cathodes and lithium (Li) anode are reviewed. Finally, future research directions to improve the electrolyte properties are discussed.

  12. Evaluating Your Program. Supported Education: A Promising Practice. Evidence-Based Practices KIT (Knowledge Informing Transformation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Karen V.

    2011-01-01

    Key stakeholders who implement Supported Education may find themselves asking two questions: (1) Has Supported Education been implemented as planned?; and (2) Has Supported Education resulted in the expected outcomes? Asking these two questions and using the answers to help improve Supported Education are critical for ensuring the success of one's…

  13. Building Your Program. Supported Education: A Promising Practice. Evidence-Based Practices KIT (Knowledge Informing Transformation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Karen V.

    2011-01-01

    "Building Your Program" is intended to help mental health authorities, agency administrators, and program leaders think through and develop Supported Education. The first part of this booklet gives you background information about the Supported Education model. Specific information about your role in implementing and sustaining Supported Education…

  14. The Promise of Information and Communication Technology in Healthcare: Extracting Value From the Chaos.

    PubMed

    Mamlin, Burke W; Tierney, William M

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare is an information business with expanding use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). Current ICT tools are immature, but a brighter future looms. We examine 7 areas of ICT in healthcare: electronic health records (EHRs), health information exchange (HIE), patient portals, telemedicine, social media, mobile devices and wearable sensors and monitors, and privacy and security. In each of these areas, we examine the current status and future promise, highlighting how each might reach its promise. Steps to better EHRs include a universal programming interface, universal patient identifiers, improved documentation and improved data analysis. HIEs require federal subsidies for sustainability and support from EHR vendors, targeting seamless sharing of EHR data. Patient portals must bring patients into the EHR with better design and training, greater provider engagement and leveraging HIEs. Telemedicine needs sustainable payment models, clear rules of engagement, quality measures and monitoring. Social media needs consensus on rules of engagement for providers, better data mining tools and approaches to counter disinformation. Mobile and wearable devices benefit from a universal programming interface, improved infrastructure, more rigorous research and integration with EHRs and HIEs. Laws for privacy and security need updating to match current technologies, and data stewards should share information on breaches and standardize best practices. ICT tools are evolving quickly in healthcare and require a rational and well-funded national agenda for development, use and assessment. PMID:26802759

  15. Epigenetic Epidemiology: Promises for Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Bakulski, Kelly M.; Fallin, M. Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic changes underlie developmental and age related biology. Promising epidemiologic research implicates epigenetics in disease risk and progression, and suggests epigenetic status depends on environmental risks as well as genetic predisposition. Epigenetics may represent a mechanistic link between environmental exposures, or genetics, and many common diseases, or may simply provide a quantitative biomarker for exposure or disease for areas of epidemiology currently lacking such measures. This great promise is balanced by issues related to study design, measurement tools, statistical methods, and biological interpretation that must be given careful consideration in an epidemiologic setting. This article describes the promises and challenges for epigenetic epidemiology, and suggests directions to advance this emerging area of molecular epidemiology. PMID:24449392

  16. Konjac glucomannan, a promising polysaccharide for OCDDS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui; Chen, Ji-da; Yang, Feng-Qing

    2014-04-15

    Oral colon targeting drug delivery system (OCDDS) is a highly effective formulation for drugs absorbed by colon, or to treat colonic diseases specifically. To obtain colon targeting, many pharmaceutical approaches have been studied, among which, taking advantage of specific degradation of excipients by colon enzymes is one of the most promising strategies. With properties of specific colon ?-mannanase degradation, biocompatibility, gel-forming, low toxicity and high stability, konjac glucomannan (KGM) becomes a promising natural excipient for oral OCDDS. This paper summaries structure and properties of KGM, reviews achievements and prospects on KGM and modified konjac glucomannan about their application as pharmaceutic excipient for the OCDDS recently. PMID:24607175

  17. Promise and Challenge of Identifying Threshold Concepts: A Cautionary Account of Using Transactional Curriculum Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barradell, Sarah; Peseta, Tai

    2016-01-01

    The original work on threshold concepts arose from a project designed to improve students' learning experiences by taking seriously the features of disciplinary knowledge as its starting point. The conceptual and empirical work on threshold concepts has since developed and matured. While many disciplines have engaged enthusiastically with the…

  18. Developing Talent in the Arts: Identifying and Serving Youths with Artistic Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolloff, Penny Britton

    1994-01-01

    This article provides examples of ways to implement an arts program consistent with a model of talent development for diverse groups of students. The process-oriented approach emphasizes role modeling and the necessity for teachers who can function as artists themselves. Tips for class structure, curriculum, and scheduling are also provided. (PB)

  19. Promise and Pitfalls of Using Grain Size Analysis to Identify Glacial Sediments in Alpine Lake Cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Lakes fed by glacier outwash should have a clastic particle-size record distinct from non-glacial lakes in the same area, but do they? The unique turquoise color of alpine glacial lakes reflects the flux of suspended clastic glacial rock flour to those lakes; conversely, lakes not fed by outwash are generally clear with sediments dominated by organics or slope-wash from nearby hillslopes. This contrast in sediment types and sources should produce a distinct and measureable different in grain sizes between the two settings. Results from a variety of lakes suggest the actual situation is often more subtle and complex. I compare grain size results to other proxies to assess the value of grain size analysis for paleoglacier studies. Over the past 10 years, my colleagues and I have collected and analyzed sediment cores from a wide variety of lakes below small alpine glaciers in an attempt to constrain the timing and magnitude of alpine glaciation in those basins. The basic concept is that these lakes act as continuous catchments for any rock flour produced upstream by glacier abrasion; as a glacier grows, the flux of rock flour to the lake will also increase. If the glacier disappears entirely, rock flour deposition will also cease in short order. We have focused our research in basins with simple sedimentologic settings: mostly small, high-altitude, stripped granitic or metamorphic cirques in which the cirque glaciers are the primary source of clastic sediments. In most cases, the lakes are fed by meltwater from a modern glacier, but were ice free during the earlier Holocene. In such cases, the lake cores should record formation of and changes in activity of the glacier upstream. We used a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 laser particle size analyzer for our grain size analyses, as well as recording magnetic susceptibility, color, and organics for the same cores. The results indicate that although lakes often experience increases in silt and clay-size (<0.63 mm) clastic particles when a glacier is present upstream, the signal can be highly variable and complex, most likely the result of stochastic processes in the basin. Our analyses indicate that although particle size reflects glacier activity upstream, it is rarely the best record of glacier change and is most useful in combination with other proxies, most notably MS, color, and organic content.

  20. Promising Aedes aegypti repellent chemotypes identified through integrated QSAE, virtual screening, synthesis, and bioassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular field topology analysis, scaffold hopping, and molecular docking were used as complementary computational tools for the design of repellents for Aedes aegypti, the insect vector for yellow fever, West Nile fever, and dengue fever. A large number of analogues were evaluated by virtual scree...

  1. Promise and Challenge of Identifying Threshold Concepts: A Cautionary Account of Using Transactional Curriculum Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barradell, Sarah; Peseta, Tai

    2016-01-01

    The original work on threshold concepts arose from a project designed to improve students' learning experiences by taking seriously the features of disciplinary knowledge as its starting point. The conceptual and empirical work on threshold concepts has since developed and matured. While many disciplines have engaged enthusiastically with the…

  2. The Promise of Standardized Data Collection: School Health Variables Identified by States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kathleen H.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Westbrook, Linda Oakes

    2012-01-01

    A gap in data prevents measurement of the needs of school-age children and the influence of school nursing interventions on student health and education outcomes. Its remedy is in the data collected in school health rooms. A national clinical database describing school health will allow education and health leaders to build evidence-based programs…

  3. The Promise of Standardized Data Collection: School Health Variables Identified by States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kathleen H.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Westbrook, Linda Oakes

    2012-01-01

    A gap in data prevents measurement of the needs of school-age children and the influence of school nursing interventions on student health and education outcomes. Its remedy is in the data collected in school health rooms. A national clinical database describing school health will allow education and health leaders to build evidence-based programs…

  4. Promising Aedes aegypti Repellent Chemotypes Identified through Integrated QSAR, Virtual Screening, Synthesis, and Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Oliferenko, Polina V.; Oliferenko, Alexander A.; Poda, Gennadiy I.; Osolodkin, Dmitry I.; Pillai, Girinath G.; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Tsikolia, Maia; Agramonte, Natasha M.; Clark, Gary G.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Katritzky, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular field topology analysis, scaffold hopping, and molecular docking were used as complementary computational tools for the design of repellents for Aedes aegypti, the insect vector for yellow fever, chikungunya, and dengue fever. A large number of analogues were evaluated by virtual screening with Glide molecular docking software. This produced several dozen hits that were either synthesized or procured from commercial sources. Analysis of these compounds by a repellent bioassay resulted in a few highly active chemicals (in terms of minimum effective dosage) as viable candidates for further hit-to-lead and lead optimization effort. PMID:24039693

  5. 75 FR 36066 - Promise Neighborhoods Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... application deadline. SUMMARY: On May 5, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 10492) a notice inviting applications for new awards for FY 2010 for the Promise Neighborhoods Program (May 5 notice). The May 5 notice established a deadline of June 25, 2010, for the submission of applications under...

  6. The Promises of Moral Foundations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musschenga, Bert

    2013-01-01

    In this article I examine whether Moral Foundations Theory can fulfil the promises that Haidt claims for the theory: that it will help in developing new approaches to moral education and to the moral conflicts that divide our diverse society. I argue that, first, the model that Haidt suggests for understanding the plurality of moralities--a shared…

  7. Alcohol Research: Promise for the Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordis, Enoch

    Over the past 20 years, alcohol researchers have made intensive efforts to understand alcohol use and its outcomes. To date, researchers have made much progress toward understanding the causes and consequences of alcoholism and its related problems. This publication attempts to convey the great spirit and promise of alcohol research. Established…

  8. The Promise of Zoomable User Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bederson, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    Zoomable user interfaces (ZUIs) have received a significant amount of attention in the 18 years since they were introduced. They have enjoyed some success, and elements of ZUIs are widely used in computers today, although the grand vision of a zoomable desktop has not materialised. This paper describes the premise and promise of ZUIs along with…

  9. The Promises of Moral Foundations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musschenga, Bert

    2013-01-01

    In this article I examine whether Moral Foundations Theory can fulfil the promises that Haidt claims for the theory: that it will help in developing new approaches to moral education and to the moral conflicts that divide our diverse society. I argue that, first, the model that Haidt suggests for understanding the plurality of moralities--a shared…

  10. Promise in Action: Examples of Institutional Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuh, George D.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author illustrates how three campuses have, in their own way, attempted to bring coherence to the student experience and enrich that experience by more closely matching what was promised to what each student actually experiences while enrolled. Fulfilling students' expectations that were purposefully articulated in the mission…

  11. Responses to Broken Promises: Does Personality Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Violet T.; Weingart, Laurie R.; Rousseau, Denise M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined the effects of personality traits on individuals' reactions to broken promises. We studied the effects of Neuroticism and Agreeableness on emotive and cognitive responses to breach and investigated whether these effects varied across different types (economic vs. social) and severity (high vs. low) of breach. We collected data…

  12. Ideological Repositioning: Race, Social Justice, and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I engage in discourse centrally located in the ideology of race in the United States of America juxtaposed to social justice with promise for tomorrow in higher education and beyond. I assert that social justice in kinesiology requires that once hired, retaining, securing tenured status, and promoting faculty of color means having…

  13. Underground coal gasification: status and promise

    SciTech Connect

    Burwell, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The US efforts in underground coal gasification (UCG) in the past decade, the current state-of-the-art, and its technical and economic promise as a viable synthetic fuel alternative are presented along with a short discussion of problems yet to be addressed.

  14. Ideological Repositioning: Race, Social Justice, and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I engage in discourse centrally located in the ideology of race in the United States of America juxtaposed to social justice with promise for tomorrow in higher education and beyond. I assert that social justice in kinesiology requires that once hired, retaining, securing tenured status, and promoting faculty of color means having…

  15. Implementing Performance Assessment: Promises, Problems, and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael B., Ed.; Mitchell, Ruth, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection contribute to the debate about the value and usefulness of radically different kinds of assessments in the U.S. educational system by considering and expanding on the theoretical underpinnings of reports and speculation. The chapters are: (1) "Assessment Reform: Promises and Challenges" (Nidhi Khattri and David…

  16. The Promise of Zoomable User Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bederson, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    Zoomable user interfaces (ZUIs) have received a significant amount of attention in the 18 years since they were introduced. They have enjoyed some success, and elements of ZUIs are widely used in computers today, although the grand vision of a zoomable desktop has not materialised. This paper describes the premise and promise of ZUIs along with…

  17. Delivering the Promise: Developing New Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Colin; McKenzie, Alasdair

    1995-01-01

    Data from 15 United Kingdom organizations highlighted best practices in developing entry workers: direct managers play a key role, coaching in learning by doing is essential, and networking with peers is valuable. Development is influenced by a mix of factors: mentoring, personnel practices, attitude, organizational culture, peer group, and…

  18. Teen Risk-Taking: Promising Prevention Programs and Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Marvin; Pallitto, Christina; Bradner, Carolyn; Bolshun, Natalya

    This guidebook explores some of the practical issues associated with finding, choosing, and starting potentially effective prevention programs for at-risk preteens and teens. The guidebook is based on a study of 51 intervention programs that identified elements and delivery mechanisms that were associated with their effectiveness. A closer look at…

  19. Seeking best practices: a conceptual framework for planning and improving evidence-based practices.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Lorine M; Schooley, Michael W; Anderson, Lynda A; Kochtitzky, Chris S; DeGroff, Amy S; Devlin, Heather M; Mercer, Shawna L

    2013-01-01

    How can we encourage ongoing development, refinement, and evaluation of practices to identify and build an evidence base for best practices? On the basis of a review of the literature and expert input, we worked iteratively to create a framework with 2 interrelated components. The first - public health impact - consists of 5 elements: effectiveness, reach, feasibility, sustainability, and transferability. The second - quality of evidence - consists of 4 levels, ranging from weak to rigorous. At the intersection of public health impact and quality of evidence, a continuum of evidence-based practice emerges, representing the ongoing development of knowledge across 4 stages: emerging, promising, leading, and best. This conceptual framework brings together important aspects of impact and quality to provide a common lexicon and criteria for assessing and strengthening public health practice. We hope this work will invite and advance dialogue among public health practitioners and decision makers to build and strengthen a diverse evidence base for public health programs and strategies. PMID:24331280

  20. The Promise of Wave Power (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekken, T.

    2010-12-01

    The solutions to today's energy challenges need to be explored through alternative, renewable and clean energy sources to enable diverse energy resource plans. An extremely abundant and promising source of energy exists in the world's oceans: it is estimated that if 0.2 % of the oceans' untapped energy could be harnessed, it could provide power sufficient for the entire world. Ocean energy exists in the forms of wave, tidal, marine currents, thermal (temperature gradient) and salinity. Among these forms, significant opportunities and benefits have been identified in the area of ocean wave energy extraction, i.e., harnessing the motion of the ocean waves, and converting that motion into electrical energy. Ocean wave energy refers to the kinetic and potential energy in the heaving motion of ocean waves. Wave energy is essentially concentrated solar energy (as is wind energy). The heating of the earth’s surface by the sun (with other complex processes) drives the wind, which in turn blows across the surface of the ocean to create waves. At each stage of conversion, the power density increases. Ocean wave power offers several attractive qualities, including high power density, low variability, and excellent forecastability. A typical large ocean wave propogates at around 12 m/s with very little attenuation across the ocean. If the waves can be detected several hundred kilometers off shore, there can be 10 hours or more of accurate forecast horizon. In fact, analysis has shown good forecast accuracy up to 48 hours in advance. Off the coast Oregon, the yearly average wave power is approximately 30 kW per meter of crestlength (i.e., unit length transverse to the direction of wave propagation and parallel to the shore.) This compares very favorably with power densities of solar and wind, which typically range in the several hundreds of Watts per square meter. Globally, the wave energy resource is stronger on the west coasts of large landmasses and increases in strength toward the poles. This phenomenon is due to the prevailing west to east global winds known as the "westerlies" found in the Northern and Southern hemispheres between 30 and 60 degrees latitude. Correspondingly, the west coast of the United States, the west coast of Australia, and the coastal regions of Europe have seen the greatest wave energy industrial activity to date. Ocean wave energy has great potential to be a significant contributor of renewable power for many regions in the world. For the West coast of the US alone, the total wave energy resource is estimated at 440 TWh/yr, which is more than the typical total US annual hydroelectric production (270 TWh in 2003). For US west coast states, a fully developed wave energy industry could be a significant contributor to renewable energy portfolio standards. Within the next few years, several utility-scale wave energy converters are planned for grid connection (e.g., Ocean Power Technologies and Columbia Power Technologies in Oregon, USA), with plans for more utility-scale development to follow soon after. This presentation will cover the physical basics of wave energy, examples of commercial technology, challenges opportunities for research, and an update on the wave energy research and developments at leading commercial, industrial, and academic institutions around the world.

  1. Implementing Evidence-Based Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Edward J.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, social work has been influenced by new forms of practice that hold promise for bringing practice and research together to strengthen the scientific knowledge base supporting social work intervention. The most recent new practice framework is evidence-based practice. However, although evidence-based practice has many qualities that might…

  2. Melanoma Vaccines: Mixed Past, Promising Future

    PubMed Central

    Ozao-Choy, Junko; Lee, Delphine J.; Faries, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Cancer vaccines were one of the earliest forms of immunotherapy to be investigated. Past attempts to vaccinate against cancer, including melanoma, have mixed results, revealing the complexity of what was thought to be a simple concept. However, several recent successes and the combination of improved knowledge of tumor immunology and the advent of new immunomodulators make vaccination a promising strategy for the future. PMID:25245965

  3. Pharmacogenomics: will the promise be fulfilled?

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Russ B.; Kroemer, Heyo K.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Ratain, Mark J.; Roden, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Tools such as genome resequencing and genome-wide association studies have recently been used to uncover a number of variants that affect drug toxicity and efficacy, as well as potential drug targets. But how much closer are we to incorporating pharmacogenomics into routine clinical practice? Five experts discuss how far we have come, and highlight the technological, informatics, educational and practical obstacles that stand in the way of realizing genome-driven medicine. PMID:21116304

  4. Selection of promising sites for magma energy experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Long Valley and Coso Hot Springs areas of California have been identified as the most promising sites for conducting a magma energy extraction experiment. These two locations were selected from among the potential sites on the basis of several factors that are critical to the success of the proposed long-term energy extraction experiment. These factors include the likelihood of the existence of shallow magma targets as well as several other drilling, energy extraction and programmatic considerations. As the magma energy extraction program continues, these sites will be analyzed in detail so that one can be selected as the site for the planned magma experiment.

  5. 76 FR 55889 - Reopening Notice: Promise Neighborhoods Program-Implementation Grant Competition; Promise...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ..., flooding, property damage, and loss of electrical power that occurred as a result of Hurricane Irene on the... review 84.215N: Promise Neighborhoods Program-- 7/6/2011 76 FR 39615 9/06/2011 9/13/2011 11/03/2011 11/10/2011 Implementation. 84.215P: Promise Neighborhoods Program-- 7/06/2011 76 FR 39630 9/06/2011...

  6. Identifying useable semen.

    PubMed

    Foxcroft, G R; Dyck, M K; Ruiz-Sanchez, A; Novak, S; Dixon, W T

    2008-11-01

    The "predictors of useable semen" used in most commercial AI centers provide a very conservative estimate of the relative fertility of individual boars. Furthermore, the relatively high sperm numbers used in commercial AI practice (usually >3 x10(9) total sperm per dose of extended semen) usually compensate for reduced fertility, as can be demonstrated in some boars when lower numbers of sperm are used for AI. Differences in relative boar fertility are also masked by the widespread use of pooled semen for commercial AI in many countries. However, the need to continually improve the efficiency of pork production, suggests that commercial AI practice should involve increased use of boars with the highest genetic merit for important production traits. Necessarily, this must be linked to the use of fewer sperm per AI dose, fewer inseminations per sow bred, and hence more sows bred by these superior sires. In turn, this requires improved techniques for evaluating semen characteristics directly related to the fertilization process, such as IVM-IVF assays, analysis of seminal plasma protein markers, more discriminatory tests of sperm motility and morphology, with the goal of identifying high-index boars whose fertility is sustained when low numbers of sperm are used for AI. This paper reviews the current status of laboratory-based boar semen evaluation techniques that meet these criteria. PMID:18775561

  7. Aerodynamics of a promising vortex furnace design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anufriev, I. S.; Strizhak, P. A.; Chernetskii, M. Yu.; Shadrin, E. Yu.; Sharypov, O. V.

    2015-08-01

    The aerodynamics of a promising vortex furnace design with secondary top blasting has been studied. Flow velocity fields have been measured in an isothermal laboratory model of the furnace using a digital tracer imaging (particle image velocimetry) technique. Three-dimensional diagnostics of flow structure in the combustion chamber has been carried out by the method of laser Doppler anemometry. Processing of the obtained data using the criterion of "minimum total pressure" has been used to visualize the spatial structure of the vortex core.

  8. Conivaptan: promise of treatment in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Mohammad Z; Arumugham, Pradeep; Huda, Nazmul; Verma, Nitin; Afiniwala, Mitul; Karia, Darshak H

    2009-09-01

    Conivaptan, the first vasopressin receptor antagonist approved by the FDA, is available for the treatment of hyponatremia in euvolemic and hypervolemic patients. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is activated in heart failure (HF) causing clinical worsening. Arginine vasopressin levels are also elevated in HF. Conivaptan is an effective and FDA approved for the treatment of euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia and may offer an extra treatment option in HF by targeting V(1a) and V(2) receptors. In this article we review the physiology, preclinical studies as well as the human clinical studies on the use of conivaptan and its potential and promise in the treatment of HF. PMID:19663609

  9. The Promise and Perils of Stem Cell Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Daley, George Q.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are the seeds of tissue repair and regeneration and a promising source for novel therapies. However, apart from hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation for hematologic disease, essentially all other stem cell treatments remain experimental. High hopes have inspired numerous clinical trials, but it has been difficult to obtain unequivocal evidence for robust clinical benefit, likely owing to our primitive state of knowledge about therapeutic mechanisms. Outside the standard clinical trial network unproven therapies are being widely practiced in an open market, which threatens the cause of legitimate clinical investigation of the safety and efficacy of stem cell interventions. Here is one practitioner's perspective on the challenges and technical barriers that must be overcome for novel stem cell therapies to achieve meaningful clinical impact. PMID:22704514

  10. Gene expression profile analysis by DNA microarrays: promise and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    King, H C; Sinha, A A

    2001-11-14

    DNA microarrays represent a technological intersection between biology and computers that enables gene expression analysis in human tissues on a genome-wide scale. This application can be expected to prove extremely valuable for the study of the genetic basis of complex diseases. Despite the enormous promise of this revolutionary technology, there are several issues and possible pitfalls that may undermine the authority of the microarray platform. We discuss some of the conceptual, practical, statistical, and logistical issues surrounding the use of microarrays for gene expression profiling. These issues include the imprecise definition of normal in expression comparisons; the cellular and subcellular heterogeneity of the tissues being studied; the difficulty in establishing the statistically valid comparability of arrays; the logistical logjam in analysis, presentation, and archiving of the vast quantities of data generated; and the need for confirmational studies that address the functional relevance of findings. Although several complicated issues must be resolved, the potential payoff remains large. PMID:11710894

  11. Intranasal glucagon: a promising approach for treatment of severe hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Pontiroli, Antonio E

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of diabetic complications is mainly obtained through optimal control of blood glucose levels. With hypoglycemic drugs like beta-cell stimulating drugs and especially insulin, the limit to treatment is represented by hypoglycemia, a life-threatening occurrence that is dangerous itself and can induce fear of other episodes. Glucagon, injected subcutaneously (SC) or intramuscularly (IM), is the treatment of choice for severe hypoglycemia outside of the hospital setting. However, due to practical aspects such as preparation of solutions for administration and injection by untrained persons, there are obstacles to its routine use. This review focuses on the current status of alternative routes of administration of peptide hormones, and in particular the intranasal (IN) route of glucagon, as a promising approach for the treatment of severe hypoglycemia. PMID:25385946

  12. Nanotechnology: Promises and challenges for tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    ROMIG JR.,ALTON D.; MICHAEL,JOSEPH R.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.

    2000-02-29

    Nanotechnology is based on the ability to create and utilize materials, devices and systems through control of the matter at the nanometer scale. If successful, nanotechnology is expected to lead to broad new technological developments. The efficiency of energy conversion can be increased through the use of nanostructured materials with enhanced magnetic, light emission or wear resistant properties. Energy generation using nanostructured photovoltaics or nanocluster driven photocatalysis could fundamentally change the economic viability of renewable energy sources. In addition, the ability to imitate molecular processes found in living organisms may be key to developing highly sensitive and discriminating chemical and biological sensors. Such sensors could greatly expand the range of medical home testing as well as provide new technologies to counter the spread of chemical and biological weapons. Even the production of chemicals and materials could be revolutionized through the development of molecular reactors that can promote low energy chemical pathways for materials synthesis. Although nanotechnologies hold great promise, significant scientific challenges must be addressed before they can convert that promise into a reality. A key challenge in nanoscience is to understand how nano-scale tailoring of materials can lead to novel and enhanced functions. The authors' laboratory, for example, is currently making broad contributions in this area by synthesizing and exploring nanomaterials ranging from layered structures for electronics/photonics to novel nanocrystalline catalysts. They are even adapting functions from biological molecules to synthesize new forms of nanostructured materials.

  13. PROMISING STRATEGIES FOR THE PREVENTION OF DEMENTIA

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Laura; Yaffe, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of dementia is expected to increase several fold in the coming decades. Given that the current pharmaceutical treatment of dementia can only modestly improve symptoms, risk factor modification remains the cornerstone for dementia prevention. Some of the most promising strategies for the prevention of dementia include vascular risk factor control, cognitive activity, physical activity, social engagement, diet, and recognition of depression. In observational studies, vascular risk factors - including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity - are fairly consistently associated with increased risk of dementia. In addition, people with depression are at high risk of cognitive impairment. Other studies have reported that intake of anti-oxidants or polyunsaturated fats may be associated with reduced incidence of dementia in population studies and that people who are cognitively, socially, and physically active have reduced risk of cognitive impairment. However, randomized trials of risk factor modification have been mixed. Most promisingly, interventions of cognitive and physical activity improve cognitive performance and slow cognitive decline. Future studies should continue to examine the implication of risk factor modification in controlled trials, with particular focus on whether several simultaneous interventions may have additive or multiplicative effects. PMID:19822776

  14. Independent Scholarship: Promise, Problems, and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Ronald; Gross, Beatrice

    A 2-year project designed to identify and meet the needs of America's independent scholars is described. Project objectives were to: increase visibility and support for independent scholarship; learn more about independent scholars and their activities and organizations; identify the main problems and needs of independent scholars; stimulate…

  15. Promises and Pitfalls of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurmi, Sami; Jaakkola, Tomi

    2006-01-01

    Learning objects (LOs), generally understood as digital learning resources shared through the Internet and reused in multiple learning contexts, have aroused worldwide enthusiasm in the field of educational technology during the last years. Although LOs and LO systems offer tremendous possibilities to improve educational practices, there are many…

  16. A Promising Parenting Intervention in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linares, L. Oriana; Montalto, Daniela; Li, MinMin; Oza, Vikash S.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-component intervention for biological and foster parent (pairs) to improve parenting practices, co-parenting, and child externalizing problems. Participants were biological and foster parents (N = 128) of primarily neglected children (ages 3 to 10 years) placed in regular foster…

  17. Promises and Pitfalls of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurmi, Sami; Jaakkola, Tomi

    2006-01-01

    Learning objects (LOs), generally understood as digital learning resources shared through the Internet and reused in multiple learning contexts, have aroused worldwide enthusiasm in the field of educational technology during the last years. Although LOs and LO systems offer tremendous possibilities to improve educational practices, there are many…

  18. The promise and peril of chemical probes

    PubMed Central

    Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Audia, James E; Austin, Christopher; Baell, Jonathan; Bennett, Jonathan; Blagg, Julian; Bountra, Chas; Brennan, Paul E; Brown, Peter J; Bunnage, Mark E; Buser-Doepner, Carolyn; Campbell, Robert M; Carter, Adrian J; Cohen, Philip; Copeland, Robert A; Cravatt, Ben; Dahlin, Jayme L; Dhanak, Dashyant; Frederiksen, Mathias; Frye, Stephen V; Gray, Nathanael; Grimshaw, Charles E; Hepworth, David; Howe, Trevor; Huber, Kilian V M; Jin, Jian; Knapp, Stefan; Kotz, Joanne D; Kruger, Ryan G; Lowe, Derek; Mader, Mary M; Marsden, Brian; Mueller-Fahrnow, Anke; Müller, Susanne; O'Hagan, Ronan C; Overington, John P; Owen, Dafydd R; Rosenberg, Saul H; Ross, Ruth; Roth, Bryan; Schapira, Matthieu; Schreiber, Stuart L; Shoichet, Brian; Sundström, Michael; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Taunton, Jack; Toledo-Sherman, Leticia; Walpole, Chris; Walters, Michael A; Willson, Timothy M; Workman, Paul; Young, Robert N; Zuercher, William J

    2016-01-01

    Chemical probes are powerful reagents with increasing impacts on biomedical research. However, probes of poor quality or that are used incorrectly generate misleading results. To help address these shortcomings, we will create a community-driven wiki resource to improve quality and convey current best practice. PMID:26196764

  19. "Geriatricizing" Hospitalists: Identifying Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Susan M.; Gillespie, Suzanne M.; Medina-Walpole, Annette M.; Caprio, Thomas V.; Karuza, Jurgis; McCann, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify differences between geriatricians and hospitalists in caring for hospitalized older adults, so as to inform faculty development programs that have the goal of improving older patient care. Eleven hospitalists and 13 geriatricians were surveyed regarding knowledge, confidence, and practice patterns in…

  20. "Geriatricizing" Hospitalists: Identifying Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Susan M.; Gillespie, Suzanne M.; Medina-Walpole, Annette M.; Caprio, Thomas V.; Karuza, Jurgis; McCann, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify differences between geriatricians and hospitalists in caring for hospitalized older adults, so as to inform faculty development programs that have the goal of improving older patient care. Eleven hospitalists and 13 geriatricians were surveyed regarding knowledge, confidence, and practice patterns in…

  1. The promise and paradox of cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Hester, Rebecca J

    2012-12-01

    Cultural competence has become a ubiquitous and unquestioned aspect of professional formation in medicine. It has been linked to efforts to eliminate race-based health disparities and to train more compassionate and sensitive providers. In this article, I question whether the field of cultural competence lives up to its promise. I argue that it does not because it fails to grapple with the ways that race and racism work in U.S. society today. Unless we change our theoretical apparatus for dealing with diversity to one that more critically engages with the complexities of race, I suggest that unequal treatment and entrenched health disparities will remain. If the field of cultural competence incorporates the lessons of critical race scholarship, however, it would not only need to transform its theoretical foundation, it would also need to change its name. PMID:23111444

  2. Review of Some Promising Fractional Physical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2013-04-01

    Fractional dynamics is a field of study in physics and mechanics investigating the behavior of objects and systems that are characterized by power-law nonlocality, power-law long-term memory or fractal properties by using integrations and differentiation of non-integer orders, i.e., by methods in the fractional calculus. This paper is a review of physical models that look very promising for future development of fractional dynamics. We suggest a short introduction to fractional calculus as a theory of integration and differentiation of noninteger order. Some applications of integro-differentiations of fractional orders in physics are discussed. Models of discrete systems with memory, lattice with long-range inter-particle interaction, dynamics of fractal media are presented. Quantum analogs of fractional derivatives and model of open nano-system systems with memory are also discussed.

  3. The Promise of Preventive Cancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lollini, Pier-Luigi; Cavallo, Federica; Nanni, Patrizia; Quaglino, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Years of unsuccessful attempts at fighting established tumors with vaccines have taught us all that they are only able to truly impact patient survival when used in a preventive setting, as would normally be the case for traditional vaccines against infectious diseases. While true primary cancer prevention is still but a long-term goal, secondary and tertiary prevention are already in the clinic and providing encouraging results. A combination of immunopreventive cancer strategies and recently approved checkpoint inhibitors is a further promise of forthcoming successful cancer disease control, but prevention will require a considerable reduction of currently reported toxicities. These considerations summed with the increased understanding of tumor antigens allow space for an optimistic view of the future. PMID:26343198

  4. Diabetic macular edema: New promising therapies

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi, Hanan N Al; Masaud, Jluwi S; Ghazi, Nicola G

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of diabetic macular edema is rapidly evolving. The era of laser therapy is being quickly replaced by an era of pharmacotherapy. Several pharmacotherapies have been recently developed for the treatment of retinal vascular diseases such as diabetic macular edema. Several intravitreal injections or sustained delivery devices have undergone phase 3 testing while others are currently being evaluated. The results of clinical trials have shown the superiority of some of these agents to laser therapy. However, with the availability of several of these newer agents, it may be difficult to individualize treatment options especially those patients respond differently to various therapies. As such, more effort is still needed in order to determine the best treatment regimen for a given patient. In this article, we briefly summarize the major new therapeutic additions for the treatment of diabetic macular edema and allude to some future promising therapies. PMID:24379924

  5. The Economic Promise of Delayed Aging.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Biomedicine has made enormous progress in the last half century in treating common diseases. However, we are becoming victims of our own success. Causes of death strongly associated with biological aging, such as heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke-cluster within individuals as they grow older. These conditions increase frailty and limit the benefits of continued, disease-specific improvements. Here, we show that a "delayed-aging" scenario, modeled on the biological benefits observed in the most promising animal models, could solve this problem of competing risks. The economic value of delayed aging is estimated to be $7.1 trillion over 50 years. Total government costs, including Social Security, rise substantially with delayed aging-mainly caused by longevity increases-but we show that these can be offset by modest policy changes. Expanded biomedical research to delay aging appears to be a highly efficient way to forestall disease and extend healthy life. PMID:26684333

  6. The promise and pitfalls of community resilience.

    PubMed

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Chandra, Anita; Acosta, Joie

    2013-12-01

    An important shift in terminology has occurred in emergency preparedness, and the concept of community resilience has become ubiquitous. Although enhancing community resilience is broader than preparedness, and emphasizes a distinct set of activities and participants, the terms are often used interchangeably. The implications of this shift have not been fully explored. This commentary describes the potential promise and pitfalls of the concept of community resilience and recommends strategies to overcome its limitations. We believe that resilience has the power to dramatically change this field in immense, positive ways, but some important challenges such as confusion about definitions and lack of accountability must first be overcome. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;7:603-606). PMID:24345588

  7. Glycodendritic structures: promising new antiviral drugs.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Javier; Delgado, Rafael

    2004-09-01

    DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin expressed by dendritic cells, is able to recognize high mannosylated glycoproteins at the surface of a broad range of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. For at least some of these agents this interaction appears to be an important part of the infection process. Therefore, this lectin might be considered in the design of new antiviral drugs. In this manner, multivalent carbohydrate systems based on dendrimers and dendritic polymers are promising candidates as antiviral drugs. Boltorn hyperbranched dendritic polymers functionalized with mannose have been used to inhibit DC-SIGN-mediated infection in an Ebola-pseudotyped viral model. Their physiological solubility, lack of toxicity and especially their low price suggest the application of these glycodendritic polymers for possible formulation as microbicides. PMID:15308605

  8. Autism: Pathophysiology and Promising Herbal Remedies.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Sarrafchi, Amir; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a comprehensive growth abnormality in which social skills, language, communication, and behavioral skills are developed with delay and as diversionary. The reasons for autism are unclear, but various theories of genetics, immunity, biological, and psychosocial factors have been proffered. In fact, autism is a complex disorder with distinct causes that usually co-occur. Although no medicine has been recognized to treat this disorder, pharmacological treatments can be effective in reducing its signs, such as self-mutilation, aggression, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, inattention, hyperactivity, and sleeping disorders. Recently, complementary and alternative approaches have been considered to treat autism. Ginkgo biloba is one of the most effective plants with an old history of applications in neuropsychological disorders which recently is used for autism. The present review discusses the recent findings, pathophysiology, and etiology of autism and thereafter addresses the promising results of herbal remedies. PMID:26561063

  9. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: promise or peril?

    PubMed Central

    Mengle-Gaw, Laurel J; Schwartz, Benjamin D

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of two isoforms of the cyclooxygenase enzyme, COX-1 and COX-2, and the development of COX-2-specific inhibitors as anti-inflammatories and analgesics have offered great promise that the therapeutic benefits of NSAIDs could be optimized through inhibition of COX-2, while minimizing their adverse side effect profile associated with inhibition of COX-1. While COX-2 specific inhibitors have proven to be efficacious in a variety of inflammatory conditions, exposure of large numbers of patients to these drugs in postmarketing studies have uncovered potential safety concerns that raise questions about the benefit/risk ratio of COX-2-specific NSAIDs compared to conventional NSAIDs. This article reviews the efficacy and safety profiles of COX-2-specific inhibitors, comparing them with conventional NSDAIDs. PMID:12467519

  10. Vaccination against infectious diseases: what is promising?

    PubMed

    Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Berger, Annemarie

    2014-12-01

    Vaccination has proven to be one of the best weapons protecting the mankind against infectious diseases. Along with the huge progress in microbiology, numerous highly efficacious and safe vaccines have been produced by conventional technology (cultivation), by the use of molecular biology (genetic modification), or by synthetic chemistry. Sterilising prevention is achieved by the stimulation of antibody production, while the stimulation of cell-mediated immune responses may prevent the outbreak of disease in consequence of an acute or reactivated infection. From several examples, two rules are deduced to evaluate the perspectives of future vaccine developments: They are promising, if (1) the natural infectious disease induces immunity or (2) passive immunisation (transfer of antibodies, adoptive transfer of lymphocytes) is successful in preventing infection. PMID:25064610

  11. The promise of Lean in health care.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, John S; Berry, Leonard L

    2013-01-01

    An urgent need in American health care is improving quality and efficiency while controlling costs. One promising management approach implemented by some leading health care institutions is Lean, a quality improvement philosophy and set of principles originated by the Toyota Motor Company. Health care cases reveal that Lean is as applicable in complex knowledge work as it is in assembly-line manufacturing. When well executed, Lean transforms how an organization works and creates an insatiable quest for improvement. In this article, we define Lean and present 6 principles that constitute the essential dynamic of Lean management: attitude of continuous improvement, value creation, unity of purpose, respect for front-line workers, visual tracking, and flexible regimentation. Health care case studies illustrate each principle. The goal of this article is to provide a template for health care leaders to use in considering the implementation of the Lean management system or in assessing the current state of implementation in their organizations. PMID:23274021

  12. Turning Ideas into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee

    2011-01-01

    This article features five schools (John P. Oldham Elementary, Norwood, Massachusetts; R. J. Richey Elementary, Burnet, Texas; Pittsburgh Carmalt Science and Technology Academy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; John D. Shaw Elementary, Wasilla, Alaska; and Springville K-8, Portland Oregon) that offer five promising practices. From fourth graders learning…

  13. The Impact of Advanced Curriculum on the Achievement of Mathematically Promising Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, M. Katherine; Casa, Tutita M.; Adelson, Jill L.; Carroll, Susan R.; Sheffield, Linda Jensen

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of Project M[superscript 3]: Mentoring Mathematical Minds was to develop and field test advanced units for mathematically promising elementary students based on exemplary practices in gifted and mathematics education. This article describes the development of the units and reports on mathematics achievement results for students in…

  14. Strategies for Success: Promising Ideas in Adult College Completion. Policy Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This publication is the first of a series focusing on promising new ideas and innovative practices developed through the Adult College Completion Network. The brief addresses five topics of importance to those working to improve adult college completion: (1) Data availability particular to the returning adult population; (2) Partnerships between…

  15. Bringing Promise to Washington, DC. The DC Promise Neighborhood Initiative. Program on Neighborhoods and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comey, Jennifer; Scott, Molly M.; Popkin, Susan J.; Falkenburger, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Promise Neighborhood Initiative (DCPNI) is one of the Obama administration's major antipoverty initiatives and a core strategy of the White House's Neighborhood Revitalization Initiative. It is intended to improve educational outcomes by creating a continuum of school readiness, academic services, and family and…

  16. Promise Neighborhoods: The Promise and Politics of Community Capacity Building as Urban School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass; Sampson, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry is to consider how the U.S. Department of Education's Promise Neighborhoods (PNs) program can improve persistently low-achieving urban schools by making their "neighborhoods whole again" through community capacity building for education reform. As the "first federal initiative to put education at the…

  17. Fulfilling The Pittsburgh Promise[R]: Early Progress of Pittsburgh's Postsecondary Scholarship Program. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella C.; Bozick, Robert; Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Phillips, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a detailed assessment of the extent to which "The Pittsburgh Promise"--a postsecondary education scholarship intended to remedy the area's population decline, foster high school completion and college readiness among Pittsburgh district students, and prepare a capable and energetic workforce for the city--has met its goals to…

  18. Latino Immigrants, Acculturation, and Health: Promising New Directions in Research.

    PubMed

    Abraído-Lanza, Ana F; Echeverría, Sandra E; Flórez, Karen R

    2016-03-18

    This article provides an analysis of novel topics emerging in recent years in research on Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. In the past ten years, the number of studies assessing new ways to conceptualize and understand how acculturation-related processes may influence health has grown. These new frameworks draw from integrative approaches testing new ground to acknowledge the fundamental role of context and policy. We classify the emerging body of evidence according to themes that we identify as promising directions-intrapersonal, interpersonal, social environmental, community, political, and global contexts, cross-cutting themes in life course and developmental approaches, and segmented assimilation-and discuss the challenges and opportunities each theme presents. This body of work, which considers acculturation in context, points to the emergence of a new wave of research that holds great promise in driving forward the study of Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. We provide suggestions to further advance the ideologic and methodologic rigor of this new wave. PMID:26735431

  19. Furfural--a promising platform for lignocellulosic biofuels.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jean-Paul; van der Heide, Evert; van Buijtenen, Jeroen; Price, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Furfural offers a promising, rich platform for lignocellulosic biofuels. These include methylfuran and methyltetrahydrofuran, valerate esters, ethylfurfuryl and ethyltetrahydrofurfuryl ethers as well as various C(10)-C(15) coupling products. The various production routes are critically reviewed, and the needs for improvements are identified. Their relative industrial potential is analysed by defining an investment index and CO(2) emissions as well as determining the fuel properties for the resulting products. Finally, the most promising candidate, 2-methylfuran, was subjected to a road trial of 90,000 km in a gasoline blend. Importantly, the potential of the furfural platform relies heavily on the cost-competitive production of furfural from lignocellulosic feedstock. Conventional standalone and emerging coproduct processes-for example, as a coproduct of cellulosic ethanol, levulinic acid or hydroxymethyl furfural-are expensive and energetically demanding. Challenges and areas that need improvement are highlighted. In addition to providing a critical review of the literature, this paper also presents new results and analysis in this area. PMID:22213717

  20. Promises of advanced technology realized at Martin

    SciTech Connect

    Swanekamp, R.

    1996-09-01

    The 2,488-MW Martin station is a gas/oil-fired facility that embodies today`s demand for flexible operations, technological advances, and reduced production costs. Martin station first rose up from the Everglades in the early 1980s, with the construction of two 814-MW oil-fired steam plants, Units 1 and 2. Natural-gas-firing capability was added to the balanced-draft, natural-circulation boilers in 1986, increasing the station`s fuel flexibility. Martin then leaped into the headlines in the early 1990s when it added combined-cycle (CC) Units 3 and 4. With this 860-MW expansion, FP and L boldly became the fleet leader for the advanced, 2350F-class 7FA gas turbines. Further pushing he technology envelope, the CC includes a three-pressure reheat steam system that raises net plant efficiency for Units 3 and 4 to 54%, on a lower-heating-value (LHV) basis. Incorporating the reheat cycle required significant redesign of the gas-turbine/heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) train, in order to maintain a rapid startup capability without exceeding metallurgical limits. Perhaps even more important than the technological achievements, Martin stands out from the crowd for its people power, which ensured that the promises of advanced technology actually came to fruition. This station`s aggressive, empowered O and M team shows that you can pioneer technology, reduce operating costs, and deliver high availability--all at the same time.

  1. Choline alkylsulfates--new promising green surfactants.

    PubMed

    Klein, Regina; Kellermeier, Matthias; Touraud, Didier; Müller, Eva; Kunz, Werner

    2013-02-15

    In this work we show how a new promising green and highly water-soluble surfactant can be designed based on recent progress in the knowledge of counterion-headgroup binding and crystallization behavior. The result is the combination of a most classical surfactant anion, dodecylsulfate (DS), with choline (Ch), a natural green cation. The advantage of the physiological metabolite choline is its bulky structure that prevents ChDS from easy crystallization and thus leads to a considerable lowering of the Krafft point down to 0°C. The counterion-headgroup binding is reflected by the aqueous phase behavior of ChDS. Conductivity, surface tension, and cryo-TEM measurements allow the characterization of the dilute micellar region, while the penetration scan technique enables the establishment of a preliminary aqueous phase diagram. In addition, the influence of different mono- and divalent salts on the solubility of ChDS is investigated. The results are compared to the alkali sulfate and alkylcarboxylate homologs, and reveal that ChDS is less sensitive towards addition of salts than, for instance, choline carboxylates due to an increased counterion-headgroup association. Further, cytotoxicity tests on HeLa and SK-Mel 28 cells are presented and compared to other surfactants, showing that ChDS is no more harmful than its sodium counterpart SDS. Taken together, our findings highlight that the harmless green cation choline is of great potential for the design of new surfactants. PMID:23200100

  2. Promising systemic therapy for renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Matthew M; Remick, Scot C; Vogelzang, Nicholas J

    2005-09-01

    In the United States, advanced kidney cancer accounts for over 12,000 deaths each year. Immunotherapy with either interferon or interleukin-2 (IL-2) has been the standard of care for over two decades. High-dose IL-2 can apparently cure 10% to 15% of patients treated, but due to the required inpatient care and the attendant toxicities, it is only administered to less than 1,000 patients per year in the United States (Chiron, personal communication). Interferon is a less active agent than IL-2 but it has still been shown to be superior to therapy with either megesterol or vinblastine. Interferon typically results in very few long-term responses and is given to most patients with metastatic kidney cancer. Median survival after interferon therapy is dependent on risk group but is typically 12 to 15 months. Thus, new therapies are urgently needed in this refractory disease. Novel compounds currently being tested in clinical trials are showing promise in advanced kidney cancer. The molecular targets of these drugs include interfering with the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors or the raf kinase pathway, angiogenesis inhibition, and antimicrotubule agents. A review of the preclinical and early clinical development of some of these novel compounds will be discussed. PMID:16107239

  3. GEOTEC-a promising energy alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Gerrard, C.S.; Gelb, G.H.; Lowrie, A.

    1986-07-01

    Geothermal reconnaissance has shown a promising resource at the base of three clustered volcanoes on Adak Island, located along the Aleutian arc of Alaska. Geophysical surveys revealed areas of abrupt and steep gravitational gradients and high electrical conductivity over the volcanoes, indicating possible subsurface magma. Geochemical analyses indicated a potential reservoir temperature of 180/sup 0/C. The nearby Bering Sea has a surface temperature ranging between 3/sup 0/ and 8/sup 0/C year-round and would provide for high heat reinjection. The combination of geothermal and ocean sink resources could result in a GEOTEC plant having an overall thermal efficiency approaching one-third that of the present diesel-electric generating system at the Naval Air Station on Adak. The more than 5000 permanently stationed personnel at the station consume over 8 million gal of JP-5 fuel for space heating and electrical power. Presently, electric energy on Adak costs 250-350 mils/kilowatt-hour. Preliminary estimates of the cost of electric power from a GEOTEC plant are about 200 mils/kilowatt-hour. A GEOTEC plant would also be a secure alternative energy source for the US Navy.

  4. Uterine transplantation: a promising surrogate to surrogacy?

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michael; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc; Bulletti, Carlo; Frydman, Rene; Fanchin, Renato

    2011-03-01

    Infertility due to the inability of the uterus to carry a pregnancy ranks among the most unresolved issues in reproductive medicine. It affects millions of women worldwide who have congenital or acquired uterine affections, often requiring hysterectomy, and potentially represents a considerable fraction of the general infertile population. Patients suffering from severe uterine infertility are currently compelled to go through gestational surrogacy or adoption; both approaches, unfortunately, deprive them of the maternal experience of pregnancy and birth. Uterine transplantation represents an outstanding, yet complex, perspective to alleviating definitive uterine infertility. In the past decades, a number of scientific experiments conducted both in animals and women, focusing on uterine transplantation, have led to promising results. Collectively, these findings undoubtedly constitute a sound basis to clinically apply uterine transplantation in the near future. This paper is, however, an overview not only of the extent and limitations of accumulated scientific knowledge on uterine transplantation, but also its ethical implications, in an effort to define the actual place of such an approach among the therapeutic arsenal for alleviating infertility. PMID:21401629

  5. Panspermia: A promising field of research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Rampelotto, Pabulo

    Although Panspermia -the hypothesis that life migrates naturally through space -has been raised many times along the human history, due to lack of any validation it remained merely speculative until few decades ago. It is only with the recent discoveries and advances from different fields of research that Panspermia has been given serious scientific consideration. The natural movement of material from planetary surface to planetary surface has been explored and the mechanisms are well established. A variety of studies demonstrate that microorganisms can survive under extreme conditions such as ultracentrifugation, hypervelocity, shock pressure, high temperature variations, vacuum and different ultraviolet and ionizing radiation intensities, which simulate the conditions experienced by microbes during the ejection from one planet, the journey through space as well as the impact in another planet. The discovery of potential habitable environments such as the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn expands the possibility of transfer of life within the Solar System. Consequently, studies of natural transfer of biological material occurring between satellites have been developed. Furthermore, the probability of interplanetary transfer of life out the Solar System has been explored. Therefore, in the last few decades, most of the major barriers against the acceptance of this hypothesis have been demolished and Panspermia reemerges as a promising field of research.

  6. Correctional Education: Why It Is Only "Promising"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, John

    2006-01-01

    Although many correctional education studies have identified various treatment programs as being effective for reducing recidivism, few, if any, of these studies appear to be above reproach when assessing their methodological vigor. This paper highlights the shortcomings in the current post-treatment quasi-experimental design primarily used to…

  7. Flight-deck automation: Promises and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, E. L.; Curry, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The state of the art in human factors in flight-deck automation is presented. A number of critical problem areas are identified and broad design guidelines are offered. Automation-related aircraft accidents and incidents are discussed as examples of human factors problems in automated flight.

  8. PEPNet Effective Practices Criteria Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Kate, Ed.

    Designed for youth programs, funders, policymakers, and researchers, this workbook is a tool and a resource on effective practices for youth employment and development. It is a product of the Promising and Effective Practices Network (PEPNet), which offers a knowledge base of effective strategies and approaches, opportunities for professional…

  9. The Promise of Neuroprotective Agents in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Stacey E.; Potashkin, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. Since there are limited treatment options for PD, neuroprotective agents are currently being tested as a means to slow disease progression. Agents targeting oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation are prime candidates for neuroprotection. This review identifies Rasagiline, Minocycline, and creatine, as the most promising neuroprotective agents for PD, and they are all currently in phase III trials. Other agents possessing protective characteristics in delaying PD include stimulants, vitamins, supplements, and other drugs. Additionally, combination therapies also show benefits in slowing PD progression. The identification of neuroprotective agents for PD provides us with therapeutic opportunities for modifying the course of disease progression and, perhaps, reducing the risk of onset when preclinical biomarkers become available. PMID:22125548

  10. BMI-1, a promising therapeutic target for human cancer

    PubMed Central

    WANG, MIN-CONG; LI, CHUN-LI; CUI, JIE; JIAO, MIN; WU, TAO; JING, LI; NAN, KE-JUN

    2015-01-01

    BMI-1 oncogene is a member of the polycomb-group gene family and a transcriptional repressor. Overexpression of BMI-1 has been identified in various human cancer tissues and is known to be involved in cancer cell proliferation, cell invasion, distant metastasis, chemosensitivity and patient survival. Accumulating evidence has revealed that BMI-1 is also involved in the regulation of self-renewal, differentiation and tumor initiation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these biological processes remain unclear. The present review summarized the function of BMI-1 in different human cancer types and CSCs, and discussed the signaling pathways in which BMI-1 is potentially involved. In conclusion, BMI-1 may represent a promising target for the prevention and therapy of various cancer types. PMID:26622537

  11. Realizing the promise of social psychology in improving public health.

    PubMed

    Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve. PMID:24981514

  12. Alcoholism research: delivering on the promise.

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, F K

    1988-01-01

    Prospects for research advances in alcoholism are very promising, because of the explosion in the neurosciences and advances in epidemiology and typology of the disorder. For example, the field is now ready for molecular genetics studies of the early onset form of alcoholism that is transmitted from father to son with high penetrance. Leading neuroscientists are being recruited into alcoholism research. Paradoxically, this time of new hope coincides with challenges to the scientific enterprise, such as the animal rights movement and impatience with the scientific process in the face of the public health emergencies represented by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and drug abuse. The emergence of genetically based subtypes of alcoholism suggests that at least two discrete illness processes are involved. Mounting evidence from spinal fluid studies has rekindled interest in a key role for serotonin in the early onset form of alcoholism. One hypothesis now being explored is that genetically low brain serotonin function may be part of the predisposition to this form of alcoholism. It is known that acute alcohol intake transiently increases brain serotonin turnover. Thus, drinking might be viewed as an attempt to correct a deficit, only to produce further serotonin depletion as the drug's effect wears off, setting up a vicious cycle of repeated attempts to self-medicate. Impulsive, violent, and suicidal behavior as well as alcohol abuse are associated with the low brain serotonin activity. Persons with these problems suffer from circadian rhythm and glucose metabolism disturbances that may also be mediated by serotonin. New pharmacological probes are now available to tease out the mechanisms of altered serotonin function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2847208

  13. The future of dental ethics: promises needed.

    PubMed

    Patthoff, Donald E

    2008-01-01

    The future development of professional dental ethics requires a core group of dentists well-trained in ethics: teachers, scholars, and researchers who are also firmly grounded in the clinical aspects of the profession.This will require a significant increase in the number of individuals who can work with a range of moral views, ethical communities, and religious traditions. Proposals for addressing this situation include: the creation of a dental ethics institute, the funding of an endowed dental ethics chair, a one-year professional dental ethics fellowship program, the development of a program of ethics certification, and the initiation of a "positive ethics" self-assessment program designed specifically for dental practices and organizations. Systemic and philanthropic efforts from dental organizations will be needed to support these endeavors. Some can be initiated through existing programs and organizations. PMID:18846839

  14. Systematic evaluation of satellite remote sensing for identifying uranium mines and mills.

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, Dianna Sue; Stork, Christopher Lyle; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Smith, Jody Lynn

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we systematically evaluate the ability of current-generation, satellite-based spectroscopic sensors to distinguish uranium mines and mills from other mineral mining and milling operations. We perform this systematic evaluation by (1) outlining the remote, spectroscopic signal generation process, (2) documenting the capabilities of current commercial satellite systems, (3) systematically comparing the uranium mining and milling process to other mineral mining and milling operations, and (4) identifying the most promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling that can be identified using satellite remote sensing. The Ranger uranium mine and mill in Australia serves as a case study where we apply and test the techniques developed in this systematic analysis. Based on literature research of mineral mining and milling practices, we develop a decision tree which utilizes the information contained in one or more observables to determine whether uranium is possibly being mined and/or milled at a given site. Promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling at the Ranger site included in the decision tree are uranium ore, sulfur, the uranium pregnant leach liquor, ammonia, and uranyl compounds and sulfate ion disposed of in the tailings pond. Based on the size, concentration, and spectral characteristics of these promising observables, we then determine whether these observables can be identified using current commercial satellite systems, namely Hyperion, ASTER, and Quickbird. We conclude that the only promising observables at Ranger that can be uniquely identified using a current commercial satellite system (notably Hyperion) are magnesium chlorite in the open pit mine and the sulfur stockpile. Based on the identified magnesium chlorite and sulfur observables, the decision tree narrows the possible mineral candidates at Ranger to uranium, copper, zinc, manganese, vanadium, the rare earths, and phosphorus, all of which are milled using sulfuric acid leaching.

  15. Ginseng: a promising neuroprotective strategy in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Vaibhav; Santiago-Moreno, Juan; Doré, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines in the world. It has been used in the treatment of various ailments and to boost immunity for centuries; especially in Asian countries. The most common ginseng variant in traditional herbal medicine is ginseng, which is made from the peeled and dried root of Panax Ginseng. Ginseng has been suggested as an effective treatment for a vast array of neurological disorders, including stroke and other acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Ginseng’s neuroprotective effects are focused on the maintenance of homeostasis. This review involves a comprehensive literature search that highlights aspects of ginseng’s putative neuroprotective effectiveness, focusing on stroke. Attenuation of inflammation through inhibition of various proinflammatory mediators, along with suppression of oxidative stress by various mechanisms, including activation of the cytoprotective transcriptional factor Nrf2, which results in decrease in reactive oxygen species, could account for its neuroprotective efficacy. It can also prevent neuronal death as a result of stroke, thus decreasing anatomical and functional stroke damage. Although there are diverse studies that have investigated the mechanisms involved in the efficacy of ginseng in treating disorders, there is still much that needs to be clarified. Both in vitro and in vivo studies including randomized controlled clinical trials are necessary to develop in-depth knowledge of ginseng and its practical applications. PMID:25653588

  16. Homogeneous Immunoassays: Historical Perspective and Future Promise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, Edwin F.

    1999-06-01

    The founding and growth of Syva Company is examined in the context of its leadership role in the development of homogeneous immunoassays. The simple mix and read protocols of these methods offer advantages in routine analytical and clinical applications. Early homogeneous methods were based on insensitive detection of immunoprecipitation during antigen/antibody binding. The advent of reporter groups in biology provided a means of quantitating immunochemical binding by labeling antibody or antigen and physically separating label incorporated into immune complexes from free label. Although high sensitivity was achieved, quantitative separations were experimentally demanding. Only when it became apparent that reporter groups could provide information, not only about the location of a molecule but also about its microscopic environment, was it possible to design practical non-separation methods. The evolution of early homogenous immunoassays was driven largely by the development of improved detection strategies. The first commercial spin immunoassays, developed by Syva for drug abuse testing during the Vietnam war, were followed by increasingly powerful methods such as immunochemical modulation of enzyme activity, fluorescence, and photo-induced chemiluminescence. Homogeneous methods that quantify analytes at femtomolar concentrations within a few minutes now offer important new opportunities in clinical diagnostics, nucleic acid detection and drug discovery.

  17. The Promise of a College Scholarship Transforms a District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Gary W.; Ash, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Promise programs are place-based scholarships, generally tied to a city or school district, offering near-universal access to all living in the "place." While Promise programs share some characteristics with other scholarship programs, they're unique because they seek to change communities and schools. Underlying such promise programs is…

  18. Materializing research promises: opportunities, priorities and conflicts in translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, John PA

    2004-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that the translation rate of major basic science promises to clinical applications has been inefficient and disappointing. The deficiencies of translational science have often been proposed as an explanation for this failure. An alternative explanation is that until recently basic science advances have made oversimplified assumptions that have not matched the true etiological complexity of most common diseases; while clinical science has suffered from poor research practices, overt biases and conflicts of interest. The advent of molecular medicine and the recasting of clinical science along the principles of evidence-based medicine provide a better environment where translational research may now materialize its goals. At the same time, priority issues need to be addressed in order to exploit the new opportunities. Translational research should focus on diseases with global impact, if true progress is to be made against human suffering. The health outcomes of interest for translational efforts need to be carefully defined and a balance must be struck between the subjective needs of healthcare consumers and objective health outcomes. Development of more simple, practical and safer interventions may be as important a target for translational research as the development of cures for diseases where no effective interventions are available at all. Moreover, while the role of the industry is catalytic in translating research advances to licensed interventions, academic independence needs to be sustained and strengthened at a global level. Conflicts of interest may stifle translational research efforts internationally. The profit motive is unlikely to be sufficient alone to advance biomedical research towards genuine progress. PMID:14754464

  19. Making Something of It: The Untold Stories of Promising Black Males at a Predominately White Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Michael Sean

    2012-01-01

    Promising Black males are an understudied and underserved population in the field of higher education. The purpose of this study was to understand how promising Black males define academic success and to identify the factors that affect academic success at a large predominately White public institutions of higher education located in the…

  20. Using association rule mining to determine promising secondary phenotyping hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Oellrich, Anika; Smedley, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Large-scale phenotyping projects such as the Sanger Mouse Genetics project are ongoing efforts to help identify the influences of genes and their modification on phenotypes. Gene–phenotype relations are crucial to the improvement of our understanding of human heritable diseases as well as the development of drugs. However, given that there are ?20 000 genes in higher vertebrate genomes and the experimental verification of gene–phenotype relations requires a lot of resources, methods are needed that determine good candidates for testing. Results: In this study, we applied an association rule mining approach to the identification of promising secondary phenotype candidates. The predictions rely on a large gene–phenotype annotation set that is used to find occurrence patterns of phenotypes. Applying an association rule mining approach, we could identify 1967 secondary phenotype hypotheses that cover 244 genes and 136 phenotypes. Using two automated and one manual evaluation strategies, we demonstrate that the secondary phenotype candidates possess biological relevance to the genes they are predicted for. From the results we conclude that the predicted secondary phenotypes constitute good candidates to be experimentally tested and confirmed. Availability: The secondary phenotype candidates can be browsed through at http://www.sanger.ac.uk/resources/databases/phenodigm/gene/secondaryphenotype/list. Contact: ao5@sanger.ac.uk or ds5@sanger.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24932005

  1. Phenanthroindolizidines and Phenanthroquinolizidines: Promising Alkaloids for Anti-Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chemler, Sherry R.

    2009-01-01

    The phenanthroindolizidine and phenanthroquinolizidine alkaloids, typified by tylophorine and cryptopleurine, are a family of plant-derived small molecules with significant therapeutic potential. The plant extracts have been used in herbal medicine and the isolated compounds have displayed a range of promising therapeutic activity such as anti-ameobicidal, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Despite their therapeutic protential, no compounds in this class have fully passed clinical trials. Drawbacks include low in vivo anti-cancer activity, central nervous system toxicity and low natural availability. A number of biological effects of these compounds, such as protein and nucleic acid synthesis suppression, have been identified, but the specific biomolecular targets have not yet been identified. Significant effort has been expended in the synthesis and structure-activity-relationship (SAR) studies of these compounds with the hope that a new drug will emerge. This review will highlight important contributions to the isolation, synthesis, SAR and mechanism of action of the phenanthroindolizidine and pheanthroquinolizidine alkaloids. PMID:20160962

  2. Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae): A Promising Source of Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe+3, phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11?g/100?g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100?g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10?µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe+3 was 19.98 to 336.48??g/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30?mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity. PMID:24489987

  3. Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae): a promising source of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira; Alves, Maria Silvana

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe(+3), phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11?g/100?g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100?g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10?µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe(+3) was 19.98 to 336.48? ?g/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30?mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity. PMID:24489987

  4. Neuroimaging in Psychiatric Pharmacogenetics Research: The Promise and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Mary; Smith, Ryan M; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Kumar Bhattacharjee, Abesh; Kelsoe, John R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Lerman, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    The integration of research on neuroimaging and pharmacogenetics holds promise for improving treatment for neuropsychiatric conditions. Neuroimaging may provide a more sensitive early measure of treatment response in genetically defined patient groups, and could facilitate development of novel therapies based on an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying pharmacogenetic associations. This review summarizes progress in efforts to incorporate neuroimaging into genetics and treatment research on major psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and addiction. Methodological challenges include: performing genetic analyses in small study populations used in imaging studies; inclusion of patients with psychiatric comorbidities; and the extensive variability across studies in neuroimaging protocols, neurobehavioral task probes, and analytic strategies. Moreover, few studies use pharmacogenetic designs that permit testing of genotype × drug effects. As a result of these limitations, few findings have been fully replicated. Future studies that pre-screen participants for genetic variants selected a priori based on drug metabolism and targets have the greatest potential to advance the science and practice of psychiatric treatment. PMID:23793356

  5. The promise--and peril--of integrated cost systems.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R; Kaplan, R S

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in managerial accounting have helped executives get the information they need to make good strategic decisions. But today's enterprise resource planning systems promise even greater benefits--the chance to integrate activity-based costing, operational-control, and financial reporting systems. But managers need to approach integration very thoughtfully, or they could end up with a system that drives decision making in the wrong direction. Operational-control and ABC systems have fundamentally different purposes. Their requirements for accuracy, timeliness, and aggregation are so different that no single, fully integrated approach can be adequate for both purposes. If an integrated system used real-time cost data instead of standard rates in its ABC subsystem, for example, the result would be dangerously distorted messages about individual product profitability--and that's precisely the problem ABC systems were originally designed to address. Proper linkage and feedback between the two systems is possible, however. Through activity-based budgeting, the ABC system is linked directly to operations control: managers can determine the supply and practical capacity of resources in forthcoming periods. Linking operational control to ABC is also possible. The activity-based portion of an operational control system collects information that, while it mustn't be fed directly into the activity-based strategic cost system, can be extremely useful once it's been properly analyzed. Finally, ABC and operational control can be linked to financial reporting to generate cost of goods sold and inventory valuations--but again, with precautions. PMID:10181585

  6. Radiation sensitization with redox modulators: A promising approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Abby; Knox, Susan . E-mail: sknox@standford.edu

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy plays a critical role in the local and regional control of malignant tumors. Its efficacy, however, is limited by a number of factors, including toxicity, tumor hypoxia, and tumor genetics. Recent attempts to enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy have focused on biologic agents that modulate reduction/oxidation reactions within tumor cells. Methods and Materials: We review five promising redox modulators that are in development. Tirapazamine and AQ4N are known as 'hypoxic cell sensitizers' and are toxic in areas of low oxygen tension. RSR13 facilitates delivery of oxygen to tumor cells, thereby rendering them more sensitive to radiation. Motexafin gadolinium, with a porphyrin-like structure, selectively accumulates in tumor cells and thereby enhances radiation-induced DNA damage. HIF-1 inhibitors target a transcription factor that regulates hypoxia-related events and cell survival. Results: Our review of each agent included a thorough search of published preclinical and clinical data, including that presented in abstracts and posters at international meetings. Our objectives were not to identify a superior mechanism or drug, but rather to summarize the available safety and efficacy data. Conclusion: Clearly, there is an unmet need for safer agents that augment the efficacy of radiation therapy. This review highlights five promising redox modulators that are in development. None has yet been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. These drugs were selected for discussion because they exemplify the current investigative landscape of radiosensitizers and are indicative of future directions in this area. These radiation sensitizers have the potential to succeed where others have failed, by locally increasing the radiosensitivity of tumor cells without enhancing that of surrounding normal tissues.

  7. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base. PMID:23615061

  8. Realizing the Promise of Chemical Glycobiology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai-Xi; Davis, Benjamin G

    2013-09-01

    Chemical glycobiology is emerging as one of the most uniquely powerful sub-disciplines of chemical biology. The previous scarcity of chemical strategies and the unparalleled structural diversity have created a uniquely fertile ground that is both rich in challenges and potentially very profound in implications. Glycans (oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates) are everywhere in biological systems and yet remain disproportionately neglected - reviews highlighting this 'Cinderella status' abound. Yet, the last two decades have witnessed tremendous progress, notably in chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis, 'sequencing' and arraying, metabolic engineering and imaging. These vital steps serve to highlight not only the great potential but just how much more remains to be done. The vast chemical and functional space of glycans remains to be truly explored. Top-down full-scale glycomic and glycoproteomic studies coupled with hypothesis-driven, bottom-up innovative chemical strategies will be required to properly realize the potential impact of glycoscience on human health, energy, and economy. In this review, we cherry-pick far-sighted advances and use these to identify possible challenges, opportunities and avenues in chemical glycobiology. PMID:23914294

  9. Flight deck automation: Promises and realities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Susan D. (Editor); Orlady, Harry W. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Issues of flight deck automation are multifaceted and complex. The rapid introduction of advanced computer-based technology onto the flight deck of transport category aircraft has had considerable impact both on aircraft operations and on the flight crew. As part of NASA's responsibility to facilitate an active exchange of ideas and information among members of the aviation community, a NASA/FAA/Industry workshop devoted to flight deck automation, organized by the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division of NASA Ames Research Center. Participants were invited from industry and from government organizations responsible for design, certification, operation, and accident investigation of transport category, automated aircraft. The goal of the workshop was to clarify the implications of automation, both positive and negative. Workshop panels and working groups identified issues regarding the design, training, and procedural aspects of flight deck automation, as well as the crew's ability to interact and perform effectively with the new technology. The proceedings include the invited papers and the panel and working group reports, as well as the summary and conclusions of the conference.

  10. Targeting Cancer Stem Cells: Promises and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Jan Dominik; Hein, Linda; Kurth, Ina; Wimberger, Pauline; Dubrovska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Recent discoveries have provided the compelling evidence that stem cell populations within each individual tumor are key contributors of therapy failure regardless of whether these populations are transient or stable. Thus, it is becoming increasingly clear that efficient tumor treatment requires eradication of the entire CSC population. The potential role of CSCs in tumor initiation and relapse has motivated an investigation of the CSCspecific treatments. However, development of the therapeutic strategies targeting CSCs might be challenged by a high diversity and plasticity of CSC features. Moreover, taking in account that an origin of CSC remains controversial and accumulating experimental evidence suggests a possibility of tumor cell reprogramming, efficient anti-cancer treatment should eradicate both CSCs and tumor bulk as well as prevent tumor dedifferentiation. In this article we discuss new insights into the stem cell concept of tumor development, review the treatment strategies eradicating CSCs that have been evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies and summarize the strategies to identify new CSC-targeted therapy. PMID:26179271

  11. Uneasy promises: sexuality, health, and human rights.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A M

    2001-01-01

    Although attention to the links between health and human rights is growing globally, the full potential of a progressive human rights approach to health has not yet been explored, and it is even more faintly understood in the United States than in the rest of the world. At the same time, global claims for sexual rights, particularly for those identifying as gay, lesbian, transsexual, or bisexual, are increasingly being made as human rights claims. All of these approaches to rights advocacy risk limiting their own transformative impact unless advocates critique their own strategies. Paradoxically, using health as a way to bring attention to nonheteronormative sexualities can be both helpful and potentially dangerous, especially when coupled with human rights. Recognizing sexuality as a critical element of humanity, and establishing a fundamental human right to health, can play a role in broader social justice claims, but the tendency of both public health and human rights advocacy to "normalize" and regulate must be scrutinized and challenged. PMID:11392922

  12. Lean in healthcare: the unfilled promise?

    PubMed

    Radnor, Zoe J; Holweg, Matthias; Waring, Justin

    2012-02-01

    In an effort to improve operational efficiency, healthcare services around the world have adopted process improvement methodologies from the manufacturing sector, such as Lean Production. In this paper we report on four multi-level case studies of the implementation of Lean in the English NHS. Our results show that this generally involves the application of specific Lean 'tools', such as 'kaizen blitz' and 'rapid improvement events', which tend to produce small-scale and localised productivity gains. Although this suggests that Lean might not currently deliver the efficiency improvements desired in policy, the evolution of Lean in the manufacturing sector also reveals this initial focus on the 'tool level'. In moving to a more system-wide approach, however, we identify significant contextual differences between healthcare and manufacturing that result in two critical breaches of the assumptions behind Lean. First, the customer and commissioner in the private sector are the one and the same, which is essential in determining 'customer value' that drives process improvement activities. Second, healthcare is predominantly designed to be capacity-led, and hence there is limited ability to influence demand or make full use of freed-up resources. What is different about this research is that these breaches can be regarded as not being primarily 'professional' in origin but actually more 'organisational' and 'managerial' and, if not addressed could severely constrain Lean's impact on healthcare productivity at the systems level. PMID:21414703

  13. Promise and Challenge of DNA Barcoding in Venus Slipper (Paphiopedilum)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Huang, Lai-Qiang; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Orchidaceae are one of the largest families of flowering plants, with over 27,000 species described and all orchids are listed in CITES. Moreover, the seedlings of orchid species from the same genus are similar. The objective of DNA barcoding is rapid, accurate, and automated species identification, which may be used to identify illegally traded endangered species from vegetative specimens of Paphiopedilum (Venus slipper), a flagship group for plant conservation with high ornamental and commercial values. Here, we selected eight chloroplast barcodes and nrITS to evaluate their suitability in Venus slippers. The results indicate that all tested barcodes had no barcoding gap and the core plant barcodes showed low resolution for the identification of Venus slippers (18.86%). Of the single-locus barcodes, nrITS is the most efficient for the species identification of the genus (52.27%), whereas matK + atpF-atpH is the most efficient multi-locus combination (28.97%). Therefore, we recommend the combination of matK + atpF-atpH + ITS as a barcode for Venus slippers. Furthermore, there is an upper limit of resolution of the candidate barcodes, and only half of the taxa with multiple samples were identified successfully. The low efficiency of these candidate barcodes in Venus slippers may be caused by relatively recent speciation, the upper limit of the barcodes, and/or the sampling density. Although the discriminatory power is relatively low, DNA barcoding may be a promising tool to identify species involved in illegal trade, which has broad applications and is valuable for orchid conservation. PMID:26752741

  14. Promise and Challenge of DNA Barcoding in Venus Slipper (Paphiopedilum).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Huang, Lai-Qiang; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Orchidaceae are one of the largest families of flowering plants, with over 27,000 species described and all orchids are listed in CITES. Moreover, the seedlings of orchid species from the same genus are similar. The objective of DNA barcoding is rapid, accurate, and automated species identification, which may be used to identify illegally traded endangered species from vegetative specimens of Paphiopedilum (Venus slipper), a flagship group for plant conservation with high ornamental and commercial values. Here, we selected eight chloroplast barcodes and nrITS to evaluate their suitability in Venus slippers. The results indicate that all tested barcodes had no barcoding gap and the core plant barcodes showed low resolution for the identification of Venus slippers (18.86%). Of the single-locus barcodes, nrITS is the most efficient for the species identification of the genus (52.27%), whereas matK + atpF-atpH is the most efficient multi-locus combination (28.97%). Therefore, we recommend the combination of matK + atpF-atpH + ITS as a barcode for Venus slippers. Furthermore, there is an upper limit of resolution of the candidate barcodes, and only half of the taxa with multiple samples were identified successfully. The low efficiency of these candidate barcodes in Venus slippers may be caused by relatively recent speciation, the upper limit of the barcodes, and/or the sampling density. Although the discriminatory power is relatively low, DNA barcoding may be a promising tool to identify species involved in illegal trade, which has broad applications and is valuable for orchid conservation. PMID:26752741

  15. Identity Management Systems in Healthcare: The Issue of Patient Identifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soenens, Els

    According to a recent recommendation of the European Commission, now is the time for Europe to enhance interoperability in eHealth. Although interoperability of patient identifiers seems promising for matters of patient mobility, patient empowerment and effective access to care, we see that today there is indeed a considerable lack of interoperability in the field of patient identification. Looking from a socio-technical rather than a merely technical point of view, one can understand the fact that the development and implementation of an identity management system in a specific healthcare context is influenced by particular social practices, affected by socio-economical history and the political climate and regulated by specific data protection legislations. Consequently, the process of making patient identification in Europe more interoperable is a development beyond semantic and syntactic levels. In this paper, we gives some examples of today’s patient identifier systems in Europe, discuss the issue of interoperability of (unique) patient identifiers from a socio-technical point of view and try not to ignore the ‘privacy side’ of the story.

  16. Exploring determinants of vegetable parenting practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to find out if food parenting practices show promise for positively influencing child dietary intake. However, it is unclear what factors motivate parents to engage in vegetable parenting practices. We developed a Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices (MG...

  17. Can ecosystem-scale translocations mitigate the impact of climate change on terrestrial biodiversity? Promises, pitfalls, and possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Stéphane; Case, Bradley S.; Lefort, Marie-Caroline; Waterhouse, Benjamin R.; Wratten, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    Because ecological interactions are the first components of the ecosystem to be impacted by climate change, future forms of threatened-species and ecosystem management should aim at conserving complete, functioning communities rather than single charismatic species. A possible way forward is the deployment of ecosystem-scale translocation (EST), where above- and below-ground elements of a functioning terrestrial ecosystem (including vegetation and topsoil) are carefully collected and moved together. Small-scale attempts at such practice have been made for the purpose of ecological restoration. By moving larger subsets of functioning ecosystems from climatically unstable regions to more stable ones, EST could provide a practical means to conserve mature and complex ecosystems threatened by climate change. However, there are a number of challenges associated with EST in the context of climate change mitigation, in particular the choice of donor and receptor sites. With the aim of fostering discussion and debate about the EST concept, we  1) outline the possible promises and pitfalls of EST in mitigating the impact of climate change on terrestrial biodiversity and 2) use a GIS-based approach to illustrate how  potential source and receptor sites, where EST could be trialed and evaluated globally, could be identified. PMID:26989475

  18. Polymer Electrolytes:. Problems, Prospects, and Promises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasubramanian, G.; Doughty, D. H.

    2002-12-01

    In 1975 P. V. Wright observed ionic conduction at elevated temperatures in polyethylene oxide (PEO) thin film electrolyte containing sodium salt. This seminal research generated wide spread interest in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. Armand took the cue from this observation and demonstrated the use of PEO/salt complex as electrolyte in lithium batteries. Soon after this a number of researchers have followed suit and studied the physical, electrical and transport properties of thin film PEO electrolyte. These studies have clearly identified the limitations of the PEO electrolyte. Chief among the limitations are a low cation transport number (t+), high glass transition temperature (Tg), and segmental motion of the polymer chain, which carries the cation through the bulk electrolyte. While low t+ leads to cell polarization and increase in cell resistance high Tg reduces conductivity at and around room temperature. For example, the conductivity of PEO electrolyte containing lithium salt is ~10-8 S/cm at room temperature. Attempts have been made to reduce Tg of PEO polymer by attaching PEO macromolecules to polyphosphazene (N=P) inorganic backbone, which is very flexible. Another material that has been investigated as a backbone material consists of Si-O chain. These two polymers exhibit a lower Tg and higher room temperature conductivity than the unmodified PEO. For example, the room temperature conductivity of the two polymers is around 10-5 S/cm - a 3 orders of magnitude increase in conductivity compared to unmodified PEO at around room temperature. Although this approach has yielded polymers with lower Tg, the t+ is still very low - ~0.25 - for lithium ion. Nano-ceramic particles of Al2O3, TiO2 etc. mechanically mixed with PEO electrolyte seem to increase t+. This approach also has inherent limitations regarding phase separation. The latest approach appears to involve integrating nano domains of inorganic moieties such as Si-O as part of the polymer chain. This approach not only has yielded an organic-inorganic polymer electrolyte with higher conductivity but appears to increase the t+ as well. An overview of the evolution of the all-solid-state polymer electrolyte in the last 25 years will be presented. This article addresses mainly the electrical and electrochemical properties and doesn't discuss the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of dry polymer electrolytes.

  19. Sustaining the Commitment and Realising the Potential of Highly Promising Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Marie; Lovett, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The Teachers of Promise study has followed the work histories of 57 primary and secondary teachers who had been identified at the beginning of their third year of teaching as having the potential to make a significant contribution to the profession. Using data from surveys and interviews, this paper reports on what sustained or inhibited their…

  20. Sustaining the Commitment and Realising the Potential of Highly Promising Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Marie; Lovett, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The Teachers of Promise study has followed the work histories of 57 primary and secondary teachers who had been identified at the beginning of their third year of teaching as having the potential to make a significant contribution to the profession. Using data from surveys and interviews, this paper reports on what sustained or inhibited their…